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Sample records for technique influence local

  1. Closure technique after carotid endarterectomy influences local hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gareth J; How, Thien V; Poole, Robert J; Brennan, John A; Naik, Jagjeeth B; Vallabhaneni, S Rao; Fisher, Robert K

    2014-08-01

    Meta-analysis supports patch angioplasty after carotid endarterectomy (CEA); however, studies indicate considerable variation in practice. The hemodynamic effect of a patch is unclear and this study attempted to elucidate this and guide patch width selection. Four groups were selected: healthy volunteers and patients undergoing CEA with primary closure, trimmed patch (5 mm), or 8-mm patch angioplasty. Computer-generated three-dimensional models of carotid bifurcations were produced from transverse ultrasound images recorded at 1-mm intervals. Rapid prototyping generated models for flow visualization studies. Computational fluid dynamic studies were performed for each model and validated by flow visualization. Mean wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) maps were created for each model using pulsatile inflow at 300 mL/min. WSS of OSI >0.3 were considered pathological, predisposing to accretion of intimal hyperplasia. The resultant WSS and OSI maps were compared. The four groups comprised 8 normal carotid arteries, 6 primary closures, 6 trimmed patches, and seven 8-mm patches. Flow visualization identified flow separation and recirculation at the bifurcation increased with a patch and was related to the patch width. Computational fluid dynamic identified that primary closure had the fewest areas of low WSS or elevated OSI but did have mild common carotid artery stenoses at the proximal arteriotomy that caused turbulence. Trimmed patches had more regions of abnormal WSS and OSI at the bifurcation, but 8-mm patches had the largest areas of deleteriously low WSS and high OSI. Qualitative comparison among the four groups confirmed that incorporation of a patch increased areas of low WSS and high OSI at the bifurcation and that this was related to patch width. Closure technique after CEA influences the hemodynamic profile. Patching does not appear to generate favorable flow dynamics. However, a trimmed 5-mm patch may offer hemodynamic benefits over an 8

  2. Surgical techniques influence local environment of injured spinal cord and cause various grafted cell survival and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shaoping; Saltos, Tatiana M; Iredia, Idiata W; Tom, Veronica J

    2018-01-01

    Cellular transplantation to repair a complete spinal cord injury (SCI) is tremendously challenging due to the adverse local milieu for graft survival and growth. Results from cell transplantation studies yield great variability, which may possibly be due to the surgical techniques employed to induce an SCI. In order to delineate the influence of surgery on such inconsistency, we compared lesion morphology and graft survival as well as integration from different lesion methodologies of SCI. Surgical techniques, including a traditional approach cut+microaspiration, and two new approaches, cut alone as well as crush, were employed to produce a complete SCI, respectively. Approximately half of the rats in each group received injury only, whereas the other half received grafts of fetal brainstem cells into the lesion gap. Eight weeks after injury with or without graft, histological analysis showed that the cut+microaspiration surgery resulted in larger lesion cavities and severe fibrotic scars surrounding the cavity, and cellular transplants rarely formed a tissue bridge to penetrate the barrier. In contrast, the majority of cases treated with cut alone or crush exhibited smaller cavities and less scarring; the grafts expanded and blended extensively with the host tissue, which often built continuous tissue bridging the rostral and caudal cords. Scarring and cavitation were significantly reduced when microaspiration was avoided in SCI surgery, facilitating graft/host tissue fusion for signal transmission. The result suggests that microaspiration frequently causes severe scars and cavities, thus impeding graft survival and integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Técnicas de diagnóstico de influência local na análise espacial da produtividade da soja Diagnostic techniques of local influence in spatial analysis of soybean yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelmir A. Borssoi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A modelagem da estrutura de dependência espacial pela abordagem da geoestatística é fundamental para a definição de parâmetros que definem esta estrutura, e que são utilizados na interpolação de valores em locais não amostrados pela técnica de krigagem. Entretanto, a estimação de parâmetros pode ser muito afetada pela presença de observações atípicas nos dados amostrados. O desenvolvimento deste trabalho teve por objetivo utilizar técnicas de diagnóstico de influência local em modelos espaciais lineares gaussianos, utilizados em geoestatística, para avaliar a sensibilidade dos estimadores de máxima verossimilhança e máxima verossimilhança restrita na presença de dados discrepantes. Estudos com dados experimentais mostraram que tanto a presença de valores atípicos como de valores considerados influentes, pela análise de diagnóstico, pode exercer forte influência nos mapas temáticos, alterando, assim, a estrutura de dependência espacial. As aplicações de técnicas de diagnóstico de influência local devem fazer parte de toda análise geoestatística a fim de garantir que as informações contidas nos mapas temáticos tenham maior qualidade e possam ser utilizadas com maior segurança pelo agricultor.Modeling of spatial dependence structure, concerning geoestatistics approach, is an indispensable tool for fixing parameters that define this structure, applied on interpolation of values in places that are not sampled, by kriging techniques. However, the estimation of parameters can be greatly affected by the presence of atypical observations on sampled data. Thus, this trial aimed at using diagnostics techniques of local influence in spatial linear Gaussians models, applied at geoestatistics in order to evaluate sensitivity of maximum likelihood estimators and restrict maximum likelihood to small perturbations in these data. So, studies with simulated and experimental data were performed. Those results, obtained

  4. Scanning reference electrode techniques in localized corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, H.S.; Vyas, B.

    1979-04-01

    The principles, advantages, and implementations of scanning reference electrode techniques are reviewed. Data related to pitting, intergranular corrosion, welds and stress corrosion cracking are presented. The technique locates the position of localized corrosion and can be used to monitor the development of corrosion and changes in the corrosion rate under a wide range of conditions

  5. Influence of external beam technique and brachytherapy quality assurance on the side effects in the combined external beam- and brachytherapy treatment of local advanced prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, G.; Galalae, R.; Wirth, B.; Bertermann, H.; Wilhelm, R.; Kohr, P.; Kimmig, B.

    1996-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasound(TRUS) guided HDR implantation of the prostate has been established at the Kiel University by Bertermann and Brix in 1986 and there are to date 179 (T1b-T3 No Mo) patients treated in a combined modality. The dose for the implant was 2x 15 Gy on the capsule of the prostate in 14-20 days. For local and regional lymph nodes 20 Gy external beam therapy (AP-PA pelvic portals), 20 Gy with an individual transmission block (100% for subclinical disease, 70% and 50% according to the implant dosimetry for the prostate) and 10 Gy small volume irradiation for the prostate was applied, conventional fractioned. Total dose after the therapy 70 Gy for the prostate and 50 Gy for the subclinical disease in 6-7 weeks. As a quality control method we use since 1991 in vivo dosimetry on the medial rectum wall as well as in the prostatic part of the urethra. Regular follow-up 3-118 months after therapy (median 55) with PSA, digital rectal examination, control TRUS with volumetry (after one year with biopsy) and bone scan. There were no major early side effects within the first three months. Proctitis till 1991 with a duration up to 12 months 49%, prolonging more than one year in 23 %, (total proctitis 72.6%). Dysuria in up to 12 months 30 %, long lasting 30% (total number of dysuria 60 %). Erectile dysfunction in 56 %. Because of the number of the side effects 1991 we changed the external beam technique: instead of the biaxial arch therapy the AP-PA portals, and reduced irradiated volume (from 6480 cm 3 to 5040 cm 3 ). We introduced instead of the small volume arch therapy for 10 Gy external boost the box-technique with shielding the back part of the rectum and the upper part of the bladder resulting additional volume reduction. Through the 15 Gy HDR brachytherapy dose on the prostate capsule there are up to 8 Gy on the medial rectal wall, measured by in vivo dosimetry. This dose could not be responsible for the high number of side effects (see gynecological

  6. Microencapsulation techniques, factors influencing encapsulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, N Venkata Naga; Prasanna, P Muthu; Sakarkar, Suhas Narayan; Prabha, K Surya; Ramaiah, P Seetha; Srawan, G Y

    2010-05-01

    Microencapsulation is one of the quality preservation techniques of sensitive substances and a method for production of materials with new valuable properties. Microencapsulation is a process of enclosing micron-sized particles in a polymeric shell. There are different techniques available for the encapsulation of drug entities. The encapsulation efficiency of the microparticle or microsphere or microcapsule depends upon different factors like concentration of the polymer, solubility of polymer in solvent, rate of solvent removal, solubility of organic solvent in water, etc. The present article provides a literature review of different microencapsulation techniques and different factors influencing the encapsulation efficiency of the microencapsulation technique.

  7. High energy ion hit technique to local area using microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotsu; Sakai, Takuro; Hirao, Toshio; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Single energetic ion hit technique has been developed as an application of ion microbeam technique, in order to study the effect of local damage or injury to materials and living organisms. The overall performance is basically defined by those of separate techniques: microbeam formation, microbeam positioning, single ion detection, detection signal processing, hit timing control, and hit verification. Recent progress on the developments of these techniques at JAERI-TIARA facility are reviewed. (author)

  8. Local mapping of interface traps using contactless capacitance transient technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Haruhiko; Mori, Hidenobu

    2016-10-01

    Contactless capacitance transient techniques have been applied to local mapping of interface traps of a semiconductor wafer. In contactless capacitance transient techniques, a Metal-Air gap-Oxide-Semiconductor (MAOS) structure is used instead of a conventional Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) structure. The local mapping of interface traps was obtained by using a contactless Isothermal Capacitance Transient Spectroscopy (ICTS), which is one of the contactless capacitance transient techniques. The validity of the contactless ICTS was demonstrated by characterizing a partially Au-doped Si wafer. The results revealed that local mapping of interface traps using contactless capacitance transient techniques is effective in wafer inspection and is a promising technique for the development of MOS devices and solar cells with high reliability and high performance.

  9. Dead Reckoning Localization Technique for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Haroon; Turuk, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full paper at: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1504.06797.pdfThis paper shows how a mobile node can be localized with less than three beacon nodes. It uses a technique known as dead-reckoning for localization of nodes at specific intervals

  10. Recent Advances in Wireless Indoor Localization Techniques and System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Farid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in localization based technologies and the increasing importance of ubiquitous computing and context-dependent information have led to a growing business interest in location-based applications and services. Today, most application requirements are locating or real-time tracking of physical belongings inside buildings accurately; thus, the demand for indoor localization services has become a key prerequisite in some markets. Moreover, indoor localization technologies address the inadequacy of global positioning system inside a closed environment, like buildings. Based on this, though, this paper aims to provide the reader with a review of the recent advances in wireless indoor localization techniques and system to deliver a better understanding of state-of-the-art technologies and motivate new research efforts in this promising field. For this purpose, existing wireless localization position system and location estimation schemes are reviewed, as we also compare the related techniques and systems along with a conclusion and future trends.

  11. An Improved Technique for Robot Global Localization in Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejian Yuan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Global localization problem is one of the classical and important problems in mobile robot. In this paper, we present an approach to solve robot global localization in indoor environments with grid map. It combines Hough Scan Matching (HSM and grid localization method to get the initial knowledge of robot's pose quickly. For pose tracking, a scan matching technique called Iterative Closest Point (ICP is used to amend the robot motion model, it can drastically decreases the uncertainty about the robot's pose in prediction step. Then accurate proposal distribution taking into account recent observation is introduced into particle filters to recover the best estimate of robot trajectories, which seriously reduces number of particles for pose tracking. The proposed approach can globally localize mobile robot fast and accurately. Experiment results carried out with robot data in indoor environments demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Temporal Information Can Influence Spatial Localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maij, F.; Brenner, E.M.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2009-01-01

    To localize objects relative to ourselves, we need to combine various sensory and motor signals. When these signals change abruptly, as information about eye orientation does during saccades, small differences in latency between the signals could introduce localization errors. We examine whether

  13. Temporal information can influence spatial localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maij, F.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2009-01-01

    To localize objects relative to ourselves, we need to combine various sensory and motor signals. When these signals change abruptly, as information about eye orientation does during saccades, small differences in latency between the signals could introduce localization errors. We examine whether

  14. Local Influence Analysis of Nonlinear Structural Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Tang, Nian-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    By regarding the latent random vectors as hypothetical missing data and based on the conditional expectation of the complete-data log-likelihood function in the EM algorithm, we investigate assessment of local influence of various perturbation schemes in a nonlinear structural equation model. The basic building blocks of local influence analysis…

  15. Radioactive seed localizations from computed tomography imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyangar, K.M.; Dobelbower, R.R.; Saw, C.B.; Korb, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    A method that combines radiographic localization of seeds in brachytherapy implant with computed tomography (CT) images has been developed to provide accurate seed location and dose distribution data, in relation to the three dimensional localization of target volume and critical organs at risk. The accurate determination of radioactive seed locations in permanent implants from CT scans is limited by the magnitude of the pixel size and the slice thickness. The image of a single seed may appear in more than one consecutive CT image. A method of removing this artifact using a tolerance diameter about a seed center determined in the previous CT slice is described. To improve further the accuracy of defining the seed positions and orientations, the reconstructed seed coordinates derived from the three film technique were transformed into CT coordinates for dose distribution computations. The differences between this technique and the technique of using CT scans to reconstruct seed coordinates directly were assessed. This method has been applied in the case of prostate implants. It allows for the generation of dose volume histograms for the prostate, bladder and the rectum. (author). 9 refs., 8 figs

  16. Injection techniques in the management of local pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A A

    1996-01-01

    This is a review of local anesthetic (LA) injections and infiltrations particularly combined with 'needling' for management of local musculoskeletal pain. New techniques are described including preinjection blocks (PIBs) which consist of blocking the sensory input from an area prior to giving an injection. PIBs prevent pain which would be caused by needle penetration of sensitive tissue. Needling and infiltration (N and I) with 1% lidocaine has been performed after PIB in 179 tender spots (TSs), trigger points (TrPs), and muscle spasms by the author, in 123 patients with the goal to relieve pain and promote healing. The immediate effect after the procedure as well as long-term results from 1 week to 7 months have been evaluated independently by a physiatrist experienced with injections (Dr. Tae Mo Chang). N and I extending over the entire taut band of abnormal muscle fibers, caused effective relief of pain and functional improvement in tender spots (TSs), trigger points (TrPs) and in muscle spasm caused by a variety of conditions including: acute and chronic sports and work injuries, motor vehicle accidents, muscle and ligament sprains (supraspinous, sacroiliac), overuse and repetitive stress syndromes, tennis elbow; local injuries or radicular irritation; and local inflammations such as bursitis, tendinitis, and osteoarthritis; and traumatic dystrophy, a type of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Needling and infiltration of trigger areas and tender spots is effective treatment in several conditions. Pre-injection blocks allow the performance of the N and I of tender areas without pain.

  17. Advances in dental local anesthesia techniques and devices: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Payal; Gupta, Saurabh K; Newaskar, Vilas; Chandra, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Although local anesthesia remains the backbone of pain control in dentistry, researches are going to seek new and better means of managing the pain. Most of the researches are focused on improvement in the area of anesthetic agents, delivery devices and technique involved. Newer technologies have been developed that can assist the dentist in providing enhanced pain relief with reduced injection pain and fewer adverse effects. This overview will enlighten the practicing dentists regarding newer devices and methods of rendering pain control comparing these with the earlier used ones on the basis of research and clinical studies available.

  18. Segmental Refinement: A Multigrid Technique for Data Locality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Mark [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics Dept.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-10-27

    We investigate a technique - segmental refinement (SR) - proposed by Brandt in the 1970s as a low memory multigrid method. The technique is attractive for modern computer architectures because it provides high data locality, minimizes network communication, is amenable to loop fusion, and is naturally highly parallel and asynchronous. The network communication minimization property was recognized by Brandt and Diskin in 1994; we continue this work by developing a segmental refinement method for a finite volume discretization of the 3D Laplacian on massively parallel computers. An understanding of the asymptotic complexities, required to maintain textbook multigrid efficiency, are explored experimentally with a simple SR method. A two-level memory model is developed to compare the asymptotic communication complexity of a proposed SR method with traditional parallel multigrid. Performance and scalability are evaluated with a Cray XC30 with up to 64K cores. We achieve modest improvement in scalability from traditional parallel multigrid with a simple SR implementation.

  19. Influence of local topography on precision irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision irrigation management is currently accomplished using spatial information about soil properties through soil series maps or electrical conductivity (EC measurements. Crop yield, however, is consistently influenced by local topography, both in rain-fed and irrigated environments. Utilizing ...

  20. Techniques for determining physical zones of influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F; Lopez-Marrero, Vanessa

    2013-11-26

    Techniques for analyzing flow of a quantity in a given domain are provided. In one aspect, a method for modeling regions in a domain affected by a flow of a quantity is provided which includes the following steps. A physical representation of the domain is provided. A grid that contains a plurality of grid-points in the domain is created. Sources are identified in the domain. Given a vector field that defines a direction of flow of the quantity within the domain, a boundary value problem is defined for each of one or more of the sources identified in the domain. Each of the boundary value problems is solved numerically to obtain a solution for the boundary value problems at each of the grid-points. The boundary problem solutions are post-processed to model the regions affected by the flow of the quantity on the physical representation of the domain.

  1. Inferring local ecological processes amid species pool influences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Belmaker, Jonathan; Myers, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Resolving contingencies in community ecology requires comparative studies of local communities along broad-scale environmental gradients and in different biogeographic regions. However, comparisons of local ecological processes among regions require a synthetic understanding of how the species pool...... of potential community members influences the structure of ecological communities. Here, we outline an integrative approach for quantifying local ecological processes while explicitly accounting for species pool influences. Specifically, we highlight the utility of combining geographically replicated local...... studies, null models of community structure, and ecologically explicit definitions of the species pool as a means to compare predominant ecological processes among regions. By uniting concepts and tools from community ecology and macroecology, this approach might facilitate synthesis and resolve many...

  2. Near-Field Source Localization by Using Focusing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Saillard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss two fast algorithms to localize multiple sources in near field. The symmetry-based method proposed by Zhi and Chia (2007 is first improved by implementing a search-free procedure for the reduction of computation cost. We present then a focusing-based method which does not require symmetric array configuration. By using focusing technique, the near-field signal model is transformed into a model possessing the same structure as in the far-field situation, which allows the bearing estimation with the well-studied far-field methods. With the estimated bearing, the range estimation of each source is consequently obtained by using 1D MUSIC method without parameter pairing. The performance of the improved symmetry-based method and the proposed focusing-based method is compared by Monte Carlo simulations and with Crammer-Rao bound as well. Unlike other near-field algorithms, these two approaches require neither high-computation cost nor high-order statistics

  3. Influence of epicentral distance on local seismic response in Kolkata ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The influence of source and epicentral distance on the local seismic response in the Kolkata city is investigated by computing the seismic .... to be conservative, we rounded off by excess the non-integer values given in the literature. ... (GC) or variation along energy transmission path, magnitude (M), soil condition (SC) at ...

  4. The current status of local medicare payment policy: how specialty societies can influence local coverage determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bibb; Pennington, Anita; Keysor, Kathryn J

    2008-06-01

    The Medicare Fee-for-Service Program is in the midst of numerous administrative and regulatory changes that may affect the way local Medicare payment policy is implemented. These changes involve redefining the contractors' jurisdictions, competitive bidding for the contractor selection process, combining the administration of Part A and Part B services, and error rate auditing. In addition, the roles of the Contractor Medical Directors and Contractor Advisory Committees are yet to be defined, and the future of the existing advisory process, while currently unchanged, remains uncertain. Most likely, the majority of coverage decisions will continue to be made at the local level; however, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has begun to increase its use of Technology Assessments and National Coverage Determinations for new technology and has developed a new payment category for coverage of new technology: Coverage with Evidence Development. Specialty societies continue to have the ability to exert influence on the coverage process. The American College of Radiology (ACR) monitors the activity of the local contractors and assists local physicians through the ACR Carrier Advisory Committee Network. The ACR has used a combination of clinical and economic experts to develop model Local Coverage Determinations for use by the local contractors, and some of these model policies have been developed in conjunction with other specialty societies, which bolsters their effectiveness. The changing administrative environment presents challenges and opportunities for specialty societies to influence local CMS payment policy.

  5. The influence of anoxia and local radiotherapy on implantation metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varekamp, A.P.

    1978-01-01

    The survival rate for carcinoma of the breast has hardly improved during the last decades, in spite of many of attempts to attain better results by drastic changes in the methods of treatment. This is equally true of the frequent local recurrences in the former area of operation, often after a period of many years, so when a complete cure has already been assumed by patient and doctor. This local recurrence is nearly always followed after a short period by the symptoms of a complete dissemination, which invariably leads to a lethal end. This thesis deals with the local recurrences. For that purpose a study has been made of the available literature, which has been described in the first part and a number of prophylactic measures has been mentioned in this same part. The influence of anoxaemia and radiotherapy on local recurrence is also discussed. For the time being, in preventing local recurrence of carcinoma of the breast chemotherapy does not seem to be a substitute for the loco-regional directed surgery and radiotherapy, but does seem to be a complementary. Local treatment, if longer survival is achieved by the use of chemotherapeutics, whereby a longer period is available for the originating of a local recurrence. (Auth.)

  6. Influence of two sports vision training techniques on visual skills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of two sports vision training techniques on visual skills performance of university students. P.J. du Toit, A.J. Van Rensburg, D.C. Janse Van Rensburg, C.C. Grant, A.F. Mahomed, E Nortje, P.E. Krüger, P Wood, A Stander, J Ferreira, L Fletcher, M Kleynhans, N Coetzee ...

  7. Local and regional factors influence the structure of treehole metacommunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegan Benjamin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abiotic and biotic factors in a local habitat may strongly impact the community residing within, but spatially structured metacommunities are also influenced by regional factors such as immigration and colonization. We used three years of monthly treehole census data to evaluate the relative influence of local and regional factors on our study system. Results Every species responded to at least one of three local environmental factors measured: water volume, leaf litter mass, and presence of a top predator. Several species were affected by water volume, and a non-exclusive group of species were influenced by leaf litter mass. Relative abundance of Aedes triseriatus was higher in treeholes with higher volumes of water, and relative abundances of three out of six other species were lower in treeholes with higher volumes of water. Leaf litter mass positively affected densities of Aedes triseriatus and relative abundance of several dipteran species. The density of the top predator, Toxorhynchites rutilus, affected the relative abundance of the two most common species, A. triseriatus and Culicoides guttipennis. Treeholes with T. rutilus had an average of two more species than treeholes without T. rutilus. We found little evidence of synchrony between pairs of treeholes, either spatially or temporally. There were high levels of spatial and temporal turnover, and spatial turnover increased with distance between patches. Conclusion The strong effects of water volume, leaf litter mass, and presence of a top predator, along with the high temporal turnover strongly suggest that species presence and density are determined by local factors and changes in those factors over time. Both low water volume and high predator densities can eliminate populations in local patches, and those populations can recolonize patches when rain refills or predators exit treeholes. Population densities of the same species were not matched between pairs of

  8. Local and regional factors influence the structure of treehole metacommunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Christopher J; Blue, Jarrod D; Burkhart, John Q; Goldberg, Justin; Harshaw, Lauren; Hawkins, Katherine D; Kegan, Benjamin; Krentz, Tyler; Smith, Leslie; Villalpando, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Background Abiotic and biotic factors in a local habitat may strongly impact the community residing within, but spatially structured metacommunities are also influenced by regional factors such as immigration and colonization. We used three years of monthly treehole census data to evaluate the relative influence of local and regional factors on our study system. Results Every species responded to at least one of three local environmental factors measured: water volume, leaf litter mass, and presence of a top predator. Several species were affected by water volume, and a non-exclusive group of species were influenced by leaf litter mass. Relative abundance of Aedes triseriatus was higher in treeholes with higher volumes of water, and relative abundances of three out of six other species were lower in treeholes with higher volumes of water. Leaf litter mass positively affected densities of Aedes triseriatus and relative abundance of several dipteran species. The density of the top predator, Toxorhynchites rutilus, affected the relative abundance of the two most common species, A. triseriatus and Culicoides guttipennis. Treeholes with T. rutilus had an average of two more species than treeholes without T. rutilus. We found little evidence of synchrony between pairs of treeholes, either spatially or temporally. There were high levels of spatial and temporal turnover, and spatial turnover increased with distance between patches. Conclusion The strong effects of water volume, leaf litter mass, and presence of a top predator, along with the high temporal turnover strongly suggest that species presence and density are determined by local factors and changes in those factors over time. Both low water volume and high predator densities can eliminate populations in local patches, and those populations can recolonize patches when rain refills or predators exit treeholes. Population densities of the same species were not matched between pairs of treeholes, suggesting variation

  9. Monitoring Techniques for Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Monitoring Techniques for Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria, e.g. on pipelines buried in soil and on marine structures. MIC...... of carbon steel must be monitored on-line in order to provide an efficient protection and control the corrosion. A number of monitoring techniques is industrially used today, and the applicability and reliability of these for monitoring MIC is evaluated. Coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic...... corrosion rates, when biofilm and corrosion products cover the steel surface. However, EIS might be used for detection of MIC. EN is a suitable technique to characterise the type of corrosion attack, but is unsuitable for corrosion rate estimation. The concentric electrodes galvanic probe arrangement...

  10. Local Climate Experts: The Influence of Local TV Weather Information on Climate Change Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodhart, Brittany; Maibach, Edward; Myers, Teresa; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who identify changes in their local climate are also more likely to report that they have personally experienced global climate change. One way that people may come to recognize that their local climate is changing is through information provided by local TV weather forecasters. Using random digit dialing, 2,000 adult local TV news viewers in Virginia were surveyed to determine whether routine exposure to local TV weather forecasts influences their perceptions of extreme weather in Virginia, and their perceptions about climate change more generally. Results indicate that paying attention to TV weather forecasts is associated with beliefs that extreme weather is becoming more frequent in Virginia, which in turn is associated with stronger beliefs and concerns about climate change. These associations were strongest for individuals who trust their local TV weathercaster as a source of information about climate change, and for those who identify as politically conservative or moderate. The findings add support to the literature suggesting that TV weathercasters can play an important role in educating the public about climate change. PMID:26551357

  11. Local Climate Experts: The Influence of Local TV Weather Information on Climate Change Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodhart, Brittany; Maibach, Edward; Myers, Teresa; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who identify changes in their local climate are also more likely to report that they have personally experienced global climate change. One way that people may come to recognize that their local climate is changing is through information provided by local TV weather forecasters. Using random digit dialing, 2,000 adult local TV news viewers in Virginia were surveyed to determine whether routine exposure to local TV weather forecasts influences their perceptions of extreme weather in Virginia, and their perceptions about climate change more generally. Results indicate that paying attention to TV weather forecasts is associated with beliefs that extreme weather is becoming more frequent in Virginia, which in turn is associated with stronger beliefs and concerns about climate change. These associations were strongest for individuals who trust their local TV weathercaster as a source of information about climate change, and for those who identify as politically conservative or moderate. The findings add support to the literature suggesting that TV weathercasters can play an important role in educating the public about climate change.

  12. A Clinical Comparison of Three Techniques of Mandibular Local Anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthitaprajna Lenka

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: After using Gow-Gates method, it was found that the Gow-Gates technique is a highly successful alternative to the conventional inferior nerve block with regards to increased success rate, constancy of landmarks, decreased positive aspiration rate, decreased incidence of complications such as trismus, the advantage of one injection to anaesthetize a greater area supplied by the mandibular nerve, longer duration of anaesthesia and less amount of pain experienced during injection.

  13. Analysis of local influences in structural details of the bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam RUDZIK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the problems of local influences in structural details of bridges as the critical locations, whose damages or excessive force may directly affect the safety of users. These analyses are shown on selected examples. Presented is the example of local changes in the forms of proper vibrations in the node of the truss bridge that can be used in expert issues concerning the causes of damages. The second example are the changes in stresses in the stay cable anchorage element including the nonlinear material models. Models of this type can be successfully used by engineers as they allow for analysis of selected structural details without the need for detailed mapping of the entire structure, but only a selected section.

  14. Monitoring Techniques for Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2000-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria, e.g. on pipelines buried in soil and on marine structures. MIC of carbon steel must be monitored on-line in order to provide an efficient protection...... and control the corrosion. A number of monitoring techniques is industrially used today, and the applicability and reliability of these for monitoring MIC is evaluated. Coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic techniques even though localised corrosion rate cannot be measured. FSM measures general...... corrosion and detects localised corrosion, but the sensitivity is not high enough for monitoring initiation of pitting and small attacks. Electrochemical techniques as LPR and EIS give distorted data and unreliable corrosion rates, when biofilm and corrosion products cover the steel surface. However, EIS...

  15. A Localized Meshless Technique for Generating 3-D Wind Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell W. Pepper

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A localized meshless method is used to simulate 3-D atmospheric wind fields for wind energy assessment and emergency response. The meshless (or mesh-free method with radial basis functions (RBFs alleviates the need to create a mesh required by finite difference, finite volume, and finite element methods. The method produces a fast solution that converges with high accuracy, establishing 3-D wind estimates over complex terrain. The method does not require discretization of the domain or boundary and removes the need for domain integration. The meshless method converges exponentially for smooth boundary shapes and boundary data, and is insensitive to dimensional constraints. Coding of the method is very easy and can be done using MATLAB or MAPLE. By employing a localized RBF procedure, 3-D wind fields can be established from sparse meteorological data. The meshless method can be easily run on PCs and hand-held mobile devices. This article summarizes previous work where the meshless method has successfully simulated 3D wind fields over various environments, along with the equations used to obtain the simulations.

  16. Segmental Refinement: A Multigrid Technique for Data Locality

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Mark F.

    2016-08-04

    We investigate a domain decomposed multigrid technique, termed segmental refinement, for solving general nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems. We extend the method first proposed in 1994 by analytically and experimentally investigating its complexity. We confirm that communication of traditional parallel multigrid is eliminated on fine grids, with modest amounts of extra work and storage, while maintaining the asymptotic exactness of full multigrid. We observe an accuracy dependence on the segmental refinement subdomain size, which was not considered in the original analysis. We present a communication complexity analysis that quantifies the communication costs ameliorated by segmental refinement and report performance results with up to 64K cores on a Cray XC30.

  17. Accuracy of panoramic, panoramic with palpation and tube shift technique to localize maxillary impacted cuspid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GoodarziPour D.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Impaction of maxillary cuspids is the most common after third molars with 1% to 3% prevalence. Localization of these impacted teeth may affect orthodontic or surgical treatment plan. Therefore, different techniques have been introduced to localize impacted canines. The present study was conducted to compare the accuracy of panoramic, tube shift and panoramic plus palpation in determination of the position of maxillary impacted canine."nMaterials and Methods: 47 patients (20 females, 27 males with the age of more than 12 years (mean age of 25.4 years old whom referred to Dental School, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, with at least one impacted maxillary canine included. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist localized impacted canine first by using panoramic then tube shift technique blindly. After that, an oral and maxillofacial surgeon localized the canine by panoramic and palpation of the area before surgery. Data obtained from radiologist and surgeon were compared with true location of canine after surgery. Statistical analysis was done using sensitivity and specificity."nResults: Among total 47 impacted maxillary canines, 11 cases (23.4% showed buccal impactions and 36 cases (76.6% palatal impactions. Sensitivity (ability of technique to localize palatal impaction of all of the techniques were same (100% but specificity (ability of technique to localize buccal impaction of tube shift (100% was more than two others (0%."nConclusion: The tube shift technique was the most accurate technique to localize maxillary unerupted canines compared to the others. Due to the ability of panoramic and panoramic with palpation in prediction of palatal canine impactions and failure of these techniques to predict buccal impactions, both methods are not suitable in localization of impacted maxillary canines and they must be used as adjunctive techniques.

  18. Alanine repeats influence protein localization in splicing speckles and paraspeckles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuo-Hsiu; Chang, Wei-Lun; Lu, Chia-Chen; Tarn, Woan-Yuh

    2014-12-16

    Mammalian splicing regulatory protein RNA-binding motif protein 4 (RBM4) has an alanine repeat-containing C-terminal domain (CAD) that confers both nuclear- and splicing speckle-targeting activities. Alanine-repeat expansion has pathological potential. Here we show that the alanine-repeat tracts influence the subnuclear targeting properties of the RBM4 CAD in cultured human cells. Notably, truncation of the alanine tracts redistributed a portion of RBM4 to paraspeckles. The alanine-deficient CAD was sufficient for paraspeckle targeting. On the other hand, alanine-repeat expansion reduced the mobility of RBM4 and impaired its splicing activity. We further took advantage of the putative coactivator activator (CoAA)-RBM4 conjoined splicing factor, CoAZ, to investigate the function of the CAD in subnuclear targeting. Transiently expressed CoAZ formed discrete nuclear foci that emerged and subsequently separated-fully or partially-from paraspeckles. Alanine-repeat expansion appeared to prevent CoAZ separation from paraspeckles, resulting in their complete colocalization. CoAZ foci were dynamic but, unlike paraspeckles, were resistant to RNase treatment. Our results indicate that the alanine-rich CAD, in conjunction with its conjoined RNA-binding domain(s), differentially influences the subnuclear localization and biogenesis of RBM4 and CoAZ. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Simplified local anesthesia technique for external dacryocystorhinostomy without nasal packing: a new technique and pilot study outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik HA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hatem A Tawfik,1 Osama R Youssef21Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptBackground: The purpose of this paper is to describe a simplified local anesthesia technique for external dacryocystorhinostomy (EXT-DCR.Methods: In this pilot, retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series, 448 patients (480 eyes underwent EXT-DCR using a simplified local anesthesia technique. Nasal mucosal anesthesia was achieved using combined application of 6 mL of oxymetazoline 0.025% nasal spray and lidocaine 1% in the same spray bottle, without any packing of the nose with either pledgets or ribbon gauze. Local infiltration anesthesia consisted of subcutaneous injection of a 7 mL mixture of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine injected on the flat side of the nose beneath the incision site, in addition to a second medial peribulbar injection (3 mL, 2% lidocaine without epinephrine.Results: Successful unilateral or bilateral EXT-DCR was achieved in 432/448 patients (96.4%. Four patients could not tolerate the procedure under local anesthesia and were converted to general anesthesia. Four patients required additional local anesthetic injections because of intolerable pain. Heavy sedation was essential in eight uncooperative patients because surgical manipulation was impossible. The remaining patients tolerated the procedure well. The intraoperative bleeding rate was very low except in one patient. Mean operative time was 16 minutes. Severe postoperative epistaxis was observed in four patients. Temporary anosmia developed in one patient.Conclusion: Our simplified local anesthesia approach of EXT-DCR is convenient for the patient because it avoids unnecessary nasal packing. It is also safe and effective, as evidenced by the high rate of successful completion of the procedure without conversion to general anesthesia or the need for supplemental local anesthesia.Keywords: local anesthesia, external

  20. Spatial epidemiological techniques in cholera mapping and analysis towards a local scale predictive modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasam, A R A; Ghazali, R; Noor, A M M; Mohd, W M N W; Hamid, J R A; Bazlan, M J; Ahmad, N

    2014-01-01

    Cholera spatial epidemiology is the study of the spread and control of the disease spatial pattern and epidemics. Previous studies have shown that multi-factorial causation such as human behaviour, ecology and other infectious risk factors influence the disease outbreaks. Thus, understanding spatial pattern and possible interrelationship factors of the outbreaks are crucial to be explored an in-depth study. This study focuses on the integration of geographical information system (GIS) and epidemiological techniques in exploratory analyzing the cholera spatial pattern and distribution in the selected district of Sabah. Spatial Statistic and Pattern tools in ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel software were utilized to map and analyze the reported cholera cases and other data used. Meanwhile, cohort study in epidemiological technique was applied to investigate multiple outcomes of the disease exposure. The general spatial pattern of cholera was highly clustered showed the disease spread easily at a place or person to others especially 1500 meters from the infected person and locations. Although the cholera outbreaks in the districts are not critical, it could be endemic at the crowded areas, unhygienic environment, and close to contaminated water. It was also strongly believed that the coastal water of the study areas has possible relationship with the cholera transmission and phytoplankton bloom since the areas recorded higher cases. GIS demonstrates a vital spatial epidemiological technique in determining the distribution pattern and elucidating the hypotheses generating of the disease. The next research would be applying some advanced geo-analysis methods and other disease risk factors for producing a significant a local scale predictive risk model of the disease in Malaysia

  1. Spatial epidemiological techniques in cholera mapping and analysis towards a local scale predictive modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasam, A. R. A.; Ghazali, R.; Noor, A. M. M.; Mohd, W. M. N. W.; Hamid, J. R. A.; Bazlan, M. J.; Ahmad, N.

    2014-02-01

    Cholera spatial epidemiology is the study of the spread and control of the disease spatial pattern and epidemics. Previous studies have shown that multi-factorial causation such as human behaviour, ecology and other infectious risk factors influence the disease outbreaks. Thus, understanding spatial pattern and possible interrelationship factors of the outbreaks are crucial to be explored an in-depth study. This study focuses on the integration of geographical information system (GIS) and epidemiological techniques in exploratory analyzing the cholera spatial pattern and distribution in the selected district of Sabah. Spatial Statistic and Pattern tools in ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel software were utilized to map and analyze the reported cholera cases and other data used. Meanwhile, cohort study in epidemiological technique was applied to investigate multiple outcomes of the disease exposure. The general spatial pattern of cholera was highly clustered showed the disease spread easily at a place or person to others especially 1500 meters from the infected person and locations. Although the cholera outbreaks in the districts are not critical, it could be endemic at the crowded areas, unhygienic environment, and close to contaminated water. It was also strongly believed that the coastal water of the study areas has possible relationship with the cholera transmission and phytoplankton bloom since the areas recorded higher cases. GIS demonstrates a vital spatial epidemiological technique in determining the distribution pattern and elucidating the hypotheses generating of the disease. The next research would be applying some advanced geo-analysis methods and other disease risk factors for producing a significant a local scale predictive risk model of the disease in Malaysia.

  2. Scintigraphic image contrast-enhancement techniques: global and local area histogram equalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdenet, J; Cardot, J C; Baud, M; Chervet, H; Duvernoy, J; Bidet, R

    1981-01-01

    This article develops two contrast-modification techniques for the display of scintigraphic images. Based on histogram-modification techniques, histogram equalization, where each level of gray is used to the same extent, gives maximum entropy. The first technique uses the application of histogram equalization in the whole image. To eliminate contrast attenuation small but important portion of the gray scale histogram, local area histogram equalization has been applied to images with differences in intensity. Both techniques were tested using a phantom with known characteristics. The global equalization technique is more suitable to bone scintigraphies, and some well-chosen boundaries improved the difference between two comparable areas. For liver scintigraphies, where intensity is quite equal in every pixel, a local area equalization was chosen that allowed detection of heterogeneous structures. The images resulting from histogram-equalization techniques improve the readability of data, but are often far from usual images and necessitate an apprenticeship for the physician.

  3. Electrostatic influence of local cysteine environments on disulfide exchange kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G H; Cennerazzo, M J; Karalis, A J; Field, D

    1981-11-10

    The ionic strength dependence of the bimolecular rate constant for reaction of the negative disulfide 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) with cysteines in fragments of naturally occurring proteins was determined by stopped-flow spectroscopy. The Debye-Hückel relationship was applied to determine the effective charge at the cysteine and thereby determine the extent to which nearby neighbors in the primary sequence influence the kinetics. Corrections for the secondary salt effect on cysteine pKs were determined by direct spectrometric pH titration of sulfhydryl groups or by observation of the ionic strength dependence of kinetics of cysteine reaction with the neutral disulfide 2,2'-dithiodipyridine. Quantitative expressions was verified by model studies with N-acetyl-cystein. At ionic strengths equal to or greater than 20 mM, the net charge at the polypeptide cysteine site is the sum of the single negative charge of the thiolate anion and the charges of the amino acids immediately preceding and following the cysteine in the primary sequence. At lower ionic strengths, more distant residues influence kinetics. At pH 7.0, 23 degree C, and an ionic strength of 20 mM, rate constants for reaction of the negative disulfide with a cysteine having two positive neighbors, one positive and one neutral neighbor, or two neutral neighbors are 132000, 3350, and 367 s-1 M-1, respectively. This corresponds to a contribution to the activation energy of 0.65- 1.1 kcal/mol per ion pair involved in collision between the cysteine and disulfide regions. The results permit the estimation that cysteine local environments may provide a means of achieving a 10(6)-fold range in rate constants in disulfide exchange reactions in random-coil proteins. This range may prove useful in developing strategies for directing disulfide pairing in synthetic proteins.

  4. Typography And Local Culture How Local Values Influence Batik Label Design In Yogyakarta And Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Zainal Muttakin Raden

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Batik was incorporated into the Indonesian culture since the Majapahit era. At that time the royal families of Majapahit Kingdom wore batik clothes for activities such as religious event or kingdom event. Since then batik was seen as a symbol of nobility. The growth of batik industry especially in Yogyakarta and Surakarta region has produced a diverse motive and fabric quality of batik clothes. To help differentiate between these batik clothes the owner of batik industries created batik labels with intricate design. This study focused on analysing the intricate design and typography found within three batik labels each from Yogyakarta and Surakarta Region to better understand the role of local culture and values in creating the batik label design using vernacular typography and cultural approach. The result shows that the local culture and values symbolically enforced by each keraton kingdom-like body and social system in Yogyakarta and Surakarta influenced the batik label design. The high cultured values of Yogyakarta keraton resulted in a more formal and rigid typefaces used in the batik label giving off a classical feeling. Meanwhile the more grass rooted values of Surakarta urban culture resulted in a fluid and flowing typefaces giving off a trendy casual feeling.

  5. Influence of local capillary trapping on containment system effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Steven [University Of Texas At Austin, Austin, TX (United States). Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering

    2014-03-31

    Immobilization of CO2 injected into deep subsurface storage reservoirs is a critical component of risk assessment for geologic CO2 storage (GCS). Local capillary trapping (LCT) is a recently established mode of immobilization that arises when CO2 migrates due to buoyancy through heterogeneous storage reservoirs. This project sought to assess the amount and extent of LCT expected in storage formations under a range of injection conditions, and to confirm the persistence of LCT if the seal overlying the reservoir were to lose its integrity. Numerical simulation using commercial reservoir simulation software was conducted to assess the influence of injection. Laboratory experiments, modeling and numerical simulation were conducted to assess the effect of compromised seal integrity. Bench-scale (0.6 m by 0.6 m by 0.03 m) experiments with surrogate fluids provided the first empirical confirmation of the key concepts underlying LCT: accumulation of buoyant nonwetting phase at above residual saturations beneath capillary barriers in a variety of structures, which remains immobile under normal capillary pressure gradients. Immobilization of above-residual saturations is a critical distinction between LCT and the more familiar “residual saturation trapping.” To estimate the possible extent of LCT in a storage reservoir an algorithm was developed to identify all potential local traps, given the spatial distribution of capillary entry pressure in the reservoir. The algorithm assumes that the driving force for CO2 migration can be represented as a single value of “critical capillary entry pressure” Pc,entrycrit, such that cells with capillary entry pressure greater/less than Pc,entrycrit act as barriers/potential traps during CO2 migration. At intermediate values of Pc,entrycrit, the barrier regions become more laterally extensive in the reservoir

  6. A thermal technique for local ultrasound intensity measurement: part 1. Sensor concept and prototype calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkens, V

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic output measurements on medical ultrasound equipment are essential to ensure the quality of diagnosis and therapy and to preserve the safety of the patient. The local temporal-average ultrasound intensity is an important output parameter as it is related to local heat production in the body. Excessive intensities may be potentially harmful in the case of diagnostic ultrasound. On the other hand, very high local intensities are needed in therapeutic applications of ultrasound, for instance for the ablation of tumors. A technique for local ultrasound intensity measurements is described in this paper. In contrast to the common methods using hydrophones, this method is based on the transformation of the ultrasound energy into heat inside an acoustic absorber and the measurement of the resulting temperature increase. The sensor concept is described and a characterization of three manufactured prototypes is given. An accompanying paper describes the application of this measurement technique to the output characterization of a typical diagnostic ultrasound machine

  7. Local Anesthesia for Surgical Procedures of the Upper Eyelid Using Filling Cannula: Our Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Trapasso, MD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Sometimes, after local anesthetic injection for surgical procedures of the upper eyelid, it is possible to observe superficial preseptal hematomas or excessive lid swelling that may distort the tissues and obscure surgical landmarks. We present a technique to perform local anesthesia of the upper eyelids, using a 27-gauge needle and a 26-gauge filling cannula, that may decrease the incidence of hematomas and bruising.

  8. Comparison of Phase-Based 3D Near-Field Source Localization Techniques for UHF RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Parr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present multiple techniques for phase-based narrowband backscatter tag localization in three-dimensional space with planar antenna arrays or synthetic apertures. Beamformer and MUSIC localization algorithms, known from near-field source localization and direction-of-arrival estimation, are applied to the 3D backscatter scenario and their performance in terms of localization accuracy is evaluated. We discuss the impact of different transceiver modes known from the literature, which evaluate different send and receive antenna path combinations for a single localization, as in multiple input multiple output (MIMO systems. Furthermore, we propose a new Singledimensional-MIMO (S-MIMO transceiver mode, which is especially suited for use with mobile robot systems. Monte-Carlo simulations based on a realistic multipath error model ensure spatial correlation of the simulated signals, and serve to critically appraise the accuracies of the different localization approaches. A synthetic uniform rectangular array created by a robotic arm is used to evaluate selected localization techniques. We use an Ultra High Frequency (UHF Radiofrequency Identification (RFID setup to compare measurements with the theory and simulation. The results show how a mean localization accuracy of less than 30 cm can be reached in an indoor environment. Further simulations demonstrate how the distance between aperture and tag affects the localization accuracy and how the size and grid spacing of the rectangular array need to be adapted to improve the localization accuracy down to orders of magnitude in the centimeter range, and to maximize array efficiency in terms of localization accuracy per number of elements.

  9. Comparison of two local anesthesia techniques (conventional & akinosi for inferior alveolar dental nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refua Y

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Different techniques for local anesthesia are used in the mandible. The purpose of this study"nwas to determine the effects of inferior alveolar dental nerve blocks by comparing the two akinosi and"nconventional techniques. 80 patients (aged 15-60 years old were randomly divided into tow groups for"nextracting the mandibuler posterior teeth by akinosi and conventional techniques. Patients were all"ninjected with 1.8 ml of Lidocaine 2% plus Adernaline j^nnnn .Then the Pain Sensation during injection,"npositive aspiration, beginning time of anesthesia, duration of anesthesia depth of anesthesia, and the anesthesia of soft tissue related to sensory nerves were evaluated. The results showed that the pain sensation in conventional technique was significantly higher than that of akinosi technique. The number of positive aspirations in conventional technique (12,5% was higher than that of akinosi (5% but not significantly different. The long buccal nerve anesthesia in akinosi technique (75% was significantly higher than that of conventional technique. There was no significant difference between the two techniques for the depth of anesthesia. The success rate was 87.5% in conventional technique and 80% in akinosi technique. The average time of lips anesthesia in conventional technique was 3 minutes compared with 4 minutes in akinosi technique, which was not significantly different from each other. However, the beginning time of aneshtesia in tongue was significantly lower in conventional technique. No significant difference in the duration of anesthesia in lips and tonques between the two techniques was observed.

  10. A comparison of different three-dimensional treatment planning techniques for localized radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koswig, S.; Dinges, S.; Buchali, A.; Boehmer, D.; Salk, J.; Rosenthal, P.; Harder, C.; Schlenger, L.; Budach, V.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Four different three-dimensional planning techniques for localized radiotherapy of prostate cancer were compared with regard to dose homogeneity within the target volume and dose to organs at risk, dependent upon tumor stage. Patients and Methods: Six patients with stage T1, 7 patients with stage T2 and 4 patients with stage T3 were included in this study. Four different 3D treatment plans (rotation, 4-field, 5-field and 6-field technique) were calculated for each patient. Dose was calculated with the reference point at the isocenter (100%). The planning target volume was encompassed within the 95% isodose surface. All the techniques used different shaped portal for each beam. Dose volume histograms were created and compared for the planning target volume and the organs at risk (33%, 50%, 66% volume level) in all techniques. Results: The 4 different three-dimensional planning techniques revealed no differences concerning dose homogeneity within the planning target volume. The dose volume distribution at organs at risk show differences between the calculated techniques. In our study the best protection for bladder and rectum in stage T1 and T2 was achieved by the 6-field technique. A significant difference was achieved between 6-field and 4-field technique only in the 50% volume of the bladder (p=0.034), between the 6-field and rotation technique (all volume levels) and between 5-field and rotation technique (all volume levels). In stage T1, T2 6-field and 4-field technique in 50% (p-0.033) and 66% (p=0.011) of the rectum volume. In stage T3 a significant difference was not observed between the 4 techniques. The best protection of head of the femur was achieved by the rotation technique. Conclusion: In the localized radiotherapy of prostate cancer in stage T1 or T2 the best protection for bladder and rectum was achieved by a 3D-planned conformal 6-field technique. If the seminal vesicles have been included in the target volume and in the case of large

  11. Analysis of local salts using x-ray spectrometric techniques | Umar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local salts namely: Mangul, Kantu and Manda have been analysed using x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence techniques. X-ray diffraction has shown that Mangul and Kantu consist of mainly sodium chloride while Manda consists of mainly calcium potassium silicate. The major elements determined using x-ray ...

  12. Order- N Green's Function Technique for Local Environment Effects in Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrikosov, I. A.; Niklasson, A. M. N.; Simak, S. I.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a new approach to the calculations of ground state properties of large crystalline systems with arbitrary atomic configurations based on a Green's function technique in conjunction with a self-consistent effective medium for the underlying randomly occupied lattice. The locally...

  13. A non-Gaussian distribution quantifies distances measured with fluorescence localization techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Churchman, L.S.; Flyvbjerg, H.; Spudich, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    When single-molecule fluorescence localization techniques are pushed to their lower limits in attempts to measure ever-shorter distances, measurement errors become important to understand. Here we describe the non-Gaussian distribution of measured distances that is the key to proper interpretation...

  14. Weighted Least Squares Techniques for Improved Received Signal Strength Based Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Casar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The practical deployment of wireless positioning systems requires minimizing the calibration procedures while improving the location estimation accuracy. Received Signal Strength localization techniques using propagation channel models are the simplest alternative, but they are usually designed under the assumption that the radio propagation model is to be perfectly characterized a priori. In practice, this assumption does not hold and the localization results are affected by the inaccuracies of the theoretical, roughly calibrated or just imperfect channel models used to compute location. In this paper, we propose the use of weighted multilateration techniques to gain robustness with respect to these inaccuracies, reducing the dependency of having an optimal channel model. In particular, we propose two weighted least squares techniques based on the standard hyperbolic and circular positioning algorithms that specifically consider the accuracies of the different measurements to obtain a better estimation of the position. These techniques are compared to the standard hyperbolic and circular positioning techniques through both numerical simulations and an exhaustive set of real experiments on different types of wireless networks (a wireless sensor network, a WiFi network and a Bluetooth network. The algorithms not only produce better localization results with a very limited overhead in terms of computational cost but also achieve a greater robustness to inaccuracies in channel modeling.

  15. Mapping how local perturbations influence systems-level brain dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollo, Leonardo L; Roberts, James A; Cocchi, Luca

    2017-10-15

    The human brain exhibits a distinct spatiotemporal organization that supports brain function and can be manipulated via local brain stimulation. Such perturbations to local cortical dynamics are globally integrated by distinct neural systems. However, it remains unclear how local changes in neural activity affect large-scale system dynamics. Here, we briefly review empirical and computational studies addressing how localized perturbations affect brain activity. We then systematically analyze a model of large-scale brain dynamics, assessing how localized changes in brain activity at the different sites affect whole-brain dynamics. We find that local stimulation induces changes in brain activity that can be summarized by relatively smooth tuning curves, which relate a region's effectiveness as a stimulation site to its position within the cortical hierarchy. Our results also support the notion that brain hubs, operating in a slower regime, are more resilient to focal perturbations and critically contribute to maintain stability in global brain dynamics. In contrast, perturbations of peripheral regions, characterized by faster activity, have greater impact on functional connectivity. As a parallel with this region-level result, we also find that peripheral systems such as the visual and sensorimotor networks were more affected by local perturbations than high-level systems such as the cingulo-opercular network. Our findings highlight the importance of a periphery-to-core hierarchy to determine the effect of local stimulation on the brain network. This study also provides novel resources to orient empirical work aiming at manipulating functional connectivity using non-invasive brain stimulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiofrequency-assisted Liposuction for Arm Contouring: Technique under Local Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Spero; Chia, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    Contouring of the arms that does not involve skin excision remains a difficult challenge due to the dependent nature and quality of the skin. Although brachioplasty remains effective, it requires a lengthy incision. Radiofrequency-assisted liposuction (RFAL) may improve skin retraction with a satisfactory aesthetic result without skin resection and the resultant scar. The purpose of this study is to present our experience of RFAL arm contouring under local anesthesia, detailing safety guidelines, the marking technique, operative technique, complications, third-party surgeon appraisal, and patient satisfaction survey. Forty patients underwent RFAL under local tumescent anesthesia for aesthetic arm contouring. Postoperative patient satisfaction surveys were conducted and independent third-party surgeons were surveyed to assess improvements in contour and skin quality with preoperative and postoperative photographs. Complications included 1 burn near the elbow treated successfully with local wound care and 1 seroma that resolved with aspiration. The patient survey indicated that most patients had minimal or no discomfort with the injection of local anesthesia, application of radiofrequency energy, or aspiration of fat. The majority of patients were satisfied with their contouring result and degree of skin tightening. Third-party plastic surgeons found the improvement in contouring and degree of skin tightening good to excellent. In appropriately selected patients, RFAL arm contouring under local anesthesia represents an alternative procedure with acceptably low morbidity and high patient satisfaction. To achieve consistent results while minimizing complications, consideration to anatomic details, infiltration of the local anesthetic, and application of the radiofrequency energy must be given.

  17. Antenna Radiation Pattern Influence on the Localization Accuracy in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COCA, E.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Localization or position determination is one of the most common applications for the wireless sensor networks. Many investigations have been made during the last decade, most of the effort being concentrated in the direction of improving the accuracy of the positioning results by using complex filtering and correction algorithms, and other techniques such as radio maps or directive antennas for the reference nodes. The most common sources of errors include reflections on nearby objects, radio frequency noise, and variable characteristics of the communication channel. In the vast majority of cases, several assumptions have been made in order to simplify the computing algorithms or the complexity of nodes, and finally their cost. The omnidirectional radiation pattern of the node antennas is such an assumption. In this paper we investigate theoretically and validate by measurements the influence of the radiation pattern on the localization accuracy of a wireless sensor node network. By taking into consideration the orientation of nodes, which could be provided by a local digital compass on each node, we demonstrate that the position accuracy could be improved with a minimum of resources. All measurements were made in radio emissions controlled environment - a semi-anechoic chamber, without affecting the generality of the proposed solution.

  18. Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release using a modified application technique of local anesthesia: safety and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Khayat Jehad

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local anesthesia is widely used for open carpal tunnel release. However, injection of local anesthesia as described by Altissimi and Mancini (1988 can interfere with endoscopic carpal tunnel release, by increasing the bulk of synovial layers and consequently result in worsening of the view. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy using modified technique for application of local anesthesia. Methods 33 patients suffering from gradual increasing symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. The patients were also asked to evaluate the pain associated with injection as well as tourniquet during surgery using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS (ranging from 0 = no pain to 10 = maximum pain. Results One patient required additionally local anesthesia because of mild pain in the hand. The tourniquet was inflated for 13.00 (2.8 min. The pain score related to injection was 2.5 (0.8 and to tourniquet was 3.6 (0.9. Inflation of the tourniquet was well tolerated by all patients. Postoperative neurological sensory and motor deficits related to surgery and local blocks were not occurred. Conclusion Endoscopic release of the carpal tunnel syndrome in local anesthesia is effective, well tolerated and safe. This kind of application of local anesthesia did not reduce visibility.

  19. Performance of Two Locally Adapted Okra Varieties as Influenced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The responses of two locally adapted okra varieties (Bokungi and Ikeregi) to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) were evaluated under field conditions during the 2014 cropping season. Seedlings were inoculated with the virus at 1 week after emergence. Each genotype was evaluated as inoculated and uninoculated treatments ...

  20. The Influence of Local Politics on Educational Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Gary; Ray, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This ex post facto, causal-comparative research study examined student reading performance data within a school district before and after a school district-wide decision to alter the reading curriculum in response to local political pressure from parents. Data analysis revealed that test scores dropped to a significantly lower level, especially…

  1. Localization of keratin proteins in the human epidermis by a postembedding immunoperoxidase technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhol, M J; Pinkus, G S; Banks-Schlegel, S P

    1983-04-01

    Individual keratin species were localized ultrastructurally to the tonofilaments and tonofibrils of the human epider-misusing a postembedding immunoperoxidase method. Low molecular weight keratin (45 kD) was localized primarily to the stratum basale and displayed a fine cytoplasmic staining of individual tonofilaments and some tonofibrillar staining. Higher molecular weight keratins (55 and 63 kD) were found predominantly in the suprabasal, differentiated squamous epithelial cells, staining tonofibrils with a web-like pattern. The technique utilized is suitable for studying the distribution of keratin proteins in normal and disease states.

  2. Appropriate technology sourcebook: for tools and techniques that use local skills, local resources, and renewable sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, K.; Pam, R.

    1976-01-01

    This is a guide to practical plans and books for village and small community technology. Critical reviews of selected publications on alternative sources of energy, farm implements, shop tools, agriculture, low-cost housing, health care, water supply, pedal power, philosophy of appropriate technology, and related subjects are given. Small-scale systems using local skills and resources are emphasized. Publications were chosen that provide enough practical information to be of significant help in understanding principles and in actually building the designs included. Entries were selected on the basis of low price, clarity of presentation, easily understandable nontechnical language, and unique subject matter. Materials and production techniques required are listed for all equipment plans. More than 375 publications from American and international sources, with 200 illustrations are listed. Price and address are given for each publication; some are also available in French or Spanish editions.

  3. Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land ownership patterns and cultivation of seasonal crops were among the major factors that influence water resources as they entail more frequent soil disturbance, inadequate ground cover and increased risks of soil erosion and watershed degradation. Free range and semi – zero grazing system along stream banks is a ...

  4. Influence of epicentral distance on local seismic response in Kolkata ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This technique allows the estimation of site specific ground motion for various events located at different distances from Kolkata city, taking into account simultaneously the position and geometry of the seismic source, the mechanical properties of the propagation medium and the geotechnical properties of the site.

  5. Residual Stress State in Single-Edge Notched Tension Specimen Caused by the Local Compression Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yifan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D finite element analyses (FEA are performed to simulate the local compression (LC technique on the clamped single-edge notched tension (SE(T specimens. The analysis includes three types of indenters, which are single pair of cylinder indenters (SPCI, double pairs of cylinder indenters (DPCI and single pair of ring indenters (SPRI. The distribution of the residual stress in the crack opening direction in the uncracked ligament of the specimen is evaluated. The outcome of this study can facilitate the use of LC technique on SE(T specimens.

  6. The use of a scanning electrochemicl impedance spectroscopy technique to investigate localized corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillard, R.S. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA)); Moran, P.J. (Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Isaacs, H.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the authors have proposed a method for generating local electrochemical impedance maps of electrodes. In this technique impedance maps, at each frequency of interest, are generated by measuring the ratio of ac solution current density, very near the electrode, to the applied potential is measured as a function of position. A review of this method, the results from two model systems, which demonstrate that this technique may be used to generate quantitative data, and its use to investigate aluminum alloys will be presented. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Influence of local field on spontaneous light emission by nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Ole; Lozovski, V.; Iezhokin, I.

    2009-01-01

    A self-consistent approach based on the local-field concept has been proposed to calculate the direction patterns of light emission by nanoparticles with various shapes. The main idea of the method consists in constructing self-consistent equations for the electromagnetic field at any point of th...... demonstrated to interact as almost point dipoles at distances that exceed their linear dimensions. This fact can be used to substantiate applications of the dipole approximation to studying the optical properties of submonolayer molecular coatings.......A self-consistent approach based on the local-field concept has been proposed to calculate the direction patterns of light emission by nanoparticles with various shapes. The main idea of the method consists in constructing self-consistent equations for the electromagnetic field at any point...

  8. Influence of local field on spontaneous light emission by nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Ole; Lozovski, V.; Iezhokin, I.

    2009-01-01

    A self-consistent approach based on the local-field concept has been proposed to calculate the direction patterns of light emission by nanoparticles with various shapes. The main idea of the method consists in constructing self-consistent equations for the electromagnetic field at any point...... demonstrated to interact as almost point dipoles at distances that exceed their linear dimensions. This fact can be used to substantiate applications of the dipole approximation to studying the optical properties of submonolayer molecular coatings....

  9. Influence of soil structure on nutrient cycling using microfluidic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano Caicedo, Carlos; Aleklett, Kristin; Ohlsson, Pelle; Hammer, Edith

    2017-04-01

    The rising of atmospheric CO2 levels and its effects on global warming make it necessary to understand the elements that regulate such levels and furthermore try to slow down the CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere. The exchange of carbon between soil and atmosphere plays a significant role in the atmospheric carbon budget. Soil organisms deposit organic compounds on and in soil aggregates, either as exudates or dead remains. Much of this dead organic material is quickly recycled, but a portion, however, will stay in the soil for long term. Evidence suggests that micro-scale biogeochemical interactions could play a highly significant role in degradation or persistence of organic matter in soils, thus, soil physical structure might play a decisive role in preventing accessibility of nutrients to microorganisms. For studying effects of spatial microstructure on soil nutrient cycles, we have constructed artificial habitats for microbes that simulate soil structures. Microfluidic, so called Lab-on-a-chip technologies, are one of the tools used to achieve our purpose. Such micro-habitats consist of pillar structures of difference density and surface area, tunnels with increasing depth, and mazes of increasing complexity to simulate different stages of soil aggregation. Using microscopy and analytical chemistry, we can follow the growth of microorganisms inoculated into the "soil chip" as well as the chemical degradation of organic matter compounds provided as nutrient source. In this way, we want to be able to predict how soil structure influences soil microbial activity leading to different effects on the carbon cycle. Our first results of a chip inoculated with natural soil showed a succession of organisms colonizing channels leading to dead-end arenas, starting with a high presence of bacteria inside the chip during the first days. Fungal hyphae growth gradually inside the channels until it finally occupied the big majority of the spaces isolating bacteria which

  10. Influence of HeartMath quick coherence technique on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of high psychophysiological coherence, decreased feelings of sadness and increased feelings of peacefulness. Psychophysiological and emotional state findings are discussed in relation to health and sport psychology, theory and practice. Keywords: Biofeedback, physiological coherence, Quick Coherence Technique, ...

  11. Characterization of failure modes in deep UV and deep green LEDs utilizing advanced semiconductor localization techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Miller, Mary A.; Cole, Edward Isaac, Jr.

    2012-03-01

    We present the results of a two-year early career LDRD that focused on defect localization in deep green and deep ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We describe the laser-based techniques (TIVA/LIVA) used to localize the defects and interpret data acquired. We also describe a defect screening method based on a quick electrical measurement to determine whether defects should be present in the LEDs. We then describe the stress conditions that caused the devices to fail and how the TIVA/LIVA techniques were used to monitor the defect signals as the devices degraded and failed. We also describe the correlation between the initial defects and final degraded or failed state of the devices. Finally we show characterization results of the devices in the failed conditions and present preliminary theories as to why the devices failed for both the InGaN (green) and AlGaN (UV) LEDs.

  12. Technique of fiber optics used to localize epidural space in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chien-Kun; Chang, Yin

    2010-05-24

    Technique of loss-of-resistance in epidural block is commonly used for epidural anesthesia in humans with approximately 90% successful rate. However, it may be one of the most difficult procedures to learn for anesthesia residents in hospital. A two-wavelength (650 nm and 532 nm) fiber-optical method has been developed according to the characteristic reflectance spectra of ex-vivo porcine tissues, which are associated with the needle insertion to localize the epidural space (ES). In an in-vivo study in piglets showed that the reflected lights from ES and its surrounding tissue ligamentum flavum (LF) are highly distinguishable. This indicates that this technique has potential to localize the ES on the spot without the help of additional guiding assistance.

  13. Influence of judoka height when using the seoi nage technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Iberes Lopes Melo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n5p578 Judo techniques use the assumption of maximum efficiency with minimum energy expenditure, which means to try to use the strength of the opponent against himself, causing an imbalance that, associated with a technique, helps execute a throw. This study is aimed to evaluate the mechanical efficiency of the seoi nage technique applied to judokas (uke of different heights in relation to the thrower (tori. The knee and trunk angular variation of tori was compared with the total throw time, the time to perform each phase of the technique, and the behavior and vertical variation of the trajectory of tori’s center of mass (ΔCM. Ten throws using the seoi nage technique on three uke of shorter, equivalent, and taller statures compared to tori were cinematically analyzed. Theimages were recorded at 180 Hz using the Peak Motus System. The data was analyzed by descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Tukey’s post-hoc (p < 0.05. The tori’s mechanical efficiency was greater when throwing a uke of a stature taller or of his same height, while the total throw time was shorter for a taller uke. The ΔCM of the tori was greater to throw a uke of a shorter stature. The conclusion is that the seoi nage technique is most effective when applied against opponents of heights equal to or taller than the tori.

  14. The anesthetic techniques of local anesthesia during the rumenotomi in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Dashamir Mamuti; Paskal Gjino

    2013-01-01

    The present study comprises 12 female cows on one farm in Tirana district. The purpose of this study is to investigate and evaluate the efficiency of three common local anesthetics techniques used during rumenotomi. The purpose was to compare different conditions and types of foreign bodies syndrome which precipitated the need to perform the surgical intervention. The selected cows were divided into four groups with three cows belonging to each one of them. Rumenotomi was performed under the ...

  15. Influence of inclusions on the local corrosion in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grall, L.; Mahieu, C.

    1978-01-01

    A synthesis of the work relating to the influence of inclusions on the pitting corrosion of steels, shows that pitting mainly occurs preferentially at precipitate levels, particularly sulfur precipitates. However oxidized inclusions can also cause this condition which is found on austenitic steels as well as on slightly alloyed or non alloyed steels. The method of refining as well as the morphology of inclusions can also play a part in this [fr

  16. A Wireless Sensor Network with Soft Computing Localization Techniques for Track Cycling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharghan, Sadik Kamel; Nordin, Rosdiadee; Ismail, Mahamod

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two soft computing localization techniques for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The two techniques, Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN), focus on a range-based localization method which relies on the measurement of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) from the three ZigBee anchor nodes distributed throughout the track cycling field. The soft computing techniques aim to estimate the distance between bicycles moving on the cycle track for outdoor and indoor velodromes. In the first approach the ANFIS was considered, whereas in the second approach the ANN was hybridized individually with three optimization algorithms, namely Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), and Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA). The results revealed that the hybrid GSA-ANN outperforms the other methods adopted in this paper in terms of accuracy localization and distance estimation accuracy. The hybrid GSA-ANN achieves a mean absolute distance estimation error of 0.02 m and 0.2 m for outdoor and indoor velodromes, respectively. PMID:27509495

  17. A Wireless Sensor Network with Soft Computing Localization Techniques for Track Cycling Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik Kamel Gharghan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose two soft computing localization techniques for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The two techniques, Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and Artificial Neural Network (ANN, focus on a range-based localization method which relies on the measurement of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI from the three ZigBee anchor nodes distributed throughout the track cycling field. The soft computing techniques aim to estimate the distance between bicycles moving on the cycle track for outdoor and indoor velodromes. In the first approach the ANFIS was considered, whereas in the second approach the ANN was hybridized individually with three optimization algorithms, namely Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA, and Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA. The results revealed that the hybrid GSA-ANN outperforms the other methods adopted in this paper in terms of accuracy localization and distance estimation accuracy. The hybrid GSA-ANN achieves a mean absolute distance estimation error of 0.02 m and 0.2 m for outdoor and indoor velodromes, respectively.

  18. A novel distraction technique for pain management during local anesthesia administration in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Punitha S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an active and novel distraction technique WITAUL (Writing In The Air Using Leg) on the pain behavior observed and reported by children receiving local anesthesia injections prior to dental treatment. The study was conducted on 160 children (80 in control and 80 in intervention group) between the ages of 4- 10 years. During the administration of anesthesia the children in the control group were made to relax by means of deep breathing and those in the intervention group were taught to use the WITAUL distraction technique. the behavior of the children aged 4- 5 years was noted using the Modified Toddler- Preschooler Post operative Pain Scale (TPPPS) and that of children aged above 6 years was measured using the FACES Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R). The use of WITAUL was found to be statistically significant (p value managing pain during local anesthesia administration. The mean Modified TPPPS scores (4- 5 year olds) for the WITAL group was 2.46 +/- 1.752 and that of the control was 5.64 +/- 2.328. The mean FPS-R scores (6 - 10 year olds) for the WITAUL group was 3 +/- 1.748 and that of the control group was 6.26 +/- 1.858. The WITAUL technique therefore appears to be a simple and effective method of distraction during local anesthesia administration in pediatric patients.

  19. Mobile Robot Localization: A Review of Probabilistic Map-Based Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Manuel Malagon-Soldara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comprehensive review of current probabilistic developments used to calculate position by mobile robots in indoor environments. In this calculation, best known as localization, it is necessary to develop most of the tasks delegated to the mobile robot. It is then crucial that the methods used for position calculations be as precise as possible, and accurately represent the location of the robot within a given environment. The research community has devoted a considerable amount of time to provide solutions for the localization problem. Several methodologies have been proposed the most common of which are based in the Bayes rule. Other methodologies include the Kalman filter and the Monte Carlo localization filter wich will be addressed in next sections. The major contribution of this review rests in offering a wide array of techniques that researchers can choose. Therefore, method-sensor combinations and their main advantages are displayed.

  20. The influence of curricular and extracurricular learning activities on students' choice of chiropractic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, David M; KizhakkeVeettil, Anupama; Tobias, Gene S

    2016-03-01

    Surveys for the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners indicate that diversified chiropractic technique is the most commonly used chiropractic manipulation method. The study objective was to investigate the influences of our diversified core technique curriculum, a technique survey course, and extracurricular technique activities on students' future practice technique preferences. We conducted an anonymous, voluntary survey of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year chiropractic students at our institution. Surveys were pretested for face validity, and data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. We had 164 students (78% response rate) participate in the survey. Diversified was the most preferred technique for future practice by students, and more than half who completed the chiropractic technique survey course reported changing their future practice technique choice as a result. The students surveyed agreed that the chiropractic technique curriculum and their experiences with chiropractic practitioners were the two greatest bases for their current practice technique preference, and that their participation in extracurricular technique clubs and seminars was less influential. Students appear to have the same practice technique preferences as practicing chiropractors. The chiropractic technique curriculum and the students' experience with chiropractic practitioners seem to have the greatest influence on their choice of chiropractic technique for future practice. Extracurricular activities, including technique clubs and seminars, although well attended, showed a lesser influence on students' practice technique preferences.

  1. Local gray level S-curve transformation - A generalized contrast enhancement technique for medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhamal, Akash; Talbar, Sanjay; Gajre, Suhas; Hani, Ahmad Fadzil M; Kumar, Dileep

    2017-04-01

    Most medical images suffer from inadequate contrast and brightness, which leads to blurred or weak edges (low contrast) between adjacent tissues resulting in poor segmentation and errors in classification of tissues. Thus, contrast enhancement to improve visual information is extremely important in the development of computational approaches for obtaining quantitative measurements from medical images. In this research, a contrast enhancement algorithm that applies gray-level S-curve transformation technique locally in medical images obtained from various modalities is investigated. The S-curve transformation is an extended gray level transformation technique that results into a curve similar to a sigmoid function through a pixel to pixel transformation. This curve essentially increases the difference between minimum and maximum gray values and the image gradient, locally thereby, strengthening edges between adjacent tissues. The performance of the proposed technique is determined by measuring several parameters namely, edge content (improvement in image gradient), enhancement measure (degree of contrast enhancement), absolute mean brightness error (luminance distortion caused by the enhancement), and feature similarity index measure (preservation of the original image features). Based on medical image datasets comprising 1937 images from various modalities such as ultrasound, mammograms, fluorescent images, fundus, X-ray radiographs and MR images, it is found that the local gray-level S-curve transformation outperforms existing techniques in terms of improved contrast and brightness, resulting in clear and strong edges between adjacent tissues. The proposed technique can be used as a preprocessing tool for effective segmentation and classification of tissue structures in medical images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early response of local steroid injection versus mini incision technique in treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, A.S.; Khan, A.; Afridi, S.A.; Khan, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of the commonest peripheral neuropathies which effects mainly middle aged women. Different techniques are being tried to decrease the post-operative pain in patients operated for CTS. The objective of this study was to compare effectiveness of local injection of steroid and mini incision technique in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Methods: This randomized control trial was conducted at department of Orthopedics and department of Neurosurgery, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from Aug 2011 to Feb 2013. A total of 116 patients of CTS were randomly allocated to either of the two groups. Fifty-eight Patient in Group A were subjected to local steroid injection and the same number of patient in Group B underwent mini incision technique. All patients of were advised to report to the OPD after one month to determine intervention effectiveness in terms of improvement in at least one grade of pain. Results: In this study mean age of the patients was 32.8 ± 5.1 years. Female gender was in dominance with 99 (86.3%) cases. In this study we compared the effectiveness of local steroid injection and mini incision technique in the treatment of carpel tunnel syndrome. We found out that the steroid injection was effective in 69.0% cases while mini incision technique was effective in 56.9% cases. The difference being statistically insignificant with a p-value of 0.17. Conclusion: The difference in pain after 1 month of the intervention was not statistically significant. (author)

  3. Automated localization and segmentation techniques for B-mode ultrasound images: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiburger, Kristen M; Acharya, U Rajendra; Molinari, Filippo

    2018-01-01

    B-mode ultrasound imaging is used extensively in medicine. Hence, there is a need to have efficient segmentation tools to aid in computer-aided diagnosis, image-guided interventions, and therapy. This paper presents a comprehensive review on automated localization and segmentation techniques for B-mode ultrasound images. The paper first describes the general characteristics of B-mode ultrasound images. Then insight on the localization and segmentation of tissues is provided, both in the case in which the organ/tissue localization provides the final segmentation and in the case in which a two-step segmentation process is needed, due to the desired boundaries being too fine to locate from within the entire ultrasound frame. Subsequenly, examples of some main techniques found in literature are shown, including but not limited to shape priors, superpixel and classification, local pixel statistics, active contours, edge-tracking, dynamic programming, and data mining. Ten selected applications (abdomen/kidney, breast, cardiology, thyroid, liver, vascular, musculoskeletal, obstetrics, gynecology, prostate) are then investigated in depth, and the performances of a few specific applications are compared. In conclusion, future perspectives for B-mode based segmentation, such as the integration of RF information, the employment of higher frequency probes when possible, the focus on completely automatic algorithms, and the increase in available data are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Local versus global optimal sports techniques in a group of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchez, Aurore; Haering, Diane; Holvoët, Patrice; Barbier, Franck; Begon, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    Various optimization algorithms have been used to achieve optimal control of sports movements. Nevertheless, no local or global optimization algorithm could be the most effective for solving all optimal control problems. This study aims at comparing local and global optimal solutions in a multistart gradient-based optimization by considering actual repetitive performances of a group of athletes performing a transition move on the uneven bars. Twenty-four trials by eight national-level female gymnasts were recorded using a motion capture system, and then multistart sequential quadratic programming optimizations were performed to obtain global optimal, local optimal and suboptimal solutions. The multistart approach combined with a gradient-based algorithm did not often find the local solution to be the best and proposed several other solutions including global optimal and suboptimal techniques. The qualitative change between actual and optimal techniques provided three directions for training: to increase hip flexion-abduction, to transfer leg and arm angular momentum to the trunk and to straighten hand path to the bar.

  5. Influence of a remote microphone on localization with hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selby, Johan G.; Weisser, Adam; MacDonald, Ewen

    2017-01-01

    When used with hearing aids (HA), the addition of a remote microphone (RM) may alter the spatial perception of the listener. First, the RM signal is presented diotically from the HAs. Second, the processing in the HA often delays the RM signal relative to the HA microphone signals. Finally......, the level of the RM signal is independent of the distance from the RM to HA. The present study investigated localization performance of 15 normal-hearing and 9 hearing-impaired listeners under conditions simulating the use of an RM with a behind the ear (BTE) HA. Minimum audible angle discrimination around...

  6. The path of least resistance: Regulatory resource depletion and the effectiveness of social influence techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.; Fennis, B.M.; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.; Vohs, Kathleen D.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examine the role of regulatory resource depletion in the effectiveness of social influence techniques aimed at inducing consumer compliance. They test the two-step hypothesis that a) responding to the initial request stage of an influence technique requires self-control, thereby

  7. Influence of ENSO on Regional Indian Summer Monsoon Precipitation—Local Atmospheric Influences or Remote Influence from Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Roy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using CMIP5 model outputs in different El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO phases, this work investigates the indicator that could be used as an Index to characterise regional Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM precipitation. Dividing the Indian subcontinent into five arbitrarily chosen regions, viz. Central North East (CNE (18°N–31°N, 86°E–75°E, Hilly (H (28°N–38°N, 85°E–70°E, North West (NW (21°N–31°N, 79°E–67°E, North East (NE (21°N–31°N, 86°E–97°E and Southern India (S (18°N–7°N, 73°E–85°E, local wind field and remote influences from the tropical Pacific are considered to improve understanding of regional monsoon rainfall. Results are also compared with observations/reanalysis data to pinpoint areas of shortcomings and agreements. Model results suggest that regional wind velocity, viz. meridional wind component (V at 850 mb level (V850 and zonal component at 200 mb (U200 and 850 mb (U850 can yield better estimation of local precipitation in regions CNE, H and NW, agreeing well with earlier proposed monsoon Indices. Such observations are independent of different subcategories of ENSO phases and models show good correspondence with observations. Analyses with V at 200 mb (V200 indicate circulation of the upper branch of Hadley cells in regions CNE and S, though suggest the best agreement among models in comparison with other fields, but there are some deviations from observations, indicating a missing mechanism in the models. Using models, this study identified the best parameter in different regions that could be used for the regional monsoon Index, irrespective of various ENSO subcategories; for CNE it is the U200, for H it is U200 and U850, and for NW it is U850. The current analysis, however, fails to indicate anything clearly about the NE region. When focusing on the remote influence from the eastern Pacific region, it is found that atmospheric contribution to regional ISM precipitation fails to indicate

  8. Superiority of localized surface plasmon resonance technique in characterization of ultra-thin metallic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheer; Tiwari, P.; Bhartiya, S.; Mukherjee, C.; Rai, S. K.; Rai, V. N.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2018-01-01

    The comparison and correlation of morphological, optical and crystallographic properties of ultra-thin Au films obtained using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), x-ray reflectivity (XRR), UV-visible transmission, and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) are presented. The Au thin films of different thickness are grown on the glass substrate using the sputtering technique. The particle size, number density and the covered area fraction of Au thin film are obtained from FESEM images. The XRR technique is used to determine the film thickness and surface roughness. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) response of Au thin films is obtained using UV-Vis transmission spectroscopy. The LSPR peak position and its strength are correlated with film morphology and thickness. Finally, it is shown that LSPR based spectroscopy techniques can provide much better information about morphology and thickness of the Au films up to a resolution of ~1 nm.

  9. New different techniques. Influence of radiation on fade gemstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talay, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    Laser guided high-energy irradiation and rare elements can be used to introduce certain defects into crystals. If these defects influence the composition of the solids, as they often do, then then the altered reactivity can be attributed to a specific entity in the crystals. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Factors Influencing Choice of Inguinal Hernia Repair Technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at which practical training on inguinal hernia repair occurred ... repair method(s). Results: Fifteen surgeons and sixty surgical trainees were recruited. Awareness levels and practical training were highest in the modified Bassini and Lichtenstein repair techniques. ... account individual capability and rate of progress”. (16).

  11. Influence of Nerve Flossing Technique on acute sciatica and hip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sciatica is one of the most common painful and disabling conditions affecting about 40% of low back pain cases and 1.6% - 43% of adult ... have been used to manage sciatica but the effect of Nerve Flossing Technique (NFT), which is a cost effective treatment option in the management of acute sciatica is yet to ...

  12. The influence of elements of synchronized swimming on technique of the selected swimming strokes

    OpenAIRE

    Široký, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Title: The influence of elements of synchronized swimming on technique of the selected swimming strokes Objectives: The objective of the thesis is to assess the effect of the elements of synchronized swimming at improving the techniques of swimming. Methods: The results were detected by overt observation with active participation and subsequent scaling on the ordinal scale 1 to 5. Results: The results show that the influence of the elements of synchronized swimming on improving the technique ...

  13. INFLUENCE OF MOTOR ABILITIES ON LEARNING OF ALPINE SKI TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Božić; Nikola Prlenda; Vjekoslav Cigrovski

    2012-01-01

    The research determined influence of motor abilities on alpine ski learning. Moreover, the aim was also to estimate the contribution of some morphological characteristics to acquisition of ski knowledge. At the beginning of the study, participants were tested by tests evaluating balance, agility, explosive and static strength, movement frequency and flexibility. After evaluation of motor abilities, basic morphological characteristics were noted and then participants entered a seven days alpin...

  14. Electrochemical Techniques Applied to Studies of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    corrosion (MIC). Applications Include evaluation of MIC of metals exposed 7, to seawater, fresh water, demineralized water, process chemicals, food stuffs...water, process chemicals, food stuffs, soils, aircraft important to focus elecatrochemical investigations notfuels, human plasma, and sewage. In this...negative than (CONICET-NSF). LaPlata, Argentina, Aquatec, E,., Progress can only be made if surface analytical Quimica , pp. 119-133 techniques are

  15. Detection and localization of lower gastrointestinal bleeding site with scintigraphic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, A.

    1988-01-01

    Successful management of acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding frequently depends on accurate localization of the bleeding site. History and clinical findings are often misleading in localizing the site of hemorrhage. The widespread application of flexible endoscopy and selective arteriography now provides accurate diagnoses for the majority of patients with upper GI tract hemorrhage, but lower GI bleeding still is a serious diagnostic problem. Endoscopy and barium studies are of limited value in examining the small bowel and colon in the face of active hemorrhage. Arteriography, although successful in many cases, has limitations. The angiographic demonstration of bleeding is possible only when the injection of contrast material coincides with active bleeding. Since lower GI bleeding is commonly intermittent rather than continuous, a high rate of negative angiographic examinations has been reported. Repeated angiography to pursue recurrent episodes of bleeding is impractical. Because of these shortcomings, in the past decade several noninvasive scintigraphic techniques have been developed to detect and localize sites of GI bleeding. In this chapter the authors discuss details related to the technetium 99m sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) and technetium 99m-labeled red blood cell (Tc-RBC) techniques

  16. The Influence of Economic Literacyon Consumption Behaviour Mediated by Local Cultural Values and Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldila Septiana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the influence of economics literacy on the students’ consumption behavior through local cultural values and promotions. The mediation used is based on the theories, the empirical studies and the previous studies.Quantitative approach was used in this study. The population was the Pamekasan Senior High Schools students (Class XI IPS, academic year 2012/2013. Proportional random sampling was conducted to take the samples in the population. The data was collected by using the questionnaire and test. Path analysis was used to analyze the data.The findings showe that the economic literacy level influences directly and significantly on the local cultural values, while affected negatively significant on the promotion. Also the economic literacy level influences directly and negatively significant on the consumption behavior. Contrary, the local cultural values influence directly, positively and significantly on the consumption behavior similar to the promotion. Moreover, the economic literacy level influences indirectly and significantly on the consumption behavior through the local cultural values. Similar to the local cultural values, the promotion aspect had the same influence direction. Therefore, this research provided evidence that the economic literacy affected consumption behaviour which are moderated through the value of local culture and promotion aspects

  17. A Novel Keep Zero as Zero Polar Correlation Technique for Mobile Robot Localization using LIDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIDHARTHAN, R. K.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensor fusion based localization techniques often need accurate estimate of the fast and uncertain scene change in environment. To determine the scene change from two consecutive LIDAR scans, this paper proposes a novel technique called 'keep zero as zero' polar correlation. As it name implies any zero in the scan data is kept isolated from scene change estimation as it do not carry any information about scene change. Unlike existing techniques, the proposed methodology employs minimization of selective horizontal and vertically shifted sum of difference between the scans to estimate scene change in terms of rotation and translation. Minimization of the proposed correlation function across the specified search space can guarantee an accurate estimate of scene change without any ambiguity. The performance of the proposed method is tested experimentally on a mobile robot in two modes depending on the scene change. In the first mode, scene change is detected using dynamic LIDAR, whereas static LIDAR is used in the second mode. The proposed methodology is found to be more robust to environmental uncertainties with a reliable level of localization accuracy.

  18. Fuels and their influence on the properties of ash in boilers for local heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryštofová, K.; Raclavská, H.; Škrobánková, H.; Sassmanová, V.

    2017-10-01

    Local household boilers significantly contribute to the air contamination. The quality of combusted fuel can be monitored by an ash analysis. Cocombustion of waste in local boilers influences the amount of unburned carbon in ash and its distribution into separate grain size classes. The paper is focused on determination of the ash melting point in dependence on the fuel quality.

  19. Influence of cisplatin on the sensitivity of the rat sciatic nerve to local hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J. F.; van der Kracht, A. H.; Wondergem, J.; Gonzalez Gonzalez, D.; Haveman, J.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of cisplatin on the sensitivity of the rat sciatic nerve to local hyperthermia was investigated. Rats received 1.7 mg/kg cisplatin i.p., twice a week for 6 weeks, up to a cumulative dose of 20.4 mg/kg. After termination of cisplatin treatment, a 5 mm segment of the nerve was locally

  20. Adaptive Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin Method with Variable Domain of Influence in 2D Elastostatic Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamuda Pudjisuryadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG method that employs polygonal sub-domains constructed from several triangular patches rather than the typically used circular sub-domains is presented. Moving least-squares approximation is used to construct the trial displacements and linear, Lagrange interpolation functions are used to construct the test functions. An adaptive technique to improve the accuracy of approximate solutions is developed to minimize the computational cost. Variable domain of influence (VDOI and effective stress gradient indicator (EK for local error assessment are the focus of this study. Several numerical examples are presented to verify the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed adaptive MLPG method. The results show that the proposed adaptive technique performs as expected that is refining the problem domain in area with high stress concentration in which higher accuracy is commonly required.

  1. Lithium carbonate tablets. Preparation techniques influence over active ingredient liberation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, J.H.F.; Oliveira, A.G. de; Toledo Salgado, P.E. de

    1989-01-01

    Lithium carbonate tablets, prepared using wet and dry granulation, were assessed in vitro so as to determine the active ingredient dissolution. In this study, standardized formulations were used and developed with usual adjuvants (lactose - maize starch). Parallel to the dissolution testing. The influence of the preparation process over some physical characteristics (hardness, friability and disintegration) was also analysed. Although a better performance was observed of tables prepared using dry granulation, the authors concluded that the wet process is more suitable in preparing tables with the mentioned drug. (author)

  2. Influence of Thread Root Radius on Maximum Local Stresses at Large Diameter Bolts under Axial Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojocaru Vasile

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the thread root area of the threaded bolts submitted to axial loading occur local stresses, higher that nominal stresses calculated for the bolts. These local stresses can generate failure and can reduce the fatigue life of the parts. The paper is focused on the study of the influence of the thread root radius on the maximum local stresses. A large diameter trapezoidal bolt was subjected to a static analysis (axial loading using finite element simulation.

  3. Efficient Fault Localization and Failure Analysis Techniques for Improving IC Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Oberai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in the complexity of the semiconductor device processes and increase in the challenge to satisfy high market demands, enhancement in yield has become a crucial factor. Discovering and reacting to yield problems emerging at the end of the production line may cause unbearable yield loss leading to larger times to market. Thus, time and cost involved in fault isolation may be significantly shortened by effectively utilizing the fault diagnosis technology and supporting yield improvements. Hence for yield analysis, a highly integrated data network with software analysis tools have been established to reduce the fault analysis time. Synopsys Avalon, a product used for fault localization is described in this paper which aids in achieving better integrated circuit yields. This paper also illustrates various fault localization techniques for faster problem identification and discusses a few analytical tools like photon emission microscope and transmission emission microscope for faster determination of device failures.

  4. A scanning tunneling microscopy based potentiometry technique and its application to the local sensing of the spin Hall effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A scanning tunneling microscopy based potentiometry technique for the measurements of the local surface electric potential is presented. A voltage compensation circuit based on this potentiometry technique is developed and employed to maintain a desired tunneling voltage independent of the bias current flow through the film. The application of this potentiometry technique to the local sensing of the spin Hall effect is outlined and some experimental results are reported.

  5. Social influence on selection behaviour: Distinguishing local- and global-driven preferential attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Liu, Kecheng

    2017-01-01

    Social influence drives human selection behaviours when numerous objects competing for limited attentions, which leads to the 'rich get richer' dynamics where popular objects tend to get more attentions. However, evidences have been found that, both the global information of the whole system and the local information among one's friends have significant influence over the one's selection. Consequently, a key question raises that, it is the local information or the global information more determinative for one's selection? Here we compare the local-based influence and global-based influence. We show that, the selection behaviour is mainly driven by the local popularity of the objects while the global popularity plays a supplementary role driving the behaviour only when there is little local information for the user to refer to. Thereby, we propose a network model to describe the mechanism of user-object interaction evolution with social influence, where the users perform either local-driven or global-driven preferential attachments to the objects, i.e., the probability of an objects to be selected by a target user is proportional to either its local popularity or global popularity. The simulation suggests that, about 75% of the attachments should be driven by the local popularity to reproduce the empirical observations. It means that, at least in the studied context where users chose businesses on Yelp, there is a probability of 75% for a user to make a selection according to the local popularity. The proposed model and the numerical findings may shed some light on the study of social influence and evolving social systems.

  6. Social influence on selection behaviour: Distinguishing local- and global-driven preferential attachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Pan

    Full Text Available Social influence drives human selection behaviours when numerous objects competing for limited attentions, which leads to the 'rich get richer' dynamics where popular objects tend to get more attentions. However, evidences have been found that, both the global information of the whole system and the local information among one's friends have significant influence over the one's selection. Consequently, a key question raises that, it is the local information or the global information more determinative for one's selection? Here we compare the local-based influence and global-based influence. We show that, the selection behaviour is mainly driven by the local popularity of the objects while the global popularity plays a supplementary role driving the behaviour only when there is little local information for the user to refer to. Thereby, we propose a network model to describe the mechanism of user-object interaction evolution with social influence, where the users perform either local-driven or global-driven preferential attachments to the objects, i.e., the probability of an objects to be selected by a target user is proportional to either its local popularity or global popularity. The simulation suggests that, about 75% of the attachments should be driven by the local popularity to reproduce the empirical observations. It means that, at least in the studied context where users chose businesses on Yelp, there is a probability of 75% for a user to make a selection according to the local popularity. The proposed model and the numerical findings may shed some light on the study of social influence and evolving social systems.

  7. Social influence on selection behaviour: Distinguishing local- and global-driven preferential attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue; Liu, Kecheng

    2017-01-01

    Social influence drives human selection behaviours when numerous objects competing for limited attentions, which leads to the ‘rich get richer’ dynamics where popular objects tend to get more attentions. However, evidences have been found that, both the global information of the whole system and the local information among one’s friends have significant influence over the one’s selection. Consequently, a key question raises that, it is the local information or the global information more determinative for one’s selection? Here we compare the local-based influence and global-based influence. We show that, the selection behaviour is mainly driven by the local popularity of the objects while the global popularity plays a supplementary role driving the behaviour only when there is little local information for the user to refer to. Thereby, we propose a network model to describe the mechanism of user-object interaction evolution with social influence, where the users perform either local-driven or global-driven preferential attachments to the objects, i.e., the probability of an objects to be selected by a target user is proportional to either its local popularity or global popularity. The simulation suggests that, about 75% of the attachments should be driven by the local popularity to reproduce the empirical observations. It means that, at least in the studied context where users chose businesses on Yelp, there is a probability of 75% for a user to make a selection according to the local popularity. The proposed model and the numerical findings may shed some light on the study of social influence and evolving social systems. PMID:28406984

  8. Laparoscopic local excision and rectoanal anastomosis for rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor: modified laparoscopic intersphincteric resection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyoshi, Takashi; Ueno, Masashi; Fukunaga, Yosuke; Nagayama, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Yoshiya; Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Kuroyanagi, Hiroya

    2014-07-01

    Rectal GI stromal tumor is uncommon. Local excision with free resection margins provides adequate treatment, but extended surgery such as abdominoperineal resection has been frequently performed because of technical difficulties in the confined pelvic space. We aimed to report the technical details of a new method of local excision for rectal GI stromal tumor: the modified laparoscopic intersphincteric resection technique. This study was a retrospective analysis. This study was performed at a single institute. We included 3 patients with rectal GI stromal tumor who underwent this procedure following neoadjuvant imatinib therapy. Medial-to-lateral retroperitoneal dissection was begun near the sacral promontory, and rectal dissection while preserving autonomic nerves was performed down to the pelvic floor into the anal canal without dividing the inferior mesenteric artery. Dissection between the tumor and prostate was meticulously performed under laparoscopic magnified view. Next, circumferential connection between the laparoscopic and transanal dissections was performed through a transanal approach, and the rectum was extracted through the anus. Circular full-thickness local excision of the rectum and handsewn straight rectoanal anastomosis was performed. The safety and feasibility of this procedure were the primary outcomes measured by this study. The median operative time was 180 minutes, and the median estimated blood loss was 115 mL. There were no conversions or intraoperative complications, and there was 1 postoperative intestinal obstruction that recovered with conservative therapy. All patients had negative resection margins (R0), including 1 pathological complete response. The study was limited by the small number of patients. This modified laparoscopic intersphincteric resection technique is a novel and safe method for local excision of rectal GI stromal tumors located very close to the anus (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http

  9. Content based image retrieval using local binary pattern operator and data mining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatamanu, Oana Astrid; Frandeş, Mirela; Lungeanu, Diana; Mihalaş, Gheorghe-Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Content based image retrieval (CBIR) concerns the retrieval of similar images from image databases, using feature vectors extracted from images. These feature vectors globally define the visual content present in an image, defined by e.g., texture, colour, shape, and spatial relations between vectors. Herein, we propose the definition of feature vectors using the Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator. A study was performed in order to determine the optimum LBP variant for the general definition of image feature vectors. The chosen LBP variant is then subsequently used to build an ultrasound image database, and a database with images obtained from Wireless Capsule Endoscopy. The image indexing process is optimized using data clustering techniques for images belonging to the same class. Finally, the proposed indexing method is compared to the classical indexing technique, which is nowadays widely used.

  10. The determination of pesticide residues in local vegetables by means of neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkolphantha, S.; Karasuddhi, P.; Yamkate, P.; Serichareonsatit, N.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical methods based on neutron activation have been developed for studying pesticides residues of bromine, arsenic and mercury in local vegetables and fruits. The concentration of bromine, arsenic and mercury in samples are enriched prior to neutron irradiations by a technique of dry-ashing and freeze-drying for the determination of arsenic, bromine and mercury respectively. The element bromine is determined instrumentally while arsenic and mercury are determined destructively using a distillation technique. The limit of detection under the conditions used for bromine, arsenic and mercury as obtained are 0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001 microgram respectively. A total of 45 varieties of vegetables and 20 varieties of fruits are analyzed. The results of the investigation and the concentration range in part per million of bromine, arsenic and mercury are also presented

  11. Time domain localization technique with sparsity constraint for imaging acoustic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padois, Thomas; Doutres, Olivier; Sgard, Franck; Berry, Alain

    2017-09-01

    This paper addresses source localization technique in time domain for broadband acoustic sources. The objective is to accurately and quickly detect the position and amplitude of noise sources in workplaces in order to propose adequate noise control options and prevent workers hearing loss or safety risk. First, the generalized cross correlation associated with a spherical microphone array is used to generate an initial noise source map. Then a linear inverse problem is defined to improve this initial map. Commonly, the linear inverse problem is solved with an l2 -regularization. In this study, two sparsity constraints are used to solve the inverse problem, the orthogonal matching pursuit and the truncated Newton interior-point method. Synthetic data are used to highlight the performances of the technique. High resolution imaging is achieved for various acoustic sources configurations. Moreover, the amplitudes of the acoustic sources are correctly estimated. A comparison of computation times shows that the technique is compatible with quasi real-time generation of noise source maps. Finally, the technique is tested with real data.

  12. Preoperative Pulmonary Nodule Localization: A Comparison of Methylene Blue and Hookwire Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleedehn, Mark; Kim, David H; Lee, Fred T; Lubner, Meghan G; Robbins, Jessica B; Ziemlewicz, Timothy J; Hinshaw, J Louis

    2016-12-01

    Small pulmonary nodules are often difficult to identify during thoracoscopic resection, and preoperative CT-guided localization performed using either hookwire placement or methylene blue injection can be helpful. The purpose of this study is to compare the localization success and complication rates of these two techniques. One hundred two consecutive patients who underwent a total of 109 localization procedures performed with CT fluoroscopic guidance were analyzed. The procedures included 52 hookwire insertions and 57 methylene blue injections. The localization success and complication rates associated with the two groups were compared. All nodules in both groups were identified intraoperatively, except for those in two patients in the hookwire group who did not proceed to undergo same-day surgery, including one with a massive systemic air embolus that resulted in death. Hookwires were dislodged in seven of 52 cases (13%), but the surgeons were still able to locate the nodules through visualization of the parenchymal puncture sites. The total number of complications was higher in the hookwire insertion group than in the methylene blue injection group, but this trend was not statistically significant, with all types of complications occurring in 28 cases (54%) versus 26 cases (46%) (p = 0.45), major complications noted in four cases (8%) versus one case (2%) (p = 0.19), pneumothorax observed in 20 cases (38%) versus 14 cases (25%) (p = 0.15), and perilesional hemorrhage occurring in six cases (12%) versus two cases (4%) (p = 0.15), respectively. The present study suggests that methylene blue injection and hookwire insertion are statistically equivalent for preoperative pulmonary nodule localization; however, seven of 52 hookwires dislodged, and trends toward more frequent and severe complications were noted in the hookwire insertion group.

  13. Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ensinger, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique / B. Rauschenbach ... - In: Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research. B. 113. 1996. S. 266-269

  14. Repair of Adult Hypospadias Under Local Anesthesia: The Technique and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kalkan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we evaluated the outcomes of a hypospadias repair technique using local anesthesia in adult patients with distal hypospadias. Material and Method: Hypospadias repair was performed under local anesthesia in 24 cases of circumcised males from 2000%u20132010. The type of hypospadias was coronal in 11 cases and subcoronal in 13 cases. Tubularised incised-plate urethroplasty method was used in all of the patients. Subcutaneous prilocaine hydrochloride was administered into the root of the penis and 12.5 g of a gel containing 2% lidocaine was administered into the urethra as an anesthetic agent. The patients%u2019 pain levels were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Patients were evaluated in terms of pain level, duration of the operation, and early and late complications. Results: All patients easily tolerated the operation, with a mean postoperative VAS pain assessment of 2.04 (0-4. The duration of the operation ranged between 16 and 35 min. One of the patients developed syncope during the operation. Urethral fistula was seen in three patients. No incidence of meatal stenosis or poor cosmetic appearance was observed. Discussion: Hypospadias repair under local anesthesia was demonstrated to be safely practicable with an acceptable degree of postsurgical pain in adult patients with distal hypospadias.

  15. Novel methylene blue staining technique for localizing small esophageal leiomyomas during thoracoscopic enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Ai, B; Liao, Y; Liu, L; Liu, M

    2016-11-01

    The treatment of choice for leiomyoma, the most common benign esophageal tumor, is thoracoscopic enucleation. One of the most difficult aspects of thoracoscopic enucleation is the precise localization of small tumors (≤1.5 cm) and tumors without external protrusion. No simple, feasible solutions to this problem are available. We developed a novel methylene blue staining technique to localize small esophageal leiomyomas and evaluated the feasibility of our technique. Between January 2013 and July 2014, eight patients with small esophageal leiomyomas (≤1.5 cm) underwent thoracoscopic enucleation in Tongji Hospital. Preoperative endoscopic ultrasonography was performed in all patients. The leiomyomas were located in the middle (n = 5) and lower (n = 3) thirds of the esophagus. We preoperatively injected 0.5-1.0 mL methylene blue in the submucosa adjacent to the tumors under standard gastroscope guidance. The entire staining process took about 10 minutes. Staining was successful in all patients. The unstained tumor was exposed after the blue-stained mediastinal pleura, and overlying muscle were incised longitudinally. All procedures were successfully completed without conversion to open surgery. No abnormalities were detected in the esophageal mucosa. The median operating time was 60 minutes (range, 40-90 minutes). Postoperative histopathology confirmed leiomyoma in all patients. The median postoperative hospital stay was 6 days (range, 5-7 days). No major complications, such as esophageal leakage or esophageal diverticulum, occurred. Endoscopic methylene blue staining is safe and feasible for localizing small esophageal leiomyomas during thoracoscopic enucleation. This method will enable precise and easy enucleation. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  16. Local content in the concession contract: influences and perspectives; Conteudo local no contrato de concessao: influencias e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repsold Junior, Hugo; Freitas, Jucelino L. de; Souza, Renata Barrouin C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Petroleum Industry in Brazil had its scenario altered by Constitutional Amendment number 9, through the 9.478/1997 Law, that constituted the National Petroleum Agency (ANP), which is responsible for elaborating the Finals Tender Protocol and promoting the Bid's to concede the rights of exploration and production, celebrating concession contracts and controlling its execution. Thus, the ANP has promoted five Bid Rounds, since 1999, and is promoting the Round Six, in 2004. In order to accomplish with the federal government policies, ANP has been taking measures to foment the development of National Petroleum Industry through inclusion of Local Content commitment and Preferential Clauses for national suppliers. The objective of this will be, therefore, analyze the historical construction of these Clauses and Commitments as well as its influences about the decision making process in Bids Rounds. We'll discuss Local Content compromises under the possible economic and legal consequences regarding the non-accomplishment. Finally, we intend to consider the perspectives for the next rounds under the Local Content's Clauses and Commitments view, analyzing its influences regarding attractiveness of areas that are to be included in future Bids and the National Petroleum Industry. (author)

  17. Bi4TaO8Cl Nano-Photocatalyst: Influence of Local, Average, and Band Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Swetha S M; Swain, Diptikanta; Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Joerg C; Mishra, Abhishek K; Hodala, Janardhan L; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Shanbhag, Ganapati V; Sundaram, Nalini G

    2017-05-15

    The average structure, local structure, and band structure of nanoparticles of photocatalyst Bi 4 TaO 8 Cl, an Aurivillius-Sillen layered material, has been studied by powder neutron Rietveld refinement, neutron pair distribution function technique, Raman scattering, and density functional theory calculations. A significant local structural deviation of nano-Bi 4 TaO 8 Cl was established in contrast to the local structure of bulk-Bi 4 TaO 8 Cl. Local structure was further supported by Raman scattering measurements. Through DFT calculations, we identify specific features in the electronic band structure that correlate lower secondary structural distortions in nano-Bi 4 TaO 8 Cl. Increased distortion of TaO 6 , decreased Ta-O-Ta bond angle, and increased octahedral tilt in the local structure of nano-Bi 4 TaO 8 Cl influence the band structure and the electron hole pair migration. Therefore, in addition to morphology and size, the local structure of a nanomaterial contributes to the photocatalytic performance. Trapping experiments confirm the role of superoxide radical in the photocatalysis mechanism of this material. Such studies help in developing new functional materials with better photocatalytic efficiency to address energy and environmental issues.

  18. Fluorescence exclusion: A simple versatile technique to calculate cell volumes and local heights (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenin, Olivier; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, A. Claude

    2017-02-01

    Understanding volume regulation during mitosis is technically challenging. Indeed, a very sensitive non invasive imaging over time scales ranging from seconds to hours and over large fields is required. Therefore, Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) would be a perfect tool for such a project. However, because of asymmetric protein segregation during mitosis, an efficient separation of the refractive index and the height in the phase signal is required. Even though many strategies to make such a separation have been developed, they usually are difficult to implement, have poor sensitivity, or cannot be performed in living cells, or in a single shot. In this paper, we will discuss the use of a new technique called fluorescence exclusion to perform volume measurements. By coupling such technique with a simultaneous phase measurement, we were also able to recover the refractive index inside the cells. Fluorescence exclusion is a versatile and powerful technique that allows the volume measurement of many types of cells. A fluorescent dye, which cannot penetrate inside the cells, is mixed with the external medium in a confined environment. Therefore, the fluorescent signal depends on the inverse of the object's height. We could demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that fluorescence exclusion can accurately measure cell volumes, even for cells much higher than the depth of focus of the objective. A local accurate height and RI measurement can also be obtained for smaller cells. We will also discuss the way to optimize the confinement of the observation chamber, either mechanically or optically.

  19. Update on emerging regional techniques and novel local anesthetics in ambulatory anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szafran MJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Martin J Szafran, Eldhose Abrahams, Tong Joo Gan Department of Anesthesiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA Abstract: New regional anesthetic techniques have been incorporated into the multimodal approach to postoperative analgesia. Blocks such as the transversus abdominis plane block, adductor canal block, and pectoral nerves blocks all show promise as potential tools used in opioid-sparing techniques, but at the same time have significant limitations to their utility. Novel long-acting formulations of local anesthetics further add to the possible benefit of these blocks, but their application to peripheral nerve blocks is currently being investigated and is not well defined. This review focuses on evaluating the relevant anatomy, technique, and indications of several newer peripheral nerve blocks, the emerging evidence supporting the use of liposomal bupivacaine and SABER®-Bupivacaine, and the application of both in ambulatory anesthesia. Keywords: transversus abdominis plane (TAP block, adductor canal block, pectoral nerves block, regional anesthesia, liposomal bupivacaine, SABER®-Bupivacaine

  20. Evaluation of novel local anesthetic wound infiltration techniques for postoperative pain following colorectal resection surgery: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventham, Nicholas T; O'Neill, Stephen; Johns, Neil; Brady, Richard R; Fearon, Kenneth C H

    2014-02-01

    Novel local anesthetic blocks have become increasingly popular in the multimodal pain management following abdominal surgery, but have not been evaluated in a procedure-specific manner in colorectal surgery. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of novel local anesthetic techniques in colorectal surgery. Electronic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases (date range, January 1990 to February 2013) STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials comparing a novel local anesthetic technique with placebo/routine analgesia in adults undergoing open or laparoscopic colonic or rectal resection were selected. This is a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating novel local anesthetic wound infiltration techniques such as wound catheter, transversus abdominis plane block, and intraperitoneal instillation in colorectal surgical procedures. The comparator group was defined as placebo/routine analgesia. The primary outcome was opiate requirement at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included opiate requirements at 48 hours, pain numerical rating score at 24 and 48 hours at rest and on movement, recovery (length of stay, nausea and vomiting, time until bowel movement and diet resumption), and complications. Subgroup analysis was performed to evaluate specific local anesthetic techniques and open and laparoscopic surgery. Twelve randomized controlled trials compared local anesthetic techniques with placebo/routine analgesia. Local anesthetic techniques demonstrated a significant reduction in opiate requirement at 48 hours. Local anesthetic techniques were also associated with lower pain scores on movement at 24 and 48 hours, shorter length of stay, and earlier resumption of diet. The diverse study design led to statistical heterogeneity in several analyses. Novel local anesthetic wound infiltration techniques in colorectal surgery appear to reduce opiate requirements, to reduce pain scores, and to improve recovery in comparison with placebo

  1. Drop jumping. I. The influence of jumping technique on the biomechanics of jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M F; Huijing, P A; van Ingen Schenau, G J

    In the literature, drop jumping is advocated as an effective exercise for athletes who prepare themselves for explosive activities. When executing drop jumps, different jumping techniques can be used. In this study, the influence of jumping technique on the biomechanics of jumping is investigated.

  2. A new surgical localization technique for biopsy in patients with nipple discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A; Wengert, P A; Smith, J S

    1989-07-01

    In a series of 12 patients with bloody nipple discharge, a new technique of mammary ductal localization was used to identify the duct responsible for the discharge and assure its complete removal for pathological diagnosis. This procedure utilizes a 30-gauge anterior chamber needle that is gently advanced into the offending duct, and methylene blue dye is injected to outline the involved duct for easy dissection though a circumareolar incision. This provides the pathologist with an intact specimen and avoids the problems associated with specimen roentgenography or loss of a ductal probe during the procedure. Because we feel that all patients with a bloody nipple discharge warrant a biopsy, this procedure provides a safe, rapid, effective method and allows the biopsy to be done on an outpatient basis.

  3. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael K.; Fordyce, James A.; Rahbek, Carsten; Weiser, Michael D.; Dunn, Robert R.; Sanders, Nathan J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a long tradition in ecology of evaluating the relative contribution of the regional species pool and local interactions on the structure of local communities. Similarly, a growing number of studies assess the phylogenetic structure of communities, relative to that in the regional species pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that...

  4. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael K; Fordyce, James A; Rahbek, Carsten; Weiser, Michael D; Dunn, Robert R; Sanders, Nathan J

    2012-01-22

    There is a long tradition in ecology of evaluating the relative contribution of the regional species pool and local interactions on the structure of local communities. Similarly, a growing number of studies assess the phylogenetic structure of communities, relative to that in the regional species pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that the definition of the source pool influences interpretations of patterns of community structure. We use a continent-wide dataset of local ant communities and implement ecologically explicit source pool definitions to examine the relative importance of regional species pools and local interactions for shaping community structure. Then we assess which factors underlie systematic variation in the structure of communities along climatic gradients. We find that the average phylogenetic relatedness of species in ant communities decreases from tropical to temperate regions, but the strength of this relationship depends on the level of ecological realism in the definition of source pools. We conclude that the evolution of climatic niches influences the phylogenetic structure of regional source pools and that the influence of regional source pools on local community structure is strong.

  5. Improvement of traditional local rice varieties through induced mutations using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Van Ro; Do Huu At

    2001-01-01

    'Improvement of local rice varieties for high yield, resistance to disease and insect pests (brown plant hopper and rice blast) and export quality through induced mutations for the Mekong Delta' started in 1993. After six years, it showed effecting on the field in the MD as well as at the south of Vietnam. TNDB-100 manifest very wide adaptation and yield stable variety. THDB is suitable for deepwater rice region, coastal area, where rice cultivation effected by acid sulphate and salinity conditions. Both varieties are good example for the method. Thank to good Co-operation from extension center from provinces, hundred classes of extension were organized to recommend to the farmers. And thank to the strongly supporting from IAEA so that nearly 400,000 ha of TNDB-100 occupied at the south of Vietnam as well as nearly 15,000 ha of THDB grown in the coastal as well as rainfed lowland rice areas at the South of Vietnam. To continue the rice improvement by this technique, seeds of six traditional local varieties were exposed under different dose of gamma rays to create new mutants. At present day hundred improved breeding lines were selected, a dozen of uniform lines were isolated and entranced the yield trail as well as regional testing program. From these improved varieties would be selected to contribute to the rice cultivation at the south of Vietnam in the next years. (author)

  6. Improvement of traditional local rice varieties through induced mutations using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Van Ro; Do Huu At [Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    'Improvement of local rice varieties for high yield, resistance to disease and insect pests (brown plant hopper and rice blast) and export quality through induced mutations for the Mekong Delta' started in 1993. After six years, it showed effecting on the field in the MD as well as at the south of Vietnam. TNDB-100 manifest very wide adaptation and yield stable variety. THDB is suitable for deepwater rice region, coastal area, where rice cultivation effected by acid sulphate and salinity conditions. Both varieties are good example for the method. Thank to good Co-operation from extension center from provinces, hundred classes of extension were organized to recommend to the farmers. And thank to the strongly supporting from IAEA so that nearly 400,000 ha of TNDB-100 occupied at the south of Vietnam as well as nearly 15,000 ha of THDB grown in the coastal as well as rainfed lowland rice areas at the South of Vietnam. To continue the rice improvement by this technique, seeds of six traditional local varieties were exposed under different dose of gamma rays to create new mutants. At present day hundred improved breeding lines were selected, a dozen of uniform lines were isolated and entranced the yield trail as well as regional testing program. From these improved varieties would be selected to contribute to the rice cultivation at the south of Vietnam in the next years. (author)

  7. Performance analysis of the Microsoft Kinect sensor for 2D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarulzaman; Mamduh, Syed Muhammad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Zakaria, Ammar

    2014-12-05

    This paper presents a performance analysis of two open-source, laser scanner-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques (i.e., Gmapping and Hector SLAM) using a Microsoft Kinect to replace the laser sensor. Furthermore, the paper proposes a new system integration approach whereby a Linux virtual machine is used to run the open source SLAM algorithms. The experiments were conducted in two different environments; a small room with no features and a typical office corridor with desks and chairs. Using the data logged from real-time experiments, each SLAM technique was simulated and tested with different parameter settings. The results show that the system is able to achieve real time SLAM operation. The system implementation offers a simple and reliable way to compare the performance of Windows-based SLAM algorithm with the algorithms typically implemented in a Robot Operating System (ROS). The results also indicate that certain modifications to the default laser scanner-based parameters are able to improve the map accuracy. However, the limited field of view and range of Kinect's depth sensor often causes the map to be inaccurate, especially in featureless areas, therefore the Kinect sensor is not a direct replacement for a laser scanner, but rather offers a feasible alternative for 2D SLAM tasks.

  8. Robust structural damage detection and localization based on joint approximate diagonalization technique in frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shancheng; Ouyang, Huajiang

    2017-01-01

    The structural characteristic deflection shapes (CDS’s) such as mode shapes and operational deflection shapes are highly sensitive to structural damage in beam- or plate-type structures. Nevertheless, they are vulnerable to measurement noise and could result in unacceptable identification errors. In order to increase the accuracy and noise robustness of damage identification based on CDS’s using vibration responses of random excitation, joint approximate diagonalization (JAD) technique and gapped smoothing method (GSM) are combined to form a sensitive and robust damage index (DI), which can simultaneously detect the existence of damage and localize its position. In addition, it is possible to apply this approach to damage identification of structures under ambient excitation. First, JAD method which is an essential technique of blind source separation is investigated to simultaneously diagonalize a set of power spectral density matrices corresponding to frequencies near a certain natural frequency to estimate a joint unitary diagonalizer. The columns of this joint diagonalizer contain dominant CDS’s. With the identified dominant CDS’s around different natural frequencies, GSM is used to extract damage features and a robust damage identification index is then proposed. Numerical and experimental examples of beams with cracks are used to verify the validity and noise robustness of JAD based CDS estimation and the proposed DI. Furthermore, damage identification using dominant CDS’s estimated by JAD method is demonstrated to be more accurate and noise robust than by the commonly used singular value decomposition method.

  9. Performance Analysis of the Microsoft Kinect Sensor for 2D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamarulzaman Kamarudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a performance analysis of two open-source, laser scanner-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM techniques (i.e., Gmapping and Hector SLAM using a Microsoft Kinect to replace the laser sensor. Furthermore, the paper proposes a new system integration approach whereby a Linux virtual machine is used to run the open source SLAM algorithms. The experiments were conducted in two different environments; a small room with no features and a typical office corridor with desks and chairs. Using the data logged from real-time experiments, each SLAM technique was simulated and tested with different parameter settings. The results show that the system is able to achieve real time SLAM operation. The system implementation offers a simple and reliable way to compare the performance of Windows-based SLAM algorithm with the algorithms typically implemented in a Robot Operating System (ROS. The results also indicate that certain modifications to the default laser scanner-based parameters are able to improve the map accuracy. However, the limited field of view and range of Kinect’s depth sensor often causes the map to be inaccurate, especially in featureless areas, therefore the Kinect sensor is not a direct replacement for a laser scanner, but rather offers a feasible alternative for 2D SLAM tasks.

  10. Local analgesia in paediatric dentistry: a systematic review of techniques and pharmacologic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, G; Ridell, K; Brogårdh-Roth, S; Vall, M; Berlin, H

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the evidence supporting effects and adverse effects of local analgesia using different pharmacological agents and injection techniques during dental treatment in children and adolescents aged 3-19 years. A systematic literature search of databases including PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus was conducted in November 2016. The PRISMA-statement was followed. Two review authors independently assessed the selected randomised control trials for risk of bias and quality. 725 scientific papers were identified. 89 papers were identified to be read in full text of which 80 were excluded. Finally, 9 papers were evaluated for quality and risk of bias. Many of the included papers had methodological shortcomings affecting the possibility to draw conclusions. Information about ethical clearance and consent were missing in some of the included papers. No alarming adverse effects were identified. One study was assessed as having low risk of bias. This reported inferior alveolar nerve block to be more effective than buccal infiltration for dental treatment of mandibular molars, while no differences were found regarding pharmacological agents. At present, there is insufficient evidence in support of any pharmacologic agent or injection technique as being superior compared to others. There is a need for more rigorous studies which also handle the ethical issues of including children in potentially painful studies.

  11. Adaptive Local Iterative Filtering: A Promising Technique for the Analysis of Nonstationary Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersanti, M.; Materassi, M.; Cicone, A.; Spogli, L.; Zhou, H.; Ezquer, R. G.

    2018-01-01

    Many real-life signals and, in particular, in the space physics domain, exhibit variations across different temporal scales. Hence, their statistical momenta may depend on the time scale at which the signal is studied. To identify and quantify such variations, a time-frequency analysis has to be performed on these signals. The dependence of the statistical properties of a signal fluctuation on the space and time scales is the distinctive character of systems with nonlinear couplings among different modes. Hence, assessing how the statistics of signal fluctuations vary with scale will be of help in understanding the corresponding multiscale statistics of such dynamics. This paper presents a new multiscale data analysis technique, the adaptive local iterative filtering (ALIF), which allows to describe the multiscale nature of the geophysical signal studied better than via Fourier transform, and improves scale resolution with respect to discrete wavelet transform. The example of geophysical signal, to which ALIF has been applied, is ionospheric radio power scintillation on L band. ALIF appears to be a promising technique to study the small-scale structures of radio scintillation due to ionospheric turbulence.

  12. Localization of human immunodeficiency virus antigens in infected cells by scanning/transmission-immunogold techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, M.I.; Santa Maria, I.; de Andres, R.; Najera, R.

    1988-01-01

    An application of high resolution scanning/transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and gold-labelling techniques for the rapid detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in infected cells has been developed. Experimental in vitro studies for detecting two HIV structural proteins, gp41 and p17, were performed following an indirect labeling procedure that uses monoclonal anti-p17 and anti-gp41 antibodies as primary antibodies and 40 nm gold-linked goat antimouse IgG as secondary antibodies. The cells were then studied by STEM in the scanning mode. Unambiguous localization of the viral antigens was possible by combining the three-dimensional image provided by the secondary electron image and the atomic number-dependent backscattered electron image for the identification of the gold marker. This technique combines both the morphological information and the rapid procedures of scanning electron microscopy with the precise and sensitive antigen detection provided by the use of STEM and immunological methods. The preliminary results of its application to the study of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from four anti-HIV-seropositive patients showing the presence of specific labeling in all of them suggest that it might prove useful for early detection of HIV infection before seroconversion, as well as for quantitative studies

  13. An object localization optimization technique in medical images using plant growth simulation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Deblina; Paul, Anand; Kim, Jeong Hong; Kim, Mucheol

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of leukocyte images has drawn interest from fields of both medicine and computer vision for quite some time where different techniques have been applied to automate the process of manual analysis and classification of such images. Manual analysis of blood samples to identify leukocytes is time-consuming and susceptible to error due to the different morphological features of the cells. In this article, the nature-inspired plant growth simulation algorithm has been applied to optimize the image processing technique of object localization of medical images of leukocytes. This paper presents a random bionic algorithm for the automated detection of white blood cells embedded in cluttered smear and stained images of blood samples that uses a fitness function that matches the resemblances of the generated candidate solution to an actual leukocyte. The set of candidate solutions evolves via successive iterations as the proposed algorithm proceeds, guaranteeing their fit with the actual leukocytes outlined in the edge map of the image. The higher precision and sensitivity of the proposed scheme from the existing methods is validated with the experimental results of blood cell images. The proposed method reduces the feasible sets of growth points in each iteration, thereby reducing the required run time of load flow, objective function evaluation, thus reaching the goal state in minimum time and within the desired constraints.

  14. A robust automated left ventricle region of interest localization technique using a cardiac cine MRI atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zikri, Yehuda Kfir; Linte, Cristian A.

    2016-03-01

    Region of interest detection is a precursor to many medical image processing and analysis applications, including segmentation, registration and other image manipulation techniques. The optimal region of interest is often selected manually, based on empirical knowledge and features of the image dataset. However, if inconsistently identified, the selected region of interest may greatly affect the subsequent image analysis or interpretation steps, in turn leading to incomplete assessment during computer-aided diagnosis or incomplete visualization or identification of the surgical targets, if employed in the context of pre-procedural planning or image-guided interventions. Therefore, the need for robust, accurate and computationally efficient region of interest localization techniques is prevalent in many modern computer-assisted diagnosis and therapy applications. Here we propose a fully automated, robust, a priori learning-based approach that provides reliable estimates of the left and right ventricle features from cine cardiac MR images. The proposed approach leverages the temporal frame-to-frame motion extracted across a range of short axis left ventricle slice images with small training set generated from les than 10% of the population. This approach is based on histogram of oriented gradients features weighted by local intensities to first identify an initial region of interest depicting the left and right ventricles that exhibits the greatest extent of cardiac motion. This region is correlated with the homologous region that belongs to the training dataset that best matches the test image using feature vector correlation techniques. Lastly, the optimal left ventricle region of interest of the test image is identified based on the correlation of known ground truth segmentations associated with the training dataset deemed closest to the test image. The proposed approach was tested on a population of 100 patient datasets and was validated against the ground truth

  15. The influence of organizational culture on the use of quality techniques and its impact on performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambi, Lillian; Jørgensen, Frances; Boer, Harry

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study about the influence of organizational culture on quality techniques and the impact of matching culture and technique to enhance performance. Data were drawn from 250 manufacturing companies in Brazil and Denmark. Profiles were identified according...... to the companies’ cultural characteristics and use of quality techniques. Findings suggest: 1- Certain cultural profiles predict the use of certain quality techniques better than others. For example, companies with a group culture, which is oriented towards collaboration and development of human resources, tend...... to use goal setting and continuous improvement techniques, rather than measurement techniques. In turn, companies that have a rational or hierarchical culture, which are oriented towards control and competition, tend to use measurement techniques more than cultures oriented to collaboration or creation...

  16. Design of Local Ventilation by Full-Scale and Scale Modelling Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper will show the experiments with local ventilation of a filling machine from the paint industry, local ventilation of a film developing machine, experiments with a vortex exhaust opening and local heating of a checkout assistant's working place.......This paper will show the experiments with local ventilation of a filling machine from the paint industry, local ventilation of a film developing machine, experiments with a vortex exhaust opening and local heating of a checkout assistant's working place....

  17. Tunnel Vision: Local Behavioral Influences on Consumer Decisions in Product Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Häubl (Gerald); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce and test a behavioral model of consumer product search that extends a baseline normative model of sequential search by incorporating nonnormative influences that are local in the sense that they reflect consumers' undue sensitivity to recently encountered alternatives. We

  18. Influence of muscular activity on local mineralization patterns in metatarsals of the embryonic mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, E.; Blankevoort, L.; Haaijman, A.; Burger, E. H.; Huiskes, R.

    2000-01-01

    This study addressed the theory that local mechanical loading may influence the development of embryonic long bones. Embryonic mouse metatarsal rudiments were cultured as whole organs, and the geometry of the primary ossification center was compared with that of rudiments that had developed in

  19. Near-field optical microscopy of localized excitations on rough surfaces: influence of a probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Starting from the general principles of near-field optical microscopy. I consider the influence of a probe when being used to image localized dipolar excitations and suggest a way of evaluating the perturbation thus introduced. Using the rigorous microscopic (electric) point-dipole description, I...

  20. Pulling the River: The Interactions of Local and Global Influences in Chinese Early Childhood Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Hafteck, Lily; Zhuoya, X. U.

    2008-01-01

    Educators in China are facing challenges as a tug-of-war between local culture and global influences in Chinese early childhood music educations plays out. By exploring the situations of Hong Kong and Nanjing, the authors demonstrate a wide gap between policy and practice. The top-down policy from government officials is based on global views of…

  1. The influence of organizational culture on the use of quality techniques and its impact on performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambi, Lillian; Jørgensen, Frances; Boer, Harry

    2013-01-01

    to enhanced performance more than if those culture profiles are combined with the use of measurement techniques. This research has important implications for managers in the sense that they need to be actively aware of the need to adopt quality techniques that fit with the culture of their organization.......This report presents the results of a study about the influence of organizational culture on quality techniques and the impact of matching culture and technique to enhance performance. Data were drawn from 250 manufacturing companies in Brazil and Denmark. Profiles were identified according...... to the companies’ cultural characteristics and use of quality techniques. Findings suggest: 1- Certain cultural profiles predict the use of certain quality techniques better than others. For example, companies with a group culture, which is oriented towards collaboration and development of human resources, tend...

  2. Selection of the optimal radiotherapy technique for locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ik-Jae; Seong, Jinsil; Koom, Woong-Sub; Kim, Yong-Bae; Jeon, Byeong-Chul; Kim, Joo-Ho; Han, Kwang-Hyub

    2011-01-01

    Various techniques are available for radiotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma, including three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, linac-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy and helical tomotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal radiotherapy technique for hepatocellular carcinoma. Between 2006 and 2007, 12 patients underwent helical tomotherapy for locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Helical tomotherapy computerized radiotherapy planning was compared with the best computerized radiotherapy planning for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and linac-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy for the delivery of 60 Gy in 30 fractions. Tumor coverage was assessed by conformity index, radical dose homogeneity index and moderated dose homogeneity index. Computerized radiotherapy planning was also compared according to the tumor location. Tumor coverage was shown to be significantly superior with helical tomotherapy as assessed by conformity index and moderated dose homogeneity index (P=0.002 and 0.03, respectively). Helical tomotherapy showed significantly lower irradiated liver volume at 40, 50 and 60 Gy (V40, V50 and V60, P=0.04, 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). On the contrary, the dose-volume of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy at V20 was significantly smaller than those of linac-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy and helical tomotherapy in the remaining liver (P=0.03). Linac-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy showed better sparing of the stomach compared with helical tomotherapy in the case of separated lesions in both lobes (12.3 vs. 24.6 Gy). Helical tomotherapy showed the high dose-volume exposure to the left kidney due to helical delivery in the right lobe lesion. Helical tomotherapy achieved the best tumor coverage of the remaining normal liver. However, helical tomotherapy showed much exposure to the remaining liver at the lower dose region and left kidney. (author)

  3. Factor Analysis vs. Fuzzy Sets Theory: Assessing the Influence of Different Techniques on Sen's Functioning Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Lelli

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores a couple of specific operational interpretations of Sen's approach in view of assessing the extent to which the results originated by the implementation of Sen's concepts are influenced by the choice of the specific technique. By means of a survey based on a representative sample of Belgian individuals, seven achieved functioning's are identified via each technique and subsequently confronted. To structure the information and to facilitate comparisons, standard multivariat...

  4. Measuring the Influence of Networks on Transaction Costs Using a Nonparametric Regression Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H.C.A.

    . We empirically analyse the effect of networks on productivity using a cross-validated local linear non-parametric regression technique and a data set of 384 farms in Poland. Our empirical study generally supports our hypothesis that networks affect productivity. Large and dense trading networks...

  5. Measuring the influence of networks on transaction costs using a non-parametric regression technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Géraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H.C.A.

    . We empirically analyse the effect of networks on productivity using a cross-validated local linear non-parametric regression technique and a data set of 384 farms in Poland. Our empirical study generally supports our hypothesis that networks affect productivity. Large and dense trading networks...

  6. Influence of static habitat attributes on local and regional Rocky intertidal community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, B.; Iken, K.; Coletti, H.; Monson, Daniel H.; Weitzman, Ben P.

    2016-01-01

    Rocky intertidal communities are structured by local environmental drivers, which can be dynamic, fluctuating on various temporal scales, or static and not greatly varying across years. We examined the role of six static drivers (distance to freshwater, tidewater glacial presence, wave exposure, fetch, beach slope, and substrate composition) on intertidal community structure across the northern Gulf of Alaska. We hypothesized that community structure is less similar at the local scale compared with the regional scale, coinciding with static drivers being less similar on smaller than larger scales. We also hypothesized that static attributes mainly drive local biological community structure. For this, we surveyed five to six sites in each of the six regions in the mid and low intertidal strata. Across regions, static attributes were not consistently different and only small clusters of sites had similar attributes. Additionally, intertidal communities were less similar on the site compared with the region level. These results suggest that these biological communities are not strongly influenced by the local static attributes measured in this study. An alternative explanation is that static attributes among our regions are not different enough to influence the biological communities. This lack of evidence for a strong static driver may be a result of our site selection, which targeted rocky sheltered communities. This suggests that this habitat may be ideal to examine the influence of dynamic drivers. We recommend that future analyses of dynamic attributes may best be performed after analyses have demonstrated that sites do not differ in static attributes.

  7. Microstructural influence on the local behaviour of 16MND5 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekfali, S.

    2004-06-01

    16MND5 Steel or A508 Cl3 is used for manufacture by forging of nuclear reactor vessels. This material presents a good compromise in term of tenacity and yield stress, its microstructure is mainly bainitic tempered. Because of the chemical composition local variation and process of development, this material presents microstructural heterogeneities which can locally modify the properties of damage. In particular, some zones present a martensitic microstructure. The goal of this thesis is to bring some explanations on the influence of the microstructure; more particularly, size of the crystallographic entities and their spatial distribution on the local behaviour of 16MND5 steel. Two microstructures were elaborated for this purpose, a tempered bainitic microstructure and a tempered martensitic microstructure. An experimental characterization was carried out on the two microstructures in order to determine morphology, spatial distribution of the crystallographic orientations and tensile behaviour. A deposit of micro grid was carried out on tensile specimens to determine the experimental deformation field on a beforehand EBSD analyzed zone. The determination of the tensile behaviour allowed the identification of a multi crystalline behaviour law by a reverse method using the density of dislocation on each system of slip. This behaviour law was used in simulations with a finite element method to simulate the local mechanical field of the two microstructures and to compare with the obtained experimental deformation fields. It results, a good adequacy between simulations and experiments and the description of the influence of the neighbor grain's orientation on the local behaviour. (author)

  8. [Does the surgical technique modify the incidence of local recurrence after mastectomy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhard, P

    1992-05-01

    This article discusses operative technique in relation to the prevention of local recurrence following modified radical mastectomy (MM) for carcinoma of the breast. As with any other surgical procedure, a satisfactory outcome requires both a correct indication and attention to the details of operative technique. The indications for MM may be defined from the currently accepted contraindications to breast preservation, while most of the contraindications to MM relate to the presence of a stage IIIb or IV carcinoma. The ideal treatment needs to be defined for the individual case, avoiding both unnecessary overtreatment with its associated morbidity and dangerous undertreatment with consequent reduction of the chance for cure. In our view, confirmation of the diagnosis by an excisional biopsy with frozen section examination should be obtained irrespective of a positive finding in an aspirated specimen. The incision for biopsy must be chosen in such a way that it will be encompassed by a subsequent mastectomy incision. When mastectomy is performed the cavity of the excisional biopsy must not be entered. This includes preservation of the barrier of the pectoralis fascia. When breast preservation is an option, the excisional biopsy must fulfill the criteria of a lumpectomy or tumorectomy, which include a 0.5 to 1 cm macroscopically tumor-free margin, orientation of the specimen by sutures, and immersion of the specimen in india ink. As the extent of intraductal component cannot be reliably determined by frozen section examination, waiting for the definitive pathology report may be better than an immediate decision to perform a mastectomy or breast preservation. The skin incision for mastectomy is transverse or slightly oblique, ending laterally about five cm below the axillary pit. The skin flaps must not include the full thickness of the subcutaneous fatty tissue. The preserved layer of fatty tissue must not be irregular. Axillary dissection of levels I and II is

  9. Film techniques in radiotherapy for treatment verification, determination of patient exit dose, and detection of localization error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haus, A.G.; Marks, J.E.

    1974-01-01

    In patient radiation therapy, it is important to know that the diseased area is included in the treatment field and that normal anatomy is properly shielded or excluded. Since 1969, a film technique developed for imaging of the complete patient radiation exposure has been applied for treatment verification and for the detection and evaluation of localization errors that may occur during treatment. The technique basically consists of placing a film under the patient during the entire radiation exposure. This film should have proper sensitivity and contrast in the exit dose exposure range encountered in radiotherapy. In this communication, we describe how various exit doses fit the characteristic curve of the film; examples of films exposed to various exit doses; the technique for using the film to determine the spatial distribution of the absorbed exit dose; and types of errors commonly detected. Results are presented illustrating that, as the frequency of use of this film technique is increased, localization error is reduced significantly

  10. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Fordyce, James A.

    2012-01-01

    a continent-wide dataset of local ant communities and implement ecologically explicit source pool definitions to examine the relative importance of regional species pools and local interactions for shaping community structure. Then we assess which factors underlie systematic variation in the structure...... pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that the definition of the source pool influences interpretations of patterns of community structure. We use...... of communities along climatic gradients. We find that the average phylogenetic relatedness of species in ant communities decreases from tropical to temperate regions, but the strength of this relationship depends on the level of ecological realism in the definition of source pools. We conclude that the evolution...

  11. New technique of stereolithography to local curing in thermosensitive resins using CO2 laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munhoz, A. L. J.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical and experimental study of thermosensitive resins used in thermal stereolithography is presented. The process of local curing through the application of infrared radiation, which has proved to be useful in a new technique for the making of prototypes by means of selective heating with CO2 laser (10.6μm, is studied. The ideal composition of the thermosensitive resins has proved to be 10 parts epoxy, 1.4 part diethylene triamine (the curing agent and 0.7 part silica powder. A physical theoretical model is applied for control of the parameters which influence the confinement of the curing in the irradiated bulk. A mathematical model is applied too; it was developed through the resolution of the heat conduction equation dependent on time in cylindrical co-ordinates, which enables to determine the behaviour of curing in terms of irradiation conditions.

    Se presenta un estudio teórico y experimental, sobre resinas termosensibles usadas en estereolitografía térmica. Se estudia el proceso de cura local mediante la aplicación de radiación infrarroja producida por el láser de CO2 (10.6 μm, el cual mostró ser útil en técnicas nuevas, para la fabricación de prototipos por medio de calentamiento selectivo. La composición ideal para cura local de las resinas termosensibles, está en la proporción de 10.0 partes de epoxi, 1.4 partes de dietilentriamina y 0.7 partes de sílice. Para controlar los parámetros que influyen en el confinamiento de la cura a través de la irradiación, se utiliza un modelo teórico-físico. Se utiliza un modelo matemático en coordenadas cilíndricas basado en la ecuación de conducción de calor dependiente del tiempo, que permite determinar el comportamiento de cura en función de las condiciones de irradiación.

  12. A New Local Flap Nipple Reconstruction Technique Using Dermal Bridge and Preoperatively Designed Tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahira, Yoshiko

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nipple–areolar reconstruction is the final step in breast reconstruction. Reconstruction using local flaps and tattooing is useful in cases of bilateral reconstruction, a small nipple–areolar complex (NAC) as the donor site, and avoiding disturbance of the normal side and other body parts. However, this method can cause projection loss and color fading of the nipple. Moreover, the breast mound is reconstructed with an implant. Methods: We performed nipple–areolar reconstruction of 90 nipples using clover-designed flaps oriented at 120 degrees and tattooing after breast silicone implantation in 64 women. The tattoo was designed before flap operation and stained darker. Following donor site closure, a dermal flap was made as a bridge for nipple support. The nipple space was separated by the dermal flap from the breast mound and was filled with subcutaneous tissue. The size of the reconstructed nipple projection was measured postoperatively and 1 year later. The projection maintenance rate was calculated. Results: The heights of the nipple projection were 11.3 ± 1.8 mm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.9–11.7) just after the operation and 6.09 ± 2.4 mm (95% CI: 5.6–6.6) 1 year later. The actual range of nipple projection between these 2 heights was 5.2 ± 2.4 mm (95% CI: 4.7–5.7). The maintenance rate of the reconstructed nipple projection after 12 months was 54.1 ± 20.9 (95% CI: 49.7–58.5). The nipple color was maintained for over a year. Conclusions: Our nipple–areolar reconstruction technique could maintain the projection and color of the reconstructed nipple for a long period. Good outcomes were obtained in this implant-based breast reconstruction. PMID:28507843

  13. The Influence of Local Ethnic Diversity on Group-Centric Crime Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    Several studies provide evidence of group-centric policy attitudes, that is, citizens evaluating policies based on linkages with visible social groups. The existing literature generally points to the role of media imagery, rhetoric and prominent political sponsors in driving group-centric attitudes......-down’ influence on group-centric attitudes by elite actors is complemented by ‘bottom-up’ local processes of experiential learning about group–policy linkages....

  14. Exploring the influence of local food environments on food behaviours: a systematic review of qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Erin; Gallegos, Danielle; Comans, Tracy; Cameron, Cate; Thornton, Lukar

    2017-09-01

    Systematic reviews investigating associations between objective measures of the food environment and dietary behaviours or health outcomes have not established a consistent evidence base. The present paper aims to synthesise qualitative evidence regarding the influence of local food environments on food and purchasing behaviours. A systematic review in the form of a qualitative thematic synthesis. Urban localities. Adults. Four analytic themes were identified from the review including community and consumer nutrition environments, other environmental factors and individual coping strategies for shopping and purchasing decisions. Availability, accessibility and affordability were consistently identified as key determinants of store choice and purchasing behaviours that often result in less healthy food choices within community nutrition environments. Food availability, quality and food store characteristics within consumer nutrition environments also greatly influenced in-store purchases. Individuals used a range of coping strategies in both the community and consumer nutrition environments to make optimal purchasing decisions, often within the context of financial constraints. Findings from the current review add depth and scope to quantitative literature and can guide ongoing theory, interventions and policy development in food environment research. There is a need to investigate contextual influences within food environments as well as individual and household socio-economic characteristics that contribute to the differing use of and views towards local food environments. Greater emphasis on how individual and environmental factors interact in the food environment field will be key to developing stronger understanding of how environments can support and promote healthier food choices.

  15. Sound source localization technique using a seismic streamer and its extension for whale localization during seismic surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Shima H; Wilcock, William S D; Tolstoy, Maya; Crone, Timothy J; Carbotte, Suzanne M

    2015-12-01

    Marine seismic surveys are under increasing scrutiny because of concern that they may disturb or otherwise harm marine mammals and impede their communications. Most of the energy from seismic surveys is low frequency, so concerns are particularly focused on baleen whales. Extensive mitigation efforts accompany seismic surveys, including visual and acoustic monitoring, but the possibility remains that not all animals in an area can be observed and located. One potential way to improve mitigation efforts is to utilize the seismic hydrophone streamer to detect and locate calling baleen whales. This study describes a method to localize low frequency sound sources with data recoded by a streamer. Beamforming is used to estimate the angle of arriving energy relative to sub-arrays of the streamer which constrains the horizontal propagation velocity to each sub-array for a given trial location. A grid search method is then used to minimize the time residual for relative arrival times along the streamer estimated by cross correlation. Results from both simulation and experiment are shown and data from the marine mammal observers and the passive acoustic monitoring conducted simultaneously with the seismic survey are used to verify the analysis.

  16. Conventional and conformal technique of external beam radiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer: Dose distribution, tumor response, and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutrikah, N.; Winarno, H.; Amalia, T.; Djakaria, M.

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare conventional and conformal techniques of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in terms of the dose distribution, tumor response, and side effects in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on cervical cancer patients who underwent EBRT before brachytherapy in the Radiotherapy Department of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. The prescribed dose distribution, tumor response, and acute side effects of EBRT using conventional and conformal techniques were investigated. In total, 51 patients who underwent EBRT using conventional techniques (25 cases using Cobalt-60 and 26 cases using a linear accelerator (LINAC)) and 29 patients who underwent EBRT using conformal techniques were included in the study. The distribution of the prescribed dose in the target had an impact on the patient’s final response to EBRT. The complete response rate of patients to conformal techniques was significantly greater (58%) than that of patients to conventional techniques (42%). No severe acute local side effects were seen in any of the patients (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grades 3-4). The distribution of the dose and volume to the gastrointestinal tract affected the proportion of mild acute side effects (RTOG grades 1-2). The urinary bladder was significantly greater using conventional techniques (Cobalt-60/LINAC) than using conformal techniques at 72% and 78% compared to 28% and 22%, respectively. The use of conformal techniques in pelvic radiation therapy is suggested in radiotherapy centers with CT simulators and 3D Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems (RTPSs) to decrease some uncertainties in radiotherapy planning. The use of AP/PA pelvic radiation techniques with Cobalt-60 should be limited in body thicknesses equal to or less than 18 cm. When using conformal techniques, delineation should be applied in the small bowel, as it is considered a critical organ according to RTOG

  17. LARA. Localization of an automatized refueling machine by acoustical sounding in breeder reactors - implementation of artificial intelligence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhuillier, C.; Malvache, P.

    1987-01-01

    The automatic control of the machine which handles the nuclear subassemblies in fast neutron reactors requires autonomous perception and decision tools. An acoustical device allows the machine to position in the work area. Artificial intelligence techniques are implemented to interpret the data: pattern recognition, scene analysis. The localization process is managed by an expert system. 6 refs.; 8 figs

  18. Light and electron microscopic localization of GABAA-receptors on cultured cerebellar granule cells and astrocytes using immunohistochemical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Hösli, E; Belhage, B

    1991-01-01

    . At the light microscope level specific staining of GABAA-receptors was localized in various types of neurones in explant cultures of rat cerebellum using the indirect peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique, whereas no specific staining was found in astrocytes. At the electron microscope level labeling...

  19. Radiofrequency-assisted Liposuction for Arm Contouring: Technique under Local Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spero Theodorou, MD

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: In appropriately selected patients, RFAL arm contouring under local anesthesia represents an alternative procedure with acceptably low morbidity and high patient satisfaction. To achieve consistent results while minimizing complications, consideration to anatomic details, infiltration of the local anesthetic, and application of the radiofrequency energy must be given.

  20. Evaluation of the Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in a carbon steel making use of electrochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz S, A.C.; Arganis, C.; Ayala, V.; Gachuz, M.; Merino, J.; Suarez, S.; Brena, M.; Luna, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) has been identified as a problem of the nuclear plants systems in the last years. The electrochemical behavior of metal coupons of carbon steel submitted to the action of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) was evaluated, making use of the electrochemical techniques of direct current as well as electrochemical noise. The generated results show a little variation in the corrosion velocities which obtained by Tafel extrapolation and resistance to the linear polarization, whereas the electrochemical noise technique presented important differences as regards the registered behavior in environment with and without microorganisms. (Author)

  1. [Local excision of rectal tumors. Indications, preoperative diagnosis, surgical technique and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, A; Braunstein, S; Menke, H

    1992-05-15

    Between January 1986 and October 1991 255 patients with rectal tumors were treated by local excision. In 239 patients local excision was performed by transanal endoscopic microsurgery, 16 tumors were removed with the retractor developed by Parks. Operative mortality was 1% in 189 local removed adenomas, complications were observed in two patients (2.1%), local recurrences in seven patients (3.7%). 66 rectal carcinomas were treated by local excision (operative mortality 1%, complication rate 3%). In one of 28 local excised "low risk" T1-carcinomas a recurrence was observed. Five of eleven local treated patients with "high risk" tumors developed a recurrence. Endosonography was of utmost importance in preoperative staging of rectal tumors. Between June 1987 and October 1991 204 patients with rectal tumors (92 sessile adenomas, 30 T1-carcinomas and 82 advanced carcinomas) were examined preoperatively by endosonography. The diagnosis of an adenoma or a T1-carcinoma was made with a sensitivity of 0.9, although no differentiation was possible between adenomas and T1-carcinomas. Results of digital examination were comparable to endosonography, under condition that digital examination was complete. Insufficient information was obtained from the endosonographic detection of lymph-node metastatic spread.

  2. Assessment with indentation techniques of the local mechanical behavior of joints in polymer parts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lach, R.; Hutař, Pavel; Veselý, P.; Nezbedová, E.; Knésl, Zdeněk; Koch, T.; Bierogel, C.; Grellmann, W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, 11-12 (2013), s. 900-905 ISSN 0032-2725 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC101/09/J027 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : weld ed joints * weld lines * microindentation techniques * nanoindentation techniques * hardness * indentation modulus Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2013

  3. Influence of the geomagnetic field on the IACT detection technique for possible sites of CTA observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanecki, M.; Bernlöhr, K.; Sobczyńska, D.; Niedźwiecki, A.; Sitarek, J.; Bednarek, W.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the influence of the geomagnetic field (GF) on the Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope technique for two northern (Tenerife and San Pedro Martir) and three southern (Salta, Leoncito and Namibia (the H.E.S.S.-site)) site candidates for Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatories. We use the CORSIKA and sim_telarray programs for Monte Carlo simulations of gamma ray showers, hadronic background and the telescope response. We focus here on gamma ray measurements in the low energy, sub-100 GeV, range. Therefore, we only consider the performance of arrays of several large telescopes. Neglecting the GF effect, we find (in agreement with previous studies) that such arrays have lower energy thresholds, and larger collection areas below 30 GeV, when located at higher altitudes. We point out, however, that in the considered ranges of altitudes and magnetic field intensities, 1800-3600 m a.s.l. and 0-40 μT, respectively, the GF effect has a similar magnitude to this altitude effect. We provide the trigger-level performance parameters of the observatory affected by the GF effect, in particular the collection areas, detection rates and the energy thresholds for all five locations, which information may be useful in the selection of sites for CTA. We also find simple scaling of these parameters with the magnetic field strength, which can be used to assess the magnitude of the GF effect for other sites; in this work we use them to estimate the performance parameters for five sites: South Africa-Beaufort West, USA-Yavapai Ranch, Namibia-Calapanzi, Chile-La Silla and India-Hanle. We roughly investigate the impact of the geophysical conditions on gamma/hadron separation procedures involving image shape and direction cuts. We note that the change of altitude has an opposite effect at the trigger and analysis levels, i.e. gains in triggering efficiency at higher altitudes are partially balanced by losses in the separation efficiency. In turn, a stronger GF spoils both the

  4. Performance of the local health system and contingent influences in Northeast-Brazil: breaking vicious and virtuous circles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regianne Leila Rolim Medeiros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organizational theory has long emphasized the importance of contingent, environmental influences on organizational performance. Similarly, research has demonstrated the importance of local political culture and informal management on the performance of the local health system, establishing vicious and virtuous circles of influence that contribute to increasing inequalities in performance among decentralized local health systems. A longitudinal ethnography studied the relationship between these elements in the same rural municipality in Northeast Brazil after a four-year interval. The second study found the local health system performance much improved. Two main factors appear to have interacted to bring this about: leadership vision and power to implement of one individual; professionalization of the local health system by hiring a significant number of senior health staff. The origins of these influences combine initiatives at local, state and federal levels.

  5. Pain perception and procedural tolerance with computer controlled and conventional local anesthetic technique: An in vivo comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Goyal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the Pain Perception and Procedural Tolerance (PPPT by the pediatric patients, while experiencing ′Computer Controlled Local Anesthetic Technique′ (CCLAD, Wand and ′Conventional local anesthetic technique′. Material and Methods: Fifteen subjects, of age 8-10 years requiring local anesthesia on both sides of the dental arch for the purpose of extraction were selected for this study. In this cross-over design study, randomization was done to allocate the type of local anesthetic technique to be used first, children who received CCLAD (Wand during ′First Anesthetic Exposure′ (FAE visit subsequently received ′Conventional anesthetic technique′ during ′Second Anesthetic Exposure′ (SAE visit and vice versa. Behavior assessment using ′Frankel′s Behavior Rating Scale′ (FBRS and anxiety assessment using ′Faces Version of Modified Child′s Dental Anxiety Scale′ (MCDAS f were done prior to the anesthetic exposure. ′Wong Baker′s Facial Pain Scale′ (WBFPS was used to assess the child′s pain perception to each of the two techniques, immediately after the injection. Various physiological parameters like ′Heart Rate′(HR, ′Respiratory Rate′(RR, and ′Oxygen Saturation′ were measured during pre-operative phase, LA-phase, post LA-phase, Extraction phase and post Extraction phase, during FAE and SAE. Results: Paired t-test revealed a very highly significant (P = 0.001 difference between CCLAD (Wand and conventional during SAE. Non-significant difference was observed when physiological parameters were compared at various intervals between the two anesthetic techniques. Conclusion: CCLAD (Wand provides lesser pain perception as compared to conventional local anesthetic technique.

  6. The influence of a local, media covered hospital incident on public trust in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schee, Evelien; de Jong, Judith D; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2012-08-01

    Incidents in health care happen every now and then. Incidents are often extensively covered by the news media. In this study, we investigated the impact of an incident in a Dutch hospital on public trust in health care in the population living in the vicinity of where the incident took place and in the national population. News media coverage of the incident started in Fall 2008. We collected data in three samples, using a postal questionnaire on public trust in health care. Two samples were a cross-section of the Dutch population; one was questioned in October 2006 and the other in October 2008. The third sample, also questioned in October 2008, consisted of 1000 people living in the surrounding area of the hospital where the incident occurred. The cross-sectional sample of October 2006 was a reference group, and at that time no incidents in health care were covered in the media. In the local population, the incident had a strong impact on public trust in the hospital and among the specialists working there. Also, in the local population, the impact of the incident was generalized to trust in hospitals and specialists in general. In the national population, no impact of the incident on the public's trust was found, despite national news media coverage. Local incidents have an impact on public trust in health care in the local population. However, these incidents do not influence public trust in health care in the national population.

  7. Influence of local production and vertical transport on the organic aerosol budget over Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, R. H. H.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Pozzer, A.; Lelieveld, J.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Ait-Helal, W.; Borbon, A.; Sauvage, S.; Locoge, N.

    2017-08-01

    We performed a case study of the organic aerosol (OA) budget during the MEGAPOLI campaign during summer 2009 in Paris. We combined aerosol mass spectrometer, gas phase chemistry, and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) data and applied the MXL/MESSy column model. We find that during daytime, vertical mixing due to ABL growth has opposing effects on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and primary organic aerosol (POA) concentrations. POA concentrations are mainly governed by dilution due to boundary layer expansion and transport of POA-depleted air from aloft, while SOA concentrations are enhanced by entrainment of SOA-rich air from the residual layer (RL). Further, local emissions and photochemical production control the diurnal cycle of SOA. SOA from intermediate volatility organic compounds constitutes about half of the locally formed SOA mass. Other processes that previously have been shown to influence the urban OA budget, such as aging of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOC), dry deposition of S/IVOCs, and IVOC emissions, are found to have minor influences on OA. Our model results show that the modern carbon content of the OA is driven by vertical and long-range transport, with a minor contribution from local cooking emissions. SOA from regional sources and resulting from aging and long-lived precursors can lead to high SOA concentrations above the ABL, which can strongly influence ground-based observations through downward transport. Sensitivity analysis shows that modeled SOA concentrations in the ABL are equally sensitive to ABL dynamics as to SOA concentrations transported from the RL.

  8. Loosening torque of Universal Abutment screws after cyclic loading: influence of tightening technique and screw coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Atais; Regalin, Alexandre; Bhering, Claudia Lopes Brilhante; Alessandretti, Rodrigo; Spazzin, Aloisio Oro

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of tightening technique and the screw coating on the loosening torque of screws used for Universal Abutment fixation after cyclic loading. Forty implants (Titamax Ti Cortical, HE, Neodent) (n=10) were submerged in acrylic resin and four tightening techniques for Universal Abutment fixation were evaluated: A - torque with 32 Ncm (control); B - torque with 32 Ncm holding the torque meter for 20 seconds; C - torque with 32 Ncm and retorque after 10 minutes; D - torque (32 Ncm) holding the torque meter for 20 seconds and retorque after 10 minutes as initially. Samples were divided into subgroups according to the screw used: conventional titanium screw or diamond like carbon-coated (DLC) screw. Metallic crowns were fabricated for each abutment. Samples were submitted to cyclic loading at 10(6) cycles and 130 N of force. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). The tightening technique did not show significant influence on the loosening torque of screws (P=.509). Conventional titanium screws showed significant higher loosening torque values than DLC (P=.000). The use of conventional titanium screw is more important than the tightening techniques employed in this study to provide long-term stability to Universal Abutment screws.

  9. The influence of production engineering in health care services: a bibliometric study focused on operational techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Nascimento Rodrigues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Production Engineering is originated on industrial applications, thereof developed methods and techniques along the last century were influenced by them. However, to the extent that such techniques spillover to non-industrial sectors, interesting opportunities arise. This paper presents a bibliometric study regarding the application of operational techniques that come from Production Engineering areas of study on health care services. The study is based on articles indexed by Scopus database from 2004 to 2014. Data collected was organized in several dimensions such as authors, countries, institutions and publication years and the main particularities were emphasized and discussed. Finally, some opportunities are identified both for the practice in health care units and new research in Production Engineering.

  10. Influence of local meshing size on stress intensity factor of orthopedic lag screw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, M. N.; Daud, R.; Basaruddin, K. S.; Mat, F.; Bajuri, M. Y.; Arifin, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    Linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) concept is generally used to study the influence of crack on the performance of structures. In order to study the LEFM concept on damaged structure, the usage of finite element analysis software is implemented to do the simulation of the structure. Mesh generation is one of the most crucial procedures in finite element method. For the structure that crack or damaged, it is very important to determine the accurate local meshing size at the crack tip of the crack itself in order to get the accurate value of stress intensity factor, KI. Pre crack will be introduced to the lag screw based on the von mises' stress result that had been performed in previous research. This paper shows the influence of local mesh arrangement on numerical value of the stress intensity factor, KI obtained by the displacement method. This study aims to simulate the effect of local meshing which is the singularity region on stress intensity factor, KI to the critical point of failure in screw. Five different set of wedges meshing size are introduced during the simulation of finite element analysis. The number of wedges used to simulate this research is 8, 10, 14, 16 and 20. There are three set of numerical equations used to validate the results which are brown and srawley, gross and brown and Tada equation. The result obtained from the finite element software (ANSYS APDL) has a positive agreement with the numerical analysis which is Brown and Srawley compared to other numerical formula. Radius of first row size of 0.014 and singularity element with 14 numbers of wedges is proved to be the best local meshing for this study.

  11. A preliminary investigation of communication techniques for local and remote access to image databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mathias; Danielson, Ronald L.; Likens, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A software technique which allows users to examine images remotely while minimizing transmission time, is discussed. The technique provides a browsing capability, making it possible to roam over larger images, to zoom to various resolution levels, and to specify subregions of interest in the image to display at full resolution. The software permits analysts to remotely submit images for processing and to review the processing result. The capabilities of the technique under varying conditions and the speed at which imagery can be displayed over direct connect serial lines are discussed and examples of the imagery at various levels of resolution are presented.

  12. On the influence of microphone array geometry on HRTF-based Sound Source Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmani, Mojtaba; Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    . Furthermore, to demonstrate the analysis results, we show the impact of HRTFs similarities and microphone array geometry on an exemplary HRTF-based SSL algorithm, called MLSSL. This algorithm is well-suited for this purpose as it allows to estimate the Direction-of-Arrival (DoA) of the target sound using any......The direction dependence of Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) forms the basis for HRTF-based Sound Source Localization (SSL) algorithms. In this paper, we show how spectral similarities of the HRTFs of different directions in the horizontal plane influence performance of HRTF-based SSL...

  13. Quantitative Metathesis in the Dialect of Cos: Ionic Influence or Local Feature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Nieto Izquierdo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author discusses the adjective τέλεως and the «quantitative metathesis» of the type βασιλῆος > βασιλέως in the Ancient Greek Doric dialect of Cos. After presenting the available data, the author refutes the hypothesis that explain this feature as an influence of the nearby Ionic dialect and he provides arguments that prove that the «quantitative metathesis » is a local feature of the dialect of the island.

  14. Application of a passive electrochemical noise technique to localized corrosion of candidate radioactive waste container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzan, M.A.

    1994-05-01

    One of the key engineered barriers in the design of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is the waste canister that encapsulates the spent fuel elements. Current candidate metals for the canisters to be emplaced at Yucca Mountain include cast iron, carbon steel, Incoloy 825 and titanium code-12. This project was designed to evaluate passive electrochemical noise techniques for measuring pitting and corrosion characteristics of candidate materials under prototypical repository conditions. Experimental techniques were also developed and optimized for measurements in a radiation environment. These techniques provide a new method for understanding material response to environmental effects (i.e., gamma radiation, temperature, solution chemistry) through the measurement of electrochemical noise generated during the corrosion of the metal surface. In addition, because of the passive nature of the measurement the technique could offer a means of in-situ monitoring of barrier performance

  15. Local Production of Luteinizing Hormone Antisera to Be Used In Radioimmunoassay Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S. M.; Ali, N. I.; Abdullah, O. M.; Albaqi, W. A. A.

    2004-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone. It is one of the coordinate pituitary regulators of gonadal function (2). Serum LH concentration increase in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) which is the most common cause of infertility among infertile women. (3). The expensive imported LH kits lead us to think seriously to develop our local reagents. The antibody is a backbone of RIA reagents and this study is describing how to raise LH antibody and how to use it for a local LH kit production. Human LH was emulsified to Freunds adjuvant and acted as an immunogen Local Sudanese sheep was used to raise anti-LH antisera. The obtained antisera were adsorbed physically onto polystyrene beads with a dilution of 1/100.000 in order to develop an RIA kit. Optimization of LH assay conditions including incubation temperature and reaction time were performed. Assay validation tests including specificity, sensitivity, linearity, recovery, reproducibility and comparability for the local kit were performed. The polystyrene beads RIA LH system showed a minimum detectable dose of 0.04 m U/L. For the linearity and recovery tests, the regression coefficients were found to be 0.99, 0.997 respectively. The assay was found to be reproducible where the coefficients of variation within and between assays were less than 10%. Comparison between local and Chinese reagents for Luteinizing hormone determination in serum showed high correlation where r=0.96. (Authors)

  16. Local production of luteinizing hormone antisera to be used in radioimmunoassay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S. M.; Ali, N. I.; Abdullah, O. M.; Almahi, W. A. A.

    2004-12-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone. It is one of the coordinate pituitary regulators of gonadal function (2). Serum LH concentration increase in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) which is the most common cause of infertility among infertile women (3). The expensive imported LH kits lead us to think seriously to develop our local reagents. The antibody is a backbone of RIA reagents and this study is describing how to raise LH antibody and how to use it for a local LH kit production. Human LH was emulsified to Freunds adjuvant and acted as an immunogen local Sudanese sheep was used to raise anti-LH antisera. The obtained antisera were adsorbed physically onto polystyrene beads with a dilution of 1/100.000 in order to develop an RIA kit. Optimization of LH assay conditions including incubation temperature and reaction time were performed. Assay validation tests including specificity, sensitivity, linearity, recovery, reproducibility and comparability for the local kit were performed. The polystyrene beads RIA LH system showed a minimum detectable dose of 0.04 m U/L. For the linearity and recovery tests, the regression coefficients were found to be 0.99, 0.997 respectively. The assay was found to be reproducible where the coefficients of variation within and between assays were less than 10%. Comparison between local and Chinese reagents for luteinizing hormone determination in serum showed high correlation where r=0.96. (Author)

  17. Implementation of Molecular Gradients for Local Hybrid Density Functionals Using Seminumerical Integration Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawohn, Sascha; Bahmann, Hilke; Kaupp, Martin

    2016-09-13

    We present the first implementation of the derivative of the local hybrid exchange-correlation energy with respect to the displacement of nuclei in a Gaussian-type atomic basis set. This extends a recent efficient implementation of local hybrid functionals for self-consistent Kohn-Sham and linear-response TDDFT calculations into the TURBOMOLE program package. In contrast to seminumerical schemes for global exact-exchange admixtures and to the related SCF and TDDFT implementations of local hybrid functionals, additional analytical integrals have to be evaluated at each grid point in the case of molecular gradients. The overall efficiency of the present scheme is improved through prescreening with the density matrix (P-junctions), as well as with spherical overlap estimates (S-junctions). Comparative timings for structure optimizations with local vs global hybrid functionals are discussed while gauging the accuracy for S- and P-junctions using varying thresholds. Local hybrids are furthermore assessed for structure optimization and harmonic vibrational frequency calculations (using numerical second derivatives) of a selection of test systems, comparing with experimental data and some widely used density functionals.

  18. A precise pointing technique for free space optical links and networks using kinematic GPS and local sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Yohan; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2007-09-01

    In free space optical (FSO) communication networks, pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT) techniques are needed to establish and maintain optical links among the static or mobile nodes in the network. First, this paper describes a precise pointing technique to steer the local directional laser beam of an optical transceiver to a target optical transceiver at a remote transceiver node. The pointing technique utilizes Real-Time Kinematic GPS coordinates, local angular sensors, and a reference baseline, to retrieve accurate navigation information (roll, pitch, yaw) of the mobile or static platform that carries an optical transceiver. Through experiments using gimbal pointing stages, we have demonstrated "dead-reckoning" pointing accuracy in the milliradian range in our outdoor testbed. Second, we provide an application example of the pointing method in a bi-connected ring network, in which the pointing technique is combined with heuristic algorithms for dynamic reconfiguration of ring network topology. The heuristic algorithms achieve near optimal solutions in a short amount of time. Lastly, we present a GPS-based autonomous reconfiguration scenario for mobile nodes, which combines the PAT technique and heuristic algorithms.

  19. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nishimiya, Hajime [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy young male adults for 2-types of airflow conditioners, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (without local air velocity) and a normal-type air conditioner (with local air velocity). The subjects felt cool, windy, dry and uncomfortable when under the normal-type air conditioner as determined in a subjective evaluation. The SAA under the normal-type air conditioner fluctuated more widely than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The level of salivary cortisol decreased more in a day under the normal-type air conditioner than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. These results showed that reducing local air velocity may provide more healthy psychosomatic conditions over the long-term. Moreover, the TP of a drying-exposed skin area showed a significant change during this experiment whereas the TP of drying-protected area was relatively unchanged. It was indicated that one week's exposure to local air velocity conditions possibly influences the drying of facial skin. Thus, air movement at low velocity can be provides more comfortable conditions not only psychosomatically but also physically. (author)

  20. Influence of Global and Local Membrane Curvature on Mechanosensitive Ion Channels: A Finite Element Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Bavi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanosensitive (MS channels are ubiquitous molecular force sensors that respond to a number of different mechanical stimuli including tensile, compressive and shear stress. MS channels are also proposed to be molecular curvature sensors gating in response to bending in their local environment. One of the main mechanisms to functionally study these channels is the patch clamp technique. However, the patch of membrane surveyed using this methodology is far from physiological. Here we use continuum mechanics to probe the question of how curvature, in a standard patch clamp experiment, at different length scales (global and local affects a model MS channel. Firstly, to increase the accuracy of the Laplace’s equation in tension estimation in a patch membrane and to be able to more precisely describe the transient phenomena happening during patch clamping, we propose a modified Laplace’s equation. Most importantly, we unambiguously show that the global curvature of a patch, which is visible under the microscope during patch clamp experiments, is of negligible energetic consequence for activation of an MS channel in a model membrane. However, the local curvature (RL < 50 and the direction of bending are able to cause considerable changes in the stress distribution through the thickness of the membrane. Not only does local bending, in the order of physiologically relevant curvatures, cause a substantial change in the pressure profile but it also significantly modifies the stress distribution in response to force application. Understanding these stress variations in regions of high local bending is essential for a complete understanding of the effects of curvature on MS channels.

  1. Effectiveness of behavioral modification techniques with visual distraction using intrasulcular local anesthesia in hearing disabled children during pulp therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhruddin, Kausar Sadia; Gorduysus, Mehmet Omer; El Batawi, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assessing the effectiveness of behavioral modification techniques in combination with visual distraction with/without video eyewear using computerized delivery system-intrasulcular (CDS-IS) during the application of local anesthetic in hearing-impaired pediatric patients undergoing pulp therapy of primary molars. Materials and Methods: This randomized, crossover clinical study includes 15 children (7 boys and 8 girls), mean age was 6.1 years. Children were randomly distributed into...

  2. A new technique combining virtual simulation and methylene blue staining for the localization of small peripheral pulmonary lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Quickly and accurately localizing small peripheral pulmonary lesions can avoid prolonged operative time and unplanned open thoracotomy. In this study, we aimed to introduce and evaluate a new technique combining virtual simulation and methylene blue staining for the localization of small peripheral pulmonary lesions. Methods Seventy four (74) patients with 80 peripheral pulmonary lesions methylene blue dye was injected to the virtually identified point according to the surface point, angle and depth previously determined by the simulator. The wedge resection of the marked lesion was performed under video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and the specimens were sent for immediate pathologic examination. According to pathology results, appropriate surgical procedures were decided and undertaken. Results The average lesion size was 10.4±3.5 mm (range: 4-17 mm) and the average distance to the pleural surface was 9.4±4.9 mm. Our preoperative localization procedure was successful in 75 of 80 (94%) lesions. Histological examination showed 28 benign lesions and 52 lung cancers. The shortest distance between the edges of the stain and lesion was 5.1±3.1 mm. Localization time was 17.4±2.3 min. All patients with malignant lesions subsequently underwent lobectomy and systematic lymph node dissection. No complications were observed in all participants. Conclusions The novel technique combining the preoperative virtual simulation and methylene blue staining techniques has a high success rate for localizing small peripheral pulmonary lesions, particularly for those tiny lesions which are difficult to visualise and palpate during VATS. PMID:24512571

  3. Using Mixed-Reality Technology to Teach Techniques for Administering Local Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kami M.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to perform local anesthesia on dental patients is an important clinical skill for a dental hygienist. When learning this procedure in an academic situation, students often practice on their peers to build their skills. There are multiple reasons why the peer practice is not ideal; consequently, educators have sought the means to…

  4. Superficial fascial system repair: an abdominoplasty technique to reduce local complications after caesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Benna, Sammy; Al-Ajam, Yazan; Tzakas, Elias

    2009-05-01

    Abdominal incision complications are a major source of morbidity after caesarean delivery. Repair of the superficial fascial system may avert local complications after caesarean delivery by minimising tension to the skin and increasing the initial biomechanical strength of wound which has the potential to decrease early wound dehiscence and as a by-product correct suprapubic bulging.

  5. Evaluation of structural change and local strain distribution in polymers comparatively imaged by FFSA and OCT techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Leiss-Holzinger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical material testing combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT allows for the first time the immediate detection of inner structural changes along with a qualitative observation of the local strain distribution in surface near bulk regions of semitransparent and translucent specimens. In addition to a 3D full field strain analysis (FFSA system based on digital image correlation (DIC, a customized spectral domain OCT system operating at 1550 nm was applied for investigation. Exemplified by tensile testing of elastomer particle filled polypropylene specimens, local dissimilarity evaluation of the OCT images was performed. The results show the high potential of OCT to provide complementary information to DIC-based FFSA, like to identify processes influencing the remaining life of advanced commodity plastics such as the start and progress of yielding, identification of the yielding point, localization of the necking front and the development of small scale voids as in the case of matrix crazing.

  6. The influence of inhalation technique on Technegas particle deposition and image appearance in normal volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, J.J.; James, J.M.; Shields, R.A.; Testa, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of inhalation technique on Technegas image quality and on fractional particle deposition. This was investigated in six normal volunteers using three different types of breathing pattern. Fractional deposition was determined by analysis of dynamic gamma camera images acquired during Technegas administration. Static lung images were subsequently acquired and assessed independently by three experienced observers. High-quality images were obtained in all cases although slight differences were noted. The images produced using a slow deep inspiration with a breath hold (i.e. the standard method) were of more uniform texture and also had the least gradient in activity from apex to base. The converse was true for a rapid inhalation technique. The average fractional deposition per breath was 55%, but this varied between individuals and with breathing pattern, being most influenced by the total duration of a breath. We conclude that for patient studies the standard inhalation technique is best, although variation to suit individual patients would be acceptable. (orig./MG)

  7. Top-Down Influences on Local Networks: Basic Theory with Experimental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh eSrinivasan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The response of a population of sensory neurons to an external stimulus depends not only on the receptive field properties of the neurons, but also the level of arousal and attention or goal-oriented cognitive biases that guide information processing. These top-down effects on the sensory neurons bias the output of the neurons and affect behavioral outcomes such as stimulus detection, discrimination, and response time. In any physiological study, neural dynamics are observed in a specific brain state; the background state partly determines neuronal excitability. Experimental studies in humans and animal models have also demonstrated that slow oscillations (typically in the alpha or theta bands modulate the fast oscillations (gamma band associated with local networks of neurons. Cross-frequency interaction is of interest as a mechanism for top-down or bottom-up interactions between systems at different spatial scales. We develop a generic model of top-down influences on local networks appropriate for comparison with EEG. EEG provides excellent temporal resolution to investigate neuronal oscillations but is space-averaged on the cm scale. Thus, appropriate EEG models are developed in terms of population synaptic activity. We used the Wilson-Cowan population model to investigate fast (gamma band oscillations generated by a local network of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We modified the Wilson-Cowan equations to make them more physiologically realistic by explicitly incorporating background state variables into the model. We found that the population response is strongly influenced by the background state. We apply the model to reproduce the modulation of gamma rhythms by theta rhythms as has been observed in animal models and human ECoG and EEG studies. The concept of a dynamic background state presented here using the Wilson-Cowan model can be readily applied to incorporate top-down modulation in more detailed models of specific sensory

  8. Network model of top-down influences on local gain and contextual interactions in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piëch, Valentin; Li, Wu; Reeke, George N; Gilbert, Charles D

    2013-10-22

    The visual system uses continuity as a cue for grouping oriented line segments that define object boundaries in complex visual scenes. Many studies support the idea that long-range intrinsic horizontal connections in early visual cortex contribute to this grouping. Top-down influences in primary visual cortex (V1) play an important role in the processes of contour integration and perceptual saliency, with contour-related responses being task dependent. This suggests an interaction between recurrent inputs to V1 and intrinsic connections within V1 that enables V1 neurons to respond differently under different conditions. We created a network model that simulates parametrically the control of local gain by hypothetical top-down modification of local recurrence. These local gain changes, as a consequence of network dynamics in our model, enable modulation of contextual interactions in a task-dependent manner. Our model displays contour-related facilitation of neuronal responses and differential foreground vs. background responses over the neuronal ensemble, accounting for the perceptual pop-out of salient contours. It quantitatively reproduces the results of single-unit recording experiments in V1, highlighting salient contours and replicating the time course of contextual influences. We show by means of phase-plane analysis that the model operates stably even in the presence of large inputs. Our model shows how a simple form of top-down modulation of the effective connectivity of intrinsic cortical connections among biophysically realistic neurons can account for some of the response changes seen in perceptual learning and task switching.

  9. Quantifying the local influence at a tall tower site in nocturnal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, David; Buckley, Robert; Zhang, Gengsheng; Kurzeja, Robert; Leclerc, Monique; Duarte, Henrique; Parker, Matthew; Watson, Thomas

    2015-10-17

    The influence of the local terrestrial environment on nocturnal atmospheric CO2 measurements at a 329-m television transmitter tower (and a component of a CO2 monitoring network) was estimated with a tracer release experiment and a subsequent simulation of the releases. This was done to characterize the vertical transport of emissions from the surface to the uppermost tower level and how it is affected by atmospheric stability. The tracer release experiment was conducted over two nights in May of 2009 near the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. Tracer was released on two contrasting nights—slightly stable and moderately stable—from several upwind surface locations. Measurements at the 329-m level on both nights indicate that tracer was able to mix vertically within a relatively short (~24 km) distance, implying that nocturnal stable conditions do not necessarily prevent vertical dispersion in the boundary layer and that CO2 measurements at the tower are at least partly influenced by nearby emissions. A simulation of the tracer release is used to calculate the tower footprint on the two nights to estimate the degree to which the local domain affects the tower readings. The effect of the nocturnal boundary layer on the area sampled by the tower can be seen clearly, as the footprints were affected by changes in stability. The contribution of local sources to the measurements at the tower was minimal, however, suggesting that nocturnal concentrations at upper levels are contributed mostly by regional sources.

  10. The Influence Of Planning Decisions Regarding Land Evaluation Based On A Selected Local Real Estate Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foryś Iwona

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the influence of planning decisions on changes taking place on the local real estate market. Three stages of the planning process are studied in particular, i.e.: the passing of the study of conditions and directions of spatial development, the Commune Council Resolution on initiating the formulation of a local spatial development plan, and finally the Resolution on accepting the local plan, as well as the effects of these activities on the land value in a given real estate market in Stargard Szczeciński, in the West-Pomeranian (Zachodniopomorskie Province of Poland. The object of the research is to identify the indicated relationships on a given real estate market, on which respective spatial planning stages can be distinguished, as well as the strength and course of the analyzed relationships. The study will verify the research hypothesis regarding the strength and directions of the effects of planning decisions as the direct and indirect reasons behind price changes on the real estate market. The analysis uses data from the Price Register and the District Starosty Values, along with statistical and public information data and the authors' own studies.

  11. Survey of energy efficient tracking and localization techniques in buildings using optical and wireless communication media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruintjes, Tom M.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Karagiannis, Georgios; Smit, Gerard J. M.; Bellalta, Boris; Vinel, Alexey; Jonsson, Magnus; Barcelo, Jaume; Maslennikov, Roman; Chatzimisios, Periklis; Malone, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of beamforming, beamsteering and mobile tracking techniques. The survey was made in the context of the SOWICI project. The aim of this project is to reduce power consumption of data exchanging devices within houses. An optical fiber network is used for data transport to

  12. Localization of intraductal mass through the ostium of the duct using wire guided ductography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.

    2014-01-01

    To localize intraductal mass (Papilloma) before surgery Materials Guide wire 10-15 cm length of 2/3-0 Prolene/Surgipro Plastic 26G to 20G I/V cannulas Kopans breast lesion localization hook wire Disposable syringe heaving 2ml non-ionic contrast High intensity light and magnified glass. Methods: Prepare patient in sitting or lying position adjust high intensity light clean the nipple with antiseptic lotion. Elicit the discharge with gentle periareolar pressure or ask the patient to bring the discharge. If the opening with discharge is not clearly visualize use magnified glass or loop. Slowly inserted the wire into the duct orifice, it should pass freely into the duct. Introduce the 26G I/V plastic cannula coaxially over the guide wire and remove the guide wire. Gently inject 0.2-0.4 ml contrast, remove and the syringe and apply stopper. The cannula stopper assembly is secured to the breast with tape. Magnified craniocaudal view of the breast is taken, the 26G cannula removed and bigger length 22/20G cannula gradually passed over the guide wire according to distance of lesion from the ostium. Intraductal mass location is verified the hook wire is replaced with guide wire, the position of hook confirmed by mammographic film. The wire is cut 2cms from the nipple and pt. send to operation theater Results:Hook localization has been successfully carried out in six patients. Conclusion:This is a new method of localization of intraductal mass it enables the surgeon to do microductectomy with minimal cosmetic effects to the breast. (author)

  13. LOCALITY UNCERTAINTY AND THE DIFFERENTIAL PERFORMANCE OF FOUR COMMON NICHE-BASED MODELING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Fernandez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We address a poorly understood aspect of ecological niche modeling: its sensitivity to different levels of geographic uncertainty in organism occurrence data. Our primary interest was to assess how accuracy degrades under increasing uncertainty, with performance measured indirectly through model consistency. We used Monte Carlo simulations and a similarity measure to assess model sensitivity across three variables: locality accuracy, niche modeling method, and species. Randomly generated data sets with known levels of locality uncertainty were compared to an original prediction using Fuzzy Kappa. Data sets where locality uncertainty is low were expected to produce similar distribution maps to the original. In contrast, data sets where locality uncertainty is high were expected to produce less similar maps. BIOCLIM, DOMAIN, Maxent and GARP were used to predict the distributions for 1200 simulated datasets (3 species x 4 buffer sizes x 100 randomized data sets. Thus, our experimental design produced a total of 4800 similarity measures, with each of the simulated distributions compared to the prediction of the original data set and corresponding modeling method. A general linear model (GLM analysis was performed which enables us to simultaneously measure the effect of buffer size, modeling method, and species, as well as interactions among all variables. Our results show that modeling method has the largest effect on similarity scores and uniquely accounts for 40% of the total variance in the model. The second most important factor was buffer size, but it uniquely accounts for only 3% of the variation in the model. The newer and currently more popular methods, GARP and Maxent, were shown to produce more inconsistent predictions than the earlier and simpler methods, BIOCLIM and DOMAIN. Understanding the performance of different niche modeling methods under varying levels of geographic uncertainty is an important step toward more productive

  14. A Pervasive Promotion Model for Personalized Promotion Systems on Using WLAN Localization and NFC Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam-Yiu Lam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel pervasive business model for sales promotion in retail chain stores utilizing WLAN localization and near field communication (NFC technologies. The objectives of the model are to increase the customers’ flow of the stores and their incentives in purchasing. In the proposed model, the NFC technology is used as the first mean to motivate customers to come to the stores. Then, with the use of WLAN, the movements of the customers, who are carrying smartphones, within the stores are captured and maintained in the movement database. By interpreting the movements of customers as indicators of their interests to the displayed items, personalized promotion strategies can be formulated to increase their incentives for purchasing future items. Various issues in the application of the adopted localization scheme for locating customers in a store are discussed. To facilitate the item management and space utilization in displaying the items, we propose an enhanced R-tree for indexing the data items maintained in the movement database. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the adopted localization scheme in supporting the proposed model.

  15. Influence of knot configuration and tying technique on the mechanical performance of sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, C A; Thacker, J G; Powell, D M; Bellian, K T; Becker, D G; Rodeheaver, G T; Edlich, R F

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of knot configuration and tying technique on the mechanical performance of surgical sutures. Multifilament and monofilament nylon sutures were selected for this evaluation because they are commonly used in wound closure. The mechanical performance of these sutures was judged by the following parameters: knot breakage force, configuration of secure knots, and knot run down force. During each test, tension was applied at either rapid or slow rates, which correlates with the physician's speed of tying knots. On the basis of these mechanical performance tests, four throw square (1 = 1 = 1 =1) knots and five throw square (1 = 1 = 1 = 1 = 1) knots are recommended for monofilament nylon and multifilament nylon sutures, respectively, in which the speed of application of forces to the knots is relatively slow. Because these tests can easily be replicated in any laboratory, manufacturers now have a scientific basis for recommending specific tying techniques for their surgical sutures.

  16. The Influence of Foot-Strike Technique on the Neuromechanical Function of the Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke A; Farris, Dominic J; Lichtwark, Glen A; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of foot-strike technique on longitudinal arch mechanics and intrinsic foot muscle function during running. Thirteen healthy participants ran barefoot on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.8 ms with a forefoot (FFS) and rearfoot (RFS; habitual) running technique, whereas kinetic, kinematic, and electromyographic data from the intrinsic foot muscles were collected simultaneously. The longitudinal arch was modeled as a single "midfoot" joint representing motion of the rearfoot (calcaneus) relative to the forefoot (metatarsals). An inverse dynamic analysis was performed to estimate joint moments generated about the midfoot, as well as mechanical work and power. The midfoot was more plantar flexed (higher arch) at foot contact when running with a forefoot running technique (RFS 0.2 ± 1.8 vs FFS 6.9 ± 3.0°, effect size (ES) = 2.7); however, there was no difference in peak midfoot dorsiflexion in stance (RFS -11.6 ± 3.0 vs FFS -11.4 ± 3.4°, ES = 0.63). When running with a forefoot technique, participants generated greater moments about the midfoot (27% increase, ES = 1.1) and performed more negative work (240% increase, ES = 2.2) and positive work (42% increase, ES = 1.1) about the midfoot. Average stance-phase muscle activation was greater for flexor digitorum brevis (20% increase, ES = 0.56) and abductor hallucis (17% increase, ES = 0.63) when running with a forefoot technique. Forefoot running increases loading about the longitudinal arch and also increases the mechanical work performed by the intrinsic foot muscles. These findings have substantial implications in terms of injury prevention and management for runners who transition from a rearfoot to a forefoot running technique.

  17. Radiation Techniques for Increasing Local Control in the Non-Surgical Management of Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L.; Jakobsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A fraction of patients with rectal cancer can achieve clinical complete response following long-course chemoradiotherapy (CRT), and there is accumulating clinical evidence that these patients can be managed non-surgically with acceptable oncological outcome. Consequently, strategies for increasin...... for dose escalation are considered. Ultimately, no technique provides definitive advantage over others, and the choice in clinical practice will have to depend on the patient population treated as well as the technical capabilities of the treating department....

  18. Secure Neighbor Discovery in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Range-Free Localization Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Otero, Mariano; Poblacion-Hernandez, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Si una red inalámbrica de sensores se implementa en un entorno hostil, las limitaciones intrínsecas a los nodos conllevan muchos problemas de seguridad. En este artículo se aborda un ataque particular a los protocolos de localización y descubrimiento de vecinos, llevada a cabo por dos nodos que actúan en connivencia y establecen un "agujero de gusano" para tratar de engañar a un nodo aislado, haciéndole creer que se encuentra en la vecindad de un conjunto de nodos locales. Para contrarrestar ...

  19. Marginal adaptation of CAD-CAM onlays: Influence of preparation design and impression technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Fernanda Ferruzzi; Neto, Constantino Fernandes; Rubo, José H; Santos, Gildo Coelho; Moraes Coelho Santos, Maria Jacinta

    2018-03-15

    Factors that may affect the marginal adaptation of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) restorations include preparation design, impression technique, and CAD-CAM system. The influence of impression technique and preparation design on CAD-CAM partial coverage restorations has not been fully addressed. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of direct and indirect digital impression techniques and 2 preparation designs on the marginal adaptation of CAD-CAM onlays. Two mesio-occlusal buccal onlay preparations with reduction of the mesiobuccal cusp were made: conventional preparation (CP) with a 1.2-mm modified shoulder margin and modified preparation (MP) flat cuspal reduction without shoulder. Virtual models were generated from each preparation by using a digital scanner (BlueCam; Dentsply Sirona) from the plastic teeth (direct digital impression) or from the stone dies (indirect digital impression). Onlays were designed using a CAD-CAM system (CEREC 4.0; Dentsply Sirona), and nanoceramic resin blocks (Lava Ultimate Restorative; 3M ESPE) were milled using the CEREC MCX milling machine. Marginal discrepancy was evaluated using an optical stereomicroscope at ×25 magnification in 18 locations distributed along the margins of the preparation. The data were analyzed by using 3-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). CP presented a statistically significant reduced average marginal adaptation (59 ±50 μm) than did MP (69 ±58 μm) (P<.001). The Tukey HSD test showed the presence of a significantly larger marginal discrepancy in the mesial and buccal locations of MP when compared with CP. Regarding impression techniques, the buccal location presented the smallest average marginal discrepancy in restorations fabricated with indirect impression when compared with direct impression (42 ±33 μm and 60 ±39 μm) (P<.001). The results showed that conventional preparation with a modified shoulder margin

  20. Direct Injection of Blood Products Versus Gelatin Sponge as a Technique for Local Hemostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaga, John [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Rahim, Shiraz, E-mail: Shiraz.rahim@uhhospitals.org

    2017-02-15

    PurposeTo provide a method of reducing risk of minimally invasive procedures on patients with abnormal hemostasis and evaluate efficacy of direct fresh frozen plasma injection through a procedure needle tract compared to Gelfoam (gelatin sponge) administration.Materials and MethodsEighty patients with elevated international standardized ratio (INR) undergoing minimally invasive procedures using imaging guidance were selected retrospectively. Forty patients had received Gelfoam as a means of tract embolization during the procedure. The other 40 received local fresh frozen plasma (FFP) through the needle tract. The number of complications and clinically significant bleeding events were recorded. A threshold of 30 cc of blood loss after a procedure was used to identify excess bleeding.ResultsNo patients experienced clinically significant bleeding after administration of FFP. Five patients experienced postoperative drops in hemoglobin or hematomas after administration of Gelfoam.ConclusionLocal injection of blood products can reduce postprocedure bleeding in patients undergoing minimally invasive procedures and provides a safe alternative to the use of synthetic fibrin plugs.

  1. The influence of humidity on the kinetics of local anodic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BartosIk, M; Skoda, D; Tomanec, O; Kalousek, R; Jansky, P; Zlamal, J; Spousta, J; Sikola, T

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the influence of relative humidity on fabrication of nanostructures at GaAs (100) surfaces by local anodic oxidation (LAO) is reported. The attention was paid both to the dimensions of oxide nanolines prepared at different relative humidities for tip-surface voltages of 6 - 9 V and tip speeds of 10 - 200 nm/s, and to the profiles corresponding to line trenches (etched in HCl after the nanoxidation). Contrary to the expectations the height and the half-width of oxide nanolines did not increase with relative humidity in the whole interval from 35% to 90%, but for lower relative humidities (< 50%) the lines were comparable in size to those prepared at 90%. However, this was accompanied with instabilities in the oxidation process resulting most probably from enhanced size variations of the water meniscus between the tip and the surface at these low humidities

  2. The influence of gender and operational locality on entrepreneurial knowledge and business performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Oluwatoyin Chovwen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study set to examine the influence of gender and entrepreneur’s operational locality on entrepreneurial knowledge and business performance. A quantitative approach using a cross sectional survey design is utilised for the study. The participants are made up of 299 micro-entrepreneurs with age ranges from 22 to 39 years old (x = 29.93 age. The findings indicate that male micro-entrepreneurs score significantly higher on areas of planning and risk assessment while micro-entrepreneurs from Delta State of Nigeria have higher significant mean scores in six (general business ideas, business attitude, knowledge of capital requirement sources, knowledge of environmental forces, knowledge of risk assessment and entrepreneurial psychology of the seven parameters of entrepreneurial knowledge and business performance. The findings show valuable empirical contribution with policy implications for gender and location factors in micro-entrepreneurial growth in developing economy

  3. Clinical oxygen enhancement ratio of tumors in carbon ion radiotherapy: the influence of local oxygenation changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonovic, Laura; Lindblom, Emely; Dasu, Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    The effect of carbon ion radiotherapy on hypoxic tumors has recently been questioned because of low linear energy transfer (LET) values in the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hypoxia and local oxygenation changes (LOCs) in fractionated carbon ion...... radiotherapy. Three-dimensional tumors with hypoxic subvolumes were simulated assuming interfraction LOCs. Different fractionations were applied using a clinically relevant treatment plan with a known LET distribution. The surviving fraction was calculated, taking oxygen tension, dose and LET into account...... to LOCs did not compensate for the increase in total dose required for tumor control. In conclusion, our results suggest that hypoxia can influence the outcome of carbon ion radiotherapy because of the non-negligible oxygen effect at the low LETs in the SOBP. However, if LOCs occur, a relatively high...

  4. Influence of Local Zones of Intensive Heat Transfer on Thermal Regime of Heat Supply Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimov Vyacheslav I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of mathematical simulation of conjugate heat transfer for heat supply object are represented. The turbulent regime of air motion in a closed cavity with the enclosing walls from reinforced concrete and glass is examined. On the outer boundary, which includes window aperture, the conditions of convective-radiation heat exchange with environment are realized. Is solved the system of the dimensionless equations within the framework of thermal conductivity model for the solid walls and Navier-Stokes for the gas. The influence of the local zones of intensive heat transfer on the thermal regime of the heat supply objects is established. Are determined the values of the dimensionless heat exchange coefficient on division border “air - wall”. The analysis of the values of mean temperatures of the solution region is carried out.

  5. River Discharge and Local Scale Habitat Influence LIFE Score Macroinvertebrate LIFE Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunbar, Michael J.; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Cadman, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Midlands of the U.K., we describe how local-scale habitat features (indexed through River Habitat Survey or Danish Habitat Quality Survey) and changing river flow (discharge) influence the response of a macroinvertebrate community index. The approach has broad applicability in developing regional flow...... Invertebrate index for Flow Evaluation (LIFE), an average of abundance-weighted flow groups which indicate the microhabitat preferences of each taxon for higher velocities and clean gravel/cobble substrata or slow/still velocities and finer substrata. 3. For the Danish fauna, the LIFE score responded to three...... of the channel (negative). In both cases, LIFE responded negatively to features associated with historical channel modification. We suggest that there are several mechanisms for these relationships, including the narrower tolerances of taxa preferring high velocity habitat; these taxa are also continually...

  6. The influence of VERTTM characteristics on the development of skills in skin apposition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, David; Appleyard, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of the Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training (VERT TM ) has enabled pre-registration students to prepare for practice placements. The novelty of this resource means that its impact upon human performance in certain radiotherapy techniques has yet to be tested. This study investigated the influence of virtual environment characteristics on the development of skills previously honed exclusively in the clinical environment. Specifically the development of the electron treatment skin apposition technique. A specific treatment site was selected on the virtual patient and student performance, in terms of set-up to the treatment site, was determined by dataset software indicators. Forty four year 1 and 2 pre-registration radiotherapy students were involved in the study. Their perceptions with regard to confidence and skills development in terms of electron skin apposition were analysed with questionnaires. Respondents found the resource intrinsically motivating and perceived enhanced skin apposition skills (80%) and confidence levels (89%) as a consequence of using VERT TM . Further study of this resource is on-going to examine its influence on student performance within the clinical environment.

  7. Decoupling pipeline influences in soil resistivity measurements with finite element techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, R. N.; Azoor, R. M.; Zhang, C.; Kodikara, J. K.

    2018-03-01

    Periodic inspection of pipeline conditions is an important asset management strategy conducted by water and sewer utilities for efficient and economical operations of their assets in field. The Level 1 pipeline condition assessment involving resistivity profiling along the pipeline right-of-way is a common technique for delineating pipe sections that might be installed in highly corrosive soil environment. However, the technique can suffer from significant perturbations arising from the buried pipe itself, resulting in errors in native soil characterisation. To address this problem, a finite element model was developed to investigate the degree to which pipes of different a) diameters, b) burial depths, and c) surface conditions (bare or coated) can influence in-situ soil resistivity measurements using Wenner methods. It was found that the greatest errors can arise when conducting measurements over a bare pipe with the array aligned parallel to the pipe. Depending upon the pipe surface conditions, in-situ resistivity measurements can either be underestimated or overestimated from true soil resistivities. Following results based on simulations and decoupling equations, a guiding framework for removing pipe influences in soil resistivity measurements were developed that can be easily used to perform corrections on measurements. The equations require simple a-prior information on the pipe diameter, burial depth, surface condition, and the array length and orientation used. Findings from this study have immediate application and is envisaged to be useful for critical civil infrastructure monitoring and assessment.

  8. Localization of H.pylori within the vacuole of Candida yeast by direct immunofluorescence technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniee, Parastoo; Siavoshi, Farideh; Nikbakht Broujeni, Gholamreza; Khormali, Mahmood; Sarrafnejad, Abdolfatah; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2013-12-01

    Reports indicate that H.pylori is able to invade the eukaryotic cells and establish inside their vacuoles. In this study, FITC-conjugated IgY-Hp was used to localize H.pylori inside the vacuole of Candida yeast. Presence of intracellular H.pylori inside the new generations of yeast cells was also examined by light microscopy and Live/Dead BacLight staining method. A single colony of fresh yeast culture was cultivated in a 100-µl medium containing yeast extract and N-acetylglucoseamine supplemented with fetal bovine serum. After 12-hr incubation at 37℃, FITC-conjugated IgY-Hp was added. After 3 hours, 10 µL of yeast suspension was smeared on a glass slide, air-dried and examined by fluorescent microscopy. Wet mounts of yeast culture and Live/Dead BacLight stained preparations were examined by light and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. Photographs were taken from the fast-moving H.pylori inside the yeast vacuoles. Fluorescent microscopy showed that FITC-conjugated IgY-Hp could enter yeast cells and specifically react with H.pylori, localizing the bacterium inside the yeast vacuole. Photographs taken from wet mounts observed by  light and fluorescent microscopy showed fast-moving H.pylori cells in the vacuole of mother as well as daughter yeast cells. The intravacuolar H.pylori cells stained green, showing their viability. Intracellular life of prokaryotes inside eukaryotes has been described as an evolutionary phenomenon with a great impact on bacterial persistence despite environmental stresses. Results of this study demonstrated the specific interaction of FITC-conjugated IgY-Hp with H.pylori cells and the bacterial localization inside the Candida yeast vacuole. The intracellular bacteria were viable and existed in the vacuole of next generations of yeast cells. It appears that H.pylori is well-equipped to dwell within the vacuole of eukaryotic cells where it is protected from stressful conditions, including antibacterial therapy. Presence of H

  9. Who are the Relevants Stakeholders to the Local Government Context? Empirical Evidences on Environmental Influences in the Decision-Making Process of English Local Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Corrêa Gomes

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents empirical evidence of stakeholding in the local government context. It is the result of a survey carried out with English Local Authorities in 2001. It outlines the arena in which local government make decisions by pinpointing the relevant stakeholders in the process as well as the amount of power they areperceived to represent by chief executives. The investigation has its theoretical basis in resource dependence and institutional theories, which are commonly used for explaining an organization’s behaviour and performance as influenced by its environment. As an empirical contribution, the article proposes a stakeholder map for any kind of local government organizations that will help in identifying strategies for managing stakeholders.

  10. Ultra-Wideband Geo-Regioning: A Novel Clustering and Localization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Wittneben

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-wideband (UWB technology enables a high temporal resolution of the propagation channel. Consequently, a channel impulse response between transmitter and receiver can be interpreted as signature for their relative positions. If the position of the receiver is known, the channel impulse response indicates the position of the transmitter and vice versa. This work introduces UWB geo-regioning as a clustering and localization method based on channel impulse response fingerprinting, develops a theoretical framework for performance analysis, and evaluates this approach by means of performance results based on measured channel impulse responses. Complexity issues are discussed and performance dependencies on signal-to-noise ratio, a priori knowledge, observation window, and system bandwidth are investigated.

  11. Focused impedance measurement (FIM). A new technique with improved zone localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, K S; Sarker, M; Akond, M H; Akter, T

    1999-04-20

    Conventional four-electrode impedance measurements (FEIM) cannot localize a zone of interest in a volume conductor. On the other hand, the recently developed electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system offers an image with reasonable resolution, but is complex and needs many electrodes. By placing two FEIM systems perpendicular to each other over a common zone at the center and combining the two results, it is possible to obtain enhanced sensitivity over this central zone. This is the basis of the proposed new method of focused impedance measurement (FIM). Sensitivity maps in both 2D and 3D show the desired improvement. A comparison of stomach-emptying studies also indicates the improvement achieved. This new method may be useful for impedance measurements of large organs like stomach, heart, and lungs. Being much simpler in comparison to EIT, multifrequency systems can be simply built for FIM. Besides, FIM may have utility in other fields like geology where impedance measurements are performed.

  12. Indoor visible light communication localization system utilizing received signal strength indication technique and trilateration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Farag I. K.; Almaadeed, Noor; Busawon, Krishna; Bouridane, Ahmed; Binns, Richard; Elliot, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) technology not only provides higher data rate for indoor wireless communications and offering room illumination but also has the potential for indoor localization. VLC-based indoor positioning using the received optical power levels from emitting LEDs is investigated. We consider both scenarios of line-of-sight (LOS) and LOS with non-LOS (LOSNLOS) positioning. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated under both noisy and noiseless channel as is the impact of different location codes on positioning error. The analytical model of the system with noise and the corresponding numerical evaluation for a range of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are presented. The results show that an accuracy of 12 dB.

  13. Influence of design variations on controlled thermonuclear reactor blanket neutronic performance using variational techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, E.T.; Conn, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of design variations, such as the percentage of structural material in a tritium breeding zone or the enrichment of lithium in 6 Li, on such important controlled thermonuclear reactor parameters as the tritium breeding ratio and the total nuclear energy produced has been studied using variational techniques for two different but general blanket designs. The first design uses liquid lithium as both coolant and breeding material, while the second uses a helium coolant and a solid-lithium-bearing compound as the tritium breeder. A variational technique based on variational interpolation is the primary computational tool, and it is shown that for linear perturbations in the transport operator and for a fixed source, only forward flux calculations are required to implement the variational interpolation approach. No adjoint functions are required to implement the variational interpolation approach. No adjoint functions are required, while any number of response functionals can be investigated. For both blanket designs, the influence of the choice of structural material, such as stainless-steel, molybdenum, niobium, vanadium, and aluminum structures, has been studied. The role of beryllium as a neutron multiplier with a solid breeder blanket is studied, and an optimum beryllium thickness is found that maximizes the breeding ratio. The influence of using graphite or the structural material as a neutron reflector and the effect of lithium burnup are also studied. It is found that for a given percentage of structural material in the tritium breeding zones, vanadium-structured systems achieve the highest breeding ratios, while molybdenum-structured systems produce the highest value of total nuclear heating. The effects of lithium burnup are small

  14. Does the selection of medicinal plants by Brazilian local populations suffer taxonomic influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    deMedeiros, Patrícia Muniz; Ladio, Ana Haydée; Santos, André Maurício Melo; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2013-04-19

    The analysis of the influence of taxonomic affiliation on the selection of medicinal plants by Brazilian local populations can help elucidate theoretical aspects of medicinal plant selection. Ethnobotanical medicinal plant studies were compiled and the resulting medicinal flora was compared to the total angiosperm flora with a Bayesian approach and the IDM model. A total of 35 families were considered to be overused and six were classified as underused for the Bayesian approach. On the other hand, the IDM model considered 13 families as overused and five as underused (all of them were also highlighted by the Bayesian approach). A high overuse level of Bixaceae, Amaranthaceae, Anacardiaceae and Smilacaceae was recorded for both Bayesian and IDM model, while Orchidaceae, Melastomataceae, Eriocaulaceae, Poaceae and Bromeliaceae were considered as underused for both analyses. The most dissimilar body system in terms of family composition was 'mental and behavioral disorders'. It was also found that the body systems are different from one another in the proportion of taxonomic groups, which could indicate chemical specificity in the treatment of diseases. Results indicate that the chemical specificity of taxonomic groups directly influences medicinal plant selection. Moreover, when data presented here are compared to other studies, there is clearly an overuse pattern for families like Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Euphorbiaceae and an underuse pattern for Poaceae and Orchidaceae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Superficial Vancomycin Coating of Bone Cement in Orthopedic Revision Surgery: A Safe Technique to Enhance Local Antibiotic Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerstorfer, Florian; Fischerauer, Stefan; Sadoghi, Patrick; Schwantzer, Gerold; Kuehn, Klaus Dieter; Leithner, Andreas; Glehr, Mathias

    2017-05-01

    The use of antibiotic-loaded cement has become a well-accepted method to develop high local antibiotic concentrations in revision surgery of infected arthroplasty. A new surgical technique has been established to further increase the local antibiotic concentration and thereby minimizes the risk of reinfection. Our study aim was to investigate the safety of additional superficial vancomycin coating (SVC) by analyzing postoperative joint and serum vancomycin concentrations, as well as the creatinine levels of patients with orthopedic revision surgery. A longitudinal case series was performed by reviewing collected data of patients who were treated by SVC during revision surgery (1- or 2-stage exchange) because of prosthetic joint infections. Vancomycin levels were obtained, local from drains and systemic from blood samples, on postoperative days 1 to 5. Furthermore, preoperative and postoperative serum creatinine levels were analyzed. Highest median local vancomycin levels were documented on postoperative day 1 with 546.8 μg/mL (range, 44.4-1485 μg/mL) in the reimplantation group and 408.7 μg/mL (range, 24.7-1650 μg/mL) in the spacer group. Median serum vancomycin level was 4.4 μg/mL (range, vancomycin without leading to systemic side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of patterns of Localized Doping Using Stamping technique for Selective n-Emitter Solar Cell Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangkornkaew, A.; Fangsuwannarak, T.

    2017-10-01

    In the present, a novel cost-effective process scheme for single step selective emitter diffusion was implemented. It is based on the fabrication of acid-resist pattern using a stamping technique with collaboration of a spin on dopant (SOD) and chemical etched-back emitter methods. The SOD diffusion process provided heavily doping n-emitter. Acid-resist pattern without exploitation of a complex method as a photolithography, was stamped as a metal contact pattern for prevention of a localized heavy-dope region from etching back. Phosphorus doping profiles were controlled by etching back time to provide the formation of n-type selective emitter. Sheet resistance is tunable from 10 to 180 Ohm/Sq on localized n-layer. After removal of the patterned acid-resist, the selective n-emitter solar cell structure was obtained under one-step diffusion to achieve a better blue-light response and low contact resistance.

  17. Does the supervisor's teaching style influence the supervisee's learning prescribed techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Timothy; Crowley, Maryellen J; Binder, Jeffrey L; Heckman, Bernadette D; Patterson, Candace L

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the directive and non-directive supervisors' instructional styles, supervisees' interactive communications within supervision sessions as well as the relative success of supervisees' learning to apply specific techniques within psychotherapy. The developers of Time-Limited Dynamic Psychotherapy (TLDP) provided the supervised training for 16 therapists as part of the "Vanderbilt II" psychotherapy project. Supervision sessions were rated for supervisors' adherence to TLDP content. Both supervisors and supervisee were rated for classroom interactive behaviors of "initiation" speech (e.g., introducing ideas) and "responsive" speech (e.g., amplifying the other speaker's topic). The third therapy session was targeted for discussion within supervision. Therapy sessions immediately before and after supervision were rated on TLDP adherence. One of the supervisors (Supervisor A) was found to use an instructional style of relatively more initiation-based speech, whereas the other (Supervisor B) used more response-based speech. Technical adherence for supervisees of Supervisor A was significantly higher than those assigned to Supervisor B. Supervisees' initiation-based speech during supervision predicted less use of TLDP techniques in the therapy session after supervision. Supervisors' interactive style was not associated with therapy adherence. Relatively more directive and structured supervision may influence the acquisition and use of manual-prescribed therapy techniques.

  18. An assessment of the immunofluorescence technique as a method for demonstrating the histological localization of tetrahydrocannabinol in mammalian tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, M.; Gee, D.J.

    1982-10-01

    The use of the indirect immunofluorescence technique as a method for demonstrating the histological localization of tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-THC) has been examined. The experimental protocol was designed in order that optimal staining conditions with respect to temperature, the length of time of incubations and washes, and the dilution of the antisera should be defined. No marked differences were detected between frozen sections of liver from normal and delta-THC-injected mice. Results from radiotracer experiments using human liver suggest that the success of the method is dependent upon the solubility characteristics of the antigen-antibody complex.

  19. Ultrastructural localization of keratin proteins in human skin using low-temperature embedding and the protein A-gold technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhol, M J; Lucocq, J M; Carlemalm, E; Roth, J

    1985-01-01

    Human skin was embedded in Lowicryl K4M and keratin proteins were localized by incubation with antikeratin antisera, followed by protein A-gold. The antikeratin antisera labeled all intermediate filament (tonofilament) structures in all layers of the epidermis. The association of keratin filaments with hemidesmosomes, desmosomes, and keratohyaline granules was clearly visualized. Desmosomes and keratohyaline granules were not labeled by the antikeratin antisera. No nonfilamentous structures were labeled. The technique described is suitable for studying the distribution of keratin filaments in normal and diseased tissue.

  20. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) - a new imaging technique for in situ localization of spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottmann, Matthias; Stepp, Herbert; Sroka, Ronald; Heide, Michael; Liedl, Bernhard; Reese, Sven; Becker, Armin J; Stief, Christian G; Kölle, Sabine

    2015-05-01

    In azoospermic patients, spermatozoa are routinely obtained by testicular sperm extraction (TESE). However, success rates of this technique are moderate, because the site of excision of testicular tissue is determined arbitrarily. Therefore the aim of this study was to establish probe-based laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) a noval biomedical imaging technique, which provides the opportunity of non-invasive, real-time visualisation of tissue at histological resolution. Using pCLE we clearly visualized longitudinal and horizontal views of the tubuli seminiferi contorti and localized vital spermatozoa. Obtained images and real-time videos were subsequently compared with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of spermatozoa and tissues, respectively. Comparative visualization of single native Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, left) and probe-based laser endomicroscopy (pCLE, right) using Pro Flex(TM) UltraMini O after staining with acriflavine. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Urinary bladder blood flow. I. Comparison of clearance of locally injected 99mtechnetium pertechnate and radioactive microsphere technique in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøyer, Kristian; Bülow, J; Nielsen, S L

    1990-01-01

    The blood flow of the dog urinary bladder measured by radioactive microsphere technique was compared to the clearance of locally injected 99mTechnetium pertechnate (99mTc) in the bladder wall. In semilogarithmic plots the 99mTc washout curves showed a multiexponential course. From the initial...... slopes (median 5.7 min) the bladder blood flow was calculated to be only 30-62% of the results obtained from the radioactive microsphere technique (blood flow in the muscular layer 21.7-44.8 ml/100 g/min). These lower values imply that the rate of removal of the hydrophilic tracer 99mTc at these flow...... blood flow....

  2. The Influence of Herringbone Technique Towards the Reading Comprehension of the Second Year Students of SMPN 4 Siak Hulu

    OpenAIRE

    Yuzulia, Irza; ', Mahdum Ph. D; ', Eliwarti, M. App.ling

    2017-01-01

    This pre-experimental research aimed to find out whether there is significant influence of students' reading comprehension after using Herringbone Technique in teaching reading at the second year of SMPN 4 Siak Hulu. Thus, the problem to be discussed is whether or not there is any significant influence of the students' reading comprehension after using Herringbone Technique in teaching reading at the second year of SMPN 4 Siak Hulu. The design of the research was one group pretest-posttest de...

  3. Smart Rocks for Bridge Scour Monitoring: Design and Localization Using Electromagnetic Techniques and Embedded Orientation Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, Andro

    River bridge scour is an erosion process in which flowing water removes sediment materials (such as sand, rocks) from a bridge foundation, river beds and banks. As a result, the level of the river bed near a bridge pier is lowering such that the bridge foundation stability can be compromised, and the bridge can collapse. The scour is a dynamic process, which can accelerate rapidly during a flood event. Thus, regular monitoring of the scour progress is necessary to be performed at most river bridges. Present techniques are usually expensive, require large man/hour efforts, and often lack the real-time monitoring capabilities. In this dissertation a new method--'Smart Rocks Network for bridge scour monitoring' is introduced. The method is based on distributed wireless sensors embedded in ground underwater nearby the bridge pillars. The sensor nodes are unconstrained in movement, are equipped with years-lasting batteries and intelligent custom designed electronics, which minimizes power consumption during operation and communication. The electronic part consists of a microcontroller, communication interfaces, orientation and environment sensors (such as are accelerometer, magnetometer, temperature and pressure sensors), supporting power supplies and circuitries. Embedded in the soil nearby a bridge pillar the Smart Rocks can move/drift together with the sediments, and act as the free agent probes transmitting the unique signature signals to the base-station monitors. Individual movement of a Smart Rock can be remotely detected processing the orientation sensors reading. This can give an indication of the on-going scour progress, and set a flag for the on-site inspection. The map of the deployed Smart Rocks Network can be obtained utilizing the custom developed in-network communication protocol with signals intensity (RSSI) analysis. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is applied for map reconstruction. Analysis of the map can provide detailed insight into the scour

  4. Influence of locoregional irradiation on local control and survival in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutuli, B.

    1998-01-01

    Locoregional control is a crucial step in the achievement of breast cancer cure. In ductal carcinoma in situ, breast irradiation significantly reduces the rates of local recurrence whatever the histological subtypes, as demonstrated by the NSABP-B17 trial (25.8 % of local recurrences without radiotherapy vs. 11.4 % with radiotherapy). In infiltrating breast carcinomas, complementary breast irradiation has been shown to significantly improve the local control and slightly the overall survival in five randomized trials. Following mastectomy, locoregional irradiation clearly reduces the chest wall and nodal relapse rates, especially in case of lesions more than 5 cm or with nodal involvement and/or large lymphatic or vascular emboli. Two recent randomized trials confirmed the benefit of well-adapted locoregional irradiation in all subgroups, especially in patients with one to three axillary involves nodes. In the Danish trial (including pre-menopausal high-risk women), radiotherapy reduced locoregional relapses from 32 to 9 % (p<0.001) and increased the 10-year survival rate from 45 to 54% (p<0.001). In the Canadian trial, locoregional relapse rate decreased from 25 to 13 % and the 10-year survival rate increased from 56 to 65 %. The meta-analysis published in 1995 by the EBCTCG showed only a modest benefit due to locoregional irradiation in breast cancer. However, when small or old trials were excluded due to imperfect methodology or inadequate irradiation techniques, the benefit of modern radiotherapy became much more evident in a population of 7,840 patients. Locoregional irradiation appears to be able to reduce the risk of metastatic evolution occurring after local or nodal relapse and must be integrated in a multidisciplinary strategy. Treatment toxicity (especially toxicity due to irradiation of internal mammary nodes) is of special concern, as anthracycline-based chemotherapy is prescribed more often. The use of a direct field, with at least 60 % of the dose

  5. A novel minimally invasive near-infrared thoracoscopic localization technique of small pulmonary nodules: A phase I feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujiie, Hideki; Kato, Tatsuya; Hu, Hsin-Pei; Patel, Priya; Wada, Hironobu; Fujino, Kosuke; Weersink, Robert; Nguyen, Elsie; Cypel, Marcelo; Pierre, Andrew; de Perrot, Marc; Darling, Gail; Waddell, Thomas K; Keshavjee, Shaf; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2017-08-01

    Localization and resection of nonvisible, nonpalpable pulmonary nodules during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery are challenging. Our study was to determine the feasibility and safety of indocyanine green fluorescence localization and resection of small nodules using a near-infrared fluorescence thoracoscope. Twenty patients with undiagnosed peripheral nodules smaller than 3 cm scheduled for computed tomography-guided microcoil placement followed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery wedge resection were enrolled. After microcoil deployment, 100 to 150 μL of diluted indocyanine green was injected percutaneously near the nodule. The nodule initially was localized solely by using a near-infrared thoracoscope to visualize indocyanine green fluorescence. Thoracoscopic instruments were used to determine the staple line. Wedge resection was performed after confirmation of the location of the microcoil using fluoroscopy. Twenty patients underwent near-infrared, image-guided, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery resection. The median computed tomography tumor size was 1.2 cm. The median depth from the pleural surface was 1.4 cm (range, 0.2-4.8 cm). The median computed tomography-guided intervention time was 35 minutes, and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery procedural time was 54 minutes. Indocyanine green fluorescence was clearly identified in 18 of 20 patients (90%). The surgical margins were all negative on final pathology without the need for additional resection. The final diagnoses included 18 primary lung cancers, 1 metastatic lung cancer, and 1 benign lung tumor. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous indocyanine green injection and intraoperative near-infrared localization of small nodules are safe and feasible. These offer surgeons the ease of localization through direct indocyanine green fluorescence imaging without the use of fluoroscopy and may be a complementary technique to preoperative microcoil placement for nonvisible

  6. Geostatistical techniques to assess the influence of soil density on sugarcane productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Karina; Silva, Wellington; Almeida, Ceres; Bezerra, Joel; Almeida, Brivaldo; Siqueira, Glecio

    2013-04-01

    Spatial variation in some soil properties on small distances occur even on homogeneous areas with same soil class that can influence to crop productivity. This variability must be incorporated into the procedures and techniques used in agriculture. Thus, it is necessary to know it to optimize agricultural practices. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of soil density on the sugarcane productivity by geostatistical techniques. The area is located on Rio Formoso city, Pernambuco (Brazil), at latitude 08°38'91"S and longitude 35°16'08"W, where the climate is rainy tropical. About of 243 georeferenced undisturbed soil samples (clods) were collected on lowland area at three depths (0-20, 20-40 and 40-60cm) grid spacing of 15 x 30 m. The total area has 7.5 ha, divided equally into three subareas. Statistical and geostatistics analysis were done. It was found that soil density increased with depth Bulk density and can be used as an index of relative compaction. Machine weight, track or tire design and soil water content at the time of traffic are some of the factors that determine the amount of soil compaction and resulting changes in the plant root environment. These points can have influenced the highest soil density found in subarea 1. This subarea was intensively mechanized and it presents poor drainage and seasonal flood. Based on semivariograms models fitted, we can say that soil density showed spatial dependence in subarea 1 at all depths (Gaussian (0-20cm) and spherical both 20-40 and 40-60cm). Unlike this, the models fitted to subarea 2 were to 0-20 and 40-60cm depths, exponential and on subarea 3, at 0-20cm (Gaussian). Pure nugget effect was found on 20-40cm depth at the subareas 2 and 3, and 40-60cm on the subarea 3. Subarea 1 had higher soil density and lower sugarcane productivity thus, it is known that root development and nutrient uptake are directly influenced by soil density.

  7. Investigating Local and Remote Terrestrial Influence on Air Masses at Contrasting Antarctic Sites Using Radon-222 and Back Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, S. D.; Choi, T.; Park, S.-J.; Williams, A. G.; Hong, S.-B.; Tositti, L.; Griffiths, A. D.; Crawford, J.; Pereira, E.

    2017-12-01

    We report on the first summer of high-sensitivity radon measurements from a two-filter detector at Jang Bogo Station (Terra Nova Bay) and contrast them with simultaneous observations at King Sejong Station (King George Island). King Sejong radon concentrations were characteristic of a marine baseline station (0.02-0.3 Bq m-3), whereas Jang Bogo values were highly variable (0.06-5.2 Bq m-3), mainly due to emissions from exposed coastal ground (estimated mean flux 0.09-0.11 atoms cm-2 s-1) and shallow atmospheric mixing depths. For wind speeds of ≤3.5 m s-1 the influence of local radon emissions became increasingly more prominent at both sites. A cluster analysis of back trajectories from King Sejong (62°S) revealed a fairly even distribution between air masses that had passed recently over South America, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica, whereas at Jang Bogo (75°S) 80% of events had recently passed over the Ross Ice Shelf and West Antarctica, 12% were synoptically forced over Cape Adare, and 8% were associated with subsidence over the Antarctic interior and katabatic flow to the station. When cross-checked against radon concentrations, only half of the back trajectories ending at Jang Bogo that had indicated distant contact with nonpolar southern hemisphere continents within the past 10 days showed actual signs of terrestrial influence. A simple-to-implement technique based on high-pass filtered absolute humidity is developed to distinguish between predominantly katabatic, oceanic, and near-coastal air masses for characterization of trace gas and aerosol measurements at coastal East Antarctic sites.

  8. Statistical atmospheric inversion of local gas emissions by coupling the tracer release technique and local-scale transport modelling: a test case with controlled methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ars, Sébastien; Broquet, Grégoire; Yver Kwok, Camille; Roustan, Yelva; Wu, Lin; Arzoumanian, Emmanuel; Bousquet, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    This study presents a new concept for estimating the pollutant emission rates of a site and its main facilities using a series of atmospheric measurements across the pollutant plumes. This concept combines the tracer release method, local-scale atmospheric transport modelling and a statistical atmospheric inversion approach. The conversion between the controlled emission and the measured atmospheric concentrations of the released tracer across the plume places valuable constraints on the atmospheric transport. This is used to optimise the configuration of the transport model parameters and the model uncertainty statistics in the inversion system. The emission rates of all sources are then inverted to optimise the match between the concentrations simulated with the transport model and the pollutants' measured atmospheric concentrations, accounting for the transport model uncertainty. In principle, by using atmospheric transport modelling, this concept does not strongly rely on the good colocation between the tracer and pollutant sources and can be used to monitor multiple sources within a single site, unlike the classical tracer release technique. The statistical inversion framework and the use of the tracer data for the configuration of the transport and inversion modelling systems should ensure that the transport modelling errors are correctly handled in the source estimation. The potential of this new concept is evaluated with a relatively simple practical implementation based on a Gaussian plume model and a series of inversions of controlled methane point sources using acetylene as a tracer gas. The experimental conditions are chosen so that they are suitable for the use of a Gaussian plume model to simulate the atmospheric transport. In these experiments, different configurations of methane and acetylene point source locations are tested to assess the efficiency of the method in comparison to the classic tracer release technique in coping with the distances

  9. Statistical atmospheric inversion of local gas emissions by coupling the tracer release technique and local-scale transport modelling: a test case with controlled methane emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ars

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new concept for estimating the pollutant emission rates of a site and its main facilities using a series of atmospheric measurements across the pollutant plumes. This concept combines the tracer release method, local-scale atmospheric transport modelling and a statistical atmospheric inversion approach. The conversion between the controlled emission and the measured atmospheric concentrations of the released tracer across the plume places valuable constraints on the atmospheric transport. This is used to optimise the configuration of the transport model parameters and the model uncertainty statistics in the inversion system. The emission rates of all sources are then inverted to optimise the match between the concentrations simulated with the transport model and the pollutants' measured atmospheric concentrations, accounting for the transport model uncertainty. In principle, by using atmospheric transport modelling, this concept does not strongly rely on the good colocation between the tracer and pollutant sources and can be used to monitor multiple sources within a single site, unlike the classical tracer release technique. The statistical inversion framework and the use of the tracer data for the configuration of the transport and inversion modelling systems should ensure that the transport modelling errors are correctly handled in the source estimation. The potential of this new concept is evaluated with a relatively simple practical implementation based on a Gaussian plume model and a series of inversions of controlled methane point sources using acetylene as a tracer gas. The experimental conditions are chosen so that they are suitable for the use of a Gaussian plume model to simulate the atmospheric transport. In these experiments, different configurations of methane and acetylene point source locations are tested to assess the efficiency of the method in comparison to the classic tracer release technique in coping

  10. A comparison between various radiological techniques in the localization and analysis of impacted and supernumerary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Christoph M; Klimowicz, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    objects of interest, with highly accurate anatomical and morphologic imaging, when compared to the intraoperative findings. Furthermore, no diagnostic problems, in relation to the anatomical localization, occurred preoperatively. The CBCT provides true and precise anatomical information with high surgical predictability without distortion or artefacts, and is superior to conventional radiography. It enables more time-efficient surgeries and reduces costs and surgical complications.

  11. A comparison between various radiological techniques in the localization and analysis of impacted and supernumerary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph M Ziegler

    2013-01-01

    the CBCT revealed detailed imaging of significant anatomical structures and objects of interest, with highly accurate anatomical and morphologic imaging, when compared to the intraoperative findings. Furthermore, no diagnostic problems, in relation to the anatomical localization, occurred preoperatively. Conclusion: The CBCT provides true and precise anatomical information with high surgical predictability without distortion or artefacts, and is superior to conventional radiography. It enables more time-efficient surgeries and reduces costs and surgical complications.

  12. Influence of solvent on the morphology and microstructure of YSZ films obtained by spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcade, T.; Oliveira, G.B.; Mueller, I.L.; Malfatti, C.F.

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the influence of solvent used for the deposition of thin films of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) on porous substrate. The films were obtained directly on the porous LSM substrate by spray pyrolysis technique, which consists of spraying a precursor solution containing salts of zirconium (Zr (C 6 H 7 O 2 ) 4) and yttrium (YCl 3 .6H 2 O), dissolved in specific solvents, on the heated substrate. The use of solvents with different boiling points and viscosity aims the optimization of experimental operating parameters to obtain homogeneous and dense films suitable for application as electrolyte in fuel cells, solid oxide (SOFC). The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. (author)

  13. Development and experimental basis of local subretinal technique of xenogenic’s injection stem cells labelled by magnetic perticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belyy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: is to develop a technique for local subretinal injection of xenogeneic stem cells labeled with magnetic particles and to prove experimentally its effectiveness.Material and methods: We used a line of stem cells HEK-293 GFP,labeled with magnetic particles. The study was made on 84 eyes of 42 chinchilla rabbits 6 months of age, the weight were from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. All right eyes were experimental (42 eyes and all left eyes (42 eyes were the control group. In the experimental group we used original complex of polymer elastic magnetic implant (PEMI with laser probe and fixed it to the sclera, then we made a median vitrectomy and injected HEK-293 GFP under the retina using a specially designed dispenser. In the control group PEMI was not fixed. We examined animals using biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, ultrasound scanning, optical coherence tomography  OCT, computer tomography (CT, morphological study (cryohistological sections in 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 day and 1 month after surgery.Results: According the results of biomicroscopy in observation periods up to 3 days the vascular injection was visualized in the area operation. According the results of ophthalmoscopy and ultrasound scanning in 1 day the local retinal detachment was visualized in the area of local injection of the stem cells, which was not visualized in terms of further observations. CT helped us to confirm the local place of PEMI fixation. The morphological study results showed that cells were located in the subretinal space up to 14 days in the experimental group, and only up 3 days in the control group.Conclusion: The suggested surgical technique enables to control the injection of cells into the subretinal space, reduces the risk of tissue damage and exit cells in the vitreous space. The suggested methodology allows the fixing of the cellular material in the local place of the injection and enables to predict cells`s movement.

  14. Development and experimental basis of local subretinal technique of xenogenic’s injection stem cells labelled by magnetic perticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belyy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: is to develop a technique for local subretinal injection of xenogeneic stem cells labeled with magnetic particles and to prove experimentally its effectiveness.Material and methods: We used a line of stem cells HEK-293 GFP,labeled with magnetic particles. The study was made on 84 eyes of 42 chinchilla rabbits 6 months of age, the weight were from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. All right eyes were experimental (42 eyes and all left eyes (42 eyes were the control group. In the experimental group we used original complex of polymer elastic magnetic implant (PEMI with laser probe and fixed it to the sclera, then we made a median vitrectomy and injected HEK-293 GFP under the retina using a specially designed dispenser. In the control group PEMI was not fixed. We examined animals using biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, ultrasound scanning, optical coherence tomography  OCT, computer tomography (CT, morphological study (cryohistological sections in 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 day and 1 month after surgery.Results: According the results of biomicroscopy in observation periods up to 3 days the vascular injection was visualized in the area operation. According the results of ophthalmoscopy and ultrasound scanning in 1 day the local retinal detachment was visualized in the area of local injection of the stem cells, which was not visualized in terms of further observations. CT helped us to confirm the local place of PEMI fixation. The morphological study results showed that cells were located in the subretinal space up to 14 days in the experimental group, and only up 3 days in the control group.Conclusion: The suggested surgical technique enables to control the injection of cells into the subretinal space, reduces the risk of tissue damage and exit cells in the vitreous space. The suggested methodology allows the fixing of the cellular material in the local place of the injection and enables to predict cells`s movement.

  15. Influence of neighbourhood information on 'Local Climate Zone' mapping in heterogeneous cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonck, Marie-Leen; Okujeni, Akpona; van der Linden, Sebastian; Demuzere, Matthias; De Wulf, Robert; Van Coillie, Frieke

    2017-10-01

    Local climate zone (LCZ) mapping is an emerging field in urban climate research. LCZs potentially provide an objective framework to assess urban form and function worldwide. The scheme is currently being used to globally map LCZs as a part of the World Urban Database and Access Portal Tools (WUDAPT) initiative. So far, most of the LCZ maps lack proper quantitative assessment, challenging the generic character of the WUDAPT workflow. Using the standard method introduced by the WUDAPT community difficulties arose concerning the built zones due to high levels of heterogeneity. To overcome this problem a contextual classifier is adopted in the mapping process. This paper quantitatively assesses the influence of neighbourhood information on the LCZ mapping result of three cities in Belgium: Antwerp, Brussels and Ghent. Overall accuracies for the maps were respectively 85.7 ± 0.5, 79.6 ± 0.9, 90.2 ± 0.4%. The approach presented here results in overall accuracies of 93.6 ± 0.2, 92.6 ± 0.3 and 95.6 ± 0.3% for Antwerp, Brussels and Ghent. The results thus indicate a positive influence of neighbourhood information for all study areas with an increase in overall accuracies of 7.9, 13.0 and 5.4%. This paper reaches two main conclusions. Firstly, evidence was introduced on the relevance of a quantitative accuracy assessment in LCZ mapping, showing that the accuracies reported in previous papers are not easily achieved. Secondly, the method presented in this paper proves to be highly effective in Belgian cities, and given its open character shows promise for application in other heterogeneous cities worldwide.

  16. Influence of prosthesis design and implantation technique on implant stresses after cementless revision THR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Georg N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Femoral offset influences the forces at the hip and the implant stresses after revision THR. For extended bone defects, these forces may cause considerable bending moments within the implant, possibly leading to implant failure. This study investigates the influences of femoral anteversion and offset on stresses in the Wagner SL revision stem implant under varying extents of bone defect conditions. Methods Wagner SL revision stems with standard (34 mm and increased offset (44 mm were virtually implanted in a model femur with bone defects of variable extent (Paprosky I to IIIb. Variations in surgical technique were simulated by implanting the stems each at 4° or 14° of anteversion. Muscle and joint contact forces were applied to the reconstruction and implant stresses were determined using finite element analyses. Results Whilst increasing the implant's offset by 10 mm led to increased implant stresses (16.7% in peak tensile stresses, altering anteversion played a lesser role (5%. Generally, larger stresses were observed with reduced bone support: implant stresses increased by as much as 59% for a type IIIb defect. With increased offset, the maximum tensile stress was 225 MPa. Conclusion Although increased stresses were observed within the stem with larger offset and increased anteversion, these findings indicate that restoration of offset, key to restoring joint function, is unlikely to result in excessive implant stresses under routine activities if appropriate fixation can be achieved.

  17. Influence of local and regional Mediterranean meteorology on SO₂ ground-level concentrations in SE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacatalina, Milagros; Carratalá, Adoración; Mantilla, Enrique

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) ground-level concentrations in an area of southeastern Spain, the L'Alacantí region, where the cement industry is important and coke use extends to other industries as well. The main source of SO(2) emissions in the area was found to be a the Lepold cement plant (one of the two cement plants in the area). The high levels of SO(2) probably extend back to 1920 when this plant began operations. Both local and Mediterranean-scale meteorological processes influence the SO(2) ground-level concentration and together explain the dispersion dynamics of this pollutant. The location and topography of the study zone result in NW Atlantic advections and E-SE sea breezes being the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns in the area. Under stable meteorological conditions, minor local circulations are also relevant to the SO(2) concentration levels. The high frequency of local circulations determines a concentration pattern that changes during the day, with impacts occurring preferentially in a W-NW direction from the source at midday (sea breeze and strong thermal mixture), and in a SE direction at night. This causes the SO(2) concentrations to present well-defined diurnal cycles with well-differentiated shapes depending on the location of the sampling station relative to the source. The dependence of SO(2) 10 min levels on the wind origin and speed throughout the day has been evaluated by studying statistical parameters including P95, P50 and arithmetic mean. Exceedances occur under specific dispersion conditions at distances less than 1 km from the source. However, the source is traceable at larger distances and the levels are higher than typical urban ones. P95 was used as an estimator of the occurrence of larger levels or impacts. Leeward of NW winds and the source, at night and in early morning, P95 levels are comprised between 30 and 55 µg m(-3). In contrast, with SE winds and at midday, P95

  18. Western European influences on Post-Byzantine panel painting technique through binding media identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouloumpi, E.; Lawson, G.; Pavlidis, B.

    2006-01-01

    Post-Byzantine is called the period after the invasion of the Ottomans in Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium in 1453, which lasted until the establishment of the first Greek State in 1836. The Post - Byzantine era is one of the most important artistic periods of the Neo-Hellenic Pictorial Art, since, through cultural exchanges with Western Europe, it sets the fundaments for oil painting. The thematology changes from religious to civil, the technique changes from egg yolk to egg-oil emulsion in order to end up to pure oil painting and finally, it opens 'the gates' for the modern artistic movements of the world. The current research is focused on the study of the effects of western influences on the technique and pictorial characteristics of the post-Byzantine icons by the study of any changes in the pigment's binding media through scientific analyses (SEM-EDX, micro-FTIR and GC), as well as of any changes in the painting style of the icons through comparison with both Byzantine and western painting standards. Research never ends and the results of this work give rise to further analysis, in order to throw some light to this transitional period of art. (Author)

  19. Western European influences on Post-Byzantine panel painting technique through binding media identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouloumpi, E. [De Montfort University -UK, National Gallery- Alexandros Soutzos Museum, Conservation Department.1 Michalacopoulou Street, 11601, Athens (Greece); Lawson, G. [Head of Research, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Hawthorn Building, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Pavlidis, B. [School of Allied Health Sciences, Hawthorn Building, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)]. e-mail: elenikouloumpi@nationalgallery.gr

    2006-07-01

    Post-Byzantine is called the period after the invasion of the Ottomans in Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium in 1453, which lasted until the establishment of the first Greek State in 1836. The Post - Byzantine era is one of the most important artistic periods of the Neo-Hellenic Pictorial Art, since, through cultural exchanges with Western Europe, it sets the fundaments for oil painting. The thematology changes from religious to civil, the technique changes from egg yolk to egg-oil emulsion in order to end up to pure oil painting and finally, it opens 'the gates' for the modern artistic movements of the world. The current research is focused on the study of the effects of western influences on the technique and pictorial characteristics of the post-Byzantine icons by the study of any changes in the pigment's binding media through scientific analyses (SEM-EDX, micro-FTIR and GC), as well as of any changes in the painting style of the icons through comparison with both Byzantine and western painting standards. Research never ends and the results of this work give rise to further analysis, in order to throw some light to this transitional period of art. (Author)

  20. A new 125I-fibrinogen technique for detection and depth localization of post-operative venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, K.

    1981-10-01

    The reliability and sensitivity of the 125 I-fibrinogen uptake test (FUT) was improved by using an equipment that allowed frequent controls of its sensitivity. A new technique the 125 I-fibrinogen-sum-coincidence method (FSC), which can be used in combination with the conventional FUT for detection deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was developed. With this new method the depths of the fibrin deposits detected by the FUT could be determined. Very good agreement was demonstrated between depth determinations of thrombi by the FSC-technique and by phlebography. The new technique permits differentiation between true DVT and superficial venous thrombosis. Altogether 354 patients subjected to gynecology surgery were studied postoperatively with the improved FUT and 65 of them had signs of lower limb DVT with this test. 41 patients with a positive FUT were investigated with the FSC-technique as well, and in 37 of them the diagnosis of DVT was confirmed. Advanced age, and malignancy were preoperative risk factors for the development of DVT whereas the method of anaesthesia (general or epidural) had no significant influence on the rate of DVT. The five-fold increase in the rate of DVT after preoperative treatment with synthetic oestrogens neccesitated a change in the preoperative administration of such drugs. The new FSC-technique offers the possibilities of both determining the true 125 I-activity in athrombosis and of following its course for several weeks. It is recommended that thrombi with a maximum net-activity >2kBq and with no sign of lysis when checked by the FSC-test should be treated. (author)

  1. Local influence for spatial analysis of soil physical properties and soybean yield using student's t-distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Aparecida Botinha Assumpção

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The modeling and estimation of the parameters that define the spatial dependence structure of a regionalized variable by geostatistical methods are fundamental, since these parameters, underlying the kriging of unsampled points, allow the construction of thematic maps. One or more atypical observations in the sample data can affect the estimation of these parameters. Thus, the assessment of the combined influence of these observations by the analysis of Local Influence is essential. The purpose of this paper was to propose local influence analysis methods for the regionalized variable, given that it has n-variate Student's t-distribution, and compare it with the analysis of local influence when the same regionalized variable has n-variate normal distribution. These local influence analysis methods were applied to soil physical properties and soybean yield data of an experiment carried out in a 56.68 ha commercial field in western Paraná, Brazil. Results showed that influential values are efficiently determined with n-variate Student's t-distribution.

  2. Influence of implant properties and local delivery systems on the outcome in operative fracture care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsemakers, W-J; Moriarty, T F; Nijs, S; Pape, H C; Richards, R G

    2016-03-01

    Fracture fixation devices are implanted into a growing number of patients each year. This may be attributed to an increase in the popularity of operative fracture care and the development of ever more sophisticated implants, which may be used in even the most difficult clinical cases. Furthermore, as the general population ages, fragility fractures become more frequent. With the increase in number of surgical interventions, the absolute number of complications of these surgical treatments will inevitably rise. Implant-related infection and compromised fracture healing remain the most challenging and prevalent complications in operative fracture care. Any strategy that can help to reduce these complications will not only lead to a faster and more complete resumption of activities, but will also help to reduce the socio-economic impact. In this review we describe the influence of implant design and material choice on complication rates in trauma patients. Furthermore, we discuss the importance of local delivery systems, such as implant coatings and bone cement, and how these systems may have an impact on the prevalence, prevention and treatment outcome of these complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Globalisation and local power: influences on health matters in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Tal; Gilbert, Leah

    2004-03-01

    This paper reviews some of the multiple influences on health issues in South Africa, placing them in the context of globalisation. By examining the complexity of factors, both domestic and global, which impact on these issues, it questions the extent to which global patterns in areas such as health policy, HIV/AIDS, health care pluralism, and neo-liberal macroeconomic policy have played out in South Africa. The identification of some of the multiple and complex forces in each case reveals a relatively consistent story of global pressures interacting with domestic realities, with some recognizably local results. There is no doubt that a full and nuanced understanding of health in South Africa requires an appreciation of developments in the global political economy, international organizations such as the WHO and World Bank, and forces which operate outside of institutions. In each case, however, the specific opportunities available to actors within the country, as well as the relative power of those actors, should be given their due consideration in analysing their potential impact on health matters.

  4. Mapping factors influencing EAI adoption in the local government authorities on different phases of the adoption lifecycle

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, M; Themistocleous, M; Elliman, T

    2008-01-01

    Several private and public organisations have adopted Enterprise Application Integration (EAI), however, its application in the Local Government Authorities (LGAs) is limited. Although, there exist few EAI adoption models, these models mainly focus on a number of different factors (e.g. benefits, barriers, cost) influencing the decision making process for EAI adoption. Moreover, these models do not illustrate which factor(s) influence the decision making process for EAI adoption on the adopti...

  5. Respective influence of veterinarians and local institutional stakeholders on the event-driven surveillance system for bovine brucellosis in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Calavas, Didier

    2015-08-01

    The event-driven surveillance system for bovine brucellosis implemented in France aims to ensure the early detection of cases of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It consists of mandatory notification of bovine abortions by farmers and veterinarians. However, as underlined by a previous qualitative study, several factors influence the decision-making process of actors in the field. This process is particularly influenced by the level of cooperation between institutional stakeholders in their département (a French département being an administrative and territorial unit), veterinarians and farmers. In this context, the objectives of this study were 1) to quantify the respective influence of veterinarians and all local institutional stakeholders on the proportion of notifying farmers and identify which actors have most influence on farmers' decisions; 2) to analyse whether the influence of veterinarians is correlated with that of local institutional stakeholders. In addition to factors relating to the farm itself (production type and herd size), the proportion of notifying farmers was influenced by the number of veterinarians per practice and the veterinary practice's membership of a technical association. This proportion was also influenced by unknown factors relating to the veterinary practice and, to a lesser extent, the département in which the farm was located. There was no correlation between variability in the proportion of notifying farmers among veterinary practices per département and the effect of the département itself. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the influence of veterinarians and local institutional stakeholders on the notification process for a mandatory disease. In addition to carrying out regulatory interventions, veterinarians play a major role in encouraging farmers to participate in the surveillance systems. The results of this study, combined with a previous

  6. Influence of strain on local structure and lithium ionic conduction in garnet-type solid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hirotoshi; Ito, Tomoko; Hongahally Basappa, Rajendra; Bekarevich, Raman; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka

    2017-11-01

    All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) have various problems associated with their usage that are normally not encountered in conventional lithium-ion batteries. Stress on interfaces between solid electrolytes and active materials is one of the key issues because the active materials change their volume during charging/discharging. In this work, first, we reveal that garnet-type solid electrolytes, Li6.5La3Zr1.5Ta0.5O12 (LLZT), prepared by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique, exhibit a residual tensile stress of more than 100 MPa in the direction of the SPS pressure. Then, the influence of the strain on ionic conduction is investigated in detail. It is demonstrated that the strain causes no change in the bulk resistance, while the grain boundary resistance increases in both the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy. The results suggest the importance of the strength of grain boundaries (including interfaces) for the practical application of ASSBs.

  7. Localization and diagonalization. A review of functional integral techniques for low-dimensional gauge theories and topological field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, M.; Thompson, G.

    1995-01-01

    We review localization techniques for functional integrals which have recently been used to perform calculations in and gain insight into the structure of certain topological field theories and low-dimensional gauge theories. These are the functional integral counterparts of the Mathai-Quillen formalism, the Duistermaat-Heckman theorem, and the Weyl integral formula respectively. In each case, we first introduce the necessary mathematical background (Euler classes of vector bundles, equivariant cohomology, topology of Lie groups), and describe the finite dimensional integration formulae. We then discuss some applications to path integrals and give an overview of the relevant literature. The applications we deal with include supersymmetric quantum mechanics, cohomological field theories, phase space path integrals, and two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. (author). 83 refs

  8. Influence of Radiotherapy Treatment Concept on the Outcome of Patients With Localized Ependymomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, Stephanie E.; Kelter, Verena; Welzel, Thomas; Behnisch, Wolfgang; Kulozik, Andreas E.; Bischof, Marc; Hof, Holger; Debus, Juergen; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the outcome of 57 patients with localized ependymomas treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Fifty-seven patients with localized ependymomas were treated with RT. Histology was myxopapillary ependymoma (n = 4), ependymoma (n = 23), and anaplastic ependymoma (n = 30). In 16 patients, irradiation of the craniospinal axis (CSI) was performed with a median dose of 20 Gy. Forty-one patients were treated with local RT, with a local dose of 45 Gy to the posterior fossa, including a boost to the tumor bed of 9 Gy. In 19 patients, the tumor bed was irradiated with a median dose of 54 Gy. Results: Overall survival after primary diagnosis was 83% and 71% at 3 and 5 years. Five-year overall survival was 80% in low-grade and 79% in high-grade tumors. Survival from RT was 79% at 3 and 64% at 5 years. We could not show a significant difference in overall survival between CSI and local RT only. Freedom of local failure was 67% at 5 years in patients treated with CSI and 60% at 5 years after local RT. A rate of 83% for distant failure-free survival could be observed in the CSI group as opposed to 93% in the group receiving local RT only. Conclusion: Local RT in patients with localized tumors is equieffective to CSI. The radiation oncologist must keep in mind that patients with localized ependymomas benefit from local doses ≥45 Gy

  9. Novel analytical technique to study nucleobase influence on DNA strand breaks caused by direct ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.M.; Bernhard, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Analysis of the reactions involved in the direct effect of ionizing radiation on DNA is crucial to assessing the risks related with exposure at low dose. The direct interaction of ionizing radiation with DNA initially results in free radicals situated on bases and the backbone, which eventually lead to stable end products that include strand breaks (sb) and free nucleobase release (fbr). The yields of these two products are thought to be related because ejection of an electron from the DNA backbone produces a radical cation that deprotonates to yield a neutral carbon-centered deoxyribose radical. These neutral radicals react when dissolved to produce one strand break and one free base each. Therefore fbr can be used as an indicator of sb. It is commonly presumed that that sb occur independent of the surrounding base context. However recent studies have indicated that a base may indeed have influence over the probability of sb at its backbone unit. In one such study, films prepared from 10- to 30-mer DNA duplexes were irradiated at RT under air using X-rays generated by a tungsten tube operated at 70 kV. The films were dissolved in nuclease free water and stored at 277 K. Unaltered free base release was measured using HPLC, and the yields determined for each base were not strictly proportionate to their presence in the DNA sequence. In fact, this study indicated that strand breaks may be influenced by a number of factors including position within the oligomer as well as the base and its base context. The current study involves further analysis of these factors; instead of using HPLC to separate and measure fbr, which is time consuming and expensive, a novel analytical technique is being used to determine the amount and ratio of fbr for each of the four bases. This technique involves separation of free bases from bulk DNA using filters followed by decomposition of the UV spectra of mixtures of bases at different pH. Decomposition

  10. Influence of age, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on localization of auditory, visual, and bimodal targets by human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobreva, Marina S; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

    2012-12-01

    A common complaint of the elderly is difficulty identifying and localizing auditory and visual sources, particularly in competing background noise. Spatial errors in the elderly may pose challenges and even threats to self and others during everyday activities, such as localizing sounds in a crowded room or driving in traffic. In this study, we investigated the influence of aging, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on the localization of auditory, visual, and combined auditory-visual (bimodal) targets. Head-restrained young and elderly subjects localized targets in a dark, echo-attenuated room using a manual laser pointer. Localization accuracy and precision (repeatability) were quantified for both ongoing and transient (remembered) targets at response delays up to 10 s. Because eye movements bias auditory spatial perception, localization was assessed under target fixation (eyes free, pointer guided by foveal vision) and central fixation (eyes fixed straight ahead, pointer guided by peripheral vision) conditions. Spatial localization across the frontal field in young adults demonstrated (1) horizontal overshoot and vertical undershoot for ongoing auditory targets under target fixation conditions, but near-ideal horizontal localization with central fixation; (2) accurate and precise localization of ongoing visual targets guided by foveal vision under target fixation that degraded when guided by peripheral vision during central fixation; (3) overestimation in horizontal central space (±10°) of remembered auditory, visual, and bimodal targets with increasing response delay. In comparison with young adults, elderly subjects showed (1) worse precision in most paradigms, especially when localizing with peripheral vision under central fixation; (2) greatly impaired vertical localization of auditory and bimodal targets; (3) increased horizontal overshoot in the central field for remembered visual and bimodal targets across response delays; (4) greater vulnerability to

  11. Factors Influencing Low Level of Women Participation in Literacy Programme in Maiha Local Government Area of Adamawa State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Aminchi

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the extent to which poverty, gender stereotype, socio-cultural belief and lack of awareness influence low level of women participation in literacy programme in Maiha Local Government Area of Adamawa State. Survey designed was adopted for the study and a sample consisting of three hundred (300) women who were…

  12. Study of the influence of central nuclear power plants at Valdaliga (Civitavecchia) on the chemical composition of local rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargagli, A.; Morabito, R.; Basili, N.; Tidei, F.

    1989-05-01

    Data from a wet deposition sampling over the area collocated nearby Civitavecchia power plants are here presented and discussed. In order to establish the possible influence of the power plants emission on the chemical composition of the rain collected, the experimental data have been correlated with synoptic and local meteorological conditions. (author)

  13. Influence of Psychosocial Factors on Aging among the Aged in Ihitte-Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojukwu, M. O.

    2016-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to examine influence of psychosocial factors on aging among the aged in Ihitte Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto or casual comparative research design was adopted for the study. Two hundred and twenty-five (225) old people were selected through random sampling for the study.…

  14. Local modelling techniques for assessing micro-level impacts of risk factors in complex data: understanding health and socioeconomic inequalities in childhood educational attainments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shang-Ming; Lyons, Ronan A; Bodger, Owen G; John, Ann; Brunt, Huw; Jones, Kerina; Gravenor, Mike B; Brophy, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Although inequalities in health and socioeconomic status have an important influence on childhood educational performance, the interactions between these multiple factors relating to variation in educational outcomes at micro-level is unknown, and how to evaluate the many possible interactions of these factors is not well established. This paper aims to examine multi-dimensional deprivation factors and their impact on childhood educational outcomes at micro-level, focusing on geographic areas having widely different disparity patterns, in which each area is characterised by six deprivation domains (Income, Health, Geographical Access to Services, Housing, Physical Environment, and Community Safety). Traditional health statistical studies tend to use one global model to describe the whole population for macro-analysis. In this paper, we combine linked educational and deprivation data across small areas (median population of 1500), then use a local modelling technique, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system, to predict area educational outcomes at ages 7 and 11. We define two new metrics, "Micro-impact of Domain" and "Contribution of Domain", to quantify the variations of local impacts of multidimensional factors on educational outcomes across small areas. The two metrics highlight differing priorities. Our study reveals complex multi-way interactions between the deprivation domains, which could not be provided by traditional health statistical methods based on single global model. We demonstrate that although Income has an expected central role, all domains contribute, and in some areas Health, Environment, Access to Services, Housing and Community Safety each could be the dominant factor. Thus the relative importance of health and socioeconomic factors varies considerably for different areas, depending on the levels of each of the other factors, and therefore each component of deprivation must be considered as part of a wider system. Childhood educational achievement could

  15. Influence of applied corneal endothelium image segmentation techniques on the clinical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, Adam; Nurzynska, Karolina; Gronkowska-Serafin, Jolanta; Selig, Bettina; Boldak, Cezary; Reska, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The corneal endothelium state is verified on the basis of an in vivo specular microscope image from which the shape and density of cells are exploited for data description. Due to the relatively low image quality resulting from a high magnification of the living, non-stained tissue, both manual and automatic analysis of the data is a challenging task. Although, many automatic or semi-automatic solutions have already been introduced, all of them are prone to inaccuracy. This work presents a comparison of four methods (fully-automated or semi-automated) for endothelial cell segmentation, all of which represent a different approach to cell segmentation; fast robust stochastic watershed (FRSW), KH method, active contours solution (SNAKE), and TOPCON ImageNET. Moreover, an improvement framework is introduced which aims to unify precise cell border location in images pre-processed with differing techniques. Finally, the influence of the selected methods on clinical parameters is examined, both with and without the improvement framework application. The experiments revealed that although the image segmentation approaches differ, the measures calculated for clinical parameters are in high accordance when CV (coefficient of variation), and CVSL (coefficient of variation of cell sides length) are considered. Higher variation was noticed for the H (hexagonality) metric. Utilisation of the improvement framework assured better repeatability of precise endothelial cell border location between the methods while diminishing the dispersion of clinical parameter values calculated for such images. Finally, it was proven statistically that the image processing method applied for endothelial cell analysis does not influence the ability to differentiate between the images using medical parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of local and landscape factors on distributional dynamics: a species-centred, fitness-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Aaron D

    2017-07-12

    In spatially structured populations, distributional dynamics are driven by the quantity, connectivity and quality of habitat. Because these drivers are rarely measured directly and simultaneously at relevant scales, information on their relative importance remains unclear. I assessed the influence of both direct and indirect measures of local habitat quality, and of landscape habitat amount and connectivity on long-term territory occupancy dynamics of non-migratory pygmy owls. Direct measures of local habitat quality based on territory-specific reproductive output had greater effects on distribution than landscape factors, but only when spatio-temporal fluxes in performance linked to environmental stochasticity and intraspecific competition were considered. When habitat quality was measured indirectly based on habitat structure, however, landscape factors had greater effects. Although all landscape factors were important, measures of landscape connectivity that were uncorrelated with habitat amount and based on attributes of matrix structure and habitat configuration that influence dispersal movements had greater effects than habitat effective area (amount weighted by quality). Moreover, the influence of connectivity (but not habitat effective area) depended on local habitat quality. Such results suggest the relative importance of local habitat quality in driving distribution has been underestimated and that conservation strategies should vary spatially depending on both local and landscape contexts. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Factors influencing local ecological knowledge of forage resources: Ethnobotanical evidence from West Africa's savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naah, John-Baptist S N; Guuroh, Reginald T

    2017-03-01

    Recording local ecological knowledge (LEK) is a useful approach to understanding interactions of the complex social-ecological systems. In spite of the recent growing interest in LEK studies on the effects of climate and land use changes, livestock mobility decisions and other aspects of agro-pastoral systems, LEK on forage plants has still been vastly under-documented in the West African savannas. Using a study area ranging from northern Ghana to central Burkina Faso, we thus aimed at exploring how aridity and socio-demographic factors drive the distributional patterns of forage-related LEK among its holders. With stratified random sampling, we elicited LEK among 450 informants in 15 villages (seven in Ghana and eight in Burkina Faso) via free list tasks coupled with ethnobotanical walks and direct field observations. We performed generalized linear mixed-effects models (aridity- and ethnicity-based models) and robust model selection procedures. Our findings revealed that LEK for woody and herbaceous forage plants was strongly influenced by the ethnicity-based model, while aridity-based model performed better for LEK on overall forage resources and crop-related forage plants. We also found that climatic aridity had negative effect on the forage-related LEK across gender and age groups, while agro- and floristic diversity had positive effect on the body of LEK. About 135 species belonging to 95 genera and 52 families were cited. Our findings shed more light on how ethnicity and environmental harshness can markedly shape the body of LEK in the face of global climate change. Better understanding of such a place-based knowledge system is relevant for sustainable forage plants utilization and livestock production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of climatic variability on local population dynamics of Cercidium microphyllum (foothill paloverde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Janice E.; Turner, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated correlations among climatic variability, population age structure, and seedling survival of a dominant Sonoran Desert tree, Cercidium microphyllum (foothill paloverde), at Tucson, Arizona, USA. A major goal was to determine whether wet years promote seedling establishment and thereby determine population structure. Plant age was estimated from basal circumference for a sample of 980 living and dead trees in twelve 0.5-ha plots. Ages ranged from 1 to 181 years. Age frequency distribution showed that the population is in decline. Most (51.2%) of the 814 living trees were 40-80 years old; only 6.5% were younger than 20 years. The average age of the 166 dead trees was 78 years. Fifty-nine percent of dead trees were aged 60-100 years. Survival of newly emerged seedlings was monitored for 7 years in a 557-m2 permanent plot. Mean survival in the 1st year of life was 1.7%. Only 2 of 1,008 seedlings lived longer than 1 year. Length of survival was not correlated with rainfall. Residual regeneration, an index of the difference between predicted and observed cohort size, showed that regeneration was high during the first half of the twentieth century and poor after the mid-1950s. Trends in regeneration did not reflect interannual variation in seasonal temperature or rain before 1950, that is, in the years before urban warming. Taken together, the seedling study and the regeneration analysis suggest that local population dynamics reflect biotic factors to such an extent that population age structure might not always be a reliable clue to past climatic influences.

  19. When can parents most influence their child's development? Expert knowledge and perceived local realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthman, Carol M; Tomlinson, Mark; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2016-04-01

    Compelling evidence for the long-term impact of conditions in gestation and early childhood on both physical and psychosocial functioning and productivity has stimulated a focus in global health policy and social services on the "first 1000 days". Consequently, related initiatives may assume that rationale for this orientation and the agency of parents during this period is self-evident and widely shared among parents and communities. In 2012, we tested this assumption among a sample of 38 township-dwelling caregivers in Cape Town, by asking a question identified during a study of cultural models of parenting, namely: At what age or stage can a parent or caregiver have the most influence on a child's development? Formal cultural consensus analysis of responses met criteria for strong agreement that the period for greatest impact of parenting on a child's development occurs at adolescence, at a median age of 12 years. In follow-up focus groups and structured interviews, caregivers articulated clear ecological and developmental reasons for this view, related to protection both of developmental potential and against powerful, context-specific ecological risks (early pregnancy, substance ab/use, violence and gangs) that emerge during adolescence. Such risks threaten educational attainment, reproductive health, and social derailment with enduring consequences for lifetime well-being that caregivers are highly motivated to prevent. Developmental needs in pregnancy and early childhood, by contrast, were considered more manageable. These findings resonate with emerging evidence for multiple sensitive periods with corresponding developmental needs, and urge the value of complementing efforts to optimize early development with those to sustain and enhance it during later windows of developmental opportunity such as adolescence. Our results also indicate the need to consult local views of developmental risk and parenting practice in communicating with caregivers and planning

  20. Marginal Adaptation and Quality of Interfaces in Lithium Disilicate Crowns - Influence of Manufacturing and Cementation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo Freire, C A; Borges, G A; Caldas, Dbm; Santos, R S; Ignácio, S A; Mazur, R F

    To evaluate the cement line thickness and the interface quality in milled or injected lithium disilicate ceramic restorations and their influence on marginal adaptation using different cement types and different adhesive cementation techniques. Sixty-four bovine teeth were prepared for full crown restoration (7.0±0.5 mm in height, 8.0 mm in cervical diameter, and 4.2 mm in incisal diameter) and were divided into two groups: CAD/CAM automation technology, IPS e.max CAD (CAD), and isostatic injection by heat technology, IPS e.max Press (PRESS). RelyX ARC (ARC) and RelyX U200 resin cements were used as luting agents in two activation methods: initial self-activation and light pre-activation for one second (tack-cure). Next, the specimens were stored in distilled water at 23°C ± 2°C for 72 hours. The cement line thickness was measured in micrometers, and the interface quality received scores according to the characteristics and sealing aspects. The evaluations were performed with an optical microscope, and scanning electron microscope images were presented to demonstrate the various features found in the cement line. For the cement line thickness, data were analyzed with three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Games-Howell test (α=0.05). For the variable interface quality, the data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U-test, the Kruskal-Wallis test, and multiple comparisons nonparametric Dunn test (α=0.05). The ANOVA presented statistical differences among the ceramic restoration manufacturing methods as well as a significant interaction between the manufacturing methods and types of cement (pcement line thickness values when compared to the ARC with both cementation techniques (pmanufacturing methods and cementation techniques. The PRESS ceramics obtained lower scores than did the CAD ceramics when using ARC cement (pcemented with self-adhesive resin cement resulted in a thinner cement line that is statistically different from that of CAD or pressed

  1. Effectiveness of behavioral modification techniques with visual distraction using intrasulcular local anesthesia in hearing disabled children during pulp therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, Kausar Sadia; Gorduysus, Mehmet Omer; El Batawi, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the effectiveness of behavioral modification techniques in combination with visual distraction with/without video eyewear using computerized delivery system-intrasulcular (CDS-IS) during the application of local anesthetic in hearing-impaired pediatric patients undergoing pulp therapy of primary molars. This randomized, crossover clinical study includes 15 children (7 boys and 8 girls), mean age was 6.1 years. Children were randomly distributed into two groups (Group A, n = 7; Group B, n = 8). The study involved three sessions, 1-week apart. During Session I, employing Tell-Show-Do technique, prophylactic dental cleaning was done while participants were watching a movie with sign-language interpretation with/without visual eyewear. At the end of Session I, score on Smiley Faces Program was used for anxiety assessment. During Session II and III, respectively, both groups underwent pulp treatment of equivalent teeth in the opposite sides of the mouth with/without video eyewear vice versa. After the procedure, children were instructed to rate their pain during treatment on the Wong-Bakers' (WBs') Faces Pain Scale. Changes in pulse oximeter and heart rate were recorded every 5 min. Paired sample t -test and independent sample t -test were used to assess the significance of changes during each visit. There was a significant ( P > 0.04) change in the heart rate observed for Group A underwent pulp treatment while watching video using video eyewear. Self-reported mean pain score also increases during treatment sessions' with video eyewear, for both groups. Routine psychological (Tell-Show-Do) intervention along with visual distraction with full visibility of the surrounding and use of CDS-IS system for anesthetic delivery is recommended as an effective behavior management technique for children with hearing impairment undergoing invasive dental treatment.

  2. Application of a local linearization technique for the solution of a system of stiff differential equations associated with the simulation of a magnetic bearing assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, K. S.; Mcdaniel, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    A digital local linearization technique was used to solve a system of stiff differential equations which simulate a magnetic bearing assembly. The results prove the technique to be accurate, stable, and efficient when compared to a general purpose variable order Adams method with a stiff option.

  3. [A brief history of resuscitation - the influence of previous experience on modern techniques and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucmin, Tomasz; Płowaś-Goral, Małgorzata; Nogalski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  4. Influence of the internal anatomy on the leakage of root canals filled with thermoplastic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jadaa, Anas; Attin, T; Peltomäki, T; Heumann, C; Schmidlin, P R; Paquè, F

    2017-10-11

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of the internal anatomy on the leakage of root canals filled with the thermoplastic technique. The upper central incisors (UCI) and mesial roots of the lower molars (MRLM) (n = 12 each) were tested regarding leakage using the gas-enhanced permeation test (GEPT) after root filling. The quality of the root fillings was assessed using micro-computed tomography (μCT) by superimposing scans before and after treatment to calculate unfilled volume. The calculated void volume was compared between the groups and correlated to the measured leakage values. Data were analyzed using t test and Pearson's correlation tests (p UCI and MRLM (13.7 ± 6.2% vs. 14.2 ± 6.8%, respectively). However, significantly more leakage was evident in the MRLM (p UCI (R 2  = 0.467, p = 0.126). MRLM showed higher leakage values, which correlated to the void volume in the root canal fillings. Care should always be taken while doing root canal treatments, but attention to teeth with known/expected complex root canal anatomy should be considered.

  5. Neutralizing misinformation through inoculation: Exposing misleading argumentation techniques reduces their influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, John; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Ecker, Ullrich K H

    2017-01-01

    Misinformation can undermine a well-functioning democracy. For example, public misconceptions about climate change can lead to lowered acceptance of the reality of climate change and lowered support for mitigation policies. This study experimentally explored the impact of misinformation about climate change and tested several pre-emptive interventions designed to reduce the influence of misinformation. We found that false-balance media coverage (giving contrarian views equal voice with climate scientists) lowered perceived consensus overall, although the effect was greater among free-market supporters. Likewise, misinformation that confuses people about the level of scientific agreement regarding anthropogenic global warming (AGW) had a polarizing effect, with free-market supporters reducing their acceptance of AGW and those with low free-market support increasing their acceptance of AGW. However, we found that inoculating messages that (1) explain the flawed argumentation technique used in the misinformation or that (2) highlight the scientific consensus on climate change were effective in neutralizing those adverse effects of misinformation. We recommend that climate communication messages should take into account ways in which scientific content can be distorted, and include pre-emptive inoculation messages.

  6. A review of repeat prostate biopsies and the influence of technique on cancer detection: our experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, M R

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Follow-up of patients with an initial negative prostate biopsy, but surrounding whom a suspicion of prostate cancer persists, is difficult. In addition, debate exists as to the optimal technique for repeat prostate biopsy. AIMS: To assess the cancer detection rate on repeat prostate biopsy. METHODS: We reviewed patients who underwent prostate biopsy in our department in 2005 who had >or=1 previous biopsy within the preceding 5 years. Cancer detection rate on repeat biopsy and the influence of the number of biopsy cores were recorded. RESULTS: Cancer detection rate on repeat biopsy was 15.4%, with approximately 60% detected on the first repeat biopsy, but approximately 10% not confirmed until the fourth repeat biopsy. Gleason score was similar regardless of the time of diagnosis (6.1-6.5). Mean interval between first biopsy and cancer diagnosis (range 18-55 months) depended on the number of repeat procedures. There was an association between the number of biopsy cores and cancer detection. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the practice of increasing the number of cores taken on initial and first repeat biopsy to maximise prostate cancer detection and reduce the overall number of biopsies needed.

  7. Influence of whitening gel on pulp chamber temperature rise by in-office bleaching technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Cordeiro Loretto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dental bleaching is a conservative method for the aesthetic restoration of stained teeth. However, whitening treatments are likely to cause adverse effects when not well planned and executed. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the influence of whitening gel on temperature rise in the pulp chamber, using the in-office photoactivated dental bleaching technique. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The root portion of an upper central human incisor was sectioned 3mm below the cemento-enamel junction. The root canal was enlarged to permit the insertion of the K-type thermocouple sensor (MT-401 into the pulp chamber, which was filled with thermal paste to facilitate the transfer of heat during bleaching. Three photosensitive whitening agents (35% hydrogen peroxide were used: Whiteness HP (FGM, Whiteness HP Maxx (FGM and Lase Peroxide Sensy (DMC. An LED photocuring light (Flash Lite - Discus Dental was used to activate the whitening gels. Six bleaching cycles were performed on each group tested. The results were submitted to one-way ANOVA and LSD t-test (α<0.05. RESULT: The lowest mean temperature variation (ºC was detected for Lase Peroxide Sensy (0.20, while the highest was recorded for Whiteness HP (1.50. CONCLUSION: The Whiteness HP and Whiteness HP Maxx whitening gels significantly affected the temperature rise in the pulp chamber during bleaching, and this variation was dependent on the type of whitening gel used.

  8. Local government influence on energy conservation ambitions in existing housing sites-Plucking the low-hanging fruit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, T.; Bressers, J.Th.A.; Lulofs, K.R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Greater energy efficiency can be achieved in existing dwellings thanks to longer lifecycles, slow replacement rates, and technical innovations. Many such dwellings are located in dense urban neighbourhoods, where urban renewal projects are undertaken. Local government can encourage the setting of ambitious goals as a stepping stone to realizing energy efficiency goals that achieve high levels of energy efficiency. The research question which this paper addresses is: to what degree do local governments influence ambitions to conserve energy in existing housing sites? To examine this issue, thirty-three sites in the Netherlands were studied using a quantitative analysis. The results show that collaboration between local authorities and local actors increases the level of ambition to conserve energy. However, local authorities intentionally selected sites with poor energy efficiency, so it would be easy to meet ambitious energy conservation targets. Collaboration between local authorities and local actors turns out to be the key factor in selecting those sites. Moreover, there is little sign of genuine ambition. This article contributes to the debate on energy conservation policies in local housing sites. The study provides starting points for systematic, empirical research into the realisation of energy conservation in existing housing, especially in large-scale refurbishment projects. - Research Highlights: → Local governments encourage the setting of goals to realize energy efficiency goals. → Local authorities intentionally select sites with poor initial energy efficiency performance. → Collaboration with local actors turns out to be a key factor in selecting those sites. →There is little sign of genuine ambition. → Starting points for empirical research into the realisation of energy conservation in housing.

  9. Malaria in rural Burkina Faso: local illness concepts, patterns of traditional treatment and influence on health-seeking behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouyaté Bocar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on health care seeking behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa for children suffering from malaria is quite extensive. This literature, however, is predominately quantitative and, inevitably, fails to explore how the local concepts of illness may affect people's choices. Understanding local concepts of illness and their influence on health care-seeking behaviour can complement existing knowledge and lead to the development of more effective malaria control interventions. Methods In a rural area of Burkina Faso, four local concepts of illness resembling the biomedical picture of malaria were described according to symptoms, aetiology, and treatment. Data were collected through eight focus group discussions, 17 semi-structured interviews with key informants, and through the analysis of 100 verbal autopsy questionnaires of children under-five diagnosed with malaria. Results Sumaya, dusukun yelema, kono, and djoliban were identified as the four main local illness concepts resembling respectively uncomplicated malaria, respiratory distress syndrome, cerebral malaria, and severe anaemia. The local disease categorization was found to affect both treatment and provider choice. While sumaya is usually treated by a mix of traditional and modern methods, dusukun yelema and kono are preferably treated by traditional healers, and djoliban is preferably treated in modern health facilities. Besides the conceptualization of illness, poverty was found to be another important influencing factor of health care-seeking behaviour. Conclusion The findings complement previous evidence on health care-seeking behaviour, by showing how local concepts of illness strongly influence treatment and choice of provider. Local concepts of illness need to be considered when developing specific malaria control programmes.

  10. DETECTION OF LOCAL SITE CONDITIONS INFLUENCING EARTHQUAKE SHOCK AND SECONDARY EFFECTS IN THE VALPARAISO AREA IN CENTRAL-CHILE USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Theilen-Willige

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential contribution of remote sensing and GIS techniques to earthquake hazard analysis was investigated in Valparaiso in Chile in order to improve the systematic, standardized inventory of those areas that are more susceptible to earthquake ground motions or to earthquake related secondary effects such as landslides, liquefaction, soil amplifications, compaction or even tsunami-waves. Geophysical, topographical, geological data and satellite images were collected, processed, and integrated into a spatial database using Geoinformation Systems (GIS and image processing techniques. The GIS integrated evaluation of satellite imageries, of digital topographic data and of various open-source geodata can contribute to the acquisition of those specific tectonic, geomorphologic/ topographic settings influencing local site conditions in Valparaiso, Chile. Using the weighted overlay techniques in GIS, susceptibility maps were produced indicating areas, where causal factors influencing near- surface earthquake shock occur aggregated. Causal factors (such as unconsolidated sedimentary layers within a basin’s topography, higher groundwater tables, etc. summarizing and interfering each other, rise the susceptibility of soil amplification and of earthquake related secondary effects. This approach was used as well to create a tsunami flooding susceptibility map. LANDSAT Thermal Band 6-imageries were analysed to get information of surface water currents in this area.

  11. Detection of local site conditions influencing earthquake shaking and secondary effects in Southwest-Haiti using remote sensing and GIS-methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential contribution of remote sensing and GIS techniques to earthquake hazard analysis was investigated in SW-Haiti in order to improve the systematic, standardized inventory of those areas that are more susceptible to earthquake ground motions or to earthquake related secondary effects such as landslides, liquefaction, soil amplifications, compaction or even tsunami-waves. Geophysical, topographical, geological data and satellite images were collected, processed, and integrated into a spatial database using Geoinformation Systems (GIS and image processing techniques. The GIS integrated evaluation of satellite imageries, of digital topographic data and of various open-source geodata can contribute to the acquisition of those specific tectonic, geomorphologic/topographic settings influencing local site conditions in Haiti and, thus, to a first data base stock. Using the weighted overlay techniques in GIS susceptibility maps were produced indicating areas where causal factors influencing surface-near earthquake shock occur aggregated and interfering each other and, thus, rise the susceptibility to soil amplification. This approach was used as well to create landslide and flooding susceptibility maps.

  12. Influence of Arabic and Chinese Rammed Earth Techniques in the Himalayan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jaquin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses different rammed earth construction technique in Asia. Rammed earth construction techniques from China, Indian, Nepal and Bhutan are examined. It is shown that these techniques are demonstrably different from each other, and argued that the techniques may have developed independently. Case study structures are discussed and it is shown that with care it is possible to chart the development of both techniques both chronologically and geographically.

  13. Interfacial area measurement in two-phase bubbly flows - 3. Part - comparison between the light attenuation technique and a local method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veteau, Jean-Michel; Charlot, Roland.

    1981-09-01

    Initially designed for rectangular test sections the light attenuation technique is reconsidered for an application in circular tubes. Principles of a two-head local probe method are discussed, including the problems related to the measurement of interface velocities. The two techniques are compared experimentally and results lead to the conclusion that, in view of its global nature, the light attenuation method is more suitable for homogeneous two-phase flows. A new experimental set up is proposed to overcome this limitation in order to obtain local values as in the probe technique [fr

  14. X-ray digital industrial radiography (DIR) for local liquid velocity (VLL) measurement in trickle bed reactors (TBRs): Validation of the technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Salleh, Khairul Anuar; Rahman, Mohd Fitri Abdul; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Al Dahhan, Muthanna H.

    2014-06-01

    Local liquid velocity measurements in Trickle Bed Reactors (TBRs) are one of the essential components in its hydrodynamic studies. These measurements are used to effectively determine a reactor's operating condition. This study was conducted to validate a newly developed technique that combines Digital Industrial Radiography (DIR) with Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) to measure the Local Liquid Velocity (VLL) inside TBRs. Three millimeter-sized Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) beads were used as packing material. Three validation procedures were designed to test the newly developed technique. All procedures and statistical approaches provided strong evidence that the technique can be used to measure the VLL within TBRs.

  15. Alterations in the Local Axonal Environment Influence Target Reinnervation and Neuronal Survival after Postnatal Axotomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dainer, Hugh M

    2000-01-01

    Following peripheral nerve injury in adult animals, Schwann cells (SC) proliferate and provide guidance in the local axonal environment by generating the infrastructure along which regenerating nerves grow...

  16. Localization of proteins in paint cross-sections by scanning electrochemical microscopy as an alternative immunochemical detection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciutto, Giorgia; Prati, Silvia [Microchemistry and Microscopy Art Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Bologna, Via Guaccimanni 42, Ravenna 48121 (Italy); Department of Chemistry “G. Ciamician”, University of Bologna, Via Selmi, Bologna 2 40126 (Italy); Mazzeo, Rocco, E-mail: rocco.mazzeo@unibo.it [Microchemistry and Microscopy Art Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Bologna, Via Guaccimanni 42, Ravenna 48121 (Italy); Department of Chemistry “G. Ciamician”, University of Bologna, Via Selmi, Bologna 2 40126 (Italy); Zangheri, Martina; Roda, Aldo; Bardini, Luca; Valenti, Giovanni; Rapino, Stefania [Department of Chemistry “G. Ciamician”, University of Bologna, Via Selmi, Bologna 2 40126 (Italy); Marcaccio, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.marcaccio@unibo.it [Department of Chemistry “G. Ciamician”, University of Bologna, Via Selmi, Bologna 2 40126 (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Advanced immuno-electrochemical detection of proteins in paint samples by SECM. • Analysis performed directly on cross-section with high spatial resolution. • Identification of HRP catalytic activity for a selective location of analyte. • Satisfactory results were obtained for aged real samples. • The way forward for an extensive application of SECM in conservation science is shown. - Abstract: The qualitative identification of proteinaceous substances, as well as their location within a complex paint stratigraphy, is one of the most challenging issues in the characterization of painting materials. Nevertheless, information on paint components represent a crucial task for studies concerning both the ancient painting techniques adopted and the state of conservation, being fundamental investigations for the selection of appropriate conservation actions. The present research was aimed at developing a new detection approach for the immunochemical localization of ovalbumin in paint cross-sections based on the use of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The immunochemical analyses were performed using an anti-ovalbumin primary antibody and a secondary antibody labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). SECM measurements were performed in feedback mode using benzoquinone (BQ)/hydroquinone (H{sub 2}Q) redox couple. In presence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), HRP catalyzes the re-oxidation of H{sub 2}Q to BQ and the increment of BQ concentration in correspondence of the target protein was detected by SECM through the electrochemical reduction of the regenerated BQ at the microelectrode. Indeed, the localization of ovalbumin was possible thanks to a clear discrimination of SECM currents, achieved by the comparison of the measurements recorded before and after H{sub 2}O{sub 2} administration, based on the HRP on/off approach. The method was evaluated both on samples from standard mocks-up and on a historical sample, collected from a

  17. Looking for the perfect tweet. The use of data mining techniques to find influencers on twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Lahuerta Otero, Eva; Cordero Gutiérrez, Rebeca

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate influencers on Twitter to discover the characteristics of their tweets through PIAR, a unique data mining research tool developed by the University of Salamanca that combines graph theory and social influence theory. An analysis of 3853 users posting about two automotive Japanese car firms, Toyota and Nissan, reveals the characteristics influencers have on this social network. The findings suggest that influencers use more hashtags and mentions on a...

  18. Evaluating the influence of organ motion during photon vs. proton therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer using biological models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Kia; G Andersen, Andreas; Casares-Magaz, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    beam angles for pelvic irradiation, we aimed to evaluate the influence of organ motion for PT using biological models, and to compare this with contemporary photon-based RT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight locally advanced prostate cancer patients with a planning CT (pCT) and 8-9 repeated CT scans (r......BACKGROUND: Proton therapy (PT) may have a normal tissue sparing potential when co-irradiating pelvic lymph nodes in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, but may also be more sensitive towards organ motion in the pelvis. Building upon a previous study identifying motion-robust proton...

  19. Refractive error assessment: influence of different optical elements and current limits of biometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Filomena; Castanheira-Dinis, Antonio; Dias, Joao Mendanha

    2013-03-01

    To identify and quantify sources of error on refractive assessment using exact ray tracing. The Liou-Brennan eye model was used as a starting point and its parameters were varied individually within a physiological range. The contribution of each parameter to refractive error was assessed using linear regression curve fits and Gaussian error propagation analysis. A MonteCarlo analysis quantified the limits of refractive assessment given by current biometric measurements. Vitreous and aqueous refractive indices are the elements that influence refractive error the most, with a 1% change of each parameter contributing to a refractive error variation of +1.60 and -1.30 diopters (D), respectively. In the phakic eye, axial length measurements taken by ultrasound (vitreous chamber depth, lens thickness, and anterior chamber depth [ACD]) were the most sensitive to biometric errors, with a contribution to the refractive error of 62.7%, 14.2%, and 10.7%, respectively. In the pseudophakic eye, vitreous chamber depth showed the highest contribution at 53.7%, followed by postoperative ACD at 35.7%. When optic measurements were considered, postoperative ACD was the most important contributor, followed by anterior corneal surface and its asphericity. A MonteCarlo simulation showed that current limits of refractive assessment are 0.26 and 0.28 D for the phakic and pseudophakic eye, respectively. The most relevant optical elements either do not have available measurement instruments or the existing instruments still need to improve their accuracy. Ray tracing can be used as an optical assessment technique, and may be the correct path for future personalized refractive assessment. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Automatic segmentation of airway tree based on local intensity filter and machine learning technique in 3D chest CT volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qier; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Nimura, Yukitaka; Oda, Masahiro; Ueno, Junji; Mori, Kensaku

    2017-02-01

    Airway segmentation plays an important role in analyzing chest computed tomography (CT) volumes for computerized lung cancer detection, emphysema diagnosis and pre- and intra-operative bronchoscope navigation. However, obtaining a complete 3D airway tree structure from a CT volume is quite a challenging task. Several researchers have proposed automated airway segmentation algorithms basically based on region growing and machine learning techniques. However, these methods fail to detect the peripheral bronchial branches, which results in a large amount of leakage. This paper presents a novel approach for more accurate extraction of the complex airway tree. This proposed segmentation method is composed of three steps. First, Hessian analysis is utilized to enhance the tube-like structure in CT volumes; then, an adaptive multiscale cavity enhancement filter is employed to detect the cavity-like structure with different radii. In the second step, support vector machine learning will be utilized to remove the false positive (FP) regions from the result obtained in the previous step. Finally, the graph-cut algorithm is used to refine the candidate voxels to form an integrated airway tree. A test dataset including 50 standard-dose chest CT volumes was used for evaluating our proposed method. The average extraction rate was about 79.1 % with the significantly decreased FP rate. A new method of airway segmentation based on local intensity structure and machine learning technique was developed. The method was shown to be feasible for airway segmentation in a computer-aided diagnosis system for a lung and bronchoscope guidance system.

  1. Influence of beverage composition on the results of erosive potential measurement by different measurement techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D. H. J.; Vieira, A. M.; Ruben, J. L.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of beverage composition on the measurement of erosive potential is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether beverage composition influences the measurement of erosive potential and to evaluate the influence of exposure in small and large volumes. Eleven beverages were

  2. Influence of beverage composition on the results of erosive potential measurement by different measurement techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.H.; Vieira, A.M.; Ruben, J.L.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of beverage composition on the measurement of erosive potential is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether beverage composition influences the measurement of erosive potential and to evaluate the influence of exposure in small and large volumes. Eleven beverages were

  3. Female rat pancreatic blood flow measured by 133Xe clearance technique: pregnancy influence and oestradiol immediate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Annette; Vuillemin, J.-P.; Ducassou, Dominique; Bouchard, Alain; Valeyre, Jacques; Sutter-Dub, M.-T.

    1981-01-01

    Female Rat pancreatic blood flow is measured by 133 Xe clearance technique without interruption blood circulation. Its value is enhanced during late pregnancy, but not immediately influenced by exogenous glucose and/or oestradiol. Relation with glucose-induced insulin hypersecretion is discussed [fr

  4. Influence of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Technique on Foreign Students' Reading and Writing Skills in Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varisoglu, Behice

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal whether the technique of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) in Turkish Language teaching had influence on students' skills in reading and writing. In the study, the mixed method, which included quantitative and qualitative dimensions together, was used. The study group was made up of 16…

  5. Factors Influencing Outcome in the Management of Scaphoid Non-union and Comparison of Matti Russe and Interpositional Grafting Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Manish; Persaud, Ian; Jariwala, Arpit; Wigderowitz, Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Scaphoid non-union is often caused due to missed fractures, inadequate or inappropriate management. Matti-Russe and interpositional grafting techniques are used in the treatment of non-union. There are very few studies in literature that compare the outcomes of these techniques. The aim of our study was to analyse the factors influencing outcome in the management of scaphoid non-union and to compare the results of the Matti Russe procedure with interpositional grafting techniques. Fifty scaphoid non-unions with a mean follow-up of 39.9 ± 5.5 months were included in this retrospective study. Demographic parameters, treatment, functional and radiological outcomes were recorded. The influence of demographic and treatment factors on union in this cohort was statistically analysed. Union was achieved in 76% of cases. Good to excellent results were achieved in 84% of patients. There was no significant difference in union rates, deformity correction achieved and period of immobilisation between the MR and IG techniques. The occurrence of arthritic changes correlated with the time interval between injury and surgery (p = 0.002). The most important factor that influences the outcome is the time period between the occurrence of the fracture and surgery for non-union. The Matti-Russe procedure can achieve comparable results to interpositional grafting techniques with a shorter period of immobilisation than previously thought to be required. We believe that the presence of a deformity is not a contraindication for the procedure.

  6. Dirhenium decacarbonyl-loaded PLLA nanoparticles: influence of neutron irradiation and preliminary in vivo administration by the TMT technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoudeh, Misara; Fessi, Hatem; Mehier, Henri; Faraj, Achraf Al; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle

    2008-02-04

    neutron irradiation, yielding an absorbed dose of 450kGy, can be a terminal method for nanoparticles sterilisation. Thereafter, in a preliminary in vivo experiment, superparamagnetic non radioactive nanoparticles loaded with Re(2)(CO)(10) and oleic-acid coated magnetite have been successfully injected into a mice animal model via targeted multi therapy (TMT) technique which would be our selected administration method for future in vivo studies. In conclusion, although some induced neutron irradiation damage to nanoparticles occurs, dirhenium decacarbonyl-loaded PLLA nanoparticles retain their chemical identity and remain almost as re-dispersible and injectable nanoparticles by the TMT technique. These nanoparticles represent a novel interesting candidate for local intra-tumoral radiotherapy.

  7. Influence of Processing Techniques on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Biodegradable Mg-3Zn-2Ca Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Doležal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available New Mg-3Zn-2Ca magnesium alloy was prepared using different processing techniques: gravity casting as well as squeeze casting in liquid and semisolid states. Materials were further thermally treated; thermal treatment of the gravity cast alloy was additionally combined with the equal channel angular pressing (ECAP. Alloy processed by the squeeze casting in liquid as well as in semisolid state exhibit improved plasticity; the ECAP processing positively influenced both the tensile and compressive characteristics of the alloy. Applied heat treatment influenced the distribution and chemical composition of present intermetallic phases. Influence of particular processing techniques, heat treatment, and intermetallic phase distribution is thoroughly discussed in relation to mechanical behavior of presented alloys.

  8. Influence of Processing Techniques on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Biodegradable Mg-3Zn-2Ca Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležal, Pavel; Zapletal, Josef; Fintová, Stanislava; Trojanová, Zuzanka; Greger, Miroslav; Roupcová, Pavla; Podrábský, Tomáš

    2016-10-28

    New Mg-3Zn-2Ca magnesium alloy was prepared using different processing techniques: gravity casting as well as squeeze casting in liquid and semisolid states. Materials were further thermally treated; thermal treatment of the gravity cast alloy was additionally combined with the equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). Alloy processed by the squeeze casting in liquid as well as in semisolid state exhibit improved plasticity; the ECAP processing positively influenced both the tensile and compressive characteristics of the alloy. Applied heat treatment influenced the distribution and chemical composition of present intermetallic phases. Influence of particular processing techniques, heat treatment, and intermetallic phase distribution is thoroughly discussed in relation to mechanical behavior of presented alloys.

  9. A Novel Pre-Processing Technique for Original Feature Matrix of Electronic Nose Based on Supervised Locality Preserving Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Jia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose (E-nose consisting of 14 metal oxide gas sensors and one electronic chemical gas sensor has been constructed to identify four different classes of wound infection. However, the classification results of the E-nose are not ideal if the original feature matrix containing the maximum steady-state response value of sensors is processed by the classifier directly, so a novel pre-processing technique based on supervised locality preserving projections (SLPP is proposed in this paper to process the original feature matrix before it is put into the classifier to improve the performance of the E-nose. SLPP is good at finding and keeping the nonlinear structure of data; furthermore, it can provide an explicit mapping expression which is unreachable by the traditional manifold learning methods. Additionally, some effective optimization methods are found by us to optimize the parameters of SLPP and the classifier. Experimental results prove that the classification accuracy of support vector machine (SVM combined with the data pre-processed by SLPP outperforms other considered methods. All results make it clear that SLPP has a better performance in processing the original feature matrix of the E-nose.

  10. A Novel Differential Time-of-Arrival Estimation Technique for Impact Localization on Carbon Fiber Laminate Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Marino Merlo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Composite material structures are commonly used in many industrial sectors (aerospace, automotive, transportation, and can operate in harsh environments where impacts with other parts or debris may cause critical safety and functionality issues. This work presents a method for improving the accuracy of impact position determination using acoustic source triangulation schemes based on the data collected by piezoelectric sensors attached to the structure. A novel approach is used to estimate the Differential Time-of-Arrival (DToA between the impact response signals collected by a triplet of sensors, overcoming the limitations of classical methods that rely on amplitude thresholds calibrated for a specific sensor type. An experimental evaluation of the proposed technique was performed with specially made circular piezopolymer (PVDF sensors designed for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM applications, and compared with commercial piezoelectric SHM sensors of similar dimensions. Test impacts at low energies from 35 mJ to 600 mJ were generated in a laboratory by free-falling metal spheres on a 500 mm × 500 mm × 1.25 mm quasi-isotropic Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP laminate plate. From the analysis of many impact signals, the resulting localization error was improved for all types of sensors and, in particular, for the circular PVDF sensor an average error of 20.3 mm and a standard deviation of 8.9 mm was obtained.

  11. Influence of Electrolyte Modulus on the Local Current Density at a Dendrite Tip on a Lithium Metal Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, KJ; Higa, K; Srinivasan, V; Balsara, NP

    2016-08-10

    Understanding and controlling the electrochemical deposition of lithium is imperative for the safe use of rechargeable batteries with a lithium metal anode. Solid block copolymer electrolyte membranes are known to enhance the stability of lithium metal anodes by mechanically suppressing the formation of lithium protrusions during battery charging. Time-resolved hard X-ray microtomography was used to monitor the internal structure of a symmetric lithium-polymer cell during galvanostatic polarization. The microtomography images were used to determine the local rate of lithium deposition, i.e. local current density, in the vicinity of a lithium globule growing through the electrolyte. Measurements of electrolyte displacement enabled estimation of local stresses in the electrolyte. At early times, the current density was maximized at the globule tip, as expected from simple current distribution arguments. At later times, the current density was maximized at the globule perimeter. We show that this phenomenon is related to the local stress fields that arise as the electrolyte is deformed. The local current density, normalized for the radius of curvature, decreases with increasing compressive stresses at the lithium-polymer interface. To our knowledge, our study provides the first direct measurement showing the influence of local mechanical stresses on the deposition kinetics at lithium metal electrodes.

  12. Local Perspectives on Environmental Insecurity and Its Influence on Illegal Biodiversity Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Meredith L; Lute, Michelle L; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah H; Rajaonson, Andry

    2016-01-01

    Environmental insecurity is a source and outcome of biodiversity declines and social conflict. One challenge to scaling insecurity reduction policies is that empirical evidence about local attitudes is overwhelmingly missing. We set three objectives: determine how local people rank risk associated with different sources of environmental insecurity; assess perceptions of environmental insecurity, biodiversity exploitation, myths of nature and risk management preferences; and explore relationships between perceptions and biodiversity exploitation. We conducted interviews (N = 88) with residents of Madagascar's Torotorofotsy Protected Area, 2014. Risk perceptions had a moderate effect on perceptions of environmental insecurity. We found no effects of environmental insecurity on biodiversity exploitation. Results offer one if not the first exploration of local perceptions of illegal biodiversity exploitation and environmental security. Local people's perception of risk seriousness associated with illegal biodiversity exploitation such as lemur hunting (low overall) may not reflect perceptions of policy-makers (considered to be high). Discord is a key entry point for attention.

  13. Local anesthetic-induced inhibition of human neutrophil priming: the influence of structure, lipophilicity, and charge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picardi, Susanne; Cartellieri, Sibylle; Groves, Danja; Hahnenekamp, Klaus; Gerner, Peter; Durieux, Marcel E.; Stevens, Markus F.; Lirk, Philipp; Hollmann, Markus W.

    2013-01-01

    Local anesthetics (LAs) are widely known for inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels underlying their antiarrhythmic and antinociceptive effects. However, LAs have significant immunomodulatory properties and were shown to affect human neutrophil functions independent of sodium-channel blockade.

  14. Influence of seamount topography on the local facies variation in ferromanganese deposits in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Nath, B.N.

    The morphology and chemistry of ferromanganese nodules and encrustations from a seamount in the Central Indian Ocean Basin show local variations. Nodules from the summit of the seamount have sporadic distribution, are less spherical, have smooth...

  15. Local Perspectives on Environmental Insecurity and Its Influence on Illegal Biodiversity Exploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith L Gore

    Full Text Available Environmental insecurity is a source and outcome of biodiversity declines and social conflict. One challenge to scaling insecurity reduction policies is that empirical evidence about local attitudes is overwhelmingly missing. We set three objectives: determine how local people rank risk associated with different sources of environmental insecurity; assess perceptions of environmental insecurity, biodiversity exploitation, myths of nature and risk management preferences; and explore relationships between perceptions and biodiversity exploitation. We conducted interviews (N = 88 with residents of Madagascar's Torotorofotsy Protected Area, 2014. Risk perceptions had a moderate effect on perceptions of environmental insecurity. We found no effects of environmental insecurity on biodiversity exploitation. Results offer one if not the first exploration of local perceptions of illegal biodiversity exploitation and environmental security. Local people's perception of risk seriousness associated with illegal biodiversity exploitation such as lemur hunting (low overall may not reflect perceptions of policy-makers (considered to be high. Discord is a key entry point for attention.

  16. Environmental challenges to the mangrove wetlands of North Malabar (Kerala, India: Their sustainable development and influence on local people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleel K. M.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands, including mangroves, perform several functions such as inundation control, and protection from erosion, storm, floods and tidal damage, and generate goods and products such as fish and forest resources. These functions are of fundamental importance for society. The present study aims to identify the challenges of the mangrove wetlands of north Malabar, their uses and socio-economic influence on local people, and the value of ecosystem services, and to suggest the way forward for sustainable development.

  17. Influence of the local strains on the rounding of the resistivity near Tcin copper oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maza, J.; Torron, C.; Vidal, F.

    1989-01-01

    The effects on the electrical resistivity of a spatially varying local critical temperature T c in HTSC, due for instance to local strains of oxygen variations, is studied. Assuming a Gaussian-like spatial distribution of T c values; the corresponding rounding of the resistivity near and above the resistive temperature T cr does not agree with resistivity data of Y-based or La = based compounds

  18. The influence of local residents' perceptions on their support towards volunteer tourism : Case study: Sapa, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ha; Nguyen, Thao

    2012-01-01

    Volunteer tourism is considered as an innovative form of sustainable community development. The pure intention of voluntourists when participating in voluntourism is believed to bring more benefits to the host community. However, whether local people see a difference or have a preference for volunteer tourism is questionable. Therefore, understanding local perceptions is necessary to evaluate the implementation of voluntourism projects in the community. Moreover, I and my friend were involve...

  19. The influence of local spring temperature variance on temperature sensitivity of spring phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Ottlé, Catherine; Peng, Shushi; Janssens, Ivan A; Lin, Xin; Poulter, Benjamin; Yue, Chao; Ciais, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate warming on the advancement of plant spring phenology has been heavily investigated over the last decade and there exists great variability among plants in their phenological sensitivity to temperature. However, few studies have explicitly linked phenological sensitivity to local climate variance. Here, we set out to test the hypothesis that the strength of phenological sensitivity declines with increased local spring temperature variance, by synthesizing results across ground observations. We assemble ground-based long-term (20-50 years) spring phenology database (PEP725 database) and the corresponding climate dataset. We find a prevalent decline in the strength of phenological sensitivity with increasing local spring temperature variance at the species level from ground observations. It suggests that plants might be less likely to track climatic warming at locations with larger local spring temperature variance. This might be related to the possibility that the frost risk could be higher in a larger local spring temperature variance and plants adapt to avoid this risk by relying more on other cues (e.g., high chill requirements, photoperiod) for spring phenology, thus suppressing phenological responses to spring warming. This study illuminates that local spring temperature variance is an understudied source in the study of phenological sensitivity and highlight the necessity of incorporating this factor to improve the predictability of plant responses to anthropogenic climate change in future studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Differential influences of local subpopulations on regional diversity and differentiation for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, Jeffery R.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Fedy, Brad C.

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of spatial genetic variation across a region can shape evolutionary dynamics and impact population persistence. Local population dynamics and among-population dispersal rates are strong drivers of this spatial genetic variation, yet for many species we lack a clear understanding of how these population processes interact in space to shape within-species genetic variation. Here, we used extensive genetic and demographic data from 10 subpopulations of greater sage-grouse to parameterize a simulated approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) model and (i) test for regional differences in population density and dispersal rates for greater sage-grouse subpopulations in Wyoming, and (ii) quantify how these differences impact subpopulation regional influence on genetic variation. We found a close match between observed and simulated data under our parameterized model and strong variation in density and dispersal rates across Wyoming. Sensitivity analyses suggested that changes in dispersal (via landscape resistance) had a greater influence on regional differentiation, whereas changes in density had a greater influence on mean diversity across all subpopulations. Local subpopulations, however, varied in their regional influence on genetic variation. Decreases in the size and dispersal rates of central populations with low overall and net immigration (i.e. population sources) had the greatest negative impact on genetic variation. Overall, our results provide insight into the interactions among demography, dispersal and genetic variation and highlight the potential of ABC to disentangle the complexity of regional population dynamics and project the genetic impact of changing conditions.

  1. Dosimetric comparison of axilla and groin radiotherapy techniques for high-risk and locally advanced skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Malcolm D.; Zhou, Ying; Berry, Sean L.; Barker, Christopher A. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Radiation therapy targeting axilla and groin lymph nodes improves regional disease control in locally advanced and high-risk skin cancers. However, trials generally used conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy (2D-RT), contributing towards relatively high rates of side effects from treatment. The goal of this study is to determine if three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) may improve radiation delivery to the target while avoiding organs at risk in the clinical context of skin cancer regional nodal irradiation. Twenty patients with locally advanced/high-risk skin cancers underwent computed tomography simulation. The relevant axilla or groin planning target volumes and organs at risk were delineated using standard definitions. Paired t-tests were used to compare the mean values of several dose-volumetric parameters for each of the 4 techniques. In the axilla, the largest improvement for 3D-CRT compared to 2D-RT was for homogeneity index (13.9 vs. 54.3), at the expense of higher lung V{sub 20} (28.0% vs. 12.6%). In the groin, the largest improvements for 3D-CRT compared to 2D-RT were for anorectum D{sub max} (13.6 vs. 38.9 Gy), bowel D{sub 200cc} (7.3 vs. 23.1 Gy), femur D{sub 50} (34.6 vs. 57.2 Gy), and genitalia D{sub max} (37.6 vs. 51.1 Gy). IMRT had further improvements compared to 3D-CRT for humerus D{sub mean} (16.9 vs. 22.4 Gy), brachial plexus D{sub 5} (57.4 vs. 61.3 Gy), bladder D{sub 5} (26.8 vs. 36.5 Gy), and femur D{sub 50} (18.7 vs. 34.6 Gy). Fewer differences were observed between IMRT and VMAT. Compared to 2D-RT and 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT had dosimetric advantages in the treatment of nodal regions of skin cancer patients.

  2. New Techniques for Cartilage Magnetic Resonance Imaging Relaxation Time Analysis: Texture Analysis of Flattened Cartilage and Localized Intra- and Inter-subject Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Link, Thomas M.; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2008-01-01

    MR relaxation time measurements of knee cartilage have shown potential to characterize knee osteoarthritis (OA). In this work, techniques that allow localized intra- and inter-subject comparisons of cartilage relaxation times, as well as cartilage flattening for texture analysis parallel and perpendicular to the natural cartilage layers, are presented. The localized comparisons are based on the registration of bone structures and the assignment of relaxation time feature vectors to each point...

  3. Acquisition of Dental Skills in Preclinical Technique Courses: Influence of Spatial and Manual Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwibbe, Anja; Kothe, Christian; Hampe, Wolfgang; Konradt, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Sixty years of research have not added up to a concordant evaluation of the influence of spatial and manual abilities on dental skill acquisition. We used Ackerman's theory of ability determinants of skill acquisition to explain the influence of spatial visualization and manual dexterity on the task performance of dental students in two…

  4. The influence on finite measurement accuracy on the SWE-to-PWE antenna diagnostics technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Breinbjerg, Olav; Frandsen, Aksel

    2006-01-01

    A new antenna diagnostics technique based on the transformation of the spherical wave expansion (SWE) into the plane wave expansion (PWE) is proposed. The new technique allows the recovery of the plane wave spectrum in the visible region, and in principle also in part of the invisible region, from...

  5. Influence of Local Airflow on the Pollutant Emission from Indoor Building Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2001-01-01

    for the prediction of surface emissions is proposed. The work focused on the emission of vapours and gases and no particulate emissions were considered. The methods used were numerical calculations by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and full-scale laboratory experiments. It was found that the emissions...... are a strong function of air-change rate, local air velocity and local turbulence, as the mass transfer coefficient increases in proportion to these parameters. The findings further show that the mass transfer coefficient increases in proportion to the velocity when the emission is controlled by evaporation...

  6. Elemental evaluation in plastic garbage bags purchased from local markets in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state, using the EDXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Eduardo de; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Cavagis, Alexandre D.M.; Menegario, Amauri A.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic garbage bags have been used for packing household waste in Piracicaba city and nearby cities broadly. Many of these bags are made from recycled polymers and the presence of harmful elements is a matter of concern. In this work fourteen plastic garbage bags of different brands and colors were purchased from local markets in Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo. For the analysis, the samples in triplicate were cut into 47 mm diameter circle and attached into acrylic holder and analyzed directly by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence - EDXRF. The excitation was carried out using an X-ray tube Mo target and Zr filter (15 kV / 25 mA) under non-vacuum. The characteristic X-rays were detected by a semiconductor detector Si(Li), coupled to a multichannel analyzer system. The acquisition time was 500 s and the X-ray spectra were deconvulated by the AXIL software. For quantification it was used a standard set produced by the MicroMatter/USA and the absorption effect was corrected by the known chemical composition matrix technique, in which allowed the determination of K, Ca Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr by Kα lines and Pb by the line Lα simultaneously. The trueness of the method was verified by analyzing a certified reference material (NIST air particulate on filter media, SRM2783). The limits of detection (LD) for these elements were: K - 38.9; Ca - 19.4; Ti - 7.1; Cr - 3.1; Mn - 2.1; Fe - 1.5; Cu - 0.86; Zn - 0.85; Sr - 4.6 and Pb - 2.8 μg g -1 . Some elements showed minimum and/or maximum concentrations well above the LDs, as K: -1 . (author)

  7. Local- and plot-scale measurements of soil moisture: time and spatially resolved field techniques in plain, hill and mountain sites

    OpenAIRE

    Raffelli, Giulia; Previati, Maurizio; Canone, Davide; Gisolo, Davide; Bevilacqua, Ivan; Capello, Giorgio; Biddoccu, Marcella; Cavallo, Eugenio; Deiana, Rita; Cassiani, Giorgio; Ferraris, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Soil moisture measurement is essential to validate hydrological models and satellite data. In this work we provide an overview of different local and plot scale soil moisture measurement techniques applied in three different conditions in terms of altitude, land use, and soil type, namely a plain, a mountain meadow and a hilly vineyard. The main goal is to provide a synoptic view of techniques supported by practical case studies to show that in such different conditions it is possible to esti...

  8. Social Position Influencing the Water Perception Gap Between Local Leaders and Constituents in a Socio-Hydrological System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffner, Melissa; Jackson-Smith, Douglas; Flint, Courtney G.

    2018-02-01

    How well city leaders represent their constituents and meet their needs are key concerns in transitioning to local sustainable water governance. To date, however, there is little research documenting the influence of social position between elected leaders who make policy, career staff water managers who design and operate systems and implement policies, and the members of the public whose individual water use behaviors are important drivers of water sustainability outcomes. In this study, we ask: "How does social position explain variation in water perceptions and concerns between different actors in a socio-hydrological system?" Using a mixed method approach with survey and interview data, we explore the ways that positioning within the governance system, geographic context, and citizen engagement in local government mediate perceptions of the urban water system. Regardless of local biophysical water supply conditions, residents showed most concern about future water shortages and high water costs, while their leaders were consistently most concerned about deteriorating local water infrastructure. Further, constituents who received water-related information directly from public utility mailings or served on community committees and boards had perceptions that were more aligned with leaders' concerns. The importance of social structure over natural and built environments in shaping water issue perceptions underscores the value of social analysis in socio-hydrology studies. Further, practitioners looking to increase consensus for a transition to sustainable water governance might work to develop institutional mechanisms to increase opportunities for water user involvement in local water system governance.

  9. How national context, project design, and local community characteristics influence success in community-based conservation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeremy S; Waylen, Kerry A; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2012-12-26

    Community-based conservation (CBC) promotes the idea that conservation success requires engaging with, and providing benefits for, local communities. However, CBC projects are neither consistently successful nor free of controversy. Innovative recent studies evaluating the factors associated with success and failure typically examine only a single resource domain, have limited geographic scope, consider only one outcome, or ignore the nested nature of socioecological systems. To remedy these issues, we use a global comparative database of CBC projects identified by systematic review to evaluate success in four outcome domains (attitudes, behaviors, ecological, economic) and explore synergies and trade-offs among these outcomes. We test hypotheses about how features of the national context, project design, and local community characteristics affect these measures of success. Using bivariate analyses and multivariate proportional odds logistic regressions within a multilevel analysis and model-fitting framework, we show that project design, particularly capacity-building in local communities, is associated with success across all outcomes. In addition, some characteristics of the local community in which projects are conducted, such as tenure regimes and supportive cultural beliefs and institutions, are important for project success. Surprisingly, there is little evidence that national context systematically influences project outcomes. We also find evidence of synergies between pairs of outcomes, particularly between ecological and economic success. We suggest that well-designed and implemented projects can overcome many of the obstacles imposed by local and national conditions to succeed in multiple domains.

  10. Influence of localized deformation on A-286 austenitic stainless steel stress corrosion cracking in PWR primary water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, L.; Savoie, M.; Delafosse, D.

    2007-06-01

    The low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of precipitation-strengthened A-286 austenitic stainless steel was first investigated at room temperature under 0.2% plastic strain control. LCF led to hardening for the first 20 cycles and then to significant softening. LCF-induced dislocation microstructure was characterized using both bright and dark-field imaging techniques in transmission electron microscopy. Cycling softening was correlated with the formation of precipitate-free localized deformation bands. The effect of these precipitate-free localized deformation bands on A-286 stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour in PWR primary water was then examined by means of constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests at 320 °C and 360 °C. Comparative CERT tests were performed on companion specimens with similar yield stress but pre-fatigued to a few cycles (4-8) or between 125 and 200 cycles. Specimens pre-fatigued to a few cycles with no precipitate-free localized deformation bands exhibited little susceptibility to intergranular SCC (IGSCC). In contrast, the presence of precipitate-free localized deformation bands formed by pre-fatigue to between 125 and 200 cycles strongly promoted IGSCC. The interest of the approach used in this study is to provide insight into the role of localized deformation in irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking.

  11. Influence of localized deformation on A-286 austenitic stainless steel stress corrosion cracking in PWR primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, L.; Savoie, M.; Delafosse, D.

    2007-01-01

    The low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of precipitation-strengthened A-286 austenitic stainless steel was first investigated at room temperature under 0.2% plastic strain control. LCF led to hardening for the first 20 cycles and then to significant softening. LCF-induced dislocation microstructure was characterized using both bright and dark-field imaging techniques in transmission electron microscopy. Cycling softening was correlated with the formation of precipitate-free localized deformation bands. The effect of these precipitate-free localized deformation bands on A-286 stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour in PWR primary water was then examined by means of constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests at 320 o C and 360 o C. Comparative CERT tests were performed on companion specimens with similar yield stress but pre-fatigued to a few cycles (4-8) or between 125 and 200 cycles. Specimens pre-fatigued to a few cycles with no precipitate-free localized deformation bands exhibited little susceptibility to intergranular SCC (IGSCC). In contrast, the presence of precipitate-free localized deformation bands formed by pre-fatigue to between 125 and 200 cycles strongly promoted IGSCC. The interest of the approach used in this study is to provide insight into the role of localized deformation in irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking

  12. Influence of polyethylene microplastic beads on the uptake and localization of silver in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Farhan R.; Syberg, Kristian; Shashoua, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the uptake and localization of Ag in zebrafish was affected by the presence of polyethylene microplastic beads (PE MPBs). Zebrafish were exposed to 1 μg Ag L−1 (radiolabelled with 110mAg) for 4 and 24 h in the presence or absence of PE MPBs (10, 100 or 1000 M...

  13. To what extent can charge localization influence electron injection efficiency at graphene-porphyrin interfaces?

    KAUST Repository

    Parida, Manas R.

    2015-04-28

    Controlling the electron transfer process at donor- acceptor interfaces is a research direction that has not yet seen much progress. Here, with careful control of the charge localization on the porphyrin macrocycle using β -Cyclodextrin as an external cage, we are able to improve the electron injection efficiency from cationic porphyrin to graphene carboxylate by 120% . The detailed reaction mechanism is also discussed.

  14. The Influence of Local Governance: Effects on the Sustainability of Bioenergy Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Cavicchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with processes and outcomes of sustainable bioenergy development in Emilia Romagna. It draws on an on-going research project concerning inclusive innovation in forest-based bioenergy and biogas in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Italy. The goal is to explore how local governance impacts on inclusive innovation processes and triple bottom sustainability of bioenergy development in Emilia Romagna and, ultimately, to contribute to the debate on the bioeconomy. It thus compares the case of biogas and forest-based bioenergy production. The study adopts an analytical framework called Grounded Innovation (GRIP and the local governance approach. The study uses qualitative methods and particularly semi-structured interviews and governance analysis. The key results show different outcomes on both inclusive innovation and triple bottom-line dimensions. Biogas has not fostered inclusiveness and triple bottom line sustainability benefits, contrary to forest-based bioenergy. The findings indicate that the minor role of local actors, particularly municipalities, in favour of industrial and national interests may jeopardise the sustainability of biobased industries. Besides, policies limited to financial incentives may lead to a land-acquisition rush, unforeseen local environmental effects and exacerbate conflicts.

  15. The influence of local traditions on the liturgical calendar of the Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Ławreszuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article I would like to describe the contemporary liturgical practice of the Orthodox Church in Poland. A brief analysis will focus on the characteristics of the liturgical tradition indicated by the liturgical calendar. The content of the article will focus on local, characteristic only for the Orthodox Church in Poland rituals and festivals.

  16. Influence of local charge compensation on site occupation and luminescence of apatites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasse, G.

    The apatite structure contains two different sites for the larger cations. It is shown that the principle of local charge compensation can predict the site occupation. This is especially important for an interpretation of the luminescence properties of a number of apatites. The predictions are

  17. Local variation in conspecific plant density influences plant-soil feedback in a natural grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kos, M.; Veendrick, Johan; Bezemer, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have argued that under field conditions plant–soil feedback may be related to the local density of a plant species, but plant–soil feedback is often studied by comparing conspecific and heterospecific soils or by using mixed soil samples collected from different locations and plant

  18. The observed influence of local anthropogenic pollution on northern Alaskan cloud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maahn, Maximilian; de Boer, Gijs; Creamean, Jessie M.; Feingold, Graham; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Wu, Wei; Mei, Fan

    2017-12-01

    Due to their importance for the radiation budget, liquid-containing clouds are a key component of the Arctic climate system. Depending on season, they can cool or warm the near-surface air. The radiative properties of these clouds depend strongly on cloud drop sizes, which are governed in part by the availability of cloud condensation nuclei. Here, we investigate how cloud drop sizes are modified in the presence of local emissions from industrial facilities at the North Slope of Alaska. For this, we use aircraft in situ observations of clouds and aerosols from the 5th Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE ARM) Program's Airborne Carbon Measurements (ACME-V) campaign obtained in summer 2015. Comparison of observations from an area with petroleum extraction facilities (Oliktok Point) with data from a reference area relatively free of anthropogenic sources (Utqiaġvik/Barrow) represents an opportunity to quantify the impact of local industrial emissions on cloud properties. In the presence of local industrial emissions, the mean effective radii of cloud droplets are reduced from 12.2 to 9.4 µm, which leads to suppressed drizzle production and precipitation. At the same time, concentrations of refractory black carbon and condensation nuclei are enhanced below the clouds. These results demonstrate that the effects of anthropogenic pollution on local climate need to be considered when planning Arctic industrial infrastructure in a warming environment.

  19. Influence of basin- and local-scale environmental conditions on nearshore production in the northeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Kruse, Gordon H.; Mueter, Franz J.; Black, Bryan A.; Douglas, David C.; Bodkin, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Nearshore marine habitats are productive and vulnerable owing to their connections to pelagic and terrestrial landscapes. To understand how ocean basin- and local-scale conditions may influence nearshore species, we developed an annual index of nearshore production (spanning the period 1972–2010) from growth increments recorded in otoliths of representative pelagic-feeding (Black Rockfish Sebastes melanops) and benthic-feeding (Kelp Greenling Hexagrammos decagrammus) nearshore-resident fishes at nine sites in the California Current and Alaska Coastal Current systems. We explored the influence of basin- and local-scale conditions across all seasons at lags of up to 2 years to represent changes in prey quantity (1- or 2-year time lags) and quality (within-year relationships). Relationships linking fish growth to basin-scale (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, and multivariate El Niño–Southern Oscillation index) and local-scale (sea surface temperature, sea surface height anomalies, upwelling index, photosynthetically active radiation, and freshwater discharge) environmental conditions varied by species and current system. Growth of Black Rockfish increased with cool basin-scale conditions in the California Current and warm local-scale conditions in the Alaska Coastal Current, consistent with existing hypotheses linking climate to pelagic production on continental shelves in the respective regions. Relationships for Kelp Greenlings in the California Current were complex, with faster growth related to within-year warm conditions and lagged-year cool conditions. These opposing, lag-dependent relationships may reflect differences in conditions that promote quantity versus quality of benthic invertebrate prey in the California Current. Thus, we hypothesize that benthic production is maximized by alternating cool and warm years, as benthic invertebrate recruitment is food limited during warm years while growth is temperature limited by cool

  20. Out of the net: An agent-based model to study human movements influence on local-scale malaria transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzitutti, Francesco; Pan, William; Feingold, Beth; Zaitchik, Ben; Álvarez, Carlos A; Mena, Carlos F

    2018-01-01

    Though malaria control initiatives have markedly reduced malaria prevalence in recent decades, global eradication is far from actuality. Recent studies show that environmental and social heterogeneities in low-transmission settings have an increased weight in shaping malaria micro-epidemiology. New integrated and more localized control strategies should be developed and tested. Here we present a set of agent-based models designed to study the influence of local scale human movements on local scale malaria transmission in a typical Amazon environment, where malaria is transmission is low and strongly connected with seasonal riverine flooding. The agent-based simulations show that the overall malaria incidence is essentially not influenced by local scale human movements. In contrast, the locations of malaria high risk spatial hotspots heavily depend on human movements because simulated malaria hotspots are mainly centered on farms, were laborers work during the day. The agent-based models are then used to test the effectiveness of two different malaria control strategies both designed to reduce local scale malaria incidence by targeting hotspots. The first control scenario consists in treat against mosquito bites people that, during the simulation, enter at least once inside hotspots revealed considering the actual sites where human individuals were infected. The second scenario involves the treatment of people entering in hotspots calculated assuming that the infection sites of every infected individual is located in the household where the individual lives. Simulations show that both considered scenarios perform better in controlling malaria than a randomized treatment, although targeting household hotspots shows slightly better performance.

  1. The influence of three different instrumentation techniques on the incidence of postoperative pain after endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, Gianluca; Testarelli, Luca; De Luca, Massimo; Milana, Valerio; Plotino, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola Maria; Rubini, Alessio Giansiracusa; Al Sudani, Dina; Sannino, Gianpaolo

    2013-01-01

    Apical extrusion of infected debris to the periradicular tissues is one of the principal causes of postoperative pain and discomfort. Recent researches have shown that reciprocating instrumentation techniques seem to significantly increase the amount of debris extruded beyond the apex and, consequently, the risk of postoperative pain. The goal of the present study was to evaluate and compare postoperative pain using three different nickel-titanium instrumentation techniques: a rotary crown-down technique using TF instruments (SybronEndo, Orange, Ca), a reciprocating single-file technique using WaveOne instruments (Maillefer DEntsply, Baillagues, CH), and a novel instrumentation technique (TF Adaptive, SybronEndo, Orange, Ca), using a unique, proprietary movement, combining reciprocation and continuous rotation. Ninety patients requiring endodontic treatment on permanent premolar and molar teeth with non vital pulps preoperatively were included in the study. The patients were assigned into three groups of 30 patients each, trying to make the groups very similar, concerning the number of root canals, presence of initial pain and periapical lesions. The teeth in group 1 (n = 30) were instrumented with a crown-down technique using TF instruments, whilst those in group 2 (n = 30) were instrumented with a single-file technique using Waveone 08 25. The third group (n = 30) used the 3-file Tf Adaprtive sequence. All techniques were performed following manufacturers' instructions and all canals were shaped, cleaned and obturated in a single-visit by the same operator. The assessment of postoperative pain was carried out at 3 days by using a visual analogue scale. VAS pain scores were compared using one-way ANOVA post hoc Tukey test. A value of p < 0.05 was required for statistical significance. Results for VAS pain scores showed a statistically significant difference was found between the WaveOne (p=0,021) technique and the other two techniques. No statistical significant

  2. Influence of Psychosocial Factors on Aging among the Aged in Ihitte-Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojukwu M.O.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to examine influence of psychosocial factors on aging among the aged in Ihitte Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto or casual comparative research design was adopted for the study. Two hundred and twenty-five (225 old people were selected through random sampling for the study. Self-constructed instrument entitled “Influence of Psychosocial factors on aging in Ihitte Uboma LGA” was used to collect data. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. Mean and t-test analysis were used to analyze the data collected for the study. Major findings revealed that lack of security, inadequate care giver, poverty, migration of kids and family members to the urban areas, lack of health facilities and care are the major psychosocial factors affecting aging in the LGA. In all these it was also revealed that women were more influenced by these psychosocial factors than their men counterpart. It was also revealed that self-concept has significant influence on the ageing process of the aged in the area. Based on the findings it was recommended that government should provide adequate security in the villages, as well as provision of adequate healthcare and facilities. Keywords: Influence, Psychosocial factors, aged, aging process and Ihitte Uboma

  3. The influence of cooling techniques on cutting forces and surface roughness during cryogenic machining of titanium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wstawska Iwona

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are one of the materials extensively used in the aerospace industry due to its excellent properties of high specific strength and corrosion resistance. On the other hand, they also present problems wherein titanium alloys are extremely difficult materials to machine. In addition, the cost associated with titanium machining is also high due to lower cutting velocities and shorter tool life. The main objective of this work is a comparison of different cooling techniques during cryogenic machining of titanium alloys. The analysis revealed that applied cooling technique has a significant influence on cutting force and surface roughness (Ra parameter values. Furthermore, in all cases observed a positive influence of cryogenic machining on selected aspects after turning and milling of titanium alloys. This work can be also the starting point to the further research, related to the analysis of cutting forces and surface roughness during cryogenic machining of titanium alloys.

  4. Influence of defect size and localization on the engagement of reverse Hill-Sachs lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroder, Philipp; Runer, Armin; Kraemer, Manuel; Fierlbeck, Johann; Niederberger, Alfred; Cotofana, Sebastian; Vasvari, Imre; Hettegger, Bernhard; Tauber, Mark; Hurschler, Christof; Resch, Herbert

    2015-03-01

    Reverse Hill-Sachs (RHS) lesions can cause recurrent posterior shoulder instability because of engagement with the posterior glenoid rim; however, the effect of defect size and localization have yet to be determined. Both size and localization are critical for the engagement of an RHS defect with the posterior glenoid rim. Controlled laboratory study. Ten RHS defects with predefined extent and localization were created through an anterolateral rotator cuff sparing approach in 10 fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulder specimens using a custom-made saw guide. Computed tomography scans of all specimens were completed, and standardized measurements were performed to determine the size (alpha angle) and localization (beta angle) of the defect as well as a combination of both parameters (gamma angle). Internal rotation motions were imposed on the shoulder joint in different arm positions and with varying amount of posterior translation by means of a robot-assisted shoulder simulator. The association between engagement of the defects and the defined parameters (alpha, beta, and gamma angles) was analyzed. In 0° of abduction, a cutoff value between engaging and nonengaging defects of 37.5° for the alpha angle (100% sensitivity; 75% specificity; area under the curve [AUC], 0.875; P = .055) and 36.5° for the beta angle (100% sensitivity; 25% specificity; AUC, 0.708; P = .286) was determined. The gamma angle showed the highest discriminatory power (AUC, 0.938; P = .025) with a cutoff value of 85.5° rendering 100% sensitivity and 75% specificity in the prediction of engagement. An increase in the applied posterior translation force decreased the degrees of internal rotation necessary before engagement occurred. No engagement occurred during internal rotation with the arm in 60° of abduction or 60° of flexion. The size and localization of RHS defects are both critical factors for engagement. The combination of both parameters in terms of the gamma angle measurement might be a

  5. Rural livelihoods and agricultural commercialization in colonial Uganda: conjunctures of external influences and local realities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Michiel A.

    2017-01-01

    The economic history of Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by geographically and temporally dispersed booms and busts. The export-led ‘cash-crop revolution’ in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa during the colonial era is a key example of an economic boom. This thesis examines how external influences

  6. Attitudes of the Citizens of the Central Part of Serbia towards the Influence of Immigrants on Local Culture and Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Vesković Anđelković

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing number of immigrants arriving to Serbia from various places ever since the end of the last century. It is primarily a forced displaced population from war affected territories in the 1990s who have still been living in Serbia even two decades after completion of the conflict and the relative normalization of relations. Furthermore, the number of asylum seekers and irregular migrants has also enormously increased. Since demographic forecasts and experiences of other former socialistic countries show that migration transition towards immigration is to be expected in the coming decades, especially with the formal EU membership, it seems there is a need for greater visibilisation of this phenomenon in order to be adequately prepared to face these challenges. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the geopolitical position of Serbia and lay down the long-term prospects regarding immigration as well as to shed light on the attitudes of Serbian citizens towards immigrants, especially when it comes to their influence on the local culture, customs and everyday life. The data presented and analysed were collected by field survey research carried out by the Institute for Sociological Research of the Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade in 2013. Besides analysing attitudes of the local population concerning the influence of refugees, the authors also examine their opinion on the foreigners’ impact on culture and everyday life in local communities.

  7. The influence of extraction techniques on the yield, kinetics and composition of aqueous extracts from dill fruit (Anethi fructus)

    OpenAIRE

    Stanojević, Ljiljana; Stanković, Biljana; Cakić, Milorad; Nikolić, Vesna; Ilić, Dušica; Perić, Milena

    2014-01-01

    University of Niš, Faculty of Technology, Leskovac, Serbia The influence of operational extraction conditions (hydromodule and temperature) and extraction techniques (maceration, Soxhlet, Tillepape, extraction with reflux and ultrasonic extraction) on the yield, composition and kinetics of total extrac­tive matter from dill fruits (Anethi fructus) was investigated. Optimal operational extraction conditions by maceration of total extractive matter were defined (hydro­module 1:20 m/v and solven...

  8. Use of multi-sensory marketing techniques and its influence on brand experience in retail and HORECA sector

    OpenAIRE

    Machala, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Double degree. A Work Project presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA- School of Business and Economics and Warsaw School of Economics This dissertation aims at providing an analysis of the influence of sensory stimuli on consumer’s decision making process along with product and service perception. It focuses on the multisensory marketing techniques in consumer foodservice and retail sector. The impact of multisensory marketing...

  9. Efficacy of various cleansing techniques on dentin wettability and its influence on shear bond strength of a resin luting agent

    OpenAIRE

    Munirathinam, Dilipkumar; Mohanaj, Dhivya; Beganam, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the shear bond strength of resin luting agent to dentin surfaces cleansed with different agents like pumice, ultrasonic scaler with chlorhexidine gluconate, EDTA and the influence of these cleansing methods on wetting properties of the dentin by Axisymmetric drop Shape Analysis - Contact Diameter technique (ADSA-CD). MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty coronal portions of human third molar were prepared until dentin was exposed. Specimens were divided into two groups: Group A and ...

  10. High-resolution modeling of thermal thresholds and environmental influences on coral bleaching for local and regional reef management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Naoki H; Yamano, Hiroya

    2018-01-01

    Coral reefs are one of the world's most threatened ecosystems, with global and local stressors contributing to their decline. Excessive sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) can cause coral bleaching, resulting in coral death and decreases in coral cover. A SST threshold of 1 °C over the climatological maximum is widely used to predict coral bleaching. In this study, we refined thermal indices predicting coral bleaching at high-spatial resolution (1 km) by statistically optimizing thermal thresholds, as well as considering other environmental influences on bleaching such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation, water turbidity, and cooling effects. We used a coral bleaching dataset derived from the web-based monitoring system Sango Map Project, at scales appropriate for the local and regional conservation of Japanese coral reefs. We recorded coral bleaching events in the years 2004-2016 in Japan. We revealed the influence of multiple factors on the ability to predict coral bleaching, including selection of thermal indices, statistical optimization of thermal thresholds, quantification of multiple environmental influences, and use of multiple modeling methods (generalized linear models and random forests). After optimization, differences in predictive ability among thermal indices were negligible. Thermal index, UV radiation, water turbidity, and cooling effects were important predictors of the occurrence of coral bleaching. Predictions based on the best model revealed that coral reefs in Japan have experienced recent and widespread bleaching. A practical method to reduce bleaching frequency by screening UV radiation was also demonstrated in this paper.

  11. The influence of gaming expenditure on crime rates in South Australia: a local area empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sarah Ann; Round, David K; Sarre, Rick; O'Neil, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Although there has been much speculation about the possible links between gambling and crime rates, relevant quantitative evidence has been practically non-existent in Australia to date. This paper reports the results of research that utilised a model designed to investigate the potential relationship between electronic gaming machine expenditures and property (income-generating) crime rates reported to police in local areas in South Australia in 2002-2003. The research found that the higher the expenditures on gaming machines in a particular local area per adult, the higher the income-generating crime rate in that area. No such relationship was found between gaming machine expenditure and non-income-generating crime rates. However, further research is required before any policy-relevant conclusions can be drawn.

  12. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto; Nishiyama, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary α-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy you...

  13. MNC Interdependence and Local Embeddedness Influences on Perceptions of Career Benefits from Global Integration

    OpenAIRE

    William Newburry

    2001-01-01

    This manuscript examines when global integration is perceived as being beneficial and/or detrimental to employee careers. Study results demonstrate that employees of more interdependent offices generally perceive greater career benefits from global integration, while employees of more locally embedded offices perceive negative career consequences. Hypotheses are guided by a theory of attention focus.© 2001 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (2001) 32, 497–507

  14. Local environmental pollution strongly influences culturable bacterial aerosols at an urban aquatic superfund site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueker, M Elias; O'Mullan, Gregory D; Juhl, Andrew R; Weathers, Kathleen C; Uriarte, Maria

    2012-10-16

    In polluted environments, when microbial aerosols originate locally, species composition of the aerosols should reflect the polluted source. To test the connection between local environmental pollution and microbial aerosols near an urban waterfront, we characterized bacterial aerosols at Newtown Creek (NTC), a public waterway and Superfund site in a densely populated area of New York, NY, USA. Culturable bacterial aerosol fallout rate and surface water bacterial concentrations were at least an order of magnitude greater at NTC than at a neighboring, less polluted waterfront and a nonurban coastal site in Maine. The NTC culturable bacterial aerosol community was significantly different in taxonomic structure from previous urban and coastal aerosol studies, particularly in relative abundances of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Twenty-four percent of the operational taxonomic units in the NTC overall (air + water) bacterial isolate library were most similar to bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences previously described in terrestrial or aquatic environments contaminated with sewage, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other industrial waste. This study is the first to examine the community composition and local deposition of bacterial aerosols from an aquatic Superfund site. The findings have important implications for the use of aeration remediation in polluted aquatic environments and suggest a novel pathway of microbial exposure in densely populated urban communities containing contaminated soil and water.

  15. Influence of local strain on twinning behavior during compression of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.T.; Godfrey, A.; Zheng, J.P.; Liu, W.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of local strain state on twinning behavior during compression of AZ31 magnesium alloy was investigated, making use of a micro-grid method to correlate the local strain tensor with observations of twinning using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. Eight prism samples were used to get deformation zones subjected to different strain states. The strain distribution across the whole sample surface was measured with the micro-grid method and the results show that the local strain states exhibit much variation, with zones subjected to large shear strain as well as zones subjected to little shear strain. Samples were compressed at room temperature and detailed EBSD measurements were taken in two zones, where one zone was subject to only small shear strains and the other was subject to large shear strains. Twin variant selection was then analyzed with respect to both stress-based (Schmid factor) and strain-based criteria. The former was found to provide the best explanation for the observed pattern of twinning

  16. Influence of the local application of sodium alendronate gel on osseointegration of titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, M B; Bueno, R S; Blaya, M B G; Shinkai, R S A; Marques, L M H

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of aspects of the osseointegration of titanium implants placed with and without the local application of a bisphosphonate agent, after 28 days in vivo. The study involved the placement of 50 commercially pure titanium implants in the middle third of the tibia of 10 rabbits, with the right tibia used as the control and the left as the test site. Sodium alendronate gel was applied locally in the test group and sterile saline solution in the control group. After euthanasia, 10 implants from each group were analyzed for maximum removal torque. The remainder of the sample was processed to obtain non-decalcified slides, approximately 30μm thick, for histomorphological and histomorphometric analyses, including bone-implant contact (%BIC). Data were analyzed at the 5% level of significance. The removal torque values of the test group were, on average, half those obtained in the control group. The test group showed a lower %BIC and notable changes in bone quality. It is concluded that the initial events in the osseointegration of titanium implants are not favoured by the local application of sodium alendronate gel in rabbits. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of optimizing protocol choice on the integral dose value in prostate radiotherapy planning by dynamic techniques - Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleska, Anna; Bogaczyk, Krzysztof; Piotrowski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the values of integral dose, calculated for treatment plans of dynamic radiotherapy techniques prepared with two different optimization protocols. Delivering radiation by IMRT, VMAT and also HT techniques has an influence on the low dose deposition of large areas of the patient body. Delivery of low dose can induce injury of healthy cells. In this situation, a good solution would be to reduce the area, which receives a low dose, but with appropriate dose level for the target volume. To calculate integral dose values of plans structures, we used 90 external beam radiotherapy plans prepared for three techniques (intensity modulated radiotherapy, volumetric modulated arc therapy and helical tomotherapy). One technique includes three different geometry combinations. 45 plans were prepared with classic optimization protocol and 45 with rings optimization protocol which should reduce the low doses in the normal tissue. Differences in values of the integral dose depend on the geometry and technique of irradiation, as well as optimization protocol used in preparing treatment plans. The application of the rings optimization caused the value of normal tissue integral dose (NTID) to decrease. It is possible to limit the area of low dose irradiation and reduce NTID in dynamic techniques with the same clinical constraints for OAR and PTV volumes by using an optimization protocol other than the classic one.

  18. Influence of different restorative techniques on marginal seal of class II composite restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinval Adalberto Rodrigues Junior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gingival marginal seal in class II composite restorations using different restorative techniques. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Class II box cavities were prepared in both proximal faces of 32 sound human third molars with gingival margins located in either enamel or dentin/cementum. Restorations were performed as follows: G1 (control: composite, conventional light curing technique; G2: composite, soft-start technique; G3: amalgam/composite association (amalcomp; and G4: resin-modified glass ionomer cement/composite, open sandwich technique. The restored specimens were thermocycled. Epoxy resin replicas were made and coated for scanning electron microscopy examination. For microleakage evaluation, teeth were coated with nail polish and immersed in dye solution. Teeth were cut in 3 slices and dye penetration was recorded (mm, digitized and analyzed with Image Tool software. Microleakage data were analyzed statistically by non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. RESULTS: Leakage in enamel was lower than in dentin (p<0.001. G2 exhibited the lowest leakage values (p<0.05 in enamel margins, with no differences between the other groups. In dentin margins, groups G1 and G2 had similar behavior and both showed less leakage (p<0.05 than groups G3 and G4. SEM micrographs revealed different marginal adaptation patterns for the different techniques and for the different substrates. CONCLUSION: The soft-start technique showed no leakage in enamel margins and produced similar values to those of the conventional (control technique for dentin margins.

  19. Influence of different restorative techniques on marginal seal of class II composite restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    RODRIGUES JUNIOR, Sinval Adalberto; PIN, Lúcio Fernando da Silva; MACHADO, Giovanna; DELLA BONA, Álvaro; DEMARCO, Flávio Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the gingival marginal seal in class II composite restorations using different restorative techniques. Material and Methods Class II box cavities were prepared in both proximal faces of 32 sound human third molars with gingival margins located in either enamel or dentin/cementum. Restorations were performed as follows: G1 (control): composite, conventional light curing technique; G2: composite, soft-start technique; G3: amalgam/composite association (amalcomp); and G4: resin-modified glass ionomer cement/ composite, open sandwich technique. The restored specimens were thermocycled. Epoxy resin replicas were made and coated for scanning electron microscopy examination. For microleakage evaluation, teeth were coated with nail polish and immersed in dye solution. Teeth were cut in 3 slices and dye penetration was recorded (mm), digitized and analyzed with Image Tool software. Microleakage data were analyzed statistically by non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results Leakage in enamel was lower than in dentin (p<0.001). G2 exhibited the lowest leakage values (p<0.05) in enamel margins, with no differences between the other groups. In dentin margins, groups G1 and G2 had similar behavior and both showed less leakage (p<0.05) than groups G3 and G4. SEM micrographs revealed different marginal adaptation patterns for the different techniques and for the different substrates. Conclusion The soft-start technique showed no leakage in enamel margins and produced similar values to those of the conventional (control) technique for dentin margins. PMID:20379680

  20. Dental radiography technique and equipment: How they influence the radiation dose received at the level of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rush, E.R. [School of Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Shore Road, Newtownabbey, Belfast BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: emmaroserush@hotmail.com; Thompson, N.A. [School of Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Shore Road, Newtownabbey, Belfast BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence that collimator and technique choice had on the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position, during intra-oral examinations of the upper and lower teeth. Radiation dose reduction from a different perspective, other than the application of lead-rubber shielding, was addressed. Methods: A study was performed at a regional dental school with the use of a phantom head/neck and a radiation dosemeter, to measure the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position. The radiation dose was assessed for two intra-oral techniques (paralleling and bisecting angle), and two collimators (rectangular and circular). The radiation dose was also assessed with and without the application of a thyroid shield. Standard descriptive statistics, followed by inferential statistics were applied to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position, when employing the paralleling technique (66.7%) and rectangular collimator (45.5%). Other factors, for example the tooth/teeth under examination, were also found to influence the radiation dose detected. Conclusion: Radiation dose reductions using the paralleling technique and rectangular collimator were outlined. The use of this low dose combination within dental practices remains limited, therefore, continued awareness and acceptance of radiation hazards need to be addressed.

  1. Dental radiography technique and equipment: How they influence the radiation dose received at the level of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, E.R.; Thompson, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence that collimator and technique choice had on the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position, during intra-oral examinations of the upper and lower teeth. Radiation dose reduction from a different perspective, other than the application of lead-rubber shielding, was addressed. Methods: A study was performed at a regional dental school with the use of a phantom head/neck and a radiation dosemeter, to measure the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position. The radiation dose was assessed for two intra-oral techniques (paralleling and bisecting angle), and two collimators (rectangular and circular). The radiation dose was also assessed with and without the application of a thyroid shield. Standard descriptive statistics, followed by inferential statistics were applied to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position, when employing the paralleling technique (66.7%) and rectangular collimator (45.5%). Other factors, for example the tooth/teeth under examination, were also found to influence the radiation dose detected. Conclusion: Radiation dose reductions using the paralleling technique and rectangular collimator were outlined. The use of this low dose combination within dental practices remains limited, therefore, continued awareness and acceptance of radiation hazards need to be addressed

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF USING SKIMMING TECHNIQUE TOWARD THE STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION AMONG THE ELEVENTH GRADERS OF SMK N 3 METRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Yuniasih -

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to implement the skimming technique and analyze its influence in the student comprehending reading texts at the eleventh grade (XI TKJ of SMK N 3 Metro. In this research the researcher gave pretest to know the students’ ability in understanding reading texts and posttest to know the result of the students’s ability in reading text after giving the skimming technique.This research was quantitative research which had been conducted in SMK N 3 Metro at the class XI TKJ and followed by 70 students as the sample. The tehnique sampling was cluster random sampling. In collectting the data the researcher used test. The researcher used the test to get the data of student’s reading comprehension through the questions which consisted of 30 multiple choices  about the reading text. This test was used to figure out whether the skimming technique was suitable and could be used by the students in comprehending the reading texts. The analysis which was used by the researcher was t-test. Finally, the data indicates that t observed  = 23.945 is higher than t table = 2.99. Therefore, it can be concluded that Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected. It means that the skimming technique influences the students’ reading comprehension at the eleventh graders of SMK N 3 Metro in the academic year of 2010/2011.

  3. Determination of intensity functions for predicting subsidence from coal mining, potash mining, and groundwater withdrawal using the influence function technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, T.; Yurchak, D. [Twin Cities Research Center, Bureau of Mines, US Dept. of the Interior, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents research, conducted by the Bureau of Mines, on modifying the influence function method to predict subsidence. According to theory, this technique must incorporate an intensity function to represent the relative significance of the causes of subsidence. This paper shows that the inclusion of a reasonable intensity function increases the accuracy of the technique, then presents the required functions for case studies of longwall coal mining subsidence in Illinois, USA, potash mining subsidence in new Mexico, USA, and subsidence produced by ground water withdrawal in California, USA. Finally, the paper discusses a method to predict the resultant strain from a simply measured site constant and ground curvatures calculated by the technique. (orig.)

  4. Influence of local calibration on the quality of online wet weather discharge monitoring: feedback from five international case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradot, Nicolas; Sonnenberg, Hauke; Rouault, Pascale; Gruber, Günter; Hofer, Thomas; Torres, Andres; Pesci, Maria; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports about experiences gathered from five online monitoring campaigns in the sewer systems of Berlin (Germany), Graz (Austria), Lyon (France) and Bogota (Colombia) using ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectrometers and turbidimeters. Online probes are useful for the measurement of highly dynamic processes, e.g. combined sewer overflows (CSO), storm events, and river impacts. The influence of local calibration on the quality of online chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements of wet weather discharges has been assessed. Results underline the need to establish local calibration functions for both UV-VIS spectrometers and turbidimeters. It is suggested that practitioners calibrate locally their probes using at least 15-20 samples. However, these samples should be collected over several events and cover most of the natural variability of the measured concentration. For this reason, the use of automatic peristaltic samplers in parallel to online monitoring is recommended with short representative sampling campaigns during wet weather discharges. Using reliable calibration functions, COD loads of CSO and storm events can be estimated with a relative uncertainty of approximately 20%. If no local calibration is established, concentrations and loads are estimated with a high error rate, questioning the reliability and meaning of the online measurement. Similar results have been obtained for total suspended solids measurements.

  5. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SUCCESS OF PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT: EVIDENCE FROM LOCAL GOVERNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina Primarisanti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There were only a few government institutions in Indonesia capable of preparing good accountability reports. Based on the survey conducted in the Special District of Yogyakarta, the study aimed to empirically examine the influencing factors in the development of the measure-ment system of performance, performance accountability and the use of performance informa-tion. Additionally, it also tried to interpret and to explain empirical evidence in the perspective of the institutional theory. The institutional theory was used to find out the extent to which the development of the measurement system of the performance, the performance accountability and the use of the performance information was influenced because of the presence of coercive, mimetic and normative isomorphism phenomena. The study used mixed methods that combined quantitative and qualitative study approaches simultaneously and a sequential explanatory strategy. It used Partial Least Square (PLS analysis to test the hypotheses. It gave evidence that training, incentives and authority in decision making had significant impacts on the development of the measurement of the performance, the performance accountability and the use of the performance information. It contributed to the understanding of the influencing factors of the development of the measurement system of the performance, the performance accountability and the use of the performance information in order to improve the measurement system of the performance of government institutions.

  6. The influence of localization depth of mushrooms mycelium on the 137Cs contents in territory of the alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatrova, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    One of the main factors, which influencing on the accumulation of 137 Cs by mushrooms, is the depth of the localization of the basic part of mycelium in soil. During 1986-2000 in territory of the Alienation zone mushrooms - symbiotrophics, the basic part of mycelium which is in soil on depth more than 5 sm. accumulate 137 Cs in much smaller (from 1,5 up to 10 times) quantities, than kinds, at which mycelium is located in the top layers of soil (0-5 sm.)

  7. Local media influence on opting out from an exception from informed consent trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Maria J; DeIorio, Nicole M; Schmidt, Terri; Griffiths, Denise; Daya, Mohamud; Haywood, Liana; Zive, Dana; Newgard, Craig D

    2010-01-01

    News media are used for community education and notification in exception from informed consent clinical trials, yet their effectiveness as an added safeguard in such research remains unknown. We assessed the number of callers requesting opt-out bracelets after each local media report and described the errors and content within each media report. We undertook a descriptive analysis of local media trial coverage (newspaper, television, radio, and Web log) and opt-out requests during a 41-month period at a single site participating in an exception from informed consent out-of-hospital trial. Two nontrial investigators independently assessed 41 content-based media variables (including background, trial information, graphics, errors, publication information, and assessment) with a standardized, semiqualitative data collection tool. Major errors were considered serious misrepresentation of the trial purpose or protocol, whereas minor errors included misinformation unlikely to mislead the lay reader about the trial. We plotted the temporal relationship between opt-out bracelet requests and media reports. Descriptive information about the news sources and the trial coverage are presented. We collected 39 trial-related media reports (33 newspaper, 1 television, 1 radio, and 4 blogs). There were 13 errors in 9 (23%) publications, 7 of which were major and 6 minor. Of 384 requests for 710 bracelets, 310 requests (80%) occurred within 4 days after trial media coverage. Graphic timeline representation of the data suggested a close association between media reports about the trial and requests for opt-out bracelets. According to results from a single site, local media coverage for an exception from informed consent clinical trial had a substantial portion of errors and appeared closely associated with opt-out requests. Copyright 2008. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  8. The influence of mechanical vibration on local and central balance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Hossein; Mohler, Jane; Marlinski, Vladimir; Rashedi, Ehsan; Toosizadeh, Nima

    2018-04-11

    Fall prevention has an indispensable role in enhancing life expectancy and quality of life among older adults. The first step to prevent falls is to devise reliable methods to identify individuals at high fall risk. The purpose of the current study was to assess alterations in local postural muscle and central sensory balance control mechanisms due to low-frequency externally applied vibration among elders at high fall risk, in comparison with healthy controls, as a potential tool for assessing fall risk. Three groups of participants were recruited: healthy young (n = 10; age = 23 ± 2 years), healthy elders (n = 10; age = 73 ± 3 years), and elders at high fall risk (n = 10; age = 84 ± 9 years). Eyes-open and eyes-closed upright standing balance performance was measured with no vibration, 30 Hz, and 40 Hz vibration of Gastrocnemius muscles. When vibratory stimulation was applied, changes in local-control performance manifested significant differences among the groups (p control performance were not significant between groups (p ≥ 0.19). Results suggest that local-control deficits are responsible for balance behavior alterations among elders at high fall risk and healthy individuals. This observation may be attributable to deterioration of short-latency reflexive loop in elders at high fall risk. On the other hand, we could not ascribe the balance alterations to problems related to central nervous system performance or long-latency responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of the factors influencing the process of attracting adults to regular physical activity at the local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.N. Shlepakov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study - the optimization of system performance sport for all and the establishment of effective organizational relationships between the various entities at the municipal level. Conducted a survey of the ordinary citizens of working age (610 persons, 100 specialists, 2 expert groups (15 and 18 respectively. The factors influencing the process of attracting people to the motor activity: individual, social, economic, infrastructure. Classified factors comprehensively assessed the extent and consequences of the influence of each process on the system at the level of local communities. A set of actions to minimize the impact of constraints and maximizing the manifestations of factors conducive to attracting people to regular physical training and sports. The basic directions of activity: access of the general public to low cost sports facilities, tools, equipment, creation of environmentally safe and comfortable environment for practicing physical activity, overcoming the deficit of public awareness of the organization of motor activity.

  10. The influence of changes of combustion gas temperature during flow around the horizontal cylinder on local Nu number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Górska

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The article the influence of changes of combustion gas temperature during flow around of horizontal cylinder on local Nu number was presented. In order to test an influence of effect waste gas temperature cycle of experimental investigations were conducted. Experimental tests were carried out on a properly designed measuring cylinder furnished with a number of thermocouples embedded along the cylinder perimeter. The cylinder was made from stainless steel of known thermal conductivity, and was cooled on the outer side through a water cooling system. The cylinder was placed horizontally in a heating chamber equipped with an axially positioned gas burner fired with natural gas. Gas and air feeds were regulated with control valves, based on combustion gas analyzer data.

  11. Influence of spermatogenesis functional state on female sterility under single local x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'nikova, N.K.; Kudritskaya, O.Yu.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment which simulated conditions of radiation exposure in X ray studies of human beings was staged to see what was the contribution of the sex-related radiosensitivity to the biologic effect from local exposure of the pelvis region. Second-generation white mice were irradiated with doses of 7.34 to 360 R. It was found that with the dose increase, the number of sterile females also increased with a concomitant reduction in the number of live spermatozoa in the seman of males, which can be considered as evidence that these two processes are interrelated

  12. Influence des engins et techniques de peche sur l'abondance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les indices de nuisance et d'impact des engins et techniques de pêche ainsi que l'abondance relative des espèces ont été calculés en utilisant le logiciel XLSTAT. Une cartographie de ces paramètres a été faite par interpolation linéaire sous le logiciel ArcGis 9.3. Les résultats ont révélé 8 engins et techniques de pêche.

  13. Influence of petroleum deposit geometry on local gradient of electron acceptors and microbial catabolic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gargi; Pruden, Amy; Widdowson, Mark A

    2012-06-05

    A field survey was conducted following the Deepwater Horizon blowout and it was noted that resulting coastal petroleum deposits possessed distinct geometries, ranging from small tar balls to expansive horizontal oil sheets. A subsequent laboratory study evaluated the effect of oil deposit geometry on localized gradients of electron acceptors and microbial community composition, factors that are critical to accurately estimating biodegradation rates. One-dimensional top-flow sand columns with 12-h simulated tidal cycles compared two contrasting geometries (isolated tar "balls" versus horizontal "sheets") relative to an oil-free control. Significant differences in the effluent dissolved oxygen and sulfate concentrations were noted among the columns, indicating presence of anaerobic zones in the oiled columns, particularly in the sheet condition. Furthermore, quantification of genetic markers of terminal electron acceptor and catabolic processes via quantitative polymerase chain reaction of dsrA (sulfate-reduction), mcrA (methanogenesis), and cat23 (oxygenation of aromatics) genes in column cores suggested more extensive anaerobic conditions induced by the sheet relative to the ball geometry. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis similarly revealed that distinct gradients of bacterial communities established in response to the different geometries. Thus, petroleum deposit geometry impacts local dominant electron acceptor conditions and may be a key factor for advancing attenuation models and prioritizing cleanup.

  14. Influence of framework color and layering technique on the final color of zirconia veneered restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboushelib, M.N.; Dozic, A.; Liem, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of colored zirconia frameworks on the overall color match of zirconia- veneered restorations. Method and Materials: Identical natural and colored zirconia frameworks (Cercon Base, Degudent) were layered using a veneer ceramic (IPS e.max Ceram Dentin, Ivoclar

  15. Implant angulation : A measurement technique, implant overdenture maintenance, and the influence of surgical experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walton, JN; Huizinga, SC; Peck, CC

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to develop a technique to measure the angulation between two implants and between each implant and reference planes, to analyze the relationship between the maintenance (adjustments and repairs) of ball-attachment mandibular implant overdentures and implant

  16. A Technical Review of Electrochemical Techniques Applied to Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    in the literature for the study of MIC phenomena. Videla65 has used this technique in a study of the action of Cladosporium resinae growth on the...ROSALES, Corrosion 44, 638 (1988). 65. H. A. VIDs, The action of Clado.sporiuo resinae growth on the electrochemical behavior of aluminum. Proc. bit. Conf

  17. P-R-R Study Technique, Group Counselling And Gender Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Read-Recall (P-R-R) study technique and group counselling on the academic performance of senior secondary school students. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of Group Counselling combined with P-R-R study ...

  18. Influence of the properties of granite and sandstone in the desalination process by electrokinetic technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feijoo, J.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pozo-Antonio, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    such as sand disaggregation and superficial detachments. These problems can be solved by conservation technologies, which are aimed to decrease the salt concentration in rocks (desalination).The present study aimed to investigate the efficiency of electrokinetic techniques for desalination of two different...... in the granite samples (favored a faster desalination process)....

  19. Influence of preoperative (hyperthermic) radiochemotherapy on manometric anal sphincter function in locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzmann, J.; Huenerbein, M.; Slisow, W.; Rau, B.; Gellermann, J.; Wust, P.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) followed by curative surgery is a well-accepted therapeutic option in the treatment of advanced rectal cancer. Usually, the anal sphincter is located in the irradiation area of a preoperative RCT regime. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of preoperative RCT on anal sphincter function. Patients and methods: between 1994 and 2000, 102 patients with rectal cancer stage uT3/uT4 were analyzed. All patients underwent radiotherapy with 45 Gy (5 x 1.8 Gy) including two cycles of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/leucovorin (folinic acid) chemotherapy. 46 patients were treated additionally with up to five sessions of locoregional hyperthermia. The sphincter function was analyzed by perfusion manometry before preoperative therapy and 4 weeks after pretreatment had been finished. For statistics, the Wilcoxon signed rank test and mann-whitney U-test were used (SPSS 9.0 for Windows trademark). Results: the mean value of all 102 patients showed a significant reduction of the mean maximum resting pressure from 97 to 89 mmHg (p = 0.02). For the mean maximal squeeze pressure no significant difference could be shown (178 vs. 176 mmHg). For patients with distal (≤ 7.5 cm from anal verge) tumors the difference was highly significant (92 vs. 79 mmHg). Locoregional hyperthermia had no additional influence on sphincter function. Conclusion: preoperative RCT impairs sphincter function especially in patients with distal tumors. In addition, RCT could have a negative influence on the continence of patients who received sphincter-preserving surgery. (orig.) [de

  20. Machining process influence on the chip form and surface roughness by neuro-fuzzy technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anicic, Obrad; Jović, Srđan; Aksić, Danilo; Skulić, Aleksandar; Nedić, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    The main aim of the study was to analyze the influence of six machining parameters on the chip shape formation and surface roughness as well during turning of Steel 30CrNiMo8. Three components of cutting forces were used as inputs together with cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut. It is crucial for the engineers to use optimal machining parameters to get the best results or to high control of the machining process. Therefore, there is need to find the machining parameters for the optimal procedure of the machining process. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was used to estimate the inputs influence on the chip shape formation and surface roughness. According to the results, the cutting force in direction of the depth of cut has the highest influence on the chip form. The testing error for the cutting force in direction of the depth of cut has testing error 0.2562. This cutting force determines the depth of cut. According to the results, the depth of cut has the highest influence on the surface roughness. Also the depth of cut has the highest influence on the surface roughness. The testing error for the cutting force in direction of the depth of cut has testing error 5.2753. Generally the depth of cut and the cutting force which provides the depth of cut are the most dominant factors for chip forms and surface roughness. Any small changes in depth of cut or in cutting force which provide the depth of cut could drastically affect the chip form or surface roughness of the working material.

  1. Influence of fabrication techniques and artificial aging on the fracture resistance of different cantilever zirconia fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Mohamed H; Madina, Manal M; Aboushelib, Moustafa N

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of dynamic fatigue on fracture load and failure mode of different types of adhesive zirconia restorations. Eighty adhesive cantilever fixed dental prostheses (CFDP) were fabricated and assigned to four equal groups (n = 20) using the following materials and techniques. Group 1: machine copy-milling zirconia (Cercon), group 2: manual copy-milling technique (ZirkonZahn), group 3: slip casting technique (Vita In-ceram Zirconia), group 4: metal-ceramic CFDP. Specimens in groups 1and 2 received selective infiltration-etching surface treatment, specimens in group 3 were acid etched with hydrofluoric acid and silanated, while those of group 4 were airborne particle abraded. All specimens were bonded with resin cement (Panavia F2.0) and thermocycled (5000 cycles/ 5 to 55°C). Then, half the number of the specimens of each group (n = 10) underwent dynamic loading (one million cycles at alternating loads between 10 and 40 N in a water bath at 37°C). All specimens were subjected to one-cycle loading to failure to evaluate fracture resistance. One-way and two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc tests were used to analyze the data (α = 0.05). The intaglio surfaces of fractured specimens were examined using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Statistical analysis revealed that the failure load of metal (413 ± 26 N) and machine copy-milled zirconia (368 ± 24 N) restorations was significantly higher (F = 129, p < 0.001) than manually copy-milled (316 ± 18) and In-ceram zirconia (210 ± 17) restorations. Dynamic fatigue significantly (p < 0.03) reduced failure load of the manually copy-milled and In-ceram zirconia restorations, while metal and machine copy-milling zirconia restorations were not influenced by fatigue. The fatigue strength of adhesive zirconia restorations is influenced by cyclic loading and the technique used to manufacture these restorations.

  2. Reduction of thermal models of buildings: improvement of techniques using meteorological influence models; Reduction de modeles thermiques de batiments: amelioration des techniques par modelisation des sollicitations meteorologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautin, S.

    1997-04-01

    This work concerns the modeling of thermal phenomena inside buildings for the evaluation of energy exploitation costs of thermal installations and for the modeling of thermal and aeraulic transient phenomena. This thesis comprises 7 chapters dealing with: (1) the thermal phenomena inside buildings and the CLIM2000 calculation code, (2) the ETNA and GENEC experimental cells and their modeling, (3) the techniques of model reduction tested (Marshall`s truncature, Michailesco aggregation method and Moore truncature) with their algorithms and their encoding in the MATRED software, (4) the application of model reduction methods to the GENEC and ETNA cells and to a medium size dual-zone building, (5) the modeling of meteorological influences classically applied to buildings (external temperature and solar flux), (6) the analytical expression of these modeled meteorological influences. The last chapter presents the results of these improved methods on the GENEC and ETNA cells and on a lower inertia building. These new methods are compared to classical methods. (J.S.) 69 refs.

  3. Load-velocity relationship in variations of the half-squat exercise: Influence of execution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro; García-Ramos, Amador; Padial, Paulino; Morales-Artacho, Antonio J; Feriche, Belén

    2017-09-06

    Previous studies have revealed that the velocity of the bar can be used to determine the intensity of different resistance training exercises. However, the load-velocity relationship seems to be exercise dependent. This study aimed to compare the load-velocity relationship obtained from two variations of the half-squat exercise (traditional vs. ballistic) using two execution techniques (eccentric-concentric vs. concentric-only). Twenty men performed a submaximal progressive loading test in four half-squat exercises: eccentric-concentric traditional-squat, concentric-only traditional-squat, countermovement jump (i.e. ballistic squat using the eccentric-concentric technique), and squat jump (i.e. ballistic squat using the concentric-only technique). Individual linear regressions were used to estimate the one-repetition maximum (1RM) for each half-squat exercise. Thereafter, another linear regression was applied to establish the relationship between relative load (%RM) and mean propulsive velocity (MPV). For all exercises, a strong relationship was observed between %RM and MPV: eccentric-concentric traditional-squat (R = 0.949), concentric-only traditional-squat (R = 0.920), countermovement jump (R = 0.957), and squat jump (R = 0.879). The velocities associated with each %RM were higher for the ballistic variation and the eccentric-concentric technique than for the traditional variation and concentric-only technique, respectively. Differences in velocity among the half-squat exercises decreased with the increment in the relative load. These results demonstrate that the MPV can be used to predict exercise intensity in the four half-squat exercises. However, independent regressions are required for each half-squat exercise since the load-velocity relationship proved to be task specific.

  4. Measuring the Influence of Information Networks on Transaction Costs Using a Non-parametric Regression Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian

    2011-01-01

    All business transactions as well as achieving innovations take up resources, subsumed under the concept of transaction costs (TAC). One of the major factors in TAC theory is information. Information networks can catalyse the interpersonal information exchange and hence, increase the access to no...... are unveiled by reduced productivity. A cross-validated local linear non-parametric regression shows that good information networks increase the productivity of farms. A bootstrapping procedure confirms that this result is statistically significant....

  5. Microevolutionary Events Involving Narrow Host Plasmids Influences Local Fixation of Vancomycin-Resistance in Enterococcus Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ana R.; Novais, Carla; Tedim, Ana P.; Francia, María Victoria; Baquero, Fernando; Peixe, Luísa; Coque, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistance in enterococci (VRE) is associated with isolates within ST18, ST17, ST78 Enterococcus faecium (Efm) and ST6 Enterococcus faecalis (Efs) human adapted lineages. Despite of its global spread, vancomycin resistance rates in enterococcal populations greatly vary temporally and geographically. Portugal is one of the European countries where Tn1546 (vanA) is consistently found in a variety of environments. A comprehensive multi-hierarchical analysis of VRE isolates (75 Efm and 29 Efs) from Portuguese hospitals and aquatic surroundings (1996–2008) was performed to clarify the local dynamics of VRE. Clonal relatedness was established by PFGE and MLST while plasmid characterization comprised the analysis of known relaxases, rep initiator proteins and toxin-antitoxin systems (TA) by PCR-based typing schemes, RFLP comparison, hybridization and sequencing. Tn1546 variants were characterized by PCR overlapping/sequencing. Intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of Efm ST18, ST132 and ST280 and Efs ST6 clones, carrying rolling-circle (pEFNP1/pRI1) and theta-replicating (pCIZ2-like, Inc18, pHTβ-like, two pRUM-variants, pLG1-like, and pheromone-responsive) plasmids was documented. Tn1546 variants, mostly containing ISEf1 or IS1216, were located on plasmids (30–150 kb) with a high degree of mosaicism and heterogeneous RFLP patterns that seem to have resulted from the interplay between broad host Inc18 plasmids (pIP501, pRE25, pEF1), and narrow host RepA_N plasmids (pRUM, pAD1-like). TAs of Inc18 (ω-ε-ζ) and pRUM (Axe-Txe) plasmids were infrequently detected. Some plasmid chimeras were persistently recovered over years from different clonal lineages. This work represents the first multi-hierarchical analysis of VRE, revealing a frequent recombinatorial diversification of a limited number of interacting clonal backgrounds, plasmids and transposons at local scale. These interactions provide a continuous process of parapatric clonalization driving a full

  6. Public Health Agency Accreditation Among Rural Local Health Departments: Influencers and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Kate E; Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C; Meit, Michael; Fey, James

    Health department accreditation is a crucial strategy for strengthening public health infrastructure. The purpose of this study was to investigate local health department (LHD) characteristics that are associated with accreditation-seeking behavior. This study sought to ascertain the effects of rurality on the likelihood of seeking accreditation through the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB). Cross-sectional study using secondary data from the 2013 National Association of County & City Health Officials (NACCHO) National Profile of Local Health Departments Study (Profile Study). United States. LHDs (n = 490) that responded to the 2013 NACCHO Profile Survey. LHDs decision to seek PHAB accreditation. Significantly more accreditation-seeking LHDs were located in urban areas (87.0%) than in micropolition (8.9%) or rural areas (4.1%) (P < .001). LHDs residing in urban communities were 16.6 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3-52.3) and micropolitan LHDs were 3.4 times (95% CI, 1.1-11.3) more likely to seek PHAB accreditation than rural LHDs (RLHDs). LHDs that had completed an agency-wide strategic plan were 8.5 times (95% CI, 4.0-17.9), LHDs with a local board of health were 3.3 times (95% CI, 1.5-7.0), and LHDs governed by their state health department were 12.9 times (95% CI, 3.3-50.0) more likely to seek accreditation. The most commonly cited barrier was time and effort required for accreditation application exceeded benefits (73.5%). The strongest predictor for seeking PHAB accreditation was serving an urban jurisdiction. Micropolitan LHDs were more likely to seek accreditation than smaller RLHDs, which are typically understaffed and underfunded. Major barriers identified by the RLHDs included fees being too high and the time and effort needed for accreditation exceeded their perceived benefits. RLHDs will need additional financial and technical support to achieve accreditation. Even with additional funds, clear messaging of the benefits of accreditation

  7. Influence of Particle Morphology on 3D Kinematic Behavior and Strain Localization of Sheared Sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Jarrar, Maha F.; Druckrey, Andrew M.; Al-Raoush, Riyadh I.

    2017-02-01

    The constitutive behavior of sheared sand is highly influenced by particle morphology, gradation, mineralogy, specimen density, loading condition, stress path, and boundary conditions. The current literature lacks a three-dimensional (3D) systematic experimental study that investigates the influence of particle morphology, confining pressure, and specimen density on the failure mode of sheared sand. In this paper, surface texture, roundness, and sphericity of three uniform sands and glass beads with similar grain size were quantified by using 3D images of particles. In situ nondestructive 3D synchrotron microcomputed tomography (SMT) was used to monitor the deformation of medium-dense and very dense dry sand specimens that were tested under axisymmetric triaxial loading condition at 15 and 400 kPa confining pressures. The particles were identified and tracked in 3D as shearing progressed within the specimens, and maps of incremental particle translation and rotation were developed and used to uncover the relationship between particle morphology, specimen density, and confining pressure on the deformation and failure mode of sheared sand. This paper discusses the relationship between the failure mode and particle morphology, specimen density, and confining pressure.

  8. Factors influencing local ecological knowledge maintenance in Mediterranean watersheds: Insights for environmental policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García Del Amo, David; García-Nieto, Ana Paula; Piñeiro, Concepción; Montes, Carlos; Martín-López, Berta

    2015-05-01

    Local ecological knowledge (LEK) has been found to be one of the main bridges to manage biocultural diversity. We analyzed the factors affecting LEK maintenance and transmission in a Mediterranean watershed. We used a mixed methods approach to evaluate the agricultural LEK in three different dimensions: biological, soil and water management, and forecasting. We found that the main factors for its maintenance were the respondent's time living in the area and the social relationships established among farmers, which involved partner collaboration and farmer information exchanges. Protected areas also played a key role for maintaining the LEK associated with soil and water management. Finally, we found that outmigration and mechanization were the most important indirect drivers of change underlying LEK erosion. We suggest that environmental policies should focus on promoting this experiential knowledge, considering both intergenerational renewal and the gendered aspects of this knowledge.

  9. The influence of local UV irradiation of the generative nucleus on vegetative function of Paramecium putrinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokin, S.I.

    1979-01-01

    The role of generative nucleus of Paramecium putrinum in the viability of three clones of different ages and with a normal and small micronucleus (Mi) has been investigated. The Mi was selectively inactivated with a local UV microirradiation at a dose of 3060 erg/mm 2 . Soon after the irradiation, 85% of clone C-6-1 cells (n=60) loose the generative nucleus. In clones K-177 (n=27) and L-2-1 (n=35) the fraction of amicronuclear progeny amounted to 66% and 86% respectively. The progeny of cells that have lost their Mi usually perishes. In some UV-treated cells of clone K-177 the fragmentation of macronucleus was observed; these cells were viable for a long time. It is supposed that fragments of macronucleus can functionally replace the lost or damaged Mi. It is concluded that the generative nucleus of P.putrium is significant for the vegetative life of the celle

  10. TRACKING DOWN LOCALIZED MODES IN PT-SYMMETRIC HAMILTONIANS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF A COMPETING NONLINEARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Bagchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of parity and time reversal (PT-symmetric structures in optical systems has been known for some time with the correspondence existing between the Schrödinger equation and the paraxial equation of diffraction, where the time parameter represents the propagating distance and the refractive index acts as the complex potential. In this paper, we systematically analyze a normalized form of the nonlinear Schrödinger system with two new families of PT-symmetric potentials in the presence of competing nonlinearities. We generate a class of localized eigenmodes and carry out a linear stability analysis on the solutions. In particular, we find an interesting feature of bifurcation characterized by the parameter of perturbative growth rate passing through zero, where a transition to imaginary eigenvalues occurs.

  11. Influence of metallic artifact filtering on MEG signals for source localization during interictal epileptiform activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorelli, Carolina; Alonso, Joan F.; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miguel A.; Nowak, Rafał; Russi, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Medical intractable epilepsy is a common condition that affects 40% of epileptic patients that generally have to undergo resective surgery. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has been increasingly used to identify the epileptogenic foci through equivalent current dipole (ECD) modeling, one of the most accepted methods to obtain an accurate localization of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). Modeling requires that MEG signals are adequately preprocessed to reduce interferences, a task that has been greatly improved by the use of blind source separation (BSS) methods. MEG recordings are highly sensitive to metallic interferences originated inside the head by implanted intracranial electrodes, dental prosthesis, etc and also coming from external sources such as pacemakers or vagal stimulators. To reduce these artifacts, a BSS-based fully automatic procedure was recently developed and validated, showing an effective reduction of metallic artifacts in simulated and real signals (Migliorelli et al 2015 J. Neural Eng. 12 046001). The main objective of this study was to evaluate its effects in the detection of IEDs and ECD modeling of patients with focal epilepsy and metallic interference. Approach. A comparison between the resulting positions of ECDs was performed: without removing metallic interference; rejecting only channels with large metallic artifacts; and after BSS-based reduction. Measures of dispersion and distance of ECDs were defined to analyze the results. Main results. The relationship between the artifact-to-signal ratio and ECD fitting showed that higher values of metallic interference produced highly scattered dipoles. Results revealed a significant reduction on dispersion using the BSS-based reduction procedure, yielding feasible locations of ECDs in contrast to the other two approaches. Significance. The automatic BSS-based method can be applied to MEG datasets affected by metallic artifacts as a processing step to improve the localization of

  12. Regional and local meteorology influences high-resolution tropospheric ozone concentration in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutzoukis, S.; Jenerette, D.; Chandler, M.; Wang, J.; Ge, C.; Ripplinger, J.

    2017-12-01

    Urban air quality and climate directly affect resident health. The Los Angeles (LA) Basin is a highly populated metropolitan area, with widespread point sources of ozone (O3) precursors (NOx , Volatile Organic Compounds, CO) from fossil fuel combustion. The LA basin exists on a coast-to-mountain gradient, with increasing temperatures towards the Transverse Ranges, which rise to 1700m. Frequently not compliant with 8-hour O3 standards, the LA and South Coast Air Basins are designated as severe and extreme non-attainment areas. Summer weather in the LA basin is characterized by a persistent high pressure system, creating an inversion that traps air pollutants, including O3 precursors, coupled with physical geography that blocks prevailing upper atmosphere air flow. These interactions make neighborhood-level O3 levels more variable than common regional models. Over the summer of 2017, we investigated the importance of local meteorology, wind patterns and air temperature, in transporting and mixing ozone precursors from point sources along the coast-to-mountain gradient. We deployed a network of six EPA federal equivalent method ozone and meteorological sensors in three campaigns in the LA basin along the coast-to-mountain transect. Each campaign, we collaborated with citizen scientists to deploy three sensor stations in two, 4 km2 quadrats, for a total of six high-resolution 4 km2 pixels. O3 concentrations vary greatly along the transect. At the coastal sites, daily O3 ranges from 0ppm to 60ppm and the range increases at the inland sites, to 100ppm. At all sites, there was a positive relationship between wind speed, air temperature, and O3 concentration, with increasing correlation inland. The Pearson correlation coefficient between wind speed and O3 concentration doubles from the coast to inland, and triples between air temperature and O3. The site-specific relationships between O3 and wind direction and temperature vary, suggesting neighborhood-effects from local

  13. Simultaneous measurement of local particle movement, solids concentrations and bubble properties in fluidized bed reactors using a novel fiber optical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayebi, Davoud

    1998-12-31

    This thesis develops a new method for simultaneous measurements of local flow properties in highly concentrated multiphase flow systems such as gas-solid fluidized bed reactors. The method is based on fiber optical technique and tracer particles. A particle present in the measuring volume in front of the probe is marked with a fluorescent dye. A light source illuminates the particles and the detecting fibres receive reflected light from uncoated particles and fluorescent light from the tracer particle. Using optical filters, the fluorescent light can be distinguished and together with a small fraction of background light from uncoated particles can be used for determination of local flow properties. Using this method, one can simultaneously measure the local movement of a single tracer particle, local bubble properties and the local solids volume fractions in different positions in the bed. The method is independent of the physical properties of the tracer particles. It is also independent of the local solids concentrations in the range of 0 to 60 vol.-%, but is mainly designed for highly concentrated flow systems. A computer programme that uses good signals from at least three sensors simultaneously to calculate the tracer particle velocity in two dimensions have been developed. It also calculates the bubble properties and local solids volume fractions from the same time series. 251 refs., 150 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Influence of substructure design, veneer application technique, and firing regime on the in vitro performance of molar zirconia crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Verena; Letsch, Christoph; Handel, Gerhard; Behr, Michael; Schneider-Feyrer, Sibylle; Rosentritt, Martin

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of substructure design, veneer application technique, and firing regime on the failure and fracture resistance of molar zirconia crowns. Six groups (n=8/group) of zirconia crowns were fabricated in simple core (SC) or anatomically reduced (AR) design, veneered with different feldspathic or glass ceramic materials, and defined according to the application technique and firing regime (LT: layering technique; LT_L: LT with long-term cooling; PT: press technique; DV: digital veneering technique). The following groups were investigated: SCLT, ARLT, SCLT_L, SCPT, ARPT, ARDV. Crowns were adhesively bonded to polymethylmethacrylate abutment teeth and subjected to thermal cycling (TC: 2×3000×5°/55°) and mechanical loading (ML: 1.2×10(6); 50N; 1.6Hz) in a chewing simulator with metal-ceramic molar crowns as antagonists. Failures were monitored and fracture resistance determined after aging. Data were statistically analyzed (one-way analysis of variance, ANOVA; post hoc Bonferroni, α=0.05). Crowns were subjected to scanning electron microscopy for fractographic failure analysis. Failures (chipping, cracks) during TCML were observed in groups SCLT (2×), ARDV (2×) and SCLT_L (1×). Defect sizes varied between 3.5mm (SCLT: crack) and 30.0mm(2) (SCLT_L: chipping). Mean (SD) fracture forces ranged between 1529.0 (405.2)N for SCPT and 2372.3 (351.8)N for ARDV. The failure frequency of veneered zirconia crowns could be reduced by using anatomically reduced substructures, the press veneering technique, and an adapted cooling protocol. Fracture resistance increased with use of anatomically reduced substructures and the digital veneering technique. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. GIS and ordination techniques for studying influence of watershed characteristics on river water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yang; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2011-01-01

    Landscape characteristics of twenty-eight sub-catchments within the Miyun reservoir watershed in Miyun County, northeast Beijing of China were examined to identify relationships with stream water chemistry. The influences of the entire catchment and 300 m buffer zone on water quality were compared using multiple regression analysis and redundancy analysis during three seasons. Results showed that strong seasonal differences in nitrate, nitrite and ammonium are observed whereas no difference in total phosphorus and conductivity. Landscape factors were significantly correlated to stream water quality. Residential area and stream density contributed markedly to river condition variability. Water quality was better explained by interactions with the landscape during and after rainy season. There was also a seasonal shift in the landscape factors that were the dominant explanatory variables. The relationships between landscape attributes and water quality on watershed scale were slightly different from those on riparian scale; however, landscape attributes may have stronger influences on water chemistry.

  16. Influence of the ytterbium doping technique on the luminescent properties of ZnSe single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radevici, Ivan, E-mail: ivarad@utu.fi [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Faculty of Physics and Engineering, Moldova State University, 60 A. Mateevici str., MD-2009 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Sushkevich, Konstantin [Faculty of Physics and Engineering, Moldova State University, 60 A. Mateevici str., MD-2009 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Huhtinen, Hannu [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Nedeoglo, Dmitrii [Faculty of Physics and Engineering, Moldova State University, 60 A. Mateevici str., MD-2009 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Paturi, Petriina [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland)

    2015-02-15

    Luminescent properties of the ytterbium doped zinc selenide crystals with 0.00–8.00 at % concentrations of the Yb impurity within the temperature interval from 6 K to 300 K were studied. Ytterbium doping was performed within three technological processes: during the growth by chemical vapor transport method and by thermal diffusion from the Bi+Yb or Zn+Yb melt. The influence of ytterbium impurity concentration on spectral position and intensity of the various photoluminescent bands in ZnSe emission spectra in visible and infrared range is analyzed. A tendency of ytterbium ions to form associates with background defects was demonstrated. A strong dependence between ytterbium influence on the zinc selenide emission spectra and concentration of selenium vacancies was shown. - Highlights: • Co-doping of ZnSe crystals with Yb and Bi or I impurities was studied. • Influence of Yb concentration on ZnSe emission spectra in visible and infrared range was analyzed. • Tendency of Yb to form associates with background defects was discussed. • Impact of V{sub Se} on formation of Yb-based emission centers was demonstrated.

  17. influence des engins et techniques de peche sur l'abondance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    17 févr. 2017 ... les deux jours indépendants de prospection. Le processus est répété chaque mois afin de tenir compte de la variabilité spatio-temporelle des variables à mesurer. Ces donnéesde pêche collectées sont relatives aux engins et techniques de pêche et, aux espèces de poissons capturées par les pêcheurs.

  18. The Influence of Various Deposition Techniques on the Photoelectrochemical Properties of the Titanium Dioxide Thin Fil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morozová, Magdalena; Klusoň, Petr; Dzik, P.; Veselý, M.; Baudyš, M.; Krýsa, J.; Šolcová, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2013), s. 452-458 ISSN 0928-0707 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP104/09/P165 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : titanium dioxide * photoelectrochemical properties * deposition techniques Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.547, year: 2013

  19. Influence of treatment techniques on Cu leaching and different organic fractions in MSWI bottom ash leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arickx, S; Van Gerven, T; Knaepkens, T; Hindrix, K; Evens, R; Vandecasteele, C

    2007-01-01

    The leaching of heavy metals, such as copper, from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is of concern in many countries and may inhibit the beneficial reuse of this secondary material. Previous studies have focused on the role of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the leaching of copper. Recently, a study of the Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands (ECN) showed fulvic acid-type components to exist in the MSWI bottom ash leachates and to be likely responsible for the generally observed enhanced copper leaching. These findings were verified for a MSWI bottom ash (slashed circle 0.1-2 mm) fraction from an incinerator in Flanders. The filtered leachates were subjected to the IHSS fractionation procedure to identify and quantify the fractions of humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA) and hydrophilic organic carbon (Hi). The possible complexation of fulvic acid with other heavy metals (e.g., lead) was also investigated. The identified role of fulvic acids in the leaching of copper and other heavy metals can be used in the development of techniques to improve the environmental quality of MSWI bottom ash. Thermal treatment and extraction with a 0.2 M ammonium-citrate solution were optimized to reduce the leaching of copper and other heavy metals. The effect of these techniques on the different fractions of organic matter (HA, FA, Hi) was studied. However, due to the obvious drawbacks of the two techniques, research is focused on finding other (new) techniques to treat MSWI bottom ash. In view of this, particle size-based separation was performed to evaluate its effect on heavy metal leaching and on HA, FA and Hi in MSWI bottom ash leachates.

  20. Can groundwater sampling techniques used in monitoring wells influence methane concentrations and isotopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Christine; Bordeleau, Geneviève; Lavoie, Denis; Lefebvre, René; Malet, Xavier

    2018-03-06

    Methane concentrations and isotopic composition in groundwater are the focus of a growing number of studies. However, concerns are often expressed regarding the integrity of samples, as methane is very volatile and may partially exsolve during sample lifting in the well and transfer to sampling containers. While issues concerning bottle-filling techniques have already been documented, this paper documents a comparison of methane concentration and isotopic composition obtained with three devices commonly used to retrieve water samples from dedicated observation wells. This work lies within the framework of a larger project carried out in the Saint-Édouard area (southern Québec, Canada), whose objective was to assess the risk to shallow groundwater quality related to potential shale gas exploitation. The selected sampling devices, which were tested on ten wells during three sampling campaigns, consist of an impeller pump, a bladder pump, and disposable sampling bags (HydraSleeve). The sampling bags were used both before and after pumping, to verify the appropriateness of a no-purge approach, compared to the low-flow approach involving pumping until stabilization of field physicochemical parameters. Results show that methane concentrations obtained with the selected sampling techniques are usually similar and that there is no systematic bias related to a specific technique. Nonetheless, concentrations can sometimes vary quite significantly (up to 3.5 times) for a given well and sampling event. Methane isotopic composition obtained with all sampling techniques is very similar, except in some cases where sampling bags were used before pumping (no-purge approach), in wells where multiple groundwater sources enter the borehole.

  1. Wavelength influence in sub-pixel temperature retrieval using the dual-band technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Buongiorno

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermal model proposed by Crisp and Baloga (1990 for active lava flows considers thermal flux as a function of the fractional area of two thermally distinct radiant surfaces. In this model, the larger surface area corresponds to the cooler crust of the flow and the other, much smaller to fractures in the crust. These cracks temperature is much higher than the crust one and approaches the temperature of the molten or plastic interior flow. The dual-band method needs two distinct SWIR (short wave infrared bands to formulate a two equations system from the simultaneous solution of the Planck equation in each band. The system solutions consist in the crust temperature and the fractional area of the hot component. The dual band technique originally builds on data acquired by sensors (such as Landsat TM with two SWIR bands only. The use of hyperspectral imaging spectrometers allows us to test the dual-band technique using different wavelengths in the SWIR range of the spectrum. DAIS 7915 is equipped with 40 bands into the range 1.54-2.49 nm which represent potential input in dual band calculation. This study aims to compare results derived by inserting assorted couples of wavelengths into the equation system. The analysis of these data provides useful information on dual-band technique accuracy.

  2. Bringing (domestic) politics back in: global and local influences on health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Ted

    2015-07-01

    The Lancet-University of Oslo Commission on Global Governance for health correctly concluded that: 'with globalization, health inequity increasingly results from transnational activities that involve actors with different interests and degrees of power'. At the same time, taking up that Commission's focus on political determinants of health and 'power asymmetries' requires recognizing the interplay of globalization with domestic politics, and the limits of global influences as explanations for policies that affect health inequalities. I make this case using three examples - trade policy, climate change policy, and the domestic politics of poverty reduction and social policy - and a concluding observation about the 2015 UK election. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Local Factors Influencing The Increase In Development Activity In Selected Cities Of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antczak-Stępniak Agata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development activity in Poland began to increase in the 1990's as a result of market-oriented reforms, with the process continuing to this day. The beginnings were, however, not easy due to, among others, the absence of many important legal regulations and the lack of commercial financing. The situation changed in the second half of the 1990's, positively affecting residential development activity. The years 2008 - 2009 were particularly relevant in the course of the studied trend as a sharp increase in the number of completed developer-built residential dwelling units was recorded at this time. After this period, a decline in the number of dwelling units completed by developers was recorded, which indicates its strong dependence on changes in the economic environment. Fluctuations in the number of dwelling units completed by developers were also visible before Poland's accession to the European Union. This means that the diversity of development activity is influenced by many factors.

  4. INFLUENCE OF THE CHANGING LOCAL CLIMATE ON WIND POTENTIALS OF MOUNT KOPAONIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Živković

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining all acceptable locations is one of the main tasks for siting wind turbines. The economic factors are usually very limiting. Very thorough analyses are needed in order to ensure the project finalization. Nevertheless, even after all the steps are made, some problems may occur. One of them is the real status of the winds in the so-called climatology period. This paper focuses on the influences of the changing winds after the preliminary estimations are done. The estimations are obtained using the WAsP simulation software. The results are compared in terms of quality and quantity of the wind data and capacity factor. Finally, an economic analysis is done.

  5. The influence of brewing water characteristic on sensory perception of pour-over local coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibrianto, K.; Ardianti, A. D.; Pradipta, K.; Sunarharum, W. B.

    2018-01-01

    The coffee quality can be characterized by its multisensory perceptions. The content and mineral composition and other substances of brewing water can affect the result of brewed-coffee. The water may influence in extraction capabilities and flavor clarity. The ground Dampit coffee and two commercial instant coffee with pour-over method were used in this study. Various types of commercial drinking water were used to brew the coffee. The result suggests that the different brewing water affects the intensity of sweet and chocolate aroma, as well as oily mouth-feel. Surprisingly, taste and flavour attributes were not affected by the pH of brewing water within the range of 5.5 to 9.1.

  6. The influences of deformation velocity and temperature on localized deformation of zircaloy-4 in tensile tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boratto, F.J.M.

    1973-01-01

    A new parameter to describe the necking stability in zircaloy-4 during tensile tests is introduced. The parameter is defined as: s = ∂Ln (dσ/dε)/∂Ln ((1/L)dL/dt) for constant temperature, deformation and history. Measures of stress strain rate sensitivity n, reduction of the area at fracture, and deformation profiles of tensile fracture, are done. A complete description of the curve of non-uniform deformation variation with the temperature, is presented. The results are compared with existing data for pure commercially titanium. The influence of strain rate and history on s and n parameters, in the temperature range from 100-700 0 C). (author) [pt

  7. Influence of weight and frequency on thigh and lower-trunk motion during repetitive lifting employing stoop and squat techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, KB; Sørhagen, O; Harms-Ringdahl, K

    1995-04-01

    Changes in kinematics as a function of lifting weight and frequency was investigated in sagittal symmetric repetitive lifting. For every lift cycle (lowering and lifting) the motion range between the upright position (0 degrees ) and the maximum angular displacement of the thigh and lower-trunk body segments was recorded. Ten subjects performed five repetitive lifting bouts with different weight/frequency combinations, using both stoop and squat lifting techniques. In total, 6384 lifts were analysed. The lifting weight or frequency did not influence the motion ranges in stoop lifting. In squat lifting the weight lifted did not appear to have any influence on the motion ranges, while the thigh motion range was significantly smaller at lifting frequency of 20 lifts min(-1) than at a frequency of 10. A significant gradual decrease in the thigh motion range and corresponding increase in the lower-trunk motion range were seen for a majority of the subjects during squat lifting at frequency 20. These changes suggest that quadriceps muscle strength is the limiting factor in repetitive squat lifting. Also the variation in motion ranges was greater in squat lifting than in stoop lifting. RELEVANCE: Forestry work involves frequent lifting. However, compliance in using squat lifting technique, which is recommended for safe lifting, is sometimes poor. Fatigue may be one of the determinants for changes in kinematics and choice of technique in lifting tasks.

  8. Local and regional anthropogenic influence on PM 2.5 elements in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, G. S. W.; Bergin, M. H.; Salmon, L. G.; Yu, J. Z.; Wan, E. C. H.; Zheng, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Kiang, C. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Schauer, J. J.

    Hong Kong's persistent unhealthy level of fine particulate matter is a current public health challenge, complicated by the city being located in the rapidly industrializing Pearl River Delta Region of China. While the sources of the region's fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) are still not well understood, this study provides new source information through ground measurements and statistical analysis of 24 elements associated with particulate matter collected on filters. Field measurements took place over 4 months (October 2002, December 2002, March 2003, and June 2003) at seven sites throughout the Pearl River Delta, with three sites located in Hong Kong and four sites in the neighboring province, Guangdong. The 4-month average element concentrations show significant variation throughout the region, with higher levels of nearly every species seen among the northern Guangdong sites in comparison to Hong Kong. The high correlation (Pearson r>0.8) and similar magnitudes of 11 species (Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br, Rb, and Pb) at three contrasting sites in Hong Kong indicate that sources external to Hong Kong dominate the regional levels of these elements. Further correlative analysis compared Hong Kong against potential source areas in Guangdong Province (Shenzhen, Zhongshan, and Guangzhou). Moderate correlation of sulfur for all pairings of Hong Kong sites with three Guangdong sites in developed areas (average Pearson r of 0.52-0.94) supports the importance of long-distance transport impacting the region as a whole, although local sources also clearly impact observed concentrations. Varying correlative characteristics for zinc when Hong Kong sites are paired with Shenzhen (average r=0.86), Guangzhou (average r=-0.65) and Zhongshan (average r=0.45) points to a source area located south of Guangzhou and locally impacting Zhongshan. The concentration distribution and correlative characteristics of bromide point to sources located within the Pearl River Delta, but the

  9. People as sensors: mass media and local temperature influence climate change discussion on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, A.; Molodtsova, T.; Stepchenkova, S.

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether people living under significant temperature anomalies connect their sensory experiences to climate change and the role that media plays in this process. We used Twitter messages containing words "climate change" and "global warming" as the indicator of attention that public pays to the issue. Specifically, the goals were: (1) to investigate whether people immediately notice significant local weather anomalies and connect them to climate change and (2) to examine the role of mass media in this process. Over 2 million tweets were collected for a two-year period (2012 - 2013) and were assigned to 157 urban areas in the continental USA (Figure 1). Geographical locations of the tweets were identified with a geolocation resolving algorithm based the profile of the users. Daily number of tweets (tweeting rate) was computed for 157 conterminous USA urban areas and adjusted for data acquisition errors. The USHCN daily minimum and maximum temperatures were obtained for the station locations closest to the centers of the urban areas and the 1981-2010 30-year temperature mean and standard deviation were used as the climate normals. For the analysis, we computed the following indices for each day of 2012 - 2013 period: standardized temperature anomaly, absolute standardized temperature anomaly, and extreme cold and hot temperature anomalies for each urban zone. The extreme cold and hot temperature anomalies were then transformed into country-level values that represent the number of people living in extreme temperature conditions. The rate of tweeting on climate change was regressed on the time variables, number of climate change publications in the mass media, and temperature. In the majority of regression models, the mass media and temperature variables were significant at the pmedia acts as a mediator in the relationship between local weather and climate change discourse intensity. Our analysis of Twitter data confirmed that the public is able to

  10. INFLUENCES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM UPON THE LOCAL ECONOMY OF THE JIU VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORINA NIȚĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When authorities decided to close down the ineffective mining units in the Jiu Valley, the region recorded an economic crisis manifested through a permanent decrease in the standard of living of the community. The only viable alternative to replacing coal exploitation was considered to be the development of tourism, the area having spectacular mountain landscapes and natural resources which favored winter sports. It is admitted that tourism has a huge potential to create prosperity and to improve the environment where it is carried out. The extent to which the awareness of the effects (both positive and negative the development of a sustainable tourism has upon the community and the local economy, as a whole, is absorbed correctly and completely by the natives, it is likely to generate consensus and commitment towards achieving a common goal - a rich and beautiful region with people who take pride in the places they live in, in their traditions and eager to be discovered by those who visit.

  11. The influence of local majority opinions on the dynamics of the Sznajd model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crokidakis, Nuno

    2014-03-01

    In this work we study a Sznajd-like opinion dynamics on a square lattice of linear size L. For this purpose, we consider that each agent has a convincing power C, that is a time-dependent quantity. Each high convincing power group of four agents sharing the same opinion may convince its neighbors to follow the group opinion, which induces an increase of the group's convincing power. In addition, we have considered that a group with a local majority opinion (3 up/1 down spins or 1 up/3 down spins) can persuade the agents neighboring the group with probability p, since the group's convincing power is high enough. The two mechanisms (convincing powers and probability p) lead to an increase of the competition among the opinions, which avoids dictatorship (full consensus, all spins parallel) for a wide range of model's parameters, and favors the occurrence of democratic states (partial order, the majority of spins pointing in one direction). We have found that the relaxation times of the model follow log-normal distributions, and that the average relaxation time τ grows with system size as τ ~ L5/2, independent of p. We also discuss the occurrence of the usual phase transition of the Sznajd model.

  12. Local spatial and temporal factors influencing population and societal vulnerability to natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Ning; Wu, Wenxiang; Wu, Jidong; Shi, Peijun

    2014-04-01

    The identification of societal vulnerable counties and regions and the factors contributing to social vulnerability are crucial for effective disaster risk management. Significant advances have been made in the study of social vulnerability over the past two decades, but we still know little regarding China's societal vulnerability profiles, especially at the county level. This study investigates the county-level spatial and temporal patterns in social vulnerability in China from 1980 to 2010. Based on China's four most recent population censuses of 2,361 counties and their corresponding socioeconomic data, a social vulnerability index for each county was created using factor analysis. Exploratory spatial data analysis, including global and local autocorrelations, was applied to reveal the spatial patterns of county-level social vulnerability. The results demonstrate that the dynamic characteristics of China's county-level social vulnerability are notably distinct, and the dominant contributors to societal vulnerability for all of the years studied were rural character, development (urbanization), and economic status. The spatial clustering patterns of social vulnerability to natural disasters in China exhibited a gathering-scattering-gathering pattern over time. Further investigations indicate that many counties in the eastern coastal area of China are experiencing a detectable increase in social vulnerability, whereas the societal vulnerability of many counties in the western and northern areas of China has significantly decreased over the past three decades. These findings will provide policymakers with a sound scientific basis for disaster prevention and mitigation decisions. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Phosphorus storage and mobilization in coastal Phragmites wetlands: Influence of local-scale hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, Svenja; Buczko, Uwe; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Coastal Phragmites wetlands are at the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and are of paramount importance for nutrient regulation. They can act both as sinks and sources for phosphorus, depending on environmental conditions, sediment properties as well as on antecedent nutrient loading and sorption capacity of the sediments. The Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain is a shallow lagoon system at the German Baltic Sea coast with a long eutrophication history. It is lined almost at its entire length by reed wetlands. In order to elucidate under which conditions these wetlands act as sources or sinks for phosphorus, in-situ data of chemo-physical characteristics of water and sediment samples were combined with hydrodynamic measurements and laboratory experiments. Small-scale basin structures within the wetland serve as sinks for fine-grained particles rich in phosphorus, iron, manganese and organic matter. Without turbulent mixing the bottom water and the sediment surface lack replenishment of oxygen. During stagnant periods with low water level, low turbulence and thus low-oxygen conditions phosphorus from the sediments is released. But the sediments are capable of becoming sinks again once oxygen is resupplied. A thin oxic sediment surface layer rich in iron and manganese adsorbs phosphorus quickly. We demonstrate that sediments in coastal Phragmites wetlands can serve both as sources and sinks of soluble reactive phosphorus on a very short time-scale, depending on local-scale hydrodynamics and the state of the oxic-anoxic sediment interface.

  14. Case studies on the chemical composition of fogwater: The influence of local gaseous emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. Annette; Sigg, Laura; Zobrist, Jürg

    In order to study the mechanisms governing the composition of fogwater, sequential samples were taken during two fog events over several hours and analyzed chemically. In addition, preliminary measurements of gases (HCl, HNO 3, NH 3) and aerosols (H 2SO 4, NH 4NO 3, NH 4Cl and ammonium sulfates) were made. The uptake of gaseous HCl in the fog droplets was a major source of acidity: in extreme cases pH values of 2.08 and 1.94 and Cl - concentrations up to 10 -2 M were observed. HCl originated from a local source, most probably a refuse incinerator from which plumes of the stack gas reached the sampling site. The NH +4, NO -3 and SO -24 concentrations (in the range of 0.1-2 mrnol l-1) were regulated by the inputs of aerosols and the liquid water content of the fog. The contribution of dissolved S(IV) (0.06-0.27 mmol l-1) to the total aqueous sulfur varied with time, according to the pH-dependent solubility of SO 2 and to oxidation reactions.

  15. Bariatric surgery influences the number and quality of oocytes in patients submitted to assisted reproduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofolini, Juliana; Bianco, Bianca; Santos, Gustavo; Adami, Fernando; Christofolini, Denise; Barbosa, Caio Parente

    2014-03-01

    To determine differences in follicle stimulation, oocyte retrieval, maturation, and fertilization among patients who underwent bariatric surgery, obese patients, and patients with 18 assisted reproduction techniques and check that these patients may have some impairment in ovarian response. The study comprised three groups: GI: 29 patients who had undergone restrictive and/or malabsorptive bariatric surgery; GII: 57 obese patients (BMI > 30 kg/m²); and GIII: 94 patients (18 reproductive process can be impaired. Bariatric surgery appears to have an important impact on the formation of follicles and oocytes. © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  16. The influence of tumour-derived extracellular vesicles on local and distal metastatic dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogués, Laura; Benito-Martin, Alberto; Hergueta-Redondo, Marta; Peinado, Héctor

    2017-12-05

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are key mediators of intercellular communication that have been ignored for decades. Tumour cells benefit from the secretion of vesicles as they can influence the behaviour of neighbouring tumour cells within the tumour microenvironment. Several studies have shown that extracellular vesicles play an active role in pre-metastatic niche formation and importantly, they are involved in the metastatic organotropism of different tumour types. Tumour-derived EVs carry and transfer molecules to recipient cells, modifying their behaviour through a process defined as "EV-driven education". EVs favour metastasis to sentinel lymph nodes and distal organs by reinforcing angiogenesis, inflammation and lymphangiogenesis. Hence, in this review we will summarize the main mechanisms by which tumour-derived EVs regulate lymph node and distal organ metastasis. Moreover, since some cancers metastasize through the lymphatic system, we will discuss recent discoveries about the presence and function of tumour EVs in the lymph. Finally, we will address the potential value of tumour EVs as prognostic biomarkers in liquid biopsies, specially blood and lymphatic fluid, and the use of these tools as early detectors of metastases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The influence of local food environments on adolescents' food purchasing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Gilliland, Jason; Irwin, Jennifer D; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students' home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students' food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students' food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km) to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05). In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth's home and school.

  18. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Gilliland, Jason; Irwin, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students’ home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students’ food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students’ food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km) to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05). In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth’s home and school. PMID:22690205

  19. Influence of the ionic size on the evolution of local Jahn-Teller distortions in cobaltites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, D.; Louca, Despina; Kamazawa, K.; Hundley, M. F.; Yamada, K.

    2007-01-01

    The thermodynamic and atomic structure properties of La 1-x A x CoO 3 (A=Ba 2+ and Ca 2+ ) with 0≤x≤0.5, a class of compounds that exhibit magnetoresistance in the presence of an applied magnetic field, have been investigated via magnetic and transport measurements and neutron scattering. While in the parent compound, the Co 3+ ion undergoes a spin-state transition from the low-spin ground state to a dynamic intermediate-spin configuration thermally, with hole doping, the intermediate-spin state becomes static as evidenced by the Jahn-Teller octahedral splitting of the Co-O bonds. The size of the split depends strongly on the tolerance factor, where small or no Jahn-Teller distortions are observed in samples with small tolerance factors (i.e., Ca), but as the tolerance factor approaches 1 (i.e., Ba), the bond split can be as much as 0.2 A. At the same time, ferromagnetic ordering is also influenced by the tolerance factor. As it gets closer to 1, ferromagnetic coupling is enhanced due to the straightening of the Co-O-Co bonds, where the angle becomes almost 180 deg. that, in turn, favors double-exchange interactions between Co ions. With the ferromagnetic transition, the system becomes metallic and shows a negative magnetoresistance with field. As the tolerance factor is reduced from 1, the ferromagnetic coupling is weak and the bond angle is about 160 deg

  20. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Irwin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810 at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS was used to assess students’ home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students’ food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students’ food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p < 0.05. High fast-food outlet density in both home and school neighborhoods was associated with increased fast-food purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05. In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth’s home and school.

  1. Influence of Emulsion Polymerization Techniques to Particle Size of Copoly(styrene/butyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresye Utari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the majority of applications, particle size and particle size distribution are highly significant factors that determine the properties of a polymer dispersion, such as its flow behavior or its stability. For example, a coating material with small particle size will give smooth coating result, good adhesive strength, good water resistance and latex stability. This article describes influence of various emulsion polymerization techniques to particle size of copoly(styrene/butyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate with mix surfactant SDBS linear chain and nonyl fenol (EO10 and initiator ammonium persulphate. DSC data, solid content and IR spectrum showed that copoly(styrene/butyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate was produced. Batch emulsion polymerization technique gave the highest particle size i.e. 615 nm and also the highest % conversion of monomer i.e. 97%. The more concentration of monomer was seeded to initial charge gave greater particle size and greater poly dispersity index.

  2. Elastin-like polypeptides: the influence of its molecular weight on local hyperthermia-induced tumor accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jung Su; Raucher, Drazen

    2014-10-01

    Elastin-like polypeptides (ELP) are thermally responsive polypeptides that are soluble in solutions at 37°C, but which aggregate above 42°C. ELP can be used as effective carrier systems of anticancer molecules, because they can be targeted to tumor sites through the application of local hyperthermia. Since molecular size largely influences how successfully therapeutic agents can cross the vasculatures of tumors, it was crucial to determine an optimal molecular size. In this study, we designed and evaluated three ELP macromolecules with varying molecular weights (43, 63, and 122 kDa), with the goal of determining which would optimize the ELP drug delivery system. The N-terminus of the ELP macromolecule was modified with the cell penetrating peptide Bac to enhance intratumoral and intracellular uptake, and it was also confirmed that each polypeptide had the target transition temperature of 37-42°C and the results of the studies, using tumor-bearing mice, showed that the tumor accumulations increased in the case of all three peptides when local hyperthermia was applied, but that the elimination patterns from these tumors varied according to peptide size. Local hyperthermia was found to produce prolonged retention of all ELP conjugates in tumors except Bac-ELP43. In addition, the pharmacokinetic analysis showed that two larger polypeptides with 63 and 122 kDa have increased AUC in comparison with the 43 kDa polypeptide. These results suggest that, when combined with local hyperthermia, the larger ELP conjugates (63 and 122 kDa) have advantages over the smaller Bac-ELP43 polypeptide in terms of enhanced permeability and higher retention effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacokinetics in Morbid Obesity: Influence of Two Bariatric Surgery Techniques on Paracetamol and Caffeine Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goday Arno, Albert; Farré, Magí; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Ramon, Jose M; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Papaseit, Esther; Civit, Ester; Langohr, Klaus; Lí Carbó, Marcel; Boix, David Benaiges; Nino, Olga Castañer; Le Roux, Juana Antonia Flores; Pera, Manuel; Grande, Luis; de la Torre, Rafael

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to study the impact of the two most common bariatric surgery techniques on paracetamol pharmacokinetics (a marker of gastric emptying) and caffeine metabolism (a marker of liver function). In the present prospective study, we studied 24 morbid obese patients before, at 4 weeks, and 6 months after having undergone sleeve gastrectomy (n = 10) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 14). For comparative purposes, 28 healthy controls (14 normal weights and 14 overweights) were also included in the study. Paracetamol pharmacokinetics was altered in the obese participants leading to lower bioavailability. Bariatric surgery resulted in faster absorption and normalized pharmacokinetic parameters, prompting an increase in paracetamol bioavailability. No differences were found between surgical procedures. In the case of caffeine, the ratio paraxanthine/caffeine did not differ between morbid obese and healthy individuals. This ratio remained unmodified after surgery, indicating that the liver function (assessed by cytochrome P450 1A2 activity) was unaffected by obesity or bariatric surgery. Paracetamol pharmacokinetics and caffeine plasma levels are altered in severely obese patients. The two studied bariatric surgical techniques normalize paracetamol oral bioavailability without impairing the liver function (measured by cytochrome P450 1A2 activity).

  4. A brief review on the efficacy of different possible and nonpharmacological techniques in eliminating discomfort of local anesthesia injection during dental procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Amin; Rismanchian, Mansour; Akhavan, Ali; Nosouhian, Saeid; Bajoghli, Farshad; Haghighat, Abbas; Arbabzadeh, Farahnaz; Samimi, Pouran; Fiez, Atiyeh; Shadmehr, Elham; Tabari, Kasra; Jahadi, Sanaz

    2016-01-01

    Dental anxiety and fear of needle injection is one of the most common problems encountered by dental practitioners, especially in the pediatric patient. In consequences, it might affect the patient's quality of life. Several methods are suggested to lower the discomfort of local anesthesia injection during dental procedures. Desensitization of injection site is one of the recommended strategies. Among chemical anesthetic topical agents that are effective but might have allergic side effects, using some nonpharmacological and safe techniques might be useful. This study aimed to overview the efficacy of using cooling techniques, mostly by ice or popsicles, warming or pH buffering of drug, and using modern devices to diminish the discomfort of local anesthesia injection during dental procedures. PMID:26957683

  5. The influence of polishing techniques on pre-polymerized CAD\\CAM acrylic resin denture bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alammari, Manal Rahma

    2017-10-01

    Lately, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) has broadly been successfully employed in dentistry. The CAD/CAM systems have recently become commercially available for fabrication of complete dentures, and are considered as an alternative technique to conventionally processed acrylic resin bases. However, they have not yet been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to inspect the effects of mechanical polishing and chemical polishing on the surface roughness (Ra) and contact angle (wettability) of heat-cured, auto-cured and CAD/CAM denture base acrylic resins. This study was conducted at the Advanced Dental Research Laboratory Center of King Abdulaziz University from March to June 2017. Three denture base materials were selected: heat cure poly-methylmethacrylate resin, thermoplastic (polyamide resin) and (CAD\\CAM) denture base resin. Sixty specimens were prepared and divided into three groups, twenty in each. Each group was divided according to the polishing techniques into (Mech P) and (Chem P), ten specimens in each; surface roughness and wettability were investigated. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 22, using one-way ANOVA and Pearson coefficient. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc tests were used for comparing the surface roughness values between three groups which revealed a statistical significant difference between them (p 1 CAD\\CAM denture base material (group III) showed the least mean values (1.08±0.23, 1.39±0.31, Mech P and Chem P respectively). CAD/CAM showed the least contact angle in both polishing methods, which were statistically significant at 5% level (p=0.034 and pCAD\\CAM denture base resin with superior smooth surface compared to chemical polishing. Mechanical polishing is considered the best effective polishing technique. CAD/CAM denture base material should be considered as the material of choice for complete denture construction in the near future, especially for older dental

  6. The influence of superplasticizers on the first steps of tricalcium silicate hydration studied by NMR techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirazzoli, Ilaria; Alesiani, Marcella; Capuani, Silvia; Maraviglia, Bruno; Giorgi, Rodorico; Ridi, Francesca; Baglioni, Piero

    2005-02-01

    The influence of superplasticizer sulfonated naphthalene formaldehyde (SNF) on the hydration process of tricalcium silicate (C3S) paste was investigated by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spin-spin and spin lattice relaxation times. The addition of SNF superplasticizer to C3S paste clearly affects the morphology and growth rates of the hydration products, mainly by increasing the dormant period length, which lasts for several hours more than in conventional C3S hydrated paste, while reducing the acceleration period length. The relaxation data indicated that a pronounced delay occurs in the C3S hardening when sulfonated polymers are added to the makeup water. For all the analyzed samples, prepared with a water-to-C3S ratio of 0.4, the decay of the echo magnetization has been fitted by adopting both a monoexponential and a biexponential relaxation model in order to evaluate the contributions from water in different regimes of hydration.

  7. Influence of Finishing and Polishing Techniques and Abrasion on Transmittance and Roughness of Composite Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Pma; Ramos, T M; de Azevedo, C S; de Lima, E; de Souza, Shj; Turbino, M L; Cesar, P F; Matos, A B

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of finishing and polishing systems and toothbrush abrasion on transmittance (T) and surface roughness (Ra) of three composite resins (Filtek Z350 XT, Tetric N-Ceram, and IPS Empress Direct). Eighteen resin disks (10 mm diameter × 2 mm thick) finished by polyester strips had initial surface smoothness recorded, representing phase 1 (P1). Specimens were divided into three groups (n=6) according to the finishing/polishing instrument used (OneGloss, TopGloss, and Sof-Lex) to compose phase 2 samples (P2). Then specimens were subjected to 514 cycles of toothbrush simulation using a toothpaste slurry, with a constant load applied to soft bristles, and were then washed (phase 3=P3). After each phase, the specimens were examined by an optical profiler and spectrophotometer to measure Ra and T. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, Tukey and Pearson tests. T values were statistically influenced by composite resin ( p=0.000) and phase of measurement ( p=0.000) factors, while the finishing/polishing system used ( p=0.741) did not affect T. On the other hand, Ra values were statistically affected by the factor finishing/polishing system ( p=0.000), but not by composite resin ( p=0.100) and phase of measurement ( p=0.451). Tetric N-Ceram and Empress Direct presented higher values of roughness when polished by OneGloss, while TopGloss and Sof-Lex showed a lower roughness. It can be concluded that composite resins transmitted more light after dental abrasion. Transmittance of composite resins was not modified by the distinct roughness created by finishing/polishing instruments.

  8. Comparative study of frying to other cooking techniques influence on the nutritive value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bognár, A.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Frying is one of the oldest methods of food preparation. It improves the sensory quality of food by formation of aroma compounds, attractive colour, crust and texture. Undesirable changes involved are loss of nutritive quality e.g. due to degradation of heat - susceptible vitamins. The influence of common frying methods (frying in an oven, in a pan deep frying on cooking time and nutritive value of vegetables, potatoes, meat, poultry and fish is described and compared to other cooking methods (boiling, steaming, stewing. Frying of vegetables, potatoes and breaded meat, poultry and fish, no matter whether in a pan or by deep - frying, is associated with fat uptake (2 - 14 g per 100 g of raw food while non - breaded high fat food of animal origin loses fat during frying (2 - 30%. Data suggest that the fat quantity absorbed during frying increases up to a saturation limit which depends on the kind of food and on the amount of panade. Deep - fried meat, poultry and fish usually absorb less fat than meat, poultry and fish fried in a pan. The kind of fat had no essential influence on fat uptake. After frying of vegetable food and of breaded meat, poultry and fish, the content of protein, carbohydrates and minerals was nearly fully retained while boiling and steaming reduced the mineral content by 25-50%. In the majority of cases frying including deep frying also retained the vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C better than boiling, steaming and stewing.

  9. Influence of selected stool concentration techniques on the effectiveness of PCR examination in Giardia intestinalis diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojecki, K; Sroka, J; Karamon, J; Kusyk, P; Cencek, T

    2014-01-01

    Giardia intestinalis is a widespread parasitic protozoa which has great significance as a public health threat. Molecular diagnostics of stool sample can be unreliable because of the presence of inhibitors of enzymatic reactions. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of selected pre-treatment methods of fecal samples for further PCR-based diagnostics of G. intestinalis, and the effect of each component of pre-treatment solutions on PCR reactions. Seven stool concentration techniques were compared. The results showed that the most efficient concentration method for stool sample preparation for detection of G. intestinalis by PCR is centrifugal flotation with Percoll (with saturated NaNO3 as the flotation solution). This method is relatively inexpensive, less labor-intensive, and suitable for epidemiological monitoring and clinical investigations.

  10. Impurities in sugar cane and their influence on industrial processing evaluated by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchi, M.A.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    During the cutting and loading operations, impurities, mainly soil, are added to sugar cane in amounts that can impair industrial processing due to excessive wear of metallic members and contamination of juice and bagasse. Mechanization of loading operation has showed a considerable enhancement of the impurity content, leading to the improvement of cane washing technology. Nevertheless, for a correct understanding of the problem and the process optimization, it is necessary and exact and fast quantification of these impurities as well as of its consequences. Nuclear techniques, in special neutron activation analysis, have been proved to be appropriate for estimating soil level in sugar cane, washing process efficiency and wearing of cases and moving parts. (author)

  11. Influence of different formulations and granulation techniques on dissolution of folic acid in film coated tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Krsteska

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The vitamin folic acid has received considerable attention because of it′s role in decreasing risk of neural tube birth defects, and it′s potential role in reducing risks of cardiovascular and psychiatric diseases. We evaluated compositions of 5 different formulations in terms of meeting the USP standard for dissolution and disintegration .However all the examined formulations had met the disintegration test but only 3 formulations had met the dissolution requirements to release 75 % of the active ingredient in 45 minutes. The maximum value of dissolution of 97.52 % in S5 composition was achieved by combination of certain excipients (combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic filler and suitable wetting agent and wet high shear mixing granulation technique, resulting with optimize release of the active substance.

  12. Influence of proximal box elevation technique on marginal integrity of adhesively luted Cerec inlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Veronika; Friedl, Karl-Heinz; Friedl, Katrin; Hahnel, Sebastian; Handel, Gerhard; Lang, Reinhold

    2017-03-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the marginal quality of Lava Ultimate inlays in deep proximal cavities with and without proximal box elevation (PBE) before and after thermomechanical loading (TML). Mesio-occluso-distal cavities with proximal boxes beneath the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) were prepared in 24 human molars. Then, one of the proximal boxes was elevated with Filtek Supreme above the CEJ. The specimens were divided into three groups (n = 8). The inlays of group A were adhesively luted to the cavities with Scotchbond Universal and Rely X Ultimate, the inlays of group B with Monobond Plus, Syntac, and Variolink II, and the inlays of group C with Clearfil Ceramic Primer and Panavia SA Cement. Epoxy resin replicas were taken before and after thermomechanical loading (1,200,000 cycles, 55 °C/5 °C, max. load 50 N). Marginal integrity at the different interfaces tooth/PBE, tooth/dentine, inlay/PBE, inlay/dentine was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (×200). The percentage of continuous margin (% of total proximal margin length) was compared between the groups before and after TML. Mann-Whitney U test (p = 0.05). No significant differences (p > 0.05) before and after TML were found between the three groups for bonding the inlay to dentine or to PBE composite. The marginal integrities of bonding inlays directly to dentine are not different from bonding inlays to a proximal box, which has been elevated by a composite filling material. For deep proximal cavities, the PBE technique could be an alternative technique to conventional methods. Clinical research is needed to confirm.

  13. Influence of a proximal margin elevation technique on marginal adaptation of ceramic inlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaruba, M; Göhring, T N; Wegehaupt, F J; Attin, T

    2013-03-01

    Evaluating the effect of a proximal margin elevation technique on marginal adaptation of ceramic inlays. Class II MOD-cavities were prepared in 40 human molars and randomly distributed to four groups (n = 10). In group EN (positive control) proximal margins were located in enamel, 1 mm above the cementoenamel junction, while 2 mm below in groups DE-1In, DE-2In and DE. The groups DE-1In, DE-2In and DE simulated subgingival location of the cervical margin. In group DE-1In one 3 mm and in group DE-2In two 1.5 mm composite layers (Tetric) were placed for margin elevation of the proximal cavities using Syntac classic as an adhesive. The proximal cavities of group DE remained untreated and served as a negative control. In all groups, ceramic inlays (Cerec 3D) were adhesively inserted. Replicas were taken before and after thermomechanical loading (1.200.000 cycles, 50/5°C, max. load 49 N). Marginal integrity (tooth-composite, composite-inlay) was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (200×). Percentage of continuous margin (% of total proximal margin length) was compared between groups before and after cycling using ANOVA and Scheffé post-hoc test. After thermomechanical loading, no significant differences were observed between the different groups with respect to the interface composite-inlay and tooth-composite with margins in dentin. The interface tooth-composite in enamel of group EN was significantly better compared to group DE-2In, which was not different to the negative control group DE and DE-1In. Margin elevation technique by placement of a composite filling in the proximal box before insertion of a ceramic inlay results in marginal integrities not different from margins of ceramic inlays placed in dentin.

  14. Determination of adipose tissue blood flow with local 133Xe clearance. Evaluation of a new labelling technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn; Bülow, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Adipose tissue blood flow was measured in six healthy, non-obese subjects with the xenon wash-out technique after labelling of the tissue by either injection of 133Xe dissolved in isotonic sodium chloride (water depot) or injection of 133Xe in gas form (gas depot). The wash-out rates were registe...

  15. Ultrastructural localization of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in canine lung tissue using the protein A-gold labelling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarish, J H; Atwell, R B

    1991-01-01

    Dirofilaria immitis antigens were demonstrated in the pulmonary tissues of dogs, with natural and experimental infection (D. immitis) in dogs using an immunostaining colloidal gold technique. Electron microscopy of thin sections treated with anti-heartworm serum revealed antigen deposition within the pulmonary microvasculatur and perivascular areas.

  16. Influence of nanostructure composition on its morphometric characterization by different techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Silva, Renata; Alexandre Muehlmann, Luis; Rodrigues Da Silva, Jaqueline; de Bentes Azevedo, Ricardo; Madeira Lucci, Carolina

    2014-09-01

    Morphometric characterization of nanoparticles is crucial to determine their biological effects and to obtain a formulation pattern. Determining the best technique requires knowledge of the particles being analyzed, the intended application of the particles, and the limitations of the techniques being considered. The aim of this article was to present transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy protocols for the analysis of two different nanostructures, namely polymeric nanoemulsion and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, and to compare these results with conventional dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The mean hydrodynamic diameter, the polydispersity index, and zeta potential of the nanostructures of polymeric nanoemulsion were 370.5 ± 0.8 nm, 0.133 ± 0.01, and -36.1 ± 0.15 mV, respectively, and for PLGA nanoparticles were 246.79 ± 5.03 nm, 0.096 ± 0.025, and -4.94 ± 0.86 mV, respectively. TEM analysis of polymeric nanoemulsion revealed a mean diameter of 374 ± 117 nm. SEM analysis showed a mean diameter of 368 ± 69 nm prior to gold coating and 448 ± 70 nm after gold coating. PLGA nanoparticles had a diameter of 131 ± 41.18 nm in TEM and 193 ± 101 nm in SEM. Morphologically, in TEM analysis, the polymeric nanoemulsions were spherical, with variable electron density, very few showing an electron-dense core and others an electron-dense surface. PLGA nanoparticles were round, with an electron-lucent core and electron-dense surface. In SEM, polymeric nanoemulsions were also spherical with a rough surface, and PLGA nanoparticles were round with a smooth surface. The results show that the "gold standards" for morphometric characterization of polymeric nanoemulsion and PLGA nanoparticles were, respectively, SEM without gold coating and TEM with negative staining. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Transnasal tracheobronchial stenting for malignant airway narrowing under local anesthesia: Our experience of treating three cases using this technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhi, Jayanta; Handique, Akash; Goyal, Amit; Lynser, Donbok; Phukan, Pranjal; Sarma, Kalyan; Padmanabhan, Aswin; Saikia, Manuj Kumar; Chutia, Happy

    2016-01-01

    To study the technical feasibility of tracheobronchial stenting via transnasal route under bronchoscopy and fluoroscopic guidance in severe malignant airway strictures using self-expandable nitinol stents. We describe three patients with malignant airway strictures, treated entirely via transnasal route under local anesthesia using bronchoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. Nasal route allowed convenient access to the airway for the bronchoscope across the stricture and a guidewire was introduced through its working channel. The 18F tracheal stent and the 6F bronchial stent assembly could be easily introduced and deployed under bronchoscopic (reintroduced through the other nostril) and fluoroscopic guidance. We achieved technical success in all the three patients with immediate relief of dyspnea. Transnasal airway stenting with self-expandable nitinol stent using bronchoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance under local anesthesia is a safe and effective method with minimal patient discomfort

  18. Preoperative localization of parathyroid lesions. Value of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI tomography and factors influencing detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansquer, C.; Carlier, T.; Kraeber-Bodere, F. [Hotel Dieu Univ. Hospital, Nantes (France). Nuclear Medicine Dept.; Mirallie, E. [Hotel Dieu Univ. Hospital, Nantes (France). Surgery Dept.; Abbey-Huguenin, H. [Rene Gauducheau Centre, Saint Herblain (France). Biostatistics Dept.; St Jacques Univ. Hospital, Nantes (France). PIMESP; Aubron, F. [Ultrasonography Centre, Nantes (France)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of our study was to assess retrospectively the value of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT in the localization of parathyroid lesions in primary hyperparathyroidism and to determine the impact of PTH level, age, sex, characteristics of the lesions and thyroid nodules on the sensitivity of imaging. Patients, methods: Fifty nine patients who were cured after the resection of 60 lesions (50 adenomas, 9 hyperplasias and 1 carcinoma, 9 of them in ectopy) were selected. {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, early and late {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI planar images (n=59), {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT (n=58) and ultrasound (n=50) performed preoperatively were analyzed. The imaging results were compared to surgical and histological findings and correlated to different factors suspected of influencing the imaging's sensitivity. Results: Sensitivity of double phase {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI/{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy was higher than that of early or late scintigraphy alone. SPECT increased the sensitivity of scintigraphy from 85% to 92% and was useful to confirm doubtful foci and to localize ectopic lesions. Ultrasound (US) had the lowest sensitivity (56%) and the highest rate of false-positive results (n=10), but identified 2 adenomas which were not detected by scintigraphy. Combining all imaging modalities, sensitivity reached 96%. Better sensitivities were observed when age <69 years, preoperative PTH level {>=}155 pg/ml, weight of the gland {>=}0.80 g and in the absence of thyroid nodules. US was more influenced by these factors than scintigraphy. Conclusion: Combination of US, double-phase {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI/{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} planar scintigraphy and SPECT is the most accurate method for the detection of parathyroid lesions and should be performed before minimally invasive surgery, especially when PTH level is low, in older patients and in cases of multinodular goiter. (orig.)

  19. Influence of FDG-PET on computed tomography-based radiotherapy planning for locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-Kang; Chen, Long-Hua; Wang, Quan-Shi; Wu, Hu-Bing; Wang, Hong-Mei; Chen, Yong-Qin; Yan, Wei-Pin; Li, Qi-Sheng; Xu, Yi-Kai

    2007-12-01

    Assuming F-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) to be more accurate in representing the true disease extent than CT alone, we prospectively designed this study to evaluate how the addition of FDG-PET influences CT-based radiotherapy planning for locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. All patients underwent FDG-PET/CT simulation scans. For each patient, the gross tumor volume (GTV) was separately delineated with or without the addition of PET information and defined as GTV PET/CT and GTV CT, respectively. Corresponding planning target volumes (PTV) were generated for the GTV CT (PTV(CT)) and GTV PET/CT (PTV PET/CT). Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans were separately created for PTV CT and PTV PET/CT. To assess the potential geographic miss of the PET/CT-based disease in CT-based treatment planning, the size and location of the GTV PET/CT, PTV(PET/CT), and PTV(CT) were analyzed, and the three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans created using the PTV CT were evaluated with the GTV PET/CT and PTV PET/CT information. A total of 43 patients were enrolled in this study. Distant metastasis was found in 4 patients with the addition of the PET information. The 39 patients without distant metastasis proceeded to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy planning. Inadequate coverage of the GTV PET/CT and PTV PET/CT by the PTV CT occurred in 7 (18%) and 20 (51%) patients, respectively. This resulted in or=95% of the prescribed dose in 4 (10%) and 13 (33%) patients, respectively. The addition of FDG-PET information might influence CT-based radiotherapy planning for locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma by altering the definition of the target volume, with the potential to avoid a geographic miss of true disease.

  20. The degree of order determined by local conditional entropy: a new technique to assess osteoporotic changes of trabecular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Wolfram H. W.; Gluer, Claus C.; Sommer, Gerald

    2004-05-01

    Trabecular networks of cancellous bone show complex and stochastic characteristics, which have to be modelled in an adequate way to determine pathological changes of the network induced by osteoporosis. The analysis of complexity may be handled by the use of the Markov Theory, which is based on local interactions of a set of elements and thus can be applied to trabecular networks. The conditional entropy which is investigated as a potential measure of complexity, estimates the order of a structure and thus provides a means for classification of healthy versus osteoporotic bone structures. Since the conditional entropy is based on transition probabilities, stochastic characteristics are modelled, too. From a set of 29 female human vertebra T12, classified into two groups of 18 non-osteoporotic and 11 osteoporotic vertebrae axial biopsies were excised from the centre of the vertebral body. A digital model of the trabecular network was extracted with a Micro-CT device (FanBeam Microscope, Stratec, Pforzheim, Germany). Transition probabilities between neighboured voxels were coded as a set of 18 symbols describing the local dimension of a voxel and its relationship to its neighbours within a certain distance. A tree graph of the symbolic transitions coded the transition probabilities and founded a basis for the calculation of the local conditional entropy as a measure of order. The estimated local entropy for a distance at and above 10 voxels showed significantly higher values for the non-osteoporotic subjects than for the osteoporotic ones. This difference indicates, that non-osteoporotic trabecular networks show a higher degree of disorder compared to the osteoporotic ones.

  1. New techniques for determining the longitudinal effects of local hemodynamics on the intima-media thickness in arteriovenous fistulae in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi-Jagahrgh, Ehsan; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Wang, Yang; Al-Rjoub, Marwan; Campos-Naciff, Begona; Choe, Ann; Dumoulin, Charles; Banerjee, Rupak K

    2014-01-01

    Remodeling in the arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) is believed to be a hemodynamic-driven process, which results in extreme changes in the diameter and intima-media thickening (IMT) of vessels over time. This study aims to describe the successful development of techniques that enabled correlation of changes in local and longitudinal wall shear stress (WSS) with the temporal variations of the diameter and IMT in the venous segment of AVFs. An AVF was created between the femoral artery and vein of a 50-kg pig. We have previously shown the successful use of CT-scan and ultrasound techniques for anatomical and flow measurements in AVFs, respectively. In this study, we developed new techniques involving markers (both in vivo and ex vivo), casting (ex vivo), and micro-MRI (ex vivo; 7 Tesla). A radiopaque marker (ROM) was sutured to the AVF at the day of surgery, which was visible in the CT-scan images, micro-MRI, and histology sections. Therefore, ROM served as a fixed local reference for both in vivo and ex vivo states of AVFs. Immediately after sacrificing the pig, a procedure was developed to create a cast from the AVF and thus, maintaining the in vivo state of the AVF during the histology process. Then, micro-MRI and histology techniques were conducted on the AVF to measure IMT in the vein. Along the ROM, the local changes in WSS levels for two cross-sections were tracked at 2D (D: days) and 28D post surgery. WSS levels reduced from 2D to 28D for both cross-sections. Also, the recirculation zones, which formed at 2D for both sections, became smaller in size at 28D. These hemodynamic changes were then mapped onto the corresponding IMT measurements from histology and micro-MRI. It was observed that the recirculation zones at 2D and 28D corresponded to the largest IMT in the two sections. In summary, the new methodologies allowed us to define a fixed local reference at all time points in the AVF, which enabled accurate tracking of local changes in hemodynamics (WSS

  2. Influence of Different Restorative Techniques on the Strength of Endodontically Treated Weakened Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid H. Alsamadani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Comparing effect of different restoration techniques on fracture resistance of compromised roots. Methods. Crowns of 100 single-rooted teeth were sectioned and 10 roots were kept as negative control group (Group 1. Remaining roots were instrumented and divided into one and positive control group of 10 samples (Group 2 and 4 experimental groups of 20 samples each. Group 3: roots were obturated with gutta-percha; Group 4: roots were restored with gutta-percha, composite, and glass fiber post; Group 5: roots were obturated with Resilon; Group 6: Roots were restored with Resilon, composite, and glass fiber post. Roots were weakened before obturation in groups 2, 3, and 5 and after obturation in groups 4 and 6. Fracture strengths were measured using Dartec testing machine and fracture load was recorded in kilo-Newton. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and Tukeys test. Results. The fractures resistance of restored roots was significantly higher in groups 4, 5, and 6 than in Groups 2 and 3. There were no significant differences between groups 1, 4, 5, and 6. Conclusions. Restoration of weakened roots with Resilon or bonding an intermediate composite resin to coronal radicular dentin and to glass fiber post increased their fracture resistance.

  3. The Study of Mining Activities and their Influences in the Almaden Region Applying Remote Sensing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rico, C.; Schmid, T.; Millan, R.; Gumuzzio, J.

    2010-01-01

    This scientific-technical report is a part of an ongoing research work carried out by Celia Rico Fraile in order to obtain the Diploma of Advanced Studies as part of her PhD studies. This work has been developed in collaboration with the Faculty of Science at The Universidad Autonoma de Madrid and the Department of Environment at CIEMAT. The main objective of this work was the characterization and classification of land use in Almaden (Ciudad Real) during cinnabar mineral exploitation and after mining activities ceased in 2002, developing a methodology focused on the integration of remote sensing techniques applying multispectral and hyper spectral satellite data. By means of preprocessing and processing of data from the satellite images as well as data obtained from field campaigns, a spectral library was compiled in order to obtain representative land surfaces within the study area. Monitoring results show that the distribution of areas affected by mining activities is rapidly diminishing in recent years. (Author) 130 refs

  4. Martina Franca donkey meat quality: Influence of slaughter age and suckling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palo, P; Tateo, A; Maggiolino, A; Marino, R; Ceci, E; Nisi, A; Lorenzo, J M

    2017-12-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of suckling technique and slaughter age on Martina Franca donkey meat quality. Twenty Martina Franca male foals were involved in the trial. Foals naturally assumed colostrum within 4h from birth. Afterwards, 10 foals were partially artificially suckled (AS), and 10 foals were naturally suckled (NS). All the foals were weaned at 180d, then housed indoors and fed the same diet. Ten donkeys were slaughtered at 12months and the other 10 at the age of 18months. Samples of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) were taken from each foal for chemical analysis, then rheological parameters, oxidative profile, colorimetric parameters and fatty acid profile were assessed. Older donkeys (18months) fed with natural milk presented the highest intramuscular fat (IMF) and meat protein content. From a dietary view point, IMF acid composition showed a more favourable profile in meat from artificially-reared donkeys compared to naturally-suckled ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Changing USA national trends for adrenalectomy: the influence of surgeon and technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monn, M Francesca; Calaway, Adam C; Mellon, Matthew J; Bahler, Clinton D; Sundaram, Chandru P; Boris, Ronald S

    2015-02-01

    To explain differences over time between operative approach and surgeon type for adrenal surgery in the USA. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed on all patients undergoing adrenalectomy between 2002 and 2011 using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Patients undergoing concurrent nephrectomy were excluded. Surgeon specialty was only available for 2003-2009. Descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess variables associated with minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and urologist-performed procedures. In all, 58,948 adrenalectomies were identified. A MIS approach was used in 20% of these operations. There was a 4% increase in MIS throughout the study period (P < 0.001). Cases performed at teaching hospitals were more likely to be MIS (odds ratio [OR] 1.47, P < 0.001). We were able to identify surgical specialty in 23,746 cases, of which 60% were performed by urologists. Cases performed in the Midwest compared with Northeast were at increased adjusted odds of being performed by urologists (OR 1.38, P = 0.11). Despite most cases being performed by urologists, adrenalectomy by urologists showed a 15% annual decrease over the analysed period (P < 0.001). The use of a MIS technique to perform adrenalectomy is increasing at a slower rate compared with most other surgical extirpative procedures. Further investigation to explain the decreased performance of adrenalectomy by urologists is warranted. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  6. Influence of Heartwood on Wood Density and Pulp Properties Explained by Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Iglesias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a tool to predict some pulp properties e.g., pulp yield, Kappa number, ISO brightness (ISO 2470:2008, fiber length and fiber width, using the sapwood and heartwood proportion in the raw-material. For this purpose, Acacia melanoxylon trees were collected from four sites in Portugal. Percentage of sapwood and heartwood, area and the stem eccentricity (in N-S and E-W directions were measured on transversal stem sections of A. melanoxylon R. Br. The relative position of the samples with respect to the total tree height was also considered as an input variable. Different configurations were tested until the maximum correlation coefficient was achieved. A classical mathematical technique (multiple linear regression and machine learning methods (classification and regression trees, multi-layer perceptron and support vector machines were tested. Classification and regression trees (CART was the most accurate model for the prediction of pulp ISO brightness (R = 0.85. The other parameters could be predicted with fair results (R = 0.64–0.75 by CART. Hence, the proportion of heartwood and sapwood is a relevant parameter for pulping and pulp properties, and should be taken as a quality trait when assessing a pulpwood resource.

  7. Influence of double application technique on the bonding effectiveness of self-etch adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Rajni; Sharma, Pallavi; Manuja, Naveen; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Singh, Udai Pratap; Singh, Shipra; Singh, Payal

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate and compare the effect of double-application of single-step self-etch adhesives using microleakage study and to analyze the dentin-adhesive interfacial micromorphology. In total, 72 extracted human premolars were divided into three groups for different self-etch adhesives (G Bond, GC [GB], Optibond, Kerr [OB], and Xeno V Plus, Dentsply [XV]). Class V cavities were prepared. Each group was further divided into two subgroups (n = 10) according to the placement technique of the adhesive, using the single-application [subgroup (a)] or double-application method [subgroup (b)]. Resin composite (Z 250, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) was used to restore the cavities and light cured for 40 s. Twenty samples from each group were subjected to microleakage study. Two samples from both the subgroups of the three adhesives were used for scanning electron microscopic examination of the resin-dentin interfacial ultrastructure. Dye leakage scores were subjected to statistical analysis using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests at significance level of P self-etch adhesives improves the marginal sealing ability in dentin although it appears to be product dependent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. FeNbB bulk metallic glass: the influence of fluxing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoica, Mihai; Eckert, Juergen [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Kumar, Santosh [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Roth, Stefan [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Ram, Shanker [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Yavari, Alain Reza [LTPCM-CNRS, Institut National Politechnique de Grenoble, 1130 Rue de la Piscine, BP 75, Saint Martin d' Heres Campus 38402 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Recently, a new Fe-based BMG containing only 3 elements and a very high boron (Fe{sub 66}Nb{sub 4}B{sub 30}) content was synthesized. The preparation of this BMG was done by employing the copper mould casting method and using the fluxing technique. This new BMG is ferromagnetic, with a Curie temperature around 550 K and a saturation magnetization of 105 emu/g. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) investigations revealed a reduced glass transition temperature of 0.58 and an extension of the supercooled liquid region of about 31 K, values which indicate a relatively good thermal stability. Fluxed and not-fluxed master alloys were used to cast samples. The present work aims to discuss, for both kinds of samples, the kinetics of the phase formation using the Kissinger analysis and Johnson-Mehl-Avrami plots, correlated with the results obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) of samples with different metastable structures. Additionally, the magnetic behaviour of different phase(s) is discussed.

  9. Influence of the synoptic circulation on the local wind field in a coastal area of the Tyrrhenian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrantonio, G; Petenko, I; Viola, A; Argentini, S; Coniglio, L; Monti, P; Leuzzi, G

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the statistical analysis of the wind field measured by a Doppler sodar is used to characterize the local circulation at the Tyrrhenian sea coastal site of the Pratica di Mare airfield. Daily behaviour of the wind direction and intensity, as a function of the season, is highlighted and the existence of two nocturnal alternative components of the local circulation is evidenced. Rawinsonde data were used to determine geostrophic wind values. The comparison between low level and geostrophic wind directions allowed to establish the influence of the synoptic scale forcing in determining both which of the two nocturnal currents can be observed at the site and how their directions evolve during the day. Numerical simulations carried out by using the Colorado State University Mesoscale Model (CSUMM) confirm the statistical analysis results and allow to depict the low level wind field patterns in the area. The use of data from ECMWF analysis is proposed in cases in which rawinsonde data are not available to enquire on the synoptic scale forcing

  10. The influence of "C-factor" and light activation technique on polymerization contraction forces of resin composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Kiyoshi Ishikiriama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the influence of the cavity configuration factor ("C-Factor" and light activation technique on polymerization contraction forces of a Bis-GMA-based composite resin (Charisma, Heraeus Kulzer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three different pairs of steel moving bases were connected to a universal testing machine (emic DL 500: groups A and B - 2x2 mm (CF=0.33, groups C and D - 3x2 mm (CF=0.66, groups e and F - 6x2 mm (CF=1.5. After adjustment of the height between the pair of bases so that the resin had a volume of 12 mm³ in all groups, the material was inserted and polymerized by two different methods: pulse delay (100 mW/cm² for 5 s, 40 s interval, 600 mW/cm² for 20 s and continuous pulse (600 mW/cm² for 20 s. Each configuration was light cured with both techniques. Tensions generated during polymerization were recorded by 120 s. The values were expressed in curves (Force(N x Time(s and averages compared by statistical analysis (ANOVA and Tukey's test, p<0.05. RESULTS: For the 2x2 and 3x2 bases, with a reduced C-Factor, significant differences were found between the light curing methods. For 6x2 base, with high C-Factor, the light curing method did not influence the contraction forces of the composite resin. CONCLUSIONS: Pulse delay technique can determine less stress on tooth/restoration interface of adhesive restorations only when a reduced C-Factor is present.

  11. Influence of the route of sensitization on local and systemic immune responses in a murine model of type I allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    REPA, A; WILD, C; HUFNAGL, K; WINKLER, B; BOHLE, B; POLLAK, A; WIEDERMANN, U

    2004-01-01

    The pathophysiological and immunological characteristics of allergic immune responses are controlled by a variety of factors. We have studied the extent to which the route of sensitization influences allergen-specific IgE synthesis and local airway inflammation using a mouse model of allergic sensitization to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Sensitization of BALB/c mice with recombinant (r)Bet v 1 was performed using intraperitoneal (IP), subcutaneous (SC) or aerosol (AS) sensitization protocols. Mice were analysed for allergen-specific serum antibodies by ELISA and IgE-dependent basophil degranulation. Proliferative responses and cytokine production of splenocytes were measured upon Bet v 1 stimulation in vitro. Bronchoalveolar lavages were performed after airway challenge with aerosolized birch pollen extract for assessment of eosinophilic airway inflammation and local cytokine production in vivo. Highest allergen specific IgE levels and IgE-dependent basophil degranulation were achieved using the SC route. High IL-5 production by spleen and lung cells was associated with pronounced eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavages. After IP sensitization, despite giving the highest IgG levels, only low IgE levels, basophil degranulation and IL-5 production were seen. On the other hand, AS sensitization, resulting in the lowest systemic IgE and IL-5 levels, led to a comparably strong airway inflammation as the SC route. Our finding that the route of sensitization can result in a dissociation of local and systemic immune responses may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and help to develop new treatment strategies. PMID:15196238

  12. Influence of mineralogy and microstructures on strain localization and fault zone architecture of the Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiba, T.; Kaneki, S.; Hirono, T.; Oohashi, K.; Schuck, B.; Janssen, C.; Schleicher, A.; Toy, V.; Dresen, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Alpine Fault on New Zealand's South Island is an oblique, dextral strike-slip fault that accommodated the majority of displacement between the Pacific and the Australian Plates and presents the biggest seismic hazard in the region. Along its central segment, the hanging wall comprises greenschist and amphibolite facies Alpine Schists. Exhumation from 35 km depth, along a SE-dipping detachment, lead to mylonitization which was subsequently overprinted by brittle deformation and finally resulted in the fault's 1 km wide damage zone. The geomechanical behavior of a fault is affected by the internal structure of its fault zone. Consequently, studying processes controlling fault zone architecture allows assessing the seismic hazard of a fault. Here we present the results of a combined microstructural (SEM and TEM), mineralogical (XRD) and geochemical (XRF) investigation of outcrop samples originating from several locations along the Alpine Fault, the aim of which is to evaluate the influence of mineralogical composition, alteration and pre-existing fabric on strain localization and to identify the controls on the fault zone architecture, particularly the locus of brittle deformation in P, T and t space. Field observations reveal that the fault's principal slip zone (PSZ) is either a thin (govern strain localization. However, our preliminary results suggest that qualitative mineralogical composition has only minor impact on fault zone architecture. Quantities of individual mineral phases differ markedly between fault damage zone and fault core at specific sites, but the quantitative composition of identical structural units such as the fault core, is similar in all samples. This indicates that the degree of strain localization at the Alpine Fault might be controlled by small initial heterogeneities in texture and fabric or a combination of these, rather than in mineralogy. Further microstructural investigations are needed to test this hypothesis.

  13. Understanding factors influencing vulnerable older people keeping warm and well in winter: a qualitative study using social marketing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, Angela Mary; Lusambili, Adelaide; Homer, Catherine; Abbott, Joanne; Cooke, Joanne Mary; Stocks, Amanda Jayne; McDaid, Kathleen Anne

    2012-01-01

    To understand the influences and decisions of vulnerable older people in relation to keeping warm in winter. A qualitative study incorporating in-depth, semi-structured individual and group interviews, framework analysis and social marketing segmentation techniques. Rotherham, South Yorkshire, UK. 50 older people (>55) and 25 health and social care staff underwent individual interview. The older people also had household temperature measurements. 24 older people and 19 health and social care staff participated in one of the six group interviews. Multiple complex factors emerged to explain whether vulnerable older people were able to keep warm. These influences combined in various ways that meant older people were not able to or preferred not to access help or change home heating behaviour. Factors influencing behaviours and decisions relating to use of heating, spending money, accessing cheaper tariffs, accessing benefits or asking for help fell into three main categories. These were situational and contextual factors, attitudes and values, and barriers. Barriers included poor knowledge and awareness, technology, disjointed systems and the invisibility of fuel and fuel payment. Findings formed the basis of a social marketing segmentation model used to develop six pen portraits that illustrated how factors that conspire against older people being able to keep warm. The findings illustrate how and why vulnerable older people may be at risk of a cold home. The pen portraits provide an accessible vehicle and reflective tool to raise the capacity of the NHS in responding to their needs in line with the Cold Weather Plan.

  14. [The influence of continuous venovenous hemofiltration on parameter measurement by the transpulmonary thermodilution technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyong; Li, Jun; Qin, Yingzhi; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Zhi, Yongle

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the influence of continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) on measurement of transpulmonary thermodilution parameters. A prospective observational study was conducted. Fifty-six patients who received CVVH and hemodynamic monitoring at the same time admitted to the Department of Critical Care Medicine of Tianjin Third Central Hospital from July 2012 to July 2014 were enrolled. In all the patients, the dialysis catheter was inserted through the femoral vein, and transpulmonary thermodilution measurements were performed by pulse indicator continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) monitoring technology at the same time. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), central blood temperature, cardiac index (CI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI), intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI) and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) were measured before CVVH, immediately after CVVH, and 30 minutes after CVVH, respectively. Results In the 56 patients, there were 36 males and 20 females, (66 ± 16) years of old, height of (172 ± 6) cm, body weight of (68 ± 10) kg. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores was 26 ± 6. After CVVH, the central blood temperature was gradually decreased, and blood temperature at 30 minutes after CVVH was significantly lower than that before CVVH (degrees C : 37.17 ± 1.06 vs. 37.57 ± 1.26, P 0.05]. CI, GEDVI, ITBVI at 30 minutes after CVVH were significantly decreased [CI mL x s(-1) x m(-2)): 57.84 ± 20.50 vs 63.85 ± 21.84, GEDVI (mL/m2): 681 ± 106 vs. 727 ± 100, ITBVI (mL/m2): 851 ± 133 vs. 908 ± 125, all P measurement of CI, GEDVI, ITBVI and EVLWI. Thirty minutes after the start of CVVH, CI, GEDVI was decreased significantly, but had no effect on EVLWI.

  15. Influence of multimode universal adhesives and zirconia primer application techniques on zirconia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Bruno; Arantes-Oliveira, Sofia; Portugal, Jaime

    2014-08-01

    More information is needed on the efficacy of the new universal adhesives and on the best 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate- (MDP)-containing primer protocol to promote adhesion to zirconia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2 new multimode MDP-containing adhesives and several application protocols of a zirconia primer on the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite resin to zirconia. Sixty zirconia (3Y-TZP) blocks were abraded (50 μm Al2O3) and divided into 6 experimental groups (n=10): one Z-Prime Plus coat without light polymerization; one Z-Prime Plus light-polymerized coat; two Z-Prime Plus coats without light polymerization; two Z-Prime Plus light-polymerized coats; All-Bond Universal; and ScotchBond Universal Adhesive. Multimode adhesives were applied according to the manufacturers' recommendations. After composite resin (Filtek Z250) light polymerization, the specimens were stored in distilled water (37°C/48 hours) and tested in shear (1 mm/min). Failure mode was classified as adhesive or mixed. Statistical analysis of the SBS data was performed with 1-way ANOVA followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc tests. Nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis) were used to analyze the failure mode data (α=.05). The ScotchBond Universal Adhesive, All-Bond Universal, and two Z-Prime Plus light-polymerized coats groups showed a higher mean SBS than the other experimental groups (Padhesive failures. The new multimode adhesives tested were effective in promoting adhesion between composite resin and zirconia. Z-Prime Plus should be applied in 2 light-polymerized coats to promote SBS values similar to those of the new multimode adhesives. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of surface modification techniques on shear bond strength between different zirconia cores and veneering ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rismanchian, Mansour; Savabi, Omid; Ashtiani, Alireza Hashemi

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Veneering porcelain might be delaminated from underlying zirconia-based ceramics. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effect of different surface treatments and type of zirconia (white or colored) on shear bond strength (SBS) of zirconia core and its veneering porcelain. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eighty zirconia disks (40 white and 40 colored; 10 mm in diameter and 4 mm thick) were treated with three different mechanical surface conditioning methods (Sandblasting with 110 µm Al2O3 particle, grinding, sandblasting and liner application). One group had received no treatment. These disks were veneered with 3 mm thick and 5 mm diameter Cercon Ceram Kiss porcelain and SBS test was conducted (cross-head speed = 1 mm/min). Two and one way ANOVA, Tukey's HSD Past hoc, and T-test were selected to analyzed the data (α=0.05). RESULTS In this study, the factor of different types of zirconia ceramics (P=.462) had no significant effect on SBS, but the factors of different surface modification techniques (P=.005) and interaction effect (P=.018) had a significant effect on SBS. Within colored zirconia group, there were no significant differences in mean SBS among the four surface treatment subgroups (P=0.183). Within white zirconia group, "Ground group" exhibited a significantly lower SBS value than "as milled" or control (P=0.001) and liner (P=.05) groups. CONCLUSION Type of zirconia did not have any effect on bond strength between zirconia core and veneer ceramic. Surface treatment had different effects on the SBS of the different zirconia types and grinding dramatically decreased the SBS of white zirconia-porcelain. PMID:22259706

  17. An innovation diffusion model of a local electricity network that is influenced by internal and external factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattam, Laura; Greetham, Danica Vukadinović

    2018-01-01

    Haynes et al. (1977) derived a nonlinear differential equation to determine the spread of innovations within a social network across space and time. This model depends upon the imitators and the innovators within the social system, where the imitators respond to internal influences, whilst the innovators react to external factors. Here, this differential equation is applied to simulate the uptake of a low-carbon technology (LCT) within a real local electricity network that is situated in the UK. This network comprises of many households that are assigned to certain feeders. Firstly, travelling wave solutions of Haynes' model are used to predict adoption times as a function of the imitation and innovation influences. Then, the grid that represents the electricity network is created so that the finite element method (FEM) can be implemented. Next, innovation diffusion is modelled with Haynes' equation and the FEM, where varying magnitudes of the internal and external pressures are imposed. Consequently, the impact of these model parameters is investigated. Moreover, LCT adoption trajectories at fixed feeder locations are calculated, which give a macroscopic understanding of the uptake behaviour at specific network sites. Lastly, the adoption of LCTs at a household level is examined, where microscopic and macroscopic approaches are combined.

  18. Influence of material and microtopography on the development of local infection in vivo: experimental investigation in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Thomas F; Debefve, Laurence; Boure, Ludovic; Campoccia, Davide; Schlegel, Urs; Richards, Robert G

    2009-09-01

    Polishing the surface of internal fracture fixation (IFF) implant materials can ease implant removal and reduce irritation to gliding tissues by reducing soft tissue adhesion and bony overgrowth. Thus, polishing the surface of these implants is expected to have significant clinical benefit in certain situations. The aim of the present study was to determine if polishing the surface of an IFF device influences susceptibility to infection. The local infection rate associated with 4-hole 2.0 mm Synthes locking compression plates (LCPs) composed of clinically available commercially pure titanium (cpTi) and titanium aluminium niobium (TAN) in their standard microrough form was compared with that of their test polished equivalents and also to clinically available electropolished stainless steel (EPSS). The LCPs were fixed in locking mode onto the tibia of mature, female New Zealand White rabbits and a clinical strain of Staphylococcus aureus was added to the implantation site. Twenty eight days after surgery the rabbits were euthanized and assessed for infection. The rank order based on descending ID50 was; polished TAN, standard TAN, standard cpTi, EPSS and finally polished cpTi, however, the ID50 values did not differ greatly between the groups with the same material. Using the LCP model in locking mode, polishing the surface of both cpTi and TAN was not found to influence the susceptibility to infection in our animal model.

  19. 18F-fluorocholine PET-guided target volume delineation techniques for partial prostate re-irradiation in local recurrent prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Vees, Hansjörg; Miralbell, Raymond; Wissmeyer, Michael; Steiner, Charles; Ratib, Osman; Senthamizhchelvan, Srinivasan; Zaidi, Habib

    2009-11-01

    We evaluate the contribution of (18)F-choline PET/CT in the delineation of gross tumour volume (GTV) in local recurrent prostate cancer after initial irradiation using various PET image segmentation techniques. Seventeen patients with local-only recurrent prostate cancer (median=5.7 years) after initial irradiation were included in the study. Rebiopsies were performed in 10 patients that confirmed the local recurrence. Following injection of 300 MBq of (18)F-fluorocholine, dynamic PET frames (3 min each) were reconstructed from the list-mode acquisition. Five PET image segmentation techniques were used to delineate the (18)F-choline-based GTVs. These included manual delineation of contours (GTV(man)) by two teams consisting of a radiation oncologist and a nuclear medicine physician each, a fixed threshold of 40% and 50% of the maximum signal intensity (GTV(40%) and GTV(50%)), signal-to-background ratio-based adaptive thresholding (GTV(SBR)), and a region growing (GTV(RG)) algorithm. Geographic mismatches between the GTVs were also assessed using overlap analysis. Inter-observer variability for manual delineation of GTVs was high but not statistically significant (p=0.459). In addition, the volumes and shapes of GTVs delineated using semi-automated techniques were significantly higher than those of GTVs defined manually. Semi-automated segmentation techniques for (18)F-choline PET-guided GTV delineation resulted in substantially higher GTVs compared to manual delineation and might replace the latter for determination of recurrent prostate cancer for partial prostate re-irradiation. The selection of the most appropriate segmentation algorithm still needs to be determined.

  20. Patient Awareness of Local Drug Price Variation and the Factors That Influence Pharmacy Choice: A Cross-sectional Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Spencer D; Awosika, Olabola D; Eleryan, Misty G; Rengifo-Pardo, Monica; Kuang, Xiangyu; Amdur, Richard L; Ehrlich, Alison

    2017-12-01

    BACKGROUND: High out-of-pocket drug expenditures are increasingly common in dermatology. Patients may not be aware that prices vary among pharmacies and consequently may not shop for the lowest cost. OBJECTIVE: To determine what factors influence pharmacy choice and the effect of providing local prescription prices on pharmacy selection. We hypothesized that patients do not "shop around" due to lack of knowledge of price variation and would choose a pharmacy based on costs if educated on price disparity. METHODS: Between July and August 2016, we administered a cross-sectional anonymous survey to adults visiting four outpatient clinics at an academic tertiary care center in Washington, D.C. Participants answered questions before and after viewing a list of prescription drug prices from local pharmacies. RESULTS: 287 surveys were administered to a convenience sample of adults (age ≥ 18 and literate in English). Of the 287 participants, 218 fully completed the survey; 55.1% were women and 40.5% were over age 40. When considering a cost savings of $10-25, 65% would switch pharmacies if the distance were the same, and 21.3% would switch if the distance were 45-minutes further. After price education, fewer participants felt that drug price knowledge would ultimately influence pharmacy choice (P less than 0.0001). However, respondents' intended frequency of researching price online, calling a pharmacy to ask about price, and comparing price between pharmacies before filling a prescription all increased, compared to prior self-reported frequencies (P less than 0.001). Specifically, participants with $75,000-$99,999 income were more likely to compare prices than those with income below $45,000 (odds ratio [OR], 4.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-17.28). CONCLUSION: In this study, pharmacy choice was more influenced by convenience than cost prior to drug price education. However, price education ultimately impacted intent to research prescription drug prices before

  1. Study of Influence of Effluent on Ground Water Using Remote Sensing, GIS and Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S.; Bhadra, B. K.; Sharma, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    software. Establishment of other boundary conditions was based on well data. Calibration and validation of was done using ground water modelling software. Change detection analysis indicated areas of impact on land use/ cover particularly, agriculture activity. Normalised difference vegetation index found to have negative correlation with pollution level. Population dynamics have been studied and it is found to be poorly correlated with land degradation. Water levels do not show significant variations in past twenty years baring normal seasonal fluctuation. Chemical analysis of ground water samples studies in time series. The water quality studied through various parameters shows concentration in mid-reach of the Bandi river. Analysis of litholog data shows three unconfined aquifers. Pump test and resistivity survey was carried out for initial aquifer properties in local water levels. Modelling contaminant migration helped in prediction of the extent of the adversity. Surface flow is checked allowing more water but it is proving to be accumulation point in absence of good rainfall & flow in the river. Hotspots of dumping /active contamination were identified with certain remediation efforts and supply of solid waste to cement industry in addition to bio-filter for heavy metals.

  2. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF EFFLUENT ON GROUND WATER USING REMOTE SENSING, GIS AND MODELING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pathak

    2012-07-01

    boundaries using specialized software. Establishment of other boundary conditions was based on well data. Calibration and validation of was done using ground water modelling software. Change detection analysis indicated areas of impact on land use/ cover particularly, agriculture activity. Normalised difference vegetation index found to have negative correlation with pollution level. Population dynamics have been studied and it is found to be poorly correlated with land degradation. Water levels do not show significant variations in past twenty years baring normal seasonal fluctuation. Chemical analysis of ground water samples studies in time series. The water quality studied through various parameters shows concentration in mid-reach of the Bandi river. Analysis of litholog data shows three unconfined aquifers. Pump test and resistivity survey was carried out for initial aquifer properties in local water levels. Modelling contaminant migration helped in prediction of the extent of the adversity. Surface flow is checked allowing more water but it is proving to be accumulation point in absence of good rainfall & flow in the river. Hotspots of dumping /active contamination were identified with certain remediation efforts and supply of solid waste to cement industry in addition to bio-filter for heavy metals.

  3. Determination of radio nuclides for some local foodstuffs in Republic of Yemen by using gamma rays spectral analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Maqtary, K.; Murshid, M.; Bazohair, A.; Al-Zuhairy, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study is considered as the first research study on locally produced consumed food in the Republic of Yemen. The objective of this study is to measure concentration of radio nuclides 137 Cs and 40 K In food samples produced in Yemen. Twenty two local foodstuffs samples were collected from provinces. The mar IBB, Hudiadah and Lahj, due to the massive crops production. Gamma spectroscopy consist of high purity germanium (HPGe) detector with resolution of 2.11 KeV at 1332 ke v energy which related to 6 0Co isotope. The detector is interfaced to two amplifiers and multichannel analyzer (mca). the maximum concentration of 13C s was found in garden pea samples brought from Lahj province 13± 1.5 Bq/kg. The minimum concentration was found in wheat samples brought from Them ar province 2.5± 0.2 Bq/Kg. The maximum concentration of 4 0K was found in garden pea samples brought from Lahj. 1000±15 Bq/kg. The minimum concentration was in forage sorghum samples brought from Hudaidah 40±1.5 Bq/kg. The studies samples are radiological safe and okay for human consumption. (author)

  4. Degradation Study by Start-Up/Shut-Down Cycling of Superhydrophobic Electrosprayed Catalyst Layers Using a Localized Reference Electrode Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Aparicio, Paloma; Chaparro, Antonio M; Folgado, M Antonia; Conde, Julio J; Brightman, Edward; Hinds, Gareth

    2017-03-29

    Degradation of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with electrosprayed cathode catalyst layers is investigated during cyclic start-up and shut-down events. The study is carried out within a single cell incorporating an array of reference electrodes that enables measurement of cell current as a function of local cathode potential (localized polarization curves). Accelerated degradation of the cell by start-up/shut-down cycling gives rise to inhomogeneous performance loss, which is more severe close to the gas outlet and occurs predominantly during start-up. The degradation consists primarily of loss of cathode catalyst activity and increase in cell internal resistance, which is attributed to carbon corrosion and Pt aggregation in both anode and cathode. Cells with an electrosprayed cathode catalyst layer show lower degradation rates during the first 100 cycles, compared with those of a conventional gas diffusion electrode. This difference in behavior is attributed to the high hydrophobicity of the electrosprayed catalyst layer microstructure, which retards the kinetics of corrosion of the carbon support. In the long term, however, the degradation rate is dominated by the Pt/C ratio in the cathode catalyst layer.

  5. Testing the ISP method with the PARIO device: Accuracy of results and influence of homogenization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Wolfgang; Huber, Magdalena; Yangxu, Li; Steins, Andi; Pertassek, Thomas; Göttlein, Axel; Iden, Sascha C.; von Unold, Georg

    2017-04-01

    The particle-size distribution (PSD) is one of the main properties of soils. To determine the proportions of the fine fractions silt and clay, sedimentation experiments are used. Most common are the Pipette and Hydrometer method. Both need manual sampling at specific times. Both are thus time-demanding and rely on experienced operators. Durner et al. (Durner, W., S.C. Iden, and G. von Unold (2017): The integral suspension pressure method (ISP) for precise particle-size analysis by gravitational sedimentation, Water Resources Research, doi:10.1002/2016WR019830) recently developed the integral suspension method (ISP) method, which is implemented in the METER Group device PARIOTM. This new method estimates continuous PSD's from sedimentation experiments by recording the temporal evolution of the suspension pressure at a certain measurement depth in a sedimentation cylinder. It requires no manual interaction after start and thus no specialized training of the lab personnel. The aim of this study was to test the precision and accuracy of new method with a variety of materials, to answer the following research questions: (1) Are the results obtained by PARIO reliable and stable? (2) Are the results affected by the initial mixing technique to homogenize the suspension, or by the presence of sand in the experiment? (3) Are the results identical to the one that are obtained with the Pipette method as reference method? The experiments were performed with a pure quartz silt material and four real soil materials. PARIO measurements were done repetitively on the same samples in a temperature-controlled lab to characterize the repeatability of the measurements. Subsequently, the samples were investigated by the pipette method to validate the results. We found that the statistical error for silt fraction from replicate and repetitive measurements was in the range of 1% for the quartz material to 3% for soil materials. Since the sand fractions, as in any sedimentation method, must

  6. Low-cost measurement techniques to characterize the influence of home heating fuel on carbon monoxide in Navajo homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Joanna Gordon; Ortega, John; Coffey, Evan; Hannigan, Michael

    2018-06-01

    A large fraction of the global population relies on the inefficient combustion of solid fuels for cooking and home heating, resulting in household exposure to combustion byproducts. In the southwestern United States, unhealthy air quality has been observed in some homes that use solid fuels as a primary source of heat on the Navajo Nation. In order to better understand how home heating fuel choice can influence indoor air quality in this region, we used recently developed low-cost electrochemical sensors to measure carbon monoxide (CO) air mole fractions continuously inside and outside 41 homes in two communities on the Navajo Nation. Using low-cost sensors in this study, which don't require extensive training to operate, enabled collaboration with local Diné College students and faculty in the planning and implementation of home deployments. Households used natural gas, propane, pellets, wood, and/or coal for heating. We developed quantification methods that included uncertainty estimation for Alphasense CO-B4 sensors, for measurements both inside and outside homes. CO concentrations elevated above background were observed in homes in each heating fuel group, but the highest hourly concentrations were observed in wood and coal burning homes, some of which exceeded World Health Organization Guidelines on both an hourly and eight-hourly basis. In order to probe the many factors that can influence indoor pollutant concentrations, we developed and implemented methods that employ CO emission and decay time periods observed in homes during everyday activities to estimate air exchange rates as well as CO emission rates on the basis of a given well-mixed volume of air. The air quality measurement tools and methods demonstrated in this study can be readily extended to indoor air quality studies in other communities around the world to inform how home heating and cooking practices are influencing indoor air quality during normal daily activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier

  7. Influence of immediate dentin sealing techniques on cuspal deflection and fracture resistance of teeth restored with composite resin inlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L; Mota, E G; Borges, G A; Burnett, L H; Spohr, A M

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY This research evaluated the influence of immediate dentin sealing (IDS) techniques on cuspal deflection and fracture resistance of teeth restored with composite resin inlays. Forty-eight maxillary premolars were divided into four groups: G1, sound teeth (control); G2, without IDS; G3, IDS with Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); and G4, IDS with CSE and Protect Liner F. The teeth from groups 2, 3, and 4 received mesio-distal-occlusal preparations. The impressions were made with vinyl polysiloxane, followed by provisional restoration and storage in water for seven days. The impressions were poured using type IV die stone, and inlays with Filtek Z250 composite resin were built over each cast. The inlays were luted with Panavia F. After storage in water for 72 hours, a 200-N load was applied on the occlusal surface using a metal sphere connected to a universal testing machine, and the cuspal deflection was measured with a micrometer. The specimens were then submitted to an axial load until failure. The following mean cuspal deflection (μm) and mean fracture resistance (N) followed by the same lowercase letter represent no statistical difference by analysis of variance and Tukey (p<0.05): cuspal deflection: G1, 3.1 ± 1.5(a); G2, 10.3 ± 4.6(b); G3, 5.5 ± 1.8(ac); and G4, 7.7 ± 5.1(bc); fracture resistance: G1, 1974 ± 708(a); G2, 1162 ± 474(b); G3, 700 ± 280(b); and G4, 810 ± 343(b). IDS with CSE allowed cuspal deflection comparable with that associated with sound teeth. The application of Protect Liner F did not contribute to a decrease in cuspal deflection. The IDS techniques did not influence the fracture resistance of teeth.

  8. Thermally oxidized Inconel 600 and 690 nickel-based alloys characterizations by combination of global photoelectrochemistry and local near-field microscopy techniques (STM, STS, AFM, SKPFM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechehoud, F.; Benaioun, N. E.; Hakiki, N. E.; Khelil, A.; Simon, L.; Bubendorff, J. L.

    2018-03-01

    Thermally oxidized nickel-based alloys are studied by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) and photoelectro-chemical techniques as a function of oxidation time at a fixed temperature of 623 K. By photoelectrochemistry measurements we identify the formation of three oxides NiO, Fe2O3, Cr2O3 and determine the corresponding gap values. We use these values as parameter for imaging the surface at high bias voltage by STM allowing the spatial localization and identification of both NiO, Fe2O3 oxide phases using STS measurements. Associated to Kelvin probe measurements we show also that STS allow to distinguished NiO from Cr2O3 and confirm that the Cr2O3 is not visible at the surface and localized at the oxide/steel interface.

  9. Local administration of calcitriol positively influences bone remodeling and maturation during restoration of mandibular bone defects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongrui; Cui, Jian; Feng, Wei; Lv, Shengyu; Du, Juan; Sun, Jing; Han, Xiuchun [Department of Bone Metabolism, School of Stomatology Shandong University, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, Jinan (China); Wang, Zhenming; Lu, Xiong [Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Yimin [Department of Advanced Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Oda, Kimimitsu [Division of Biochemistry, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata (Japan); Amizuka, Norio [Department of Developmental Biology of Hard Tissue, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Li, Minqi, E-mail: liminqi@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Bone Metabolism, School of Stomatology Shandong University, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, Jinan (China)

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of calcitriol on osteoinduction following local administration into mandibular bone defects. Calcitriol-loaded absorbable collagen membrane scaffolds were prepared using the polydopamine coating method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Composite scaffolds were implanted into rat mandibular bone defects in the following groups: no graft material (control), bare collagen membrane (CM group), collagen membrane bearing polydopamine coating (DOP/CM group), and collagen membrane bearing polydopamine coating absorbed with calcitriol (CAL/DOP/CM group). At 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-surgery, the osteogenic potential of calcitriol was examined by histological and immunohistochemical methods. Following in vivo implantation, calcitriol-loaded composite scaffolds underwent rapid degradation with pronounced replacement by new bone and induced reunion of the bone marrow cavity. Calcitriol showed strong potential in inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and promotion of osteogenic differentiation at weeks 1, and 2. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed that the newly formed bone volume in the CAL/DOP/CM group was significantly higher than other groups at weeks 1, and 2. At weeks 4, and 8, the CAL/DOP/CM group showed more mineralized bone and uniform collagen structure. These data suggest that local administration of calcitriol is promising in promoting osteogenesis and mineralization for restoration of mandibular bone defects. - Highlights: • More information on collagen material was added in the revised manuscript. • Masson–Goldner trichrome stain was performed for histomorphometry. • More specific information on calcitriol was supplemented in the Discussion section. • The MOD of ALP and Runx2 was explained in more detail. • The inhibition of osteoclastogenesis was described more accurately in the second paragraph of the discussion.

  10. Influence of genetic architecture on contemporary local evolution in the soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma: artificial selection on beak length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, H; Carroll, S P; Famula, T R

    2009-10-01

    Little is known about the influence of genetic architecture on local adaptation. We investigated the genetic architecture of the rapid contemporary evolution of mouthparts, the flight polymorphism and life history traits in the soapberry bug Jadera haematoloma (Hemiptera) using laboratory selection. The mouthparts of these seed-feeding bugs have adapted in 40-50 years by decreasing in length following novel natural selection induced by a host switch to the seeds of an introduced tree with smaller fruits than those of the native host vine. Laboratory selection on beak length in both an ancestral population feeding on the native host and a derived population feeding on the introduced host reveals genetic variance allowing a rapid response (heritabilities of 0.51-0.87) to selection for either longer or shorter beaks. This selection resulted in reverse evolution by restoring long beaks in the derived population and forward evolution by re-creating short beaks in the ancestral bugs. There were strong genetic correlations (0.68-0.84) in both populations between beak lengths and the frequency of flight morphs, with short beaks associated with short wings. The results reveal a genetically interrelated set of adaptive multivariate traits including both beak length and flight morph. This suite of traits reflects host plant patchiness and seeding phenology. Weaker evidence suggests that egg mass and early egg production may be elements of the same suite. Reversible or forward evolution thus may occur in a broad set of genetically correlated multivariate traits undergoing rapid contemporary adaptation to altered local environments.

  11. Influence of ns-laser wavelength in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for discrimination of painting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xueshi; Syvilay, Delphine; Wilkie-Chancellier, Nicolas; Texier, Annick; Martinez, Loic; Serfaty, Stéphane; Martos-Levif, Dominique; Detalle, Vincent

    2017-08-01

    The influence of ns-laser wavelength to discriminate ancient painting techniques such as are fresco, casein, animal glue, egg yolk and oil was investigated in this work. This study was carried out with a single shot laser on samples covered by a layer made of a mixture of the cinnabar pigment and different binders. Three wavelengths based on Nd: YAG laser were investigated (1064, 532 and 266 nm). The plasma is controlled at the same electron temperature after an adjustment of pulse energy for these three wavelengths on a fresco sample without organic binder. This approach allows to eliminate the effects of laser pulse energy and the material laser absorption. Afterwards, the emission spectra were compared to separate different techniques. The organic binding media has been separated based on the relative emission intensity of the present CN or C2 rovibrational emissions. In order to test the capability of separating or identifying, the chemometric approach (PCA) was applied to the different matrix. The different solutions in term of wavelength range to optimise the identification was investigated. We focused on the evaluation for the laser wavelength to insure a better separation. The different capacity was interpreted by differentiating the binders by the altered interaction mechanisms between the laser photon and the binders. Also, the electron temperature in the plasma was estimated, which provided the evidences to our findings.

  12. The influence of management and environment on local health department organizational structure and adaptation: a longitudinal network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Jonathan W; Pryde, Julie A; Merrill, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-01

    The nation's 2862 local health departments (LHDs) are the primary means for assuring public health services for all populations. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of organizational network analysis on management decisions in LHDs and to demonstrate the technique's ability to detect organizational adaptation over time. We conducted a longitudinal network analysis in a full-service LHD with 113 employees serving about 187,000 persons. Network survey data were collected from employees at 3 times: months 0, 8, and 34. At time 1 the initial analysis was presented to LHD managers as an intervention with information on evidence-based management strategies to address the findings. At times 2 and 3 interviews documented managers' decision making and events in the task environment. Response rates for the 3 network analyses were 90%, 97%, and 83%. Postintervention (time 2) results showed beneficial changes in network measures of communication and integration. Screening and case identification increased for chlamydia and for gonorrhea. Outbreak mitigation was accelerated by cross-divisional teaming. Network measurements at time 3 showed LHD adaptation to H1N1 and budget constraints with increased centralization. Task redundancy increased dramatically after National Incident Management System training. Organizational network analysis supports LHD management with empirical evidence that can be translated into strategic decisions about communication, allocation of resources, and addressing knowledge gaps. Specific population health outcomes were traced directly to management decisions based on network evidence. The technique can help managers improve how LHDs function as organizations and contribute to our understanding of public health systems.

  13. A novel cooperative localization algorithm using enhanced particle filter technique in maritime search and rescue wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huafeng; Mei, Xiaojun; Chen, Xinqiang; Li, Junjun; Wang, Jun; Mohapatra, Prasant

    2017-09-29

    Maritime search and rescue (MSR) play a significant role in Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). However, it suffers from scenarios that the measurement information is inaccurate due to wave shadow effect when utilizing wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology in MSR. In this paper, we develop a Novel Cooperative Localization Algorithm (NCLA) in MSR by using an enhanced particle filter method to reduce measurement errors on observation model caused by wave shadow effect. First, we take into account the mobility of nodes at sea to develop a motion model-Lagrangian model. Furthermore, we introduce both state model and observation model to constitute a system model for particle filter (PF). To address the impact of the wave shadow effect on the observation model, we develop an optimal parameter derived by Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD) to mitigate the error. After the optimal parameter is acquired, an improved likelihood function is presented. Finally, the estimated position is acquired. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. SU-E-T-332: Dosimetric Impact of Photon Energy and Treatment Technique When Knowledge Based Auto-Planning Is Implemented in Radiotherapy of Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z; Kennedy, A [Sarah Cannon, Nashville, TN (United States); Larsen, E; Grow, A; Hayes, C; Balamucki, C [North Florida Cancer Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Salmon, H; Thompson, M [Lake City Cancer Center, Lake City, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric impact of the combination of photon energy and treatment technique on radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer when knowledge based planning was used. Methods: A total of 16 patients with localized prostate cancer were retrospectively retrieved from database and used for this study. For each patient, four types of treatment plans with different combinations of photon energy (6X and 10X) and treatment techniques (7-field IMRT and 2-arc VMAT) were created using a prostate DVH estimation model in RapidPlan™ and Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical System). For any beam arrangement, DVH objectives and weighting priorities were generated based on the geometric relationship between the OAR and PTV. Photon optimization algorithm was used for plan optimization and AAA algorithm was used for final dose calculation. Plans were evaluated in terms of the pre-defined dosimetric endpoints for PTV, rectum, bladder, penile bulb, and femur heads. A Student’s paired t-test was used for statistical analysis and p > 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: For PTV, V95 was statistically similar among all four types of plans, though the mean dose of 10X plans was higher than that of 6X plans. VMAT plans showed higher heterogeneity index than IMRT plans. No statistically significant difference in dosimetry metrics was observed for rectum, bladder, and penile bulb among plan types. For left and right femur, VMAT plans had a higher mean dose than IMRT plans regardless of photon energy, whereas the maximum dose was similar. Conclusion: Overall, the dosimetric endpoints were similar regardless of photon energy and treatment techniques when knowledge based auto planning was used. Given the similarity in dosimetry metrics of rectum, bladder, and penile bulb, the genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities should be comparable among the selections of photon energy and treatment techniques.

  15. Immediate Effects of Combining Local Techniques in the Craniomandibular Area and Hamstring Muscle Stretching in Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Cocera-Morata, Francisco Miguel; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Ricard, François; Almazán-Campos, Ginés; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel

    2015-08-01

    To assess the immediate effects on vertical mouth opening, orofacial mechanosensitivity, and lumbar and suboccipital mobility after adding a myofascial induction technique to a multimodal protocol in subjects with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A randomized and double-blind controlled trial was carried out. University-based physical therapy research clinic. Sixty subjects (35±11.22 years) with TMD, and restricted mobility of the mandibular condyles and the first cervical vertebrae, were recruited and randomized to either a control group (CG) (n=30) or an experimental group (EG) (n=30). The CG underwent a neuromuscular technique over the masseter muscles and passive hamstring muscle stretching. A suboccipital muscle inhibition technique was added to this protocol in the EG. Primary measurements were made of vertical mouth opening and pressure pain threshold of the masseter muscles. Secondary outcome measures included pressure algometry of the trigeminal nerve, suboccipital range of motion, and lumbar spine mobility, assessed with the sit-and-reach (SAR) test and lumbar forward bending. All evaluations were collected at baseline and immediately after intervention. In the intragroup comparison, the EG observed an increase in suboccipital flexion (p0.05). The inclusion of a myofascial induction maneuver in a protocol combining local (neuromuscular treatment) and distal techniques (hamstring stretching) in subjects with TMD has no impact on improving mouth opening, suboccipital and lumbar mobility, and orofacial sensitivity to mechanical pressure.

  16. Using DNase Hi-C techniques to map global and local three-dimensional genome architecture at high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenxiu; Ay, Ferhat; Lee, Choli; Gulsoy, Gunhan; Deng, Xinxian; Cook, Savannah; Hesson, Jennifer; Cavanaugh, Christopher; Ware, Carol B; Krumm, Anton; Shendure, Jay; Blau, C Anthony; Disteche, Christine M; Noble, William S; Duan, ZhiJun

    2018-01-31

    The folding and three-dimensional (3D) organization of chromatin in the nucleus critically impacts genome function. The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in genomic tools for delineating 3D genome architecture. Among them, chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based methods such as Hi-C are the most widely used techniques for mapping chromatin interactions. However, traditional Hi-C protocols rely on restriction enzymes (REs) to fragment chromatin and are therefore limited in resolution. We recently developed DNase Hi-C for mapping 3D genome organization, which uses DNase I for chromatin fragmentation. DNase Hi-C overcomes RE-related limitations associated with traditional Hi-C methods, leading to improved methodological resolution. Furthermore, combining this method with DNA capture technology provides a high-throughput approach (targeted DNase Hi-C) that allows for mapping fine-scale chromatin architecture at exceptionally high resolution. Hence, targeted DNase Hi-C will be valuable for delineating the physical landscapes of cis-regulatory networks that control gene expression and for characterizing phenotype-associated chromatin 3D signatures. Here, we provide a detailed description of method design and step-by-step working protocols for these two methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of the localized initial plastic deformation on the effective thermomechanical response of metal-matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roatta, A.; Turner, P.A.; Bertinetti, M.A.; Bolmaro, R.E.

    1999-11-01

    A generalized Eshelby model, allowing interaction among reinforcing particles under a Mori-Tanaka-like scheme, is presented. Different inclusion aspect ratios are studied in the elastic and incipient elastoplastic regime for a model SiC-Al composite. The solution of the field equations is obtained via an explicit algorithm that yields the interaction field in terms of the stress and strain variables. The particles and fibers are taken as purely elastic, and the matrix is regarded as elastic-perfectly plastic. Coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) are calculated both under the assumption of purely elastic response and at the onset of plastic localized deformation. The simulated stress-strain curves show the influence of interaction stresses on macroscopic yield stress for different inclusion aspect ratios, with no consideration of matrix hardening. The model allows a good simulation of the thermomechanical behavior of composite materials and contributes to the understanding of the elastoplastic transition in stress-strain curves. It can also simply explain some of the most distinctive features of the mechanical behavior of composites. The model presents the possibility of controlling many input variables and geometries and simultaneously considering three-dimensional deformation of interacting inclusion-reinforced materials with low computational effort. Comparisons to experimental CTE and residual stresses are provided.

  18. Numerical Investigation of the Influence of Water Jumping on the Local Scour beneath a Pipeline under Steady Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Fan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rigid-lid approximation is usually used to replace the free surface in scour simulation. The influence of the rigid lid assumption on the prediction precision of scour hole in steady flow is studied in this paper. Firstly, a local scour model was constructed based on the open sources Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model OpenFOAM, where both the bed load and suspended load were considered. In the present model, the bed shear stress was calculated by the Newton shear stress formula, instead of the traditional calculation method with the assumption that the flow velocity in vertical direction complies with a logarithmic distribution. The Volume of Fluid (VOF method was used to capture the free surface and a moving-mesh method was used to track the change of bed surface. Then, several experiments were chosen to validate the model, and the modeling results fitted well with the measured data. Lastly, the effect of the rigid lid assumption on surface elevation, bed shear stress and the profile of the scour hole in steady flow are studied. The result shows that the surface elevation suffers a drop above the pipeline, and the difference of surface elevation between the upstream and downstream increases with decreasing dimensionless depth. Compared with the free surface condition, the bed shear stress and scour hole depth computed with the rigid lid approximation were underestimated.

  19. Infection of Bacterial Endosymbionts in Insects: A Comparative Study of Two Techniques viz PCR and FISH for Detection and Localization of Symbionts in Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Raina

    Full Text Available Bacterial endosymbionts have been associated with arthropods and large number of the insect species show interaction with such bacteria. Different approaches have been used to understand such symbiont- host interactions. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, a highly invasive agricultural pest, harbors as many as seven different bacterial endosymbionts. These bacterial endosymbionts are known to provide various nutritional, physiological, environmental and evolutionary benefits to its insect host. In this study, we have tried to compare two techniques, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Flourescence in situ Hybridisation (FISH commonly used for identification and localization of bacterial endosymbionts in B. tabaci as it harbors one of the highest numbers of endosymbionts which have helped it in becoming a successful global invasive agricultural pest. The amplified PCR products were observed as bands on agarose gel by electrophoresis while the FISH samples were mounted on slides and observed under confocal microscope. Analysis of results obtained by these two techniques revealed the advantages of FISH over PCR. On a short note, performing FISH, using LNA probes proved to be more sensitive and informative for identification as well as localization of bacterial endosymbionts in B. tabaci than relying on PCR. This study would help in designing more efficient experiments based on much reliable detection procedure and studying the role of endosymbionts in insects.

  20. Nitric oxide and prostaglandins influence local skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise in humans: coupling between local substrate uptake and blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Langberg, Henning; Ryberg, Ann Kathrine

    2006-01-01

    -legged dynamic knee-extension exercise. Local blockade was produced by infusing nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and indomethacin directly in the muscle via a microdialysis catheter. Blood flow and glucose uptake were measured in the region of blockade and in two additional regions of vastus lateralis muscle 1...

  1. Local image variance of 7 Tesla SWI is a new technique for preoperative characterization of diffusely infiltrating gliomas: correlation with tumour grade and IDH1 mutational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, Günther; Kiesel, Barbara; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Millesi, Matthias; Wurzer, Aygül; Göd, Sabine; Mallouhi, Ammar; Knosp, Engelbert; Marosi, Christine; Trattnig, Siegfried; Wolfsberger, Stefan; Preusser, Matthias; Widhalm, Georg

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the value of local image variance (LIV) as a new technique for quantification of hypointense microvascular susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) structures at 7 Tesla for preoperative glioma characterization. Adult patients with neuroradiologically suspected diffusely infiltrating gliomas were prospectively recruited and 7 Tesla SWI was performed in addition to standard imaging. After tumour segmentation, quantification of intratumoural SWI hypointensities was conducted by the SWI-LIV technique. Following surgery, the histopathological tumour grade and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1)-R132H mutational status was determined and SWI-LIV values were compared between low-grade gliomas (LGG) and high-grade gliomas (HGG), IDH1-R132H negative and positive tumours, as well as gliomas with significant and non-significant contrast-enhancement (CE) on MRI. In 30 patients, 9 LGG and 21 HGG were diagnosed. The calculation of SWI-LIV values was feasible in all tumours. Significantly higher mean SWI-LIV values were found in HGG compared to LGG (92.7 versus 30.8; p Tesla SWI-LIV might improve preoperative characterization of diffusely infiltrating gliomas and thus optimize patient management by quantification of hypointense microvascular structures. • 7 Tesla local image variance helps to quantify hypointense susceptibility-weighted imaging structures. • SWI-LIV is significantly increased in high-grade and IDH1-R132H negative gliomas. • SWI-LIV is a promising technique for improved preoperative glioma characterization. • Preoperative management of diffusely infiltrating gliomas will be optimized.

  2. The support-control continuum: An investigation of staff perspectives on factors influencing the success or failure of de-escalation techniques for the management of violence and aggression in mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Owen; Baker, John; Bee, Penny; Lovell, Karina

    2018-01-01

    De-escalation techniques are recommended to manage violence and aggression in mental health settings yet restrictive practices continue to be frequently used. Barriers and enablers to the implementation and effectiveness of de-escalation techniques in practice are not well understood. To obtain staff descriptions of de-escalation techniques currently used in mental health settings and explore factors perceived to influence their implementation and effectiveness. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews and Framework Analysis. Five in-patient wards including three male psychiatric intensive care units, one female acute ward and one male acute ward in three UK Mental Health NHS Trusts. 20 ward-based clinical staff. Individual semi-structured interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a qualitative data analysis software package. Participants described 14 techniques used in response to escalated aggression applied on a continuum between support and control. Techniques along the support-control continuum could be classified in three groups: 'support' (e.g. problem-solving, distraction, reassurance) 'non-physical control' (e.g. reprimands, deterrents, instruction) and 'physical control' (e.g. physical restraint and seclusion). Charting the reasoning staff provided for technique selection against the described behavioural outcome enabled a preliminary understanding of staff, patient and environmental influences on de-escalation success or failure. Importantly, the more coercive 'non-physical control' techniques are currently conceptualised by staff as a feature of de-escalation techniques, yet, there was evidence of a link between these and increased aggression/use of restrictive practices. Risk was not a consistent factor in decisions to adopt more controlling techniques. Moral judgements regarding the function of the aggression; trial-and-error; ingrained local custom (especially around instruction to low stimulus areas); knowledge of

  3. Unraveling the complex local-scale flows influencing ozone patterns in the southern Great Lakes of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Levy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the complexity of various processes influencing summertime ozone levels in the southern Great Lakes region of North America. Results from the Border Air Quality and Meteorology (BAQS-Met field campaign in the summer of 2007 are examined with respect to land-lake differences and local meteorology using a large array of ground-based measurements, aircraft data, and simulation results from a high resolution (2.5 km regional air-quality model, AURAMS.

    Analyses of average ozone mixing ratio from the entire BAQS-Met intensive campaign period support previous findings that ozone levels are higher over the southern Great Lakes than over the adjacent land. However, there is great heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of surface ozone over the lakes, particularly over Lake Erie during the day, with higher levels located over the southwestern end of the lake. Model results suggest that some of these increased ozone levels are due to local emission sources in large nearby urban centers. While an ozone reservoir layer is predicted by the AURAMS model over Lake Erie at night, the land-lake differences in ozone mixing ratios are most pronounced during the night in a shallow inversion layer of about 200 m above the surface. After sunrise, these differences have a limited effect on the total mass of ozone over the lakes and land during the day, though they do cause elevated ozone levels in the lake-breeze air in some locations.

    The model also predicts a mean vertical circulation during the day with an updraft over Detroit-Windsor and downdraft over Lake St. Clair, which transports ozone up to 1500 m above ground and results in high ozone over the lake.

    Oscillations in ground-level ozone mixing ratios were observed on several nights and at several ground monitoring sites, with amplitudes of up to 40 ppbv and time periods of 15–40 min. Several possible mechanisms for these oscillations are discussed, but a

  4. Influence of nifedipine on left ventricular perfusion and function in patients with unstable angina: Evaluation with radionuclide techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, E.E. van der; Kerkkamp, H.J.; Simoons, M.L.; Rijk, P.P. van; Reiber, J.H.C.; Bom, N.; Lubsen, J.C.; Lie, K.I.

    1986-04-01

    In 1981, a large, double-blind, randomized trial was started in The Netherlands to evaluate the therapeutic effects of nifedipine and/or metoprolol in patients with unstable angina. This study has been called the Holland Interuniversity Nifedipine/metoprolol Trial (HINT) and required several hundred patients to establish potential therapeutic effects. From December 1982 to January 1984 the effects of nifedipine on left ventricular (LV) performance in a subgroup of 52 HINT patients were studied using radionuclide techniques. All patients (23 on nifedipine, 29 controls) underwent thallium-201 scintigraphy or radionuclide angiography just before and 48 h after the start of experimental medication. The radionuclide angiographic studies were also performed at 1 and 4 h after treatment. Nifedipine did not influence the incidence of disapperance of perfusion defects on the 48-h thallium images. No significant differences in overall LV ejections fraction (EF) were seen at any time between nifedipine-treated patients and controls. However, paired observations in 37 patients showed improvement of LVEF after 48 h in 8 patients on nifedipine and in only 1 control patient. Scintigraphic measurements on admission were not related to clinical outcome after 48 h. Concomitant administration of metoprolol did not influence LVEF in either group. It is concluded that nifedipine improves LVEF after 48 h in a subset of patients with unstable angina without affecting myocardial perfusion. This finding indicates that nifedipine has a predominant effect on afterload reduction in patients with unstable angina. Also, early scintigraphic measurements had no significant predictive value for subsequent cardiac events.

  5. Efficacy of various cleansing techniques on dentin wettability and its influence on shear bond strength of a resin luting agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanaj, Dhivya; Beganam, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the shear bond strength of resin luting agent to dentin surfaces cleansed with different agents like pumice, ultrasonic scaler with chlorhexidine gluconate, EDTA and the influence of these cleansing methods on wetting properties of the dentin by Axisymmetric drop Shape Analysis - Contact Diameter technique (ADSA-CD). MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty coronal portions of human third molar were prepared until dentin was exposed. Specimens were divided into two groups: Group A and Group B. Provisional restorations made with autopolymerizing resin were luted to dentin surface with zinc oxide eugenol in Group A and with freegenol cement in Group B. All specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 hrs and provisional cements were mechanically removed with explorer and rinsed with water and cleansed using various methods (Control-air-water spray, Pumice prophylaxis, Ultrasonic scaler with 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate, 17% EDTA). Contact angle measurements were performed to assess wettability of various cleansing agents using the ADSA-CD technique. Bond strength of a resin luting agent bonded to the cleansed surface was assessed using Instron testing machine and the mode of failure noted. SEM was done to assess the surface cleanliness. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with Tukey HSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Specimens treated with EDTA showed the highest shear bond strength and the lowest contact angle for both groups. SEM showed that EDTA was the most effective solution to remove the smear layer. Also, mode of failure seen was predominantly cohesive for both EDTA and pumice prophylaxis. CONCLUSION EDTA was the most effective dentin cleansing agent among the compared groups. PMID:22977721

  6. Integration of geotechnical and geophysical techniques for the characterization of a small earth-filled canal dyke and the localization of water leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bièvre, Grégory; Lacroix, Pascal; Oxarango, Laurent; Goutaland, David; Monnot, Guy; Fargier, Yannick

    2017-04-01

    This paper investigates the combined use of extensive geotechnical, hydrogeological and geophysical techniques to assess a small earth dyke with a permanent hydraulic head, namely a canal embankment. The experimental site was chosen because of known issues regarding internal erosion and piping phenomena. Two leakages were visually located following the emptying of the canal prior to remediation works. The results showed a good agreement between the geophysical imaging techniques (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, P- and SH-waves Tomography) and the geotechnical data to detect the depth to the bedrock and its lateral variations. It appeared that surface waves might not be fully adapted for dyke investigation because of the particular geometry of the studied dyke, non-respectful of the 1D assumption, and which induced depth and velocity discrepancies retrieved from Rayleigh and Love waves inversion. The use of these classical prospecting techniques however did not allow to directly locate the two leakages within the studied earth dyke. The analysis of ambient vibration time series with a modified beam-forming algorithm allowed to localize the most energetic water flow prior to remediation works. It was not possible to detect the leakage after remediation works, suggesting that they efficiently contributed to significantly reduce the water flow. The second leakage was not detected probably because of a non-turbulent water flow, generating few energetic vibrations.

  7. Remote and Local Influences in Forecasting Pacific SST: a Linear Inverse Model and a Multimodel Ensemble Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggiani Dias, D.; Subramanian, A. C.; Zanna, L.; Miller, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) in the Pacific sector is well known to vary on time scales from seasonal to decadal, and the ability to predict these SST fluctuations has many societal and economical benefits. Therefore, we use a suite of statistical linear inverse models (LIMs) to understand the remote and local SST variability that influences SST predictions over the North Pacific region and further improve our understanding on how the long-observed SST record can help better guide multi-model ensemble forecasts. Observed monthly SST anomalies in the Pacific sector (between 15oS and 60oN) are used to construct different regional LIMs for seasonal to decadal prediction. The forecast skills of the LIMs are compared to that from two operational forecast systems in the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) revealing that the LIM has better skill in the Northeastern Pacific than NMME models. The LIM is also found to have comparable forecast skill for SST in the Tropical Pacific with NMME models. This skill, however, is highly dependent on the initialization month, with forecasts initialized during the summer having better skill than those initialized during the winter. The forecast skill with LIM is also influenced by the verification period utilized to make the predictions, likely due to the changing character of El Niño in the 20th century. The North Pacific seems to be a source of predictability for the Tropics on seasonal to interannual time scales, while the Tropics act to worsen the skill for the forecast in the North Pacific. The data were also bandpassed into seasonal, interannual and decadal time scales to identify the relationships between time scales using the structure of the propagator matrix. For the decadal component, this coupling occurs the other way around: Tropics seem to be a source of predictability for the Extratropics, but the Extratropics don't improve the predictability for the Tropics. These results indicate the importance of temporal

  8. Influence of attenuation correction and reconstruction techniques on the detection of hypoperfused lesions in brain SPECT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoorun, S.; Groenewald, W.A.; Baete, K.; Nuyts, J.; Dupont, P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Aim: To study the influence of attenuation correction and the reconstruction technique on the detection of hypoperfused lesions in brain SPECT imaging, Material and Methods: A simulation experiment was used in which the effects of attenuation and reconstruction were decoupled, A high resolution SPECT phantom was constructed using the BrainWeb database, In this phantom, activity values were assigned to grey and white matter (ratio 4:1) and scaled to obtain counts of the same magnitude as in clinical practice, The true attenuation map was generated by assigning attenuation coefficients to each tissue class (grey and white matter, cerebral spinal fluid, skull, soft and fatty tissue and air) to create a non-uniform attenuation map, The uniform attenuation map was calculated using an attenuation coefficient of 0.15 cm-1, Hypoperfused lesions of varying intensities and sizes were added. The phantom was then projected as typical SPECT projection data, taking into account attenuation and collimator blurring with the addition of Poisson noise, The projection data was reconstructed using four different methods of reconstruction: (1) filtered backprojection (FBP) with the uniform attenuation map; (2) FBP using the true attenuation map; (3) ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) (equivalent to 423 iterations) with a uniform attenuation map; and (4) OSEM with a true attenuation map. Different Gaussian postsmooth kernels were applied to the reconstructed images. Results: The analysis of the reconstructed data was performed using figures of merit such as signal to noise ratio (SNR), bias and variance. The results illustrated that uniform attenuation correction offered slight deterioration (less than 2%) with regard to SNR when compared to the ideal attenuation map. which in reality is not known. The iterative techniques produced superior signal to noise ratios (increase of 5 - 20 % depending on the lesion and the postsmooth) in comparison to the FBP methods

  9. Using local climate zone classifications to assess the influence of urban morphology on the urban heat island effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satcher, P. S.; Brunsell, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    Alterations to land cover resulting from urbanization interact with the atmospheric boundary layer inducing elevated surface and air temperatures, changes to the surface energy balance (SEB), and modifications to regional circulations and climates. These changes pose risks to public health, ecological systems, and have the potential to affect economic interests. We used Google Earth Engine's Landsat archive to classify local climate zones (LCZ) that consist of ten urban and seven non-urban classes to examine the influence of urban morphology on the urban heat island (UHI) effect. We used geostatistical methods to determine the significance of the spatial distributions of LCZs to land surface temperatures (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products. We used the triangle method to assess the variability of SEB partitioning in relation to high, medium, and low density LCZ classes. Fractional vegetation cover (Fr) was calculated using NDVI data. Linear regressions of observations in Fr-LST space for select LCZ classes were compared for selected eight-day periods to determine changes in energy partitioning and relative soil moisture availability. The magnitude of each flux is not needed to determine changes to the SEB. The regressions will examine near surface soil moisture, which is indicative of how much radiation is partitioned into evaporation. To compare changes occurring over one decade, we used MODIS NDVI and LST data from 2005 and 2015. Results indicated that variations in the SEB can be detected using the LCZ classification method. The results from analysis in Fr-LST space of the annual cycles over several years can be used to detect changes in the SEB as urbanization increases.

  10. Study of the Tool Geometry Influence in Indentation for the Analysis and Validation of the New Modular Upper Bound Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bermudo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on incremental bulk metal forming processes, the indentation process is gaining interest as a fundamental part of these kinds of processes. This paper presents the analysis of the pressure obtained in indentation under the influence of different punch geometries. To this end, an innovative Upper Bound Theorem (UBT based solution is introduced. This new solution can be easily applied to estimate the necessary force that guarantees plastic deformation by an indentation process. In this work, we propose an accurate analytical approach to analyse indentation under different punches. The new Modular Upper Bound (MUB method presents a simpler and faster application. Additionally, its complexity is not considerably increased by the addition of more Triangular Rigid Zones. In addition, a two-dimensional indentation model is designed and implemented using the Finite Element Method (FEM. The comparison of the two methods applied to the indentation process analysed—the new Modular Upper Bound technique and the Finite Element Method—reveal close similarities, the new Modular Upper Bound being more computationally efficient.

  11. An implant-free double-bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: operative technique and influence on tibiofemoral kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünschel, Markus; Treffler, Florian; Ketelsen, Dominik; Lo, Jiahsuan; Müller, Otto; Suckel, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament is a standard surgical procedure in sports traumatology. The widespread replacement method using hamstring tendons has an important shortcoming namely delayed or missing bony healing in contrast to patellar tendon grafts where implant-free fixation is established by using the adjacent bone blocks. The purpose of this study was to describe a new implant-free surgical procedure using hamstring tendon grafts and to analyse the influence on tibiofemoral kinematics in vitro. Nine human knee specimens with arthroscopically transected anterior cruciate ligaments were mounted on a dynamic knee simulator and weight-bearing muscle-loaded knee flexions were simulated while a robotic universal force sensor system was used to provide external tibial loads. Three different loading conditions were simulated including partial body weight only, an additional 50 N anterior tibial force or an additional Five Nm of internal rotational torque. After reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using a tibial bone block hybrid technique these three trials were repeated. The kinematics was measured with an ultrasonic measuring system and different loading and ligament conditions were examined. Graft tunnel placement was verified by computed tomography. Our fixation method achieved stability to anterior tibial drawer force whereas internal tibial rotation did not change before and after the reconstruction. Computed tomography confirmed anatomical graft and tunnel placement. The presented operative procedure is technically feasible and leads to reproducible results concerning knee joint kinematics and graft placement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental observation of the influence of furnace temperature profile on convection and segregation in the vertical Bridgman crystal growth technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, G. T.; Wilcox, William R.

    1992-01-01

    Azulene-doped naphthalene was directionally solidified during the vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. Doping homogeneity and convection were determined as a function of the temperature profile in the furnace and the freezing rate. Convection velocities were two orders of magnitude lower when the temperature increased with height. Rarely was the convection pattern axisymmetric, even though the temperature varied less than 0.1 K around the circumference of the growth ampoule. Correspondingly the cross sectional variation in azulene concentration tended to be asymmetric, especially when the temperature increased with height. This cross sectional variation changed dramatically along the ingot, reflecting changes in convection presumably due to the decreasing height of the melt. Although there was large scatter and irreproducibility in the cross sectional variation in doping, this variation tended to be least when the growth rate was low and the convection was vigorous. It is expected that compositional variations would also be small at high growth rates with weak convection and flat interfaces, although this was not investigated in the present experiments. Neither rotation of the ampoule nor deliberate introduction of thermal asymmetries during solidification had a significant influence on cross sectional variations in doping. It is predicted that slow directional solidification under microgravity conditions could produce greater inhomogeneities than on Earth. Combined use of microgravity and magnetic fields would be required to achieve homogeneity when it is necessary to freeze slowly in order to avoid constitutional supercooling.

  13. Treatment of breast cancer with simultaneous integrated boost in hybrid plan technique. Influence of flattening filter-free beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrainy, Marzieh; Kretschmer, Matthias; Joest, Vincent; Kasch, Astrid; Wuerschmidt, Florian; Dahle, Joerg; Lorenzen, Joern [Radiologische Allianz, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The present study compares in silico treatment plans using hybrid plan technique during hypofractionated radiation of mammary carcinoma with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). The influence of 6 MV photon radiation in flattening filter free (FFF) mode against the clinical standard flattening filter (FF) mode is to be examined. RT planning took place with FF and FFF radiation plans for 10 left-sided breast cancer patients. Hybrid plans were realised with two tangential IMRT fields and one VMAT field. The dose prescription was in line with the guidelines in the ARO-2010-01 study. The dosimetric verification took place with a manufacturer-independent measurement system. Required dose prescriptions for the planning target volumes (PTV) were achieved for both groups. The average dose values of the ipsi- and contralateral lung and the heart did not differ significantly. The overall average incidental dose to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) of 8.24 ± 3.9 Gy in the FFF group and 9.05 ± 3.7 Gy in the FF group (p < 0.05) were found. The dosimetric verifications corresponded to the clinical requirements. FFF-based RT plans reduced the average treatment time by 17 s/fraction. In comparison to the FF-based hybrid plan technique the FFF mode allows further reduction of the average LAD dose for comparable target volume coverage without adverse low-dose exposure of contralateral structures. The combination of hybrid plan technique and 6 MV photon radiation in the FFF mode is suitable for use with hypofractionated dose schemes. The increased dose rate allows a substantial reduction of treatment time and thus beneficial application of the deep inspiration breath hold technique. (orig.) [German] Vergleich der ''In-silico''-Bestrahlungsplaene der klinisch etablierten Hybridplan-Technik bei hypofraktionierter Bestrahlung des Mammakarzinoms mit simultan integriertem Boost (SIB). Untersucht wird der Einfluss von 6MV-Photonenstrahlung im Flattening

  14. Local resources, foreign influences, value creation, tradition and modernity. The case of a Local Agro-food System in Jämtland, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rytkönen, Paulina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the 1980’s collective action was initiated with the purpose of saving the remnants of traditional livestock farming in Jämtland. This led to the articulation of a local agro-food system (LAFS that managed to commercialize important elements of traditional agriculture by adding elements of modernity. Farm diversification was an important strategy that led to the forward integration of farms that includes the start of small scale farm dairies, farm cafes, direct sales, at the farm, through markets and other local channels, B&Bs and outdoor tourism operations. In the mentioned process, foreign knowledge and experience led to the opening of a new market for traditional products. This case shows that the localization and appropriation of foreign elements can be a fruitful strategy to promote territorial development in regions like Jämtland. This article highlights how a LAFS was articulated within the frame of the birth of a new industry, composed by small, semi-artisan dairy firms and which institutional side effects that this experience has led to.Durante la década de los 80, un proceso de acción colectiva se inició con el propósito de salvar los restos de la ganadería tradicional en Jämtland. Esto resultó en la creación de un sistema agroalimentario local que logró comercializar elementos importantes de la agricultura tradicional, añadiendo elementos de modernidad. La diversificación de las fincas fue la estrategia más importante, dentro de la cual se promovió la creación de un sector de pequeñas industrias lácteas en las fincas, cafés rurales y asimismo la venta directa a los consumidores en dichas fincas, en mercados y otros canales de comercialización, servicios de alojamiento y desayuno y operaciones turísticas al aire libre. En este proceso, conocimiento y experiencias extranjeras jugaron un papel clave en la apertura de un nuevo mercado para los productos lácteos tradicionales. Este caso demuestra que la

  15. Investigation of Local Hydrogen Distribution Around Fatigue Crack Tip of a Type 304 Stainless Steel with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Hydrogen Micro-Print Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Kyohei; Oda, Yasuji; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideki; Izumi, Takahiro; Itoh, Goroh

    In order to establish an appropriate method for measuring the local hydrogen content distribution around a fatigue crack tip in austenitic stainless steels, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and the hydrogen micro-print technique (HMPT) were applied to a fatigue crack in a type 304 stainless steel fatigued in a hydrogen gas environment. The main results in this study are as follows. In the SIMS method, it is visualized that a high content of hydrogen exists in the plastic zone at a fatigue crack tip propagated in hydrogen gas, compared to that on a smooth area fatigued in hydrogen, though there is a measurement error based on false detection due to the edge effect regarding hydrogen in water vapor on the fatigue crack surface. On the other hand, hydrogen in the plastic zone is difficult to detect by HMPT. This is attributed to the difficulty for hydrogen atoms to be emitted from the sample in this case. To detect hydrogen, it is necessary to sputter the atoms forcibly. In addition, it is considered that to analyze the local hydrogen distribution around a fatigue crack tip with SIMS not only qualitatively but also quantitatively, reduction of the false detection due to the edge effect is necessary.

  16. Law nº 13.344/2016 and the new techniques for the localization of human trafficking victims and suspects: effectiveness, legality and constitutional adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopas Isaías Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Law no. 13.344/2016 brought important repercussions to the Brazilian criminal investigation, among which the most significant one was the possibility of police authorities requesting from telephone companies the necessary technical means to locate victims and/or suspects of human trafficking. This localization is made through the identification of mobile devices, like cell phones. This article aims to answer the following issue: are the available and commonly used technical means effective in the localization of human trafficking victims and suspects? For this purpose, it is assumed that the technical means typically used in this process are not effective. In light of this, it is suggested the use of the GPS tool, which technically does not qualify as a "signal" and presumes the license of data network with financial costs. Therefore, it is analyzed who must bear said costs - the State, the companies or the consumers, as well as the legality and constitutionality of the use of this technique. The subject will be approached mostly through the deductive method.

  17. Comparison between /sup 133/Xenon washout technique and Laser Doppler flowmetry in the measurement of local vasoconstrictor effects on the microcirculation in subcutaneous tissue and skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastrup, J.; Buelow, J.; Lassen, N.A.

    1987-10-01

    Changes in skin blood flow measured by Laser Doppler flowmetry and changes in subcutaneous blood flow measured by /sup 133/Xenon washout technique were compared during activation of the local sympathetic mediated veno-arteriolar vaso-constrictor reflex by lowering the area of investigation below heart level. The measurements were performed in tissue with and without sympathetic innervation. In five subjects, who all had been cervically sympathectomized for manual hyperhidrosis, the Laser Doppler and /sup 133/Xenon blood flow measurements were performed simultaneously on the sympathetically denervated forearm, and on the calf with preserved sympathetic nerve supply. The Laser Doppler method registered a 23% reduction in skin blood flow during lowering of the extremities independently of the sympathetic nerve supply to the skin. The /sup 133/Xenon method recorded a 44% decrease in blood flow in innervated and unchanged blood flow in denervated subcutaneous tissue during lowering of the extremities. Our results indicate that the Laser Doppler method and /sup 133/Xenon method are not comparable, and that the Laser Doppler method is not useful in measuring local sympathetic mediated blood flow changes.

  18. Utilization of combined remote sensing techniques to detect environmental variables influencing malaria vector densities in rural West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dambach Peter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The use of remote sensing has found its way into the field of epidemiology within the last decades. With the increased sensor resolution of recent and future satellites new possibilities emerge for high resolution risk modeling and risk mapping. Methods A SPOT 5 satellite image, taken during the rainy season 2009 was used for calculating indices by combining the image's spectral bands. Besides the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI other indices were tested for significant correlation against field observations. Multiple steps, including the detection of surface water, its breeding appropriateness for Anopheles and modeling of vector imagines abundance, were performed. Data collection on larvae, adult vectors and geographic parameters in the field, was amended by using remote sensing techniques to gather data on altitude (Digital Elevation Model = DEM, precipitation (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission = TRMM, land surface temperatures (LST. Results The DEM derived altitude as well as indices calculations combining the satellite's spectral bands (NDTI = Normalized Difference Turbidity Index, NDWI Mac Feeters = Normalized Difference Water Index turned out to be reliable indicators for surface water in the local geographic setting. While Anopheles larvae abundance in habitats is driven by multiple, interconnected factors - amongst which the NDVI - and precipitation events, the presence of vector imagines was found to be correlated negatively to remotely sensed LST and positively to the cumulated amount of rainfall in the preceding 15 days and to the Normalized Difference Pond Index (NDPI within the 500 m buffer zone around capture points. Conclusions Remotely sensed geographical and meteorological factors, including precipitations, temperature, as well as vegetation, humidity and land cover indicators could be used as explanatory variables for surface water presence, larval development and imagines

  19. Changes in species diversity of arboreal spiders in Mexican coffee agroecosystems: untangling the web of local and landscape influences driving diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Hajian-Forooshani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural intensification is implicated as a major driver of global biodiversity loss. Local management and landscape scale factors both influence biodiversity in agricultural systems, but there are relatively few studies to date looking at how local and landscape scales influence biodiversity in tropical agroecosystems. Understanding what drives the diversity of groups of organisms such as spiders is important from a pragmatic point of view because of the important biocontrol services they offer to agriculture. Spiders in coffee are somewhat enigmatic because of their positive or lack of response to agricultural intensification. In this study, we provide the first analysis, to our knowledge, of the arboreal spiders in the shade trees of coffee plantations. In the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico we sampled across 38 sites on 9 coffee plantations. Tree and canopy connectedness were found to positively influence overall arboreal spider richness and abundance. We found that different functional groups of spiders are responding to different local and landscape factors, but overall elevation was most important variable influencing arboreal spider diversity. Our study has practical management applications that suggest having shade grown coffee offers more suitable habitat for arboreal spiders due to a variety of the characteristics of the shade trees. Our results which show consistently more diverse arboreal spider communities in lower elevations are important in light of looming global climate change. As the range of suitable elevations for coffee cultivation shrinks promoting arboreal spider diversity will be important in sustaining the viability of coffee.

  20. Local- and Plot-Scale Measurements of Soil Moisture: Time and Spatially Resolved Field Techniques in Plain, Hill and Mountain Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Raffelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture measurement is essential to validate hydrological models and satellite data. In this work we provide an overview of different local and plot scale soil moisture measurement techniques applied in three different conditions in terms of altitude, land use, and soil type, namely a plain, a mountain meadow and a hilly vineyard. The main goal is to provide a synoptic view of techniques supported by practical case studies to show that in such different conditions it is possible to estimate a time and spatially resolved soil moisture by the same combination of instruments: contact-based methods (i.e., Time Domain Reflectometry—TDR, and two low frequency probes for the time resolved, and hydro-geophysical minimally-invasive methods (i.e., Electromagnetic Induction—EMI, Ground Penetrating Radar—GPR, and the Electrical Resistivity Tomography—ERT for the spatially resolved. Both long-term soil moisture measurements and spatially resolved measurement campaigns are discussed. Technical and operational measures are detailed to allow critical factors to be identified.

  1. Local image variance of 7 Tesla SWI is a new technique for preoperative characterization of diffusely infiltrating gliomas: correlation with tumour grade and IDH1 mutational status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabner, Guenther [Medical University of Vienna, High Field Magnetic Resonance Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Central Nervous System Tumours Unit (CCC-CNS), Vienna (Austria); Carinthia University of Applied Sciences, Department of Health Sciences and Social Work, Klagenfurt am Woerthersee (Austria); Kiesel, Barbara; Millesi, Matthias; Wurzer, Ayguel; Knosp, Engelbert; Wolfsberger, Stefan; Widhalm, Georg [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Central Nervous System Tumours Unit (CCC-CNS), Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurosurgery, Vienna (Austria); Woehrer, Adelheid [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Central Nervous System Tumours Unit (CCC-CNS), Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Institute of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Goed, Sabine [Medical University of Vienna, High Field Magnetic Resonance Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Mallouhi, Ammar [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Central Nervous System Tumours Unit (CCC-CNS), Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Marosi, Christine; Preusser, Matthias [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Central Nervous System Tumours Unit (CCC-CNS), Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Internal Medicine I, Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, High Field Magnetic Resonance Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Central Nervous System Tumours Unit (CCC-CNS), Vienna (Austria)

    2017-04-15

    To investigate the value of local image variance (LIV) as a new technique for quantification of hypointense microvascular susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) structures at 7 Tesla for preoperative glioma characterization. Adult patients with neuroradiologically suspected diffusely infiltrating gliomas were prospectively recruited and 7 Tesla SWI was performed in addition to standard imaging. After tumour segmentation, quantification of intratumoural SWI hypointensities was conducted by the SWI-LIV technique. Following surgery, the histopathological tumour grade and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1)-R132H mutational status was determined and SWI-LIV values were compared between low-grade gliomas (LGG) and high-grade gliomas (HGG), IDH1-R132H negative and positive tumours, as well as gliomas with significant and non-significant contrast-enhancement (CE) on MRI. In 30 patients, 9 LGG and 21 HGG were diagnosed. The calculation of SWI-LIV values was feasible in all tumours. Significantly higher mean SWI-LIV values were found in HGG compared to LGG (92.7 versus 30.8; p < 0.0001), IDH1-R132H negative compared to IDH1-R132H positive gliomas (109.9 versus 38.3; p < 0.0001) and tumours with significant CE compared to non-significant CE (120.1 versus 39.0; p < 0.0001). Our data indicate that 7 Tesla SWI-LIV might improve preoperative characterization of diffusely infiltrating gliomas and thus optimize patient management by quantification of hypointense microvascular structures. (orig.)

  2. Plastic surgery in the multimodal treatment concept of soft tissue sarcoma: Influence of radiation, chemotherapy and isolated limb perfusion on plastic surgery techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai eKapalschinski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical intervention is the mainstay treatment for soft tissue sarcomas. The significance of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies such as chemotherapy, radiation and isolated limb perfusion remains under controversial discussion. The goal of this review is to discuss the effects of the aforementioned treatment modalities and their timing of application on plastic surgery techniques. Furthermore, options of reconstruction in cases of complications caused by adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies are discussed. When compared with adjuvant radiation, neoadjuvant treatment can reduce negative side effects such as fibrosis and edema, because radioderma can be removed during the subsequent surgical procedure. Furthermore, there have not been any reports of negative effects of neoadjuvant radiation on microsurgical procedures. However, the dose of neoadjuvant radiation correlates with increased risks of impaired wound healing postoperatively. Thus, a patient-specific approach to decide whether radiation should be performed adjuvant or neoadjuvant is necessary. Pre-operative irradiation should be considered in cases where functional structures are exposed after tumor resection, in order to ensure the best possible functionality. Adjuvant radiation should be considered in all other cases because of its known superior wound healing. .As for chemotherapy, no negative influence of its use adjuvant or neoadjuvant to reconstructive procedures such as local or free flaps has been reported. Lastly, small sample size studies have not shown increased risks of microsurgical failure or wound complications after isolated limb perfusion. The findings of this review suggest that the chronological order of the discussed therapeutic approaches is not a decisive factor in the surgical outcome of reconstructive procedures for soft tissue sarcoma.

  3. Plastic Surgery in the Multimodal Treatment Concept of Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Influence of Radiation, Chemotherapy, and Isolated Limb Perfusion on Plastic Surgery Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapalschinski, Nicolai; Goertz, Ole; Harati, Kamran; Kueckelhaus, Maximilian; Kolbenschlag, Jonas; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Hirsch, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Surgical intervention is the mainstay treatment for soft tissue sarcomas (STSs). The significance of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies, such as chemotherapy, radiation, and isolated limb perfusion, remains under controversial discussion. The goal of this review is to discuss the effects of the aforementioned treatment modalities and their timing of application in plastic surgery techniques. Furthermore, options of reconstruction in cases of complications caused by adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies are discussed. When compared with adjuvant radiation, neoadjuvant treatment can reduce negative side effects such as fibrosis and edema because radioderma can be removed during the subsequent surgical procedure. Furthermore, there have not been any reports of negative effects of neoadjuvant radiation on microsurgical procedures. However, the dose of neoadjuvant radiation correlates with increased risks of impaired wound healing postoperatively. Thus, a patient-specific approach to decide whether radiation should be performed adjuvant or neoadjuvant is necessary. Preoperative irradiation should be considered in cases where functional structures are exposed after tumor resection, in order to ensure the best possible functionality. Adjuvant radiation should be considered in all other cases because of its known superior wound healing. As for chemotherapy, no negative influence of its use adjuvant or neoadjuvant to reconstructive procedures, such as local or free flaps, has been reported. Lastly, small sample size studies have not shown increased risks of microsurgical failure or wound complications after isolated limb perfusion. The findings of this review suggest that the chronological order of the discussed therapeutic approaches is not a decisive factor in the surgical outcome of reconstructive procedures for STS.

  4. Dosimetric comparison of deep inspiration breath hold and free breathing technique in stereotactic body radiotherapy for localized lung tumor using Flattening Filter Free beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Karthick Raj; Bhuiyan, Md. Anisuzzaman; Alam, Md. Mahbub; Ahmed, Sharif; Sumon, Mostafa Aziz; Sengupta, Ashim Kumar; Rahman, Md. Shakilur; Azharul Islam, Md. S. M.

    2018-03-01

    Aim: To compare the dosimetric advantage of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localized lung tumor between deep inspiration breath hold technique and free breathing technique. Materials and methods: We retrospectively included ten previously treated lung tumor patients in this dosimetric study. All the ten patients underwent CT simulation using 4D-CT free breathing (FB) and deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) techniques. Plans were created using three coplanar full modulated arc using 6 MV flattening filter free (FFF) bream with a dose rate of 1400 MU/min. Same dose constraints for the target and the critical structures for a particular patient were used during the plan optimization process in DIBH and FB datasets. We intend to deliver 50 Gy in 5 fractions for all the patients. For standardization, all the plans were normalized at target mean of the planning target volume (PTV). Doses to the critical structures and targets were recorded from the dose volume histogram for evaluation. Results: The mean right and left lung volumes were inflated by 1.55 and 1.60 times in DIBH scans compared to the FB scans. The mean internal target volume (ITV) increased in the FB datasets by 1.45 times compared to the DIBH data sets. The mean dose followed by standard deviation (x¯ ± σx¯) of ipsilateral lung for DIBH-SBRT and FB-SBRT plans were 7.48 ± 3.57 (Gy) and 10.23 ± 4.58 (Gy) respectively, with a mean reduction of 36.84% in DIBH-SBRT plans. Ipsilateral lung were reduced to 36.84% in DIBH plans compared to FB plans. Conclusion: Significant dose reduction in ipsilateral lung due to the lung inflation and target motion restriction in DIBH-SBRT plans were observed compare to FB-SBRT. DIBH-SBRT plans demonstrate superior dose reduction to the normal tissues and other critical structures.

  5. Comparison of water distribution mechanisms under two localized irrigation techniques (Drip Irrigation & Buried Diffuser) for one week irrigation period in a sandy soil of southeastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Ines; Kodešová, Radka; Mechergui, Mohamed; Nikodem, Antonín; Moussa, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    The majority of agricultural ecosystems in the Mediterranean basin of northern Africa suffer from water shortage and positions these regions in a highly vulnerable to climate change. In arid regions of Tunisia and exactly in the Southeastern part, during each growing season, plant productivity in sandy-loamy soils is dramatically reduced by limited availability of soil water and nutrients. Thus, highly permeable soils are unable to retain adequate water and nutrient resource in the plant root zone. Moreover, the investments of supplemental irrigation and agricultural amendments of additional fertilization are not sustainable due to the leaching of water supplies and nutrients, which severely limit agricultural productivity. In addition, inadequate soil water distribution, costly irrigation and fertilization leads to negative responses to plant nutrients added to highly permeable soils. That's why we should use irrigation techniques with high water use efficiency. This paper focuses on the comparison between two localized irrigation techniques which are the Drip Irrigation (DI) and the Buried Diffuser (BD) that has the same flow rates (4 l/h). The BD is buried at 15 cm depths. Experimental data was obtained from Smar-Médenine located in South-East of Tunisia. The water distribution at the soil surface for BD is very important about 195 cm2 while for the DI is about 25.12 cm2. The HYDRUS 2D/3D model helped to evaluate the water distribution and compare the water balance obtained with those two irrigation techniques for one week irrigation period. There is a rapid kinetic which has a duration of 3 hours (irrigation time) and a slow kinetic which is the result of the water distribution in the soil, the plant uptake and the effect of climatic condition. There are two mechanisms that affect the two irrigation techniques: the water distribution and the position of irrigation system. As a result, irrigation with BD goes dipper in the soil. The transmission zone for this

  6. Study of the lime influence on the thermal and optical properties of pericarp films of nixtamalized corn by means of the photoacoustic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Orea, A.; Sinencio, F. Sanchez; Falcony, C.; Hernandez, R. A. Munoz; Calderon, A.; Tomas, S. A.; Mendoza-Barrera, C.

    1999-01-01

    We present a study of the influence of Ca(OH) 2 in the thermal and optical properties on pericarp films obtained from nixtamalized corn grains. The nixtamalization process was performed using alkaline solutions with different Ca(OH) 2 concentrations. For this study we have used Photoacoustic techniques and complementary analysis of optical microscopy and x-ray diffraction

  7. Regional and local influence of grazing activity on the diversity of a semi-arid dung beetle community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, Jorge M.; Hortal, Joaquín; Cabrero-Sañudo, Francisco J.

    2006-01-01

    significant explanatory variables able to discriminate both groups. These results suggest that grazing intensity (and the associated increase in the amount of trophic resources) is a key factor in determining local variation in the diversity and composition of dung beetle assemblages. However, dung beetle...... municipality were sampled for the local analysis. Spatial and environmental characteristics of sampling sites were also compiled at both scales, including measures of grazing activity (livestock density at regional scale, and two counts of rabbit and sheep dung at local scale). At a regional scale, any...

  8. The application of Double-difference technique to improve localization of induced microseismic events at Pyhäsalmi copper mine, Pyhäjärvi, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Jouni; Usoltseva, Olga; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Mäki, Timo

    2017-04-01

    Pyhäsalmi mine, an underground copper mine at Pyhäjärvi, Finland, have been known to have induced seismicity due ore excavation for over half of a century. In 2002, the excavation depth increased as mining activity focused to Pyhäsalmi deep ore body, a potato shaped ore concentration that lies roughly from 1000 meter to 1425 meters below the surface. The stress level in the rock was detected to be very high with clear main direction and due to this microseismicity started occurring immediately when the construction of "new mine" section began. Thus a microseismic monitoring system was installed to trace this frequently occurring induced seismicity as seismic observations are one of the quickest ways to map mines state-of-health. The system consist over 25 geophones that are mainly around the excavation site. Since the installation, over 250000 events have been observed. Currently the automated (triggered) and afterwards manually verified seismic events localization routine is applied by absolute location method that minimizes the penalty function of calculated location and origin time to match as good as possibly for corresponding events observed arrivaltimes. However with this method the best location accuracy is around 20 meters at center of the excavation, since it uses homogenous velocity model that have been applied to whole mine but in reality the seismic velocity structure is very complex with tunnels, fill material and ore. For mines seismic alarm purposes this suits well, but for more advanced source analysis this accuracy is not enough. We apply Double-difference technique to relocate microseismic scale events at Pyhäsalmi mine. This iterative least-squares procedure method utilizes pairs of events with common receiver. The basic principle of the technique is that it relates the residual between the observed and the predicted phase traveltime difference for pairs of earthquakes observed at common station to adjustments in the vector that connects

  9. Influence of regional and local topography on the distribution of polymetallic nodules in Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.

    Detailed bathymetric surveys from part of the Central Indian Ocean revealed several bathymetric features such as hills, slopes, valleys, and plains. Areas with a local relief of a few to hundreds of meters generally have a high abundance...

  10. Influence of agrochemical characteristics of 85Sr and 137Cs in soil samples from the localities around nuclear power plants in Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipakova, A.; Mitro, A.

    1997-01-01

    Sorption of radiostrontium and radiocesium, two biologically available radionuclides in soils was studied. Experiments were carried out on the soil samples from the localities around nuclear power plants. Adsorption processes are the function of many factors. Multi-para-metrical regression analysis was used for studying of the influence of agrochemical characteristics on sorption of 85 Sr and 137 Cs in observed soil types. (authors)

  11. Buckley Sgraffito: a study of a 17th century pottery industry in North Wales, its production techniques and design influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Longworth

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The area around Buckley in north Wales has been associated with the production of pottery since the 13th or 14th centuries. Nineteen different pottery sites have been identified, producing a wide range of ceramic wares in the six-hundred year period up to the mid-20th century. In the 17th and 18th centuries, many of the wares produced were of high quality, on a par with Staffordshire wares of the same date. In the early 17th century, the technique of sgraffito decoration spread to north Devon and Somerset from mainland Europe. Buckley is the only known site to produce early sgraffito wares in northern Britain. This article aims to establish the date of the production and range of early sgraffito wares at Buckley and to examine the derivation of the designs and illustrations on the vessels. An illustrated catalogue has been produced and a comparative study made of sgraffito wares elsewhere to place Buckley into a national and international context. The results show that early sgraffito production at Brookhill pottery, Buckley, was between 1640-1720. Of the excavated pieces, 62% were made between 1640-1680, and the number of sherds by vessel number is also greater within that date range. All the vessels are dishes. The form and designs on the remainder of the sherds, dated up to 1720, are no different from those dated to 1640-1680, which suggests a continuous period of production. The most common themes on the pots – tulips, leaves, mottoes, animals and birds – relate very closely to the designs featured on other objects made in the same period such as textiles, wallpaper, furniture and manuscripts. Some of the designs were available in pattern books for particular groups of objects, for example needlework and pastry decoration. There is an interesting sub-group of pieces with animal and bird motifs and mottoes on the rims. It is possible that the influence for these came from a resurgence of interest in the medieval bestiary texts and

  12. Identification of temporal variations in mental workload using locally-linear-embedding-based EEG feature reduction and support-vector-machine-based clustering and classification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhong; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-07-01

    Identifying the abnormal changes of mental workload (MWL) over time is quite crucial for preventing the accidents due to cognitive overload and inattention of human operators in safety-critical human-machine systems. It is known that various neuroimaging technologies can be used to identify the MWL variations. In order to classify MWL into a few discrete levels using representative MWL indicators and small-sized training samples, a novel EEG-based approach by combining locally linear embedding (LLE), support vector clustering (SVC) and support vector data description (SVDD) techniques is proposed and evaluated by using the experimentally measured data. The MWL indicators from different cortical regions are first elicited by using the LLE technique. Then, the SVC approach is used to find the clusters of these MWL indicators and thereby to detect MWL variations. It is shown that the clusters can be interpreted as the binary class MWL. Furthermore, a trained binary SVDD classifier is shown to be capable of detecting slight variations of those indicators. By combining the two schemes, a SVC-SVDD framework is proposed, where the clear-cut (smaller) cluster is detected by SVC first and then a subsequent SVDD model is utilized to divide the overlapped (larger) cluster into two classes. Finally, three-class MWL levels (low, normal and high) can be identified automatically. The experimental data analysis results are compared with those of several existing methods. It has been demonstrated that the proposed framework can lead to acceptable computational accuracy and has the advantages of both unsupervised and supervised training strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Presurgical localization of abnormal parathyroid glands using a single injection of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile: comparison of different techniques including factor analysis of dynamic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blocklet, D. [Hopital Universitaire Erasme, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Martin, P. [Hopital Universitaire Brugmann, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Schoutens, A. [Hopital Universitaire Erasme, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Ve