WorldWideScience

Sample records for technique smmc transforms

  1. Asset management techniques for transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Elanien, Ahmed E.B.; Salama, M.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    In a deregulated/reformed environment, the electric utilities are under constant pressure for reducing operating costs, enhancing the reliability of transmission and distribution equipments, and improving quality of power and services to the customer. Moreover, the risk involved in running the system without proper attention to assets integrity in service is quite high. Additionally, the probability of losing any equipment vital to the transmission and distribution system, such as power and distribution transformers, is increasing especially with the aging of power system's assets. Today the focus of operating the power system is changed and efforts are being directed to explore new approaches/techniques of monitoring, diagnosis, condition evaluation, maintenance, life assessment, and possibility of extending the life of existing assets. In this paper, a comprehensive illustration of the transformer asset management activities is presented. The importance of each activity together with the latest researches done in the area is highlighted. (author)

  2. The transformation techniques in path integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper general remarks are made concerning the time transformation techniques in path integration and their implementations. Time transformations may be divided into two classes: global (integrable) time transformations and local (nonintegrable) time transformations. Although a brief account of global time transformations is given, attention is focused on local transformations. First, time transformations in the classical Kepler problem are reviewed. Then, problems encountered in implementing a local time transformation in quantum mechanics are analyzed. A several propositions pertinent to the implementation of local time transformations, particularly basic to the local time rescaling trick in a discretized path integral, are presented

  3. Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.

    Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.

  4. Technique for image interpolation using polynomial transforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escalante Ramírez, B.; Martens, J.B.; Haskell, G.G.; Hang, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    We present a new technique for image interpolation based on polynomial transforms. This is an image representation model that analyzes an image by locally expanding it into a weighted sum of orthogonal polynomials. In the discrete case, the image segment within every window of analysis is

  5. Integral transform techniques for Green's function

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Kazumi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes mathematical techniques for integral transforms in a detailed but concise manner. The techniques are subsequently applied to the standard partial differential equations, such as the Laplace equation, the wave equation and elasticity equations. Green’s functions for beams, plates and acoustic media are also shown, along with their mathematical derivations. The Cagniard-de Hoop method for double inversion is described in detail, and 2D and 3D elastodynamic problems are treated in full. This new edition explains in detail how to introduce the branch cut for the multi-valued square root function. Further, an exact closed form Green’s function for torsional waves is presented, as well as an application technique of the complex integral, which includes the square root function and an application technique of the complex integral.

  6. Calculation of transformers leakage reactance using electromagnetic energy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiz, J.; Mohseni, H.; Sabet Marzooghi, S.; Naderian Jahromi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Determination of transformer leakage reactance using magnetic cores has long been an area of interest to engineers involved in the design of power and distribution transformers. This is required for predicting the performance of transformers before actual assembly of the transformers. In this paper a closed form solution technique applicable to the leakage reactance calculations for transformers is presented. An emphasis is on the development of a simple method to calculate the leakage reactance of the distribution transformers and smaller transformers. Energy technique procedure for computing the leakage reactances in distribution transformers is presented. This method is very efficient compared with the use of flux element and image technique and is also remarkably accurate. Examples of calculated leakage inductances and the short circuit impedance are given for illustration. For validation, the results are compared with the results obtained using test. This paper presents a novel technique for calculation of the leakage inductance in different parts of the transformer using the electromagnetic stored energy

  7. Induction of DNA double-strand breaks in hepatoma cell SMMC-7721 by accelerated carbon ion 12C6+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Suwen; Su Xu; Wang Jufang; Zhao Jing; Li Wenjian

    2004-01-01

    DNA lesions, especially DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs), are looked upon as the dominant molecular effect of radiation action. Dsbs mark the beginning of a cascade of cellular processes that either results in complete repair of the DNA damage or lead to deleterious stages such as mutation, transformation or even cell death. Changing the radiation quality can influence the radiosensitivity of cells in culture. Accelerated particles provide an excellent means of varying the ionization density of the test radiation. With ion beams, the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological consequences of high linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation can be studied and describing radiation action with biophysical models can be tested. In this paper, radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) were measured in hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells by means of an experimental approach involving pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and densitometric scanning of ethidium bromide stained gels. With this set-up, the induction of dsbs was investigated in SMMC-7721 cells after irradiation with accelerated carbon ions with specific LET 70 keV/μm. The fraction of DNA retained was taken as quantitative measure to calculate absolute yields of induced DNA dsbs. Experimental data shows that the induction of DNA dsbs increasing with the dose of irradiation. Data are compared with published results on dsbs induction in mammalian cells by radiations of comparable LET

  8. Transformer ageing modern condition monitoring techniques and their interpretations

    CERN Document Server

    Purkait, Prithwiraj

    2017-01-01

    This book is a one-stop guide to state-of-the-art research in transformer ageing, condition monitoring and diagnosis. It is backed by rigorous research projects supported by the Australian Research Council in collaboration with several transmission and distribution companies. Many of the diagnostic techniques and tools developed in these projects have been applied by electricity utilities and would appeal to both researchers and practicing engineers. Important topics covered in this book include transformer insulation materials and their ageing behaviour, transformer condition monitoring techniques and detailed diagnostic techniques and their interpretation schemes. It also features a monitoring framework for smart transformers as well as a chapter on biodegradable oil.

  9. Scaling Transformation in the Rembrandt Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines a decision support system (DSS) for the appraisal of complex decision problems using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). The DSS makes use of a structured hierarchical approach featuring the multiplicative AHP also known as the REMBRANDT technique. The paper addresses...... of a conventional AHP calculation in order to examine what impact the choice of progression factors as well as the choice of technique have on the decision making. Based on this a modified progression factor for the calculation of scores for the alternatives in REMBRANDT is suggested while the progression factor...

  10. Transforming dose management techniques through technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.

    1995-01-01

    The management of occupational dose exposure has been transformed in recent years though the use of facilities such as computerised databases, remote instrumentation and electronic data transfer. Use of this technology has allowed increases both in the amount of data capable of being processed and in the speed at which the data is made available to operators and Health Physics personnel. The dose management system being used in support of the UK's naval nuclear plants has incorporated advances in the areas of dosimetry, data handling and data analysis. Physical dispersion of sites servicing the nuclear plants means that effective communication links have also been vital for good dose management. This paper focuses on some of the most recent dose management technology - the use of virtual reality models linked with a predictive computer code for work planning, a remote area monitoring system with diagnostic software, a personnel dosimetry telemetry system, and electronically linked computer databases. (author)

  11. Transforming dose management techniques through technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.

    1996-01-01

    The management of occupational dose exposure has been transformed in recent years through the use of facilities such as computerized databases, remote instrumentation and electronic data transfer. Use of this technology has allowed increases both in the amount of data capable of being processed and in the speed at which the data is made available to operators and Health Physics personnel. These developments have significantly improved the quality and efficiency of dose management. The dose management system being used in support of the UK's naval nuclear plants has incorporated advances in the areas of dosimetry, data handling and data analysis. Physical dispersion of sites servicing the nuclear plants means that effective communication links have also been vital for good dose management. (author)

  12. A microculture technique for rat lymphocyte transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, V J; Allardyce, R A

    1979-01-01

    We report the development of an economical microculture technique suitable for measuring rat lymphocyte response to mitogens and in mixed lymphocyte reactions. The effects of varying culture conditions, i.e. source of serum, addition and concentration of 2-mercaptoethanol, mitogen concentrations, culture incubation times, absorption of serum, lymphocyte numbers and microtitre plate well shape are described.

  13. Modelling skin penetration using the Laplace transform technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anissimov, Y G; Watkinson, A

    2013-01-01

    The Laplace transform is a convenient mathematical tool for solving ordinary and partial differential equations. The application of this technique to problems arising in drug penetration through the skin is reviewed in this paper. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Bovine lactoferricin P13 triggers ROS-mediated caspase-dependent apoptosis in SMMC7721 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lixiang; Xu, Geliang; Li, Jiansheng; Liu, Wenbin; Jia, Weidong; Ma, Jinliang; Wei, Decheng

    2017-01-01

    Bovine lactoferricin P13 (LfcinB-P13) is a peptide derived from LfcinB. In the present study, the effect of LfcinB-P13 on the human liver cancer cell line SMMC7721 was investigated in vitro and in vivo . The results of the present study indicate that LfcinB-P13 significantly decreased SMMC7721 cell viability in vitro (P=0.032 vs. untreated cells), while exhibiting low cytotoxicity in the wild-type liver cell line L02. In addition, the rate of apoptosis in SMMC7721 cells was significantly increased following treatment with 40 and 60 µg/ml LfcinB-P13 (P=0.0053 vs. the control group), which was associated with an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of caspase-3 and -9. Furthermore, ROS chelation led to the suppression of LfcinB-P13-mediated caspase-3 and -9 activation in SMMC7721 cells. LfcinB-P13 was demonstrated to markedly inhibit tumor growth in an SMMC7721-xenograft nude mouse model. The results of the present study indicate that LfcinB-P13 is a novel candidate therapeutic agent for the treatment of liver cancer.

  15. Aliasless fresnel transform image reconstruction in phase scrambling fourier transform technique by data interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshifumi; Liu, Na; Ito, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    The signal in the Fresnel transform technique corresponds to a blurred one of the spin density image. Because the amplitudes of adjacent sampled signals have a high interrelation, the signal amplitude at a point between sampled points can be estimated with a high degree of accuracy even if the sampling is so coarse as to generate aliasing in the reconstructed images. In this report, we describe a new aliasless image reconstruction technique in the phase scrambling Fourier transform (PSFT) imaging technique in which the PSFT signals are converted to Fresnel transform signals by multiplying them by a quadratic phase term and are then interpolated using polynomial expressions to generate fully encoded signals. Numerical simulation using MR images showed that almost completely aliasless images are reconstructed by this technique. Experiments using ultra-low-field PSFT MRI were conducted, and aliasless images were reconstructed from coarsely sampled PSFT signals. (author)

  16. Protein profile of human hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721: Identification and functional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yi; Tian, Zhong-Min; Wan, Ming-Xi; Zheng, Zhao-Bin

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protein profile of human hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721, to analyze the specific functions of abundant expressed proteins in the processes of hepatocarcinoma genesis, growth and metastasis, to identify the hepatocarcinoma-specific biomarkers for the early prediction in diagnosis, and to explore the new drug targets for liver cancer therapy.

  17. Application of the Lorentz-transform technique to meson photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, C.; Leidemann, W.; Orlandini, G.; Tomusiak, E.L.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the Lorentz integral transform (LIT) technique which has been successfully applied to photoreactions in light nuclei can also be applied to photoreactions involving particle production. A simple model where results are easily calculable in the traditional fashion is used to test the technique. Specifically, we compute inclusive π + photoproduction from deuterium for photon energies less than 200 MeV using a Yamaguchi model for the NN interaction. It is demonstrated that, although the response functions for inclusive meson production do not have favourable asymptotic behavior, one can nonetheless extract them by inversion of the transform. The implication is that one can treat realistic problems of photo-meson production, including all final-state interactions, by means of the LIT technique. (orig.)

  18. A transformation technique to treat strong vibrating absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, D.C.; Garis, N.S.; Pazsit, I.

    1998-06-01

    Calculation of the neutron noise, induced by small amplitude vibrations of a strong absorber, is a difficult task because the traditional linearization technique cannot be applied. Two methods, based on two different representations of the absorber, were developed earlier to solve the problem. In both methods the rod displacements are described by a Taylor expansion, such that the boundary condition needs only to be considered at the surface of a static rod. Only one of the methods is applicable in two dimensions. In this paper an alternative method is developed and used for the solution of the problem. The essence of the method is a variable transformation by which the moving boundary is transformed into a static one without Taylor expansion. The corresponding equations are solved in a linear manner and the solution is transformed back to the original parameter space. The method is equally applicable in one and two dimensions. The solutions are in complete agreement with those of the previous methods

  19. Minimum K-S estimator using PH-transform technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchit Boonthiem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an improvement of the Minimum Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S estimator using proportional hazards transform (PH-transform technique. The data of experiment is 47 fire accidents data of an insurance company in Thailand. This experiment has two operations, the first operation, we minimize K-S statistic value using grid search technique for nine distributions; Rayleigh distribution, gamma distribution, Pareto distribution, log-logistic distribution, logistic distribution, normal distribution, Weibull distribution, lognormal distribution, and exponential distribution and the second operation, we improve K-S statistic using PHtransform. The result appears that PH-transform technique can improve the Minimum K-S estimator. The algorithms give better the Minimum K-S estimator for seven distributions; Rayleigh distribution, logistic distribution, gamma distribution, Pareto distribution, log-logistic distribution, normal distribution, Weibull distribution, log-normal distribution, and exponential distribution while the Minimum K-S estimators of normal distribution and logistic distribution are unchanged

  20. [Interleukin-37 induces apoptosis and autophagy of SMMC-7721 cells by inhibiting phosphorylation of mTOR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Zhu, Di; Mou, Tong; Guo, Zhen; Pu, Junliang; Wu, Zhongjun

    2017-04-01

    Objective To investigate the underlying mechanism by which interleukin-37 (IL-37) induces the apoptosis and autophagy in SMMC-7721 cells. Methods SMMC-7721 cells were incubated in vitro and divided into two groups, IL-37 treated group and control group. The cells were treated with (50, 100, 200) ng/mL of recombinant human interleukin-37 (rhIL-37). CCK-8 assay was used to detect the cell proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was performed to examine the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins, Bax, Bcl-2, and autophagy related proteins, microtubule-associated proteins 1 light chain 3 (LC3), beclin 1 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the ultrastructures of autophagosomes. Results The rhIL-37 inhibited the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells. It induced the apoptosis and autophagy in SMMC-7721 cells. In the IL-37 treated group, the levels of Bax, LC3 and beclin 1 increased but Bcl-2 decreased. The phosphorylation of mTOR was inhibited in the IL-37 treated group. Autophagosome was obvious in the IL-37 treated group. Conclusion IL-37 induces the apoptosis and autophagy in SMMC-7721 cells, which may be related to the phosphorylation of mTOR.

  1. Protein profile of human hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721: Identification and functional analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Feng; Zhong-Min Tian; Ming-Xi Wan; Zhao-Bin Zheng

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protein profile of human hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721, to analyze the specific functions of abundant expressed proteins in the processes of hepatocarcinoma genesis, growth and metastasis, to identify the hepatocarcinoma-specific biomarkers for the early prediction in diagnosis, and to explore the new drug targets for liver cancer therapy.METHODS: Total proteins from human hepatocarcinomacell line SMMC-7721 were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). The silver-stained gel was analyzed by 2DE software Image Master 2D Elite.Interesting protein spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)and database searching.RESULTS: We obtained protein profile of human hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721. Among the twenty-one successfully identified proteins, mitofilin,endoplasmic reticulum protein ERp29, ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase complex core protein Ⅰ,peroxisomal enoyl CoA hydratase, peroxiredoxin-4 and probable 3-oxoacid CoA transferase 1 precursor were the six novel proteins identified in human hepatocarcinoma cells or tissues. Specific functions of the identified heat-shock proteins were analyzed in detail, and the results suggested that these proteins might promote tumorigenesis via inhibiting cell death induced by several cancer-related stresses or via inhibiting apoptosis at multiple points in the apoptotic signal pathway. Other identified chaperones and cancer-related proteins were also analyzed.CONCLUSION: Based on the protein profile of SMMC-7721 cells, functional analysis suggests that the identified chaperones and cancer-related proteins have their own pathways to contribute to the tumorigenesis, tumor growth and metastasis of liver cancer. Furthermore, proteomic analysis is indicated to be feasible in the cancer study.

  2. Hyperspectral imaging using the single-pixel Fourier transform technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Senlin; Hui, Wangwei; Wang, Yunlong; Huang, Kaicheng; Shi, Qiushuai; Ying, Cuifeng; Liu, Dongqi; Ye, Qing; Zhou, Wenyuan; Tian, Jianguo

    2017-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technology is playing an increasingly important role in the fields of food analysis, medicine and biotechnology. To improve the speed of operation and increase the light throughput in a compact equipment structure, a Fourier transform hyperspectral imaging system based on a single-pixel technique is proposed in this study. Compared with current imaging spectrometry approaches, the proposed system has a wider spectral range (400-1100 nm), a better spectral resolution (1 nm) and requires fewer measurement data (a sample rate of 6.25%). The performance of this system was verified by its application to the non-destructive testing of potatoes.

  3. Binary joint transform correlation using error-diffusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Hanni; Marom, Emanuel; Konforti, Naim

    1993-08-01

    Optical pattern recognition techniques based on the optical joint transform correlator (JTC) scheme are attractive due to their simplicity. Recent improvements in spatial light modulators (SLM) increased the popularity of the JTC, providing means for real time operation. Using a binary SLM for the display of the Fourier spectrum, first requires binarization of the joint power spectrum distribution. Although hard-clipping is the simplest and most common binarization method used, we suggest to apply error-diffusion as an improved binarization technique. The performance of a binary JTC, whose input image is considered to contain additive zero-mean white Gaussian noise, is investigated. Various ways for nonlinearly modifying the joint power spectrum prior to the binarization step, which is based on either error-diffusion or hard-clipping techniques, are discussed. These nonlinear modifications aim at increasing the contrast of the interference fringes at the joint power spectrum plane, leading to better definition of the correlation signal. Mathematical analysis, computer simulations and experimental results are presented.

  4. Determination of glutathione in apoptotic SMMC-7221 cells induced by xylitol selenite using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Cao, Yu; Zhang, Jian; Lei, Ming; Deng, Xiaojie; Zahid, Kashif Rafiq; Liu, Yanli; Liu, Ke; Yang, Jihong; Xiong, Guomei; Yao, Hanchao; Qi, Chao

    2016-05-01

    To determine the glutathione (GSH) content in a human hepatoma cell line (SMMC-7221) treated with xylitol/selenite, providing a part of an investigation of its anti-cancer mechanisms. The nuclei of SMMC-7221 cells were stained with Hoechst 33258 in an apoptosis assay, and their morphology subsequently changed from circular to crescent shape. The calibration curve (r(2) = 0.992) was established, and GSH content markedly decreased after treated with 0.5 and 1 mg xylitol/selenite l(-1) for 12, 36 and 60 h (12 h: from 95.57 ± 19.57 to 29.09 ± 7.74 and 24.27 ± 11.15; 36 h: from 70.73 ± 11.35 to 19.54 ± 6.39 and 9.35 ± 6.69; 60 h: from 72.63 ± 16.94 to 7.432 ± 3.84 and 0). The depletion rate of GSH was more related to the concentration of xylitol/selenite than the treatment time (from 69.95 ± 1.87 to 100 % vs. 0.22 ± 0.2 to 100 %). Xylitol/selenite is a promising anti-cancer drug to induce apoptosis in SMMC-7221 cells. It may regulate the apoptosis through the co-action of multiple mechanisms related to GSH depletion.

  5. Clonogenic cell line survival of a human liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 after carbon ion irradiation with different LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Suwen; Su Xu; Wang Jifang; Li Wenjian

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the survival fraction of a human liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 following irradiation with carbon ions with different LET. Methods: cells of the human liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 were irradiated with carbon ions (LET=30 and 70 keV/μm). The survival fraction was determined with clonogenic assay after 9 days incubation in a 5% CO 2 incubator at 37 degree C. Results: When the survival fractions of 70 keV/μm were D s = 0.1 and D s=0.01 absorption dose were 2.94 and 5.88 Gy respectively, and those of 30 keV/μm were 4.00 and 8.00 Gy respectively. Conclusion: For the SMMC-7721 cell line, 70 keV/μm is more effective for cell killing than 30 keV/μm

  6. [Ursodeoxycholic acid induced apoptosis of human hepatoma cells HepG2 and SMMC-7721 bymitochondrial-mediated pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Duan; Zhou, Jianyin; Yin, Zhenyu; Liu, Pingguo; Zhao, Yilin; Liu, Jianming; Wang, Xiaomin

    2014-12-02

    To explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of ursodeoxycholic acid on human hepatoma cells. HepG2 and SMMC-7721 HCC cell lines were respectively treated with ursodeoxycholic acid. And cell proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 gene were detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT), inverted microscopy, fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry and Western blot. Ursodeoxycholic acid significantly inhibited the proliferation of human hepatoma cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 were 397.3 and 387.7 µg/ml respectively after a 48-hour treatment of 400 µg /ml ursodeoxycholic acid. And it also induced the apoptosis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, up-regulated Bax gene and down-regulated Bcl-2 gene. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits the proliferation of hepatoma cells and induce apoptosis by mitochondrial-mediated pathway.

  7. Design Improvements on Graded Insulation of Power Transformers Using Transient Electric Field Analysis and Visualization Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Hideo; Nakamae, Eihachiro; Namera, Akihiro; Cingoski, Vlatko; Kitamura, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with design improvements on graded insulation of power transformers using transient electric field analysis and a visualization technique. The calculation method for transient electric field analysis inside a power transformer impressed with impulse voltage is presented: Initially, the concentrated electric network for the power transformer is concentrated by dividing transformer windings into several blocks and by computing the electric circuit parameters.

  8. modern devices/techniques in the protection of transformers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of modern power systems has resulted in the design of wide range of transformers with ... step down this 330KV voltage to 132KV and then to distribution level of 33KV, which is ..... effect of the loss of the transformer and the.

  9. Mechanism of Arctigenin-Induced Specific Cytotoxicity against Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines: Hep G2 and SMMC7721

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zheng; Cao, Shengbo; Zhou, Hongbo; Hua, Ling; Zhang, Shishuo; Cao, Jiyue

    2015-01-01

    Arctigenin (ARG) has been previously reported to exert high biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anticancer. In this study, the anti-tumor mechanism of ARG towards human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was firstly investigated. We demonstrated that ARG could induce apoptosis in Hep G2 and SMMC7721 cells but not in normal hepatic cells, and its apoptotic effect on Hep G2 was stronger than that on SMMC7721. Furthermore, the following study showed that ARG treatment led to a loss in the mitochondrial out membrane potential, up-regulation of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2, a release of cytochrome c, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation and a cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in both Hep G2 and SMMC7721 cells, suggesting ARG-induced apoptosis was associated with the mitochondria mediated pathway. Moreover, the activation of caspase-8 and the increased expression levels of Fas/FasL and TNF-α revealed that the Fas/FasL-related pathway was also involved in this process. Additionally, ARG induced apoptosis was accompanied by a deactivation of PI3K/p-Akt pathway, an accumulation of p53 protein and an inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation especially in Hep G2 cells, which might be the reason that Hep G2 was more sensitive than SMMC7721 cells to ARG treatment. PMID:25933104

  10. Iso-suillin isolated from Suillus luteus, induces G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Ying; Yan, Yong-Xin; Zhao, Jun-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Iso-suillin, a natural product isolated from Suillus luteus, has been shown to inhibit the growth of some cancer cell lines. However, the molecular mechanisms of action of this compound are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate how iso-suillin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in a human hepatoma cell line (SMMC-7721). We demonstrated the effects of iso-suillin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells, with no apparent toxicity in normal human lymphocytes, using colony formation assays and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) analysis. Western blotting was used to examine the expression of G1 phase-regulated and apoptosis-associated protein levels in iso-suillin treated SMMC-7721 cells. The results indicated that iso-suillin significantly decreased viability, induced G1 phase arrest and triggered apoptosis in SMMC-7721cells. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of iso-suillin as a candidate for liver cancer treatment.

  11. Mechanism of Arctigenin-Induced Specific Cytotoxicity against Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines: Hep G2 and SMMC7721.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lu

    Full Text Available Arctigenin (ARG has been previously reported to exert high biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anticancer. In this study, the anti-tumor mechanism of ARG towards human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC was firstly investigated. We demonstrated that ARG could induce apoptosis in Hep G2 and SMMC7721 cells but not in normal hepatic cells, and its apoptotic effect on Hep G2 was stronger than that on SMMC7721. Furthermore, the following study showed that ARG treatment led to a loss in the mitochondrial out membrane potential, up-regulation of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2, a release of cytochrome c, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation and a cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase in both Hep G2 and SMMC7721 cells, suggesting ARG-induced apoptosis was associated with the mitochondria mediated pathway. Moreover, the activation of caspase-8 and the increased expression levels of Fas/FasL and TNF-α revealed that the Fas/FasL-related pathway was also involved in this process. Additionally, ARG induced apoptosis was accompanied by a deactivation of PI3K/p-Akt pathway, an accumulation of p53 protein and an inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation especially in Hep G2 cells, which might be the reason that Hep G2 was more sensitive than SMMC7721 cells to ARG treatment.

  12. Melittin induces PTCH1 expression by down-regulating MeCP2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Bin; Cheng, Yahui; Yang, Yang; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Wu, Baoming; Zhang, Lei; Lv, Xiongwen; Li, Jun, E-mail: xqwu01@foxmail.com

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high mortality rate worldwide and still remains to be a noticeable public health problem. Therefore, new remedies are urgently needed. Melittin, a major component of bee venom, is known to suppress cell growth in various cancers including HCC. However, the mechanism of the anticancer effect of melittin on HCC has not been fully elucidated. It has been reported that Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) plays a key role in tumor proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. In the present study, we found the high expression of MeCP2 in human HCC tissues and in the SMMC-7721 cell line. MeCP2 silencing inhibited cell proliferation, while over-expression of MeCP2 promoted cell growth in SMMC-7721 cells. It indicates that MeCP2 may be an attractive target for human HCC. We further found that melittin could inhibit cell proliferation by reducing MeCP2 expression in vitro. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of melittin on cell proliferation was due to a delay in G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cell cycle progression, without influencing cell apoptosis. Next, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms and found that MeCP2 could modulate Shh signaling in SMMC-7721 cells. Further study indicates that melittin may induce the demethylation of PTCH1 promoter, resulting in the increased expression of PTCH1. Furthermore, the expression of Shh and GLI1 was significantly lowered upon treatment of melittin. These results suggest that melittin can block Shh signaling in vitro. In short, these results indicate that melittin inhibits cell proliferation by down-regulating MeCP2 through Shh signaling in SMMC-7721 cells. - Highlights: • MeCP2 plays a key role in the proliferation of human HCC cells. • Melittin reduces MeCP2 expression in vitro. • Melittin induces G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cell cycle arrest in SMMC-7721 cells. • MeCP2 modulates the Shh signaling pathway in SMMC-7721 cells. • Melittin blocks the Shh signaling pathway in SMMC-7721 cells.

  13. Melittin induces PTCH1 expression by down-regulating MeCP2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Bin; Cheng, Yahui; Yang, Yang; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Wu, Baoming; Zhang, Lei; Lv, Xiongwen; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high mortality rate worldwide and still remains to be a noticeable public health problem. Therefore, new remedies are urgently needed. Melittin, a major component of bee venom, is known to suppress cell growth in various cancers including HCC. However, the mechanism of the anticancer effect of melittin on HCC has not been fully elucidated. It has been reported that Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) plays a key role in tumor proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. In the present study, we found the high expression of MeCP2 in human HCC tissues and in the SMMC-7721 cell line. MeCP2 silencing inhibited cell proliferation, while over-expression of MeCP2 promoted cell growth in SMMC-7721 cells. It indicates that MeCP2 may be an attractive target for human HCC. We further found that melittin could inhibit cell proliferation by reducing MeCP2 expression in vitro. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of melittin on cell proliferation was due to a delay in G 0 /G 1 cell cycle progression, without influencing cell apoptosis. Next, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms and found that MeCP2 could modulate Shh signaling in SMMC-7721 cells. Further study indicates that melittin may induce the demethylation of PTCH1 promoter, resulting in the increased expression of PTCH1. Furthermore, the expression of Shh and GLI1 was significantly lowered upon treatment of melittin. These results suggest that melittin can block Shh signaling in vitro. In short, these results indicate that melittin inhibits cell proliferation by down-regulating MeCP2 through Shh signaling in SMMC-7721 cells. - Highlights: • MeCP2 plays a key role in the proliferation of human HCC cells. • Melittin reduces MeCP2 expression in vitro. • Melittin induces G 0 /G 1 cell cycle arrest in SMMC-7721 cells. • MeCP2 modulates the Shh signaling pathway in SMMC-7721 cells. • Melittin blocks the Shh signaling pathway in SMMC-7721 cells.

  14. A review on applications of the wavelet transform techniques in spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhat, M.E.; Albdel-hafiez, A.; Hassan, M.F.; Ali, M.A.; Awaad, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Starting from 1989, a new technique known as wavelet transforms (WT) has been applied successfully for analysis of different types of spectra. WT offers certain advantages over Fourier transforms for analysis of signals. A review of using this technique through different fields of elemental analysis is presented

  15. Feynman propagator and space-time transformation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    We evaluate the exact propagator for the time-dependent two-dimensional charged harmonic oscillator in a time-varying magnetic field, by taking direct recourse to the corresponding Schroedinger equation. Through the usage of an appropriate space-time transformation, we show that such a propagator can be obtained from the free propagator in the new space-time coordinate system. (orig.)

  16. Efficiency Optimization by Considering the High Voltage Flyback Transformer Parasitics using an Automatic Winding Layout Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Zhang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    .The energy efficiency is optimized using a proposed new automatic winding layout (AWL) technique and a comprehensive loss model.The AWL technique generates a large number of transformer winding layouts.The transformer parasitics such as dc resistance, leakage inductance and self-capacitance are calculated...... for each winding layout.An optimization technique is formulated to minimize the sum of energy losses during charge and discharge operations.The efficiency and energy loss distribution results from the optimization routine provide a deep insight into the high voltage transformer designand its impact...

  17. Review of Physicochemical-Based Diagnostic Techniques for Assessing Insulation Condition in Aged Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janvier Sylvestre N’cho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A power transformer outage has a dramatic financial consequence not only for electric power systems utilities but also for interconnected customers. The service reliability of this important asset largely depends upon the condition of the oil-paper insulation. Therefore, by keeping the qualities of oil-paper insulation system in pristine condition, the maintenance planners can reduce the decline rate of internal faults. Accurate diagnostic methods for analyzing the condition of transformers are therefore essential. Currently, there are various electrical and physicochemical diagnostic techniques available for insulation condition monitoring of power transformers. This paper is aimed at the description, analysis and interpretation of modern physicochemical diagnostics techniques for assessing insulation condition in aged transformers. Since fields and laboratory experiences have shown that transformer oil contains about 70% of diagnostic information, the physicochemical analyses of oil samples can therefore be extremely useful in monitoring the condition of power transformers.

  18. Study on the damage effect of 131I-iodinated oil internal radiation in SMMC-7721 hepatoma model in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shuyan; Zhang Xuguang; Wang Xiangying; Li Su'an; Mao Dihua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the damage effect of 131 I-iodinated oil internal radiation in hepatoma. Methods: SMMC-7721 rat hepatoma model was used to evaluate the damage of 131 I-iodinated oil internal radiation in carcinoma. 131 I-iodinated oil was injected sector-shapely into tumor model of SMMC-7721 hepatoma with arc-needle, matched with routine straight-needle injection. Tumor damage induced by 131 I-iodinated oil intralesion radiation in the carcinoma models are recorded through survival time, weight of rat, local carcinoma, pathology, electron microscopy. Results: Arc-needle injection 131 I-iodinated oil in SMMC-7721 hepatoma at subcutis could increase rat's survival time, the body weight kept less descent, the lumps necrosed wholly. Pathology and ultrastructure detection revealed cell necrosis and collapse, sever nuclear damage was observed in the death cells. The early characteristics of necrosis such as margination of heterochromatin was also found in some tumor cells. Besides, well differentiated tumor cells, degenerative tumor cells and some lymphocytes were seen. Conclusion: Arc-needle injection 131 I-iodinated oil step-by step sector-shapely into tumor is a better method and necrosis is the major effect of 131 I-iodinated oil internal radiation in carcinoma at the level of treated dosage

  19. Composition of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and their apoptosis-inducing effect on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP is a natural functional component that has a variety of biological activities. The molecular structures and apoptosis-inducing activities on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells of two LBP fractions, LBP-d and LBP-e, were investigated. Results: The results showed that LBP-d and LBP-e both consist of protein, uronic acid, and neutral sugars in different proportions. The structure of LBP was characterized by gas chromatography, periodate oxidation, and Smith degradation. LBP-d was composed of eight kinds of monosaccharides (fucose, ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose, while LBP-e was composed of six kinds of monosaccharides (fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, and glucose. LBP-d and LBP-e blocked SMMC-7721 cells at the G0/G1 and S phases with an inhibition ratio of 26.70 and 45.13%, respectively, and enhanced the concentration of Ca2 + in the cytoplasm of SMMC-7721. Conclusion: The contents of protein, uronic acid, and galactose in LBP-e were much higher than those in LBP-d, which might responsible for their different bioactivities. The results showed that LBP can be provided as a potential chemotherapeutic agent drug to treat cancer.

  20. Pulse shaping using the optical Fourier transform technique - for ultra-high-speed signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the generation of a 1.6 ps FWHM flat-top pulse using the optical Fourier transform technique. The pulse is validated in a 320 Gbit/s demultiplexing experiment.......This paper reports on the generation of a 1.6 ps FWHM flat-top pulse using the optical Fourier transform technique. The pulse is validated in a 320 Gbit/s demultiplexing experiment....

  1. Incipient fault diagnosis of power transformers using optical spectro-photometric technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, K.; Karmakar, Subrata

    2015-06-01

    Power transformers are the vital equipment in the network of power generation, transmission and distribution. Mineral oil in oil-filled transformers plays very important role as far as electrical insulation for the winding and cooling of the transformer is concerned. As transformers are always under the influence of electrical and thermal stresses, incipient faults like partial discharge, sparking and arcing take place. As a result, mineral oil deteriorates there by premature failure of the transformer occurs causing huge losses in terms of revenue and assets. Therefore, the transformer health condition has to be monitored continuously. The Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) is being extensively used for this purpose, but it has some drawbacks like it needs carrier gas, regular instrument calibration, etc. To overcome these drawbacks, Ultraviolet (UV) -Visible and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectro-photometric techniques are used as diagnostic tools for investigating the degraded transformer oil affected by electrical, mechanical and thermal stresses. The technique has several advantages over the conventional DGA technique.

  2. Transformer Incipient Fault Prediction Using Combined Artificial Neural Network and Various Particle Swarm Optimisation Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazlee Azil Illias

    Full Text Available It is important to predict the incipient fault in transformer oil accurately so that the maintenance of transformer oil can be performed correctly, reducing the cost of maintenance and minimise the error. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA has been widely used to predict the incipient fault in power transformers. However, sometimes the existing DGA methods yield inaccurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil because each method is only suitable for certain conditions. Many previous works have reported on the use of intelligence methods to predict the transformer faults. However, it is believed that the accuracy of the previously proposed methods can still be improved. Since artificial neural network (ANN and particle swarm optimisation (PSO techniques have never been used in the previously reported work, this work proposes a combination of ANN and various PSO techniques to predict the transformer incipient fault. The advantages of PSO are simplicity and easy implementation. The effectiveness of various PSO techniques in combination with ANN is validated by comparison with the results from the actual fault diagnosis, an existing diagnosis method and ANN alone. Comparison of the results from the proposed methods with the previously reported work was also performed to show the improvement of the proposed methods. It was found that the proposed ANN-Evolutionary PSO method yields the highest percentage of correct identification for transformer fault type than the existing diagnosis method and previously reported works.

  3. Transformer Incipient Fault Prediction Using Combined Artificial Neural Network and Various Particle Swarm Optimisation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illias, Hazlee Azil; Chai, Xin Rui; Abu Bakar, Ab Halim; Mokhlis, Hazlie

    2015-01-01

    It is important to predict the incipient fault in transformer oil accurately so that the maintenance of transformer oil can be performed correctly, reducing the cost of maintenance and minimise the error. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) has been widely used to predict the incipient fault in power transformers. However, sometimes the existing DGA methods yield inaccurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil because each method is only suitable for certain conditions. Many previous works have reported on the use of intelligence methods to predict the transformer faults. However, it is believed that the accuracy of the previously proposed methods can still be improved. Since artificial neural network (ANN) and particle swarm optimisation (PSO) techniques have never been used in the previously reported work, this work proposes a combination of ANN and various PSO techniques to predict the transformer incipient fault. The advantages of PSO are simplicity and easy implementation. The effectiveness of various PSO techniques in combination with ANN is validated by comparison with the results from the actual fault diagnosis, an existing diagnosis method and ANN alone. Comparison of the results from the proposed methods with the previously reported work was also performed to show the improvement of the proposed methods. It was found that the proposed ANN-Evolutionary PSO method yields the highest percentage of correct identification for transformer fault type than the existing diagnosis method and previously reported works.

  4. Transformer Incipient Fault Prediction Using Combined Artificial Neural Network and Various Particle Swarm Optimisation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    It is important to predict the incipient fault in transformer oil accurately so that the maintenance of transformer oil can be performed correctly, reducing the cost of maintenance and minimise the error. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) has been widely used to predict the incipient fault in power transformers. However, sometimes the existing DGA methods yield inaccurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil because each method is only suitable for certain conditions. Many previous works have reported on the use of intelligence methods to predict the transformer faults. However, it is believed that the accuracy of the previously proposed methods can still be improved. Since artificial neural network (ANN) and particle swarm optimisation (PSO) techniques have never been used in the previously reported work, this work proposes a combination of ANN and various PSO techniques to predict the transformer incipient fault. The advantages of PSO are simplicity and easy implementation. The effectiveness of various PSO techniques in combination with ANN is validated by comparison with the results from the actual fault diagnosis, an existing diagnosis method and ANN alone. Comparison of the results from the proposed methods with the previously reported work was also performed to show the improvement of the proposed methods. It was found that the proposed ANN-Evolutionary PSO method yields the highest percentage of correct identification for transformer fault type than the existing diagnosis method and previously reported works. PMID:26103634

  5. Application of Tissue Culture and Transformation Techniques in Model Species Brachypodium distachyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogutmaz Ozdemir, Bahar; Budak, Hikmet

    2018-01-01

    Brachypodium distachyon has recently emerged as a model plant species for the grass family (Poaceae) that includes major cereal crops and forage grasses. One of the important traits of a model species is its capacity to be transformed and ease of growing both in tissue culture and in greenhouse conditions. Hence, plant transformation technology is crucial for improvements in agricultural studies, both for the study of new genes and in the production of new transgenic plant species. In this chapter, we review an efficient tissue culture and two different transformation systems for Brachypodium using most commonly preferred gene transfer techniques in plant species, microprojectile bombardment method (biolistics) and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.In plant transformation studies, frequently used explant materials are immature embryos due to their higher transformation efficiencies and regeneration capacity. However, mature embryos are available throughout the year in contrast to immature embryos. We explain a tissue culture protocol for Brachypodium using mature embryos with the selected inbred lines from our collection. Embryogenic calluses obtained from mature embryos are used to transform Brachypodium with both plant transformation techniques that are revised according to previously studied protocols applied in the grasses, such as applying vacuum infiltration, different wounding effects, modification in inoculation and cocultivation steps or optimization of bombardment parameters.

  6. Transformation techniques for cross-sectional and longitudinal endocrine data: application to salivary cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert; Plessow, Franziska

    2013-06-01

    Endocrine time series often lack normality and homoscedasticity most likely due to the non-linear dynamics of their natural determinants and the immanent characteristics of the biochemical analysis tools, respectively. As a consequence, data transformation (e.g., log-transformation) is frequently applied to enable general linear model-based analyses. However, to date, data transformation techniques substantially vary across studies and the question of which is the optimum power transformation remains to be addressed. The present report aims to provide a common solution for the analysis of endocrine time series by systematically comparing different power transformations with regard to their impact on data normality and homoscedasticity. For this, a variety of power transformations of the Box-Cox family were applied to salivary cortisol data of 309 healthy participants sampled in temporal proximity to a psychosocial stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test). Whereas our analyses show that un- as well as log-transformed data are inferior in terms of meeting normality and homoscedasticity, they also provide optimum transformations for both, cross-sectional cortisol samples reflecting the distributional concentration equilibrium and longitudinal cortisol time series comprising systematically altered hormone distributions that result from simultaneously elicited pulsatile change and continuous elimination processes. Considering these dynamics of endocrine oscillations, data transformation prior to testing GLMs seems mandatory to minimize biased results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibitory effects of recombinant plasmid pshuttle-Egr1-shTRAIL transfection in combination with X-irradiation on growth of liver cancer cells SMMC7721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhiyong; Liu Min; Dong Lihua; Gong Shouliang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of recombinant plasmid pshuttle-Egr1-shTRAIL stable transfection in combination with X-ray irradiation on the TRAIL protein expression and the apoptosis in human SMMC7721 hepatoma cells. Methods: The pshuttle-Egr1-shTRAIL packaged with liposome was stably transfected into SMMC7721 cells in vitro. The shTRAIL protein expression were measured with ELISA assay, Annexin V-FITC kit was adopted to measure the apoptosis of pshuttle-Egr1-shTRAIL cells, and the changes in survival rate of SMMC7721 cells measured with cell cloning assay. Results: The TRAIL protein expressions in pshuttle-Egr1-shTRAIL plus different doses of irradiation groups were significantly increased compared with 0 Gy group (P<0.001). The percentage of apoptotic cells was significantly higher than that in 0 Gy group (P<0.05 or P<0.001), and the survival rate of SMMC7721 cells was decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.001). Conclusion: The pshuttle-Egr1-shTRAIL stable transfection in combination with irradiation can significantly induce the apoptosis of SMMC7721 tumor cells and inhibit the cell proliferation. (authors)

  8. Organic acid derivatization techniques applied to petroleum hydrocarbon transformations in subsurface environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelona, M.J.; Lu, J.; Tomczak, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Evidence for the natural microbial remediation of subsurface fuel contamination situations should include identification and analysis of transformation or degradation products. In this way, a mass balance between fuel constituents and end products may be approached to monitor cleanup progress. Application of advanced organic acid metabolite derivatization techniques to several know sites of organic compounds and fuel mixture contamination provide valuable information on the pathways and progress of microbial transformation. Good correlation between observed metabolites and transformation pathways of aromatic fuel constituents were observed at the sites

  9. An efficient coordinate transformation technique for unsteady, transonic aerodynamic analysis of low aspect-ratio wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruswamy, G. P.; Goorjian, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    An efficient coordinate transformation technique is presented for constructing grids for unsteady, transonic aerodynamic computations for delta-type wings. The original shearing transformation yielded computations that were numerically unstable and this paper discusses the sources of those instabilities. The new shearing transformation yields computations that are stable, fast, and accurate. Comparisons of those two methods are shown for the flow over the F5 wing that demonstrate the new stability. Also, comparisons are made with experimental data that demonstrate the accuracy of the new method. The computations were made by using a time-accurate, finite-difference, alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) algorithm for the transonic small-disturbance potential equation.

  10. Backstepping Based Formation Control of Quadrotors with the State Transformation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Uk Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a backstepping-based formation control of quadrotors with the state transformation technique is proposed. First, the dynamics of a quadrotor is derived by using the Newton–Euler formulation. Next, a backstepping-based formation control for quadrotors using a state transformation technique is presented. In the position control, which is the basis of formation control, it is possible to derive the reference attitude angles employing a state transformation technique without the small angle assumption or the simplified dynamics usually used. Stability analysis based on the Lyapunov theorem shows that the proposed formation controller can provide a quadrotor formation error system that is asymptotically stabilized. Finally, we verify the performance of the proposed formation control method through comparison simulations.

  11. Generation of reactive oxygen species by a novel berberine–bile acid analog mediates apoptosis in hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qingyong, E-mail: li_qingyong@126.com [Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology (Northeast Forestry University), Ministry of Education (China); Zhang, Li; Zu, Yuangang; Liu, Tianyu; Zhang, Baoyou; He, Wuna [Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology (Northeast Forestry University), Ministry of Education (China)

    2013-04-19

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Anticancer effects of B4, a novel berberine–bile acid analog, were tested. • B4 inhibited cell proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. • It also stimulated mitochondrial ROS production and membrane depolarization. • Effects of B4 were inhibited by a non-specific ROS scavenger. • Regulation of ROS generation may be a strategy for treating hepatic carcinoma. - Abstract: 2,3-Methenedioxy-9-O-(3′α,7′α-dihydroxy-5′β-cholan-24′-propy-lester) berberine (B4) is a novel berberine–bile acid analog synthesized in our laboratory. Previously, we showed that B4 exerted greater cytotoxicity than berberine in several human cancer cell lines. Therefore, we further evaluated the mechanism governing its anticancer actions in hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells. B4 inhibited the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells, and stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization; anti-oxidant capacity was reduced. B4 also induced the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol and an increase in poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage products, reflective of caspase-3 activation. Moreover, B4 induced the nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and a rise in DNA fragmentation. Pretreatment with the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhibited B4-mediated effects, including cytotoxicity, ROS production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, cytochrome c release, PARP cleavage, and AIF translocation. Our data suggest that B4 induces ROS-triggered caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis pathways in SMMC-7721 cells and that ROS production may be a specific potential strategy for treating hepatic carcinoma.

  12. Electrical-Based Diagnostic Techniques for Assessing Insulation Condition in Aged Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issouf Fofana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The condition of the internal cellulosic paper and oil insulation are of concern for the performance of power transformers. Over the years, a number of methods have been developed to diagnose and monitor the degradation/aging of the transformer internal insulation system. Some of this degradation/aging can be assessed from electrical responses. Currently there are a variety of electrical-based diagnostic techniques available for insulation condition monitoring of power transformers. In most cases, the electrical signals being monitored are due to mechanical or electric changes caused by physical changes in resistivity, inductance or capacitance, moisture, contamination or aging by-products in the insulation. This paper presents a description of commonly used and modern electrical-based diagnostic techniques along with their interpretation schemes.

  13. Solution of the diffusion equation in the GPT theory by the Laplace transform technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, R.S.M.; Vilhena, M.T.; Segatto, C.F.; Silva, M.T.

    2003-01-01

    In this work we present a analytical solution to the auxiliary and importance functions attained from the solution of a multigroup diffusion problem in a multilayered slab by the Laplace Transform technique. We also obtain the the transcendental equation for the effective multiplication factor, resulting from the application of the boundary and interface conditions. (author)

  14. Studies of Phase Transformation in Molecular Crystals Using the Positron Annihilation Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Lightbody, David; Sherwood, John N.

    1980-01-01

    An examination has been made of the brittle/plastic phase transformation in the molecular crystals cyclohexane, DL-camphene and succinonitrile using the positron annihilation technique. In each material, the transition is characterized by a distinct increase in ortho-positronium lifetime. The inf...

  15. Local gray level S-curve transformation - A generalized contrast enhancement technique for medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhamal, Akash; Talbar, Sanjay; Gajre, Suhas; Hani, Ahmad Fadzil M; Kumar, Dileep

    2017-04-01

    Most medical images suffer from inadequate contrast and brightness, which leads to blurred or weak edges (low contrast) between adjacent tissues resulting in poor segmentation and errors in classification of tissues. Thus, contrast enhancement to improve visual information is extremely important in the development of computational approaches for obtaining quantitative measurements from medical images. In this research, a contrast enhancement algorithm that applies gray-level S-curve transformation technique locally in medical images obtained from various modalities is investigated. The S-curve transformation is an extended gray level transformation technique that results into a curve similar to a sigmoid function through a pixel to pixel transformation. This curve essentially increases the difference between minimum and maximum gray values and the image gradient, locally thereby, strengthening edges between adjacent tissues. The performance of the proposed technique is determined by measuring several parameters namely, edge content (improvement in image gradient), enhancement measure (degree of contrast enhancement), absolute mean brightness error (luminance distortion caused by the enhancement), and feature similarity index measure (preservation of the original image features). Based on medical image datasets comprising 1937 images from various modalities such as ultrasound, mammograms, fluorescent images, fundus, X-ray radiographs and MR images, it is found that the local gray-level S-curve transformation outperforms existing techniques in terms of improved contrast and brightness, resulting in clear and strong edges between adjacent tissues. The proposed technique can be used as a preprocessing tool for effective segmentation and classification of tissue structures in medical images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Time dependent AN neutron transport calculations in finite media using a numerical inverse Laplace transform technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, B.D.; Sumini, M.

    1990-01-01

    The time dependent space second order discrete form of the monokinetic transport equation is given an analytical solution, within the Laplace transform domain. Th A n dynamic model is presented and the general resolution procedure is worked out. The solution in the time domain is then obtained through the application of a numerical transform inversion technique. The justification of the research relies in the need to produce reliable and physically meaningful transport benchmarks for dynamic calculations. The paper is concluded by a few results followed by some physical comments

  17. Flat-top pulse generation by the optical Fourier transform technique for ultrahigh speed signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the generation of 1.6-ps fullwidth at half-maximum flat-top pulses by the optical Fourier transform technique, and the utilization of these pulses in a 320-Gb/s demultiplexing experiment. It is demonstrated how a narrow pulse having a 15-nm wide third-order super-Gaussian sp......This paper reports on the generation of 1.6-ps fullwidth at half-maximum flat-top pulses by the optical Fourier transform technique, and the utilization of these pulses in a 320-Gb/s demultiplexing experiment. It is demonstrated how a narrow pulse having a 15-nm wide third-order super...

  18. Techniques for Handling and Removal of Spectral Channels in Fourier Transform Synchrotron-Based Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Amr; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Teillet, Philippe M.

    2010-01-01

    Channel spectra are a big problem for those attempting to use synchrotron-based Fourier transform spectra for spectral lineshape studies. Due to the layout of the optical system at the CLS far-infrared beamline, the synchrotron beam undergoes unavoidable multiple reflections on the steering mirrors, beam splitter, several sets of windows, and filters. We present a method for eliminating channel spectra and compare the results of our technique with other methods available in the literature.

  19. Techniques for Handling Channeling in High Resolution Fourier Transform Spectra Recorded with Synchrotron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Amr; PredoiCross, Adriana; Teillet, P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Seven different techniques in dealing the problem of channel spectra in Fourier transform Spectroscopy utilizing synchrotron source were examined and compared. Five of these techniques deal with the artifacts (spikes) in the recorded interferogram which in turn result in channel spectra within the spectral domain. Such interferogram editing method include replacing these spikes with zeros, straight line, fitted polynomial curve, rescaled spike and spike reduced with Gauss Function. Another two techniques try to target this issue in the spectral domain instead by either generating a synthetic background simulating the channels or measuring the channels parameters (amplitude, spacing and phase) to use in the spectral fitting program. Results showed spectral domain techniques produces higher quality results in terms of signal to noise and fitting residual. The effect of each method on the line parameters such as position, intensity are air broadening are also measured and discussed.

  20. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Lars Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  1. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  2. TRANSFORMER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  3. Magnetic and spontaneous Barkhausen noise techniques used in investigation of a martensitic transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capò Sànchez, J.; Huallpa, E.; Farina, P.; Padovese, L. R.; Goldenstein, H.

    2011-10-01

    Magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) was used to characterize the progress of austenite to martensite phase transformation while cooling steel specimens, using a conventional Barkhausen noise emission setup stimulated by an alternating magnetic field. The phase transformation was also followed by electrical resistivity measurements and by optical and scanning electron microscopy. MBN measurements on a AISI D2 tool steel austenitized at 1473 K and cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature presented a clear change near 225 K during cooling, corresponding to the MS (martensite start) temperature, as confirmed by resistivity measurements. Analysis of the resulting signals suggested a novel experimental technique that measures spontaneous magnetic emission during transformation, in the absence of any external field. Spontaneous magnetic noise emission measurements were registered in situ while cooling an initially austenitic sample in liquid nitrogen, showing that local microstructural changes, corresponding to an avalanche or "burst" phenomena, could be detected. This spontaneous magnetic emission (SME) can thus be considered a new experimental tool for the study of martensite transformations in ferrous alloys, at the same level as acoustic emission.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Frequency Transform Based Block Classification of Compound Image Segmentation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Ebenezer Juliet; Florinabel, D. Jemi

    2018-04-01

    Compound image segmentation plays a vital role in the compression of computer screen images. Computer screen images are images which are mixed with textual, graphical, or pictorial contents. In this paper, we present a comparison of two transform based block classification of compound images based on metrics like speed of classification, precision and recall rate. Block based classification approaches normally divide the compound images into fixed size blocks of non-overlapping in nature. Then frequency transform like Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are applied over each block. Mean and standard deviation are computed for each 8 × 8 block and are used as features set to classify the compound images into text/graphics and picture/background block. The classification accuracy of block classification based segmentation techniques are measured by evaluation metrics like precision and recall rate. Compound images of smooth background and complex background images containing text of varying size, colour and orientation are considered for testing. Experimental evidence shows that the DWT based segmentation provides significant improvement in recall rate and precision rate approximately 2.3% than DCT based segmentation with an increase in block classification time for both smooth and complex background images.

  5. A numerical approach to the time dependent neutron flux using the Laplace transform technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Demerdash, A; Beynon, T.D.

    1979-01-01

    In this study a time dependent transport problem in which an isotopic neutron source emits a pulse of neutrons into a finite sphere has been solved by a numerical Laplace transform technique. The object has been to investigate the time behaviour of the neutron field in the moderators at times shortly after the neutron source initiation, that is in the nanosecond time period. The basis of the solution is a numercial evaluation of the Laplace transform of the flux in the linear Boltzmann equation with the use of a modified version of a steady state energy multi-group spatially dependent code. The explicit or direct inversion of the Laplace transformed flux is complicated to be solved numerically due to the ill-conditioned matrix obtained. The suggested method of solutions depends on choice of a function that satisfies the physical condition known from the neutron behaviour and that has a Laplace inversion which is analytically amenable. By employing a least square fitting procedure the function is modified in order to minimize the error in the Laplace transformed values and hence in the time dependent solution. This method has been applied satisfactorily in comparison to analytical and experimental results

  6. An enhanced Hilbert–Huang transform technique for bearing condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Shazali; Wang, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    A new technique, enhanced Hilbert–Huang transform (eHHT), is proposed in this work for fault detection in rolling element bearings. It includes two processes: firstly, the collected vibration signal is denoised to highlight defect-related impulses; and secondly the denoised signal is further processed by the use of the proposed eHHT technique to identify the defect features for bearing fault detection. Signal denoising is carried out by the use of the minimum entropy deconvolution filter to reduce impedance effect of the transmission path of the measured signal. In the proposed eHHT, a novel strategy is proposed to enhance feature extraction based on the analysis of correlation and mutual information. The effectiveness of the proposed eHHT technique in feature extraction and analysis is verified by a series of experimental tests corresponding to different bearing conditions. Its robustness is examined by using data sets from a different resource. (paper)

  7. Unraveling the nature of electric field- and stress- induced structural transformations in soft PZT by a new powder poling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, Ajay Kumar; V, Lalitha K; James, Ajit R; Fitch, Andy; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2015-02-25

    A 'powder-poling' technique was developed to study electric field induced structural transformations in ferroelectrics exhibiting a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The technique was employed on soft PZT exhibiting a large longitudinal piezoelectric response (d(33) ∼ 650 pC N(-1)). It was found that electric poling brings about a considerable degree of irreversible tetragonal to monoclinic transformation. The same transformation was achieved after subjecting the specimen to mechanical stress, which suggests an equivalence of stress and electric field with regard to the structural mechanism in MPB compositions. The electric field induced structural transformation was also found to be accompanied by a decrease in the spatial coherence of polarization.

  8. A new technique based on the transformation of variables for nonlinear drift and Rossby vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orito, Kohtaro

    1996-07-01

    The quasi-two-dimensional nonlinear equations for drift and Rossby vortices have some stationary multipole solutions, and especially the dipole vortex solution is called modon. These solutions are valid only in the lowest order where the fluid velocity has a stream function. In order to investigate features of the multipole solutions more accurately, the effect of the higher order terms, for example the polarization drift in a plasma or the Coriolis force in a rotating planet, needs to be considered. It is shown that the higher order analysis through a new technique based on a transformation of variables is much easier than a straightforward iteration. The solutions in this analysis are obtained by inverse transformation to the original coordinates, where the profiles of potentials are distorted by the effects of higher order terms. (author)

  9. Pattern transformation of heat-shrinkable polymer by three-dimensional (3D) printing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Yan, Dong; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Gengkai

    2015-03-11

    A significant challenge in conventional heat-shrinkable polymers is to produce controllable microstructures. Here we report that the polymer material fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) printing technique has a heat-shrinkable property, whose initial microstructure can undergo a spontaneous pattern transformation under heating. The underlying mechanism is revealed by evaluating internal strain of the printed polymer from its fabricating process. It is shown that a uniform internal strain is stored in the polymer during the printing process and can be released when heated above its glass transition temperature. Furthermore, the internal strain can be used to trigger the pattern transformation of the heat-shrinkable polymer in a controllable way. Our work provides insightful ideas to understand a novel mechanism on the heat-shrinkable effect of printed material, but also to present a simple approach to fabricate heat-shrinkable polymer with a controllable thermo-structural response.

  10. Study of pollutant transport in surface boundary layer by generalized integral transform technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Jesus S.P.; Heilbron Filho, Paulo F.L.; Pimentel, Luiz C.G.; Cataldi, Marcio

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical study was developed to obtain solutions of the atmospheric diffusion equation for various point source, considering radioactive decay and axial diffusion, under neutral atmospheric conditions. It was used an algebraic turbulence model available in the literature, based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, for the representation of the turbulent transport in the vertical direction, in the longitudinal directions was considered a constant mass eddy diffusivity . The bi-dimensional transient partial differential equation, representative of the physical phenomena, was transformed into a coupled one-dimensional transient equation system by applying the Generalized Integral Transform Technique. The coupled system was solved numerically using a subroutine based in the lines method. In order to evaluate the computational algorithm were analyzed some representative physical situations. (author)

  11. Contaminated site investigation using nuclear technique: a case study of temporary transformer storage sites in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanu, J. K.

    2013-07-01

    Recent introduction of man-made toxic chemicals, and the massive relocation of natural materials to different environmental compartment like soil, ground water and atmosphere, has resulted in severe pressure on the self- cleansing capacity of recipient ecosystems. Various accomulated pollutants and contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are of much concern relative to both human and ecosystemm exposure and potential health impact. PCBs which are resistant to degradation and bioremediation accumulated in different niches of the biosphere. This significantly affects the ecological balances and cause adverse health effect on both human and the environment. Temporal transformer storage sites at four locations in Ghana (Tema, Temale, Bolgatanga and Wa) were investigated for PCB contamination using nuclear techniques. Analysis of soil samples from four temporal transformer storage sites revealed that the soil samples from Tema, Tamale, Bolgatanga and Wa were generally sandy with pH and EC ranging between 6.24 - 7.29 and 44.60 - 188.30 respectively. The PCB levels detected in the soil samples from the various locations varied considerably with mean ranging between 7.69 and 51.92 mg/kg. The highest mean PCB level was recorded at the Tema temporal transformer storage site (51.92 mg/kg), whilst the least mean level of 7.69 mg/kg was recorded at Wa storage site. At Tamale the individual levels range between 3.57 mg/kg and 38.70 mg/kg while at Bolgatanga it was 6.85 - 16.30 mg/kg and Wa, 6.08 - 14.70mg/kg. About 9% of soil samples from temporal transformer storage sites analysed had total PCBs concentrations above the 25mg/kg and 33 mg/kg level recommended by the Canadian Council of Ministers of environment (CCME) and EPA Ghana respectively for the protection of environment and human health. Generally, the Levels of PCBs in soil samples were found to decrease with increasing depth at all the temporal transformer storage sites. Results obtained using the EPA's L

  12. The Mellin transform technique for the extraction of the gluon density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graudenz, D.

    1995-06-01

    A new method is presented to determine the gluon density in the proton from jet production in deeply inelastic scattering. By using the technique of Mellin transforms not only for the solution of the scale evolution equation of the parton densities but also for the evaluation of scattering cross sections, the gluon density can be extracted in next-to-leading order QCD. The method described in this paper is, however, more general, and can be used in situations where a repeated fast numerical evaluation of scattering cross sections for varying parton distribution functions is required. (orig.)

  13. Application of a numerical Laplace transform inversion technique to a problem in reactor dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, B.D.; Sumini, M.

    1990-01-01

    A newly developed numerical technique for the Laplace transform inversion is applied to a classical time-dependent problem of reactor physics. The dynamic behaviour of a multiplying system has been analyzed through a continuous slowing down model, taking into account a finite slowing down time, the presence of several groups of neutron precursors and simplifying the spatial analysis using the space asymptotic approximation. The results presented, show complete agreement with analytical ones previously obtained and allow a deeper understanding of the model features. (author)

  14. A Hilbert transform method for parameter identification of time-varying structures with observer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zuo-Cai; Ren, Wei-Xin; Chen, Gen-Da

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a recursive Hilbert transform method for the time-varying property identification of large-scale shear-type buildings with limited sensor deployments. An observer technique is introduced to estimate the building responses from limited available measurements. For an n-story shear-type building with l measurements (l ≤ n), the responses of other stories without measurements can be estimated based on the first r mode shapes (r ≤ l) as-built conditions and l measurements. Both the measured responses and evaluated responses and their Hilbert transforms are then used to track any variation of structural parameters of a multi-story building over time. Given floor masses, both the stiffness and damping coefficients of the building are identified one-by-one from the top to the bottom story. When variations of parameters are detected, a new developed branch-and-bound technique can be used to update the first r mode shapes with the identified parameters. A 60-story shear building with abruptly varying stiffness at different floors is simulated as an example. The numerical results indicate that the proposed method can detect variations of the parameters of large-scale shear-type buildings with limited sensor deployments at appropriate locations. (paper)

  15. The induction of apoptosis and autophagy in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells by combined treatment with vitamin C and polysaccharides extracted from Grifola frondosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Zhao, Jin; Song, Lei; Zhang, Ya-Qing; Guo, Zhong; Yang, Ke-Hu

    2017-11-01

    Polysaccharides extracted from the mushroom Grifola frondosa (GFP) are a potential anticancer agent. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of GFP and vitamin C (VC) alone and in combination on the viability of human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells. Studies designed to detect cell apoptosis and autophagy were also conducted to investigate the mechanism. Results from the cell viability assay indicated that a combination of GFP (0.2 or 0.25 mg/mL) and VC (0.3 mmol/L) (GFP/VC) led to 52.73 and 53.93% reduction in cell viability of SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells separately after 24 h. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that GFP/VC treatment induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, and apoptosis occurred in approximately 43.62 and 42.46% of the SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells separately. Moreover, results of Hoechst33258 and monodansylcadaverine staining, and transmission electron microscopy, showed that GFP/VC induced apoptosis and autophagy in SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells. Western blot analysis showed changes in the expression of apoptosis-related proteins [upregulation of BAX and caspase-3, downregulation of Bcl-2, and activation of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase] and autophagy protein markers (upregulation of beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light chain-3). We also demonstrated that the expression of both Akt and p-Akt was enhanced, suggesting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway might not be involved in this process. Our study shows that the combined application of GFP and VC induced cell apoptosis and autophagy in vitro, and might have antitumor activity in vivo.

  16. The hyper-radiosensitivity effect of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells exposed to low dose γ-rays and 12C ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xiaodong; Li Qiang; Li Wenjian; Wang Jufang; Guo Chuanling; Hao Jifang

    2006-01-01

    Hypersensitive response of mammalian cells in cell killing to X- and γ-rays has been reported at doses below 1 Gy. The purpose of this study was to examine the low dose sensitivity of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells irradiated with 6 Co γ-rays and 50 MeV/u 12 C ions. Experiments using γ-rays and charged particle irradiation were performed, particularly in the low dose range from 0 to 2 Gy. The survival effect of SMMC-7721 cells was measured by means of standard clonogenic assay in conjunction with a cell sorter. The result indicates SMMC-7721 cells showed hyper-radiosensitive response at low doses and increased radio-resistance at larger single doses for the carbon ions (LET = 45.2 keV/μm) and the γ-rays. However, the HRS/IRR effect caused by high-LET irradiation is different from that by low-LET radiation. This might possibly be due to the difference in the mode of energy deposition by particle beam and low-LET irradiation

  17. Antibodies against Clonorchis sinensis LDH could cross-react with LDHB localizing on the plasma membrane of human hepatocarcinoma cell SMMC-7721 and induce apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tianzhang; Gan, Wenjia; Chen, Jintao; Huang, Lilin; Yin, Hongling; He, Tailong; Huang, Huaiqiu; Hu, Xuchu

    2016-04-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a terminal enzyme in anaerobic glycolytic pathway. It widely exists in various organisms and is in charge of converting the glycolysis product pyruvic acid to lactic acid. Most parasites, including Clonorchis sinensis, predominantly depend on glycolysis to provide energy. Bioinformatic analysis predicts that the LDHs from many species have more than one transmembrane region, suggesting that it may be a membrane protein. C. sinensis LDH (CsLDH) has been confirmed as a transmembrane protein mainly located in the tegument. The antibodies against CsLDH can inhibit the worm's energy metabolism, kill the worm, and may have the same effects on human cancer cells. In this study, we cloned and characterized human LDHA (HsLDHA), HsLDHB, and CsLDH. Semi-quantitative real-time RCP showed that HsLDHB only existed in hepatocarcinoma cell SMMC-7721. Confocal microscopy and Western blot experiments revealed that HsLDHB was localized in the plasma membrane of SMMC-7721 cells, and the antibodies against CsLDH could cross-react with it. This cross-reaction could inhibit the enzymatic activity of HsLDHB. The cancer cells co-cultured with anti-CsLDH sera showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation rate and increases in caspase 9 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Therefore, anti-CsLDH antibodies can induce the apoptosis of cancer cells SMMC-7721 and may serve as a new tool to inhibit tumor.

  18. Discrimination of Inrush from Fault Currents in Power Transformers Based on Equivalent Instantaneous Inductance Technique Coupled with Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of magnetizing inrush is a transient condition, which occurs primarily when a transformer is energized. The magnitude of inrush current may be as high as ten times or more times of transformer rated current that causes malfunction of protection system. So, for safe running of a transformer, it is necessary to distinguish inrush current from fault currents. In this paper, an equivalent instantaneous inductance (EII technique is used to discriminate inrush current from fault currents. For this purpose, a three-phase power transformer has been simulated in Maxwell software that is based on finite elements. This three-phase power transformer has been used to simulate different conditions. Then, the results have been used as inputs in MATLAB program to implement the equivalent instantaneous inductance technique. The results show that in the case of inrush current, the equivalent instantaneous inductance has a drastic variation, while it is almost constant in the cases of fault conditions.

  19. Near-Field to Far-Field Transformation Techniques with Spiral Scannings: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cicchetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the near-field-far-field (NF-FF transformation techniques with innovative spiral scannings, useful to derive the radiation patterns of the antennas commonly employed in the modern wireless communication systems, is provided in this paper. The theoretical background and the development of a unified theory of the spiral scannings for quasi-spherical and nonspherical antennas are described, and an optimal sampling interpolation expansion to evaluate the probe response on a quite arbitrary rotational surface from a nonredundant number of its samples, collected along a proper spiral wrapping it, is presented. This unified theory can be applied to spirals wrapping the conventional scanning surfaces and makes it possible to accurately reconstruct the NF data required by the NF-FF transformation employing the corresponding classical scanning. A remarkable reduction of the measurement time is so achieved, due to the use of continuous and synchronized movements of the positioning systems and to the reduced number of needed NF measurements. Some numerical and experimental results relevant to the spherical spiral scanning case when dealing with quasi-planar and electrically long antennas are shown.

  20. Multiplexed wavelet transform technique for detection of microcalcification in digitized mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mini, M G; Devassia, V P; Thomas, Tessamma

    2004-12-01

    Wavelet transform (WT) is a potential tool for the detection of microcalcifications, an early sign of breast cancer. This article describes the implementation and evaluates the performance of two novel WT-based schemes for the automatic detection of clustered microcalcifications in digitized mammograms. Employing a one-dimensional WT technique that utilizes the pseudo-periodicity property of image sequences, the proposed algorithms achieve high detection efficiency and low processing memory requirements. The detection is achieved from the parent-child relationship between the zero-crossings [Marr-Hildreth (M-H) detector] /local extrema (Canny detector) of the WT coefficients at different levels of decomposition. The detected pixels are weighted before the inverse transform is computed, and they are segmented by simple global gray level thresholding. Both detectors produce 95% detection sensitivity, even though there are more false positives for the M-H detector. The M-H detector preserves the shape information and provides better detection sensitivity for mammograms containing widely distributed calcifications.

  1. Derivation of a reduced kinetic equation using Lie-transform techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, A.

    1991-01-01

    The asymptotic elimination of fast time scales from a general kinetic equation, of the form: ∂ t f+z·∂ x f = C[f], facilitates the study of the long time behavior of its solution f(z,t). Here z describe the single-particle Hamiltonian dynamics and the operator C, which may possess nonlinear functional dependence on f, describes processes (such as discrete-particle effects, resonant wave-particle effects, or effects due to external sources) which cause changes in f as it is convectively transported along a Hamiltonian phase-space trajectory. When a fast time scale is associated with z through the dependence on a fast angle θ (whose frequency θ = Ω satisfies ε ≡ 1/Ωτ much-lt 1, where τ is a slow time scale of interest), a near-identity phase-space transformation T ε :z→Z (carried out with Lie-transform techniques) yields reduced Hamiltonian dynamical equations Z ε which are θ-independent. The corresponding transformed kinetic equation is derived. Averaging this equation over the fast angle θ yields a kinetic equation for left-angle F right-angle, the θ-averaged part of F. In general, the θ-dependence of C ε couples the kinetic equations for left-angle F right-angle and F, the θ-dependent part of F. One solves for the Fourier coefficient F l (associated with e ilθ ) as a functional of left-angle F right-angle. One obtains a reduced kinetic equation for left-angle F right-angle: d R left-angle F right-angle/dt = C R [left-angle F right-angle]. General expressions for C R are given, as well as expressions for the guiding-center and oscillation-center phase-space transformations of a linear Fokker-Planck operator. A discussion of the relationship with Mynick's work is presented

  2. Transformation of eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension fabricating with solvent evaporation and ultrasonication technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaechamud T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thawatchai Phaechamud,1 Sarun Tuntarawongsa2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Pharmaceutical Intelligence Unit Prachote Plengwittaya, Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand Abstract: Eutectic solvent can solubilize high amount of some therapeutic compounds. Volatile eutectic solvent is interesting to be used as solvent in the preparation of nanosuspension with emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The mechanism of transformation from the eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension was investigated in this study. The 30% w/w ibuprofen eutectic solution was used as the internal phase, and the external phase is composed of Tween 80 as emulsifier. Ibuprofen nanosuspension was prepared by eutectic emulsion solvent evaporating method followed with ultrasonication. During evaporation process, the ibuprofen concentration in emulsion droplets was increased leading to a drug supersaturation but did not immediately recrystallize because of low glass transition temperature (Tg of ibuprofen. The contact angle of the internal phase on ibuprofen was apparently lower than that of the external phase at all times of evaporation, indicating that the ibuprofen crystals were preferentially wetted by the internal phase than the external phase. From calculated dewetting value ibuprofen crystallization occurred in the droplet. Crystallization of the drug was initiated with external mechanical force, and the particle size of the drug was larger due to Ostwald ripening. Cavitation force from ultrasonication minimized the ibuprofen crystals to the nanoscale. Particle size and zeta potential of formulated ibuprofen nanosuspension were 330.87±51.49 nm and -31.1±1.6 mV, respectively, and exhibited a fast dissolution. Therefore, the combination of eutectic emulsion solvent evaporation method with ultrasonication was favorable for fabricating an ibuprofen nanosuspension, and the transformation mechanism was attained successfully. Keywords

  3. Transformation of eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension fabricating with solvent evaporation and ultrasonication technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Tuntarawongsa, Sarun

    2016-01-01

    Eutectic solvent can solubilize high amount of some therapeutic compounds. Volatile eutectic solvent is interesting to be used as solvent in the preparation of nanosuspension with emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The mechanism of transformation from the eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension was investigated in this study. The 30% w/w ibuprofen eutectic solution was used as the internal phase, and the external phase is composed of Tween 80 as emulsifier. Ibuprofen nanosuspension was prepared by eutectic emulsion solvent evaporating method followed with ultrasonication. During evaporation process, the ibuprofen concentration in emulsion droplets was increased leading to a drug supersaturation but did not immediately recrystallize because of low glass transition temperature (Tg) of ibuprofen. The contact angle of the internal phase on ibuprofen was apparently lower than that of the external phase at all times of evaporation, indicating that the ibuprofen crystals were preferentially wetted by the internal phase than the external phase. From calculated dewetting value ibuprofen crystallization occurred in the droplet. Crystallization of the drug was initiated with external mechanical force, and the particle size of the drug was larger due to Ostwald ripening. Cavitation force from ultrasonication minimized the ibuprofen crystals to the nanoscale. Particle size and zeta potential of formulated ibuprofen nanosuspension were 330.87±51.49 nm and −31.1±1.6 mV, respectively, and exhibited a fast dissolution. Therefore, the combination of eutectic emulsion solvent evaporation method with ultrasonication was favorable for fabricating an ibuprofen nanosuspension, and the transformation mechanism was attained successfully. PMID:27366064

  4. Comparison differential transformation technique with Adomian decomposition method for linear and nonlinear initial value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Halim Hassan, I.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we will compare the differential transformation method DTM and Adomian decomposition method ADM to solve partial differential equations (PDEs). The definition and operations of differential transform method was introduced by Zhou [Zhou JK. Differential transformation and its application for electrical circuits. Wuuhahn, China: Huarjung University Press; 1986 [in Chinese

  5. Gravitational waves from rotating neutron stars and evaluation of fast chirp transform techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Strohmayer, T E

    2002-01-01

    X-ray observations suggest that neutron stars in low mass x-ray binaries (LMXB) are rotating with frequencies in the range 300-600 Hz. These spin rates are significantly less than the break-up rates for essentially all realistic neutron star equations of state, suggesting that some process may limit the spin frequencies of accreting neutron stars to this range. If the accretion-induced spin up torque is in equilibrium with gravitational radiation losses, these objects could be interesting sources of gravitational waves. I present a brief summary of current measurements of neutron star spins in LMXBs based on the observations of high-Q oscillations during thermonuclear bursts (so-called 'burst oscillations'). Further measurements of neutron star spins will be important in exploring the gravitational radiation hypothesis in more detail. To this end, I also present a study of fast chirp transform (FCT) techniques as described by Jenet and Prince (Prince T A and Jenet F A 2000 Phys. Rev. D 62 122001) in the conte...

  6. Large-scale chromosome folding versus genomic DNA sequences: A discrete double Fourier transform technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechetkin, V R; Lobzin, V V

    2017-08-07

    Using state-of-the-art techniques combining imaging methods and high-throughput genomic mapping tools leaded to the significant progress in detailing chromosome architecture of various organisms. However, a gap still remains between the rapidly growing structural data on the chromosome folding and the large-scale genome organization. Could a part of information on the chromosome folding be obtained directly from underlying genomic DNA sequences abundantly stored in the databanks? To answer this question, we developed an original discrete double Fourier transform (DDFT). DDFT serves for the detection of large-scale genome regularities associated with domains/units at the different levels of hierarchical chromosome folding. The method is versatile and can be applied to both genomic DNA sequences and corresponding physico-chemical parameters such as base-pairing free energy. The latter characteristic is closely related to the replication and transcription and can also be used for the assessment of temperature or supercoiling effects on the chromosome folding. We tested the method on the genome of E. coli K-12 and found good correspondence with the annotated domains/units established experimentally. As a brief illustration of further abilities of DDFT, the study of large-scale genome organization for bacteriophage PHIX174 and bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was also added. The combined experimental, modeling, and bioinformatic DDFT analysis should yield more complete knowledge on the chromosome architecture and genome organization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Therapeutic mechanism of treating SMMC-7721 liver cancer cells with magnetic fluid hyperthermia using Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, S.Y.; Chen, M.M.; Fan, J.G.; Wang, Y.Q.; Hu, Y.; Xu, L.M., E-mail: leiming.xu@aliyun.com.cn, E-mail: huying@sohu.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Du, Y.Q. [Department of Pathology, Cancer Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-11-15

    This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic mechanism of treating SMMC-7721 liver cancer cells with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) using Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. Hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells cultured in vitro were treated with ferrofluid containing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles and irradiated with an alternating radio frequency magnetic field. The influence of the treatment on the cells was examined by inverted microscopy, MTT and flow cytometry. To study the therapeutic mechanism of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} MFH, Hsp70, Bax, Bcl-2 and p53 were detected by immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). It was shown that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} MFH could cause cellular necrosis, induce cellular apoptosis, and significantly inhibit cellular growth, all of which appeared to be dependent on the concentration of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. Immunocytochemistry results showed that MFH could induce high expression of Hsp70 and Bax, decrease the expression of mutant p53, and had little effect on Bcl-2. RT-PCR indicated that Hsp70 expression was high in the early stage of MFH (,24 h) and became low or absent after 24 h of MFH treatment. It can be concluded that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} MFH significantly inhibited the proliferation of in vitro cultured liver cancer cells (SMMC-7721), induced cell apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} MFH can induce high Hsp70 expression at an early stage, enhance the expression of Bax, and decrease the expression of mutant p53, which promotes the apoptosis of tumor cells. (author)

  8. Current signal processing-based techniques\\ud for transformer protection

    OpenAIRE

    Etumi, Adel

    2016-01-01

    Transformer is an expensive device and one of the most important parts in a power\\ud system. Internal faults can cause a transformer to fail and thus, it is necessary for it\\ud to be protected from these faults. Protection doesn’t mean that it prevents damage to\\ud the protected transformer but it is to minimize the damage to the transformer as\\ud much as possible, which consequently minimizes the subsequent outage time and\\ud repair cost. Therefore, fast and reliable protection system should...

  9. Differential display technique of RNA from tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic variants of hamster cells transformed with avian sarcoma virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leksa, V.; Altaner, C.

    1997-01-01

    Differential display technique was applied to study expression of RNA in tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cell variants of avian sarcoma virus transformed hamster cells. Methodical conditions were worked out, which allowed identifying a cDNA fragment of an unknown gene expressed in non-tumorigenic cell variant only. Its role in tumor suppression remains to be determined. (author)

  10. A technique to study Meloidogyne arenaria resistance in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    A reliable peanut root transformation system would be useful to study the functions of genes involved in root biology and disease resistance. The objective of this study was to establish an effective protocol to produce composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation. More tha...

  11. Electromagnetic transient analysis and Novell protective relaying techniques for power transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, X; Tian, Q; Weng, H

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the technical challenges of transformer malfunction analysis as well as protection. One of the current research directions is the malfunction mechanism analysis due to nonlinearity of transformer core and comprehensive countermeasures on improving the performance of transformer differential protection. Here, the authors summarize their research outcomes and present a set of recent research advances in the electromagnetic transient analysis, the application on power transformer protections, and present a more systematic investigation and review in this field. This research area is still progressing, especially with the fast development of Smart Grid. This book is an important addition to the literature and will enhance significant advancement in research. It is a good reference book for researchers in power transformer protection research and a good text book for graduate and undergraduate students in electrical engineering.

  12. A Novel Three Phase to Seven Phase Conversion Technique Using Transformer Winding Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabrez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel multiphase transformer connection scheme which converts three phase balanced AC input to seven phase balanced AC output. Generalized theory to convert a three phase utility supply into any number of phases is presented. Based on the proposed generalized principle, a three phase to seven phase power converting transformer design is presented with connection scheme, analysis and simulation and experimental results of the proposed three phase to seven phase conversion transformer. The proposed transformer in this paper is analyzed and compared with the connection scheme for seven phase available in the literature. The connection scheme is found to have higher power density, lower core area and lower core requirement as compared to the available connection scheme of the same rating. Impedance mismatching between different phases of the transformer is observed in the three phase to seven phase transformer available in the literature. As this mismatching introduces error in study of per phase equivalent circuit diagrams as well as imbalance in voltage and currents. The present design also addresses the impedance mismatching issue and reduces mismatching in the proposed transformer design. A prototype of the proposed system is developed and waveforms are presented. The proposed design is verified using simulation and validated using experimental approach.

  13. Application of Reflectance Transformation Imaging Technique to Improve Automated Edge Detection in a Fossilized Oyster Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuricic, Ana; Puttonen, Eetu; Harzhauser, Mathias; Dorninger, Peter; Székely, Balázs; Mandic, Oleg; Nothegger, Clemens; Molnár, Gábor; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    The world's largest fossilized oyster reef is located in Stetten, Lower Austria excavated during field campaigns of the Natural History Museum Vienna between 2005 and 2008. It is studied in paleontology to learn about change in climate from past events. In order to support this study, a laser scanning and photogrammetric campaign was organized in 2014 for 3D documentation of the large and complex site. The 3D point clouds and high resolution images from this field campaign are visualized by photogrammetric methods in form of digital surface models (DSM, 1 mm resolution) and orthophoto (0.5 mm resolution) to help paleontological interpretation of data. Due to size of the reef, automated analysis techniques are needed to interpret all digital data obtained from the field. One of the key components in successful automation is detection of oyster shell edges. We have tested Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) to visualize the reef data sets for end-users through a cultural heritage viewing interface (RTIViewer). The implementation includes a Lambert shading method to visualize DSMs derived from terrestrial laser scanning using scientific software OPALS. In contrast to shaded RTI no devices consisting of a hardware system with LED lights, or a body to rotate the light source around the object are needed. The gray value for a given shaded pixel is related to the angle between light source and the normal at that position. Brighter values correspond to the slope surfaces facing the light source. Increasing of zenith angle results in internal shading all over the reef surface. In total, oyster reef surface contains 81 DSMs with 3 m x 2 m each. Their surface was illuminated by moving the virtual sun every 30 degrees (12 azimuth angles from 20-350) and every 20 degrees (4 zenith angles from 20-80). This technique provides paleontologists an interactive approach to virtually inspect the oyster reef, and to interpret the shell surface by changing the light source direction

  14. Evaluation of alias-less reconstruction by pseudo-parallel imaging in a phase-scrambling fourier transform technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Satoshi; Kawawa, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Yoshifumi

    2010-01-01

    We propose an image reconstruction technique in which parallel image reconstruction is performed based on the sensitivity encoding (SENSE) algorithm using only a single set of signals. The signal obtained in the phase-scrambling Fourier transform (PSFT) imaging technique can be transformed to the signal described by the Fresnel transform of the objects, which is known as the diffracted wave-front equation of the object in acoustics or optics. Since the Fresnel transform is a convolution integral on the object space, the space where the PSFT signal exists can be considered as both in the Fourier domain and in the object domain. This notable feature indicates that weighting functions corresponding to the sensitivity of radiofrequency (RF) coils can be approximately given in the PSFT signal space. Therefore, we can obtain two folded images from a single set of signals with different weighting functions, and image reconstruction based on the SENSE parallel imaging algorithm is possible using a series of folded images. Simulation and experimental studies showed that almost alias-free images can be synthesized using a single signal that does not satisfy the sampling theorem. (author)

  15. A TECHNIQUE OF IDENTIFICATION OF THE PHASE-DISPLACEMENT GROUP OF THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburjania, A.; Begiashvili, V.; Rezan Turan

    2007-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the arbitrary choice of arbitrarily pisitive direction of induced currents and voltages contradicts the energy conservation law and leads to equilibrium equations and standards making no sense from the physical standpoint. Of 12 recognized standard phase-displacement groups of three-phase transformer, only three have real physical bases. The rest are based on a wrong assumption about mutual biasing of primary and secondary currents. They does not rule out the occurrence of emergency situations and, thus, must be eliminated from use. A new method of identification of the phase-displacement of three-phase transformer is proposed. The method is based on well-known physical laws with consideration for the dual character of the inertia of mutual inductance and exhausts for all possible versions of connection of transformer windings. (author)

  16. Optical design and analysis of carbon dioxide laser fusion systems using interferometry and fast Fourier transform techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.

    1979-01-01

    The optical design and analysis of the LASL carbon dioxide laser fusion systems required the use of techniques that are quite different from the currently used method in conventional optical design problems. The necessity for this is explored and the method that has been successfully used at Los Alamos to understand these systems is discussed with examples. This method involves characterization of the various optical components in their mounts by a Zernike polynomial set and using fast Fourier transform techniques to propagate the beam, taking diffraction and other nonlinear effects that occur in these types of systems into account. The various programs used for analysis are briefly discussed

  17. A non-intrusive and continuous-in-space technique to investigate the wave transformation and breaking over a breakwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To design longshore breakwaters, the evaluation of the wave motion transformations over the structures and of the energy they are able to absorb, dissipate and reflect is necessary. To characterize features and transformations of monochromatic wave trains above a breakwater, both submerged and emerged, we have designed and developed a non-intrusive and continuous-in-space technique, based on Image Analysis, and carried out an experimental campaign, in a laboratory flume equipped with a wave-maker, in order to test it. The investigation area was lighted with a light sheet and images were recorded by a video-camera. The working fluid was seeded with non buoyant particles to make it bright and clearly distinct from dark background and breakwater. The technique, that is based on a robust algorithm to identify the free surface, has showed to properly work also in prohibitive situations for traditional resistive probes (e.g., very shallow waters and/or breaking waves and to be able to measure the free surface all over the investigation field in a non-intrusive way. Two kind of analysis were mainly performed, a statistical and a spectral one. The peculiarities of the measurement technique allowed to describe the whole wave transformation and to supply useful information for design purposes.

  18. A technique for increasing the accuracy of the numerical inversion of the Laplace transform with applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, B. S.; Duangudom, S.

    1973-01-01

    A technique is introduced which extends the range of useful approximation of numerical inversion techniques to many cycles of an oscillatory function without requiring either the evaluation of the image function for many values of s or the computation of higher-order terms. The technique consists in reducing a given initial value problem defined over some interval into a sequence of initial value problems defined over a set of subintervals. Several numerical examples demonstrate the utility of the method.

  19. Detection of delta-ferrite to sigma transformation using metallographic techniques involving ferromagnetic colloid, color etching, and microprobe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.J.; Sikka, V.K.; King, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanical properties of ferrite-containing austenitic stainless steel base metal and weldments are usually adversely affected by prolonged exposure to temperatures in the 482 to 900 0 C (900 to 1652 0 F) range. One cause of the property alteration is related to the transformation of relatively ductile delta-ferrite to less ductile sigma-phase. Attempts to identify sigma and delta-ferrite phases by color staining techniques alone are well documented; however, the results are often questionable due to the difficulty in maintaining consistent color identifications. This investigation is concerned with the microstructural responses of the ferromagnetic delta-ferrite phase and the paramagnetic sigma-phase to a ferromagnetic iron colloid in a magnetic field. Such positive or negative responses of the two phases to the colloid offer a more definitive identification. With this technique, the identification of small amounts of these phases in the microstructure is limited only by the highest magnification and resolution of the optical microscope. The procedure is substantiated in this metallographic study with microprobe analysis and color metallography. Several examples of the correlative use of these three techniques in identifying varying amounts of delta-ferrite → sigma transformation are presented

  20. Transformation techniques for metabolic engineering of diatoms and haptophytes: current state and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Natarajan; Deka, Deepi

    2018-05-01

    Diatoms and haptophytes represent a key segment of the dominant phytoplankton communities that frequently form massive blooms in the photic zone of the ocean and are considered indicators of global climate changes. Diatoms and haptophytes also play a vital role in the biological carbon fixation in the carbon cycles. Carbon partitioning within diatoms and haptophytes possesses a wide range of chemical compounds and storage materials, such as lipids, carbohydrates, and chlorophyll. Among the marine microorganisms, diatoms and haptophytes have been recognized as promising sources of long- and very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). So far, a variety of approaches have been employed for genetic modification in the nuclei of diatoms and haptophytes. Studies on transformation and metabolic engineering in various intracellular genomes, such as chloroplast and mitochondria, are scarce. Particle bombardment, Agrobacterium and PEG-mediated gene transfer, and electroporation have been reported for foreign gene transformation into the diatoms and haptophytes. Antibiotics (G418 and chloramphenicol) and herbicides (zeocin, hygromycin, and norflurazon) have been successfully demonstrated as the best selection markers. Despite the availability of a wide range of molecular tools for foreign gene expression in microalgae, very few promoters (lhcf1, nr, h4, ef2, fcp, and pds) have been reported for diatoms and haptophytes. Therefore, in this review, we first summarize the significant progress that has been achieved in transgene expression in diatoms and haptophytes and highlight the importance and availability of recently developed novel tools that are suitable for transgenic expression in diatoms and haptophytes.

  1. A combination between Laplace transformation technique and numerical approximations to the Fokker-Planck equation solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticelli, Cintia O.; Wortmann, Sergio; Segatto, Cynthia F.

    2005-01-01

    In this work is obtained a hybrid solution to the Fokker-Planck equation with energy dependency, very used in ion implantation problems. The main idea relies on the application of Laplace transform in the energy variable, and finite-difference in the spatial variable and in the angular variable. This procedure leads to a symbolic matrix problem for the transformed energy. To solve this system, is needed to do the Laplace inverse of the (sI+A) matrix, where s is a complex parameter, I is the identity matrix and A is a square matrix that was proceeded from the finite-difference in the spatial variable and in the angular variable. The matrix A is not defective, then is taken decomposition of A in a sum of two others matrices, where one is defective. It leads a iterative inversion method, similar the source fixed method combined with the diagonalization method, then is obtained the values to the angular flux. Hereafter we can to determine the energy deposited into the electronic system and in the nuclear system of the target. To comprove the results obtained, the simulation of implantation of B into Si at energies ranging from 1 KeV to 50 MeV was carried out and compared with the results by software SRIM2003. (author)

  2. Introduction to body composition assessment using the deuterium dilution technique with analysis of saliva samples by fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    For many years, the IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. The objective is to support national and regional nutrition projects through both the IAEA's technical cooperation programme and its coordinated research projects. In particular, during the last few years, the increased access to analyses of deuterium enrichment by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry has increased the application of this technique in Africa, Asia and Latin America. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical, hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where the analysis of deuterium enrichment in saliva samples will be made by FTIR. It is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical application of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in an IAEA publication entitled Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques (IAEA Human Health Series No. 3)

  3. Techniques for computing the discrete Fourier transform using the quadratic residue Fermat number systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, T. K.; Chang, J. J.; Hsu, I. S.; Pei, D. Y.; Reed, I. S.

    1986-01-01

    The complex integer multiplier and adder over the direct sum of two copies of finite field developed by Cozzens and Finkelstein (1985) is specialized to the direct sum of the rings of integers modulo Fermat numbers. Such multiplication over the rings of integers modulo Fermat numbers can be performed by means of two integer multiplications, whereas the complex integer multiplication requires three integer multiplications. Such multiplications and additions can be used in the implementation of a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of a sequence of complex numbers. The advantage of the present approach is that the number of multiplications needed to compute a systolic array of the DFT can be reduced substantially. The architectural designs using this approach are regular, simple, expandable and, therefore, naturally suitable for VLSI implementation.

  4. Space-mapping techniques applied to the optimization of a safety isolating transformer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.V. Tran; S. Brisset; D. Echeverria (David); D.J.P. Lahaye (Domenico); P. Brochet

    2007-01-01

    textabstractSpace-mapping optimization techniques allow to allign low-fidelity and high-fidelity models in order to reduce the computational time and increase the accuracy of the solution. The main idea is to build an approximate model from the difference of response between both models. Therefore

  5. Improvements in image quality with pseudo-parallel imaging in the phase-scrambling fourier transform technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Satoshi; Kawawa, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Yoshifumi

    2010-01-01

    The signal obtained in the phase-scrambling Fourier transform (PSFT) imaging technique can be transformed to the signal described by the Fresnel transform of the objects, in which the amplitude of the PSFT presents some kind of blurred image of the objects. Therefore, the signal can be considered to exist in the object domain as well as the Fourier domain of the object. This notable feature makes it possible to assign weights to the reconstructed images by applying a weighting function to the PSFT signal after data acquisition, and as a result, pseudo-parallel image reconstruction using these aliased image data with different weights on the images is feasible. In this study, the improvements in image quality with such pseudo-parallel imaging were examined and demonstrated. The weighting function of the PSFT signal that provides a given weight on the image is estimated using the obtained image data and is iteratively updated after sensitivity encoding (SENSE)-based image reconstruction. Simulation studies showed that reconstruction errors were dramatically reduced and that the spatial resolution was also improved in almost all image spaces. The proposed method was applied to signals synthesized from MR image data with phase variations to verify its effectiveness. It was found that the image quality was improved and that images almost entirely free of aliasing artifacts could be obtained. (author)

  6. A new multi-step technique with differential transform method for analytical solution of some nonlinear variable delay differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhammouda, Brahim; Vazquez-Leal, Hector

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an analytical solution of some nonlinear delay differential equations (DDEs) with variable delays. Such DDEs are difficult to treat numerically and cannot be solved by existing general purpose codes. A new method of steps combined with the differential transform method (DTM) is proposed as a powerful tool to solve these DDEs. This method reduces the DDEs to ordinary differential equations that are then solved by the DTM. Furthermore, we show that the solutions can be improved by Laplace-Padé resummation method. Two examples are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed technique. The main advantage of this technique is that it possesses a simple procedure based on a few straight forward steps and can be combined with any analytical method, other than the DTM, like the homotopy perturbation method.

  7. Transformation from student to occupational therapist: Using the Delphi technique to identify the threshold concepts of occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola-Richmond, Kelli M; Pépin, Geneviève; Larkin, Helen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and facilitating the transformation from occupational therapy student to practitioner is central to the development of competent and work-ready graduates. However, the pivotal concepts and capabilities that need to be taught and learnt in occupational therapy are not necessarily explicit. The threshold concepts theory of teaching and learning proposes that every discipline has a set of transformational concepts that students must acquire in order to progress. As students acquire the threshold concepts, they develop a transformed way of understanding content related to their course of study which contributes to their developing expertise. The aim of this study was to identify the threshold concepts of occupational therapy. The Delphi technique, a data collection method that aims to demonstrate consensus in relation to important questions, was used with three groups comprising final year occupational therapy students (n = 11), occupational therapy clinicians (n = 21) and academics teaching occupational therapy (n = 10) in Victoria, Australia. Participants reached consensus regarding 10 threshold concepts for the occupational therapy discipline. These are: understanding and applying the models and theories of occupational therapy; occupation; evidence-based practice; clinical reasoning; discipline specific skills and knowledge; practising in context; a client-centred approach; the occupational therapist role; reflective practice and; a holistic approach. The threshold concepts identified provide valuable information for the discipline. They can potentially inform the development of competencies for occupational therapy and provide guidance for teaching and learning activities to facilitate the transformation to competent practitioner. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  8. Fast Discrete Fourier Transform Computations Using the Reduced Adder Graph Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Dempster

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that the n-dimensional reduced adder graph (RAG-n technique is beneficial for many DSP applications such as for FIR and IIR filters, where multipliers can be grouped in multiplier blocks. This paper highlights the importance of DFT and FFT as DSP objects and also explores how the RAG-n technique can be applied to these algorithms. This RAG-n DFT will be shown to be of low complexity and possess an attractively regular VLSI data flow when implemented with the Rader DFT algorithm or the Bluestein chirp-z algorithm. ASIC synthesis data are provided and demonstrate the low complexity and high speed of the design when compared to other alternatives.

  9. Fast Discrete Fourier Transform Computations Using the Reduced Adder Graph Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dempster Andrew G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that the -dimensional reduced adder graph (RAG- technique is beneficial for many DSP applications such as for FIR and IIR filters, where multipliers can be grouped in multiplier blocks. This paper highlights the importance of DFT and FFT as DSP objects and also explores how the RAG- technique can be applied to these algorithms. This RAG- DFT will be shown to be of low complexity and possess an attractively regular VLSI data flow when implemented with the Rader DFT algorithm or the Bluestein chirp- algorithm. ASIC synthesis data are provided and demonstrate the low complexity and high speed of the design when compared to other alternatives.

  10. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy with Chemometric Techniques for the Classification of Ballpoint Pen Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naeim Mohamad Asri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available FTIR spectroscopic techniques have been shown to possess good abilities to analyse ballpoint pen inks. These in-situ techniques involve directing light onto ballpoint ink samples to generate an FTIR spectrum, providing “molecular fingerprints” of the ink samples thus allowing comparison by direct visual comparison. In this study, ink from blue (n=15 and red (n=15 ballpoint pens of five different brands: Kilometrico®, G-Soft®, Stabilo®, Pilot® and Faber Castell® was analysed using the FTIR technique with the objective of establishing a distinctive differentiation according to the brand. The resulting spectra were first compared and grouped manually. Due to the similarities in terms of colour and shade of the inks, distinctive differentiation could not be achieved by means of direct visual comparison. However, when the same spectral data was analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA software, distinctive grouping of the ballpoint pen inks was achieved. Our results demonstrate that PCA can be used objectively to investigate ballpoint pen inks of similar colour and more importantly of different brands.

  11. Partial discharge localization in power transformers based on the sequential quadratic programming-genetic algorithm adopting acoustic emission techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Long; Liu, Hua-Dong

    2014-10-01

    Partial discharge (PD) in power transformers is one of the prime reasons resulting in insulation degradation and power faults. Hence, it is of great importance to study the techniques of the detection and localization of PD in theory and practice. The detection and localization of PD employing acoustic emission (AE) techniques, as a kind of non-destructive testing, plus due to the advantages of powerful capability of locating and high precision, have been paid more and more attention. The localization algorithm is the key factor to decide the localization accuracy in AE localization of PD. Many kinds of localization algorithms exist for the PD source localization adopting AE techniques including intelligent and non-intelligent algorithms. However, the existed algorithms possess some defects such as the premature convergence phenomenon, poor local optimization ability and unsuitability for the field applications. To overcome the poor local optimization ability and easily caused premature convergence phenomenon of the fundamental genetic algorithm (GA), a new kind of improved GA is proposed, namely the sequence quadratic programming-genetic algorithm (SQP-GA). For the hybrid optimization algorithm, SQP-GA, the sequence quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm which is used as a basic operator is integrated into the fundamental GA, so the local searching ability of the fundamental GA is improved effectively and the premature convergence phenomenon is overcome. Experimental results of the numerical simulations of benchmark functions show that the hybrid optimization algorithm, SQP-GA, is better than the fundamental GA in the convergence speed and optimization precision, and the proposed algorithm in this paper has outstanding optimization effect. At the same time, the presented SQP-GA in the paper is applied to solve the ultrasonic localization problem of PD in transformers, then the ultrasonic localization method of PD in transformers based on the SQP-GA is proposed. And

  12. Learning-based computing techniques in geoid modeling for precise height transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, B.; Erol, S.

    2013-03-01

    Precise determination of local geoid is of particular importance for establishing height control in geodetic GNSS applications, since the classical leveling technique is too laborious. A geoid model can be accurately obtained employing properly distributed benchmarks having GNSS and leveling observations using an appropriate computing algorithm. Besides the classical multivariable polynomial regression equations (MPRE), this study attempts an evaluation of learning based computing algorithms: artificial neural networks (ANNs), adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and especially the wavelet neural networks (WNNs) approach in geoid surface approximation. These algorithms were developed parallel to advances in computer technologies and recently have been used for solving complex nonlinear problems of many applications. However, they are rather new in dealing with precise modeling problem of the Earth gravity field. In the scope of the study, these methods were applied to Istanbul GPS Triangulation Network data. The performances of the methods were assessed considering the validation results of the geoid models at the observation points. In conclusion the ANFIS and WNN revealed higher prediction accuracies compared to ANN and MPRE methods. Beside the prediction capabilities, these methods were also compared and discussed from the practical point of view in conclusions.

  13. Partial Fingerprint Image Enhancement using Region Division Technique and Morphological Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.; Arshad, I.; Raja, G.

    2015-01-01

    Fingerprints are the most renowned biometric trait for identification and verification. The quality of fingerprint image plays a vital role in feature extraction and matching. Existing algorithms work well for good quality fingerprint images and fail for partial fingerprint images as they are obtained from excessively dry fingers or affected by disease resulting in broken ridges. We propose an algorithm to enhance partial fingerprint images using morphological operatins with region division technique. The proposed method divides low quality image into six regions from top to bottom. Morphological operations choose an appropriate Structuring Element (SE) that joins broken ridges and thus enhance the image for further processing. The proposed method uses SE line with suitable angle theta and radius r in each region based on the orientation of the ridges. The algorithm is applied to 14 low quality fingerprint images from FVC-2002 database. Experimental results show that percentage accuracy has been improved using the proposed algorithm. The manual markup has been reduced and accuracy of 76.16% with Equal Error Rate (EER) of 3.16% is achieved. (author)

  14. Study of phase transformations of Fe-Cr-C system using the technique of differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facal, L.S.; Noreña, H. C.; Bruzzoni, P.

    2013-01-01

    The family of 9% Cr-1% Mo steels has been considered by The Generation IV International Forum as candidate materials for the construction of these prospective advanced nuclear reactors. A simple system related with these steels is the Fe-Cr-C system. In this work, a laboratory made Fe-10% Cr-0,1% C alloy has been studied. Particularly, the effect of the cooling rate on the transformations that take place when the alloy is cooled from the austenitic field was analyzed. To perform this analysis two techniques have been used: The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Different cooling rates of 4, 10, 50 and 90 °C/min were tested in the DSC and the resulting microstructures were observed by SEM. At the rates of 50 and 90 °C/min the cooling treatment produced a martensitic structure. Contrarily, cooling at a rate of 4 °C/min produced a microstructure consisting mainly of ferrite-pearlite with a low fraction of martensite. In the heating step which followed the cooling step, the magnetic transformation is well resolved as a broad peak which presents a maximum at 753 ± 1 °C for all the cooling rates. (author) [es

  15. Study of the gamma radiation effect on lincomycin by two techniques thermal analysis and fourier transform infrared (FTIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zier, A.; Al-Kassiri, H.; Al Aji, Z.

    1999-02-01

    Sample of Lincomycin were irradiated by means of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at dose rate ca. (408 kGy/h) in the range (3, 5, 15, 20)kGy in presence of air. Samples were investigated using two techniques: Thermal analysis (Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry (TG)) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). DSC purity study, which depends on Vant Hof equation, showed that the purity of Lincomycin reduced by means of gamma radiation. The purity of theses samples decreased by increasing the dose, and the purity of lincomycin was still above (99%) at dose (10 kGy). To follow up this effects, (FTIR) spectrums of these sample were recorded before and after irradiation. The two peaks at (1500 - 1750 Cm -1 ) which belong to amide group, and the peak at (1050 - 1100 Cm -1 ) which belongs to the S-C groups have reduced. (author)

  16. Study of the gamma radiation effect on the lincomycin by two techniques thermal analysis and fourier transform infrared (FTIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zier, A.; Al-Kassiri, H.

    1999-01-01

    Sample of Lincomycin were irradiated by means of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at dose rate ca. (408 kGy/h) in the range (3, 5, 15, 20)kGy in presence of air. Samples were investigated using two techniques: Thermal analysis (Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry (TG)) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). DSC purity study, which depends on Vant Hof equation, showed that the purity of Lincomycin reduced by means of gamma radiation. The purity of theses samples decreased by increasing the dose, and the purity of lincomycin was still above (99%) at dose (10 kGy). To follow up this effects, (FTIR) spectrums of these sample were recorded before and after irradiation. The two peaks at (1500 - 1750 Cm -1 ) which belong to amide group, and the peak at (1050 - 1100 Cm -1 ) which belongs to the S-C groups have reduced. (author)

  17. Chlorococcalean microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutes biodiesel characterization with Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati SONAWANE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chlorococcalean microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutes was found in fresh water Godawari reservoir, Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra State, India. Microalgae are modern biomass for the production of liquid biofuel due to its high solar cultivation efficiency. The collection, harvesting and drying processes were play vital role in converting algal biomass into energy liquid fuel. The oil extraction was the important step for the biodiesel synthesis. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME synthesis was carried through base catalyzed transesterification method. The product was analyzed by using the hyphened techniques like Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS. FT-IR Spectroscopy was results the ester as functional group of obtained product while the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy was results the six type of fatty acid methyl ester with different concentration. Ankistrodesmus convolutes biodiesel consist of 46.5% saturated and 49.14% unsaturated FAME.

  18. Acoustic emission technique for characterisation of deformation, fatigue, fracture and phase transformation and for leak detection with high sensitivity- our experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, T.; Mukhopadhyay, C.K.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    Acoustic emission technique has been used for studying tensile deformation, fracture behaviour, detection and assessment of fatigue crack growth and α-martensite phase transformation in austenitic alloys. A methodology for amplification of weak acoustic emission signals has been established. Acoustic emission technique with advanced spectral analysis has enabled detection with high sensitivity of minute leaks in noisy environments. (author)

  19. Considerations Regarding the Opportunity of Using Psychological Techniques to Stimulate Solutions Characterized by Novelty and Inventive Step in TISR Transformers and Electric Motors with Shorted Moving Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgescu Daniel Ștefan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the appreciations and contributions regarding the use of psychological techniques to stimulate technical creativity with special reference to consonant association technique and inversion technique. The study is performed in the field of TISR transformers and electric motors with limited movement, starting from the analogy between a transformer and an electric motor with shorted coil. It approached a particular aspect of inversion technique in relation with the transformation of negative effects and results of laws, phenomena and processes into useful applications. The matter reffered to is related to the question: ,,why disadvantages and no advantages ?". At the end of the paper are presented and discussed some experimental models produced and studied by the authors in the Research Laboratory of Machines, Equipment and Drives at the University of Suceava and are exposed conclusions drawn from the experimental study and directions for future research.

  20. Application of the windowed-Fourier-transform-based fringe analysis technique for investigating temperature and concentration fields in fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanan, Sharika; Srivastava, Atul

    2014-04-10

    The present work is concerned with the development and application of a novel fringe analysis technique based on the principles of the windowed-Fourier-transform (WFT) for the determination of temperature and concentration fields from interferometric images for a range of heat and mass transfer applications. Based on the extent of the noise level associated with the experimental data, the technique has been coupled with two different phase unwrapping methods: the Itoh algorithm and the quality guided phase unwrapping technique for phase extraction. In order to generate the experimental data, a range of experiments have been carried out which include cooling of a vertical flat plate in free convection conditions, combustion of mono-propellant flames, and growth of organic as well as inorganic crystals from their aqueous solutions. The flat plate and combustion experiments are modeled as heat transfer applications wherein the interest is to determine the whole-field temperature distribution. Aqueous-solution-based crystal growth experiments are performed to simulate the mass transfer phenomena and the interest is to determine the two-dimensional solute concentration field around the growing crystal. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been employed to record the path-integrated quantity of interest (temperature and/or concentration) in the form of interferometric images in the experiments. The potential of the WFT method has also been demonstrated on numerically simulated phase data for varying noise levels, and the accuracy in phase extraction have been quantified in terms of the root mean square errors. Three levels of noise, i.e., 0%, 10%, and 20% have been considered. Results of the present study show that the WFT technique allows an accurate extraction of phase values that can subsequently be converted into two-dimensional temperature and/or concentration distribution fields. Moreover, since WFT is a local processing technique, speckle patterns and the inherent

  1. New techniques of transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, E.

    1985-01-01

    Among new processes for the fabrication of composite materials with an organic matrix the reinforced reaction injection molding is briefly evoked but polymerization under radiation and thermoplastic matrix composites reinforced with continuous fibers should know an industrial development. Radiation polymerization by microwaves, by gamma sources and particularly by electron beams should increase fabrication rate. Chemical effects of radiations, application to polymerization advantages and prospects are examined [fr

  2. Electrical transformer handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Horne, D. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    This handbook is a valuable user guide intended for electrical engineering and maintenance personnel, electrical contractors and electrical engineering students. It provides current information on techniques and technologies that can help extend the life of transformers. It discusses transformer testing, monitoring, design, commissioning, retrofitting and other elements involved in keeping electrical transformers in safe and efficient operation. It demonstrates how a power transformer can be put to use and common problems faced by owners. In addition to covering control techniques, testing and maintenance procedures, this handbook covers the power transformer; control electrical power transformer; electrical power transformer; electrical theory transformer; used electrical transformer; down electrical step transformer; electrical manufacturer transformer; electrical picture transformer; electrical transformer work; electrical surplus transformer; current transformer; step down transformer; voltage transformer; step up transformer; isolation transformer; low voltage transformer; toroidal transformer; high voltage transformer; and control power transformer. The handbook includes articles from leading experts on overcurrent protection of transformers; ventilated dry-type transformers; metered load factors for low-voltage, and dry-type transformers in buildings. The maintenance of both dry-type or oil-filled transformers was discussed with reference to sealing, gaskets, oils, moisture and testing. The adoption of dynamic load practices was also discussed along with the reclamation or recycling of used lube oil, transformer dielectric fluids and aged solid insulation. A buyer's guide and directory of transformer manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Improvement of Breast Cancer Detection Using Non-subsampled Contourlet Transform and Super-Resolution Technique in Mammographic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Pak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Breast cancer is one of the most life-threatening conditions among women. Early detection of this disease is the only way to reduce the associated mortality rate. Mammography is a standard method for the early detection of breast cancer. Today, considering the importance of breast cancer detection, computer-aided detection techniques have been employed to increase the quality of mammographic images and help physicians reduce false positive rate (FPR. Materials and Methods In this study, a method was proposed for improving the quality of mammographic images to help radiologists establish a prompt and accurate diagnosis. The proposed approach included three major parts including pre-processing, feature extraction, and classification. In the pre-processing stage, the region of interest was determined and the image quality was improved by non-subsampled contourlet transform and super-resolution algorithm. In the feature extraction stage, some features of image components were extracted and skewness of each feature was calculated. Finally, a support vector machine was utilized to classify the features and determine the probability of benignity or malignancy of the disease. Results Based on the obtained results using Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS database, the mean accuracy was estimated at 87.26% and maximum accuracy was 96.29%. Also, the mean and minimum FPRs were estimated at 9.55% and 2.87%, respectively.     Conclusion The results obtained using MIAS database indicated the superiority of the proposed method to other techniques. The reduced FPR in the proposed method was a significant finding in the present article.

  4. [Community diagnosis using qualitative techniques of expectations and experiences in a health area in need of social transformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Ruiz, Juan Andrés; Pérez Milena, Alejandro; Enguix Martínez, Natalia; Alvarez Nieto, Carmen; Martínez Fernández, M Luz

    2013-01-01

    To know the views, experiences and expectations of care provided by the Andalusian Public Health System (SSPA) of users of an urban area in need of social transformation (ZNTS). Qualitative methodology (exploratory study). Urban basic health zone (16,000 inhabitants, 40% ZNTS). Purposive sampling of users of SSPA and community leaders. Homogeneity criteria: age. Heterogeneity criteria: sex, frequency, active/pensioner, level cultural/economic. Conversational techniques recorded by videotape and moderated by a sociologist (user dicussion groups and in-depth interviews for community leaders). transcription of speeches, coding, categories triangulation and final outcome. Seven groups (43 participants, 58% ZNTS) and 6 leaders. They want continuity of care and choice of professionals, but not the medical change without information and attention's discontinuity primary care/hospital. There's bad physical accesibility by the urban environment in the ZNTS and is criticized admission services and paperwork; the programmed appointment and the electronic prescriptions are improvements but asking more hospital referrals and reviews. There's good appreciation of the professionals (primary care-closer, hospital-greater technical capacity). It needs to improve nursing education and speed of emergency assistance. There's a lack of leadership in the system organization, very fragmented. They know a range of services focusing on the demand for care; other health activities not spread to the users. The SSPA should incorporate the views and expectations of communities in social risk to a real improvement in the quality of care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring Temperature-Dependent Propagating Disturbances in Coronal Fan Loops Using Multiple SDO-AIA Channels and Surfing Transform Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritskiy, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.; Viall, Nicholeen M.; Ofman, Leon

    2013-01-01

    A set of co-aligned high resolution images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is used to investigate propagating disturbances (PDs) in warm fan loops at the periphery of a non-flaring active region NOAA AR 11082. To measure PD speeds at multiple coronal temperatures, a new data analysis methodology is proposed enabling quantitative description of sub visual coronal motions with low signal-to-noise ratios of the order of 0.1. The technique operates with a set of one-dimensional surfing signals extracted from position-timeplots of several AIA channels through a modified version of Radon transform. The signals are used to evaluate a two-dimensional power spectral density distribution in the frequency - velocity space which exhibits a resonance in the presence of quasi-periodic PDs. By applying this analysis to the same fan loop structures observed in several AIA channels, we found that the traveling velocity of PDs increases with the temperature of the coronal plasma following the square root dependence predicted for the slow mode magneto-acoustic wave which seems to be the dominating wave mode in the studied loop structures. This result extends recent observations by Kiddie et al. (2012) to a more general class of fan loop systems not associated with sunspots and demonstrating consistent slow mode activity in up to four AIA channels.

  6. Analytical solution of the multigroup neutron diffusion kinetic equation in one-dimensional cartesian geometry by the integral transform technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceolin, Celina

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain an analytical solution of the neutron diffusion kinetic equation in one-dimensional cartesian geometry, to monoenergetic and multigroup problems. These equations are of the type stiff, due to large differences in the orders of magnitude of the time scales of the physical phenomena involved, which make them difficult to solve. The basic idea of the proposed method is applying the spectral expansion in the scalar flux and in the precursor concentration, taking moments and solving the resulting matrix problem by the Laplace transform technique. Bearing in mind that the equation for the precursor concentration is a first order linear differential equation in the time variable, to enable the application of the spectral method we introduce a fictitious diffusion term multiplied by a positive value which tends to zero. This procedure opened the possibility to find an analytical solution to the problem studied. We report numerical simulations and analysis of the results obtained with the precision controlled by the truncation order of the series. (author)

  7. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique for determining multi-element composition of transformed hairy root cultures of Boerhaavia diffusa L. An important medicinal herb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopamudra Sahu; Chand, P.K.; Ray, D.K.; Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutically important inorganic elements in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated genetically transformed hairy root cultures (HRCs) of a pharmaceutically significant herb Boerhaavia diffusa were quantified using proton induced X-ray emission technique. This was compared with that of roots from the naturally grown donor plant. Two macro-elements (Ca and K) and eight different trace elements namely V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu Zn, and Ni were detected and their content was determined. In HRCs of a transformed rhizoclone, calcium and potassium had values which were significantly higher than that of in vivo roots. The concentrations of several trace elements, which are known to have a positive implication in human healthcare, were found to be either comparable (Fe) to that in the natural root samples or higher (Mn, Zn, Cr, Cu, Co) in the transformed rhizoclone. The genetically transformed HRCs can thus serve as a fast-proliferating renewable resource of medicinally useful minerals targeting specific diseases. (author)

  8. Use of time history speckle pattern and pulsed photoacoustic techniques to detect the self-accommodating transformation in a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Arevalo, F.M.; Aldama-Reyna, W.; Lara-Rodriguez, A.G.; Garcia-Fernandez, T.; Pulos, G.; Trivi, M.; Villagran-Muniz, M.

    2010-01-01

    Continuous and pulsed electromagnetic radiation was used to detect the self-accommodation mechanism on a polycrystalline Cu-13.83 wt.%Al-2.34 wt.%Ni shape memory alloy. Rectangular samples of this alloy were mechanically polished to observe the austenite and martensite phases. The samples were cooled in liquid nitrogen prior to the experiments to obtain the martensite phase. Using a dynamic speckle technique with a continuous wave laser we obtained the time history of the speckle pattern image and monitored the surface changes caused by the self-accommodation mechanism during the inverse (martensitic to austenitic) transformation. Using a photoacoustic technique based on a pulsed laser source it was also possible to detect the self-accommodation phenomena in a bulk sample. For comparison purposes, we used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to detect the critical temperatures of transformation and use these as reference to evaluate the performance of the optical and photoacoustical techniques. In all cases, the same range of temperature was obtained during the inverse transformation. From these results, we conclude that time history speckle pattern (THSP) and pulsed photoacoustic are complementary techniques; they are non-destructive and useful to detect surface and bulk martensitic transformation induced by a temperature change.

  9. Use of time history speckle pattern and pulsed photoacoustic techniques to detect the self-accommodating transformation in a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Arevalo, F.M., E-mail: fsanchez@iim.unam.mx [CCADET - Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-186, Mexico D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Aldama-Reyna, W. [Departamento Academico de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Trujillo (Peru); Lara-Rodriguez, A.G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia-Fernandez, T. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM), Prolongacion San Isidro 151, Col. San Lorenzo Tezonco, Mexico DF, C.P. 09790 (Mexico); Pulos, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Trivi, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas, Universidad de la Plata (Argentina); Villagran-Muniz, M. [CCADET - Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-186, Mexico D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2010-05-15

    Continuous and pulsed electromagnetic radiation was used to detect the self-accommodation mechanism on a polycrystalline Cu-13.83 wt.%Al-2.34 wt.%Ni shape memory alloy. Rectangular samples of this alloy were mechanically polished to observe the austenite and martensite phases. The samples were cooled in liquid nitrogen prior to the experiments to obtain the martensite phase. Using a dynamic speckle technique with a continuous wave laser we obtained the time history of the speckle pattern image and monitored the surface changes caused by the self-accommodation mechanism during the inverse (martensitic to austenitic) transformation. Using a photoacoustic technique based on a pulsed laser source it was also possible to detect the self-accommodation phenomena in a bulk sample. For comparison purposes, we used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to detect the critical temperatures of transformation and use these as reference to evaluate the performance of the optical and photoacoustical techniques. In all cases, the same range of temperature was obtained during the inverse transformation. From these results, we conclude that time history speckle pattern (THSP) and pulsed photoacoustic are complementary techniques; they are non-destructive and useful to detect surface and bulk martensitic transformation induced by a temperature change.

  10. MCLR-induced PP2A inhibition and subsequent Rac1 inactivation and hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeleton-associated proteins are involved in cytoskeleton rearrangement in SMMC-7721 human liver cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Jinghui; Lin, Shuyan; Wang, Beilei; Xing, Mingluan; Guo, Zonglou; Xu, Lihong

    2014-10-01

    Cyanobacteria-derived toxin microcystin-LR (MCLR) has been widely investigated in its effects on normal cells, there is little information concerning its effects on cancer cells. In the present study, the SMMC-7721 human liver cancer cell line treated with MCLR was used to investigate the change of PP2A, cytoskeleton rearrangement, phosphorylation levels of PP2A substrates that related with cytoskeleton stability and explored underlying mechanisms. Here, we confirmed that MCLR entered into SMMC-7721 cells, bound to PP2A/C subunit and inhibited the activity of PP2A. The upregulation of phosphorylation of the PP2A/C subunit and PP2A regulation protein α4, as well as the change in the association of PP2A/C with α4, were responsible for the decrease in PP2A activity. Another novel finding is that the rearrangement of filamentous actin and microtubules led by MCLR may attribute to the increased phosphorylation of HSP27, VASP and cofilin due to PP2A inhibition. As a result of weakened interactions with PP2A and alterations in its subcellular localization, Rac1 may contribute to the cytoskeletal rearrangement induced by MCLR in SMMC-7721 cells. The current paper presents the first report demonstrating the characteristic of PP2A in MCLR exposed cancer cells, which were more susceptible to MCLR compared with the normal cell lines we previously found, which may be owing to the absence of some type of compensatory mechanisms. The hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeleton-associated proteins and Rac1 inactivation which were induced by inhibition of PP2A are shown to be involved in cytoskeleton rearrangement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Generating a Square Switching Window for Timing Jitter Tolerant 160 Gb/s Demultiplexing by the Optical Fourier Transform Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Clausen, A. T:

    2006-01-01

    A square spectrum is optically Fourier transformed into a square pulse in the time domain. This is used to demultiplex a 160 Gb/s data signal with a significant increase in jitter tolerance to 2.6 ps.......A square spectrum is optically Fourier transformed into a square pulse in the time domain. This is used to demultiplex a 160 Gb/s data signal with a significant increase in jitter tolerance to 2.6 ps....

  12. Robust volume assessment of brain tissues for 3-dimensional fourier transformation MRI via a novel multispectral technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Wen Chai

    Full Text Available A new TRIO algorithm method integrating three different algorithms is proposed to perform brain MRI segmentation in the native coordinate space, with no need of transformation to a standard coordinate space or the probability maps for segmentation. The method is a simple voxel-based algorithm, derived from multispectral remote sensing techniques, and only requires minimal operator input to depict GM, WM, and CSF tissue clusters to complete classification of a 3D high-resolution multislice-multispectral MRI data. Results showed very high accuracy and reproducibility in classification of GM, WM, and CSF in multislice-multispectral synthetic MRI data. The similarity indexes, expressing overlap between classification results and the ground truth, were 0.951, 0.962, and 0.956 for GM, WM, and CSF classifications in the image data with 3% noise level and 0% non-uniformity intensity. The method particularly allows for classification of CSF with 0.994, 0.961 and 0.996 of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in images data with 3% noise level and 0% non-uniformity intensity, which had seldom performed well in previous studies. As for clinical MRI data, the quantitative data of brain tissue volumes aligned closely with the brain morphometrics in three different study groups of young adults, elderly volunteers, and dementia patients. The results also showed very low rates of the intra- and extra-operator variability in measurements of the absolute volumes and volume fractions of cerebral GM, WM, and CSF in three different study groups. The mean coefficients of variation of GM, WM, and CSF volume measurements were in the range of 0.03% to 0.30% of intra-operator measurements and 0.06% to 0.45% of inter-operator measurements. In conclusion, the TRIO algorithm exhibits a remarkable ability in robust classification of multislice-multispectral brain MR images, which would be potentially applicable for clinical brain volumetric analysis and explicitly promising

  13. Laplace Transforms without Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Calculating Laplace transforms from the definition often requires tedious integrations. This paper provides an integration-free technique for calculating Laplace transforms of many familiar functions. It also shows how the technique can be applied to probability theory.

  14. A numerical method for the solution of three-dimensional incompressible viscous flow using the boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate transformation and domain decomposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umegaki, Kikuo; Miki, Kazuyoshi

    1990-01-01

    A numerical method is developed to solve three-dimensional incompressible viscous flow in complicated geometry using curvilinear coordinate transformation and domain decomposition technique. In this approach, a complicated flow domain is decomposed into several subdomains, each of which has an overlapping region with neighboring subdomains. Curvilinear coordinates are numerically generated in each subdomain using the boundary-fitted coordinate transformation technique. The modified SMAC scheme is developed to solve Navier-Stokes equations in which the convective terms are discretized by the QUICK method. A fully vectorized computer program is developed on the basis of the proposed method. The program is applied to flow analysis in a semicircular curved, 90deg elbow and T-shape branched pipes. Computational time with the vector processor of the HITAC S-810/20 supercomputer system, is reduced to 1/10∼1/20 of that with a scalar processor. (author)

  15. Strčess-induced martensitic transformation in Cu-Al-Zn-Mn polycrystal investigated by two in -situ neutron diffraction techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šittner, Petr; Lukáš, Petr; Neov, Dimitar; Daymond, M. R.; Novák, Václav; Swallowe, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 324, - (2002), s. 225-234 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 186; GA ČR GV202/97/K038; GA AV ČR IAA1010909 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : Stress-induced martensitic transformation * Cu-Al-Zn-Mn polycrystal * neutron diffraction technique Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.107, year: 2002

  16. A Hybrid Technique for De-Noising Multi-Modality Medical Images by Employing Cuckoo’s Search with Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Javaid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available De-noising of the medical images is very difficult task. To improve the overall visual representation we need to apply a contrast enhancement techniques, this representation provide the physicians and clinicians a good and recovered diagnosis results. Various de-noising and contrast enhancements methods are develops. However, some of the methods are not good in providing the better results with accuracy and efficiency. In our paper we de-noise and enhance the medical images without any loss of information. We uses the curvelet transform in combination with ridglet transform along with CS (Cuckoo Search algorithm. The curvlet transform adapt and represents the sparse pixel informations with all edges. The edges play very important role in understanding of the images. Curvlet transform computes the edges very efficiently where the wavelets are failed. We used the CS to optimize the de-noising coefficients without loss of structural and morphological information. Our designed method would be accurate and efficient in de-noising the medical images. Our method attempts to remove the multiplicative and additive noises. Our proposed method is proved to be an efficient and reliable in removing all kind of noises from the medical images. Result indicates that our proposed approach is better than other approaches in removing impulse, Gaussian, and speckle noises.

  17. Shear transformation zone activation during deformation in bulk metallic glasses characterized using a new indentation creep technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. Puthoff; H.B. Cao; Joseph E. Jakes; P.M. Voyles; D.S. Stone

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a novel type of nanoindentation creep experiment, called broadband nanoindentation creep (BNC), and used it to characterize the thermal activation of shear transformation zones (STZs) in three BMGs in the Zr-Cu-Al system. Using BNC, material hardness can be determined across a wide range of strain rates (10–4 to 10 s–...

  18. Classification Technique for Ultrasonic Weld Inspection Signals using a Neural Network based on 2-dimensional fourier Transform and Principle Component Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Joon

    2004-01-01

    Neural network-based signal classification systems are increasingly used in the analysis of large volumes of data obtained in NDE applications. Ultrasonic inspection methods on the other hand are commonly used in the nondestructive evaluation of welds to detect flaws. An important characteristic of ultrasonic inspection is the ability to identify the type of discontinuity that gives rise to a peculiar signal. Standard techniques rely on differences in individual A-scans to classify the signals. This paper proposes an ultrasonic signal classification technique based on the information tying in the neighboring signals. The approach is based on a 2-dimensional Fourier transform and the principal component analysis to generate a reduced dimensional feature vector for classification. Results of applying the technique to data obtained from the inspection of actual steel welds are presented

  19. Reduced timing Sensitivity in all-optical switching using flat-top control pulses obtained by the optical fourier transform technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2006-01-01

    into the time domain, referred to as the optical Fourier transform technique. A 3 ps flat-top pulse derived from a 3 nm wide square filter is obtained, and used to gate an all-optical OTDM demultiplexer, yielding an error-free timing jitter tolerance of 3 ps for 80 Gb/s and 160 Gb/s data signals.......For high-speed serial data, timing tolerance is crucial for switching and regeneration. We propose a novel scheme to generate flat-top pulses, for use as gating control pulses. The scheme relies on spectral shaping by a square-shaped filter, followed by a linear transformation of the spectral shape...

  20. The shape modulation of osteoblast-osteocyte transformation and its correlation with the fibrillar organization in secondary osteons: a SEM study employing the graded osmic maceration technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E; Congiu, Terenzio; Marchese, Marcella; Dell'Orbo, Carlo

    2010-06-01

    Cortex fractured surface and graded osmic maceration techniques were used to study the secretory activity of osteoblasts, the transformation of osteoblast to osteocytes, and the structural organization of the matrix around the cells with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A specialized membrane differentiation at the base of the cell was observed with finger-like, flattened processes which formed a diffuse meshwork. These findings suggested that this membrane differentiation below the cells had not only functioned in transporting collagen through the membrane but also in orienting the fibrils once assembled. Thin ramifications arose from the large and flat membrane foldings oriented perpendicular to the plane of the osteoblasts. This meshwork of fine filaments could not be visualized with SEM because they were obscured within the matrix substance. Their 3-D structure, however, should be similar to the canalicular system. The meshwork of large, flattened processes was no more evident in the cells which had completed their transformation into osteocytes.

  1. Iterative normalization technique for reference sequence generation for zero-tail discrete fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for generating sequences for zero-tail discrete fourier transform (DFT)-spread-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) (ZT DFT-s-OFDM) reference signals. One method includes adding a zero vector to an input sequence...... of each of the elements, converting the sequence to time domain, generating a zero-padded sequence by forcing a zero head and tail of the sequence, and repeating the steps until a final sequence with zero-tail and flat frequency response is obtained....

  2. A Fast Hartley Transform based novel optical OFDM system for VLC indoor application with constant envelope PAPR reduction technique using frequency modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinay Kumar; Dalal, U. D.

    2017-10-01

    In this research literature we present a unique optical OFDM system for Visible Light Communication (VLC) intended for indoor application which uses a non conventional transform-Fast Hartley Transform and an effective method to reduce the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of the OFDM signal based on frequency modulation leading to a constant envelope (CE) signal. The proposed system is analyzed by a complete mathematical model and verified by the concurrent simulations results. The use of the non conventional transform makes the system computationally more desirable as it does not require the Hermitian symmetry constraint to yield real signals. The frequency modulation of the baseband signal converge random peaks into a CE signal. This leads to alleviation of the non linearity effects of the LED used in the link for electrical to optical conversion. The PAPR is reduced to 2 dB by this technique in this work. The impact of the modulation index on the performance of the system is also investigated. An optimum modulation depth of 30% gives better results. The additional phase discontinuity incurring on the demodulated signal at the receiver is also significantly reduced. A comparison of the improvement in phase discontinuity of the proposed technique of combating the PAPR with the previously known phase modulation technique is also presented in this work. Based on the channel metrics we evaluate the system performance and report an improvement of 1.2 dB at the FEC threshold. The proposed system is simple in design and computationally efficient and this can be incorporated into the present VLC system without much alteration thereby making it a cost effective solution.

  3. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Saliva Samples by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    For many years, the IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. The objective is to support national and regional nutrition projects through both the IAEA's technical cooperation programme and its coordinated research projects. In particular, during the last few years, the increased access to analyses of deuterium enrichment by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry has increased the application of this technique in Africa, Asia and Latin America. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical, hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where the analysis of deuterium enrichment in saliva samples will be made by FTIR. It is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical application of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in an IAEA publication entitled Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques (IAEA Human Health Series No. 3)

  4. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Saliva Samples by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    For many years, the IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. The objective is to support national and regional nutrition projects through both the IAEA's technical cooperation programme and its coordinated research projects. In particular, during the last few years, the increased access to analyses of deuterium enrichment by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry has increased the application of this technique in Africa, Asia and Latin America. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical, hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where the analysis of deuterium enrichment in saliva samples will be made by FTIR. It is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical application of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in an IAEA publication entitled Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques (IAEA Human Health Series No. 3)

  5. Deconvolution of Doppler-broadened positron annihilation lineshapes by fast Fourier transformation using a simple automatic filtering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, D.T.; Bentvelsen, P.; Vries, J. de; Veen, A. van

    1988-01-01

    A deconvolution scheme for digital lineshapes using fast Fourier transforms and a filter based on background subtraction in Fourier space has been developed. In tests on synthetic data this has been shown to give optimum deconvolution without prior inspection of the Fourier spectrum. Although offering significant improvements on the raw data, deconvolution is shown to be limited. The contribution of the resolution function is substantially reduced but not eliminated completely and unphysical oscillations are introduced into the lineshape. The method is further tested on measurements of the lineshape for positron annihilation in single crystal copper at the relatively poor resolution of 1.7 keV at 512 keV. A two-component fit is possible yielding component widths in agreement with previous measurements. (orig.)

  6. Using value stream mapping technique through the lean production transformation process: An implementation in a large-scaled tractor company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Rıza Adalı

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s world, manufacturing industries have to continue their development and continuity in more competitive environment via decreasing their costs. As a first step in the lean production process transformation is to analyze the value added activities and non-value adding activities. This study aims at applying the concepts of Value Stream Mapping (VSM in a large-scaled tractor company in Sakarya. Waste and process time are identified by mapping the current state in the production line of platform. The future state was suggested with improvements for elimination of waste and reduction of lead time, which went from 13,08 to 4,35 days. Analysis are made using current and future states to support the suggested improvements and cycle time of the production line of platform is improved 8%. Results showed that VSM is a good alternative in the decision-making for change in production process.

  7. Combined Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measurement of Austenite Transformation with Strain in TRIP-assisted Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poling, Whitney A.; Savic, Vesna; Hector, Louis G.; Sachdev, Anil K.; Hu, Xiaohua; Devaraj, Arun; Abu-Farha, Fadi

    2016-04-05

    The strain-induced, diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain in TRIP-assisted steels with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing. Results obtained for a QP980 steel are used to study the influence of initial volume fraction of austenite and the austenite transformation with strain on tensile mechanical behavior.

  8. Detection of a nuclear, EBNA-type antigen in apparently EBNA-negative Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-transformed lymphoid lines by the acid-fixed nuclear binding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, S; Luka, J; Falk, L; Klein, G

    1977-12-15

    In agreement with the findings of previous authors, we could not detect a virally determined nuclear antigen in Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-transformed baboon lymphoid lines by anticomplementary staining in situ, as for EBNA. However, by means of our recently developed acid-fixed nuclear binding technique an EBNA-like antigen could be readily demonstrated, after extraction from both producer and non-producer lines. We propose to designate the antigen as HUPNA. It can be detected by a human anti-EBNA antibody, suggesting cross-reactivity, if not identity, between EBNA and HUPNA. HVP-DNA carrying non-producer lines, negative for in situ ACIF stainability but capable of yielding HUPNA by the nuclear binding technique, can be superinfected with EBV, with brilliant EBNA expression as the result, suggesting that the defective in situ staining is a property associated with the baboon HVP, rather than the baboon lymphoid cell per se.

  9. Use of the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technique for determination of the composition of final phosphate coatings on grain-oriented electrical steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poultney, Darren; Snell, David

    2008-01-01

    Electrical steels are highly specialised, magnetically soft materials, used to form the cores that carry the magnetic flux in electrical machines such as motors, generators and transformers. The steel strip is coated with a phosphate-based solution, which, on curing, provides an electrically insulating layer that also imparts a tension onto the strip. It has previously been shown that the magnetic losses of the material are affected by the ratio of phosphate and silica within the coating solution [O. Tanaka, H. Kobayashi, E. Minematsu, New insulating coating for grain-oriented electrical steel, J. Mater. Eng. 13 (1991) 161-168.]. It would therefore be highly beneficial to possess an analytical technique that can be used to accurately and rapidly determine the composition of this coating. This paper details the evaluation of the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technique for this purpose. Analysing each of the important constituents separately enabled their specific absorption bands to be identified, and laboratory trials produced spectra that exhibited a good agreement with theoretical predictions. Analysis of samples coated under production conditions was found to be more challenging due to the detection of an underlying forsterite layer. However, there is potential for FTIR analysis when using regions of the spectra that were unaffected by this compound

  10. Discrete wavelet transform-based denoising technique for advanced state-of-charge estimator of a lithium-ion battery in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seongjun; Kim, Jonghoon

    2015-01-01

    Sophisticated data of the experimental DCV (discharging/charging voltage) of a lithium-ion battery is required for high-accuracy SOC (state-of-charge) estimation algorithms based on the state-space ECM (electrical circuit model) in BMSs (battery management systems). However, when sensing noisy DCV signals, erroneous SOC estimation (which results in low BMS performance) is inevitable. Therefore, this manuscript describes the design and implementation of a DWT (discrete wavelet transform)-based denoising technique for DCV signals. The steps for denoising a noisy DCV measurement in the proposed approach are as follows. First, using MRA (multi-resolution analysis), the noise-riding DCV signal is decomposed into different frequency sub-bands (low- and high-frequency components, A n and D n ). Specifically, signal processing of the high frequency component D n that focuses on a short-time interval is necessary to reduce noise in the DCV measurement. Second, a hard-thresholding-based denoising rule is applied to adjust the wavelet coefficients of the DWT to achieve a clear separation between the signal and the noise. Third, the desired de-noised DCV signal is reconstructed by taking the IDWT (inverse discrete wavelet transform) of the filtered detailed coefficients. Finally, this signal is sent to the ECM-based SOC estimation algorithm using an EKF (extended Kalman filter). Experimental results indicate the robustness of the proposed approach for reliable SOC estimation. - Highlights: • Sophisticated data of the experimental DCV is required for high-accuracy SOC. • DWT (discrete wavelet transform)-based denoising technique is newly investigated. • Three steps for denoising a noisy DCV measurement in this work are implemented. • Experimental results indicate the robustness of the proposed work for reliable SOC

  11. Application of Color Transformation Techniques in Pediatric Spinal Cord MR Images: Typically Developing and Spinal Cord Injury Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mahdi; Shah, Pallav; Conklin, Chris J; Middleton, Devon M; Saksena, Sona; Flanders, Adam E; Krisa, Laura; Mulcahey, M J; Faro, Scott H; Mohamed, Feroze B

    2018-01-16

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate an improved and reliable visualization method for pediatric spinal cord MR images in healthy subjects and patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). A total of 15 pediatric volunteers (10 healthy subjects and 5 subjects with cervical SCI) with a mean age of 11.41 years (range 8-16 years) were recruited and scanned using a 3.0T Siemens Verio MR scanner. T2-weighted axial images were acquired covering entire cervical spinal cord level C1 to C7. These gray-scale images were then converted to color images by using five different techniques including hue-saturation-value (HSV), rainbow, red-green-blue (RGB), and two enhanced RGB techniques using automated contrast stretching and intensity inhomogeneity correction. Performance of these techniques was scored visually by two neuroradiologists within three selected cervical spinal cord intervertebral disk levels (C2-C3, C4-C5, and C6-C7) and quantified using signal to noise ratio (SNR) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the color images shows consistent improvement across all the healthy and SCI subjects over conventional gray-scale T2-weighted gradient echo (GRE) images. Inter-observer reliability test showed moderate to strong intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficients in the proposed techniques (ICC > 0.73). The results suggest that the color images could be used for quantification and enhanced visualization of the spinal cord structures in addition to the conventional gray-scale images. This would immensely help towards improved delineation of the gray/white and CSF structures and further aid towards accurate manual or automatic drawings of region of interests (ROIs).

  12. Transformer Protection Using the Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZGÖNENEL, Okan; ÖNBİLGİN, Güven; KOCAMAN, Çağrı

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for power transformer protection algorithm. Power system signals such as current and voltage have traditionally been analysed by the Fast Fourier Transform. This paper aims to prove that the Wavelet Transform is a reliable and computationally efficient tool for distinguishing between the inrush currents and fault currents. The simulated results presented clearly show that the proposed technique for power transformer protection facilitates the a...

  13. Transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan techniques into integrative movement therapy-Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuzhong

    2014-03-01

    Tai Ji Quan, developed as a martial art, has traditionally served multiple purposes, including self-defense, competition/performance, and health promotion. With respect to health, the benefits historically and anecdotally associated with Tai Ji Quan are now being supported by scientific and clinical research, with mounting evidence indicating its potential value in preventing and managing various diseases and improving well-being and quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. The research findings produced to date have both public health significance and clinical relevance. However, because of its roots in the martial arts, transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan movements and training approaches into contemporary therapeutic programs and functional applications is needed to maximize its ultimate utility. This paper addresses this issue by introducing Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance , a functional therapy that involves the use of Tai Ji Quan principles and Yang-style-based movements to form an innovative, contemporary therapeutic approach that integrates motor, sensory, and cognitive components to improve postural control, gait, and mobility for older adults and those who have neurodegenerative movement impairments. It provides a synergy of traditional and contemporary Tai Ji Quan practice with the ultimate goal of improving balance and gait, enhancing performance of daily functional tasks, and reducing incidence of falls among older adults.

  14. Phase Error Caused by Speed Mismatch Analysis in the Line-Scan Defect Detection by Using Fourier Transform Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryi Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The phase error caused by the speed mismatch issue is researched in the line-scan images capturing 3D profile measurement. The experimental system is constructed by a line-scan CCD camera, an object moving device, a digital fringe pattern projector, and a personal computer. In the experiment procedure, the detected object is moving relative to the image capturing system by using a motorized translation stage in a stable velocity. The digital fringe pattern is projected onto the detected object, and then the deformed patterns are captured and recorded in the computer. The object surface profile can be calculated by the Fourier transform profilometry. However, the moving speed mismatch error will still exist in most of the engineering application occasion even after an image system calibration. When the moving speed of the detected object is faster than the expected value, the captured image will be compressed in the moving direction of the detected object. In order to overcome this kind of measurement error, an image recovering algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the original compressed image. Thus, the phase values can be extracted much more accurately by the reconstructed images. And then, the phase error distribution caused by the speed mismatch is analyzed by the simulation and experimental methods.

  15. Transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan techniques into integrative movement therapy—Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuzhong Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tai Ji Quan, developed as a martial art, has traditionally served multiple purposes, including self-defense, competition/performance, and health promotion. With respect to health, the benefits historically and anecdotally associated with Tai Ji Quan are now being supported by scientific and clinical research, with mounting evidence indicating its potential value in preventing and managing various diseases and improving well-being and quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. The research findings produced to date have both public health significance and clinical relevance. However, because of its roots in the martial arts, transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan movements and training approaches into contemporary therapeutic programs and functional applications is needed to maximize its ultimate utility. This paper addresses this issue by introducing Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance, a functional therapy that involves the use of Tai Ji Quan principles and Yang-style-based movements to form an innovative, contemporary therapeutic approach that integrates motor, sensory, and cognitive components to improve postural control, gait, and mobility for older adults and those who have neurodegenerative movement impairments. It provides a synergy of traditional and contemporary Tai Ji Quan practice with the ultimate goal of improving balance and gait, enhancing performance of daily functional tasks, and reducing incidence of falls among older adults.

  16. Influence of organic N Sources on N transformation and uptake by lupine plants using 15N technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Salam, A.A.; Gadalla, A.M.; Abdel- Aziz, H.A.; Galal, Y.G.M.; EL-degwy, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the comparative efficiency and transformation of nitrogen applied either as mineral or organic forms. The obtained data showed that shoot dry weight was enhanced by compost and its mixture with leucaena. When organic sources were combined with 15 N, the leucaena.compost mixture (LC p ) gave the highest yield, and the other two were not significantly different from each other. Reinforcing the organic N with mineral N caused an average greater N.uptake over the non reinforced treatment. Similar trend was noticed with root system. Nitrogen uptake by roots was increased according to the order of LC > L > C. N derived from fertilizer (% Ndff) by lupine shoots was significantly affected by fertilizer addition either alone or reinforced with organic plant residues. Both, the portions (%) or absolute values (mg pot -1 ) of Ndff were increased by adding the organic residues. The highest value of Ndfs was recorded with application of leucaena followed by compost, then Leucaena + compost. Portion Ndfa reflected an effective response of lupines plants to Rhizobium inoculation. Addition of LC mixture combined with 15 N-fertilizer had enhanced the N 2 fixation and increased Ndfa value by about 66.7 % over those recorded with 15 N0 treatment. Organic amendment of leucaena could be an efficient source for N to infertile sandy soils

  17. Perturbative triples correction for local pair natural orbital based explicitly correlated CCSD(F12*) using Laplace transformation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gunnar; Hättig, Christof

    2016-12-21

    We present an implementation of pair natural orbital coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples, PNO-CCSD(T), which avoids the quasi-canonical triples approximation (T0) where couplings due to off-diagonal Fock matrix elements are neglected. A numerical Laplace transformation of the canonical expression for the perturbative (T) triples correction is used to avoid an I/O and storage bottleneck for the triples amplitudes. Results for a test set of reaction energies show that only very few Laplace grid points are needed to obtain converged energy differences and that PNO-CCSD(T) is a more robust approximation than PNO-CCSD(T0) with a reduced mean absolute deviation from canonical CCSD(T) results. We combine the PNO-based (T) triples correction with the explicitly correlated PNO-CCSD(F12*) method and investigate the use of specialized F12-PNOs in the conventional triples correction. We find that no significant additional errors are introduced and that PNO-CCSD(F12*)(T) can be applied in a black box manner.

  18. A laplace transform-based technique for solving multiscale and multidomain problems: Application to a countercurrent hemodialyzer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Laurent

    2017-08-01

    An integral-based method was employed to evaluate the behavior of a countercurrent hemodialyzer model. Solute transfer from the blood into the dialysate was described by writing mass balance equations over a section of the device. The approach provided Laplace transform concentration profiles on both sides of the membrane. Applications of the final value theorem led to the development of the effective time constants and steady-state concentrations in the exit streams. Transient responses were derived by a numerical inversion algorithm. Simulations show that the period elapsed, before reaching equilibrium in the effluents, decreased when the blood flow rate increased from 0.25 to 0.30 ml/s. The performance index decreased from 0.80 to 0.71 when the blood-to-dialysate flow ratio increased by 20% and increased from 0.80 to 0.85 when this fraction was reduced by 17%. The analytical solution predicted methadone removal in patients undergoing dialysis. Clinicians can use these findings to predict the time required to achieve a target extraction ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization technique for detection of atom-size crystalline defects and strains using two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform sampling Moiré method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Masako; Wang, Qinghua; Ri, Shien; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Akira; Sugiyama, Toru; Hamamoto, Takeshi; Miyashita, Naoto

    2018-04-01

    Recently, we have developed a two-dimensional (2D) fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) sampling Moiré technique to visually and quantitatively determine the locations of minute defects in a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image. We applied this technique for defect detection with GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) devices, and successfully and clearly visualized atom-size defects in AlGaN/GaN crystalline structures. The defect density obtained in the AlGaN/GaN structures is ∼1013 counts/cm2. In addition, we have successfully confirmed that the distribution and number of defects closely depend on the process conditions. Thus, this technique is quite useful for a device development. Moreover, the strain fields in an AlGaN/GaN crystal were effectively calculated with nm-scale resolution using this method. We also demonstrated that this sampling Moiré technique is applicable to silicon devices, which have principal directions different from those of AlGaN/GaN crystals. As a result, we believe that the 2D FFT sampling Moiré method has great potential applications to the discovery of new as yet unknown phenomena occurring between the characteristics of a crystalline material and device performance.

  20. Novel XRD technique and equipment for in-situ monitoring of phase transformations in lithium batteries during cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, J.; Howlett, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Safe, rechargeable batteries utilising a lithium metal electrode have not been realised due to phenomena, which occur on the lithium surface during the cycling of a battery. Lithium ion conduction inhomogeneities through the surface film give rise to uneven deposition of lithium, which can result in short circuits. The large potential increase in energy density that the use of the lithium electrode represents makes the nature of the surface film of interest to battery researchers. The lithium surface is highly reactive, particularly in the case of electrodes with a rough surface deposit. This presents difficulties to researchers hoping to obtain representative measurements of the lithium surface and requires the use of environmental sample chambers and in-situ techniques. X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to probe changes in cathode materials (typically transition metal oxides) for lithium batteries, but to our knowledge has not been successfully used to study changes taking place on the lithium surface during cycling. We present early results from work we have undertaken to develop a technique for characterising the surface film on lithium battery electrodes. The instrumentation was set-up as follows. An XRD was fitted with an INEL CPS 120 position sensitive detector (PSD), multilayer mirror and environmental chamber. The latter was specially developed in our laboratory for the purpose of these experiments. The lithium cells were sealed in laminated foil. Cycled and uncycled cells were investigated. Different radiation sources were used (Cu, Co and Cr). The in-situ measurements aiming at monitoring the phase transitions of cycled/uncycled cells at different angles (including grazing angles) in time were carried out in both transmission and reflection mode. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  1. The recognition of female voice based on voice registers in singing techniques in real-time using hankel transform method and macdonald function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiyanti, R.; Subandi, A.; Fuqara, N.; Budiman, M. A.; Siahaan, A. P. U.

    2018-03-01

    A singer doesn’t just recite the lyrics of a song, but also with the use of particular sound techniques to make it more beautiful. In the singing technique, more female have a diverse sound registers than male. There are so many registers of the human voice, but the voice registers used while singing, among others, Chest Voice, Head Voice, Falsetto, and Vocal fry. Research of speech recognition based on the female’s voice registers in singing technique is built using Borland Delphi 7.0. Speech recognition process performed by the input recorded voice samples and also in real time. Voice input will result in weight energy values based on calculations using Hankel Transformation method and Macdonald Functions. The results showed that the accuracy of the system depends on the accuracy of sound engineering that trained and tested, and obtained an average percentage of the successful introduction of the voice registers record reached 48.75 percent, while the average percentage of the successful introduction of the voice registers in real time to reach 57 percent.

  2. Large-scale symmetry-adapted perturbation theory computations via density fitting and Laplace transformation techniques: investigating the fundamental forces of DNA-intercalator interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Edward G; Parrish, Robert M; Sherrill, C David; Turney, Justin M; Schaefer, Henry F

    2011-11-07

    Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) provides a means of probing the fundamental nature of intermolecular interactions. Low-orders of SAPT (here, SAPT0) are especially attractive since they provide qualitative (sometimes quantitative) results while remaining tractable for large systems. The application of density fitting and Laplace transformation techniques to SAPT0 can significantly reduce the expense associated with these computations and make even larger systems accessible. We present new factorizations of the SAPT0 equations with density-fitted two-electron integrals and the first application of Laplace transformations of energy denominators to SAPT. The improved scalability of the DF-SAPT0 implementation allows it to be applied to systems with more than 200 atoms and 2800 basis functions. The Laplace-transformed energy denominators are compared to analogous partial Cholesky decompositions of the energy denominator tensor. Application of our new DF-SAPT0 program to the intercalation of DNA by proflavine has allowed us to determine the nature of the proflavine-DNA interaction. Overall, the proflavine-DNA interaction contains important contributions from both electrostatics and dispersion. The energetics of the intercalator interaction are are dominated by the stacking interactions (two-thirds of the total), but contain important contributions from the intercalator-backbone interactions. It is hypothesized that the geometry of the complex will be determined by the interactions of the intercalator with the backbone, because by shifting toward one side of the backbone, the intercalator can form two long hydrogen-bonding type interactions. The long-range interactions between the intercalator and the next-nearest base pairs appear to be negligible, justifying the use of truncated DNA models in computational studies of intercalation interaction energies.

  3. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    , as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

  4. Characterization of explosives by x-ray diffraction and neutron scattering techniques: phase transformation study by synchrotron radiation XRD of forensically sourced ammonium nitrate pills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, B.O.; Blagojevic, N.

    2009-01-01

    Under direction of the Australian Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet ANSTO has commenced a three-year project with the title Characterisation of Explosives by XRD and Neutron Scattering Techniques. The initial focus is on Ammonium Nitrate (AN) based explosives with the intention to investigate all important energetic materials currently used in improvised explosives devices (IED) by various combative groups. The principal objective of the project is to use laboratory x-ray, synchrotron radiation (SR) and neutron scattering fingerprinting to establish associations between the diffraction pattern information and the manufacturing sources of AN and other energetic materials. Laboratory and SR experiments, at room temperature, of commercial AN show that the phase structure is principally AN-IV. Our earlier work observed other phases such as previously unreported transformation of AN-IV to AN-II, again at room temperature. Our interest is to also characterise added phase stabiliser material, solid-solution altered AN as well as desiccant and moisture barrier coatings. This prospect points strongly to the possibility of fingerprinting the materials for inferring source-association relations. The enhanced pattern definition achievable using powder SR diffraction is expected to improve the crystal structure characterisation of the materials. Other properties such as temperature dependent phase transformation and strain anisotropy as well as trace elemental impurities will provide information to further define association linkages. (Author)

  5. Solution of the advection-diffusion equation for a nonhomogeneous and nonstationary Planetary Boundary Layer by GILTT (Generalized Integral Laplace Transform Technique)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, Kelen Berra de

    2005-02-01

    In this work is shown the solution of the advection-diffusion equation to simulate a pollutant dispersion in the Planetary Boundary Layer. The solution is obtained through of the GILTT (Generalized Integral Laplace Transform Technique) analytic method and of the numerical inversion Gauss Quadrature. The validity of the solution is proved using concentration obtained from the model with concentration obtained for Copenhagen experiment. In this comparison was utilized potential and logarithmic wind profile and eddy diffusivity derived by Degrazia et al (1997) [17] and (2002) [19]. The best results was using the potential wind profile and the eddy diffusivity derived by Degrazia et al (1997). The vertical velocity influence is shown in the plume behavior of the pollutant concentration. Moreover, the vertical and longitudinal velocity provided by Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was stood in the model to simulate the turbulent boundary layer more realistic, the result was satisfactory when compared with contained in the literature. (author)

  6. Energy, exergy, economic (3E) analyses and multi-objective optimization of vapor absorption heat transformer using NSGA-II technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Vaibhav; Sachdeva, Gulshan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Study includes energy, exergy and economic analyses of absorption heat transformer. • It addresses multi-objective optimization study using NSGA-II technique. • Total annual cost and total exergy destruction are simultaneously optimized. • Results with multi-objective optimized design are more acceptable than other. - Abstract: Present paper addresses the energy, exergy and economic (3E) analyses of absorption heat transformer (AHT) working with LiBr-H 2 O fluid pair. The heat exchangers namely absorber, condenser, evaporator, generator and solution heat exchanger are designed for the size and cost estimation of AHT. Later, the effect of operating variables is examined on the system performance, size and cost. Simulation studies showed a conflict between thermodynamic and economic performance of the system. The heat exchangers with lower investment cost showed high irreversible losses and vice versa. Thus, the operating variables of systems are determined economically as well as thermodynamically by implementing non-dominated sort genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) technique of multi-objective optimization. In present work, if the cost based optimized design is chosen, total exergy destruction is 2.4% higher than its minimum possible value; whereas, if total exergy based optimized design is chosen, total annual cost is 6.1% higher than its minimum possible value. On the other hands, total annual cost and total exergy destruction are only 1.0% and 0.8%, respectively more from their minimum possible values with multi-objective optimized design. Thus, the multi-objective optimized design of the AHT is best outcome than any other single-objective optimized designs.

  7. Development of a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy coupled to UV-Visible analysis technique for aminosides and glycopeptides quantitation in antibiotic locks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayet, G; Sinegre, M; Ben Reguiga, M

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic Lock technique maintains catheters' sterility in high-risk patients with long-term parenteral nutrition. In our institution, vancomycin, teicoplanin, amikacin and gentamicin locks are prepared in the pharmaceutical department. In order to insure patient safety and to comply to regulatory requirements, antibiotic locks are submitted to qualitative and quantitative assays prior to their release. The aim of this study was to develop an alternative quantitation technique for each of these 4 antibiotics, using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) coupled to UV-Visible spectroscopy and to compare results to HPLC or Immunochemistry assays. Prevalidation studies permitted to assess spectroscopic conditions used for antibiotic locks quantitation: FTIR/UV combinations were used for amikacin (1091-1115cm(-1) and 208-224nm), vancomycin (1222-1240cm(-1) and 276-280nm), and teicoplanin (1226-1230cm(-1) and 278-282nm). Gentamicin was quantified with FTIR only (1045-1169cm(-1) and 2715-2850cm(-1)) due to interferences in UV domain of parabens, preservatives present in the commercial brand used to prepare locks. For all AL, the method was linear (R(2)=0.996 to 0.999), accurate, repeatable (intraday RSD%: from 2.9 to 7.1% and inter-days RSD%: 2.9 to 5.1%) and precise. Compared to the reference methods, the FTIR/UV method appeared tightly correlated (Pearson factor: 97.4 to 99.9%) and did not show significant difference in recovery determinations. We developed a new simple reliable analysis technique for antibiotics quantitation in locks using an original association of FTIR and UV analysis, allowing a short time analysis to identify and quantify the studied antibiotics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Order-disorder phase transformations in quaternary pyrochlore oxide system: Investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, A.N.; Prabhakar Rao, P.; Sibi, K.S.; Deepa, M.; Koshy, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Order-disorder transformations in a quaternary pyrochlore oxide system, Ca-Y-Zr-Ta-O, were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) method, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and FT-NIR Raman spectroscopic techniques. The solid solutions in different ratios, 4:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, of CaTaO 3.5 and YZrO 3.5 were prepared by the conventional high temperature ceramic route. The XRD results and Rietveld analysis revealed that the crystal structure changed from an ordered pyrochlore structure to a disordered defect fluorite structure as the ratios of the solid solutions of CaTaO 3.5 and YZrO 3.5 were changed from 4:1 to 1:4. This structural transformation in the present system is attributed to the lowering of the average cation radius ratio, r A /r B as a result of progressive and simultaneous substitution of larger cation Ca 2+ for Y 3+ at A sites and smaller cation Ta 5+ for Zr 4+ at B sites. Raman spectroscopy and TEM analysis corroborated the XRD results. - Graphical abstract: Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns showed highly ordered diffraction maxima with characteristic superlattice weak diffraction spots of the pyrochlore structure for (a) Ca 0.6 7Y 1.33 Zr 1.33 Ta 0.33 O 7 (C2YZT2) and bright diffraction maxima arranged in a ring pattern of the fluorite structure for (b) Ca 0.29 7Y 1.71 Zr 1.71 Ta 0.29 O 7 (CY6Z6T).

  9. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  10. A simple, sensitive and non-destructive technique for characterizing bovine dental enamel erosion: attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hye; Son, Jun Sik; Min, Bong Ki; Kim, Young Kyoung; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2016-03-30

    Although many techniques are available to assess enamel erosion in vitro, a simple, non-destructive method with sufficient sensitivity for quantifying dental erosion is required. This study characterized the bovine dental enamel erosion induced by various acidic beverages in vitro using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Deionized water (control) and 10 acidic beverages were selected to study erosion, and the pH and neutralizable acidity were measured. Bovine anterior teeth (110) were polished with up to 1 200-grit silicon carbide paper to produce flat enamel surfaces, which were then immersed in 20 mL of the beverages for 30 min at 37 °C. The degree of erosion was evaluated using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and Vickers' microhardness measurements. The spectra obtained were interpreted in two ways that focused on the ν1, ν3 phosphate contour: the ratio of the height amplitude of ν3 PO4 to that of ν1 PO4 (Method 1) and the shift of the ν3 PO4 peak to a higher wavenumber (Method 2). The percentage changes in microhardness after the erosion treatments were primarily affected by the pH of the immersion media. Regression analyses revealed highly significant correlations between the surface hardness change and the degree of erosion, as detected by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy (Perosion.

  11. Non-Halal biomarkers identification based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectroscopy (GC-TOF MS) techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witjaksono, Gunawan; Saputra, Irwan; Latief, Marsad; Jaswir, Irwandi; Akmeliawati, Rini; Abdelkreem Saeed Rabih, Almur

    2017-11-01

    Consumption of meat from halal (lawful) sources is essential for Muslims. The identification of non-halal meat is one of the main issues that face consumers in meat markets, especially in non-Islamic countries. Pig is one of the non-halal sources of meat, and hence pig meat and its derivatives are forbidden for Muslims to consume. Although several studies have been conducted to identify the biomarkers for nonhalal meats like pig meat, these studies are still in their infancy stages, and as a result there is no universal biomarker which could be used for clear cut identification. The purpose of this paper is to use Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectroscopy (GC-TOF MS) techniques to study fat of pig, cow, lamb and chicken to find possible biomarkers for pig fat (lard) identification. FTIR results showed that lard and chicken fat have unique peaks at wavenumbers 1159.6 cm-1, 1743.4 cm-1, 2853.1 cm-1 and 2922.5 cm-1 compared to lamb and beef fats which did not show peaks at these wavenumbers. On the other hand, GC/MS-TOF results showed that the concentration of 1,2,3-trimethyl-Benzene, Indane, and Undecane in lard are 250, 14.5 and 1.28 times higher than their concentrations in chicken fat, respectively, and 91.4, 2.3 and 1.24 times higher than their concentrations in cow fat, respectively. These initial results clearly indicate that there is a possibility to find biomarkers for non-halal identification.

  12. Spotlight on modern transformer design

    CERN Document Server

    Georgilakis, Pavlos S

    2009-01-01

    Increasing competition in the global transformer market has put tremendous responsibilities on the industry to increase reliability while reducing cost. This book introduces an approach to transformer design using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques in combination with finite element method (FEM).

  13. New analytical technique for establishing the quality of Soil Organic Matter affected by a wildfire. A first approach using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; Waggoner, Derek C.; Almendros, Gonzalo; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Fire is one of the most important modulator factors of the environment and the forest. It is able to induce chemical and biological shifts and these, in turn, can alter the physical properties of soil. Generally, fire affects the most reactive fraction, soil organic matter (SOM) (González-Pérez et al., 2004) resulting in changes to several soil properties and functions. To study changes in SOM following a wildfire, researchers can count on several traditional as well as new analytical techniques. One of the most recently employed techniques is Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). This new powerful ultra-high resolution mass spectral technique, together with graphic interpretation tools such as van Krevelen diagrams (Kim et al, 2003), may be used to shed light on alterations caused by the burning of SOM. The objective of this research is to study fire impacts on SOM, using a sandy soil collected under a Cork oak (Quercus suber) in Doñana National Park, Southwest Spain. that was affected by a wildfire in August 2012. Methods: The impact of fire on SOM was studied in various different sieve fractions (coarse, 1-2 mm, and fine, tannins, lignin, lipids, protein and carbohydrate derived. The unburnt SOM in the coarse fraction was mainly composed of compounds with a high intensity in the tannin-like, lignin-like and carbohydrate-like regions of the van Krevelen diagram, whereas the SOM in the fine fraction showed a high intensity in the lipid-like and protein-like regions. These results suggest that the SOM in the coarse fraction was less altered than that of the fine fraction; the latter believed to be subjected to higher microbial activity. We suggest that the observed changes occurs via a methylation process, producing a SOM that is highly humified (Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2014). The SOM in the coarse fraction affected by fire, showed a high relative intensity of chemical compounds in the carbohydrate-like and

  14. Screening and confirmation criteria for hormone residue analysis using liquid chromatography accurate mass time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass spectrometry techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Engelen, M.C. van; Zuiderent, R.; Ramaker, R.

    2007-01-01

    An emerging trend is recognised in hormone and veterinary drug residue analysis from liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) based screening and confirmation towards accurate mass alternatives such as LC coupled with time-of-flight (TOF), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance

  15. Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy study of physicochemical interaction between human dentin and etch-&-rinse adhesives in a simulated moist bond technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ubaldini, Adriana L M; Baesso, Mauro L; Sehn, Elizandra

    2012-01-01

    systems: (a) 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydrate (4-META), and (b) HEMA. The Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy was performed before and after dentin treatment with 37% phosphoric acid, with adhesive systems and also for the adhesive systems...

  16. Preliminary evaluation of techniques for transforming regional climate model output to the potential repository site in support of Yucca Mountain future climate synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, H.W.; Zak, B.D.; Behl, Y.K.

    1995-06-01

    The report describes a preliminary evaluation of models for transforming regional climate model output from a regional to a local scale for the Yucca Mountain area. Evaluation and analysis of both empirical and numerical modeling are discussed which is aimed at providing site-specific, climate-based information for use by interfacing activities. Two semiempirical approaches are recommended for further analysis

  17. Transformations of the radical cations of 1,3-dienes, 1,4-dienes, and cyclopentene as studied by ESR technique in irradiated frozen freon matrices and by spin trapping technique in liquid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchapin, I.Yu.; Belevskij, V.N.

    1996-01-01

    Transformations of cation-radicals of 1,3- and 1,4-pentadienes, 2,3-dimethylbutadienes and cyclopentene, formed by X-ray irradiation at 77 K, are studied in the freon-11 and 113 matrices. It is shown that cation-radicals of 1,3-pentadienes in the CFCl 3 matrix at 77 K are regrouped in cyclopentene cation-radicals. There is no such a regrouping in the freon-113 matrix. The 1,4-pentadiene radicals have plane structure in the CFCl 3 matrix and are transformed into pentadienyl radicals in the freon-113 matrix. The cation radicals of dimethylbutadiene in the freon-113 matrix are transformed into end allyl radicals. The cation-radicals of cyclopentene in the freon-113 matrix are transformed at 110 K in cyclic allyl radicals. The radicals formation mechanism is in good agreement with the data, obtained during studies on liquid hydrocarbons, X-irradiated at 293 K in the presence of spin trap of 2.4.6-tri-tert-butylnitrosobenzene

  18. Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor C. X.; Cranton, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The theory of transformative learning has been explored by different theorists and scholars. However, few scholars have made an attempt to make a comparison between transformative learning and Confucianism or between transformative learning and andragogy. The authors of this article address these comparisons to develop new and different insights…

  19. Backlund transformations as canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, A.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Toda and Wadati as well as Kodama and Wadati have shown that the Backlund transformations, for the exponential lattice equation, sine-Gordon equation, K-dV (Korteweg de Vries) equation and modifies K-dV equation, are canonical transformation. It is shown that the Backlund transformation for the Boussinesq equation, for a generalized K-dV equation, for a model equation for shallow water waves and for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation are also canonical transformations [pt

  20. High resolution (transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Lamela-Rivera, Horacio

    2006-10-16

    A novel fiber-optic interferometric sensor is presented for vibrations measurements and analysis. In this approach, it is shown applied to the vibrations of electrical structures within power transformers. A main feature of the sensor is that an unambiguous optical phase measurement is performed using the direct detection of the interferometer output, without external modulation, for a more compact and stable implementation. High resolution of the interferometric measurement is obtained with this technique (transformers are also highlighted.

  1. Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and chemometric techniques for the determination of adulteration in petrodiesel/biodiesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Guerrero Peña

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an analytical method based on fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR spectroscopy to detect the adulteration of petrodiesel and petrodiesel/palm biodiesel blends with African crude palm oil. The infrared spectral fingerprints from the sample analysis were used to perform principal components analysis (PCA and to construct a prediction model using partial least squares (PLS regression. The PCA results separated the samples into three groups, allowing identification of those subjected to adulteration with palm oil. The obtained model shows a good predictive capacity for determining the concentration of palm oil in petrodiesel/biodiesel blends. Advantages of the proposed method include cost-effectiveness and speed; it is also environmentally friendly.

  2. Hadamard Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

  3. Environmental transformation and distribution of mercury released from gold mining and its implications on human health in Tanzania, studied by nuclear techniques. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikingura, Justinian R.

    2002-01-01

    Tanzania experienced unprecedented rush for gold mining in late 1980s and early 1990s when a similar gold rush was taking place in Latin America and other developing countries because of good gold market prices. The gold rush in Tanzania was also prompted by the socioeconomic and political transformations that were taking place in the country. The liberalization of mining policy and regulations by the government allowed foreign and local private investment in mining and encouraged small-scale mining and gold trade. Because of the liberalization, thousands of local miners, mostly from rural communities, rushed to gold mining for subsistence income. The use of mercury in gold recovery became widespread in Tanzania as a result of the gold rush. From 1992/93, the Department of Geology of the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM in collaboration with the National Environment Management Council (NEMC) initiated studies to assess the extent of mercury pollution in the country. Further studies on mercury and other heavy metal pollution were undertaken between 1993 and 1997 by UDSM, under a broader project on 'Environmental Aspects of Mining and Industrialization in Tanzania', supported by the Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries SAREC (Sida/SAREC). The above studies revealed the presence of elevated mercury concentrations in gold-ore tailings and river sediment in several gold mining areas. Studies to evaluate environmental transformation, partition and bioaccumulation of mercury in different environmental matrices and the long-term impact of mercury pollution have not been done. The present research project was initiated to provide scientific database necessary to better understand the environmental behaviour and cycling of mercury in the southwest Lake Victoria goldfields. Such data are necessary in the evaluation of environmental impacts of mercury pollution and in the mitigation of adverse impacts on the ecosystems and human health

  4. From Trioleoyl glycerol to extra virgin olive oil through multicomponent triacylglycerol mixtures: Crystallization and polymorphic transformation examined with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayés-García, L; Calvet, T; Cuevas-Diarte, M A; Ueno, S

    2017-09-01

    The polymorphic crystallization and transformation behavior of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) was examined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction with both laboratory-scale (XRD) and synchrotron radiation source (SR-XRD). The complex behavior observed was studied by previously analyzing mixtures composed by its main 2 to 6 triacylglycerol (TAG) components. Thus, component TAGs were successively added to simulate EVOO composition, until reaching a 6 TAGs mixture, composed by trioleoyl glycerol (OOO), 1-palmitoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO), 1,2-dioleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol (OOL), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol (POL), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-oleoyl glycerol (PPO) and 1-stearoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (SOO). Molten samples were cooled from 25°C to -80°C at a controlled rate of 2°C/min and subsequently heated at the same rate. The polymorphic behavior observed in multicomponent TAG mixtures was interpreted by considering three main groups of TAGs with different molecular structures: triunsaturated OOO and OOL, saturated-unsaturated-unsaturated POO, POL and SOO, and saturated-saturated-unsaturated PPO. As confirmed by our previous work, TAGs belonging to the same structural group displayed a highly similar polymorphic behavior. EVOO exhibited two different β'-2L polymorphic forms (β' 2 -2L and β' 1 -2L), which transformed into β'-3L when heated. Equivalent polymorphic pathways were detected when the same experimental conditions were applied to the 6 TAG components mixture. Hence, minor components may not exert a strong influence in this case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for determination of long chain free fatty acid concentration in oily wastewater using the double wavenumber extrapolation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long Chain Free Fatty Acids (LCFFAs) from the hydrolysis of fat, oil and grease (FOG) are major components in the formation of insoluble saponified solids known as FOG deposits that accumulate in sewer pipes and lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). A Double Wavenumber Extrapolative Technique (DW...

  6. Environmental transformation and distribution of mercury released from gold mining and its implications on human health in Tanzania, studied by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikingura, Justinian R.

    2002-01-01

    The dispersion and transformation of mercury in the southwest Lake Victoria gold fields was investigated through field and laboratory studies in order to evaluate the environmental impact and human health risks due to mercury pollution from small-scale gold mining in Tanzania. River sediment, gold-ore tailings, fish, and lichens were analyzed for their mercury content to determine mercury contamination levels. Mercury concentrations in the tailings from Rwamagaza mine were in the range of 165 to 232 mg/kg while at the Mugusu mine the maximum concentration was 6 mg/kg in the river sediment contaminated by the tailings. The dispersion of mercury along the Mabubi River downstream of the gold-ore processing site at the Mugusu mine decreased rapidly to less than 0.5 mg/kg at a distance of 4 km, and less than 0.1 mg/kg at 9 km. Granulometrical analysis of mercury distribution indicated highest mercury concentrations to be associated with the grain size fraction <212 mm in the sediment. Total mercury concentrations in eight fish species from the Lake Victoria at Nungwe Bay were generally very low and varied from 2 to 34, μg/kg (w.w). The lowest concentrations were found in Tilapia and the highest in Nile perch. The percentage of methylmercury in the fish muscle ranged from 65 to 97%. These results suggest that mercury contamination from gold mining operations in the southwest Lake Victoria goldfields has not led to any significant increase in environmental methylmercury levels that could be reflected in high mercury concentrations in the fish. Based on these results, fish consumption from the Nungwe Bay area of the Lake Victoria does not pose any human health risks on account of very low mercury levels in the fish at present. Mercury concentrations in two lichen species, Parmelia and Usnea, in the Geita Forest Reserve around the Mugusu mine ranged from 0.10 to 3.10 μg/g (d.w.). The mercury concentration in the lichens decreased away from the mine village, indicating the

  7. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...... of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation, the project...

  8. Application of multivariate chemometric techniques for simultaneous determination of five parameters of cottonseed oil by single bounce attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, M Younis; Kara, Huseyin; Sherazi, S T H; Ayyildiz, H Filiz; Topkafa, Mustafa; Arslan, Fatma Nur; Naz, Saba; Durmaz, Fatih; Sirajuddin

    2014-11-01

    Single bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics was used for accurate determination of free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), conjugated diene (CD) and conjugated triene (CT) of cottonseed oil (CSO) during potato chips frying. Partial least square (PLS), stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR), principal component regression (PCR) and simple Beer׳s law (SBL) were applied to develop the calibrations for simultaneous evaluation of five stated parameters of cottonseed oil (CSO) during frying of French frozen potato chips at 170°C. Good regression coefficients (R(2)) were achieved for FFA, PV, IV, CD and CT with value of >0.992 by PLS, SMLR, PCR, and SBL. Root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was found to be less than 1.95% for all determinations. Result of the study indicated that SB-ATR FTIR in combination with multivariate chemometrics could be used for accurate and simultaneous determination of different parameters during the frying process without using any toxic organic solvent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of the physical phenomena in the transformation of the in vivo implanted coral, using radioactivation techniques, by means of X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudadesse, H.

    1989-01-01

    By radioactivation analysis, we measured quantitatively for the first time the elementary transformation of coral in vivo. Some natural coral was implanted after having been sterilized in ovine jaws. Every month, biopsies were extracted in order to get a portion of the external cortical part, the intermediary part (initially the coral) and the internal cortical part. We measured the kinetics of the concentration of major atomic elements which constitute the biological mould such as phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, fluorine, as well as strontium of which content was abundantly found in the coral. The results show intense disturbances until the fifth month, when the mineral structure of the implanted coral becomes akin to that of bone come to maturity. In addition, with measures by diffraction by X-ray, we have followed the structural modifications by relating them to the variation in concentration of atomic elements. The coral, in the form of aragonit and stabilized by strontium as shown by neutron radioactivation crystallises in an orthorombic system. Three months after having been implanted, its structure becomes hexagonal and reaches a degree of crystallization similar to that of a bone come to maturity about the fifth month. The infrared absorption spectroscopy allowed us to fine the structure by specifying the mineral of the bone and of the implanted coral. Three months after having been implanted, the coral has become an apatite with deposit of organic substances. Moreover, a calcination at high temperature revealed a supply of phosphorus ions from the first month until the fifth month [fr

  10. Combining X-ray Absorption and X-ray Diffraction Techniques for in Situ Studies of Chemical Transformations in Heterogeneous Catalysis: Advantages and Limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, A.I.; Hanson, J.; Wang, Q.; Marinkovic, N.; Chen, J.G.; Barrio, L.; Si, R.; Lopez Camara, A.; Estrella, A.M.; Rodriguez, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in catalysis instrumentations include synchrotron-based facilities where time-resolved X-ray scattering and absorption techniques are combined in the same in situ or operando experiment to study catalysts at work. To evaluate the advances and limitations of this method, we performed a series of experiments at the new XAFS/XRD instrument in the National Synchrotron Light Source. Nearly simultaneous X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) measurements of structure and kinetics of several catalysts under reducing or oxidizing conditions have been performed and carefully analyzed. For CuFe 2 O 4 under reducing conditions, the combined use of the two techniques allowed us to obtain accurate data on kinetics of nucleation and growth of metallic Cu. For the inverse catalyst CuO/CeO 2 that underwent isothermal reduction (with CO) and oxidation (with O 2 ), the XAFS data measured in the same experiment with XRD revealed strongly disordered Cu species that went undetected by diffraction. These and other examples emphasize the unique sensitivity of these two complementary methods to follow catalytic processes in the broad ranges of length and time scales.

  11. Conformal transformations in superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao Vong Duc

    1977-01-01

    The spinor extension of the conformal algebra is investigated. The transformation law of superfields under the conformal coordinate inversion R defined in the superspace is derived. Using R-technique, the superconformally covariant two-point and three-point correlation functions are found

  12. Security Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    ... adjustment. With American military forces engaged around the world in both combat and stabilization operations, the need for rigorous and critical analysis of security transformation has never been greater...

  13. Landskabets transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2005-01-01

    Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den.......Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den....

  14. Covariant Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Kisil, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H_2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others. Keywords: Wavelets, cohe...

  15. Transforming Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Anndee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Transforming Anatomy Studying historic books allows people to witness the transformation of the world right before their very eyes. The Bruxellensis Icones Anatomicae[1] by Andreas Vesalius is a vital piece of evidence in the movement from a more rudimentary understanding of the human body into the more complex and accurate development of modern anatomy. Vesalius’ research worked to both refute and confirm findings of his predecessor, the great historical Greek philosopher, Galen...

  16. Fundamentals of algebraic graph transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrig, Hartmut; Prange, Ulrike; Taentzer, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Graphs are widely used to represent structural information in the form of objects and connections between them. Graph transformation is the rule-based manipulation of graphs, an increasingly important concept in computer science and related fields. This is the first textbook treatment of the algebraic approach to graph transformation, based on algebraic structures and category theory. Part I is an introduction to the classical case of graph and typed graph transformation. In Part II basic and advanced results are first shown for an abstract form of replacement systems, so-called adhesive high-level replacement systems based on category theory, and are then instantiated to several forms of graph and Petri net transformation systems. Part III develops typed attributed graph transformation, a technique of key relevance in the modeling of visual languages and in model transformation. Part IV contains a practical case study on model transformation and a presentation of the AGG (attributed graph grammar) tool envir...

  17. Detailed characterization of bio-oil from pyrolysis of non-edible seed-cakes by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, Vatsala; Prakash, Shanti; Ramu, Emmandi; Arora, Ajay Kumar; Bansal, Veena; Kagdiyal, Vivekanand; Saxena, Deepak

    2017-07-15

    Bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis is highly complicated mixture with valued chemicals. In order to reduce the complexity for unambiguous characterization of components present in bio-oil, solvent extractions using different solvents with increasing polarity have been adopted. The fractions have been analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for identifying the functional groups and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), for detailed characterization of components present in various fractions, thereby providing in-depth information at molecular level of various components in bio-oil. This paper reveals the potential of the analytical techniques in identification and brings out the similarities as well as differences in the components present in the bio-oil obtained from two non-edible oil seed-cakes, viz., Jatropha and Karanjia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. a partir de su respuesta en el dominio de la frecuencia. Estado mundial del arte. Parte I; Techniques of Diagnostic in Transformers from their Answer in Frequency Domain. World State of the Art. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Hernández Areu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cada día cobra más importancia en el tema de los transformadores de potencia, la necesidad del diagnósticode los mismos y la detección de averías o anomalías que pudieran surgir durante su explotación. Existenmétodos para el diagnóstico de estos equipos, a través del llamado: Análisis de la respuesta en la frecuencia(FRA; en Cuba, aún no se ha introducido ninguna técnica de esta naturaleza, pero se comienzan ainvestigar sus potencialidades y posibilidades de introducción. Inicialmente se ha realizado un estudio delas fuentes que abordan este tema. En este artículo, se presenta la primera parte de un análisis que se harealizado del estado mundial del arte sobre las técnicas de diagnóstico en transformadores a partir de surespuesta  en  el  dominio  de  la  frecuencia,  específicamente  sobre  los  métodos  de  diagnóstico  detransformadores mediante el análisis de su respuesta en frecuencia, empleando la transformada rápida defourier (FFT.  Every day it gets paid more importance in the topic of the power transformers, the necessity of the diagnosisand the failures or anomalies detection than they could arise during their exploitation.  Methods exist for thediagnosis of these equipments, through the called frequency response analysis (FRA; in Cuba, techniquesof this nature has not still been introduced, but begins to investigate its potentialities and introductionpossibilities. As beginning of this investigation process, has been carried out a study of the sources thatapproach this topic. In this article, is presented the first part of an analysis that has been carried out aboutthe state of the world art on techniques of diagnostic of transformers from its frequency domain response.This part is about those methods of diagnostic of transformers by means of the analysis of their frequencyresponse, using the fast fourier transformed (FFT.

  19. Analysis of transient signals by Wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penha, Rosani Libardi da; Silva, Aucyone A. da; Ting, Daniel K.S.; Oliveira Neto, Jose Messias de

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work is to apply the Wavelet Transform in transient signals. The Wavelet technique can outline the short time events that are not easily detected using traditional techniques. In this work, the Wavelet Transform is compared with Fourier Transform, by using simulated data and rotor rig data. This data contain known transients. The wavelet could follow all the transients, what do not happen to the Fourier techniques. (author)

  20. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  1. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  2. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  3. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  4. Superconducting transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting transformer having a winding arrangement that provides for current limitation when subjected to a current transient as well as more efficient utilization of radial spacing and winding insulation. Structural innovations disclosed include compressed conical shaped winding layers and a resistive matrix to promote rapid switching of current between parallel windings

  5. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

  6. Transforming Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Dahl Højgaard, Pia

    2017-01-01

    , was a result of transforming society from a feudal system to a capitalistic and market based economy. This story is interesting in itself - but it also provides a key to understanding the cadastral system of today. The system has evolved over time and now serves a whole range of functions in society. The paper...

  7. Case report of a modified Meso-Rex bypass as a treatment technique for late-onset portal vein cavernous transformation with portal hypertension after adult deceased-donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongdong; Tang, Rui; Wang, Liang; Li, Ang; Huang, Xin; Shen, Shan; Dong, Jiahong

    2017-06-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is a complication after liver transplantation and cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV) is a result of portal vein thrombosis, with symptoms of portal hypertension revealed by an enhanced CT scan. Meso-Rex bypass is an artificial shunt connecting the left portal vein to the superior mesenteric vein and is mainly used for idiopathic cavernomas. This technique is also used for post-transplant portal vein thrombosis in pediatric patients thereby bypassing obstructed sites of the extrahepatic portal vein. Here we report about an adult patient who was treated by connecting the cystic part of the portal vein to the splenic vein instead of the superior mesenteric vein. An adult male patient with post-liver transplantation portal vein cavernous transformation suffered from hypersplenism and elevated hepatic enzymes. The last follow up revealed irregular and obvious hypersplenism, and splenomegaly had occurred, while an enhanced CT scan revealed serious esophagogastric varices and CTPV in addition to occluded right and common PV trunks. The patient was treated by connecting the cystic part of the portal vein to the splenic vein instead of the superior mesenteric vein. After the operation, a satisfactory velocity was confirmed 1 month postoperatively and the shunt still remained patent at the 6-month postoperation follow-up. A Meso-Rex bypass intervention connecting the left portal vein to the splenic vein instead of the superior mesenteric vein after liver transplantation in an adult patient with right and common portal vein occlusions has been successfully performed as an alternative approach.

  8. From Pre-Revolutionary Study of Religion to Soviet Religious Studies: a Transformation of Scientific Method and Research Techniques and the Formation of the Soviet Way of Dealing with Religious Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Antonov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author attempts a step by step analysis of the way religion was studied during the Soviet period. Discussing the way Soviet techniques differed from those of the Tsarist period, the author insists that any idea of a normal progression of ideas must be rejected and that instead we are dealing with a transformation of basic principles and a definitive break with the past. In the first part of his article, the author reviews the transformation of the way religion was dealt with from 1910 until the beginning of the 1930's with the aid of some key concepts put forth by Michel Foucault in his Archeology of Knowledge. Following the suggestions of Imre Lakatos regarding a research programs, the author describes the contributions of the main directives of religious thought during this period: the programs dealing with the spiritual-academic, religious-philosophical, and anthropological sectors. The author concludes by describing the main phases of development, the characteristic aspects, and the particularities of the Soviet approach to religion. The forgoing analysis permits the author to conclude that the Soviet approach to religion represents in no way a development but rather a complete break with pre-revolutionary ways of looking at religion and must be treated as a specific phenomenon. Neither can the Soviet approach, judging by its basic principles, be considered to have anything in common with a normal scientific method of studying religion as this term is generally accepted today. Rather, it was a system conditioned by external factors which clearly took precedence over internal ones to the detriment of any objective study of religion.

  9. Integral transform technique for meson wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakulev, A.P.; Mikhajlov, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent paper [1] we proposed a new approach for extracting the wave function of the π-meson φ π (x) and the masses and wave functions of its first resonances from the new QCD sum rules for nondiagonal correlators obtained in [2]. Here, we test our approach using an exactly solvable toy model as an illustrating example. We demonstrate the validity of the method and suggest a pure algebraic procedure for extracting the masses and wave functions relating to the case under investigation. We also explore the stability of the procedure under perturbations of the theoretical part of the sum rule. In application to the pion case, this results not only in the mass and wave function of the first resonance (π'), but also in the estimation of π''-mass. 17 refs., 11 figs

  10. Transforming dose management techniques through technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.; Morrissey, M.

    1995-01-01

    The development of real-time radiation dosimetry, improved remote monitoring capability and the use of computerized databases and electronic data transfer has led to a significant improvement in effective dose management. This paper describes how these advances have improved occupational dose control for personnel supporting the United Kingdom's naval nuclear plants. Until recently health physics personnel have experienced high levels of occupational exposure compared to other groups, because of manual survey work, but new technology, such as virtual reality models linked with predictive computer codes and other computer based innovations in remote monitoring and telemetry based dosimetry, is reversing this situation. (UK)

  11. XML Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available XSLT style sheets are designed to transform the XML documents into something else. The two most popular parsers of the moment are the Document Object Model (DOM and the Simple API for XML (SAX. DOM is an official recommendation of the W3C (available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1, while SAX is a de facto standard. A good parser should be fast, space efficient, rich in functionality and easy to use.

  12. RF transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  13. Transformative Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency ...... is achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

  14. Rainbow Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).

  15. Hamlet's Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    1997-12-01

    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

  16. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  17. Rotary Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  18. Piezoelectric Transformers: An Historical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Vazquez Carazo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric transformers (PTs are solid-state devices that transform electrical energy into electrical energy by means of a mechanical vibration. These devices are manufactured using piezoelectric materials that are driven at resonance. With appropriate design and circuitry, it is possible to step up and step down the voltages between the input and output sections of the piezoelectric transformer, without making use of magnetic materials and obtaining excellent conversion efficiencies. The initial concept of a piezoelectric ceramic transformer was proposed by Charles A. Rosen in 1954. Since then, the evolution of piezoelectric transformers through history has been linked to the relevant work of some excellent researchers as well as to the evolution in materials, manufacturing processes, and driving circuit techniques. This paper summarizes the historical evolution of the technology.

  19. Forestry transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.

    2003-01-01

    State forestry company Lesy, s.p., Banska Bystrica have chosen Austrian state forestry company to operate as their restructuring advisor. 20 million Sk (0.142 mn Euro) were assigned to transformation of Lesy SR from a state enterprise to a state-owned joint-stock company. The whole process should take two years. The joint-stock company should be established at the beginning of next year. 'What we have to do first is to define the objectives and perspectives of this restructuring,' claims new director, Karol Vins. The new boss recalled all directors of the 26 branches. They were given a lot of freedom to trade with wood. The new management wants to establish a profit-making company. At the moment the company has total claims of 600 million Sk (14.59 million Eur) it will have to provision for

  20. Transforming vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S; Zhang, Xinwei Esther; Meleis, Afaf I

    2003-11-01

    Asian American immigrant women engaged in filial caregiving are at special risk for health problems due to complex contextual factors related to immigration, cultural traditions, and role transition. This study examines the experience of two groups of immigrant Asian American women who are caring for older parents. A total of 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American) were interviewed in a study based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The women were determined to be loyal to their traditional culture, which included strong filial values, while adapting to a new culture. Through the struggle of meeting role expectations and coping with paradox, the women mobilized personal and family resources to transform vulnerability into strength and well-being.

  1. Radioactive transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

  2. Tectonic Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2006-01-01

    The product of architecture is not only buildings and spaces. Architecture is also the development of new knowledge, organizations and techniques – all matters of technology – or so it should be. The development of technology is important to architecture itself and to society in general because i...

  3. Hough transform search for continuous gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Badri; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Sintes, Alicia M.; Schutz, Bernard F.; Frasca, Sergio; Palomba, Cristiano

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an incoherent method to search for continuous gravitational waves based on the Hough transform, a well-known technique used for detecting patterns in digital images. We apply the Hough transform to detect patterns in the time-frequency plane of the data produced by an earth-based gravitational wave detector. Two different flavors of searches will be considered, depending on the type of input to the Hough transform: either Fourier transforms of the detector data or the output of a coherent matched-filtering type search. We present the technical details for implementing the Hough transform algorithm for both kinds of searches, their statistical properties, and their sensitivities

  4. Spectrometric techniques 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume II provides information pertinent to vacuum ultraviolet techniques to complete the demonstration of the diversity of methods available to the spectroscopist interested in the ultraviolet visible and infrared spectral regions. This book discusses the specific aspects of the technique of Fourier transform spectroscopy.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the large number of systematic effects in the recording of an interferogram. This text then examines the design approach for a Fourier transform spectrometer with focus on optics.

  5. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huanyang; Chan, C T

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  6. Zirconia - the cinderella transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannink, R.H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Zirconia and its alloys have formed a turning point in mechanical property developments of engineering ceramics. This can be stated primarily because zirconia alloys were one of the first ceramic systems in which it was demonstrated that the mechanical properties could be tailored using careful control of composition, powder processing and thermal treatment. For the improved mechanical properties to be captured in zirconia-based or containing ceramics, control of the tetragonal to monoclinic transformation is required. Through microstructural control, zirconia-based ceramics can be tailored to form some of the strongest and toughest ceramics yet developed. By carefully controlling the use of various dopants (alloying additions), a variety of microstructures can be produced all of which may exhibit transformation toughening. While success in capturing the benefits of transformation toughening relies on adequate powder processing techniques, this review is restricted to outlining the phase control and behaviour that make zirconia and its alloys such a scientifically fascinating and rewarding system for study and a commercially appealing ceramic material

  7. Transforming giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  8. Transformer design principles with applications to core-form power transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Del Vecchio, Robert M; Feeney, Mary-Ellen F

    2001-01-01

    Transformer Design Principles presents the theory of transformer operation and the methods and techniques of designing them. It emphasizes the physical principles and mathematical tools for simulating transformer behavior, including modern computer techniques. The scope of the book includes types of construction, circuit analysis, mechanical aspects of design, high voltage insulation requirements, and cooling design. The authors also address test procedures and reliability methods to assure successful design and discuss the economic analysis of designs. Summarizing material currently scattered

  9. Transformative Theory in Social Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    Social-scientific theory usually represents an attempt to describe or explain social phenomena and, sometimes, to criticize them. However, a theory can be transformative in the sense that in using and testing it, researchers may help practitioners transform and improve their social conditions......, institutions or organisations. This idea is illustrated by a research-and-development effort to help conference organisers develop meeting formats that create more learning among delegates than is accomplished by the conventional, lecture-based format. This effort was based on a (transformative) theory...... of conferences as forums for learning and "human co-flourishing." Seventeen learning techniques were derived from the theory and were tested as hypotheses: When implemented in 30 live experiments, did they contribute to learning, as specified by the theory? Properties of transformative theory that distinguish...

  10. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand

    2015-01-01

    The use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation for achieving genetic transformation of fungi has steadily increased over the last decade, and has proven to be almost universally applicable technique once suitable selection markers have been developed. In recent years the major...... technical advances has been made within the initial steps of the process, more specifically the efficient construction of plasmids for performing targeted genome modifications. This chapter provides a generic protocol for performing genetic transformation of ascomycetes via A. tumefaciens......-mediated transformation (AMT) and guidelines for optimizing the AMT process with new fungal species. The chapter also includes a highly efficient vector construction system based on Uracil Specific Excisions Reagent (USER) cloning and specific PCR generated building blocks, which can be combined ad hoc to create complex...

  11. Fast delta Hadamard transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Weston, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    In many fields (e.g., spectroscopy, imaging spectroscopy, photoacoustic imaging, coded aperture imaging) binary bit patterns known as m sequences are used to encode (by multiplexing) a series of measurements in order to obtain a larger throughput. The observed measurements must be decoded to obtain the desired spectrum (or image in the case of coded aperture imaging). Decoding in the past has used a technique called the fast Hadamard transform (FHT) whose chief advantage is that it can reduce the computational effort from N 2 multiplies of N log 2 N additions or subtractions. However, the FHT has the disadvantage that it does not readily allow one to sample more finely than the number of bits used in the m sequence. This can limit the obtainable resolution and cause confusion near the sample boundaries (phasing errors). Both 1-D and 2-D methods (called fast delta Hadamard transforms, FDHT) have been developed which overcome both of the above limitations. Applications of the FDHT are discussed in the context of Hadamard spectroscopy and coded aperture imaging with uniformly redundant arrays. Special emphasis has been placed on how the FDHT can unite techniques used by both of these fields into the same mathematical basis

  12. How to make a bridge between transformation and analysis technologies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinju, J.J.; Cordy, J.R.; Cordy, J.R.; Lämmel, R.; Winter, A.

    2006-01-01

    At the Dagstuhl seminar on Transformation Techniques in Software Engineering we had an organized discussion on the intricacies of engineering practicle connections between software analysis and software transformation tools. This abstract summarizes it. This discussion contributes mainly by

  13. Geometric Transformations in Engineering Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Borovikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, for business purposes, in view of current trends and world experience in training engineers, research and faculty staff there has been a need to transform traditional courses of descriptive geometry into the course of engineering geometry in which the geometrical transformations have to become its main section. On the basis of critical analysis the paper gives suggestions to improve a presentation technique of this section both in the classroom and in academic literature, extend an application scope of geometrical transformations to solve the position and metric tasks and simulation of surfaces, as well as to design complex engineering configurations, which meet a number of pre-specified conditions.The article offers to make a number of considerable amendments to the terms and definitions used in the existing courses of descriptive geometry. It draws some conclusions and makes the appropriate proposals on feasibility of coordination in teaching the movement transformation in the courses of analytical and descriptive geometry. This will provide interdisciplinary team teaching and allow students to be convinced that a combination of analytical and graphic ways to solve geometric tasks is useful and reasonable.The traditional sections of learning courses need to be added with a theory of projective and bi-rational transformations. In terms of application simplicity and convenience it is enough to consider the central transformations when solving the applied tasks. These transformations contain a beam of sub-invariant (low-invariant straight lines on which the invariant curve induces non-involution and involution projectivities. The expediency of nonlinear transformations application is shown in the article by a specific example of geometric modeling of the interfacing surface "spar-blade".Implementation of these suggestions will contribute to a real transformation of a traditional course of descriptive geometry to the engineering geometry

  14. The Bargmann transform and canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns a relationship between the kernel of the Bargmann transform and the corresponding canonical transformation. We study this fact for a Bargmann transform introduced by Thomas and Wassell [J. Math. Phys. 36, 5480-5505 (1995)]--when the configuration space is the two-sphere S 2 and for a Bargmann transform that we introduce for the three-sphere S 3 . It is shown that the kernel of the Bargmann transform is a power series in a function which is a generating function of the corresponding canonical transformation (a classical analog of the Bargmann transform). We show in each case that our canonical transformation is a composition of two other canonical transformations involving the complex null quadric in C 3 or C 4 . We also describe quantizations of those two other canonical transformations by dealing with spaces of holomorphic functions on the aforementioned null quadrics. Some of these quantizations have been studied by Bargmann and Todorov [J. Math. Phys. 18, 1141-1148 (1977)] and the other quantizations are related to the work of Guillemin [Integ. Eq. Operator Theory 7, 145-205 (1984)]. Since suitable infinite linear combinations of powers of the generating functions are coherent states for L 2 (S 2 ) or L 2 (S 3 ), we show finally that the studied Bargmann transforms are actually coherent states transforms

  15. Transforming Research Management Systems at Mayo Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven C.; Gronseth, Darren L.

    2011-01-01

    In order for research programs at academic medical centers and universities to survive and thrive in the increasingly challenging economic, political and regulatory environment, successful transformation is extremely important. Transformation and quality management techniques are increasingly well established in medical practice organizations. In…

  16. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  17. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  18. Image encryption using the fractional wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilardy, Juan M; Useche, J; Torres, C O; Mattos, L

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a technique for the coding of digital images is developed using Fractional Wavelet Transform (FWT) and random phase masks (RPMs). The digital image to encrypt is transformed with the FWT, after the coefficients resulting from the FWT (Approximation, Details: Horizontal, vertical and diagonal) are multiplied each one by different RPMs (statistically independent) and these latest results is applied an Inverse Wavelet Transform (IWT), obtaining the encrypted digital image. The decryption technique is the same encryption technique in reverse sense. This technique provides immediate advantages security compared to conventional techniques, in this technique the mother wavelet family and fractional orders associated with the FWT are additional keys that make access difficult to information to an unauthorized person (besides the RPMs used), thereby the level of encryption security is extraordinarily increased. In this work the mathematical support for the use of the FWT in the computational algorithm for the encryption is also developed.

  19. Crystal structure transformation in potassium acrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai Verneker, V. R.; Vasanthakumari, R.

    1983-10-01

    Potassium acrylate undergoes a reversible phase transformation around 335°K with an activation energy of 133 kcal/mole. Differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature X-ray powder diffraction techniques have been used to probe this phenomenon.

  20. Laplace transforms and the American straddle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alobaidi

    2002-01-01

    partial Laplace transform techniques due to Evans et al. (1950 to derive a pair of integral equations giving the locations of the optimal exercise boundaries for an American straddle option with a constant dividend yield.

  1. Army Maintenance System Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbertson, Frank V

    2006-01-01

    .... Used in conjunction with pertinent historical data and developed with Army transformation goals in mind, General Systems thinking can provide the framework for guiding maintenance transformation...

  2. A Posteriori Restoration of Block Transform-Compressed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.; Boden, A. F.

    1995-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft will use lossy data compression for the transmission of its science imagery over the low-bandwidth communication system. The technique chosen for image compression is a block transform technique based on the Integer Cosine Transform, a derivative of the JPEG image compression standard. Considered here are two known a posteriori enhancement techniques, which are adapted.

  3. Verifying Temporal Properties of Reactive Systems by Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    We show how program transformation techniques can be used for the verification of both safety and liveness properties of reactive systems. In particular, we show how the program transformation technique distillation can be used to transform reactive systems specified in a functional language into a simplified form that can subsequently be analysed to verify temporal properties of the systems. Example systems which are intended to model mutual exclusion are analysed using these techniques with...

  4. Negotiated Grammar Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Zaytsev (Vadim)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, we study controlled adaptability of metamodel transformations. We consider one of the most rigid metamodel transformation formalisms — automated grammar transformation with operator suites, where a transformation script is built in such a way that it is essentially meant

  5. On Hurwitz transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.; Hage Hassan, M.

    1991-04-01

    A bibliography on the Hurwitz transformations is given. We deal here, with some details, with two particular Hurwitz transformations, viz, the R 4 → R 3 Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation and its R 8 → R 5 compact extension. These transformations are derived in the context of Fock-Bargmann-Schwinger calculus with special emphasis on angular momentum theory

  6. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  7. Improving Your Data Transformations: Applying the Box-Cox Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Osborne

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of us in the social sciences deal with data that do not conform to assumptions of normality and/or homoscedasticity/homogeneity of variance. Some research has shown that parametric tests (e.g., multiple regression, ANOVA can be robust to modest violations of these assumptions. Yet the reality is that almost all analyses (even nonparametric tests benefit from improved the normality of variables, particularly where substantial non-normality is present. While many are familiar with select traditional transformations (e.g., square root, log, inverse for improving normality, the Box-Cox transformation (Box & Cox, 1964 represents a family of power transformations that incorporates and extends the traditional options to help researchers easily find the optimal normalizing transformation for each variable. As such, Box-Cox represents a potential best practice where normalizing data or equalizing variance is desired. This paper briefly presents an overview of traditional normalizing transformations and how Box-Cox incorporates, extends, and improves on these traditional approaches to normalizing data. Examples of applications are presented, and details of how to automate and use this technique in SPSS and SAS are included.

  8. Técnicas de diagnóstico en transformadores a partir de su respuesta en el dominio de la frecuencia. Estado mundial del arte. Parte II; Techniques of Diagnostic in Transformers from their Answer in Frequency Domain. World State of the Art. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Hernández Areu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre los métodos para el diagnóstico de transformadores de potencia se encuentran los métodos de detecciónde averías a través del llamado análisis de la respuesta en la frecuencia (FRA. En un artículo anterior, sepresentó la primera parte del estudio que se ha realizado del estado mundial del arte sobre las técnicas dediagnóstico de transformadores a partir de su respuesta en el dominio de la frecuencia y empleando latransformada rápida de Fourier (FFT. Esta segunda parte, trata específicamente, sobre los métodos dediagnóstico de transformadores mediante el análisis de la respuesta a un barrido de frecuencia (SFRA, sin lautilización de  la transformada rápida de Fourier (FFT.  In the methods for the diagnosis of power transformers there are the failure detection methods called frequencyresponse analysis (FRA. In a previous article, the first part of a study that has been carried out about theworld art state on the techniques of diagnostic in transformers from its response in the frequency domain andusing the fast Fourier transformed (FFT, was presented.This second part, tries specifically about the methodsof diagnostic of transformers by means of the sweeping frequency response analysis (SFRA, without usingthe fast Fourier tansformed (FFT.

  9. Methods for genetic transformation of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Tang, Yu; Lin, Jun; Cai, Weiwen

    2017-10-03

    Filamentous fungi have been of great interest because of their excellent ability as cell factories to manufacture useful products for human beings. The development of genetic transformation techniques is a precondition that enables scientists to target and modify genes efficiently and may reveal the function of target genes. The method to deliver foreign nucleic acid into cells is the sticking point for fungal genome modification. Up to date, there are some general methods of genetic transformation for fungi, including protoplast-mediated transformation, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, electroporation, biolistic method and shock-wave-mediated transformation. This article reviews basic protocols and principles of these transformation methods, as well as their advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Radiogenic cell transformation and carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Mei, M.; Durante, M.; Craise, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation carcinogenesis is one of the major biological effects considered important in the risk assessment for space travel. Various biological model systems, including both cultured cells and animals, have been found useful for studying the carcinogenic effects of space radiations, which consist of energetic electrons, protons and heavy ions. The development of techniques for studying neoplastic cell transformation in culture has made it possible to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. Cultured cell systems are thus complementary to animal models. Many investigators have determined the oncogenic effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation in cultured mammalian cells. One of the cell systems used most often for radiation transformation studies is mouse embryonic cells (C3H10T1/2), which are easy to culture and give good quantitative dose-response curves. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for heavy ions with various energies and linear energy transfer (LET) have been obtained with this cell system. Similar RBE and LET relationship was observed by investigators for other cell systems. In addition to RBE measurements, fundamental questions on repair of sub- and potential oncogenic lesions, direct and indirect effect, primary target and lesion, the importance of cell-cell interaction and the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in radiogenic carcinogenesis have been studied, and interesting results have been found. Recently several human epithelial cell systems have been developed, and ionizing radiation have been shown to transform these cells. Oncogenic transformation of these cells, however, requires a long expression time and/or multiple radiation exposures. Limited experimental data indicate high-LET heavy ions can be more effective than low-LET radiation in inducing cell transformation. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses can be performed with cloned transformants to provide insights into basic genetic

  11. Transforming the Way We Teach Function Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkenberry, Eileen Durand; Faulkenberry, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss "function," a well-defined rule that relates inputs to outputs. They have found that by using the input-output definition of "function," they can examine transformations of functions simply by looking at changes to input or output and the respective changes to the graph. Applying transformations to the input…

  12. Three dimensional canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmen, A.

    2010-01-01

    A generic construction of canonical transformations is given in three-dimensional phase spaces on which Nambu bracket is imposed. First, the canonical transformations are defined as based on cannonade transformations. Second, it is shown that determination of the generating functions and the transformation itself for given generating function is possible by solving correspondent Pfaffian differential equations. Generating functions of type are introduced and all of them are listed. Infinitesimal canonical transformations are also discussed as the complementary subject. Finally, it is shown that decomposition of canonical transformations is also possible in three-dimensional phase spaces as in the usual two-dimensional ones.

  13. A novel approach to transformed biometrics using successive projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, E. S.

    2010-02-01

    Unlike user created password, number of biometrics is limited for creating account in different organizations. Transformed biometrics attempts to solve the problem by transforming the biometric into another form, which is unique to the particular organization. This makes the availability of different transformed biometrics in different organizations transformed from the same biometrics and helps in foolproof transactions. In this article a novel approach to transformed biometrics using successive projection technique is suggested .In the proposed technique, the user can register up to 5*4n-1 organizations if the length of the biometric password is 'n'.

  14. Redifferentiation of human hepatoma cells (SMMC-7721) induced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Conventional cancer therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy ... Based on the above investigations, we next decided to extend the ... vivo and in clinical trials. ... (Zingiber officinale); Journal of Natural Products 57 658–662.

  15. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ganikhodjaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular.

  16. Chemical Transformation Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical Transformation Simulator (CTS) is a web-based, high-throughput screening tool that automates the calculation and collection of physicochemical properties for an organic chemical of interest and its predicted products resulting from transformations in environmental sy...

  17. Diffusionless phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejman, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    Diffusionless phase transformations in metals and alloys in the process of which atomic displacements occur at the distances lower than interatomic ones and relative correspondence of neighbour atoms is preserved, are considered. Special attention is paid to the mechanism of martensitic transformations. Phenomenologic crystallographical theory of martensitic transformations are presented. Two types of martensitic transformations different from the energy viewpoint are pointed out - thermoelastic and non-thermoelastic ones - which are characterized by transformation hysteresis and ways of martensite - initial phase reverse transformation realization. Mechanical effect in the martensitic transformations have been analyzed. The problem of diffusionless formation of ω-phases and the effect of impurities and vacancies on the process are briefly discussed. The role of charge density waves in phase transformations of the second type (transition of initial phase into noncommensurate one) and of the first type (transition of noncommensurate phase into commensurate one) is considered

  18. Equations For Rotary Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Phil M.; Wiktor, Peter J.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1988-01-01

    Equations derived for input impedance, input power, and ratio of secondary current to primary current of rotary transformer. Used for quick analysis of transformer designs. Circuit model commonly used in textbooks on theory of ac circuits.

  19. Entropy of Baker's Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾长福

    2003-01-01

    Four theorems about four different kinds of entropies for Baker's transformation are presented. The Kolmogorov entropy of Baker's transformation is sensitive to the initial flips by the time. The topological entropy of Baker's transformation is found to be log k. The conditions for the state of Baker's transformation to be forbidden are also derived. The relations among the Shanonn, Kolmogorov, topological and Boltzmann entropies are discussed in details.

  20. Kinetics of hydrothermally induced transformation of yttria partially stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payyapilly, J.J.; Butt, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia undergoes tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation under hydrothermal conditions in the temperature range of 150-350 deg. C. Phase transformation accompanied by volume change in bulk yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YPSZ) leads to micro-cracking, loss of mechanical integrity and ultimately disintegration. The mechanical properties of the bulk YPSZ material deteriorate with the amount of the phase transformation and in some cases catastrophic failure are observed. The phase transformation is analyzed using macroscopic and microscopic techniques. X-ray diffraction data is used to quantify the phase transformation in bulk material. Kinetics of the phase transformation is studied at various temperatures

  1. Electrostatic shielding of transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, Francisco

    2017-11-28

    Toroidal transformers are currently used only in low-voltage applications. There is no published experience for toroidal transformer design at distribution-level voltages. Toroidal transformers are provided with electrostatic shielding to make possible high voltage applications and withstand the impulse test.

  2. Defense Business Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Defense Business Transformation by Jacques S. Gansler and William Lucyshyn The Center for Technology and National...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Business Transformation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...vii Part One: DoD Business Transformation

  3. Transforming the Force and Logistics Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Katherine M

    2006-01-01

    U.S. Army transformation strategy addresses the imperative to change the Army from a Cold War-oriented design to one that is more responsive, agile, and adaptable to present and emerging threats across...

  4. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Saliva Samples by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Spanish Edition); Introduccion a la determinacion de la composicion corporal mediante la tecnica de dilucion de deuterio con analisis de muestras de saliva por espectrometria infrarroja por transformada de Fourier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    For many years, the IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. The objective is to support national and regional nutrition projects through both the IAEA's technical cooperation programme and its coordinated research projects. In particular, during the last few years, the increased access to analyses of deuterium enrichment by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry has increased the application of this technique in Africa, Asia and Latin America. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical, hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where the analysis of deuterium enrichment in saliva samples will be made by FTIR. It is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical application of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in an IAEA publication entitled Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques (IAEA Human Health Series No. 3)

  5. The value of the indirect immunoradiometric assay of serum alpha - fetoprotein in detecting liver regeneration and neoplastic transformation in chronic liver disease. Part of a coordinated programme on in vitro assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voiculetz, N.

    1979-07-01

    To investigate the concentration of alphafetoprotein AFP in different liver diseases and above all in liver cancer the immunoradiometric assay was utilized. The results of AFP studies were compared with regeneration index, blastic T lymphocytes transformation as well as other morphological and biochemical data. The results of the investigations indicated that: 38% of chronic benign hepatopathies displayed the values of serum AFP in normal ranges, 54% were in the range of 41 - 200ng/ml, and 8% showed 200 and more ng/ml. The most important conclusion from the work performed was that the elevation of serum AFP level in the evaluation of chronic hepatopathies, especially in cirrhoses, appears as an index of malignancy

  6. Fractional finite Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Kedar; George, Nicholas

    2004-07-01

    We show that a fractional version of the finite Fourier transform may be defined by using prolate spheroidal wave functions of order zero. The transform is linear and additive in its index and asymptotically goes over to Namias's definition of the fractional Fourier transform. As a special case of this definition, it is shown that the finite Fourier transform may be inverted by using information over a finite range of frequencies in Fourier space, the inversion being sensitive to noise. Numerical illustrations for both forward (fractional) and inverse finite transforms are provided.

  7. Comparison of Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform to study echo-planar imaging flow maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P. [Area de Procesamiento Digital de Senales e Imagenes Biomedicas. Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. Mexico D.F. 09340 Mexico (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)

  8. Comparison of Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform to study echo-planar imaging flow maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P.

    1998-01-01

    Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)

  9. The fractional Fourier transform and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David H.; Swarztrauber, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the 'fractional Fourier transform', which admits computation by an algorithm that has complexity proportional to the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Whereas the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is based on integral roots of unity e exp -2(pi)i/n, the fractional Fourier transform is based on fractional roots of unity e exp -2(pi)i(alpha), where alpha is arbitrary. The fractional Fourier transform and the corresponding fast algorithm are useful for such applications as computing DFTs of sequences with prime lengths, computing DFTs of sparse sequences, analyzing sequences with noninteger periodicities, performing high-resolution trigonometric interpolation, detecting lines in noisy images, and detecting signals with linearly drifting frequencies. In many cases, the resulting algorithms are faster by arbitrarily large factors than conventional techniques.

  10. Efficient selection of banks of transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia G, Grester; De Armas T, Marcos A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper show a procedure to select the most profitable transformer banks in an specific service or in new investments with emphasis in the reduction of the operational losses, the cost in useful life, and the increase of the system efficiency using techniques of artificial intelligence. The method constitutes a tool that can be used in field conditions without invasive test and with data of easy acquisition according to the state of the art. The program was developed to analyze any type of transformers or transformer bank connection? single phase, three phase transformers or two or three transformers in symmetric or asymmetric configuration for three phase and single phase services. The economic analysis is made by the Cost of Cycle Life (CCV) of the analyzed configuration. As a case the results obtained in the gas station La Calzada of the Cienfuegos municipality is presented.

  11. Signals and transforms in linear systems analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wasylkiwskyj, Wasyl

    2013-01-01

    Signals and Transforms in Linear Systems Analysis covers the subject of signals and transforms, particularly in the context of linear systems theory. Chapter 2 provides the theoretical background for the remainder of the text. Chapter 3 treats Fourier series and integrals. Particular attention is paid to convergence properties at step discontinuities. This includes the Gibbs phenomenon and its amelioration via the Fejer summation techniques. Special topics include modulation and analytic signal representation, Fourier transforms and analytic function theory, time-frequency analysis and frequency dispersion. Fundamentals of linear system theory for LTI analogue systems, with a brief account of time-varying systems, are covered in Chapter 4 . Discrete systems are covered in Chapters 6 and 7.  The Laplace transform treatment in Chapter 5 relies heavily on analytic function theory as does Chapter 8 on Z -transforms. The necessary background on complex variables is provided in Appendix A. This book is intended to...

  12. Full three-dimensional isotropic transformation media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Meca, C; Martí, J; Martínez, A; Ortuño, R

    2014-01-01

    We present a method that enables the implementation of full three-dimensional (3D) transformation media with minimized anisotropy. It is based on a special kind of shape-preserving mapping and a subsequent optimization process. For sufficiently smooth transformations, the resulting anisotropy can be neglected, paving the way for practically realizable 3D devices. The method is independent of the considered wave phenomenon and can thus be applied to any field for which a transformational technique exists, such as acoustics or thermodynamics. Full 3D isotropy has an additional important implication for optical transformation media, as it eliminates the need for magnetic materials in many situations. To illustrate the potential of the method, we design 3D counterparts of transformation-based electromagnetic squeezers and bends. (paper)

  13. Nonsynchronous Noncommensurate Impedance Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Kim, K

    2012-01-01

    Nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformers consist of a combination of two types of transmission lines: transmission lines with a characteristic impedance equal to the impedance of the source, and transmission lines with a characteristic impedance equal to the load. The practical...... advantage of such transformers is that they can be constructed using sections of transmission lines with a limited variety of characteristic impedances. These transformers also provide comparatively compact size in applications where a wide transformation ratio is required. This paper presents the data...... matrix approach and experimentally verified by synthesizing a 12-section nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformer. The measured characteristics of the transformer are compared to the characteristics of a conventional tapered line transformer....

  14. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  15. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  16. Multiresolution signal decomposition transforms, subbands, and wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    Akansu, Ali N; Haddad, Paul R

    2001-01-01

    The uniqueness of this book is that it covers such important aspects of modern signal processing as block transforms from subband filter banks and wavelet transforms from a common unifying standpoint, thus demonstrating the commonality among these decomposition techniques. In addition, it covers such ""hot"" areas as signal compression and coding, including particular decomposition techniques and tables listing coefficients of subband and wavelet filters and other important properties.The field of this book (Electrical Engineering/Computer Science) is currently booming, which is, of course

  17. Quantized Bogoliubov transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    The boson mapping of single fermion operators in a situation dominated by the pairing force gives rise to a transformation that can be considered a quantized version of the Bogoliubov transformation. This transformation can also be obtained as an exact special case of operators constructed from an approximate treatment of particle number projection, suggesting a method of obtaining the boson mapping in cases more complicated than that of pairing force domination

  18. Phase transformation and diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, G B; Dey, G K

    2008-01-01

    Given that the basic purpose of all research in materials science and technology is to tailor the properties of materials to suit specific applications, phase transformations are the natural key to the fine-tuning of the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties. A basic understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of phase transformation is therefore of vital importance. Apart from a few cases involving crystallographic martensitic transformations, all phase transformations are mediated by diffusion. Thus, proper control and understanding of the process of diffusion during nucleation, g

  19. The convolution transform

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschman, Isidore Isaac

    2005-01-01

    In studies of general operators of the same nature, general convolution transforms are immediately encountered as the objects of inversion. The relation between differential operators and integral transforms is the basic theme of this work, which is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It may be read easily by anyone with a working knowledge of real and complex variable theory. Topics include the finite and non-finite kernels, variation diminishing transforms, asymptotic behavior of kernels, real inversion theory, representation theory, the Weierstrass transform, and

  20. Coaxial pulse matching transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledenev, V.V.; Khimenko, L.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a coaxial pulse matching transformer with comparatively simple design, increased mechanical strength, and low stray inductance. The transformer design makes it easy to change the turns ratio. The circuit of the device and an expression for the current multiplication factor are presented; experiments confirm the efficiency of the transformer. Apparatus with a coaxial transformer for producing high-power pulsed magnetic fields is designed (current pulses of 1-10 MA into a load and a natural frequency of 100 kHz)

  1. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

  2. Single-particle characterization of summertime Antarctic aerosols collected at King George Island using quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey, Shila; Geng, Hong; Song, Young-Chul; Hwang, Heejin; Yoon, Young-Jun; Ahn, Kang-Ho; Ro, Chul-Un

    2011-08-01

    Single-particle characterization of Antarctic aerosols was performed to investigate the impact of marine biogenic sulfur species on the chemical compositions of sea-salt aerosols in the polar atmosphere. Quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis was used to characterize 2900 individual particles in 10 sets of aerosol samples collected between March 12 and 16, 2009 at King Sejong Station, a Korean scientific research station located at King George Island in the Antarctic. Two size modes of particles, i.e., PM(2.5-10) and PM(1.0-2.5), were analyzed, and four types of particles were identified, with sulfur-containing sea-salt particles being the most abundant, followed by genuine sea-salt particles without sulfur species, iron-containing particles, and other species including CaCO(3)/CaMg(CO(3))(2), organic carbon, and aluminosilicates. When a sulfur-containing sea-salt particle showed an atomic concentration ratio of sulfur to sodium of >0.083 (seawater ratio), it is regarded as containing nonsea-salt sulfate (nss-SO(4)(2-)) and/or methanesulfonate (CH(3)SO(3)(-)), which was supported by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared imaging measurements. These internal mixture particles of sea-salt/CH(3)SO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-) were very frequently encountered. As nitrate-containing particles were not encountered, and the air-masses for all of the samples originated from the Pacific Ocean (based on 5-day backward trajectories), the oxidation of dimethylsulfide (DMS) emitted from phytoplanktons in the ocean is most likely to be responsible for the formation of the mixed sea-salt/CH(3)SO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-) particles.

  3. A relation connecting scale transformation, Galilean transformation and Baecklund transformation for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steudel, H.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the two-parameter manifold of Baecklund transformations known for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation can be generated from one Baecklund transformation with specified parameters by use of scale transformation and Galilean transformation. (orig.)

  4. Improved Fourier-transform profilometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xianfu; Chen Wenjing; Su Xianyu

    2007-01-01

    An improved optical geometry of the projected-fringe profilometry technique, in which the exit pupil of the projecting lens and the entrance pupil of the imaging lens are neither at the same height above the reference plane nor coplanar, is discussed and used in Fourier-transform profilometry. Furthermore, an improved fringe-pattern description and phase-height mapping formula based on the improved geometrical generalization is deduced. Employing the new optical geometry, it is easier for us to obtain the full-field fringe by moving either the projector or the imaging device. Therefore the new method offers a flexible way to obtain reliable height distribution of a measured object

  5. Discrete Gabor transform and discrete Zak transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Namazi, N.M.; Matthews, K.

    1996-01-01

    Gabor's expansion of a discrete-time signal into a set of shifted and modulated versions of an elementary signal or synthesis window is introduced, along with the inverse operation, i.e. the Gabor transform, which uses an analysis window that is related to the synthesis window and with the help of

  6. Improved Conflict Detection for Graph Transformation with Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géza Kulcsár

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In graph transformation, a conflict describes a situation where two alternative transformations cannot be arbitrarily serialized. When enriching graphs with attributes, existing conflict detection techniques typically report a conflict whenever at least one of two transformations manipulates a shared attribute. In this paper, we propose an improved, less conservative condition for static conflict detection of graph transformation with attributes by explicitly taking the semantics of the attribute operations into account. The proposed technique is based on symbolic graphs, which extend the traditional notion of graphs by logic formulas used for attribute handling. The approach is proven complete, i.e., any potential conflict is guaranteed to be detected.

  7. Nonlinear wave evolution in VLASOV plasma: a lie-transform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, J.R.

    1979-08-01

    Nonlinear wave evolution in Vlasov plasma is analyzed using the Lie transform, a powerful mathematical tool which is applicable to Hamiltonian systems. The first part of this thesis is an exposition of the Lie transform. Dewar's general Lie transform theory is explained and is used to construct Deprit's Lie transform perturbation technique. The basic theory is illustrated by simple examples

  8. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  9. Genetic Transformation of Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Robert.

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students transform an ampicillin-sensitive strain of E. coli with a plasmid containing a gene for ampicillin resistance is described. The procedure for the preparation of competent cells and the transformation of competent E. coli is provided. (KR)

  10. Adaptive Wavelet Transforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szu, H.; Hsu, C. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

  11. On an integral transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Naylor

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes properties of a convolution type integral transform whose kernel is a Macdonald type Bessel function of zero order. An inversion formula is developed and the transform is applied to obtain the solution of some related integral equations.

  12. A Transformation Called "Twist"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The transformations found in secondary mathematics curriculum are typically limited to stretches and translations (e.g., ACARA, 2010). Advanced students may find the transformation, twist, to be of further interest. As most available resources are written for professional-level readers, this article is intended to be an introduction accessible to…

  13. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply.......article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply....

  14. Flames of Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr; Bille, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the transformative power of fire, its fundamental ability to change material worlds and affect our experience of its materiality. The paper examines material transformations related to death as a means of illustrating the powerful property of fire as a materially destructive yet...

  15. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power.

  16. A Selective CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Riechstein

    2001-01-01

    characterize this involvement as a control effect and we present a selective CPS transformation that makes functions and expressions continuation-passing if they have a control effect, and that leaves the rest of the program in direct style. We formalize this selective CPS transformation with an operational...

  17. Integral transformational coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, W.A.J.; Nandram, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    In Chap. 12, Keizer and Nandram present the concept of Integral Transformational Coaching based on the concept of Flow and its effects on work performance. Integral Transformational Coaching is a method that prevents and cures unhealthy stress and burnout. They draw on some tried and tested

  18. Discrimination Between Inrush and Short Circuit Currents in Differential Protection of Power Transformer Based on Correlation Method Using the Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rasoulpoor; M. Banejad; A. Ahmadyfard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel technique for transformer differential protection to prevent incorrect operation due to inrush current. The proposed method in this paper is based on time-frequency transform known as the Wavelet transform. The discrete Wavelet transform is used for analysis the differential current signals in time and frequency domains. The investigation on the energy distribution of the signal on the discrete Wavelet transform components shows the difference distribution between ...

  19. Lectures on integral transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Akhiezer, N I

    1988-01-01

    This book, which grew out of lectures given over the course of several years at Kharkov University for students in the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, is devoted to classical integral transforms, principally the Fourier transform, and their applications. The author develops the general theory of the Fourier transform for the space L^1(E_n) of integrable functions of n variables. His proof of the inversion theorem is based on the general Bochner theorem on integral transforms, a theorem having other applications within the subject area of the book. The author also covers Fourier-Plancherel theory in L^2(E_n). In addition to the general theory of integral transforms, connections are established with other areas of mathematical analysis--such as the theory of harmonic and analytic functions, the theory of orthogonal polynomials, and the moment problem--as well as to mathematical physics.

  20. The transformativity approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Isak Winkel; Lauta, Kristian Cedervall

    2017-01-01

    During the last five to ten years, a considerable body of research has begun to explore how disasters, real and imagined, trigger social transformations. Even if the contributions to this this research stems from a multitude of academic disciplines, we argue in the article, they constitute...... an identifiable and promising approach for future disaster research. We suggest naming it the transformativity approach. Whereas the vulnerability approach explores the social causation of disasters, the transformativity approach reverses the direction of the gaze and investigates the social transformation...... brought about by disasters. Put simply, the concept of vulnerability is about the upstream causes of disaster and the concept of transformativity about the downstream effects. By discussing three recent contributions (by the historian Greg Bankoff, the legal sociologist Michelle Dauber...

  1. Transformation of Digital Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    the Digital Ecosystem Technology Transformation (DETT) framework for explaining technology-based transformation of digital ecosystems by integrating theories of business and technology ecosystems. The framework depicts ecosystem transformation as distributed and emergent from micro-, meso-, and macro- level......In digital ecosystems, the fusion relation between business and technology means that the decision of technical compatibility of the offering is also the decision of how to position the firm relative to the coopetive relations that characterize business ecosystems. In this article we develop...... coopetition. The DETT framework consists an alternative to the existing explanations of digital ecosystem transformation as the rational management of one central actor balancing ecosystem tensions. We illustrate the use of the framework by a case study of transformation in the digital payment ecosystem...

  2. Business process transformation the process tangram framework

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Chitra

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a framework through transformation and explains  how business goals can be translated into realistic plans that are tangible and yield real results in terms of the top line and the bottom line. Process Transformation is like a tangram puzzle, which has multiple solutions yet is essentially composed of seven 'tans' that hold it together. Based on practical experience and intensive research into existing material, 'Process Tangram' is a simple yet powerful framework that proposes Process Transformation as a program. The seven 'tans' are: the transformation program itself, triggers, goals, tools and techniques, culture, communication and success factors. With its segregation into tans and division into core elements, this framework makes it possible to use 'pick and choose' to quickly and easily map an organization's specific requirements. Change management and process modeling are covered in detail. In addition, the book approaches managed services as a model of service delivery, which it ex...

  3. Transformational leadership behaviors in allied health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, David A; Gallagher, Helen L

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore self-reported transformational leadership behavior profiles within the six largest allied health profession groups in the National Health Service in Scotland and to determine whether factors such as seniority of grade, locus of employment, and/or leadership training have a positive influence on transformational leadership behaviors. A postal survey comprising the shorter version of the Multifactorial Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) and contextual demographic information was completed by 753 allied health professionals from four Health Board areas across Scotland who were randomly selected through a modified cluster sampling technique. The MLQ contains 36 items that measure nine identified leadership factors; however, only the responses to the five transformational leadership factors are reported here. The study identified significant differences in transformational leadership behaviors between individual allied health professions. Radiographers and podiatrists scored consistently lower than the other professional groups across the range of transformational behaviors. Seniority of grade significantly influenced the scores, with higher-graded staff reporting greater leadership behaviors (p leadership training also positively influenced transformational behaviors (p transformational leadership behaviors between individual allied health professions, indicating that some professional groups are inherently advantaged in embracing the modernization agenda. This highlights an as-yet missed opportunity for effectively targeting and evaluating multidisciplinary leadership training programs across the allied health professions.

  4. On Consistency of Operational Transformation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Randolph

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Operational Transformation (OT approach, used in many collaborative editors, allows a group of users to concurrently update replicas of a shared object and exchange their updates in any order. The basic idea of this approach is to transform any received update operation before its execution on a replica of the object. This transformation aims to ensure the convergence of the different replicas of the object, even though the operations are executed in different orders. However, designing transformation functions for achieving convergence is a critical and challenging issue. Indeed, the transformation functions proposed in the literature are all revealed incorrect. In this paper, we investigate the existence of transformation functions for a shared string altered by insert and delete operations. From the theoretical point of view, two properties – named TP1 and TP2 – are necessary and sufficient to ensure convergence. Using controller synthesis technique, we show that there are some transformation functions which satisfy only TP1 for the basic signatures of insert and delete operations. As a matter of fact, it is impossible to meet both properties TP1 and TP2 with these simple signatures.

  5. The PROSAIC Laplace and Fourier Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Integral Transform methods play an extremely important role in many branches of science and engineering. The ease with which many problems may be solved using these techniques is well known. In Electrical Engineering especially, Laplace and Fourier Transforms have been used for a long time as a way to change the solution of differential equations into trivial algebraic manipulations or to provide alternate representations of signals and data. These techniques, while seemingly overshadowed by today's emphasis on digital analysis, still form an invaluable basis in the understanding of systems and circuits. A firm grasp of the practical aspects of these subjects provides valuable conceptual tools. This tutorial paper is a review of Laplace and Fourier Transforms from an applied perspective with an emphasis on engineering applications. The interrelationship of the time and frequency domains will be stressed, in an attempt to comfort those who, after living so much of their lives in the time domain, find thinking in the frequency domain disquieting

  6. Fourier transform infrared spectrometery: an undergraduate experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, L

    2016-01-01

    Simple apparatus is developed, providing undergraduate students with a solid understanding of Fourier transform (FT) infrared (IR) spectroscopy in a hands on experiment. Apart from its application to measuring the mid-IR spectra of organic molecules, the experiment introduces several techniques with wide applicability in physics, including interferometry, the FT, digital data analysis, and control theory. (paper)

  7. Nitrogen transformations in stratified aquatic microbial ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, N. P.; Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Schramm, A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract  New analytical methods such as advanced molecular techniques and microsensors have resulted in new insights about how nitrogen transformations in stratified microbial systems such as sediments and biofilms are regulated at a µm-mm scale. A large and ever-expanding knowledge base about n...

  8. Improved transformer protection using probabilistic neural network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents a novel technique to distinguish between magnetizing inrush current and internal fault current of power transformer. An algorithm has been developed around the theme of the conventional differential protection method in which parallel combination of Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) and Power ...

  9. Power quality research techniques: advantages and disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Montoya, Francisco; Manzano Agugliaro, Francisco; Gomez Lopez, Julio; Sanchez Alguacil, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, power quality (PQ) plays a very important role in power systems. So that is why it is very important to use suitable tools allowing a precise detection of anomalies and perturbations in power systems. Given traditional analysis techniques, such as Fourier Transform, today new tools are being developed based on domain transformation, such as Wavelet Transform (WT) or S-Transform (ST), along with Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques such as Fuzzy Logic (FL) or Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). In this paper, new algorithm and mathematic techniques are reviewed and discussed, and also compared with traditional techniques, revealing the precision and superiority achieved with these new techniques. ST and WT is detailed, basically, as a tool with great scope and future in power quality analysis because of its precision, noise immunity and its contribution with quality information about PQ.

  10. Transformers and motors

    CERN Document Server

    Shultz, George

    1991-01-01

    Transformers and Motors is an in-depth technical reference which was originally written for the National Joint Apprenticeship Training Committee to train apprentice and journeymen electricians. This book provides detailed information for equipment installation and covers equipment maintenance and repair. The book also includes troubleshooting and replacement guidelines, and it contains a minimum of theory and math.In this easy-to-understand, practical sourcebook, you'll discover:* Explanations of the fundamental concepts of transformers and motors* Transformer connections and d

  11. Transforming Consumers Into Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Anna-Bertha Heeris

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore the transformational power of a new consumption and production practice, the practice of blogging, to understand its impact on consumers' identity transformations beyond their self-concept as consumers and on the blogosphere as an organizational field....... Through an exploratory study of over 12,000 blog posts from five fashion bloggers, complemented by in-depth interviews, we trace the transformation of consumer bloggers. We identify and describe three identity phases, the individual consumer, collective blogger and blogger identity phase, and two...

  12. On numerical Bessel transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, B.; Zabolitzky, J.G.

    1979-01-01

    The authors present a computer program to calculate the three dimensional Fourier or Bessel transforms and definite integrals with Bessel functions. Numerical integration of systems containing Bessel functions occurs in many physical problems, e.g. electromagnetic form factor of nuclei, all transitions involving multipole expansions at high momenta. Filon's integration rule is extended to spherical Bessel functions. The numerical error is of the order of the Simpson error term of the function which has to be transformed. Thus one gets a stable integral even at large arguments of the transformed function. (Auth.)

  13. Energy Transformation of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2014-01-01

    Due to obvious climate change, caused mainly by combustion of the fossil fuels, as well as to their modest reserves, energy transformation is under way. It is the transition from the fossil fuels to improved energy efficiency (ENEF) and renewable energy sources (RES). Leading role in the energy transformation has Germany with 'Energiewende', which among other includes closing of existing nuclear power plants until 2022. Croatia has very limited proven fossil fuels reserves, which cover 3/4 of primary energy in consumption. Croatia also has large potential for improvements in ENEF and RES. Therefore, energy transformation of Croatia is justified. (author).

  14. Biolistics Transformation of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

    We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

  15. Laplace transforms essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shafii-Mousavi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Laplace Transforms includes the Laplace transform, the inverse Laplace transform, special functions and properties, applications to ordinary linear differential equations, Fourier tr

  16. Fourier transform NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallenga, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of Fourier transformation one of the many precious legacies of the French mathematician Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, essential for understanding the link between continuous-wave (CW) and Fourier transform (FT) NMR. Although in modern FT NMR the methods used to obtain a frequency spectrum from the time-domain signal may vary greatly, from the efficient Cooley-Tukey algorithm to very elaborate iterative least-square methods based other maximum entropy method or on linear prediction, the principles for Fourier transformation are unchanged and give invaluable insight into the interconnection of many pairs of physical entities called Fourier pairs

  17. Transformations in destination texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2018-01-01

    This article takes heterogeographical approaches to understand Bollywood-induced destination transformations in Switzerland. Positioned within the theoretical field of mediatized mobility, the study contextualizes Bollywood-induced tourism in Europe the concept of texture. Textural analysis (base...

  18. Matrices and transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    1978-01-01

    Elementary, concrete approach: fundamentals of matrix algebra, linear transformation of the plane, application of properties of eigenvalues and eigenvectors to study of conics. Includes proofs of most theorems. Answers to odd-numbered exercises.

  19. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

  20. Transformation on Abandonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines a research project on the increasing quantity of abandoned houses in the depopulating rural villages, and it reports on how an attempt is made to establish a counter-practice of radical preservation based on a series of full-scale transformations of abandoned buildings. The aim...... of the transformations is to reveal and preserve material and immaterial values such as aspects of cultural heritage, local narratives, and building density. The responses of local people are used as a feedback mechanism and considered an important impact indicator. Eleven transformations of varying strategies have...... houses. Transformation prototypes are tested as present manifestations in rural villages as an alternative way to preserve buildings as well as memories....

  1. A DC Transformer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the project was to demonstrate a true direct current (DC) transformer, a new electro-mechanical component with potentially high power applications; in...

  2. Commutation and Darboux transformation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1College of Military Engineering, Pune 411 031, India. 2Department of ... Liouville equation is a particular application of the commutation method. Darboux ... transformation of a differential operator L, then there exists a differential operator A of.

  3. Retrofilling of Railroad Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    The objective of this program was to assess the effectiveness of retrofilling an askarel transformer supplied by the United States Department of Transportation with a 50 centistokes silicone fluid. The work tasks included an assessment of the electri...

  4. Dismantling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  5. Dismantling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  6. Correspondence between quantum-optical transform and classical-optical transform explored by developing Dirac's symbolic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong-yi; Hu, Li-yun

    2012-06-01

    By virtue of the new technique of performing integration over Dirac's ket-bra operators, we explore quantum optical version of classical optical transformations such as optical Fresnel transform, Hankel transform, fractional Fourier transform, Wigner transform, wavelet transform and Fresnel-Hadmard combinatorial transform etc. In this way one may gain benefit for developing classical optics theory from the research in quantum optics, or vice-versa. We cannot only find some new quantum mechanical unitary operators which correspond to the known optical transformations, deriving a new theorem for calculating quantum tomogram of density operators, but also can reveal some new classical optical transformations. For examples, we find the generalized Fresnel operator (GFO) to correspond to the generalized Fresnel transform (GFT) in classical optics. We derive GFO's normal product form and its canonical coherent state representation and find that GFO is the loyal representation of symplectic group multiplication rule. We show that GFT is just the transformation matrix element of GFO in the coordinate representation such that two successive GFTs is still a GFT. The ABCD rule of the Gaussian beam propagation is directly demonstrated in the context of quantum optics. Especially, the introduction of quantum mechanical entangled state representations opens up a new area in finding new classical optical transformations. The complex wavelet transform and the condition of mother wavelet are studied in the context of quantum optics too. Throughout our discussions, the coherent state, the entangled state representation of the two-mode squeezing operators and the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators are fully used. All these have confirmed Dirac's assertion: "...for a quantum dynamic system that has a classical analogue, unitary transformation in the quantum theory is the analogue of contact transformation in the classical theory".

  7. Distributional Watson transforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksma, A.; Snoo, H.S.V. de

    1974-01-01

    For all Watson transforms W in L2(R+) a triple of Hilbert space LG ⊂ L2(R+) ⊂ L'G is constructed such that W may be extended to L'G. These results allow the construction of a triple L ⊂ L2(R+) ⊂ L', where L is a Gelfand-Fréchet space. This leads to a theory of distributional Watson transforms.

  8. Business process transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Featuring contributions from prominent thinkers and researchers, this volume in the ""Advances in Management Information Systems"" series provides a rich set of conceptual, empirical, and introspective studies that epitomize fundamental knowledge in the area of Business Process Transformation. Processes are interpreted broadly to include operational and managerial processes within and between organizations, as well as those involved in knowledge generation. Transformation includes radical and incremental change, its conduct, management, and outcome. The editors and contributing authors pay clo

  9. Process for compound transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-29

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of using a catalytic system to chemically transform a compound (e.g., a hydrocarbon). In an embodiment, the method does not employ grafting the catalyst prior to catalysis. In particular, embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a process of hydrocarbon (e.g., C1 to C20 hydrocarbon) metathesis (e.g., alkane, olefin, or alkyne metathesis) transformation, where the process can be conducted without employing grafting prior to catalysis.

  10. Supersymmetrically transformed periodic potentials

    OpenAIRE

    C, David J. Fernandez

    2003-01-01

    The higher order supersymmetric partners of a stationary periodic potential are studied. The transformation functions associated to the band edges do not change the spectral structure. However, when the transformation is implemented for factorization energies inside of the forbidden bands, the final potential will have again the initial band structure but it can have bound states encrusted into the gaps, giving place to localized periodicity defects.

  11. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  12. Developing Global Transformational Leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsey, Jase R.; Rutti, Raina M.; Lorenz, Melanie P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant increases in training and development of global managers, little is known about the precursors of transformational leadership in Multilatinas. While prior cross-cultural literature suggests that being an autocratic leader is ideal in Multilatinas, using transformational...... leadership theory, we argue that global leaders of Multilatinas embrace a more humanistic approach to leadership because of the importance of relationships between leaders and their followers. Additionally, we argue that global leaders with high levels of cultural intelligence will have high levels...

  13. Power transformers quality assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Indrajit

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: With the view to attain higher reliability in power system operation, the quality assurance in the field of distribution and power transformers has claimed growing attention. Besides new developments in the material technology and manufacturing processes of transformers, regular diagnostic testing and maintenance of any engineering product may be ascertained by ensuring: right selection of materials and components and their quality checks. application of correct manufacturing processes any systems engineering. the user`s awareness towards preventive maintenance. The

  14. Kinetics of phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.O.; Aziz, M.J.; Stephenson, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the Materials Research Society symposium on Kinetics of Phase Transformations held in Boston, Massachusetts from November 26-29, 1990. The symposium provided a forum for research results in an exceptionally broad and interdisciplinary field. Presentations covered nearly every major class of transformations including solid-solid, liquid-solid, transport phenomena and kinetics modeling. Papers involving amorphous Si, a dominant topic at the symposium, are collected in the first section followed by sections on four major areas of transformation kinetics. The symposium opened with joint sessions on ion and electron beam induced transformations in conjunction with the Surface Chemistry and Beam-Solid Interactions: symposium. Subsequent sessions focused on the areas of ordering and nonlinear diffusion kinetics, solid state reactions and amorphization, kinetics and defects of amorphous silicon, and kinetics of melting and solidification. Seven internationally recognized invited speakers reviewed many of the important problems and recent results in these areas, including defects in amorphous Si, crystal to glass transformations, ordering kinetics, solid-state amorphization, computer modeling, and liquid/solid transformations

  15. Bar piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jiří; Pulpan, Půlpán; Rusin, Luboš

    2013-07-01

    Bar-shaped piezoelectric ceramic transformers (PTs) working in the longitudinal vibration mode (k31 mode) were studied. Two types of the transformer were designed--one with the electrode divided into two segments of different length, and one with the electrodes divided into three symmetrical segments. Parameters of studied transformers such as efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output impedances were measured. An analytical model was developed for PT parameter calculation for both two- and three-segment PTs. Neither type of bar PT exhibited very high efficiency (maximum 72% for three-segment PT design) at a relatively high transformation ratio (it is 4 for two-segment PT and 2 for three-segment PT at the fundamental resonance mode). The optimum resistive loads were 20 and 10 kΩ for two- and three-segment PT designs for the fundamental resonance, respectively, and about one order of magnitude smaller for the higher overtone (i.e., 2 kΩ and 500 Ω, respectively). The no-load transformation ratio was less than 27 (maximum for two-segment electrode PT design). The optimum input electrode aspect ratios (0.48 for three-segment PT and 0.63 for two-segment PT) were calculated numerically under no-load conditions.

  16. Extension of love wave transformation theory to laterally heterogeneous structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, F.; Panza, G.F.

    1993-08-01

    By means of the spherical-to-flat transformations for torsional waves, all the flat-transformed components of motion (two for displacement and five for stress) have been derived. This provides the formal basis necessary to treat the propagation of torsional waves in spherical 3-D structures, by using the existing flat-structure computational techniques. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Characterization of martensitic transformations using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatro, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) is a highly sensitive technique which can reveal changes in materials not detectable by other means. The goal of this project was to obtain basic information on the AE response to martensitic transformation in steel. This information will enable the use of AE for improved quality assurance testing of rough-cut component blanks and semifinished parts. The AE response was measured as a function of temperature in four steels undergoing martensitic transformation, and the AE response was compared with martensitic start temperature M/sub s/ and finish temperature M/sub f/ obtained by other methods. As measured by AE activity, M/sub s/ occurred as much as 26 0 C higher than previously reported using less sensitive measurement techniques. It was also found that 10 to 30% of an alloy of Fe-0.2% C-27% Ni transformed to martensite during one AE burst. These results show that AE can be used to study transformations both inside and outside the classical M/sub s/-M/sub f/ ranges. The findings will help to achieve the goal of using AE for quality assurance testing, and will add to the knowledge of the basic materials science of martensitic transformations

  18. Transformers analysis, design, and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Fernandez, Xose M; Turowski, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on contemporary economic, design, diagnostics, and maintenance aspects of power, instrument, and high frequency transformers, which are critical to designers for a transformer stations. The text covers such topics as shell type and superconducting transformers as well as coreless PCB and planar transformers. It emphasizes challenges and strategies in transformer design and illustrates the importance of economics in transformers management by reviewing life cycle cost design and the use of decision methods to manage risk.

  19. Impact of data transformation and preprocessing in supervised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of data transformation and preprocessing in supervised learning ... Nowadays, the ideas of integrating machine learning techniques in power system has ... The proposed algorithm used Python-based split train and k-fold model ...

  20. Transformers: analysis, design, and measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    López-Fernández, Xose M; Ertan, H. Bülent; Turowski, J

    2013-01-01

    "This book focuses on contemporary economic, design, diagnostics, and maintenance aspects of power, instrument, and high frequency transformers, which are critical to designers for a transformer stations...

  1. Roadmap on transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Martin; Pendry, John B.; Galdi, Vincenzo; Lai, Yun; Horsley, S. A. R.; Li, Jensen; Zhu, Jian; Mitchell-Thomas, Rhiannon C.; Quevedo-Teruel, Oscar; Tassin, Philippe; Ginis, Vincent; Martini, Enrica; Minatti, Gabriele; Maci, Stefano; Ebrahimpouri, Mahsa; Hao, Yang; Kinsler, Paul; Gratus, Jonathan; Lukens, Joseph M.; Weiner, Andrew M.; Leonhardt, Ulf; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Smolyaninova, Vera N.; Thompson, Robert T.; Wegener, Martin; Kadic, Muamer; Cummer, Steven A.

    2018-06-01

    Transformation optics asks, using Maxwell’s equations, what kind of electromagnetic medium recreates some smooth deformation of space? The guiding principle is Einstein’s principle of covariance: that any physical theory must take the same form in any coordinate system. This requirement fixes very precisely the required electromagnetic medium. The impact of this insight cannot be overestimated. Many practitioners were used to thinking that only a few analytic solutions to Maxwell’s equations existed, such as the monochromatic plane wave in a homogeneous, isotropic medium. At a stroke, transformation optics increases that landscape from ‘few’ to ‘infinity’, and to each of the infinitude of analytic solutions dreamt up by the researcher, there corresponds an electromagnetic medium capable of reproducing that solution precisely. The most striking example is the electromagnetic cloak, thought to be an unreachable dream of science fiction writers, but realised in the laboratory a few months after the papers proposing the possibility were published. But the practical challenges are considerable, requiring meta-media that are at once electrically and magnetically inhomogeneous and anisotropic. How far have we come since the first demonstrations over a decade ago? And what does the future hold? If the wizardry of perfect macroscopic optical invisibility still eludes us in practice, then what compromises still enable us to create interesting, useful, devices? While three-dimensional (3D) cloaking remains a significant technical challenge, much progress has been made in two dimensions. Carpet cloaking, wherein an object is hidden under a surface that appears optically flat, relaxes the constraints of extreme electromagnetic parameters. Surface wave cloaking guides sub-wavelength surface waves, making uneven surfaces appear flat. Two dimensions is also the setting in which conformal and complex coordinate transformations are realisable, and the possibilities in

  2. Reverse ray tracing for transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hung

    2015-06-29

    Ray tracing is an important technique for predicting optical system performance. In the field of transformation optics, the Hamiltonian equations of motion for ray tracing are well known. The numerical solutions to the Hamiltonian equations of motion are affected by the complexities of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic indices of the optical device. Based on our knowledge, no previous work has been conducted on ray tracing for transformation optics with extreme inhomogeneity and anisotropicity. In this study, we present the use of 3D reverse ray tracing in transformation optics. The reverse ray tracing is derived from Fermat's principle based on a sweeping method instead of finding the full solution to ordinary differential equations. The sweeping method is employed to obtain the eikonal function. The wave vectors are then obtained from the gradient of that eikonal function map in the transformed space to acquire the illuminance. Because only the rays in the points of interest have to be traced, the reverse ray tracing provides an efficient approach to investigate the illuminance of a system. This approach is useful in any form of transformation optics where the material property tensor is a symmetric positive definite matrix. The performance and analysis of three transformation optics with inhomogeneous and anisotropic indices are explored. The ray trajectories and illuminances in these demonstration cases are successfully solved by the proposed reverse ray tracing method.

  3. Control practices contribute to premature transformer failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, E.T. [Beckwith Electric Company Inc., Largo, FL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Studies of premature load tap changer (LTC) transformer failures on utility systems have shown the tap changers to be the primary contributing factor. Some of the LTC factors that lead to transformer failures include oil quality and particulate contamination; LTC contact temperature rise; contact coking; carbon film build-up; short circuit mechanical forces; and contact wear and arcing. These factors create increasing contact resistance thereby increasing voltage drop, localized heating, contact pitting, oil contamination and general deterioration. This paper discussed utility tapchanger control practices and methods of determining control functions to be activated as well as the determination of optimum settings contributing to excessive or untimely tap change operations. The transformer applications that were considered included transmission tie transformers as well as transmission distribution interface transformers. The paper discussed the circulating current paralleling method and the circulating reactive current or var sharing paralleling method. Several common practices were discussed, including basic voltage control ranges and setting effects; timing options available; LDC misapplications; first house protection methods; and various paralleling techniques. It was concluded that although there are several other methods of paralleling power transformers, many are not applicable under certain system configurations. In these applications, improper use of a paralleling method or improper setting and commissioning may cause hunting for appropriate tap positions and dramatically increase the number of tap changes, causing wear and degradation of the tap changer contacts. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Explorations in statistics: the log transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2018-06-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This thirteenth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the log transformation, an established technique that rescales the actual observations from an experiment so that the assumptions of some statistical analysis are better met. A general assumption in statistics is that the variability of some response Y is homogeneous across groups or across some predictor variable X. If the variability-the standard deviation-varies in rough proportion to the mean value of Y, a log transformation can equalize the standard deviations. Moreover, if the actual observations from an experiment conform to a skewed distribution, then a log transformation can make the theoretical distribution of the sample mean more consistent with a normal distribution. This is important: the results of a one-sample t test are meaningful only if the theoretical distribution of the sample mean is roughly normal. If we log-transform our observations, then we want to confirm the transformation was useful. We can do this if we use the Box-Cox method, if we bootstrap the sample mean and the statistic t itself, and if we assess the residual plots from the statistical model of the actual and transformed sample observations.

  5. Thermally induced phase transformation of pearl powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Guo, Yili; Ao, Ju; Yang, Jing; Lv, Guanglie; Shih, Kaimin

    2013-01-01

    The polymorphic phase transformation of thermally treated pearl powder was investigated by X-ray diffraction and thermoanalytical techniques. The phase transformation was based on quantification of the calcite content at various temperatures using Rietveld refinement analysis. The results show that the phase transformation of pearl aragonite occurred within a temperature range of 360–410 °C, which is 50–100 °C lower than the range for non-biomineralized aragonite. These thermoanalytical results suggest that the phase transformation of pearl aragonite may occur immediately after the thermal decomposition of the organic matrix in the pearl powder. An important finding is that decomposition of the organic matrix may greatly facilitate such transformation by releasing additional space for an easier structural reconstruction during the phase transformation process. - Highlights: ► Providing a new method to describe the polymorphic transition of pearl powder ► The phase transition sketch was exhibited by XRD phase quantitative analysis. ► There are dozens of degrees in advance comparing to natural aragonite. ► The phase transition occurs following the thermal decomposition of organism

  6. Transformer oil maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J. [A.F. White Ltd., Brantford, ON (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    Proactive treatment is required in the case of transformer oil, since the oil degrades over time, which could result in the potential failure of the transformer or costly repairs. A mineral-based oil is used for transformers because of its chemical properties and dielectric strength. Water and particulate are the main contaminants found in transformer oil, affecting the quality of the oil through reduced insulation. Acid that forms in the oil when reacting with oxygen is called oxidization. It reduces the heat dissipation of the transformer as the acid forms sludge which settles on the windings of the transformer. The first step in the preventive maintenance program associated with transformer oil is the testing of the oil. The base line is established through initial testing, and subsequent annual testing identifies any changes. The minimal requirements are: (1) dielectric breakdown, a measure of the voltage conducted by the oil; (2) neutralization/acid number, which detects the level of acid present in the oil; (3) interfacial tension, which identifies the presence of polar compounds; (4) colour, which displays quality, aging and the presence of contaminants; and (5) water, which decreases the dielectric breakdown voltage. The analysis of the gases present in the oil is another useful tool in a maintenance program for the determination of a possible fault such as arcing, corona or overheated connections and is accomplished through Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA). Remediation treatment includes upgrading the oil. Ideally, reclamation should be performed in the early stages of the acid buildup before sludging occurs. Onsite reclamation includes Fuller's earth processing and degasification, a process briefly described by the author.

  7. Translation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  8. Fourier techniques in X-ray timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klis, M.

    1988-01-01

    Basic principles of Fourier techniques often used in X-ray time series analysis are reviewed. The relation between the discrete Fourier transform and the continuous Fourier transform is discussed to introduce the concepts of windowing and aliasing. The relation is derived between the power spectrum

  9. Transformation electromagnetics and metamaterials fundamental principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, Douglas H

    2013-01-01

    Transformation electromagnetics is a systematic design technique for optical and electromagnetic devices that enables novel wave-material interaction properties. The associated metamaterials technology for designing and realizing optical and electromagnetic devices can control the behavior of light and electromagnetic waves in ways that have not been conventionally possible. The technique is credited with numerous novel device designs, most notably the invisibility cloaks, perfect lenses and a host of other remarkable devices.Transformation Electromagnetics and Metamaterials: Fundamental Princ

  10. Transformative Theory in Social and Organizational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2016-01-01

    and institutions. This idea is illustrated by a research-and-development project in Denmark, headed by the author, which used transformative theory to design professional conferences that are more conducive to participant learning and involvement than is the conventional, lecture-based format. A number of learning...... techniques were derived from the theory and were tested as hypotheses: When implemented in thirty live conference experiments, did they contribute to learning, as specified by the theory? Used in this manner, transformative theory may supplement the aspirations motivating change agents by some of the well...

  11. IPv4 to IPv6 Transformation Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Shin

    According to the recent observations of IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) address allocation status, it will be running out within few years. Consequently, to ensure the continuous extension of the Internet operation, introducing IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) protocol is surely needed. But at the same time, such transformation must be “smooth” for every Internet users and be compatible with today's IPv4 based practices. This paper describes several techniques and usage scenario which are discussed mainly in the IETF — Internet Engineering Task Force — and tried to be implemented as prototype products to transform today's Internet towards the IPv6 based one.

  12. Martensitic transformation in zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, Sylvain; Guenin, Gerard; Chevalier, Jerome

    2004-01-01

    We investigate by atomic force microscopy (AFM) the surface relief resulting from martensitic tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation induced by low temperature autoclave aging in ceria-stabilized zirconia. AFM appears as a very powerful tool to investigate martensite relief quantitatively and with a great precision. The crystallographic phenomenological theory is used to predict the expected relief induced by the transformation, for the particular case of lattice correspondence ABC1, where tetragonal c axis becomes the monoclinic c axis. A model for variants spatial arrangement for this lattice correspondence is proposed and validated by the experimental observations. An excellent agreement is found between the quantitative calculations outputs and the experimental measurements at nanometer scale yielded by AFM. All the observed features are explained fully quantitatively by the calculations, with discrepancies between calculations and quantitative experimental measurements within the measurements and calculations precision range. In particular, the crystallographic orientation of the transformed grains is determined from the local characteristics of transformation induced relief. It is finally demonstrated that the strain energy is the controlling factor of the surface transformation induced by low temperature autoclave treatments in this material

  13. Classification of displacive transformations: what is a martensitic transformation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J.W.; Olson, G.B.; Cohen, M.

    1995-01-01

    The displacive transformation classification proposed at ICOMAT 79 is reviewed in light of recent progress in mechanistic understanding. Issues considered include distinctions between shuffle transformation vs. self-accommodating shear, dilatation vs. shear-dominant transformation, and nucleated vs. continuous transformation. (orig.)

  14. Transformation on Abandonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm

    2017-01-01

    in an attempt to sway the residents’ attitude towards a more nuanced view on ruins, thus influencing the public discourse on rural transformation. The residents’ responses are considered a significant impact indicator, supplementary to the physical transformations themselves. As such, the responses of the local...... in the process of provoking an exchange of memories of buildings and places among the residents in rural villages. Today’s state authorized funds for demolition projects, if redirected, could easily contribute to the on-going rural transformation through integration into radical preservation strategies. Instead......-practice indicates that this anxiety may not be legitimate. Time, when stretched in a ruination process or prolonged demolition, acts similarly to a mourning process, thus creating an exchange of memories of what is lost....

  15. Integrated magnetic transformer assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics transformer assembly comprising a first magnetically permeable core forming a first substantially closed magnetic flux path and a second magnetically permeable core forming a second substantially closed magnetic flux path. A first input...... inductor winding is wound around a first predetermined segment of the first magnetically permeable core and a second input inductor winding is wound around a first predetermined segment of the second magnetically permeable core. The integrated magnetics transformer assembly further comprises a first output......-winding of the first output inductor winding and the first half-winding of the second output inductor winding are configured to produce aligned, i.e. in the same direction, magnetic fluxes through the first substantially closed magnetic flux path. The integrated magnetics transformer assembly is well- suited for use...

  16. Nonlocal transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldi, Giuseppe; Galdi, Vincenzo; Alù, Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2012-02-10

    We show that the powerful framework of transformation optics may be exploited for engineering the nonlocal response of artificial electromagnetic materials. Relying on the form-invariant properties of coordinate-transformed Maxwell's equations in the spectral domain, we derive the general constitutive "blueprints" of transformation media yielding prescribed nonlocal field-manipulation effects and provide a physically incisive and powerful geometrical interpretation in terms of deformation of the equifrequency contours. In order to illustrate the potentials of our approach, we present an example of application to a wave-splitting refraction scenario, which may be implemented via a simple class of artificial materials. Our results provide a systematic and versatile framework which may open intriguing venues in dispersion engineering of artificial materials.

  17. Phase transformation of dental zirconia following artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Thomas J; Lawson, Nathaniel C; Janowski, Gregg M; Burgess, John O

    2015-10-01

    Low-temperature degradation (LTD) of yttria-stabilized zirconia can produce increased surface roughness with a concomitant decrease in strength. This study determined the effectiveness of artificial aging (prolonged boiling/autoclaving) to induce LTD of Y-TZP (yttria-tetragonal zirconia-polycrystals) and used artificial aging for transformation depth progression analyses. The null hypothesis is aging techniques tested produce the same amount of transformation, transformation is not time/temperature dependent and LTD causes a constant transformation throughout the Y-TZP samples. Dental-grade Y-TZP samples were randomly divided into nine subgroups (n = 5): as received, 3.5 and 7 day boiling, 1 bar autoclave (1, 3, 5 h), and 2 bar autoclave (1, 3, 5 h). A 4-h boil treatment (n = 2) was performed post-experiment for completion of data. Transformation was measured using traditional X-ray diffraction and low-angle X-ray diffraction. The fraction of t → m transformation increased with aging time. The 3.5 day boil and 2 bar 5 h autoclave produced similar transformation results, while the 7 day boiling treatment revealed the greatest transformation. The surface layer of the aged specimen underwent the most transformation while all samples displayed decreasing transformation with depth. Surface transformation was evident, which can lead to rougher surfaces and increased wear of opposing dentition/materials. Therefore, wear studies addressing LTD of Y-TZP are needed utilizing accelerated aging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Gear Fault Detection Based on Teager-Huang Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gear fault detection based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD and Teager Kaiser Energy Operator (TKEO technique is presented. This novel method is named as Teager-Huang transform (THT. EMD can adaptively decompose the vibration signal into a series of zero mean Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs. TKEO can track the instantaneous amplitude and instantaneous frequency of the Intrinsic Mode Functions at any instant. The experimental results provide effective evidence that Teager-Huang transform has better resolution than that of Hilbert-Huang transform. The Teager-Huang transform can effectively diagnose the fault of the gear, thus providing a viable processing tool for gearbox defect detection and diagnosis.

  19. Discrete Fourier Transform in a Complex Vector Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An image-based phase retrieval technique has been developed that can be used on board a space based iterative transformation system. Image-based wavefront sensing is computationally demanding due to the floating-point nature of the process. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) calculation is presented in "diagonal" form. By diagonal we mean that a transformation of basis is introduced by an application of the similarity transform of linear algebra. The current method exploits the diagonal structure of the DFT in a special way, particularly when parts of the calculation do not have to be repeated at each iteration to converge to an acceptable solution in order to focus an image.

  20. Neutron scattering studies of pretransitional phenomena in structural phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.M.

    1979-03-01

    Materials exhibiting structural phase transformations are well known to possess pretransitional phenomena. Below the transition temperature, T/sub c/, an order parameter appears and the pretransitional effects are associated with the fluctuations of the order parameter. Neutron scattering techniques have proved invaluable in studying the temporal and spatial dependence of these fluctuations. SrTiO 3 is the prototypical example of a structural phase transformation exhibiting features observable in other transformations such as martensitic and order-disorder. The experimental evolution of the understanding of the phase transformation in SrTiO 3 will be reviewed and the features observed will be shown to typify other systems

  1. Genetic transformation of switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yajun; Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a highly productive warm-season C4 species that is being developed into a dedicated biofuel crop. This chapter describes a protocol that allows the generation of transgenic switchgrass plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calluses induced from caryopses or inflorescences were used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) was used as the selectable marker and hygromycin was used as the selection agent. Calluses resistant to hygromycin were obtained after 5-6 weeks of selection. Soil-grown switchgrass plants were regenerated about 6 months after callus induction and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  2. Transformation of Follicular Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossos, Izidore S.; Gascoyne, Randy D.

    2011-01-01

    Histological transformation of follicular lymphoma (FL) to a more aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas is a pivotal event in the natural history of FL and is associated with poor outcome. While commonly observed in clinical practice and despite multiple studies designed to address its pathogenesis, the biology of this process represents an enigma. In this chapter we present a state of the art review summarizing the definition of histologic transformation, its incidence, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, treatment and outcome. Furthermore, we specifically emphasize gaps in our knowledge that should be addressed in future studies. PMID:21658615

  3. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    , the evolution of large technological systems and theories about organisational and technological transformationprocesses. The empirical work consist of three analysis at three different levels: socio-technical descriptions of each sector, an envestigation of one municipality and envestigations of one workshop......The scope of the project is to investigate the possibillities of - and the barriers for a transformation of technical infrastructure conserning energy, water and waste. It focus on urban ecology as a transformation strategy. The theoretical background of the project is theories about infrastructure...

  4. Wavelet packet transform-based robust video watermarking technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    If any conflict happens to the copyright identification and authentication, ... the present work is concentrated on the robust digital video watermarking. .... the wavelet decomposition, resulting in a new family of orthonormal bases for function ...

  5. A new variable transformation technique for the nonlinear drift vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orito, Kohtaro

    1996-02-01

    The dipole vortex solution of the Hasegawa-Mima equation describing the nonlinear drift wave is a stable solitary wave which is called the modon. The profile of the modon depends on the nonlinearity of the ExB drift. In order to investigate the nonlinear drift wave more accurately, the effect of the polarization drift needs to be considered. In case of containing the effect of the polarization drift the profile of the electrostatic potential is distorted in the direction perpendicular to the ExB drift. (author)

  6. KSI's Cross Insulated Core Transformer Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhmeyer, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Cross Insulated Core Transformer (CCT) technology improves on Insulated Core Transformer (ICT) implementations. ICT systems are widely used in very high voltage, high power, power supply systems. In an ICT transformer ferrite core sections are insulated from their neighboring ferrite cores. Flux leakage is present at each of these insulated gaps. The flux loss is raised to the power of stages in the ICT design causing output voltage efficiency to taper off with increasing stages. KSI's CCT technology utilizes a patented technique to compensate the flux loss at each stage of an ICT system. Design equations to calculate the flux compensation capacitor value are presented. CCT provides corona free operation of the HV stack. KSI's CCT based High Voltage power supply systems offer high efficiency operation, high frequency switching, low stored energy and smaller size over comparable ICT systems.

  7. Coordinate transformations and matter waves cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, G.R.; Moghaddam, A.G.; Mohammadkhani, R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformation method provides an efficient tool to control wave propagation inside the materials. Using the coordinate transformation approach, we study invisibility cloaks with sphere, cylinder and ellipsoid structures for electronic waves propagation. The underlying physics behind this investigation is the fact that Schrödinger equation with position dependent mass tensor and potentials has a covariant form which follows the coordinate transformation. Using this technique we obtain the exact spatial form of the mass tensor and potentials for a variety of cloaks with different shapes. - Highlights: • Invisibility cloaks for matter waves with three different geometries. • Exact analytical form of the effective mass tensor and potential. • Analogy between cloaking for quantum mechanical waves with classical electromagnetic waves. • Possible experimental realization in engineered semiconducting structures.

  8. Mathematical transforms and image compression: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish K. Singh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that images, often used in a variety of computer and other scientific and engineering applications, are difficult to store and transmit due to their sizes. One possible solution to overcome this problem is to use an efficient digital image compression technique where an image is viewed as a matrix and then the operations are performed on the matrix. All the contemporary digital image compression systems use various mathematical transforms for compression. The compression performance is closely related to the performance by these mathematical transforms in terms of energy compaction and spatial frequency isolation by exploiting inter-pixel redundancies present in the image data. Through this paper, a comprehensive literature survey has been carried out and the pros and cons of various transform-based image compression models have also been discussed.

  9. Some generalizations of the nonlocal transformations approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tychynin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some generalizations of a method of nonlocal transformations are proposed: a con­nection of given equations via prolonged nonlocal transformations and finding of an adjoint solution to the solutions of initial equation are considered. A concept of nonlocal transformation with additional variables is introduced, developed and used for searching symmetries of differential equations. A problem of inversion of the nonlocal transforma­tion with additional variables is investigated and in some cases solved. Several examples are presented. Derived technique is applied for construction of the algorithms and for­mulae of generation of solutions. The formulae derived are used for construction of exact solutions of some nonlinear equations.

  10. STUDY REGARDING EFFICIENCY OF INDUCED GENETIC TRANSFORMATION IN BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS WITH PLASMID DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. VINTILĂ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Bacillus licheniformis was subject to genetic transformation with plasmid vectors (pLC1 and pNC61, using electroporation technique, protoplast transformation and bivalent cations (CaCl2 mediated transformation. In the case of transformation by electroporation of Bacillus licheniformis B40, the highest number of transformed colonies (3 were obtained only after a 1,79 KV electric shock, for 2,2 milliseconds. Using this transformation technique we have obtained six kanamycin resistant transformants. The frequency of Bacillus licheniformis B40 protoplasts transformation using pLC1 and pNC61 plasmid vectors is approximately 10% (TF = 10%. As a result of pLC1 plasmid integration in Bacillus licheniformis protoplasts, six kanamycin resistant transformants were obtained. The pNC61 plasmid, which confers trimethoprim resistance, does not integrate in receiver cells by protoplast transformation. The direct genetic transformation in the presence of bivalent cations (CaCl2, mediated by pLC1 and pNC61 plasmid vectors, produce a low transformation frequency. Using this technique, we have obtained three trimethoprim resistant colonies and four kanamycin resistant colonies. The chemical way of transformation is the only technique, which realizes the integration of pNC61 in B. licheniformis B40 cells.

  11. Finite Countermodel Based Verification for Program Transformation (A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei P. Lisitsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Both automatic program verification and program transformation are based on program analysis. In the past decade a number of approaches using various automatic general-purpose program transformation techniques (partial deduction, specialization, supercompilation for verification of unreachability properties of computing systems were introduced and demonstrated. On the other hand, the semantics based unfold-fold program transformation methods pose themselves diverse kinds of reachability tasks and try to solve them, aiming at improving the semantics tree of the program being transformed. That means some general-purpose verification methods may be used for strengthening program transformation techniques. This paper considers the question how finite countermodels for safety verification method might be used in Turchin's supercompilation method. We extract a number of supercompilation sub-algorithms trying to solve reachability problems and demonstrate use of an external countermodel finder for solving some of the problems.

  12. Foundations for Streaming Model Transformations by Complex Event Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávid, István; Ráth, István; Varró, Dániel

    2018-01-01

    Streaming model transformations represent a novel class of transformations to manipulate models whose elements are continuously produced or modified in high volume and with rapid rate of change. Executing streaming transformations requires efficient techniques to recognize activated transformation rules over a live model and a potentially infinite stream of events. In this paper, we propose foundations of streaming model transformations by innovatively integrating incremental model query, complex event processing (CEP) and reactive (event-driven) transformation techniques. Complex event processing allows to identify relevant patterns and sequences of events over an event stream. Our approach enables event streams to include model change events which are automatically and continuously populated by incremental model queries. Furthermore, a reactive rule engine carries out transformations on identified complex event patterns. We provide an integrated domain-specific language with precise semantics for capturing complex event patterns and streaming transformations together with an execution engine, all of which is now part of the Viatra reactive transformation framework. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with two case studies: one in an advanced model engineering workflow; and one in the context of on-the-fly gesture recognition.

  13. Fourier transforms principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Eric W

    2014-01-01

    Fourier Transforms: Principles and Applications explains transform methods and their applications to electrical systems from circuits, antennas, and signal processors-ably guiding readers from vector space concepts through the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Fourier series, and Fourier transform to other related transform methods.  Featuring chapter end summaries of key results, over two hundred examples and four hundred homework problems, and a Solutions Manual this book is perfect for graduate students in signal processing and communications as well as practicing engineers.

  14. Leadership Coaching That Transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Leading a school can be a lonely, challenging job, Elena Aguilar has found in her years coaching principals. Aguilar describes how coaching approach she's developed--transformational coaching--helps principals get three things most of them need: a neutral person they can talk with confidentially, job-embedded professional development, and a safe…

  15. Graph Transforming Java Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, M.J.; Rensink, Arend; Hunt, James J.

    This paper introduces an approach for adding graph transformation-based functionality to existing JAVA programs. The approach relies on a set of annotations to identify the intended graph structure, as well as on user methods to manipulate that structure, within the user’s own JAVA class

  16. ATLAS Job Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, G A; The ATLAS collaboration; Maddocks, H J; Harenberg, T; Sandhoff, M; Sarrazin, B

    2013-01-01

    The need to run complex workflows for a high energy physics experiment such as ATLAS has always been present. However, as computing resources have become even more constrained, compared to the wealth of data generated by the LHC, the need to use resources efficiently and manage complex workflows within a single grid job have increased. In ATLAS, a new Job Transform framework has been developed that we describe in this paper. This framework manages the multiple execution steps needed to `transform' one data type into another (e.g., RAW data to ESD to AOD to final ntuple) and also provides a consistent interface for the ATLAS production system. The new framework uses a data driven workflow definition which is both easy to manage and powerful. After a transform is defined, jobs are expressed simply by specifying the input data and the desired output data. The transform infrastructure then executes only the necessary substeps to produce the final data products. The global execution cost of running the job is mini...

  17. ATLAS Job Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, G A; The ATLAS collaboration; Maddocks, H J; Harenberg, T; Sandhoff, M; Sarrazin, B

    2013-01-01

    The need to run complex workflows for a high energy physics experiment such as ATLAS has always been present. However, as computing resources have become even more constrained, compared to the wealth of data generated by the LHC, the need to use resources efficiently and manage complex workflows within a single grid job have increased. In ATLAS, a new Job Transform framework has been developed that we describe in this paper. This framework manages the multiple execution steps needed to 'transform' one data type into another (e.g., RAW data to ESD to AOD to final ntuple) and also provides a consistent interface for the ATLAS production system. The new framework uses a data driven workflow definition which is both easy to manage and powerful. After a transform is defined, jobs are expressed simply by specifying the input data and the desired output data. The transform infrastructure then executes only the necessary substeps to produce the final data products. The global execution cost of running the job is mini...

  18. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

  19. The Power of Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Hans Isak Worre

    2017-01-01

    Transformation of the built environment in Denmark is estimated to become 51% of the total building activities in the future in order to accommodate new energy targets, a general population move to the city and to maintain buildings, which otherwise presents high architectural qualities. This poi......Transformation of the built environment in Denmark is estimated to become 51% of the total building activities in the future in order to accommodate new energy targets, a general population move to the city and to maintain buildings, which otherwise presents high architectural qualities....... This points to the need of new ideas, methods and models for architects to transform existing building envelopes beyond the current primary approach of simply adding and external insulation layer. The research studies and present thermal simulation methods, models, elementary design studies and applied design...... approaches to envelope transformations based on modifying colours and local geometries of an envelope. The study finds that colour can be used instrumentally as a design variable to control external surface heat accumulation and envelope heat transfer, whereas local geometric variations only present...

  20. On the Meijer transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Conlan

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently [8], an operational calculus for the operator Bμ=t−μDt1+μD with −1<μ<∞ was developed via the algebraic approach [4], [13], [15]. This paper gives the integral transform version. In particular, a differentiation theorem and a convolution theorem are proved.

  1. Parallel Fast Legendre Transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves de Inda, M.; Bisseling, R.H.; Maslen, D.K.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss a parallel implementation of a fast algorithm for the discrete polynomial Legendre transform We give an introduction to the DriscollHealy algorithm using polynomial arithmetic and present experimental results on the eciency and accuracy of our implementation The algorithms were

  2. Tourism transformations: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietvorst, A.G.J.; Ashworth, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    In order to emphasize the dynamic character of the tourism-recreation product, an overarching concept is presented which integrates both supply and demand. The model shows the continuing transformation of the original tourism-recreation resource (either a landscape, a monument, an urban public

  3. Transformer Impedance Reflection Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, William

    2014-01-01

    Questions often arise as to how a device attached to a transformer can draw power from the electrical power grid since it seems that the primary and secondary are not connected to one another. However, a closer look at how the primary and secondary are linked together magnetically and a consideration of the role of Lenz's law in this linkage…

  4. Fixture for winding transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, M. T.

    1980-01-01

    Bench-mounted fixture assists operator in winding toroid-shaped transformer cores. Toroid is rigidly held in place as wires are looped around. Arrangement frees both hands for rapid winding and untangling of wires that occurs when core is hand held.

  5. Transformation of Abandonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm

    2015-01-01

    the controlled ruin will play the role of catalyst of the disclosing of hidden narratives and through decay in the end turn Figure 2 Transformation process: Controlled ruin 2014, Thisted Municipality, Denmark into nature. The demolition process is simply slowed down. Similarly to the mechanisms in a mourning...

  6. Transformative Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…

  7. Welfare State Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes welfare state transformation in OECD countries since the 1970s against the background of the post-war settlement. Relying on quantitative macro-data and qualitative information from the literature, we show that welfare states have con-verged, especially regarding various...

  8. Education as Habitus Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosenberg, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Unlike a conventional reading of Bourdieu, this article focuses on his work with regard to the transformation of social structure. In the context of a rereading, from an educational theory perspective, the article proposes an approach that allows for the linking of empirically informed social theory, on the one hand, and biography research…

  9. Code Generation by Model Transformation : A Case Study in Transformation Modularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemel, Z.; Kats, L.C.L.; Visser, E.

    2008-01-01

    Preprint of paper published in: Theory and Practice of Model Transformations (ICMT 2008), Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5063; doi:10.1007/978-3-540-69927-9_13 The realization of model-driven software development requires effective techniques for implementing code generators for domain-specific

  10. Diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Bender, C.E.; James, E.M.; Brown, M.L.; McLeod, R.A.; Broderick, D.F.; Welch, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proper application of imaging procedures is essential to obtain needed information for diagnosis and therapy planning in patients with suspected foot and/or ankle pathology. This paper provides basic background data for the numerous imaging techniques

  11. Implementation of 2D Discrete Wavelet Transform by Number Theoretic Transform and 2D Overlap-Save Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the computation complexity of wavelet transform, this paper presents a novel approach to be implemented. It consists of two key techniques: (1 fast number theoretic transform(FNTT In the FNTT, linear convolution is replaced by the circular one. It can speed up the computation of 2D discrete wavelet transform. (2 In two-dimensional overlap-save method directly calculating the FNTT to the whole input sequence may meet two difficulties; namely, a big modulo obstructs the effective implementation of the FNTT and a long input sequence slows the computation of the FNTT down. To fight with such deficiencies, a new technique which is referred to as 2D overlap-save method is developed. Experiments have been conducted. The fast number theoretic transform and 2D overlap-method have been used to implement the dyadic wavelet transform and applied to contour extraction in pattern recognition.

  12. Human Motion Capture Data Tailored Transform Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junhui Hou; Lap-Pui Chau; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia; Ying He

    2015-07-01

    Human motion capture (mocap) is a widely used technique for digitalizing human movements. With growing usage, compressing mocap data has received increasing attention, since compact data size enables efficient storage and transmission. Our analysis shows that mocap data have some unique characteristics that distinguish themselves from images and videos. Therefore, directly borrowing image or video compression techniques, such as discrete cosine transform, does not work well. In this paper, we propose a novel mocap-tailored transform coding algorithm that takes advantage of these features. Our algorithm segments the input mocap sequences into clips, which are represented in 2D matrices. Then it computes a set of data-dependent orthogonal bases to transform the matrices to frequency domain, in which the transform coefficients have significantly less dependency. Finally, the compression is obtained by entropy coding of the quantized coefficients and the bases. Our method has low computational cost and can be easily extended to compress mocap databases. It also requires neither training nor complicated parameter setting. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of compression performance and speed.

  13. Soft computing methods for geoidal height transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyilmaz, O.; Özlüdemir, M. T.; Ayan, T.; Çelik, R. N.

    2009-07-01

    Soft computing techniques, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches, have enabled researchers to create precise models for use in many scientific and engineering applications. Applications that can be employed in geodetic studies include the estimation of earth rotation parameters and the determination of mean sea level changes. Another important field of geodesy in which these computing techniques can be applied is geoidal height transformation. We report here our use of a conventional polynomial model, the Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy (or in some publications, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy) Inference System (ANFIS), an ANN and a modified ANN approach to approximate geoid heights. These approximation models have been tested on a number of test points. The results obtained through the transformation processes from ellipsoidal heights into local levelling heights have also been compared.

  14. Decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  15. Applied Laplace transforms and z-transforms for scientists and engineers a computational approach using a Mathematica package

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Urs

    2004-01-01

    The theory of Laplace transformation is an important part of the mathematical background required for engineers, physicists and mathematicians. Laplace transformation methods provide easy and effective techniques for solving many problems arising in various fields of science and engineering, especially for solving differential equations. What the Laplace transformation does in the field of differential equations, the z-transformation achieves for difference equations. The two theories are parallel and have many analogies. Laplace and z­ transformations are also referred to as operational calculus, but this notion is also used in a more restricted sense to denote the operational calculus of Mikusinski. This book does not use the operational calculus of Mikusinski, whose approach is based on abstract algebra and is not readily accessible to engineers and scientists. The symbolic computation capability of Mathematica can now be used in favor of the Laplace and z-transformations. The first version of the Mathema...

  16. Transform and filtration methods in fluctuation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxe, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Digitized fluctuation signals from an ex-core ion-chamber of a PWR were analysed to produce a Power Spectral Density, (PSD), curve by two means: (1) by digital filter techniques and (2) by a Fast Fourier Transform program. For both these methods, the effects of the precision of the input data were investigated and it is shown that reasonably good PSD curves may be obtained using very poor input precision. (author)

  17. Operational Transformation In Co-Operative Editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Kaur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative Editing Systems in real-time allows a virtual team to view and edit a shared document at the same time. The document shared must be synchronized in order to ensure consistency for all the participants. This paper describes the Operational Transformation the evolution of its techniques its various applications major issues and achievements. In addition this paper will present working of a platform where two users can edit a code programming file at the same time.

  18. Floral-dip transformation of flax (Linum usitatissimum) to generate transgenic progenies with a high transformation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaki, Nasmah K; Cullis, Christopher A

    2014-12-19

    Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation via floral-dip is a widely used technique in the field of plant transformation and has been reported to be successful for many plant species. However, flax (Linum usitatissimum) transformation by floral-dip has not been reported. The goal of this protocol is to establish that Agrobacterium and the floral-dip method can be used to generate transgenic flax. We show that this technique is simple, inexpensive, efficient, and more importantly, gives a higher transformation rate than the current available methods of flax transformation. In summary, inflorescences of flax were dipped in a solution of Agrobacterium carrying a binary vector plasmid (T-DNA fragment plus the Linum Insertion Sequence, LIS-1) for 1 - 2 min. The plants were laid flat on their side for 24 hr. Then, plants were maintained under normal growth conditions until the next treatment. The process of dipping was repeated 2 - 3 times, with approximately 10 - 14 day intervals between dipping. The T1 seeds were collected and germinated on soil. After approximately two weeks, treated progenies were tested by direct PCR; 2 - 3 leaves were used per plant plus the appropriate T-DNA primers. Positive transformants were selected and grown to maturity. The transformation rate was unexpectedly high, with 50 - 60% of the seeds from treated plants being positive transformants. This is a higher transformation rate than those reported for Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species, using floral-dip transformation. It is also the highest, which has been reported so far, for flax transformation using other methods for transformation.

  19. Escherichia coli can be transformed by a liposome-mediated lipofection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Yano, Shin-ichi; Kojima, Hiroyuki

    2003-05-01

    Transformation of Escherichia coli is a basic technique for genetic engineering. We used a liposome-mediated lipofection method to transform electrocompetent E. coli cells which has little natural competence of foreign DNA without electroporation treatment, and got transformants with simple and quick treatment by a plasmid or a transposon and transposase complex.

  20. N-order Darboux transformation and a spectral problem on semiaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Bagrov, Vladislav G.; Samsonov, Boris F.; Shekoyan, L. A.

    1998-01-01

    N-order Darboux transformation operator is defined on the basis of a general notion of transformation operators. Factorisation properties of this operator are studied. The Darboux transformation operator technique is applied to construct and investigate potentials with bound states at arbitrary energies for the spectral problem on semiaxis.

  1. Transformation language integration based on profiles and higher order transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gorp, P.M.E.; Keller, A.; Janssens, D.; Gaševic, D.; Lämmel, R.; Van Wyk, Eric

    2009-01-01

    For about two decades, researchers have been constructing tools for applying graph transformations on large model transformation case studies. Instead of incrementally extending a common core, these competitive tool builders have repeatedly reconstructed mechanisms that were already supported by

  2. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping...... the world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  3. Transforming Virtual Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille

    2005-01-01

    Investigating virtual team collaboration in industry using grounded theory this paper presents the in-dept analysis of empirical work conducted in a global organization of 100.000 employees where a global virtual team with participants from Sweden, United Kingdom, Canada, and North America were...... studied. The research question investigated is how collaboration is negotiated within virtual teams? This paper presents findings concerning how collaboration is negotiated within a virtual team and elaborate the difficulties due to invisible articulation work and managing multiple communities...... in transforming the virtual team into a community. It is argued that translucence in communication structures within the virtual team and between team and management is essential for engaging in a positive transformation process of trustworthiness supporting the team becoming a community, managing the immanent...

  4. Katedralskolen i Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    stadig mulige byggefelter, hvis anvendelse kan ommøblere funktioner, så det imødekommer nye undervisningsformer og det sociale liv vi har i dag. En ny tilbygning står på skolens ønskeliste. Således er skolen i fortsat transformation. I tegninger og modeller fremviser udstillingen konkurrenceforslag til...... nye tilbygninger til Katedralskolen, der fortsætter traditionen om transformation og som fortsætter fortætning af skolen og dermed af byen. Byggeprogrammet er blevet diskuteret på baggrund af brugerinterviews af Katedralskolens lærere og elever. Arkitekter fra Arkitekttegnestuen Kjær & Richter i...

  5. Cryogenic pulsed power transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Eckels, P.W.; Hackworth, D.T.; Shestak, E.J.; Singh, S.K.

    1988-01-01

    Three liquid nitrogen cooled transformers, two with 14.4 MJ and one with 33.5 MJ storage capacity, are being built to provide respective currents of 0.31 and 0.95 MA to drive a distributed rail gun and are designed to withstand respective voltages of 70 and 200 kV. The transformers are contained in fiberglass reinforced polyester plastic dewars to avoid eddy current coupling and lateral forces that would exist with a metal dewar. To improve the coupling between windings the secondary winding is made relatively thin and is supported structurally for magnetic loading against the outer primary winding. The coils are pool bath cooled. Normal and fault mode analyses indicated safe operation with some precautions for venting nitrogen gas provided

  6. A DC Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Starr, Stanley O.

    2013-01-01

    A component level dc transformer is described in which no alternating currents or voltages are present. It operates by combining features of a homopolar motor and a homopolar generator, both de devices, such that the output voltage of a de power supply can be stepped up (or down) with a corresponding step down (or up) in current. The basic theory for this device is developed, performance predictions are made, and the results from a small prototype are presented. Based on demonstrated technology in the literature, this de transformer should be scalable to low megawatt levels, but it is more suited to high current than high voltage applications. Significant development would be required before it could achieve the kilovolt levels needed for de power transmission.

  7. High voltage isolation transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  8. Transforming social contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Sebastian; Koch, Lene

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of IVF in Denmark was accompanied by social transformations: contestations of medical authority, negotiations of who might access reproductive biomedicine and changes in individual and social identity due to reproductive technologies. Looking at the making of Danish IVF......, this article sketches its social and cultural history by revisiting the legal, medical, technological and social developments that characterized the introduction of IVF in Denmark as well as by contextualizing the social research on the uses and impacts of IVF carried out in the 1980s and 1990s within...... these developments. The making of Danish IVF is presented as a transformative event in so far as it changed Denmark from being a society concerned about the social consequences of reproductive technologies to a moral collective characterized by a joined sense of responsibility for Denmark's procreative future....

  9. Transformer ratio enhancement experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Power, J. G.; Kanareykin, A.; Neasheva, E.; Altmark, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a multibunch scheme for efficient acceleration based on dielectric wakefield accelerator technology was outlined in J.G. Power, W. Gai, A. Kanareykin, X. Sun. PAC 2001 Proceedings, pp. 114-116, 2002. In this paper we present an experimental program for the design, development and demonstration of an Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA). The principal goal is to increase the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam. We present here an experimental design of a 13.625 GHz dielectric loaded accelerating structure, a laser multisplitter producing a ramped bunch train, and simulations of the bunch train parameters required. Experimental results of the accelerating structure bench testing and ramped pulsed train generation with the laser multisplitter are shown as well. Using beam dynamic simulations, we also obtain the focusing FODO lattice parameters

  10. Transformational plane geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Umble, Ronald N

    2014-01-01

    Axioms of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Existence and Incidence Postulates The Distance and Ruler Postulates The Plane Separation Postulate The Protractor Postulate The Side-Angle-Side Postulate and the Euclidean Parallel Postulate Theorems of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Exterior Angle Theorem Triangle Congruence Theorems The Alternate Interior Angles Theorem and the Angle Sum Theorem Similar Triangles Introduction to Transformations, Isometries, and Similarities Transformations Isometries and SimilaritiesAppendix: Proof of Surjectivity Translations, Rotations, and Reflections Translations Rotations Reflections Appendix: Geometer's Sketchpad Commands Required by Exploratory Activities Compositions of Translations, Rotations, and Reflections The Three Points Theorem Rotations as Compositions of Two Reflections Translations as Compositions of Two Halfturns or Two Reflections The Angle Addition Theorem Glide Reflections Classification of Isometries The Fundamental Theorem and Congruence Classification of Isometr...

  11. A Stabilization Procedure For The Transformation Of Magnetic Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... made between the conventional filtering technique and the equivalent source technique using theoretical data and secondly a quantitative method is developed by using an algorithm which uses the correlation coefficient between successive pairs of the transformed maps. IFE Journal of Science Vol. 9 (1) 2007 pp. 77-86 ...

  12. Matrices and linear transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  13. Laminated piezoelectric transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Carazo, Alfredo (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A laminated piezoelectric transformer is provided using the longitudinal vibration modes for step-up voltage conversion applications. The input portions are polarized to deform in a longitudinal plane and are bonded to an output portion. The deformation of the input portions is mechanically coupled to the output portion, which deforms in the same longitudinal direction relative to the input portion. The output portion is polarized in the thickness direction relative its electrodes, and piezoelectrically generates a stepped-up output voltage.

  14. Transformation of industrial territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, N. I.; Kolocova, I. I.

    2017-08-01

    The problem of removing industrial enterprises from the historical center of the city and the subsequent effective use of the territories has been relevant for Western countries. Nowadays, the problem is crucial for Russia, its megacities and regional centers. The paper analyzes successful projects of transforming industrial facilities into cultural, business and residential objects in the world and in Russia. The patterns of the project development have been determined and presented in the paper.

  15. Transformational Leadership, Innovation & Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Bista, Sashida; Bhattarai, Sandhya; Reza, Sakib; Ogot, Norine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was basically to find the influence of transformational leadership in employees creativity and organizational innovation. In most of the business houses manager perceive that their leadership styles are best suited for the organization but their styles might have a different perspective from their subordinates point of view. So it is interesting to know and understand how management and the subordinates perceive the styles for generation of creativity and organization...

  16. Approximating the Analytic Fourier Transform with the Discrete Fourier Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Axelrod, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The Fourier transform is approximated over a finite domain using a Riemann sum. This Riemann sum is then expressed in terms of the discrete Fourier transform, which allows the sum to be computed with a fast Fourier transform algorithm more rapidly than via a direct matrix multiplication. Advantages and limitations of using this method to approximate the Fourier transform are discussed, and prototypical MATLAB codes implementing the method are presented.

  17. GOOD GOVERNANCE AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen WAGENER

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of a totalitarian, basically administratively coordinated system into a democratic one that is coordinated predominantly by markets and competition has been triggered by, among others, the perception of a serious deficit in welfare and happiness. Public policy has a special task transforming the economic order by liberalisation, privatisation, stabilisation and the installation of institutions that are supportive for competition. After 15 years since transformation began, there are sufficiently differentiated success stories to test the hypothesis: it was good governance that is responsible for success and bad governance for failure. The empirical results support the “Lorenzetti hypothesis”: where freedom, security and trust prevail, the economy flourishes, where they are lacking, the costs of long-term investment are too high. The initial conditions of transition countries seem to be quite similar, nevertheless, even there one can discern good and bad governance. The extent of socialist lawfulness, planning security, cronyism and corruption differed widely between East Berlin and Tashkent. And a good deal of such variations can be found in the pre-socialist history of these countries. However, the main conclusion is that the co-evolution hypothesis states that both, welfare and good governance, go together.

  18. Real Variable Inversion of Laplace Transforms: An Application in Plasma Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, C. L.; Flynn, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Laplace transform techniques and explains an alternative to them: the Widder's real inversion. To illustrate the power of this new technique, it is applied to a difficult inversion: the problem of Landau damping. (GA)

  19. A general transform for variance reduction in Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, T.L.; Larsen, E.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a general transform to reduce the variance of the Monte Carlo estimate of some desired solution, such as flux or biological dose. This transform implicitly includes many standard variance reduction techniques, including source biasing, collision biasing, the exponential transform for path-length stretching, and weight windows. Rather than optimizing each of these techniques separately or choosing semi-empirical biasing parameters based on the experience of a seasoned Monte Carlo practitioner, this General Transform unites all these variance techniques to achieve one objective: a distribution of Monte Carlo particles that attempts to optimize the desired solution. Specifically, this transform allows Monte Carlo particles to be distributed according to the user's specification by using information obtained from a computationally inexpensive deterministic simulation of the problem. For this reason, we consider the General Transform to be a hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic method. The numerical results con rm that the General Transform distributes particles according to the user-specified distribution and generally provide reasonable results for shielding applications. (author)

  20. Formulation of the rotational transformation of wave fields and their application to digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Kyoji

    2008-07-01

    Rotational transformation based on coordinate rotation in Fourier space is a useful technique for simulating wave field propagation between nonparallel planes. This technique is characterized by fast computation because the transformation only requires executing a fast Fourier transform twice and a single interpolation. It is proved that the formula of the rotational transformation mathematically satisfies the Helmholtz equation. Moreover, to verify the formulation and its usefulness in wave optics, it is also demonstrated that the transformation makes it possible to reconstruct an image on arbitrarily tilted planes from a wave field captured experimentally by using digital holography.

  1. Neutron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The way in which neutrons interact with matter such as slowing-down, diffusion, neutron absorption and moderation are described. The use of neutron techniques in industry, in moisture gages, level and interface measurements, the detection of blockages, boron analysis in ore feedstock and industrial radiography are discussed. (author)

  2. Transformational Leadership, Integrity, and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Transformational leadership enjoys widespread appeal among student affairs professionals. National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) and American College Personnel Association (ACPA) conferences frequently feature speakers who promote transformational leadership's two primary tenets: (1) change is the central purpose of…

  3. Canonical transformations and generating functionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, L.J.F.; Kobussen, J.A.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that canonical transformations for field variables in hamiltonian partial differential equations can be obtained from generating functionals in the same way as classical canonical transformations from generating functions. A simple proof of the relation between infinitesimal invariant

  4. The Transformation of Disabilities Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel-Angel

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the five major characteristics of the transformation era and describes how intellectual and closely related developmental disabilities organizations can apply specific transformation strategies associated with each characteristic. Collectively, the characteristics and strategies provide a framework for transformation…

  5. Higher derivatives in gauge transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogilidze, S.A.; Sanadze, V.V.; Tkebuchava, F.G.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism of appearance of highher derivatives of coordinates in the symmetry transformation law of the second Noether's theorem is established. It is shown that the corresponding transformations are canonical in the extended phase space. 15 refs

  6. Digital Image Watermarking in Transform Domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Shazly, E.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fast development of internet and availability of huge digital content make it easy to create, modify and copy digital media such as audio, video and images. This causes a problem for owners of that content and hence a need to copy right protection tool was essential. First, encryption was proposed but it ensures protection during transmission only and once decryption occurred any one can modify the data. at that point watermarking was introduced as a solution to such problem. Watermarking is a process of inserting a low energy signal in to a high energy one so that it doesn't affect the main signal features. A good digital image watermarking technique should satisfy four requirements: 1) Embedding of a watermark should not degrade the host image visual quality (imperceptibility). 2) The embedded watermark should stick to the host image so that it couldn’t be removed by common image processing operation and could be extracted from the attacked watermarked image (robustness). 3) Knowing the embedding and extraction procedures is sufficient but not enough to extract the watermark; extra keys should be needed (security). 4) The watermarking technique should allow embedding and extraction of more than one watermark each independent of the other (capacity). This thesis presents a watermarking scheme that full fill the mentioned four requirements by jointing transform domains with Fractional Fourier Transform Domain (FracFT). More work on cascaded Discrete Wavelet Transform DWT with FracFT was done to develop a joint transform simply called Fractional Wavelet Transform (FWT). The proposed schemes were tested with different image processing attacks to verify its robustness. Finally, the watermarked image is transmitted over simulated MC CDMA channel to prove robustness in real transmission conditions case.

  7. Life cycle of transformer oil

    OpenAIRE

    Đurđević Ksenija R.; Vojinović-Miloradov Mirjana; Sokolović Slobodan M.

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of electric power is constantly increasing due to industrialization and population growth. This results in much more severe operating conditions of transformers, the most important electrical devices that make integral parts of power transmission and distribution systems. The designed operating life of the majority of worldwide transformers has already expired, which puts the increase of transformer reliability and operating life extension in the spotlight. Transformer oil pla...

  8. Canonical transformations of Kepler trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostowski, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, canonical transformations generated by constants of motion in the case of the Kepler problem are discussed. It is shown that canonical transformations generated by angular momentum are rotations of the trajectory. Particular attention is paid to canonical transformations generated by the Runge-Lenz vector. It is shown that these transformations change the eccentricity of the orbit. A method of obtaining elliptic trajectories from the circular ones with the help of canonical trajectories is discussed.

  9. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  10. Chemical effects of nuclear transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulbulian, S

    1982-06-01

    A brief survey of the present state of knowledge on the chemical effects of nuclear transformations is presented. The recoil energy produced by these transformations in the nuclide is often sufficiently high to disrupt the chemical ligands between these particular atoms affected by the nuclear transformations, while the rest of their molecules. It also contains a discussion of the different annealing processes that produce the cancellation of the chemical change produced by the nuclear transformation.

  11. Target recognition by wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhengdong; He Wuliang; Zheng Xiaodong; Cheng Jiayuan; Peng Wen; Pei Chunlan; Song Chen

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transform has an important character of multi-resolution power, which presents pyramid structure, and this character coincides the way by which people distinguish object from coarse to fineness and from large to tiny. In addition to it, wavelet transform benefits to reducing image noise, simplifying calculation, and embodying target image characteristic point. A method of target recognition by wavelet transform is provided

  12. Level Design as Model Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormans, Joris

    2011-01-01

    This paper frames the process of designing a level in a game as a series of model transformations. The transformations correspond to the application of particular design principles, such as the use of locks and keys to transform a linear mission into a branching space. It shows that by using rewrite

  13. Inverse problem in transformation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    The straightforward method of transformation optics implies that one starts from the coordinate transformation and determines the Jacobian matrix, the fields and material parameters of the cloak. However, the coordinate transformation appears as an optional function: it is not necessary to know it...

  14. Enhancing Understanding of Transformation Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jonathan; Childrey, Maria

    2012-01-01

    With the Common Core State Standards' emphasis on transformations, teachers need a variety of approaches to increase student understanding. Teaching matrix transformations by focusing on row vectors gives students tools to create matrices to perform transformations. This empowerment opens many doors: Students are able to create the matrices for…

  15. Genetic Transformation of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Dennis; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    1981-01-01

    Three strains of Streptococcus mutans belonging to serotypes a, c, and f were transformed to streptomycin resistance by deoxyribonucleic acids derived from homologous and heterologous streptomycin-resistant strains of S. mutans and Streptococcus sanguis strain Challis. Homologous transformation of S. mutans was less efficient than heterologous transformation by deoxyribonucleic acids from other strains of S. mutans.

  16. Quality as Transformation: Educational Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The notion of "quality as transformation" has been widely used in the higher education sector. However, both quality and transformation are elusive terms. There is little research exploring how quality could be equated to transformation in the learning process. This paper will provide an insight into the relationship between quality and…

  17. Parallel plate transmission line transformer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, S.J.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A Transmission Line Transformer (TLT) can be used to transform high-voltage nanosecond pulses. These transformers rely on the fact that the length of the pulse is shorter than the transmission lines used. This allows connecting the transmission lines in parallel at the input and in series at the

  18. Fractional Laplace Transforms - A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf A. Treumann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new form of the Laplace transform is reviewed as a paradigm for an entire class of fractional functional transforms. Various of its properties are discussed. Such transformations should be useful in application to differential/integral equations or problems in non-extensive statistical mechanics.

  19. Darboux Transformation and Explicit Solutions for Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Xianguo; Wu Lihua

    2010-01-01

    A generalized Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson (DSW) equation and its Lax pair are proposed. A Darboux transformation for the generalized DSW equation is constructed with the help of the gauge transformation between spectral problems, from which a Darboux transformation for the DSW equation is obtained through a reduction technique. As an application of the Darboux transformations, we give some explicit solutions of the generalized DSW equation and DSW equation such as rational solutions, soliton solutions, periodic solutions. (general)

  20. Recent trends in the condition monitoring of transformers theory, implementation and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravorti, Sivaji; Chatterjee, Biswendu

    2013-01-01

    Recent Trends in the Condition Monitoring of Transformers reflects the current interest in replacing traditional techniques used in power transformer condition monitoring with non-invasive measures such as polarization/depolarization current measurement, recovery voltage measurement, frequency domain spectroscopy and frequency response analysis. The book stresses the importance of scrutinizing the condition of transformer insulation which may fail under present day conditions of intensive use with the resulting degradation of dielectric properties causing functional failure of the transformer.

  1. Power enhancement of piezoelectric transformers by adding heat transfer equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Hao; Liu, Yuan-Ping; Vasic, Dejan; Wu, Wen-Jong; Costa, François; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2012-10-01

    It is known that piezoelectric transformers have several inherent advantages compared with conventional electromagnetic transformers. However, the maximum power capacity of piezoelectric transformers is not as large as electromagnetic transformers in practice, especially in the case of high output current. The theoretical power density of piezoelectric transformers calculated by stress boundary can reach 330 W/cm(3), but no piezoelectric transformer has ever reached such a high power density in practice. The power density of piezoelectric transformers is limited to 33 W/cm(3) in practical applications. The underlying reason is that the maximum passing current of the piezoelectric material (mechanical current) is limited by the temperature rise caused by heat generation. To increase this current and the power capacity, we proposed to add a thermal pad to the piezoelectric transformer to dissipate heat. The experimental results showed that the proposed techniques can increase by 3 times the output current of the piezoelectric transformer. A theoretical-phenomenological model which explains the relationship between vibration velocity and generated heat is also established to verify the experimental results.

  2. Astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, CR

    2013-01-01

    DetectorsOptical DetectionRadio and Microwave DetectionX-Ray and Gamma-Ray DetectionCosmic Ray DetectorsNeutrino DetectorsGravitational Radiation Dark Matter and Dark Energy Detection ImagingThe Inverse ProblemPhotographyElectronic ImagingScanningInterferometrySpeckle InterferometryOccultationsRadarElectronic ImagesPhotometryPhotometryPhotometersSpectroscopySpectroscopy SpectroscopesOther TechniquesAstrometryPolarimetrySolar StudiesMagnetometryComputers and The Internet.

  3. On an integral transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Naylor

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A formula of inversion is established for an integral transform whose kernel is the Bessel function Ju(kr where r varies over the finite interval (0,a and the order u is taken to be the eigenvalue parameter. When this parameter is large the Bessel function behaves for varying r like the power function ru and by relating the Bessel functions to their corresponding power functions the proof of the inversion formula can be reduced to one depending on the Mellin inversion theorem.

  4. Instruments of Transformative Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    production and distribution channels. PDPs aim at overcoming current market and government failures by pooling resources in the attempt to solve this global social challenge. Thus, PDPs are a case of instruments of transformative research and innovation, operating in a transnational governance context....... They exhibit three novelties: they address strategic long-term problems in a holistic manner, set substantive output-oriented goals, and are implemented through new organizational structures. After characterizing the different types of current PDPs and the context in which they emerged, the paper examines...

  5. Inverse Satake transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Sakellaridis, Yiannis

    2014-01-01

    Let H be a split reductive group over a local non-archimedean field, and let H^ denote its Langlands dual group. We present an explicit formula for the generating function of an unramified L-function associated to a highest weight representation of the dual group, considered as a series of elements in the Hecke algebra of H. This offers an alternative approach to a solution of the same problem by Wen-Wei Li. Moreover, we generalize the notion of "Satake transform" and perform the analogous ca...

  6. From Abstraction to Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribers, Bjørn

    the other subjects ‘being in existence’ a transformation of the personality takes place and a deeper understanding and compassion for ‘the other’ is integrated. Ethical judgment is a demanding and inescapable aspect of social work; hence, the educational institutions are compelled to prioritise questions......This paper presents perspectives on ethical dimensions and social dilemmas encountered in the professional work of social welfare practitioners in Denmark. The paper draws on examples from an ethnographic study of the subjective experiences of professionals with practice and the educational setting...

  7. Fourier transforms in spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kauppinen, Jyrki

    2000-01-01

    This modern approach to the subject is clearly and logically structured, and gives readers an understanding of the essence of Fourier transforms and their applications. All important aspects are included with respect to their use with optical spectroscopic data. Based on popular lectures, the authors provide the mathematical fundamentals and numerical applications which are essential in practical use. The main part of the book is dedicated to applications of FT in signal processing and spectroscopy, with IR and NIR, NMR and mass spectrometry dealt with both from a theoretical and practical poi

  8. Solid phase transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Čermák, J

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic book, devoted to ""Solid Phase Transformations"" , covers a broad range of phenomena which are of importance in a number of technological processes. Most commercial alloys undergo thermal treatment after casting, with the aim of imparting desired compositions and/or optimal morphologies to the component phases. In spite of the fact that the topic has lain at the center of physical metallurgy for a long time, there are numerous aspects which are wide open to potential investigative breakthroughs. Materials with new structures also stimulate research in the field, as well as n

  9. Metasurface transformation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mencagli, M jr; Martini, E; González-Ovejero, D; Maci, S

    2014-01-01

    Transformation optics has been recently proposed as a powerful method to manipulate electromagnetic fields by using anisotropic inhomogeneous volumetric media. This method can be extended to design anisotropic modulated metasurfaces (MTSs) able to control the propagation path of surface waves. In this paper, this extension is formalized by defining a systematic procedure that can be applied to design a large number of planar devices, with a significant technological simplification with respect to the realization based on volumetric media. Practical MTS designs are also presented. (paper)

  10. Transforming Public Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarro, Dora

    2009-01-01

    Among processes towards democratisation, it has been asserted that alternative radio has a central role in the citizen making of the poor. However, it is important to analyse in detail what possibilities an alternative or citizens' radio has to strengthen ideas of citizenship and transform...... the public space into a critical and deliberative public in urban sites. I focus on one local Catholic radio station in Huaycan, a shantytown in the outskirts of Lima, Peru. I describe the radios' journalistic work, showing examples of how they mobilise local leaders and monitor democratic processes...

  11. Presentation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froejmark, M.

    1992-10-01

    The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)

  12. High pressure phase transformations revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitas, Valery I

    2018-04-25

    High pressure phase transformations play an important role in the search for new materials and material synthesis, as well as in geophysics. However, they are poorly characterized, and phase transformation pressure and pressure hysteresis vary drastically in experiments of different researchers, with different pressure transmitting media, and with different material suppliers. Here we review the current state, challenges in studying phase transformations under high pressure, and the possible ways in overcoming the challenges. This field is critically compared with fields of phase transformations under normal pressure in steels and shape memory alloys, as well as plastic deformation of materials. The main reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is the lack of understanding that there is a fundamental difference between pressure-induced transformations under hydrostatic conditions, stress-induced transformations under nonhydrostatic conditions below yield, and strain-induced transformations during plastic flow. Each of these types of transformations has different mechanisms and requires a completely different thermodynamic and kinetic description and experimental characterization. In comparison with other fields the following challenges are indicated for high pressure phase transformation: (a) initial and evolving microstructure is not included in characterization of transformations; (b) continuum theory is poorly developed; (c) heterogeneous stress and strain fields in experiments are not determined, which leads to confusing material transformational properties with a system behavior. Some ways to advance the field of high pressure phase transformations are suggested. The key points are: (a) to take into account plastic deformations and microstructure evolution during transformations; (b) to formulate phase transformation criteria and kinetic equations in terms of stress and plastic strain tensors (instead of pressure alone); (c) to develop multiscale continuum

  13. High pressure phase transformations revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitas, Valery I.

    2018-04-01

    High pressure phase transformations play an important role in the search for new materials and material synthesis, as well as in geophysics. However, they are poorly characterized, and phase transformation pressure and pressure hysteresis vary drastically in experiments of different researchers, with different pressure transmitting media, and with different material suppliers. Here we review the current state, challenges in studying phase transformations under high pressure, and the possible ways in overcoming the challenges. This field is critically compared with fields of phase transformations under normal pressure in steels and shape memory alloys, as well as plastic deformation of materials. The main reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is the lack of understanding that there is a fundamental difference between pressure-induced transformations under hydrostatic conditions, stress-induced transformations under nonhydrostatic conditions below yield, and strain-induced transformations during plastic flow. Each of these types of transformations has different mechanisms and requires a completely different thermodynamic and kinetic description and experimental characterization. In comparison with other fields the following challenges are indicated for high pressure phase transformation: (a) initial and evolving microstructure is not included in characterization of transformations; (b) continuum theory is poorly developed; (c) heterogeneous stress and strain fields in experiments are not determined, which leads to confusing material transformational properties with a system behavior. Some ways to advance the field of high pressure phase transformations are suggested. The key points are: (a) to take into account plastic deformations and microstructure evolution during transformations; (b) to formulate phase transformation criteria and kinetic equations in terms of stress and plastic strain tensors (instead of pressure alone); (c) to develop multiscale continuum

  14. Measuring Student Transformation in Entrepreneurship Education Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Gedeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how to measure student transformation primarily within a university entrepreneurship degree program. Student transformation is defined as changes in knowledge (“Head”, skills (“Hand”, and attitudinal (“Heart” learning outcomes. Following the institutional impact model, student transformation is the primary goal of education and all other program goals and aspects of quality desired by stakeholders are either input factors (professors, courses, facilities, support, etc. or output performance (number of startups, average starting salary, % employment, etc.. This goal-setting framework allows competing stakeholder quality expectations to be incorporated into a continuous process improvement (CPI model when establishing program goals. How to measure these goals to implement TQM methods is shown. Measuring student transformation as the central focus of a program promotes harmony among competing stakeholders and also provides a metric on which other program decisions (e.g., class size, assignments, and pedagogical technique may be based. Different stakeholders hold surprisingly different views on defining program quality. The proposed framework provides a useful way to bring these competing views into a CPI cycle to implement TQM requirements of accreditation. The specific entrepreneurial learning outcome goals described in the tables in this article may also be used directly by educators in nonaccredited programs and single courses/workshops or for other audiences.

  15. On the effect of response transformations in sequential parameter optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tobias; Wessing, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Parameter tuning of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) is attracting more and more interest. In particular, the sequential parameter optimization (SPO) framework for the model-assisted tuning of stochastic optimizers has resulted in established parameter tuning algorithms. In this paper, we enhance the SPO framework by introducing transformation steps before the response aggregation and before the actual modeling. Based on design-of-experiments techniques, we empirically analyze the effect of integrating different transformations. We show that in particular, a rank transformation of the responses provides significant improvements. A deeper analysis of the resulting models and additional experiments with adaptive procedures indicates that the rank and the Box-Cox transformation are able to improve the properties of the resultant distributions with respect to symmetry and normality of the residuals. Moreover, model-based effect plots document a higher discriminatory power obtained by the rank transformation.

  16. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-01-01

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore's law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog 2 N rather than N 2 ) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  17. Transformational silicon electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-02-25

    In today\\'s traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 μm), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced high-κ/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  18. Transforming Innovation for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Leach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of charting pathways to sustainability that keep human societies within a "safe operating space" has now been clarified. Crises in climate, food, biodiversity, and energy are already playing out across local and global scales and are set to increase as we approach critical thresholds. Drawing together recent work from the Stockholm Resilience Centre, the Tellus Institute, and the STEPS Centre, this commentary article argues that ambitious Sustainable Development Goals are now required along with major transformation, not only in policies and technologies, but in modes of innovation themselves, to meet them. As examples of dryland agriculture in East Africa and rural energy in Latin America illustrate, such "transformative innovation" needs to give far greater recognition and power to grassroots innovation actors and processes, involving them within an inclusive, multi-scale innovation politics. The three dimensions of direction, diversity, and distribution along with new forms of "sustainability brokering" can help guide the kinds of analysis and decision making now needed to safeguard our planet for current and future generations.

  19. Transformations of emotional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the

  20. The prosaic Laplace and Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Integral Transform methods play an extremely important role in many branches of science and engineering. The ease with which many problems may be solved using these techniques is well known. In Electrical Engineering especially, Laplace and Fourier Transforms have been used for a long time as a way to change the solution of differential equations into trivial algebraic manipulations or to provide alternate representations of signals and data. These techniques, while seemingly overshadowed by today's emphasis on digital analysis, still form an invaluable basis in the understanding of systems and circuits. A firm grasp of the practical aspects of these subjects provides valuable conceptual tools. This tutorial paper is a review of Laplace and Fourier Transforms from an applied perspective with an emphasis on engineering applications. The interrelationship of the time and frequency domains will be stressed, in an attempt to comfort those who, after living so much of their lives in the time domain, find thinking in the frequency domain disquieting. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  1. Distinctive transforming genes in x-ray-transformed mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.; Ong, A.; Mason, H.

    1987-01-01

    DNAs from hamster embryo cells and mouse C3H/10T1/2 cells transformed in vitro by x-irradiation into malignant cells transmit the radiation transformation phenotype by producing transformed colonies (transfectants) in two mouse recipient lines, the NIH 3T3 and C3H/101/2 cells, and in a rat cell line, the Rat-2 cells. DNAs from unirradiated cells or irradiated and visibly untransformed cells do not produce transformed colonies. The transfectant grow in agar and form tumors in nude mice. Treatment of the DNAs with restriction endonucleases prior to transfection indicates that the same transforming gene (oncogene) is present in each of the transformed mouse cells and is the same in each of the transformed hamster cells. Southern blot analysis of 3T3 or Rat-2 transfectants carrying oncogenes from radiation-transformed C3H/10T1/2 or hamster cells indicates that the oncogenes responsible for the transformation of 3T3 cells are not the Ki-ras, Ha-ras, N-ras genes, nor are they neu, trk, raf, abl, or fms. The work demonstrates that DNAs from mammalian cells transformed into malignancy by direct exposure in vitro to radiation contain genetic sequences with detectable transforming activity in three recipient cell lines. The results provide evidence that DNA is the target of radiation carcinogenesis induced at a cellular level in vitro. The experiments indicate that malignant radiogenic transformation in vitro of hamster embryo and mouse C3H/10T1/2 cells involves the activation of unique non-ras transforming genes, which heretofore have not been described

  2. Astrophysical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchin, C R

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: detectors (optical and infrared detection; radio and microwave detection; X-ray and gamma-ray detection; cosmic ray detectors; neutrino detectors; gravitational radiation); imaging (photography; electronic imaging; scanning; interferometry; speckle interferometry; occultations; radar); photometry and photometers; spectroscopy and spectroscopes; other techniques (astrometry; polarimetry; solar studies; magnetometry). Appendices: magnitudes and spectral types of bright stars; north polar sequence; standard stars for the UBV photometric system; standard stars for the UVBY photometric system; standard stars for MK spectral types; standard stars for polarimetry; Julian date; catalogues; answers to the exercises.

  3. Llizarov technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankman, S.; Rosenberg, Z.S.; Frankel, V.; Golyakhovsky, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper illustrates the radiographic manifestations of the Ilizarov distraction technique for the correction of short and deformed limbs. The radiographs of 130 patients who underwent Ilizarov distraction at 160 sites since December 1986 were reviewed retrospectively. Reasons for correction included fracture nonunion and malunion idiopathic leg length discrepancy, achondroplasia, and neurofibromatosis with tibial pseudarthrosis. Ninety patients were adults, and 40 were children. In order to assess cortical bone development during the fixation phase, CT of the regenerate bone was performed in 17 patients. Conventional tomograms were obtained in 20 patients for the evaluation of delayed or hypoplastic union at the distraction site

  4. Experimental Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, D.; Serin, L.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental techniques to be used in the new generation of high energy physics are presented. The emphasis is put on the new ATLAS and CMS detectors for the CERN LHC. For the most important elements of these detectors, a description of the underlying physics processes is given, sometimes with reference to comparable detectors used in the past. Some comparative global performances of the two detectors are also given, with reference to benchmark physics processes (detection of the Higgs boson in various mass regions, etc). (author)

  5. Sweeping a persisting superconducting magnet with a transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, G.F.; Alexander, P.W.; Ihas, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    A method for sweeping a persisting superconducting magnet is described. The field sweep is achieved by including in the superconducting loop of the magnet a coil which acts as the secondary coil of a transformer. Variation of the current in the primary coil of the transformer, controlled from outside the cryostat, causes the field-sweeping action through flux-linking with the superconducting loop. Compared to directly changing the current in a magnet, this technique improves control by the ratio of the magnet's inductance to the transformer's inductance. The advantages of using an all-metal vacuum-tight superconducting feedthrough are discussed. (author)

  6. Multispectral image pansharpening based on the contourlet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amro, Israa; Mateos, Javier, E-mail: iamro@correo.ugr.e, E-mail: jmd@decsai.ugr.e [Departamento de Ciencias de la Computacion e I.A., Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2010-02-01

    Pansharpening is a technique that fuses the information of a low resolution multispectral image (MS) and a high resolution panchromatic image (PAN), usually remote sensing images, to provide a high resolution multispectral image. In the literature, this task has been addressed from different points of view being one of the most popular the wavelets based algorithms. Recently, the contourlet transform has been proposed. This transform combines the advantages of the wavelets transform with a more efficient directional information representation. In this paper we propose a new pansharpening method based on contourlets, compare with its wavelet counterpart and assess its performance numerically and visually.

  7. Examination of Spectral Transformations on Spectral Mixture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Wu, C.

    2018-04-01

    While many spectral transformation techniques have been applied on spectral mixture analysis (SMA), few study examined their necessity and applicability. This paper focused on exploring the difference between spectrally transformed schemes and untransformed scheme to find out which transformed scheme performed better in SMA. In particular, nine spectrally transformed schemes as well as untransformed scheme were examined in two study areas. Each transformed scheme was tested 100 times using different endmember classes' spectra under the endmember model of vegetation- high albedo impervious surface area-low albedo impervious surface area-soil (V-ISAh-ISAl-S). Performance of each scheme was assessed based on mean absolute error (MAE). Statistical analysis technique, Paired-Samples T test, was applied to test the significance of mean MAEs' difference between transformed and untransformed schemes. Results demonstrated that only NSMA could exceed the untransformed scheme in all study areas. Some transformed schemes showed unstable performance since they outperformed the untransformed scheme in one area but weakened the SMA result in another region.

  8. Adaption of optical Fresnel transform to optical Wigner transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Cuihong; Fan Hongyi

    2010-01-01

    Enlightened by the algorithmic isomorphism between the rotation of the Wigner distribution function (WDF) and the αth fractional Fourier transform, we show that the optical Fresnel transform performed on the input through an ABCD system makes the output naturally adapting to the associated Wigner transform, i.e. there exists algorithmic isomorphism between ABCD transformation of the WDF and the optical Fresnel transform. We prove this adaption in the context of operator language. Both the single-mode and the two-mode Fresnel operators as the image of classical Fresnel transform are introduced in our discussions, while the two-mode Wigner operator in the entangled state representation is introduced for fitting the two-mode Fresnel operator.

  9. Analysis and Transformation Tools for Constrained Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Several techniques and tools have been developed for verification of properties expressed as Horn clauses with constraints over a background theory (CHC). Current CHC verification tools implement intricate algorithms and are often limited to certain subclasses of CHC problems. Our aim in this work...... is to investigate the use of a combination of off-the-shelf techniques from the literature in analysis and transformation of Constraint Logic Programs (CLPs) to solve challenging CHC verification problems. We find that many problems can be solved using a combination of tools based on well-known techniques from...... abstract interpretation, semantics-preserving transformations, program specialisation and query-answer transformations. This gives insights into the design of automatic, more general CHC verification tools based on a library of components....

  10. QR code-based non-linear image encryption using Shearlet transform and spiral phase transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Bhaduri, Basanta; Hennelly, Bryan

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a new quick response (QR) code-based non-linear technique for image encryption using Shearlet transform (ST) and spiral phase transform. The input image is first converted into a QR code and then scrambled using the Arnold transform. The scrambled image is then decomposed into five coefficients using the ST and the first Shearlet coefficient, C1 is interchanged with a security key before performing the inverse ST. The output after inverse ST is then modulated with a random phase mask and further spiral phase transformed to get the final encrypted image. The first coefficient, C1 is used as a private key for decryption. The sensitivity of the security keys is analysed in terms of correlation coefficient and peak signal-to noise ratio. The robustness of the scheme is also checked against various attacks such as noise, occlusion and special attacks. Numerical simulation results are shown in support of the proposed technique and an optoelectronic set-up for encryption is also proposed.

  11. Image processing techniques for remote sensing data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    interpretation and for processing of scene data for autonomous machine perception. The technique of digital image processing are used for' automatic character/pattern recognition, industrial robots for product assembly and inspection, military recognizance... and spatial co-ordinates into discrete components. The mathematical concepts involved are the sampling and transform theory. Two dimensional transforms are used for image enhancement, restoration, encoding and description too. The main objective of the image...

  12. Thermally Induced Magnetite-Haematite Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Barrero, C. A.; Diaz-Teran, J.; Jerez, A.

    2003-01-01

    The products of thermal treatments of pure and copper doped magnetites have been investigated using Moessbauer spectrometry, XRD and thermal analysis techniques. The samples were heated in air between RT and 800 o C at several heating rates. Samples treated at 520 o C during 12 and 24 hours consist only of well-crystallized haematite. On the other hand, magnetites treated at 350 o C consisted of mixtures of haematite, maghemite and magnetite, with relative amount of each phase depending on the presence of copper as well as on the heating time. Results show that the transformation of magnetite to haematite goes through the formation of maghemite, and that the presence of copper delays this transformation.

  13. Discourse of 'transformational leadership' in infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteyko, Nelya; Carter, Ronald

    2008-10-01

    The article explores the impact of the ;transformational leadership' style in the role of modern matron with regards to infection control practices. Policy and guidance on the modern matron role suggest that it is distinctive in its combination of management and clinical components, and in its reliance on transformational leadership. Senior nurses are therefore expected to motivate staff by creating high expectations, modelling appropriate behaviour, and providing personal attention to followers by giving respect and responsibility. In this article, we draw on policy documents and interview data to explore the potential impact of this new management style on infection control practices. Combining the techniques of discourse analysis and corpus linguistics, we identify examples where matrons appear to disassociate themselves from the role of ;an empowered manager' who has control over human and financial resources to resolve problems in infection control efficiently.

  14. Thermally Induced Magnetite-Haematite Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Barrero, C. A. [Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica (Colombia); Diaz-Teran, J.; Jerez, A. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia UNED, Po Senda del Rey 9, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica (Spain)

    2003-06-15

    The products of thermal treatments of pure and copper doped magnetites have been investigated using Moessbauer spectrometry, XRD and thermal analysis techniques. The samples were heated in air between RT and 800{sup o}C at several heating rates. Samples treated at 520{sup o}C during 12 and 24 hours consist only of well-crystallized haematite. On the other hand, magnetites treated at 350{sup o}C consisted of mixtures of haematite, maghemite and magnetite, with relative amount of each phase depending on the presence of copper as well as on the heating time. Results show that the transformation of magnetite to haematite goes through the formation of maghemite, and that the presence of copper delays this transformation.

  15. Computer-Aided Numerical Inversion of Laplace Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kumar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the technique for the computer aided numerical inversion of Laplace transform. The inversion technique is based on the properties of a family of three parameter exponential probability density functions. The only limitation in the technique is the word length of the computer being used. The Laplace transform has been used extensively in the frequency domain solution of linear, lumped time invariant networks but its application to the time domain has been limited, mainly because of the difficulty in finding the necessary poles and residues. The numerical inversion technique mentioned above does away with the poles and residues but uses precomputed numbers to find the time response. This technique is applicable to the solution of partially differentiable equations and certain classes of linear systems with time varying components.

  16. INFORMATION MODEL OF SOCIAL TRANSFORMATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Васильевна Комова

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The social transformation is considered as a process of qualitative changes of the society, creating a new level of organization in all areas of life, in different social formations, societies of different types of development. The purpose of the study is to create a universal model for studying social transformations based on their understanding as the consequence of the information exchange processes in the society. After defining the conceptual model of the study, the author uses the following methods: the descriptive method, analysis, synthesis, comparison.Information, objectively existing in all elements and systems of the material world, is an integral attribute of the society transformation as well. The information model of social transformations is based on the definition of the society transformation as the change in the information that functions in the society’s information space. The study of social transformations is the study of information flows circulating in the society and being characterized by different spatial, temporal, and structural states. Social transformations are a highly integrated system of social processes and phenomena, the nature, course and consequences of which are affected by the factors representing the whole complex of material objects. The integrated information model of social transformations foresees the interaction of the following components: social memory, information space, and the social ideal. To determine the dynamics and intensity of social transformations the author uses the notions of "information threshold of social transformations" and "information pressure".Thus, the universal nature of information leads to considering social transformations as a system of information exchange processes. Social transformations can be extended to any episteme actualized by social needs. The establishment of an information threshold allows to simulate the course of social development, to predict the

  17. A piezoelectric transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    This work describes a modeling and design method whereby a piezoelectric system is formulated by two sets of second-order equations, one for the mechanical system, and the other for the electrical system, coupled through the piezoelectric effect. The solution to this electromechanical coupled system gives a physical interpretation of the piezoelectric effect as a piezoelectric transformer that is a part of the piezoelectric system, which transfers the applied mechanical force into a force-controlled current source, and short circuit mechanical compliance into capacitance. It also transfers the voltage source into a voltage-controlled relative velocity input, and free motional capacitance into mechanical compliance. The formulation and interpretation simplify the modeling of smart structures and lead to physical insight that aids the designer. Due to its physical realization, the smart structural system can be unconditional stable and effectively control responses. This new concept has been demonstrated in three numerical examples for a simple piezoelectric system.

  18. Recurrent Spatial Transformer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Søren Kaae; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Maaløe, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We integrate the recently proposed spatial transformer network (SPN) [Jaderberg et. al 2015] into a recurrent neural network (RNN) to form an RNN-SPN model. We use the RNN-SPN to classify digits in cluttered MNIST sequences. The proposed model achieves a single digit error of 1.5% compared to 2.......9% for a convolutional networks and 2.0% for convolutional networks with SPN layers. The SPN outputs a zoomed, rotated and skewed version of the input image. We investigate different down-sampling factors (ratio of pixel in input and output) for the SPN and show that the RNN-SPN model is able to down-sample the input...

  19. Professionsidentitet under transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Point of departure is the increase of differentiation we see within knowledge and labor. Consequently, more educations are established and pressumably the new professionals will consolidate as professions with own jurisdiction. This article aims to focus on the transfor- mation, a profession...... identity undergoes in the process of consolidation. Empirical data orig- inating from ethnographic field studies of the clinical teacher’s teaching practices within the practical part of nurse education are analyzed as a case, and here seen as a kind of wel- fare organization. With inspiration from Stuart...... Hall and his cultural study tradition the analysis shows how the clinical teacher experiences setbacks when striving for a better po- sition. However, these ‘diasporic experiences’ determine that the transformation of profes- sion identity contains both elements of emancipation and change but also...

  20. Lost in transformation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Haahr, Anita; Dreyer, Pia

    2017-01-01

    and values from evidence-based medicine are being lost in the transformation into the current evidence-based hospital culture which potentially leads to a McDonaldization of nursing practice reflected as ‘one best way’. We argue for reviving ethics of care perspectives in today’s evidence practice...... as the fundamental values of nursing may potentially bridge conflicts between evidence-based practice and the ideals of patient participation thus preventing a practice of ‘McNursing’. Key words: nursing practice, evidence-based practice, nursing theory, nursing theorists, ethics of care, hospital culture, patient......Drawing on our previous empirical research, we provide an exemplary narrative to illustrate how patients have experienced hospital care organized according to evidence-based fast-track programmes. The aim of this paper is to analyse and discuss if and how it is possible to include patients...

  1. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  2. Neutrosophic Hough Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Budak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hough transform (HT is a useful tool for both pattern recognition and image processing communities. In the view of pattern recognition, it can extract unique features for description of various shapes, such as lines, circles, ellipses, and etc. In the view of image processing, a dozen of applications can be handled with HT, such as lane detection for autonomous cars, blood cell detection in microscope images, and so on. As HT is a straight forward shape detector in a given image, its shape detection ability is low in noisy images. To alleviate its weakness on noisy images and improve its shape detection performance, in this paper, we proposed neutrosophic Hough transform (NHT. As it was proved earlier, neutrosophy theory based image processing applications were successful in noisy environments. To this end, the Hough space is initially transferred into the NS domain by calculating the NS membership triples (T, I, and F. An indeterminacy filtering is constructed where the neighborhood information is used in order to remove the indeterminacy in the spatial neighborhood of neutrosophic Hough space. The potential peaks are detected based on thresholding on the neutrosophic Hough space, and these peak locations are then used to detect the lines in the image domain. Extensive experiments on noisy and noise-free images are performed in order to show the efficiency of the proposed NHT algorithm. We also compared our proposed NHT with traditional HT and fuzzy HT methods on variety of images. The obtained results showed the efficiency of the proposed NHT on noisy images.

  3. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for selectively extracting and storing only krypton and xenon in the waste gases that are released from a pressurized water nuclear power reactor are described. The illustrative fluorocarbon absorption system has three separation stages: an initial gas-fluorocarbon absorber, a flash chamber and fractionator for segregating all of the absorbed gases from the loaded absorber stage fluorocarbon (save for the krypton and xenon), and a stripper that receives the partially loaded fluorocarbon liquid directly from the fractionator in order to separate only the krypton and xenon. A molecular sieve filter dries the input process gas, a cartridge type solvent filter is used to remove radiation degradation products from the loaded liquid that flows from the absorber, a cold trap gas drier is provided to remove residual solvent vapor from the separated krypton and xenon, and radiation detectors automatically activate valves to establish safe conditions in the event of an accident or plant failure. (U.S.)

  4. Experimental techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P.

    2007-01-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, γ detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  5. Combinatorial techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sane, Sharad S

    2013-01-01

    This is a basic text on combinatorics that deals with all the three aspects of the discipline: tricks, techniques and theory, and attempts to blend them. The book has several distinctive features. Probability and random variables with their interconnections to permutations are discussed. The theme of parity has been specially included and it covers applications ranging from solving the Nim game to the quadratic reciprocity law. Chapters related to geometry include triangulations and Sperner's theorem, classification of regular polytopes, tilings and an introduction to the Eulcidean Ramsey theory. Material on group actions covers Sylow theory, automorphism groups and a classification of finite subgroups of orthogonal groups. All chapters have a large number of exercises with varying degrees of difficulty, ranging from material suitable for Mathematical Olympiads to research.

  6. The linear canonical transformation : definition and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, Martin J.; Alieva, Tatiana; Healy, J.J.; Kutay, M.A.; Ozaktas, H.M.; Sheridan, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we introduce the class of linear canonical transformations, which includes as particular cases the Fourier transformation (and its generalization: the fractional Fourier transformation), the Fresnel transformation, and magnifier, rotation and shearing operations. The basic properties

  7. Phase transformations in Higher Manganese Silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, A. [MADIREL, UMR 7246 CNRS - Universite Aix-Marseille, av Normandie-Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); IM2NP, UMR 7334 CNRS - Universite Aix-Marseille, av Normandie-Niemen, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Boulet, P. [MADIREL, UMR 7246 CNRS - Universite Aix-Marseille, av Normandie-Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Nunes, C.A. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais (DEMAR), Escola de Engenharia de Lorena (EEL), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Caixa Postal 116, 12600-970 Lorena, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sopousek, J.; Broz, P. [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kolarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Masaryk University, Central European Institute of Technology, CEITEC, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Record, M.-C., E-mail: m-c.record@univ-cezanne.fr [IM2NP, UMR 7334 CNRS - Universite Aix-Marseille, av Normandie-Niemen, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase transitions of the Higher Manganese Silicides were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were characterised by XRD, DTA and DSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn{sub 27}Si{sub 47} is the stable phase at room temperature and under atmospheric pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At around 800 Degree-Sign C, Mn{sub 27}Si{sub 47} is transformed into Mn{sub 15}Si{sub 26}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase transition is of a second order. - Abstract: This work is an investigation of the phase transformations of the Higher Manganese Silicides in the temperature range [100-1200 Degree-Sign C]. Several complementary experimental techniques were used, namely in situ X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The evolution of both the lattice parameters and the thermal expansion coefficients was determined from in situ XRD measurements. The stability of the samples was investigated by thermal analysis (DTA) and Cp measurements (DSC). This study shows that Mn{sub 27}Si{sub 47} which is the stable phase at room temperature and under atmospheric pressure undergoes a phase transformation at around 800 Degree-Sign C. Mn{sub 27}Si{sub 47} is transformed into Mn{sub 15}Si{sub 26}. This phase transformation seems to be of a second order one. Indeed it was not evidenced by DTA and by contrast it appears on the Cp curve.

  8. High Accuracy Evaluation of the Finite Fourier Transform Using Sampled Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1997-01-01

    Many system identification and signal processing procedures can be done advantageously in the frequency domain. A required preliminary step for this approach is the transformation of sampled time domain data into the frequency domain. The analytical tool used for this transformation is the finite Fourier transform. Inaccuracy in the transformation can degrade system identification and signal processing results. This work presents a method for evaluating the finite Fourier transform using cubic interpolation of sampled time domain data for high accuracy, and the chirp Zeta-transform for arbitrary frequency resolution. The accuracy of the technique is demonstrated in example cases where the transformation can be evaluated analytically. Arbitrary frequency resolution is shown to be important for capturing details of the data in the frequency domain. The technique is demonstrated using flight test data from a longitudinal maneuver of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle.

  9. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.

    1998-06-01

    As for Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) interferometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the introduction of pulsed Fourier transform techniques revolutionized ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: increased speed (factor of 10,000), increased sensitivity (factor of 100), increased mass resolution (factor of 10,000-an improvement not shared by the introduction of FT techniques to IR or NMR spectroscopy), increased mass range (factor of 500), and automated operation. FT-ICR mass spectrometry is the most versatile technique for unscrambling and quantifying ion-molecule reaction kinetics and equilibria in the absence of solvent (i.e., the gas phase). In addition, FT-ICR MS has the following analytically important features: speed (~1 second per spectrum); ultrahigh mass resolution and ultrahigh mass accuracy for analysis of mixtures and polymers; attomole sensitivity; MSn with one spectrometer, including two-dimensional FT/FT-ICR/MS; positive and/or negative ions; multiple ion sources (especially MALDI and electrospray); biomolecular molecular weight and sequencing; LC/MS; and single-molecule detection up to 108 Dalton. Here, some basic features and recent developments of FT-ICR mass spectrometry are reviewed, with applications ranging from crude oil to molecular biology.

  10. Nitrogen transformations in stratified aquatic microbial ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Niels Peter; Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Schramm, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract  New analytical methods such as advanced molecular techniques and microsensors have resulted in new insights about how nitrogen transformations in stratified microbial systems such as sediments and biofilms are regulated at a µm-mm scale. A large and ever-expanding knowledge base about n...... performing dissimilatory reduction of nitrate to ammonium have given new dimensions to the understanding of nitrogen cycling in nature, and the occurrence of these organisms and processes in stratified microbial communities will be described in detail.......Abstract  New analytical methods such as advanced molecular techniques and microsensors have resulted in new insights about how nitrogen transformations in stratified microbial systems such as sediments and biofilms are regulated at a µm-mm scale. A large and ever-expanding knowledge base about...... nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, and dissimilatory reduction of nitrate to ammonium, and about the microorganisms performing the processes, has been produced by use of these techniques. During the last decade the discovery of anammmox bacteria and migrating, nitrate accumulating bacteria...

  11. Diffractive optical elements for transformation of modes in lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Arun K.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Drachenberg, Derrek R.; Armstrong, James P.; Dawson, Jay W.

    2015-09-01

    Spatial mode conversion modules are described, with the capability of efficiently transforming a given optical beam profile, at one plane in space into another well-defined optical beam profile at a different plane in space, whose detailed spatial features and symmetry properties can, in general, differ significantly. The modules are comprised of passive, high-efficiency, low-loss diffractive optical elements, combined with Fourier transform optics. Design rules are described that employ phase retrieval techniques and associated algorithms to determine the necessary profiles of the diffractive optical components. System augmentations are described that utilize real-time adaptive optical techniques for enhanced performance as well as power scaling.

  12. Solution of fractional differential equations by using differential transform method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikoglu, Aytac; Ozkol, Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we implement a well known transformation technique, Differential Transform Method (DTM), to the area of fractional differential equations. Theorems that never existed before are introduced with their proofs. Also numerical examples are carried out for various types of problems, including the Bagley-Torvik, Ricatti and composite fractional oscillation equations for the application of the method. The results obtained are in good agreement with the existing ones in open literature and it is shown that the technique introduced here is robust, accurate and easy to apply

  13. Solution of fractional differential equations by using differential transform method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arikoglu, Aytac [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Maslak, TR-34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Ozkol, Ibrahim [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Maslak, TR-34469 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ozkol@itu.edu.tr

    2007-12-15

    In this study, we implement a well known transformation technique, Differential Transform Method (DTM), to the area of fractional differential equations. Theorems that never existed before are introduced with their proofs. Also numerical examples are carried out for various types of problems, including the Bagley-Torvik, Ricatti and composite fractional oscillation equations for the application of the method. The results obtained are in good agreement with the existing ones in open literature and it is shown that the technique introduced here is robust, accurate and easy to apply.

  14. A Systematic Hardware Sharing Method for Unified Architecture Design of H.264 Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hung Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multitransform techniques have been widely used in modern video coding and have better compression efficiency than the single transform technique that is used conventionally. However, every transform needs a corresponding hardware implementation, which results in a high hardware cost for multiple transforms. A novel method that includes a five-step operation sharing synthesis and architecture-unification techniques is proposed to systematically share the hardware and reduce the cost of multitransform coding. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, a unified architecture is designed using the method for all of the six transforms involved in the H.264 video codec: 2D 4 × 4 forward and inverse integer transforms, 2D 4 × 4 and 2 × 2 Hadamard transforms, and 1D 8 × 8 forward and inverse integer transforms. Firstly, the six H.264 transform architectures are designed at a low cost using the proposed five-step operation sharing synthesis technique. Secondly, the proposed architecture-unification technique further unifies these six transform architectures into a low cost hardware-unified architecture. The unified architecture requires only 28 adders, 16 subtractors, 40 shifters, and a proposed mux-based routing network, and the gate count is only 16308. The unified architecture processes 8 pixels/clock-cycle, up to 275 MHz, which is equal to 707 Full-HD 1080 p frames/second.

  15. Performance of nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformers in comparison to tapered line transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kseniya; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2012-01-01

    to a traditional tapered line impedance transformer. The increase in bandwidth of nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformers typically leads to shortening the transformer length, which makes the transformer attractive for applications, where a wide operating band and high transformation ratios...

  16. Piezoelectric Transformers: An Historical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Vazquez Carazo

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric transformers (PTs) are solid-state devices that transform electrical energy into electrical energy by means of a mechanical vibration. These devices are manufactured using piezoelectric materials that are driven at resonance. With appropriate design and circuitry, it is possible to step up and step down the voltages between the input and output sections of the piezoelectric transformer, without making use of magnetic materials and obtaining excellent conversion efficiencies. The...

  17. The Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation of Dirac Hamiltonian is generally taught as a mathematical trick that allows one to obtain a two-component theory in the low-energy limit. It is not often emphasised that the transformed representation is the only one in which one can take meaningful classical limit, in terms of particles and antiparticles. The history and physics of this transformation are briefly revised. 12 refs

  18. The Foldy--Wouthuysen transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Foldy--Wouthuysen transformation of the Dirac Hamiltonian is generally taught as simply a mathematical trick that allows one to obtain a two-component theory in the low-energy limit. It is not often emphasized that the transformed representation is the only one in which one can take a meaningful classical limit, in terms of particles and antiparticles. We briefly review the history and physics of this transformation. copyright 1995 American Association of Physics Teachers

  19. Twistor Transform for Spinning Particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedoruk, S.

    2005-01-01

    Twistorial formulation of a particle of arbitrary spin has been constructed. The twistor formulation is deduced from a space-time formulation of the spinning particle by introducing pure gauge Lorentz harmonics in this system. Canonical transformations and gauge fixing conditions, excluding space-time variables, produce the fundamental conditions of twistor transform relating the space-time formulation and twistor one. Integral transformations, relating massive twistor fields with usual space-time fields, have been constructed

  20. Transform analysis of generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, O P

    1986-01-01

    Transform Analysis of Generalized Functions concentrates on finite parts of integrals, generalized functions and distributions. It gives a unified treatment of the distributional setting with transform analysis, i.e. Fourier, Laplace, Stieltjes, Mellin, Hankel and Bessel Series.Included are accounts of applications of the theory of integral transforms in a distributional setting to the solution of problems arising in mathematical physics. Information on distributional solutions of differential, partial differential equations and integral equations is conveniently collected here.The volume will