Psychomotor skills need to be taught in technical education courses. Some students can be taught more easily than others, depending on their physical attributes. These attributes are speed, steadiness, perception, dexterity, agility/flexibility, endurance, equilibrium/balance, strength, and coordination. Before students attempt to learn vocational…
The oil sector is strategic in any nation's endeavor for development. Disruption of oil supplies leads to a disruption in all sectors of the economy. In addition, by holding a prerogative over technical knowledge, the multinational oil companies have strengthened their influence. They have over time invested in research and development in exploration and refining, and have established a world-wide network of marketing systems. This paper provides a discussion of skill acquisition by indigenous people which is a discussion of the interface between the affiliates of these multinational companies, their corporate desires, and the efforts of emerging nations to control or at least monitor and regulate these affiliates
Efande, Lyonga John
This study aims at investigating the relationship between the expansion of secondary Technical Education on the acquisition of technical skills by students. Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) has been expanding quantitatively yearly without paying enough attention to its adverse effect on quality and the acquisition of the…
Talbott, Vanessa A; Marks, Joshua A; Bodzin, Adam S; Comeau, Jason A; Maxwell, Pinckney J; Isenberg, Gerald A; Martin, Niels D
To prepare students pursuing surgical careers, we devised a senior subinternship curriculum supplement that focused on the acquisition of technical skills required of surgical residents. We hypothesized that more assertive students, those that accomplished more of the curriculum, would perform better on a technical skills Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Senior medical students rotating on their first general surgery subinternship were administered a 6-station OSCE on the first day of their subinternship and again during the final week of the month-long rotation. A self-directed, 38-task "scavenger hunt" representing common intern level clinical skills, procedures, and patient care activities was provided to each student. The study was performed at Jefferson Medical College, a large, private medical school in Philadelphia, PA. Forty-nine senior students completed surgical subinternships between July 2009 and September 2010, and participated both in the pre-/post-OSCEs and the scavenger hunt. Students performed significantly better on the post-rotation OSCE than on the pre-rotation OSCE; 70.2% ± 8.1% vs. 60.4% ± 12.0%, p Assertiveness scores from the "scavenger hunt" did not correlate with final OSCE scores (r = -0.328, p = 0.25), and were negatively correlated with the change between pre- and post-OSCE scores (r = -0.573, p assertiveness scores were determined by the number of tasks completed over the course of the rotation. As surgical education becomes more streamlined with evolving work hour restrictions, medical school education is playing an increasingly pivotal role in preparing students for internship. In our study, individual assertiveness in completing structured self-directed learning tasks did not directly predict the acquisition of proficiency in technical skills. We feel assertiveness is overshadowed by other factors that may carry more weight in terms of technical skills acquisition. Further studies are required to delineate these
Heskin, Leonie; Mansour, Ehab; Lane, Brian; Kavanagh, Dara; Dicker, Pat; Ryan, Donncha; Gildea-Byrne, Kate; Pawlikowska, Teresa; Tierney, Sean; Traynor, Oscar
Acquisition of skills early in surgical training represents a significant challenge at present because of training time constraints. The aim of this study was to investigate if an intensive surgical boot camp was effective in transferring skills at the beginning of a surgical training program. New core surgical trainees (n = 58) took part in a 5-day boot camp. There were pretest and posttest assessments of knowledge, technical skills, and confidence levels. The boot camp used simulation and senior surgical faculty to teach a defined range of technical and nontechnical skills. The scores for knowledge (53.8% vs 68.4%, P technical skills (35.9% to 60.6% vs 50.6% to 78.2%, P Skills improvements were still present a year later. The 5-day surgical boot camp proved to be an effective way to rapidly acquire surgical knowledge and skills while increasing the confidence levels of trainees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dania, Jovinia; Bakar, Ab Rahim; Mohamed, Shamsiah
The main purpose of the study was to assess the acquisition of employability skills by vocational students in Malaysia. A total of 214 students participated in the study. We used the SCANS instrument to assess vocational students' employability skills. The overall mean of vocational secondary students' employability skills was 3.81 (SD = 0.34).…
Peter Ashlame Agu
Full Text Available Skill acquisition is a critical component of any vocational or technical training program. When this component is missing or falls below expectation it tends to defeat the objectives or the essence of the program. In Nigeria many skill acquisition institutions experience great challenges in trying to provide the necessary facilities required for effective vocational training of those enrolled in their programs because of paucity of funds. The result is that students graduate from the programs without adequate employability skills for meaningful productiveservice work after leaving school. In realization of this shortfall government has directed technical colleges to establish what is called ProductionService Work PSW into its curriculum. This is with the view that in the event that there is shortfall in the supply of training facilities by sponsors of the programs jobs could be brought in from inside or outside the school which could provide opportunity for students to acquire hands-on experience that would equip them with requisite skills for post-graduation work. As laudable as this initiative appears to be many schools in the North Central Nigeria are yet to implement the directive of the federal government in their schools and even where this has been done its implementation does not appear to be viable. Over the years different technical colleges have adopted different approaches toward the establishment and management of productionservice work in their schools. While some have recorded appreciable success in its implementation others seem to exist only in name. The present study therefore sought to identify the current practices employed in the use of PSW in technical colleges the appropriateness of the practices in use and the alternative practices that could be adopted to improve and guide the implementation of the program with a view to enhancing the acquisition of employability skills in technical colleges in North Central Nigeria.
Santos, Elizabeth G; Salles, Gil F
Phenomenon: Recent studies have shown that up to 40% of the General Surgery (GS) residents are not confident with their surgical skills. There is concern that residents are at risk of receiving inadequate training due to the low number of operations they perform. In Brazil, although all GS residents receive by law the Board Certification at the end of their programs, the assessment of their technical skills is not mandatory in Medical Residency programs' training. Consequently, our concern was that current GS medical residency format might be insufficient to create competent and autonomous general surgery residents after 2 years of regular training. Hence, the aim was to assess GS residents' surgical skills in their final months of training to evaluate the present format of GS residency programs in Brazil. Trained surgical faculty members directly observed 11 operations of varying difficulty performed by 2nd-year regular GS residents and by 4th-year residents in the optional Advanced Program in General Surgery. Participants were located at 3 university and 3 nonuniversity hospitals in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo (Brazil's largest cities). Surgical skills were assessed using an internally developed observation checklist reviewed by subject matter experts. Sixty residents (46 regular 2nd-year trainees and 14 advanced 4th-year trainees) were assessed on performing 499 operations. Only 10 residents (17%), all advanced 4th-year residents, satisfactorily performed all operations and were considered eligible for the Board Certification. Even after excluding the 2 operations of greatest difficulty, only 24 regular 2nd-year residents (52%) satisfactorily performed the other 9 operations. Residents from hospitals with open Emergency Departments performed better than those from hospitals without Emergency Departments. Insights: The results of this pilot study suggest that residents with 2 years of training are not prepared for independent high-level surgical practice. The
Watanuki, Keiichi; Kojima, Kazuyuki
The environment in which Japanese industry has achieved great respect is changing tremendously due to the globalization of world economies, while Asian countries are undergoing economic and technical development as well as benefiting from the advances in information technology. For example, in the design of custom-made casting products, a designer who lacks knowledge of casting may not be able to produce a good design. In order to obtain a good design and manufacturing result, it is necessary to equip the designer and manufacturer with a support system related to casting design, or a so-called knowledge transfer and creation system. This paper proposes a new virtual reality based knowledge acquisition and job training system for casting design, which is composed of the explicit and tacit knowledge transfer systems using synchronized multimedia and the knowledge internalization system using portable virtual environment. In our proposed system, the education content is displayed in the immersive virtual environment, whereby a trainee may experience work in the virtual site operation. Provided that the trainee has gained explicit and tacit knowledge of casting through the multimedia-based knowledge transfer system, the immersive virtual environment catalyzes the internalization of knowledge and also enables the trainee to gain tacit knowledge before undergoing on-the-job training at a real-time operation site.
Wilson, Mark R; Vine, Samuel J; Bright, Elizabeth; Masters, Rich S W; Defriend, David; McGrath, John S
The operating room environment is replete with stressors and distractions that increase the attention demands of what are already complex psychomotor procedures. Contemporary research in other fields (e.g., sport) has revealed that gaze training interventions may support the development of robust movement skills. This current study was designed to examine the utility of gaze training for technical laparoscopic skills and to test performance under multitasking conditions. Thirty medical trainees with no laparoscopic experience were divided randomly into one of three treatment groups: gaze trained (GAZE), movement trained (MOVE), and discovery learning/control (DISCOVERY). Participants were fitted with a Mobile Eye gaze registration system, which measures eye-line of gaze at 25 Hz. Training consisted of ten repetitions of the "eye-hand coordination" task from the LAP Mentor VR laparoscopic surgical simulator while receiving instruction and video feedback (specific to each treatment condition). After training, all participants completed a control test (designed to assess learning) and a multitasking transfer test, in which they completed the procedure while performing a concurrent tone counting task. Not only did the GAZE group learn more quickly than the MOVE and DISCOVERY groups (faster completion times in the control test), but the performance difference was even more pronounced when multitasking. Differences in gaze control (target locking fixations), rather than tool movement measures (tool path length), underpinned this performance advantage for GAZE training. These results suggest that although the GAZE intervention focused on training gaze behavior only, there were indirect benefits for movement behaviors and performance efficiency. Additionally, focusing on a single external target when learning, rather than on complex movement patterns, may have freed-up attentional resources that could be applied to concurrent cognitive tasks.
Rao, Ahsan; Tait, Ian; Alijani, Afshin
Mental training is rehearsal of mental imagery without physically performing the task. The aim of the study was to perform systematic review and meta-analysis on all the available data to evaluate the role of mental training in the acquisition of surgical technical skills. The following search databases were used: EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Clinicaltrials.gov.uk, SIGN guidelines, NICE guidelines, and Cochrane review register. Meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.2 statistical software. There were a total of 9 randomized controlled trials with 474 participants, of which 189 participants received mental training. Five randomized controlled trials concluded positive impact of mental training. Mental training group did not show any significant improvement in overall performance of the task carried in each study (P = .06). Mental training can be used as an important supplementary tool in learning surgical skills when run in parallel with physical training and applied to trainees with some experience of the skill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morris, F.A.; Toquam, J.L.
This concept paper explores the potential contribution of ``Knowledge Acquisition Skills`` in enhancing the effectiveness of international safeguards inspections by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA, or Agency) and identifies types of training that could be provided to develop or improve such skills. For purposes of this concept paper, Knowledge Acquisition Skills are defined broadly to include all appropriate techniques that IAEA safeguards inspectors can use to acquire and analyze information relevant to the performance of successful safeguards inspections. These techniques include a range of cognitive, analytic, judgmental, interpersonal, and communications skills that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively.
One of the biggest challenges facing the career and technical education (CTE) community as it works to implement the 2006 Perkins Act is responding to more rigorous requirements for reporting on CTE students' technical skill attainment. The U.S. Department of Education suggested in non-regulatory guidance that states and locals use the number of…
Palter, Vanessa N; Orzech, Neil; Reznick, Richard K; Grantcharov, Teodor P
: To develop and validate an ex vivo comprehensive curriculum for a basic laparoscopic procedure. : Although simulators have been well validated as tools to teach technical skills, their integration into comprehensive curricula is lacking. Moreover, neither the effect of ex vivo training on learning curves in the operating room (OR), nor the effect on nontechnical proficiency has been investigated. : This randomized single-blinded prospective trial allocated 20 surgical trainees to a structured training and assessment curriculum (STAC) group or conventional residency training. The STAC consisted of case-based learning, proficiency-based virtual reality training, laparoscopic box training, and OR participation. After completion of the intervention, all participants performed 5 sequential laparoscopic cholecystectomies in the OR. The primary outcome measure was the difference in technical performance between the 2 groups during the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Secondary outcome measures included differences with respect to learning curves in the OR, technical proficiency of each sequential laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and nontechnical skills. : Residents in the STAC group outperformed residents in the conventional group in the first (P = 0.004), second (P = 0.036), third (P = 0.021), and fourth (P = 0.023) laparoscopic cholecystectomies. The conventional group demonstrated a significant learning curve in the OR (P = 0.015) in contrast to the STAC group (P = 0.032). Residents in the STAC group also had significantly higher nontechnical skills (P = 0.027). : Participating in the STAC shifted the learning curve for a basic laparoscopic procedure from the operating room into the simulation laboratory. STAC-trained residents had superior technical proficiency in the OR and nontechnical skills compared with conventionally trained residents. (The study registration ID is NCT01560494.).
Coggins, Andrew; Desai, Mihir; Nguyen, Khanh; Moore, Nathan
Non-technical skills are emerging as an important component of postgraduate medical education. Between 2013 and 2016, a new blended training program incorporating non-technical skills was introduced at an Australian university affiliated hospital. Program participants were medical officers in years 1 and 2 of postgraduate training. An interdisciplinary faculty trained in simulation-based education led the program. The blended approach combined open access online resources with multiple opportunities to participate in simulation-based learning. The aim of the study was to examine the value of the program to the participants and the effects on the wider hospital system. The mixed methods evaluation included data from simulation centre records, hospital quality improvement data, and a post-hoc reflective survey of the enrolled participants ( n = 68). Over 30 months, 283 junior doctors were invited to participate in the program. Enrolment in a designated simulation-based course was completed by 169 doctors (59.7%). Supplementary revision sessions were made available to the cohort with a median weekly attendance of five participants. 56/68 (82.4%) of survey respondents reported increased confidence in managing deteriorating patients. During the period of implementation, the overall rate of hospital cardiac arrests declined by 42.3%. Future objectives requested by participants included training in graded assertiveness and neurological emergencies. Implementation of a non-technical skills program was achieved with limited simulation resources and was associated with observable improvements in clinical performance. The participants surveyed reported increased confidence in managing deteriorating patients, and the program introduction coincided with a significant reduction in the rate of in-hospital cardiac arrests.
The Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) is working to comply with the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006 (Perkins) to ensure that its graduates have mastered the technical skills needed by business and industry. The legislation requires that each state identify and approve program assessment strategies…
Woermann, Niklas; Wieser, Verena
Remedying the absence of a cultural theory of consumption skill acquisition, we use video data to explore how consumers learn in ski schools. We identify six modes of skill acquisition and theorize the interplay between the sensori-motor system, the conscious state of skillful coping...
Kasparian, Andres C; Martinez, A C; JoverClos, R J; Chércoles, R A
technical skills acquisition is considered to be of paramount importance in surgical training. Yet, formal assessment of technical skills is the weakest and less developed area. Currently available resources to evaluate technical skills are largely subjective, and lack of validity and reliability. Direct observation, one of the most frequently used methods, is largely biased by interpersonal subjectivity and personality traits. We propose the creation and use of a new procedure-specific tool for objective assessment of technical skills in surgery to evaluate validity and reliability. laparoscopic cholecystectomy and Lichstenstein's inguinal hernia repair were the chosen procedures. Three groups of comparison were defined according to surgical expertise: initial, intermediate, and experts. Surgeries were videorecorded in real time without identification of the patient or the surgeon. Tapes without any posterior edition were assigned to two expert surgeons in a blind and randomized sequence. A newly proposed procedure-specific rating scale was used for evaluation, as well as Reznick's OSATS global scale. Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test was used to assess validity. p 0.8 granted reliability. from April 2010 to December 2012 36 laparoscopic cholecystectomies and 31 inguinal hernia repairs were recorded. Significant difference was found among groups of comparison for every item (ptechnical skills in surgery is feasible and useful. The tool we proposed showed construct validity and reliability. Video recording of surgical procedures grants durability over time to an ephemeral phenomenon. The objectivity is based on the explicit statements and quantification of every step to be evaluated, and the blind randomization and anonymous treatment of the sample. Sharing the same quality criteria between evaluators is of paramount importance to reach satisfactory results. The process of evaluation always implies a shortened view of the reality.
Agha, Riaz A; Fowler, Alexander J; Sevdalis, Nick
Non-technical skills are of increasing importance in surgery and surgical training. A traditional focus on technical skills acquisition and competence is no longer enough for the delivery of a modern, safe surgical practice. This review discusses the importance of non-technical skills and the values that underpin successful modern surgical practice. This narrative review used a number of sources including written and online, there was no specific search strategy of defined databases. Modern surgical practice requires; technical and non-technical skills, evidence-based practice, an emphasis on lifelong learning, monitoring of outcomes and a supportive institutional and health service framework. Finally these requirements need to be combined with a number of personal and professional values including integrity, professionalism and compassionate, patient-centred care.
Agha, Riaz A.; Fowler, Alexander J.; Sevdalis, Nick
Non-technical skills are of increasing importance in surgery and surgical training. A traditional focus on technical skills acquisition and competence is no longer enough for the delivery of a modern, safe surgical practice. This review discusses the importance of non-technical skills and the values that underpin successful modern surgical practice. This narrative review used a number of sources including written and online, there was no specific search strategy of defined databases. Modern surgical practice requires; technical and non-technical skills, evidence-based practice, an emphasis on lifelong learning, monitoring of outcomes and a supportive institutional and health service framework. Finally these requirements need to be combined with a number of personal and professional values including integrity, professionalism and compassionate, patient-centred care. PMID:26904193
Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Fales-Williams, Amanda J; Kirk, Ryan A; Preast, Vanessa A
Employers of 2007-2009 graduates from Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine were asked to respond to a survey regarding their overall satisfaction with their new employees as well as their new employees' preparation in several technical and non-technical skill areas. Seventy-five responses contained complete data and were used in the analysis. Four technical skill areas (data collection, data interpretation, planning, and taking action) and five non-technical skill areas (interpersonal skills, ability to deal with legal issues, business skills, making referrals, and problem solving) were identified. All of the skill area subscales listed above had appropriate reliability (Cronbach's alpha>0.70) and were positively and significantly correlated with overall employer satisfaction. Results of two simultaneous regression analyses indicated that of the four technical skill areas, taking action is the most salient predictor of employer satisfaction. Of the five non-technical skill areas, interpersonal skills, business skills, making referrals, and problem solving were the most important skills in predicting employer satisfaction. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that all technical skills explained 25% of the variation in employer satisfaction; non-technical skills explained an additional 42% of the variation in employer satisfaction.
Filges, Trine; Larsen, Birthe
This paper examines the macroeconomic effects of youth unemployment programmes in the form of vocational training (YUPs), developing a two sector general equilibrium model featuring matching frictions and worker-firm wage bargaining for skilled workers.......This paper examines the macroeconomic effects of youth unemployment programmes in the form of vocational training (YUPs), developing a two sector general equilibrium model featuring matching frictions and worker-firm wage bargaining for skilled workers....
Full Text Available Although both emergentism and skill acquisition theory developed in the same field (cognitive theories and as an attempt to replace Universal grammar-based approaches, there are some differences between these two theories. The differences lie under their different models of knowledge representation and their diverse degree of emphasis on the role of input. In addition, skill acquisition considers the process of learning while emergentism considers input and output, and what goes on in between has not been considered. Finally it should be mentioned that these two theories take different views towards the learning process.
Moorthy, Krishna; Munz, Yaron; Sarker, Sudip K; Darzi, Ara
In the past few years, considerable developments have been made in the objective assessment of technical proficiency of surgeons. Technical skills should be assessed during training, and various methods have been developed for this purpose
Mukuni, Joseph Siloka
In the literature, much has been reported about skill shortages in the labor market and many solutions have been suggested but most of them do not appear to work well for developing countries. This study investigated the place of portable technical skills as an option for addressing skill shortages, particularly in developing countries. The objective of the study was to determine whether different occupations have portable technical skills, which graduates of workforce development programs ca...
Verhoef, R.; Tomic, W.
This article presents the results of a review of the literature questioning whether and to what extent computers can be used as a means of instruction for the guided acquisition of communicative writing skills in higher education. To answer this question, the present paper first explores the
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of technical... Rights in Technical Data 227.7103-2 Acquisition of technical data. (a) Contracting officers shall work... personnel are responsible for identifying the Government's minimum needs for technical data. Data needs must...
Paul, Katja; Cnossen, Fokeltje; Lanzer, Peter
Catheter-based cardiovascular interventions (CBCVI) provide a fascinating context to study skill acquisition. In CBCVI, multiple cognitive skills are crucial; technical, perceptual, and decision-making skills are all used at the same time and often depend on each other. In order to be able to
Zakaria, Nurazyan Zahidah; Jizat, Nor Atikah Md.; Zakaria, Normah
The purpose of leadership skills among technical and vocational educator are to prepare them towards effective organization. Effective leadership is widely accepted as being a key constituent in achieving organization improvement and to examine. This study aimed to gauge the leadership skills among technical and vocational educators effectiveness…
The non-technical skills of situational awareness and the formation of effective interpersonal relationships are essential to enhance surgical outcomes. However, most scrub practitioners demonstrate only tacit awareness of these skills and develop such qualities on an informal basis. Application of non-technical skills may be assessed formally, using a structured framework, to transform normative behaviour and to strengthen barriers against the latent threats that may result from fallible humans working in inadequate organisational systems.
Pugh, Debra; Hamstra, Stanley J.; Wood, Timothy J.; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Touchie, Claire; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Bordage, Georges
Internists are required to perform a number of procedures that require mastery of technical and non-technical skills, however, formal assessment of these skills is often lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and gather validity evidence for a procedural skills objective structured clinical examination (PS-OSCE) for internal…
Henry E. Wang MD MS
Full Text Available During the course of their training, medical students may receive introductory experience with advanced resuscitation skills. Endotracheal intubation (ETI – the insertion of a breathing tube into the trachea is an example of an important advanced resuscitation intervention. Only limited data characterize clinical ETI skill acquisition by medical students. We sought to characterize medical student acquisition of ETI procedural skill.11Presented as a poster discussion on 17 October 2007 at the annual meeting of the American Society of Anesthesiologists in San Francisco, CA.The study included third-year medical students participating in a required anesthesiology clerkship. Students performed ETI on operating room patients under the supervision of attending anesthesiologists. Students reported clinical details of each ETI effort, including patient age, sex, Mallampati score, number of direct laryngoscopies and ETI success. Using mixed-effects regression, we characterized the adjusted association between ETI success and cumulative ETI experience.ETI was attempted by 178 students on 1,646 patients (range 1–23 patients per student; median 9 patients per student, IQR 6–12. Overall ETI success was 75.0% (95% CI 72.9–77.1%. Adjusted for patient age, sex, Mallampati score and number of laryngoscopies, the odds of ETI success improved with cumulative ETI encounters (odds ratio 1.09 per additional ETI encounter; 95% CI 1.04–1.14. Students required at least 17 ETI encounters to achieve 90% predicted ETI success.In this series medical student ETI proficiency was associated with cumulative clinical procedural experience. Clinical experience may provide a viable strategy for fostering medical student procedural skills.
Sharma, Bharat; Mishra, Amit; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Grantcharov, Teodor P
Adverse events in surgery have highlighted the importance of non-technical skills, such as communication, decision-making, teamwork, situational awareness and leadership, to effective organizational performance. These skills carry particular importance to surgical oncology, as members of a multidisciplinary team must work cohesively to formulate effective patient care plans. Several non-technical skills evaluation tools have been developed for use in surgery, without adequate comparison and consensus on which should be standard for training. Eleven articles describing the use of three non-technical evaluation tools related to surgery: NOTSS (Non Technical Skills for Surgeons), NOTECHS (Non Technical Skills) and OTAS (Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery) were analyzed with respect to scale formulation, validity, reliability and feasibility. Furthermore, their use in training thus far and the future of non-technical rating scales in surgical curricula was discussed. Future work should focus on incorporating these assessment tools into training and into a real operating room setting to provide formative evaluations for surgical residents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Hove, P. D.; Tuijthof, G. J. M.; Verdaasdonk, E. G. G.; Stassen, L. P. S.; Dankelman, J.
Surgeons are increasingly being scrutinized for their performance and there is growing interest in objective assessment of technical skills. The purpose of this study was to review all evidence for these methods, in order to provide a guideline for use in clinical practice. A systematic search was
M. K. Omar; A. R. Bakar; A. Mat Rashid
The objective of this study was to assess the acquisition of employability skills among Malaysian community college students. The sample size of the present study 325 students selected randomly. Employability skills were measured using an instrument developed by the Secretaryâs Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS). The overall mean of employability skills among community college students was 3.63 (S.D. = 0.47). Thus, we consider the employability skills of community college studen...
Fu, Wai-Tat; Anderson, John R
Acquisition of interactive skills involves the use of internal and external cues. Experiment 1 showed that when actions were interdependent, learning was effective with and without external cues in the single-task condition but was effective only with the presence of external cues in the dual-task condition. In the dual-task condition, actions closer to the feedback were learned faster than actions farther away but this difference was reversed in the single-task condition. Experiment 2 tested how knowledge acquired in single and dual-task conditions would transfer to a new reward structure. Results confirmed the two forms of learning mediated by the secondary task: A declarative memory encoding process that simultaneously assigned credits to actions and a reinforcement-learning process that slowly propagated credits backward from the feedback. The results showed that both forms of learning were engaged during training, but only at the response selection stage, one form of knowledge may dominate over the other depending on the availability of attentional resources. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved
Smith, F. R.
It is suggested that engineers and other technical students be taught three classes of skills in technical writing. First, "Big Picture Things", which includes: the importance of clear writing, the wide scope of writing, the wide scope of writing tasks that will be faced in industry, and the principles of organization of technical materials such as; how to analyze, classify, partition, and interpret. Second, "Writing Procedures", which encompasses: how to get words on paper efficiently and team-write. Third, "Writing Details", in which two considerations are important: how to achieve precision in the use of language and the aspects of style. Three problems in style are cited: the problem of sentence transition, overuse of attributive adjectives, and verbosity in paragraph structure. The most important thing in technical writing is considered to be functionality, economy and clarity.
The design of skill centre around the country is such that they are specific to particular skill type and usually the buildings cannot be used for another activity. The need to use spaces for multiple functions has ensured that flexible spaces in skill acquisition centres are designed such that the spaces can easily be varied into ...
Audu, R.; Bin Kamin, Yusri; Bin Musta'amal, Aede Hatib; Bin Saud, Muhammad Sukri; Hamid, Mohd. Zolkifli Abd.
This study is designed to identify the most significant teaching methods that influence the acquisition of generic skills of mechanical engineering trades students at technical college level. Descriptive survey research design was utilized in carrying out the study. One hundred and ninety (190) respondents comprised of mechanical engineering…
Reader, T.; Flin, R.; Lauche, K.; Cuthbertson, B.H.
In high-risk industries such as aviation, the skills not related directly to technical expertise, but crucial for maintaining safety (e.g. teamwork), have been categorized as non-technical skills. Recently, research in anaesthesia has identified and developed a taxonomy of the non-technical skills
Williams, A Mark; Ford, Paul R
We highlight the importance of promoting a skills-based agenda in the development and preparation of Olympic athletes. The role that specialists with a background in skill acquisition can play is illustrated and the need to move towards a culture where evidence-based practice permeates all aspects of this process reiterated. We provide examples from contemporary research to illustrate how skill-acquisition theory and practice can help inform and guide practitioners, coaches, and administrators in their quest to develop Olympic athletes. Although the acquisition and refinement of skills are essential to performance in most Olympic sports, paradoxically the area of skill acquisition has not impacted in a concerted and meaningful way on this agenda. Skill-acquisition specialists need to be more proactive in forging links with elite sport, whereas practitioners, coaches, and administrators need to appreciate the important role that sports scientists with a background in this area can play in helping to develop future generations of podium athletes.
Sawyer, T; Leonard, D; Sierocka-Castaneda, A; Chan, D; Thompson, M
Neonatal resuscitation requires both technical and behavioral skills. Key behavioral skills in neonatal resuscitation have been identified by the Neonatal Resuscitation Program. Correlations and interactions between technical skills and behavioral skills in neonatal resuscitation were investigated. Behavioral skills were evaluated via blinded video review of 45 simulated neonatal resuscitations using a validated assessment tool. These were statistically correlated with previously obtained technical skill performance data. Technical skills and behavioral skills were strongly correlated (ρ=0.48; P=0.001). The strongest correlations were seen in distribution of workload (ρ=0.60; P=0.01), utilization of information (ρ=0.55; P=0.03) and utilization of resources (ρ=0.61; P=0.01). Teams with superior behavioral skills also demonstrated superior technical skills, and vice versa. Technical and behavioral skills were highly correlated during simulated neonatal resuscitations. Individual behavioral skill correlations are likely dependent on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.
and learning of science and technology at the primary school level of education. ... selected media for skills acquisition;. 2. ..... serve as a platform of bringing together relevant social and ... Creative teaching of science in the elementary school.
Gender and Acquisition of Science Process Skills among Junior Secondary ... for the effective learning of science even at the primary or basic level of education. ... and that activity-based methods of instruction be employed in teaching Basic ...
Day, E A; Arthur, W; Gettman, D
The purpose of this study was to examine the viability of knowledge structures as an operationalization of learning in the context of a task that required a high degree of skill. Over the course of 3 days, 86 men participated in 9 training sessions and learned a complex video game. At the end of acquisition, participants' knowledge structures were assessed. After a 4-day nonpractice interval, trainees completed tests of skill retention and skill transfer. Findings indicated that the similarity of trainees' knowledge structures to an expert structure was correlated with skill acquisition and was predictive of skill retention and skill transfer. However, the magnitude of these effects was dependent on the method used to derive the expert referent structure. Moreover, knowledge structures mediated the relationship between general cognitive ability and skill-based performance.
Krassel, Karl Fritjof; Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke
Using matched PISA and PIAAC data from Denmark, we investigate the return to cognitive and non-cognitive skills with respect to labor market outcomes. We measure cognitive and non-cognitive skills at childhood and when the respondents have entered the labor market. Hence, we are able to split up...... the analysis contingent on cognitive and non-cognitive skills measured before entering the labor market. In this way we can measure both whether cognitive and/or non-cognitive skills relate to earnings and employment rate as well as how important the timing of acquiring skills are for outcomes on the labor...... market. Overall we find that cognitive skills are important for both earnings and employment rate but that the timing of the acquisition of the skills is of less importance. On the contrary, non-cognitive skills are important for earnings independent on whether the worker had high or low cognitive skills...
Bannister, Susan L; Dolson, Mark S; Lingard, Lorelei; Keegan, David A
As part of their training, physicians are required to learn how to perform technical skills on patients. The previous literature reveals that this learning is complex and that many opportunities to perform these skills are not converted into attempts to do so by learners. This study sought to explore and understand this phenomenon better. A multi-phased qualitative study including ethnographic observations, interviews and focus groups was conducted to explore the factors that influence technical skill learning. In a tertiary paediatric emergency department, staff physician preceptors, residents, nurses and respiratory therapists were observed in the delivery and teaching of technical skills over a 3-month period. A constant comparison methodology was used to analyse the data and to develop a constructivist grounded theory. We conducted 419 hours of observation, 18 interviews and four focus groups. We observed 287 instances of technical skills, of which 27.5% were attempted by residents. Thematic analysis identified 14 factors, grouped into three categories, which influenced whether residents attempted technical skills on real patients. Learner factors included resident initiative, perceived need for skill acquisition and competing priorities. Teacher factors consisted of competing priorities, interest in teaching, perceived need for residents to acquire skills, attributions about learners, assessments of competency, and trust. Environmental factors were competition from other learners, judgement that the patient was appropriate, buy-in from team members, consent from patient or caregivers, and physical environment constraints. Our findings suggest that neither the presence of a learner in a clinical environment nor the trust of the supervisor is sufficient to ensure the learner will attempt a technical skill. We characterise this phenomenon as representing a pool of opportunities to conduct technical skills on live patients that shrinks to a much smaller pool of
Davie, Emily; Martin, Malissa; Cuppett, Micki; Lebsack, Denise
Context: Instruction of psychomotor skills is an important component of athletic training education. Accommodating the varied learning abilities and preferences of athletic training students can be challenging for an instructor initiating skill acquisition in a traditional face-to-face (F2F) environment. Video instruction available on mobile…
Moe, Vegard Fusche
A crucial task for sport research is to understand and explain the processes and conditions underlying skillful motor behavior. One way to account for these processes and conditions is to describe and analyze the distinct stages a learner goes through when acquiring a skill. This article starts by elaborating one of the most dominant…
Riem, N; Boet, S; Bould, M D; Tavares, W; Naik, V N
Both technical skills (TS) and non-technical skills (NTS) are key to ensuring patient safety in acute care practice and effective crisis management. These skills are often taught and assessed separately. We hypothesized that TS and NTS are not independent of each other, and we aimed to evaluate the relationship between TS and NTS during a simulated intraoperative crisis scenario. This study was a retrospective analysis of performances from a previously published work. After institutional ethics approval, 50 anaesthesiology residents managed a simulated crisis scenario of an intraoperative cardiac arrest secondary to a malignant arrhythmia. We used a modified Delphi approach to design a TS checklist, specific for the management of a malignant arrhythmia requiring defibrillation. All scenarios were recorded. Each performance was analysed by four independent experts. For each performance, two experts independently rated the technical performance using the TS checklist, and two other experts independently rated NTS using the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills score. TS and NTS were significantly correlated to each other (r=0.45, P<0.05). During a simulated 5 min resuscitation requiring crisis resource management, our results indicate that TS and NTS are related to one another. This research provides the basis for future studies evaluating the nature of this relationship, the influence of NTS training on the performance of TS, and to determine whether NTS are generic and transferrable between crises that require different TS.
Ponton-Carss, Alicia; Kortbeek, John B; Ma, Irene W Y
Surgical competence encompasses both technical and nontechnical skills. This study seeks to evaluate the validity evidence for a comprehensive surgical skills examination and to examine the relationship between technical and nontechnical skills. Six examination stations assessing both technical and nontechnical skills, conducted yearly for surgical trainees (n = 120) between 2010 and 2014 are included. The assessment tools demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Interstation reliability for technical skills was low (alpha = .39). Interstation reliability for the nontechnical skills was lower (alpha range -.05 to .31). Nontechnical skills domains were strongly correlated, ranging from r = .65, P skills were inconsistent, ranging from poor (r = -.06; P = .54) to moderate (r = .45; P skills are necessary to assess overall surgical competency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ali, Amir; Subhi, Yousif; Ringsted, Charlotte
BACKGROUND: Females are less attracted than males to surgical specialties, which may be due to differences in the acquisition of skills. The aim of this study was to systematically review studies that investigate gender differences in the acquisition of surgical skills. METHODS: We performed...... a comprehensive database search using relevant search phrases and MeSH terms. We included studies that investigated the role of gender in the acquisition of surgical skills. RESULTS: Our search yielded 247 studies, 18 of which were found to be eligible and were therefore included. These studies included a total...... of 2,106 study participants. The studies were qualitatively synthesized in five categories (studies on medical students, studies on both medical students and residents, studies on residents, studies on gender differences in needed physical strength, and studies on other gender-related training...
Brunckhorst, Oliver; Shahid, Shahab; Aydin, Abdullatif; McIlhenny, Craig; Khan, Shahid; Raza, Syed Johar; Sahai, Arun; Brewin, James; Bello, Fernando; Kneebone, Roger; Khan, Muhammad Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran
Current training modalities within ureteroscopy have been extensively validated and must now be integrated within a comprehensive curriculum. Additionally, non-technical skills often cause surgical error and little research has been conducted to combine this with technical skills teaching. This study therefore aimed to develop and validate a curriculum for semi-rigid ureteroscopy, integrating both technical and non-technical skills teaching within the programme. Delphi methodology was utilised for curriculum development and content validation, with a randomised trial then conducted (n = 32) for curriculum evaluation. The developed curriculum consisted of four modules; initially developing basic technical skills and subsequently integrating non-technical skills teaching. Sixteen participants underwent the simulation-based curriculum and were subsequently assessed, together with the control cohort (n = 16) within a full immersion environment. Both technical (Time to completion, OSATS and a task specific checklist) and non-technical (NOTSS) outcome measures were recorded with parametric and non-parametric analyses used depending on the distribution of our data as evaluated by a Shapiro-Wilk test. Improvements within the intervention cohort demonstrated educational value across all technical and non-technical parameters recorded, including time to completion (p technical and non-technical skills teaching is both educationally valuable and feasible. Additionally, the curriculum offers a validated simulation-based training modality within ureteroscopy and a framework for the development of other simulation-based programmes.
Recently, many countries have put the focus on green growth which specifically aims at achieving a resilient, low-carbon, and resource-efficient economy model that leads to higher quality of life. Environmental pollution and climate change are negatively affecting the sustainability of various economical activities across the world, with Indonesia being one of them. To mitigate the environmental problems, the existing economy should be shifted to a greener economy model which will create green jobs and greening the existing occupation in the industries. Green jobs require workers with green skills. Therefore, development of green skills in TVET institutions is urgently needed. By referencing the existing green skills frame work, green skills acquisition has not been clearly integrated into the existing Indonesian TVET curriculum. However, approach to integrate green skills into TVET curriculum can be carried out through the development of hard skills and soft skills in the domain of knowledge, abilities, and attitudes where green skills is an imparting of both hard skills and soft skills.
The study investigated the effects of photography on acquisition of sculpture skills among Junior Secondary School Students in Osun State. Forty students were randomly selected from two schools. The two schools were purposefully selected from fifty secondary schools in Ife Central Local Government Council Area of Osun ...
Abstract. The study investigated the effects of photography on acquisition of sculpture skills among Junior Secondary School Students in Osun State. Forty students were randomly selected from two schools. The two schools were purposefully selected from fifty secondary schools in Ife Central Local. Government Council ...
The socio-economic status of both rural and urban families could be enhanced through the empowerment of the womenfolk, whose activities spread across almost all sectors of the economy. Skill acquisition for women in Nigeria appears to be one of the potent options in this empowerment drive. This paper therefore ...
Taatgen, N.A.; Lee, F.J.
In this article we describe production compilation, a mechanism for modeling skill acquisition. Production compilation has been developed within the ACT-Rational (ACT-R; J. R. Anderson, D. Bothell, M. D. Byrne, & C. Lebiere, 2002) cognitive architecture and consists of combining and specializing
Wagstaff, William Quinn
A study was conducted to develop a technical skills assessment tool for the training and development of challenge course facilitators. Researchers accessed two professional on-line listserves to collect a sample size of twenty-seven currently used technical skills assessment tools. The assessment tools were critically analysed by three independent…
Stone, James R., III
Federal law requires state to develop performance measures and data-collection systems for secondary and postsecondary technical-skill attainment. This poses many challenges, such as defining a technical skills, measurement and when to assess students. In this article, the author outlines various assessment models and looks at the challenges…
Jackson, Denise; Chapman, Elaine
Purpose: The need for "job-ready" graduates has catalysed the development of non-technical skills in higher education institutions worldwide. Continued criticism of business school outcomes has provoked this examination of non-technical skill deficiencies in Australian business graduates. The purpose of this paper is to compare findings…
Johnston, Peter W; Fioratou, Evie; Flin, Rhona
Health care is a high-risk industry, with most documented adverse incidents being associated with 'human factors' including cognitive and social skills termed 'non-technical skills'. Non-technical skills complement the diagnostic and specialist skills and professional attributes required by medical practitioners, including histopathologists, and can enhance the quality of practice and delivery of health-care services and thus contribute to patient safety. This review aims to introduce histopathologists to non-technical skills and how these pertain to everyday histopathological practice. Drawing from other domains in medicine, specifically anaesthesia and surgery, a variety of non-technical skills are identified and described in the context of histopathology to illustrate the role each plays, often collectively, in daily practice. The generic non-technical skills are defined as situation awareness, decision-making, communication, teamwork, leadership, managing stress and coping with fatigue. Example scenarios from histopathology are presented and the contributions to outcomes made by non-technical skills are explained. Consideration of these specific non-technical skills as a component in histopathology training may benefit practitioners as well as assuring patient safety. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.
Hance, Julian; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Moorthy, Krishna; Munz, Yaron; Undre, Shabnam; Darzi, Ara
Standardized short courses in laparoscopic cholecystectomy aim to teach laparoscopic skills to surgical trainees, although end-of-course assessments of performance remain subjective. The current study aims to objectively assess psychomotor skills acquisition of trainees attending laparoscopic cholecystectomy courses. Thirty-seven junior surgical trainees had their laparoscopic skills assessed before and after attending 1 of 3 separate 2-day courses (A, B, and C), all with identical format. Assessments were comprised of a standardized simulated laparoscopic task, with performance measured using a valid electromagnetic hand-motion tracking device. Overall, trainees made significant improvements in path length (P=.006), number of movements (Ppsychomotor skills on courses. In addition to providing participants with an insight into their skills, these data can be used to demonstrate course efficacy.
Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Haddawy, Peter; Rhienmora, Phattanapon; Gajananan, Kugamoorthy
Haptic virtual reality (VR) has revolutionized the skill acquisition in dentistry. The strength of the haptic VR system is that it can automatically record the outcome and associated kinematic data on how each step of the task is performed, which are not available in the conventional skill training environments. The aim of this study was to assess skill acquisition in endodontics and to identify process and outcome variables for the quantification of proficiency. Twenty novices engaged in the experimental study that involved practicing the access opening task with the haptic VR system. Process (speed, force utilization, and bimanual coordination) and outcome variables were determined for assessing skill performance. These values were compared before and after training. Significant improvements were observed through training in all variables. A unique force used pattern and bimanual coordination were observed in each step of the access opening in the posttraining session. The novices also performed the tasks considerably faster with greater outcome within the first two to three training sessions. The study objectively showed that the novices could learn to perform access opening tasks faster and with more consistency, better bimanual dexterity, and better force utilization. The variables examined showed great promise as objective indicators of proficiency and skill acquisition in haptic VR.
Many young people have little or no skills. They are excluded from productive economic and social life. Those with an education often have skills that do not match current demand in the labour market, where educational and skill requirements are increasing. Technical and vocational training African countries have put their ...
Matsui, Yuko; Hikono, Masaru; Iwasaki, Mari; Morita, Mizuho
This study aimed at characterizing a non-technical skill exercise for on-site managers in charge of initial response at an emergency response center by extracting and clarifying the behavior examples of non-technical skills shown in the exercise scenario. From video observations, the non-technical skill examples were identified from seven of the eight nontechnical skill categories which had been defined when the training program was developed. Especially, they included many skills of 'Communication', 'Situation Understanding' and 'Organizational management'. At the same time, the limitation when extracting the cases by observations was identified. The extracted non-technical skill cases are expected to be used for characterizing exercise scenarios, as well as provide knowledge to raise the awareness of exercise participants. (author)
Evaluating a Skills Centre: The Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Nursing--A Review of the Literature. [and] Evaluating a Skills Centre: The Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Nursing--A Review of the Theory.
Knight, Carolyn M.
Article 1 reviews literature on psychomotor skill acquisition, finding inconclusive research based on a positivist approach. Article 2 reviews theories of skill acquisition. Both reviews will be used to evaluate a skills center for nurses that is based on a constructivist approach. (SK)
Ingram, James?N.; Flanagan, J.?Randall; Wolpert, Daniel?M.
Summary Current models of motor learning posit that skill acquisition involves both the formation and decay of multiple motor memories that can be engaged in different contexts [1?9]. Memory formation is assumed to be context dependent, so that errors most strongly update motor memories associated with the current context. In contrast, memory decay is assumed to be context independent, so that movement in any context leads to uniform decay across all contexts. We demonstrate that for both obj...
Nematollahi, Saman; Kaplan, Stephen J; Knapp, Christopher M; Ho, Hang; Alvarado, Jared; Viscusi, Rebecca; Adamas-Rappaport, William
Student acquisition of technical skills during the clinical years of medical school has been steadily declining. To address this issue, the authors instituted a fresh cadaver-based Emergency Surgical Skills Laboratory (ESSL). Sixty-three medical students rotating through the third-year surgery clerkship participated in a 2-hour, fresh cadaver-based ESSL conducted during the first 2 days of the clerkship. The authors evaluated students utilizing both surgical skills and written examination before the ESSL and at 4 weeks post ESSL. Students demonstrated a mean improvement of 64% (±11) (P cadaver laboratory is an effective method to provide proficiency in emergency technical skills not acquired during the clinical years of medical school. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gostlow, H; Marlow, N; Thomas, M J W; Hewett, P J; Kiermeier, A; Babidge, W; Altree, M; Pena, G; Maddern, G
In addition to technical expertise, surgical competence requires effective non-technical skills to ensure patient safety and maintenance of standards. Recently the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons implemented a new Surgical Education and Training (SET) curriculum that incorporated non-technical skills considered essential for a competent surgeon. This study sought to compare the non-technical skills of experienced surgeons who completed their training before the introduction of SET with the non-technical skills of more recent trainees. Surgical trainees and experienced surgeons undertook a simulated scenario designed to challenge their non-technical skills. Scenarios were video recorded and participants were assessed using the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) scoring system. Participants were divided into subgroups according to years of experience and their NOTSS scores were compared. For most NOTSS elements, mean scores increased initially, peaking around the time of Fellowship, before decreasing roughly linearly over time. There was a significant downward trend in score with increasing years since being awarded Fellowship for six of the 12 NOTSS elements: considering options (score -0·015 units per year), implementing and reviewing decisions (-0·020 per year), establishing a shared understanding (-0·014 per year), setting and maintaining standards (-0·024 per year), supporting others (-0·031 per year) and coping with pressure (-0·015 per year). The drop in NOTSS score was unexpected and highlights that even experienced surgeons are not immune to deficiencies in non-technical skills. Consideration should be given to continuing professional development programmes focusing on non-technical skills, regardless of the level of professional experience. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gjeraa, K; Jepsen, R M H G; Rewers, M
BACKGROUND: A combination of non-technical skills (NTS) and technical skills (TS) is crucial for anaesthetic patient management. However, a deeper understanding of the relationship between these two skills remains to be explored. We investigated the characteristics of trainee anaesthesiologists...... the customised version of the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills System, ANTSdk, and an adapted TS checklist for calculating the correlation between NTS and TS. Written descriptions of the observed NTS were analysed using directed content analysis. RESULTS: The correlation between the NTS and the TS ratings......, concrete NTS were developed to aid the understanding, training and use of NTS....
This report presents the findings of a study designed with two objectives: to produce a prototype performance : measurement instrument (PMI) that integrates the assessment of Crew Resource Management (CRM) and technical flying : skills and to investi...
Dr. Peter Ashlame Agu
Full Text Available Since the past two decades or so the question of functionality of Nigerian educational products has been an issue of concern and a subject of discussion among educational analysts. This is against the backdrop that many students who graduate with admirable certificates from the nations reputable institutions are often unable to apply the acquired knowledge and skills to work situations. Contemporary societies all over the world require that preparation for work must become an integral part of a persons total educational experience. One reason for this requirement is to equip their citizenry with employable skills to enable them produce and use the goods and services which any society needs for its socio-economic growth. This paper therefore examines the role of skill acquisition in the transformation of Nigerian economy and proffers suggestions on how it can be repositioned to transform Nigerian education.
Full Text Available Learning novel skills involves reorganization and optimization of cognitive processing involving a broad network of brain regions. Previous work has shown asymmetric costs of switching to a well-trained task versus a poorly-trained task, but the neural basis of these differential switch costs is unclear. The current study examined the neural signature of task switching in the context of acquisition of new skill. Human participants alternated randomly between a novel visual task (mirror-reversed word reading and a highly practiced one (plain word reading, allowing the isolation of task switching and skill set maintenance. Two scan sessions were separated by two weeks, with behavioral training on the mirror reading task in between the two sessions. Broad cortical regions, including bilateral prefrontal, parietal, and extrastriate cortices, showed decreased activity associated with learning of the mirror reading skill. In contrast, learning to switch to the novel skill was associated with decreased activity in a focal subcortical region in the dorsal striatum. Switching to the highly practiced task was associated with a non-overlapping set of regions, suggesting substantial differences in the neural substrates of switching as a function of task skill. Searchlight multivariate pattern analysis also revealed that learning was associated with decreased pattern information for mirror versus plain reading tasks in fronto-parietal regions. Inferior frontal junction and posterior parietal cortex showed a joint effect of univariate activation and pattern information. These results suggest distinct learning mechanisms task performance and executive control as a function of learning.
Shields, Allan; Flin, Rhona
Healthcare organisations have started to examine the impact that the human worker has on patient safety. Adopting the Crew Resource Management (CRM) approach, used in aviation, the CRM or non-technical skills of anaesthetists, surgeons, scrub practitioners and emergency physicians have recently been identified to assist in their training and assessment. Paramedics are exposed to dynamic and dangerous situations where patients have to be managed, often with life-threatening injuries or illness. As in other safety-critical domains, the technical skills of paramedics are complemented by effective non-technical skills. The aim of this paper was to review the literature on the non-technical (social and cognitive) skills used by paramedics. This review was undertaken as part of a task analysis to identify the non-technical skills used by paramedics. Of the seven papers reviewed, the results have shown very little research on this topic and so reveal a gap in the understanding of paramedic non-technical skills.
Chang, Avril; Vincent, Charles
Objectives: Surgical appraisal and revalidation are key components of good surgical practice and training. Assessing technical skills in a structured manner is still not widely used. Laparoscopic surgery also requires the surgeon to be competent in technological aspects of the operation. Methods: Checklists for generic, specific technical, and technological skills for laparoscopic cholecystectomies were constructed. Two surgeons with >12 years postgraduate surgical experience assessed each operation blindly and independently on DVD. The technological skills were assessed in the operating room. Results: One hundred operations were analyzed. Eight trainees and 10 consultant surgeons were recruited. No adverse events occurred due to technical or technological skills. Mean interrater reliability was kappa=0.88, P=technical and technological skills between trainee and consultant surgeons were significant, Mann-Whitney P=technical and technological skills can be measured to assess performance of laparoscopic surgeons. This technical and technological assessment tool for laparoscopic surgery seems to have face, content, concurrent, and construct validities and could be modified and applied to any laparoscopic operation. The tool has the possibility of being used in surgical training and appraisal. We aim to modify and apply this tool to advanced laparoscopic operations. PMID:17212881
Technical education in Kenya is a necessary condition that enables members of society to productively function in technologically rapidly changing society. Technical training institutions have the responsibility to develop skilled Artisans, Craftsmen and Technician for employment in business organizations and industries.
Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA
This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…
Darina M. Slattery; Yvonne Cleary
peer-reviewed In this article, we introduce two programmes in technical communication (one distance, and one on-campus) offered by the University of Limerick. Both programmes have been running for several years, but are regularly reviewed to ensure that they remain relevant. We describe how these programmes correspond to industry needs, and how they develop core competencies of technical communicators. We outline two key types of assignment (writing and development), and explain their rele...
Lyon, Lucinda J; Hoover, Terry E; Giusti, Lola; Booth, Mark T; Mahdavi, Elham
Development of dental faculty members is paramount to providing outstanding education and role modeling for students. With the large number of second career educators in dental schools, an efficient method of acquiring teaching skills is important for new faculty members. Knowing the skill progression and learning experiences identified by dental educators of varying rank may lead to more efficient, effective faculty development. The aims of this study were to identify the perceptions of a group of faculty members about the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and learning experiences that contribute to developing teaching expertise and to compare and contrast the perceptions of new and more senior faculty members on these subjects. The Dreyfus skill acquisition continuum of novice to expert performance was used as a construct reference. The study used a mixed-methods approach in which qualitative and quantitative data were collected concurrently in an electronic survey of faculty members at one U.S. dental school. Of the 492 total faculty members, 80 survey responses were received, for a 16% response rate. Open coding and analysis of responses revealed some common themes. Building rich content knowledge and learning varied methodologies for teaching and assessment, supported by an awareness of peer role models, were perceived to be features of early growth. Content prioritization, clarity, and customization appropriate for the learner characterized mid growth. As theorized in the Dreyfus model, more experienced faculty members described a fluid, less structured teaching process, increased reflection, and appreciation of the strength of the educational community. The results of this study may help increase dental educators' understanding of teaching skill acquisition and inform faculty development and support.
Ste-Marie, Diane M; Vertes, Kelly; Rymal, Amanda M; Martini, Rose
The purpose of this research was to examine whether children would benefit from a feedforward self-modeling (FSM) video and to explore possible explanatory mechanisms for the potential benefits, using a self-regulation framework. To this end, children were involved in learning two five-skill trampoline routines. For one of the routines, a FSM video was provided during acquisition, whereas only verbal instructions were provided for the alternate routine. The FSM involved editing video footage such that it showed the learner performing the trampoline routine at a higher skill level than their current capability. Analyses of the data showed that while physical performance benefits were observed for the routine that was learned with the FSM video, no differences were obtained in relation to the self-regulatory measures. Thus, the FSM video enhanced motor skill acquisition, but this could not be explained by changes to the varied self-regulatory processes examined.
Diane M. Ste-Marie
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine whether children would benefit from a feedforward self-modeling (FSM video and to explore possible explanatory mechanisms for the potential benefits, using a self-regulation framework. To this end, children were involved in learning two five-skill trampoline routines. For one of the routines, a FSM video was provided during acquisition, whereas only verbal instructions were provided for the alternate routine. The FSM involved editing video footage such that it showed the learner performing the trampoline routine at a higher skill level than their current capability. Analyses of the data showed that while physical performance benefits were observed for the routine that was learned with the FSM video, no differences were obtained in relation to the self-regulatory measures. Thus, the FSM video enhanced motor skill acquisition, but this could not be explained by changes to the varied self-regulatory processes examined.
Gannon, Samantha J; Law, Katherine E; Ray, Rebecca D; Nathwani, Jay N; DiMarco, Shannon M; D'Angelo, Anne-Lise D; Pugh, Carla M
This study sought to compare general surgery research residents' survey information regarding self-efficacy ratings to their observed performance during a simulated small bowel repair. Their observed performance ratings were based on their leadership skills in directing their assistant. Participants were given 15 min to perform a bowel repair using bovine intestines with standardized injuries. Operative assistants were assigned to help assist with the repair. Before the procedure, participants were asked to rate their expected skills decay, task difficulty, and confidence in addressing the small bowel injury. Interactions were coded to identify the number of instructions given by the participants to the assistant during the repair. Statistical analyses assessed the relationship between the number of directional instructions and participants' perceptions self-efficacy measures. Directional instructions were defined as any dialog by the participant who guided the assistant to perform an action. Thirty-six residents (58.3% female) participated in the study. Participants who rated lower levels of decay in their intraoperative decision-making and small bowel repair skills were noted to use their assistant more by giving more instructions. Similarly, a higher number of instructions correlated with lower perceived difficulty in selecting the correct suture, suture pattern, and completing the entire surgical task. General surgery research residents' intraoperative leadership skills showed significant correlations to their perceptions of skill decay and task difficulty during a bowel repair. Evaluating resident's directional instructions may provide an additional individualized intraoperative assessment metric. Further evaluation relating to operative performance outcomes is warranted. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morgan, B. B., Jr.; Alluisi, E. A.
The acquisition of skill in the performance of a three-phase code transformation task (3P-COTRAN) was studied with 20 subjects who solved 27 3P-COTRAN problems during each of 8 successive sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in the 3P-COTRAN factor structure resulting from practice, the distribution of practice-related gains in performance over the nine measures of the five 3P-COTRAN factors, and the effects of transformation complexities on the 3P-COTRAN performance of subjects. A significant performance gain due to practice was observed, with improvements in speed continuing even when accuracy reached asymptotic levels. Transformation complexity showed no effect on early performances but the 3- and 4-element transformations were solved quicker than the 5-element transformation in the problem-solving Phase III of later skilled performances.
Carlisle, Vicky; Smith, Harriet; Baker, Fred; Ellegood, George; Kopay, Carol; Tanzer, Ward; Young, Diana; Dujordan, Jerome; Webster, Ron; Lewis, Sara Drew
This self-paced text/workbook is designed for the adult learner who needs a review of grammar and writing skills in order to write clearly and concisely on the job. It offers career-minded students 14 individualized instructional modules on grammar, paragraph writing, report writing, letter writing, and spelling. It is designed for both self-paced…
Hagemann, Vera; Herbstreit, Frank; Kehren, Clemens; Chittamadathil, Jilson; Wolfertz, Sandra; Dirkmann, Daniel; Kluge, Annette; Peters, Jürgen
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of a tailor-made, non-technical skills seminar on medical student's behaviour, attitudes, and performance during simulated patient treatment. Seventy-seven students were randomized to either a non-technical skills seminar (NTS group, n=43) or a medical seminar (control group, n=34). The human patient simulation was used as an evaluation tool. Before the seminars, all students performed the same simulated emergency scenario to provide baseline measurements. After the seminars, all students were exposed to a second scenario, and behavioural markers for evaluating their non-technical skills were rated. Furthermore, teamwork-relevant attitudes were measured before and after the scenarios, and perceived stress was measured following each simulation. All simulations were also evaluated for various medical endpoints. Non-technical skills concerning situation awareness (ptechnical skills to improve student's non-technical skills. In a next step, to improve student's handling of emergencies and patient outcomes, non-technical skills seminars should be accompanied by exercises and more broadly embedded in the medical school curriculum.
Patient safety is an increasingly recognised issue in health care. Systems-based and organisational methods of quality improvement, as well as education focusing on key clinical areas, are common, but there are few reports of educational interventions that focus on non-technical skills to address human factor sources of error. A flexible model for non-technical skills training for health care professionals has been designed based on the best available evidence, and with sound theoretical foundations. Educational sessions to improve non-technical skills in health care have been described before. The descriptions lack the details to allow educators to replicate and innovate further. A non-technical skills training course that can be delivered as either a half- or full-day intervention has been designed and delivered to a number of mixed groups of undergraduate medical students and doctors in postgraduate training. Participant satisfaction has been high and patient safety attitudes have improved post-intervention. This non-technical skills educational intervention has been built on a sound evidence base, and is described so as to facilitate replication and dissemination. With the key themes laid out, clinical educators will be able to build interventions focused on numerous clinical issues that pay attention to human factor contributors to safety. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Arora, Sonal; Miskovic, Danilo; Hull, Louise; Moorthy, Krishna; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Johannsson, Helgi; Gautama, Sanjay; Kneebone, Roger; Sevdalis, Nick
Accurate assessment is imperative for learning, feedback and progression. The aim of this study was to examine whether surgeons can accurately self-assess their technical and nontechnical skills compared with expert faculty members' assessments. Twenty-five surgeons performed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in a simulated operating room. Technical and nontechnical performance was assessed by participants and faculty members using the validated Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) and the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons scale (NOTSS). Assessment of technical performance correlated between self and faculty members' ratings for experienced (median score, 30.0 vs 31.0; ρ = .831; P = .001) and inexperienced (median score, 22.0 vs 28.0; ρ = .761; P = .003) surgeons. Assessment of nontechnical skills between self and faculty members did not correlate for experienced surgeons (median score, 8.0 vs 10.5; ρ = -.375; P = .229) or their more inexperienced counterparts (median score, 9.0 vs 7.0; ρ = -.018; P = .953). Surgeons can accurately self-assess their technical skills in virtual reality LC. Conversely, formal assessment with faculty members' input is required for nontechnical skills, for which surgeons lack insight into their behaviours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jarvis, Phillip S.
There has been a renaissance in the thinking about career development. It is becoming accepted that information is not enough; in addition to academic and technical skills, youth and adults need to learn life/work designing and building skills to become healthy, productive, and self-reliant citizens. Despite the fact that Canadian students have…
Riaz A. Agha
This narrative review used a number of sources including written and online, there was no specific search strategy of defined databases. Modern surgical practice requires; technical and non-technical skills, evidence-based practice, an emphasis on lifelong learning, monitoring of outcomes and a supportive institutional and health service framework. Finally these requirements need to be combined with a number of personal and professional values including integrity, professionalism and compassionate, patient-centred care.
Gordon, Morris; Fell, Christopher W R; Box, Helen; Farrell, Michael; Stewart, Alison
Healthcare increasingly recognises and focusses on the phenomena of 'safe practice' and 'patient safety.' Success with non-technical skills (NTS) training in other industries has led to widespread transposition to healthcare education, with communication and teamwork skills central to NTS frameworks. This study set out to identify how the context of interprofessional simulation learning influences NTS acquisition and development of 'safety' amongst learners. Participants receiving a non-technical skills (NTS) safety focussed training package were invited to take part in a focus group interview which set out to explore communication, teamwork, and the phenomenon of safety in the context of the learning experiences they had within the training programme. The analysis was aligned with a constructivist paradigm and took an interactive methodological approach. The analysis proceeded through three stages, consisting of open, axial, and selective coding, with constant comparisons taking place throughout each phase. Each stage provided categories that could be used to explore the themes of the data. Additionally, to ensure thematic saturation, transcripts of observed simulated learning encounters were then analysed. Six themes were established at the axial coding level, i.e., analytical skills, personal behaviours, communication, teamwork, context, and pedagogy. Underlying these themes, two principal concepts emerged, namely: intergroup contact anxiety - as both a result of and determinant of communication - and teamwork, both of which must be considered in relation to context. These concepts have subsequently been used to propose a framework for NTS learning. This study highlights the role of intergroup contact anxiety and teamwork as factors in NTS behaviour and its dissipation through interprofessional simulation learning. Therefore, this should be a key consideration in NTS education. Future research is needed to consider the role of the affective non-technical
Krage, R.; Zwaan, L.; Tjon Soei Len, L.; Kolenbrander, M.; Groeningen, D. van; Loer, S.A.; Wagner, C.; Schober, P.
Background: Non-technical skills, such as task management, leadership, situational awareness, communication and decision-making refer to cognitive, behavioural and social skills that contribute to safe and efficient team performance. The importance of these skills during cardiopulmonary
Hussain, I. S.; Azlee Hamid, Fazrena
Technical skills are one of the attributes, an engineering student must attain by the time of graduation, as per recommended by Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC). This paper describes the development of technical skills, Programme Outcome (PO) number 5, in students taking the Bachelor of Electrical Power Engineering (BEPE) programme in Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). Seven courses are identified to address the technical skills development. The course outcomes (CO) of the courses are designed to instill the relevant technical skills with suitable laboratory activities. Formative and summative assessments are carried out to gauge students’ acquisition of the skills. Finally, to measure the attainment of the technical skills, key course concept is used. The concept has been implemented since 2013, focusing on improvement of the programme instead of the cohort. From the PO attainment analysis method, three different levels of PO attainment can be calculated: from the programme level, down to the course and student levels. In this paper, the attainment of the courses mapped to PO5 is measured. It is shown that Power Electronics course, which is the key course for PO5, has a strong attainment at above 90%. PO5 of other six courses are also achieved. As a conclusion, by embracing outcome-based education (OBE), the BEPE programme has a sound method to develop technical psychomotor skills in the degree students.
E-Skill Information Acquisition Software: A Key to Poverty Alleviation Or Self Reliance. ... has not helped matters. This project is about developing an e-skill transfer using software. ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Sullivan, Sarah A; Anderson, Barbara M H; Pugh, Carla M
The goal of this article is to provide a focused overview of technical skills education inside the operating room (OR), opportunities for learning outside of the OR (with a focus on simulation), and methods for measuring technical skills. In addition, the authors review the role of maintenance of certification in continuing education and quality improvement and consider the role that simulation plays in this process. The perspectives on teaching in the OR of both residents and faculty going into the case affect the learning environment, and preoperative interactions between attendings and residents to establish learning needs and goals are important. Furthermore, in regards to attending surgeons improving their skills, interaction with more experienced peers and feedback during and after a procedure can be beneficial. Simulation is increasingly being utilized as an education tool outside of the OR. Training in plastic surgery is poised to exploit simulation in multiple technical areas. There is potential to utilize these simulation environments to collect real-time data, such as motion, visual focus, and pressure. How to incorporate technical skill evaluation results in ways that are most beneficial for learning should be the focus of future research and curriculum development. Finally, simulation could be better utilized as a mechanism for both self and peer evaluation and assessment for continuing education and quality improvement. Professional development for faculty and surgery trainees on how to engage with simulation for teaching and learning and how to translate these experiences into improving patient care will be required.
This project will help prepare youth in East and Southern Africa for economic opportunities, and improve the skills of new labour market entrants and existing workers. It will enhance the quality, relevance, and inclusiveness of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in the region. Youth and job opportunities ...
Moore, Lee J; Wilson, Mark R; Waine, Elizabeth; Masters, Rich S W; McGrath, John S; Vine, Samuel J
Technical surgical skills are said to be acquired quicker on a robotic rather than laparoscopic platform. However, research examining this proposition is scarce. Thus, this study aimed to compare the performance and learning curves of novices acquiring skills using a robotic or laparoscopic system, and to examine if any learning advantages were maintained over time and transferred to more difficult and stressful tasks. Forty novice participants were randomly assigned to either a robotic- or laparoscopic-trained group. Following one baseline trial on a ball pick-and-drop task, participants performed 50 learning trials. Participants then completed an immediate retention trial and a transfer trial on a two-instrument rope-threading task. One month later, participants performed a delayed retention trial and a stressful multi-tasking trial. The results revealed that the robotic-trained group completed the ball pick-and-drop task more quickly and accurately than the laparoscopic-trained group across baseline, immediate retention, and delayed retention trials. Furthermore, the robotic-trained group displayed a shorter learning curve for accuracy. The robotic-trained group also performed the more complex rope-threading and stressful multi-tasking transfer trials better. Finally, in the multi-tasking trial, the robotic-trained group made fewer tone counting errors. The results highlight the benefits of using robotic technology for the acquisition of technical surgical skills.
Erickson, Kirk I; Boot, Walter R; Basak, Chandramallika; Neider, Mark B; Prakash, Ruchika S; Voss, Michelle W; Graybiel, Ann M; Simons, Daniel J; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Kramer, Arthur F
Video game skills transfer to other tasks, but individual differences in performance and in learning and transfer rates make it difficult to identify the source of transfer benefits. We asked whether variability in initial acquisition and of improvement in performance on a demanding video game, the Space Fortress game, could be predicted by variations in the pretraining volume of either of 2 key brain regions implicated in learning and memory: the striatum, implicated in procedural learning and cognitive flexibility, and the hippocampus, implicated in declarative memory. We found that hippocampal volumes did not predict learning improvement but that striatal volumes did. Moreover, for the striatum, the volumes of the dorsal striatum predicted improvement in performance but the volumes of the ventral striatum did not. Both ventral and dorsal striatal volumes predicted early acquisition rates. Furthermore, this early-stage correlation between striatal volumes and learning held regardless of the cognitive flexibility demands of the game versions, whereas the predictive power of the dorsal striatal volumes held selectively for performance improvements in a game version emphasizing cognitive flexibility. These findings suggest a neuroanatomical basis for the superiority of training strategies that promote cognitive flexibility and transfer to untrained tasks.
Rashid, Prem; Gianduzzo, Troy R J
To review the emerging role of technical and non-technical simulation in urological education and training. A review was conducted to examine the current role of simulation in urology training. A PUBMED search of the terms 'urology training', 'urology simulation' and 'urology education' revealed 11,504 titles. Three hundred and fifty-seven abstracts were identified as English language, peer reviewed papers pertaining to the role of simulation in urology and related topics. Key papers were used to explore themes. Some cross-referenced papers were also included. There is an ongoing need to ensure that training time is efficiently utilised while ensuring that optimal technical and non-technical skills are achieved. Changing working conditions and the need to minimise patient harm by inadvertent errors must be taken into account. Simulation models for specific technical aspects have been the mainstay of graduated step-wise low and high fidelity training. Whole scenario environments as well as non-technical aspects can be slowly incorporated into the curriculum. Doing so should also help define what have been challenging competencies to teach and evaluate. Dedicated time, resources and trainer up-skilling are important. Concurrent studies are needed to help evaluate the effectiveness of introducing step-wise simulation for technical and non-technical competencies. Simulation based learning remains the best avenue of progressing surgical education. Technical and non-technical simulation could be used in the selection process. There are good economic, logistic and safety reasons to pursue the process of ongoing development of simulation co-curricula. While the role of simulation is assured, its progress will depend on a structured program that takes advantage of what can be delivered via this medium. Overall, simulation can be developed further for urological training programs to encompass technical and non-technical skill development at all stages, including
Gordon, Morris; Box, Helen; Halliwell, Jo-Anne; Farrell, Michael; Parker, Linda; Stewart, Alison
Training in 'non-technical skills', i.e. social (communication and teamwork) and cognitive (analytical and personal behaviour) skills, in health care have been of great interest over the last decade. Whereas the majority of publications focus on 'whether' such education can be successful, they overlook 'how' they enhance skills. We designed and piloted a theoretically robust teaching package that addresses non-technical skills in the context of medicine safety through simulation-based interprofessional learning: the Training In Non-technical Skills to Enhance Levels of Medicines Safety (TINSELS) programme. A modified Delphi process was completed to identify learning outcomes, and multi-professional teams were recruited through local publicity. The faculty staff developed a three-session simulation-based intervention: firstly, a simulated ward encounter with multiple medicine-related activities; secondly, an extended debriefing and facilitated discussion; and finally, a 'chamber of horrors', where interprofessional teams identified potential sources of error. Each session was completed in the simulation suite with between six and nine participants, lasted approximately 90 minutes and took place over 2 weeks. Full details of the course will be presented to facilitate dissemination. Training in 'non-technical skills' in health care have been of great interest over the last decade Feedback was collected on a Likert scale after the course (1, strongly disagree; 5, strongly agree). Mean scores were all greater than 4, with qualitative feedback noting the fidelity of the authentic interprofessional groups. A previously validated safety attitudes questionnaire found changes in attitudes towards handover of care and perceptions of safety in the workplace. An original, simulation-based, multi-professional training programme has been developed with learning and assessment materials available for widespread replication. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Raison, Nicholas; Ahmed, Kamran; Abe, Takashige; Brunckhorst, Oliver; Novara, Giacomo; Buffi, Nicolò; McIlhenny, Craig; van der Poel, Henk; van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Gavazzi, Andrea; Dasgupta, Prokar
To investigate the effectiveness of motor imagery (MI) for technical skill and non-technical skill (NTS) training in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). A single-blind, parallel-group randomised controlled trial was conducted at the Vattikuti Institute of Robotic Surgery, King's College London. Novice surgeons were recruited by open invitation in 2015. After basic robotic skills training, participants underwent simple randomisation to either MI training or standard training. All participants completed a robotic urethrovesical anastomosis task within a simulated operating room. In addition to the technical task, participants were required to manage three scripted NTS scenarios. Assessment was performed by five blinded expert surgeons and a NTS expert using validated tools for evaluating technical skills [Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills (GEARS)] and NTS [Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS)]. Quality of MI was assessed using a revised Movement Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ). In all, 33 participants underwent MI training and 29 underwent standard training. Interrater reliability was high, Krippendorff's α = 0.85. After MI training, the mean (sd) GEARS score was significantly higher than after standard training, at 13.1 (3.25) vs 11.4 (2.97) (P = 0.03). There was no difference in mean NOTSS scores, at 25.8 vs 26.4 (P = 0.77). MI training was successful with significantly higher imagery scores than standard training (mean MIQ score 5.1 vs 4.5, P = 0.04). Motor imagery is an effective training tool for improving technical skill in MIS even in novice participants. No beneficial effect for NTS was found. © 2018 The Authors BJU International © 2018 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nikendei, C; Zeuch, A; Dieckmann, P; Roth, C; Schäfer, S; Völkl, M; Schellberg, D; Herzog, W; Jünger, J
Clinical skills are an important and necessary part of clinical competence. Simulation plays an important role in many fields of medical education. Although role-playing is common in communication training, there are no reports about the use of student role-plays in the training of technical clinical skills. This article describes an educational intervention with analysis of pre- and post-intervention self-selected student survey evaluations. After one term of skills training, a thorough evaluation showed that the skills-lab training did not seem very realistic nor was it very demanding for trainees. To create a more realistic training situation and to enhance students' involvement, case studies and role-plays with defined roles for students (i.e. intern, senior consultant) were introduced into half of the sessions. Results of the evaluation in the second term showed that sessions with role-playing were rated significantly higher than sessions without role-playing.
Carroll, Regina A.; Joachim, Brad T.; St. Peter, Claire C.; Robinson, Nicole
Previous research supports the use of a variety of error-correction procedures to facilitate skill acquisition during discrete-trial instruction. We used an adapted alternating treatments design to compare the effects of 4 commonly used error-correction procedures on skill acquisition for 2 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…
Schwibbe, Anja; Kothe, Christian; Hampe, Wolfgang; Konradt, Udo
Sixty years of research have not added up to a concordant evaluation of the influence of spatial and manual abilities on dental skill acquisition. We used Ackerman's theory of ability determinants of skill acquisition to explain the influence of spatial visualization and manual dexterity on the task performance of dental students in two…
This paper studied the impact of skills acquisition programmes in human and societal economic development in Abua/Odual Local Government Area in Rivers State. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. One hundred and thirty respondents were randomly selected from 13 skills acquisition centres as participants.
de Montbrun, Sandra; Roberts, Patricia L; Satterthwaite, Lisa; MacRae, Helen
To implement the Colorectal Objective Structured Assessment of Technical skill (COSATS) into American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery (ABCRS) certification and build evidence of validity for the interpretation of the scores of this high stakes assessment tool. Currently, technical skill assessment is not a formal component of board certification. With the technical demands of surgical specialties, documenting competence in technical skill at the time of certification with a valid tool is ideal. In September 2014, the COSATS was a mandatory component of ABCRS certification. Seventy candidates took the examination, with their performance evaluated by expert colorectal surgeons using a task-specific checklist, global rating scale, and overall performance scale. Passing scores were set and compared using 2 standard setting methodologies, using a compensatory and conjunctive model. Inter-rater reliability and the reliability of the pass/fail decision were calculated using Cronbach alpha and Subkoviak methodology, respectively. Overall COSATS scores and pass/fail status were compared with results on the ABCRS oral examination. The pass rate ranged from 85.7% to 90%. Inter-rater reliability (0.85) and reliability of the pass/fail decision (0.87 and 0.84) were high. A low positive correlation (r= 0.25) was seen between the COSATS and oral examination. All individuals who failed the COSATS passed the ABCRS oral examination. COSATS is the first technical skill examination used in national surgical board certification. This study suggests that the current certification process may be failing to identify individuals who have demonstrated technical deficiencies on this standardized assessment tool.
Windsor, J A; Zoha, F
It has been suggested that virtual reality (VR) might be useful for the selection of surgical trainees and the measurement of technical performance during preoperative training and retraining. This study was designed to determine whether it is possible to define and measure the acquisition, loss, and reacquisition of psychomotor skills in novice surgical trainees. Novice surgical trainees (NSTs n = 10, junior surgical registrars with little or no prior experience with laparoscopic surgery) were tested and retested after 1 month using the Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality. Two tasks were used: the simple task [stretch diathermy (SD)] and the more complex task [manipulation diathermy (MD)]. The score was derived from the time taken to complete the task and the number of errors that occurred. Acquisition is the difference between the first and last score of the first training session, loss is the difference in score that occurs between the last score of the first training session and the first score of the second training session, and reacquisition is the difference in the first and last scores of the second training session. A performance criterion level was defined for each task by testing a group of experienced laparoscopic surgeons (n = 10). Groups were compared using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test, with p psychomotor skills in individual NSTs and to compare them with a predefined performance criterion level. This study defines parameters that will be useful in repeated training sessions of NSTs in the preoperative phase of training and during retraining.
Basant, Rakesh; Chandra, Pankaj
Education has been recognized as the most important source of competitive advantage for a nation. It is the key determinant of firm level productivity which in turn drives business growth and profitability. Technical knowledge, in particular, is required both for industrial as well as service development. Technical institutions contribute to the growth of business and industry in a variety of ways. The most influential and direct impact is through their graduates who bring in new skills and p...
Alken, Alexander; Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Weenk, Mariska; Yauw, Simon; Fluit, Cornelia; van Goor, Harry
Research on effective integration of technical and non-technical skills in surgery team training is sparse. In a previous study we found that surgical teachers predominantly coached on technical and hardly on non-technical skills during the Definitive Surgical and Anesthetic Trauma Care (DSATC) integrated acute trauma surgery team training. This study aims to investigate whether the priming of teachers could increase the amount of non-technical skills coaching during such a training. Coaching activities of 12 surgical teachers were recorded on audio and video. Six teachers were primed on non-technical skills coaching prior to the training. Six others received no priming and served as controls. Blind observers reviewed the recordings of 2 training scenario's and scored whether the observed behaviors were directed on technical or non-technical skills. We compared the frequency of the non-technical skills coaching between the primed and the non-primed teachers and analyzed for differences according to the trainees' level of experience. Surgical teachers coached trainees during the highly realistic DSATC integrated acute trauma surgery team training. Trainees performed damage control surgery in operating teams on anesthetized porcine models during 6 training scenario's. Twelve experienced surgical teachers participated in this study. Coaching on non-technical skills was limited to about 5%. The primed teachers did not coach more often on non-technical skills than the non-primed teachers. We found no differences in the frequency of non-technical skills coaching based on the trainees' level of experience. Priming experienced surgical teachers does not increase the coaching on non-technical skills. The current DSATC acute trauma surgery team training seems too complex for integrating training on technical and non-technical skills. Patient care, Practice based learning and improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Staklis, Sandra; Klein, Steven
Since the mid-1990s, the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE) has required all students concentrating in career and technical education (CTE) programs to complete a standardized technical skill assessment at or near the end of their program. Results of technical skill assessments are used for a number of purposes, including recognizing…
Jepsen, R M H G; Dieckmann, P; Spanager, L
BACKGROUND: Non-technical skills (NTS) are essential for safe and efficient anaesthesia. Assessment instruments with appropriate validity evidence can be used to ensure that anaesthesiologists possess the NTS necessary to deliver high-standard patient care. The aims were to collect validity...... evidence using a contemporary validity framework for the assessment instrument Anaesthesiologists' Non-Technical Skills in Denmark (ANTSdk) regarding response process and internal structure (including reliability), and to investigate the effect of rater training on these properties. METHODS: An explorative...... study was undertaken at the Danish Institute for Medical Simulation, Copenhagen, Denmark. In a 1-day session, using ANTSdk, a convenience sample of 19 anaesthesiologists rated trainee anaesthesiologists' NTS in nine video-recorded simulation scenarios before and after a 3-h training session. RESULTS...
Conclusion: Use of the virtual reality laparoscopic surgery simulator allowed us to objectively assess residents' acquisition of basic laparoscopic skills. We found that residents more readily acquired dominant-hand skills during their 2-month training. We conclude that our training system serves as an effective initial step towards the acquisition of the necessary laparoscopic surgery skills, even though residents do not actually perform surgeries during the training period.
Ingram, James N; Flanagan, J Randall; Wolpert, Daniel M
Current models of motor learning posit that skill acquisition involves both the formation and decay of multiple motor memories that can be engaged in different contexts. Memory formation is assumed to be context dependent, so that errors most strongly update motor memories associated with the current context. In contrast, memory decay is assumed to be context independent, so that movement in any context leads to uniform decay across all contexts. We demonstrate that for both object manipulation and force-field adaptation, contrary to previous models, memory decay is highly context dependent. We show that the decay of memory associated with a given context is greatest for movements made in that context, with more distant contexts showing markedly reduced decay. Thus, both memory formation and decay are strongest for the current context. We propose that this apparently paradoxical organization provides a mechanism for optimizing performance. While memory decay tends to reduce force output, memory formation can correct for any errors that arise, allowing the motor system to regulate force output so as to both minimize errors and avoid unnecessary energy expenditure. The motor commands for any given context thus result from a balance between memory formation and decay, while memories for other contexts are preserved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 10-13] Announcement of Updated Funding Availability for H-1B Technical Skills Training Grants AGENCY... the availability of $240 million for the H-1B Technical Skills Training Grants to be awarded through a... additional applicants to apply for the H-1B Technical Skills Training Grants competition that will close on...
Jaffer, Usman; Normahani, Pasha; Singh, Prashant; Aslam, Mohammed; Standfield, Nigel J
In vascular surgery, duplex ultrasonography is a valuable diagnostic tool in patients with peripheral vascular disease, and there is increasing demand for vascular surgeons to be able to perform duplex scanning. This study evaluates the role of a novel simulation training package on vascular ultrasound (US) skill acquisition. A total of 19 novices measured predefined stenosis in a simulated pulsatile vessel using both peak systolic velocity ratio (PSVR) and diameter reduction (DR) methods before and after a short period of training using a simulated training package. The training package consisted of a simulated pulsatile vessel phantom, a set of instructional videos, duplex ultrasound objective structured assessment of technical skills (DUOSATS) tool, and a portable US scanner. Quantitative metrics (procedure time, percentage error using PSVR and DR methods, DUOSAT scores, and global rating scores) before and after training were compared. Subjects spent a median time of 144 mins (IQR: 60-195) training using the simulation package. Subjects exhibited statistically significant improvements when comparing pretraining and posttraining DUOSAT scores (pretraining = 17 [16-19.3] vs posttraining = 30 [27.8-31.8]; p duplex images in a pulsatile simulated phantom following a short period of goal direct training using a simulation training package. A simulation training package may be a valuable tool for integration into a vascular training program. However, further work is needed to explore whether these newly attained skills are translated into clinical assessment. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McAnena, P F; O'Halloran, N; Moloney, B M; Courtney, D; Waldron, R M; Flaherty, G; Kerin, M J
Basic surgical skills modules in medical education are effective in teaching skills and increasing confidence among students approaching surgery. However, these modules are not delivered universally and their effect on the professional development of graduates has not been established. We aimed to assess the impact of a 10-week basic surgical skills module on attitudes and technical skills of first year medical students compared to interns. Eighteen students participated and were assessed using a 4-part questionnaire. Technical skills were assessed by observing students perform a basic interrupted suture, using the objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) tool. Fourteen interns were recruited. Students were more confident in surgical scrubbing (mean score 4.0 vs. 2.86, p = 0.001), and performing a basic suture (4.05 vs. 1.93, p = 0.000), more enthusiastic about assisting with an operation (4.5 vs. 3.0, p = 0.001) and more likely to consider a career in surgery (4.16 vs. 2.28, p = 0.000). Technical skills were greater in the student group (mean score 30.8 vs. 19.6, p = 0.001). Five interns had taken part in surgical skills modules as undergraduates. Their technical skills were significantly higher compared to interns who had not (n = 9) (28.8 vs. 14.5, p = 0.006), and they were more likely to consider a career in surgery (3.6 vs. 1.5, p = 0.036). The introduction of surgical skills teaching to the undergraduate medical curriculum has a positive impact on students' attitudes towards surgery and accelerates basic technical skills development. Consideration should be given to development of a standardised undergraduate core curriculum in basic surgical skills teaching.
... 215 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System... Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy. DATES: Effective Date: March 11, 2011. Applicability... adding a section at 215.300 with a reference to Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy...
Krage, Ralf; Zwaan, Laura; Tjon Soei Len, Lian; Kolenbrander, Mark W; van Groeningen, Dick; Loer, Stephan A; Wagner, Cordula; Schober, Patrick
Non-technical skills, such as task management, leadership, situational awareness, communication and decision-making refer to cognitive, behavioural and social skills that contribute to safe and efficient team performance. The importance of these skills during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is increasingly emphasised. Nonetheless, the relationship between non-technical skills and technical performance is poorly understood. We hypothesise that non-technical skills become increasingly important under stressful conditions when individuals are distracted from their tasks, and investigated the relationship between non-technical and technical skills under control conditions and when external stressors are present. In this simulator-based randomised cross-over study, 30 anaesthesiologists and anaesthesia residents from the VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, participated in two different CPR scenarios in random order. In one scenario, external stressors (radio noise and a distractive scripted family member) were added, while the other scenario without stressors served as control condition. Non-technical performance of the team leader and technical performance of the team were measured using the 'Anaesthetists' Non-technical Skill' score and a recently developed technical skills score. Analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficients were used for statistical analyses. Non-technical performance declined when external stressors were present (adjusted mean difference 3.9 points, 95% CI 2.4 to 5.5 points). A significant correlation between non-technical and technical performance scores was observed when external stressors were present (r=0.67, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.83, ptechnical performance score (task management, team working, situation awareness, decision-making). During CPR with external stressors, the team's technical performance is related to the non-technical skills of the team leader. This may have important implications for training of
Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Korndorffer, James R; Black, F William; Dunne, J Bruce; Sierra, Rafael; Touchard, Cheri L; Rice, David A; Markert, Ronald J; Kastl, Peter R; Scott, Daniel J
Laparoscopic simulator training translates into improved operative performance. Proficiency-based curricula maximize efficiency by tailoring training to meet the needs of each individual; however, because rates of skill acquisition vary widely, such curricula may be difficult to implement. We hypothesized that psychomotor testing would predict baseline performance and training duration in a proficiency-based laparoscopic simulator curriculum. Residents (R1, n = 20) were enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective study at the beginning of the academic year. All completed the following: a background information survey, a battery of 12 innate ability measures (5 motor, and 7 visual-spatial), and baseline testing on 3 validated simulators (5 videotrainer [VT] tasks, 12 virtual reality [minimally invasive surgical trainer-virtual reality, MIST-VR] tasks, and 2 laparoscopic camera navigation [LCN] tasks). Participants trained to proficiency, and training duration and number of repetitions were recorded. Baseline test scores were correlated to skill acquisition rate. Cutoff scores for each predictive test were calculated based on a receiver operator curve, and their sensitivity and specificity were determined in identifying slow learners. Only the Cards Rotation test correlated with baseline simulator ability on VT and LCN. Curriculum implementation required 347 man-hours (6-person team) and 795,000 dollars of capital equipment. With an attendance rate of 75%, 19 of 20 residents (95%) completed the curriculum by the end of the academic year. To complete training, a median of 12 hours (range, 5.5-21), and 325 repetitions (range, 171-782) were required. Simulator score improvement was 50%. Training duration and repetitions correlated with prior video game and billiard exposure, grooved pegboard, finger tap, map planning, Rey Figure Immediate Recall score, and baseline performance on VT and LCN. The map planning cutoff score proved most specific in identifying slow learners
... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Independent Research and Development Technical Descriptions (DFARS Case... (DFARS) to require contractors to report independent research and development (IR&D) projects generating... to the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC). Beginning in the 1990s, DoD reduced its technical...
Kahirol Mohd Salleh; Nor Lisa Sulaiman; Mimi Mohaffyza Mohamad; Lai Chee Sern
The workforce is a social environment where particular skills are essential in order for workers to perform well, have a competitive edge and succeed in their careers. A soft skill is one of the skills needed in every type of workplace setting. Soft skills include communication skills, collaboration skills, entrepreneurship, and others. Workplace need workers who are competent not only with technical skills but who also have soft skills. There is lack of literature discussion on the ...
Gjeraa, K; Jepsen, R M H G; Rewers, M; Østergaard, D; Dieckmann, P
A combination of non-technical skills (NTS) and technical skills (TS) is crucial for anaesthetic patient management. However, a deeper understanding of the relationship between these two skills remains to be explored. We investigated the characteristics of trainee anaesthesiologists' NTS and TS in a simulated unexpected difficult airway management scenario. A mixed-method approach was used to explore the relationship between NTS and TS in 25 videos of 2nd year trainee anaesthesiologists managing a simulated difficult airway scenario. The videos were assessed using the customised version of the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills System, ANTSdk, and an adapted TS checklist for calculating the correlation between NTS and TS. Written descriptions of the observed NTS were analysed using directed content analysis. The correlation between the NTS and the TS ratings was 0.106 (two-tailed significance of 0.613). Inter-rater reliability was substantial. Themes characterising good NTS included a systematic approach, planning and communicating decisions as well as responding to the evolving situation. A list of desirable, concrete NTS for the specific airway management situation was generated. This study illustrates that anaesthesiologist trainees' NTS and TS were not correlated in this setting, but rather intertwined and how the interplay of NTS and TS can impact patient management. Themes describing the characteristics of NTS and a list of desirable, concrete NTS were developed to aid the understanding, training and use of NTS. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hoffmann, Pablo F.
This paper discusses the potential effectiveness of spatial sound in the use of multimodal interfaces and virtual environment technologies for the acquisition of motor skills. Because skills are generally of multimodal nature, spatial sound is discussed in terms of the role that it may play...... as to convey information considered critical for the transfer of motor skills....... in facilitating skill acquisition by complementing, or substituting, other sensory modalities. An overview of related research areas on audiovisual and audiotactile interaction is given in connection to the potential benefits of spatial sound as a means to improve the perceptual quality of the interfaces as well...
... Organization Government Procurement Agreement and the Free Trade Agreements, as determined by the United States... 252 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System...
Juan David Dominguez-Sánchez
Full Text Available General practitioners must constantly face challenges imposed by their profession when performing interventions that are necessary for their patients. Many of these interventions not only require proper use of theoretical knowledge, but also putting into practice non-technical and psychomotor skills developed through professional training. Given the specific characteristics of each patient, the clinical setting in the which procedure takes place and the limited skills of the professional, the management of the airway of a patient with trauma injuries in the emergency room represents a major challenge for physicians.
Harvey, Rachel; Mellanby, Edward; Dearden, Effie; Medjoub, Karima; Edgar, Simon
Conducting clinical 'rounds' is one of the most onerous and important duties that every junior doctor is expected to perform. There is evidence that newly qualified doctors are not adequately prepared by their undergraduate experiences for this task. The aim of this study was to analyse the challenges pertaining to non-technical skills that students would face during ward rounds, and to create a model that facilitates the transition from medical student to doctor. A total of 217 final-year medical students completed a simulated ward round. Free-text responses were analysed using template analysis applying an a priori template developed from the literature by the research team. This drew on the generic categories of non-technical skills suggested by Flin et al. Ninety-seven per cent of students agreed or strongly agreed that the simulated ward round improved their insight into the challenges of ward rounds and their perceived ability to work efficiently as an active member of the ward round. The responding students (206) submitted written feedback describing the learning that they planned to use: 800 learning points were recorded, and all could be categorised into one of seven non-technical skills. Conducting clinical 'rounds' is one of the most onerous and important duties that every junior doctor is expected to perform We believe that improved task efficiency and insight into the challenges of the ward round gained by medical students will lead to an enhancement in performance during clinical rounds, and will have a positive impact on patient safety. We would suggest that undergraduate medical schools consider this model in the preparation for the clinical practice element of the curriculum. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Spanager, Lene; Dieckmann, Peter; Beier-Holgersen, Randi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the content of conversations, feedback style, and perceived usefulness of feedback to trainee surgeons when conversations were stimulated by a tool for assessing surgeons' non-technical skills. METHODS: Trainee surgeons and their supervisors used the Non...... qualitatively analyzed for content and feedback style. Usefulness was investigated using a scale from 1 to 5 and written comments were qualitatively analyzed. RESULTS: Six trainees and six supervisors participated in eight feedback conversations. Eighty questionnaires (response rate 83 percent) were collected...
Kester, Liesbeth; Lehnen, Chris; Van Gerven, Pascal; Kirschner, Paul A.
Kester, L., Lehnen, C., Van Gerven, P.W. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2006). Just-in-time, Schematic Supportive Information Presentation During Cognitive Skill Acquisition. Computers in Human Behavior, 22, 93-112 .
Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Bäumer, Anita
Kester, L., Kirschner, P., van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Bäumer, A. (2001). Just-in-time information presentation and the acquisition of complex cognitive skills. Computers in Human Behavior, 17, 373-391.
Nicholson, Anita; Tobin, Mary
This presentation will discuss coupling commercial and customized computer-supported teaching aids to provide BSN nursing students with a friendly customer-centered self-study approach to psychomotor skill acquisition.
... changes to the FAR. List of Subject in 48 CFR Parts 2, 22, and 52 Government procurement. Dated: July 26, 2013. William Clark, Acting Director, Office of Government-wide Acquisition Policy, Office of Acquisition Policy, Office of Government-wide Policy. Therefore, DoD, GSA, and NASA amend 48 CFR parts 2, 22...
... Acquisition Regulations. List of Subjects in 48 CFR Parts 18, 19, and 52 Government procurement. Dated: March... in paragraph (b) by removing ``http:// www.whitehouse.gov/omb/procurement/guides/emergency_acquisitions_ guide.pdf'' and adding ``http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/ omb/assets/procurement...
Prakash, Ruchika S.; De Leon, Angeline A.; Mourany, Lyla; Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W.; Boot, Walter R.; Basak, Chandramallika; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Kramer, Arthur F.
Acquisition of complex skills is a universal feature of human behavior that has been conceptualized as a process that starts with intense resource dependency, requires effortful cognitive control, and ends in relative automaticity on the multi-faceted task. The present study examined the effects of different theoretically based training strategies on cortical recruitment during acquisition of complex video game skills. Seventy-five participants were recruited and assigned to one of three trai...
A. Talebian; A. Honarpishe; A. Taghavi; E. Fakharian; M. Parsa; GA. Mousavi
AbstractObjectiveDevelopment is a complex process, completed over a specific period of time, through the maturation of the nervous system. It is affected by genetic, ethnic, nutritional, social, and economic factors; one of the environmental factors affecting the acquisition of motor skills in infants is the use of baby walkers. Since this device is very commonly used for infants in our country, we conducted this study to evaluate its effects on the acquisition of motor skills in this age gr...
Choudhury, Nusrat; Gélinas-Phaneuf, Nicholas; Delorme, Sébastien; Del Maestro, Rolando
Technical skills training in neurosurgery is mostly done in the operating room. New educational paradigms are encouraging the development of novel training methods for surgical skills. Simulation could answer some of these needs. This article presents the development of a conceptual training framework for use on a virtual reality neurosurgical simulator. Appropriate tasks were identified by reviewing neurosurgical oncology curricula requirements and performing cognitive task analyses of basic techniques and representative surgeries. The tasks were then elaborated into training modules by including learning objectives, instructions, levels of difficulty, and performance metrics. Surveys and interviews were iteratively conducted with subject matter experts to delimitate, review, discuss, and approve each of the development stages. Five tasks were selected as representative of basic and advanced neurosurgical skill. These tasks were: 1) ventriculostomy, 2) endoscopic nasal navigation, 3) tumor debulking, 4) hemostasis, and 5) microdissection. The complete training modules were structured into easy, intermediate, and advanced settings. Performance metrics were also integrated to provide feedback on outcome, efficiency, and errors. The subject matter experts deemed the proposed modules as pertinent and useful for neurosurgical skills training. The conceptual framework presented here, the Fundamentals of Neurosurgery, represents a first attempt to develop standardized training modules for technical skills acquisition in neurosurgical oncology. The National Research Council Canada is currently developing NeuroTouch, a virtual reality simulator for cranial microneurosurgery. The simulator presently includes the five Fundamentals of Neurosurgery modules at varying stages of completion. A first pilot study has shown that neurosurgical residents obtained higher performance scores on the simulator than medical students. Further work will validate its components and use in a
The Dreyfus model describes how individuals progress through various levels in their acquisition of skills and subsumes ideas with regard to how individuals learn. Such a model is being accepted almost without debate from physicians to explain the 'acquisition' of clinical skills. This paper reviews such a model, discusses several controversial points, clarifies what kind of knowledge the model is about, and examines its coherence in terms of problem-solving skills. Dreyfus' main idea that intuition is a major aspect of expertise is also discussed in some detail. Relevant scientific evidence from cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience is reviewed to accomplish these aims. Although the Dreyfus model may partially explain the 'acquisition' of some skills, it is debatable if it can explain the acquisition of clinical skills. The complex nature of clinical problem-solving skills and the rich interplay between the implicit and explicit forms of knowledge must be taken into consideration when we want to explain 'acquisition' of clinical skills. The idea that experts work from intuition, not from reason, should be evaluated carefully.
Dieckmann, Peter; Beier-Holgersen, Randi; Rosenberg, Jacob; Oestergaard, Doris
Objectives This study aimed to explore the content of conversations, feedback style, and perceived usefulness of feedback to trainee surgeons when conversations were stimulated by a tool for assessing surgeons’ non-technical skills. Methods Trainee surgeons and their supervisors used the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons in Denmark tool to stimulate feedback conversations. Audio recordings of post-operation feedback conversations were collected. Trainees and supervisors provided questionnaire responses on the usefulness and comprehensiveness of the feedback. The feedback conversations were qualitatively analyzed for content and feedback style. Usefulness was investigated using a scale from 1 to 5 and written comments were qualitatively analyzed. Results Six trainees and six supervisors participated in eight feedback conversations. Eighty questionnaires (response rate 83 percent) were collected from 13 trainees and 12 supervisors. Conversations lasted median eight (2-15) minutes. Supervisors used the elements and categories in the tool to structure the content of the conversations. Supervisors tended to talk about the trainees’ actions and their own frames rather than attempting to understand the trainees’ perceptions. Supervisors and trainees welcomed the feedback opportunity and agreed that the conversations were useful and comprehensive. Conclusions The content of the feedback conversations reflected the contents of the tool and the feedback was considered useful and comprehensive. However, supervisors talked primarily about their own frames, so in order for the feedback to reach its full potential, supervisors may benefit from training techniques to stimulate a deeper reflection among trainees. PMID:25602262
Krage, R. (Ralf); L. Zwaan (Laura); Tjon Soei Len, L. (Lian); Kolenbrander, M.W. (Mark W); Van Groeningen, D. (DIck); S.A. Loer (Stephan A.); C. Wagner (Cordula); P. Schober (P.)
textabstractBackground Non-technical skills, such as task management, leadership, situational awareness, communication and decision-making refer to cognitive, behavioural and social skills that contribute to safe and efficient team performance. The importance of these skills during cardiopulmonary
Bancino, Randy; Zevalkink, Claire
In this article, the authors talk about the importance of soft skills for hard-core technical professionals. In many technical professions, the complete focus of education and training is on technical topics either directly or indirectly related to a career or discipline. Students are generally required to master various mathematics skills,…
Boahin, Peter; Hofman, Adriaan
In the changing global economy, employability skills increasingly are the focus of vocational education and training institutions. This paper explores the effect of academic disciplines, students' background characteristics and industry training on the acquisition of employability skills through competency-based training. A significant…
Mbanefo, Maryrose Chinwe; Eboka, Obiajulu C.
Innovative and entrepreneurial skill acquisition in Nigeria entails focusing on what should be done to bridge the gap between the school and labor market, where the learner will work after graduation, so as to be self-reliant in the society. Specifically, the study determined: The innovative and entrepreneurial skills needed in basic science…
PROF. BARTH EKWEME
the UBE scheme should be actively involved in classroom activities, and that activity-based methods of instruction be employed in teaching Basic sciences to enable a greater percentage of students to acquire Science Process Skills with higher scores for effective learning of Science subjects. INTRODUCTION. Science Skill ...
Carlisle, Deborah; Tyson, Julian; Nieswandt, Martina
The study of chemistry requires the understanding and use of spatial relationships, which can be challenging for many students. Prior research has shown that there is a need to develop students' spatial reasoning skills. To that end, this study implemented guided activities designed to strengthen students' spatial skills, with the aim of improving…
Gaschler, Robert; Progscha, Johanna; Smallbone, Kieran; Ram, Nilam; Bilalić, Merim
Learning curves have been proposed as an adequate description of learning processes, no matter whether the processes manifest within minutes or across years. Different mechanisms underlying skill acquisition can lead to differences in the shape of learning curves. In the current study, we analyze the tournament performance data of 1383 chess players who begin competing at young age and play tournaments for at least 10 years. We analyze the performance development with the goal to test the adequacy of learning curves, and the skill acquisition theories they are based on, for describing and predicting expertise acquisition. On the one hand, we show that the skill acquisition theories implying a negative exponential learning curve do a better job in both describing early performance gains and predicting later trajectories of chess performance than those theories implying a power function learning curve. On the other hand, the learning curves of a large proportion of players show systematic qualitative deviations from the predictions of either type of skill acquisition theory. While skill acquisition theories predict larger performance gains in early years and smaller gains in later years, a substantial number of players begin to show substantial improvements with a delay of several years (and no improvement in the first years), deviations not fully accounted for by quantity of practice. The current work adds to the debate on how learning processes on a small time scale combine to large-scale changes.
Apunda, Edwinah Amondi; de Klerk, Helena M.; Ogina, Teresa
Custom tailors working in the informal sector in Nairobi, Kenya, mainly acquire technical skills through undertaking traditional apprenticeships (TAs). However, most of these tailors are semi-skilled, produce low-quality products and are often poorer than their formally trained counterparts. This qualitative case study explores the aspects of technical skills and knowledge which tailoring apprentices develop, and the factors which influence these outcomes. The findings show that apprentices do acquire basic technical skills for immediate application to ongoing tailoring activities (such as how to take body measurements, draft patterns, and cut, sew and finish constructed garments). However, apprentices do not acquire the technical knowledge that underpins the trade. Most master tailors who have completed TAs lack technical knowledge and have no access to technical skills upgrading. This perpetuates the cycle of basic and limited technical skills transfer to apprentices, poor performance and poverty among tailors. Both apprentices and master tailors expressed concern over knowledge limitations in TAs and a need to access further training to improve skills and acquire knowledge of the trade. The authors of this article argue that, technically and pedagogically, skilled master tailors are critical to improving training quality. Complementary training in theoretical knowledge is also important in improving apprentices' technical skills and understanding of the trade. Inclusion of TAs in government policy may help ensure sustainable improvement of skills.
... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Independent Research and Development Technical Descriptions... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to require major contractors to report independent research and development (IR... 11414 on March 2, 2011, to revise requirements for reporting IR&D projects to the Defense Technical...
Nagasaka, Akihiko; Shibue, Hisao
The purpose of this study is to systematize measures for improvement of emergency response capability focused on non-technical skills. As the results of investigation of some emergency training in nuclear power plant and referring to CRM training, following two issues were picked up. 1) Lack of practical training method for improvement of non-technical skills. 2) Lack of evaluation method of non-technical skills. Then, based on these 7 non-technical skills 'situational awareness' 'decision making' 'communication' 'teamworking' 'leadership' 'managing stress' 'coping with fatigue' are promotion factors to improve emergency response capability, we propose practical training method for each non-technical skill. Also we give example of behavioral markers as evaluation factor, and indicate approaches to introduce the evaluation method of non-technical skills. (author)
The study was a survey research which investigated the production skills possessed by .... like creative thinking, decision making, marketing etc. (Olutoyin ... difficult to get teaching jobs or set up and handle their own businesses which resulted ...
PROF. BARTH EKWEME
students acquired the basic Science Process Skills measured but at a very low and little ... the UBE scheme should be actively involved in classroom activities, and that activity-based methods of ... that the ability to make good observation.
Non-technical skills are the cognitive and interpersonal behaviours that compliment clinical competence in surgery. Effective use of non-technical skills is essential for scrub practice, because they facilitate anticipation of the surgeon's requirements and promote appropriate communication behaviours. This literature review analyses the factors that may influence a scrub practitioner's use of non-technical skills during surgery. Recommendations are made that are intended to improve their use by reducing behavioural variations during surgery.
Labuschagne, William A
Full Text Available With the increase in technology adoption, quality assurance in terms of the technical skill level of cybersecurity experts working on a task is crucial. Educating employees and ensuring that they have the necessary tools and skills required...
Martin, Sarah Jane
The United States faces a skills shortage that goes beyond academic and technical skills. Employers report entry-level workers lack the necessary "soft" skills, also referred to as workplace readiness skills, needed for success in the workforce; thus, calling on educational institutions to make improvements in high school curriculum in…
... (NAVSEA) and Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR). TMs are the primary information source for technical training, installation, operation, testing, maintenance, and repair associated with NAVSEA/SPAWAR systems or equipment...
Gjeraa, Kirsten; Spanager, Lene; Konge, Lars
BACKGROUND: Root cause analyses show that up to 70 % of adverse events are caused by human error. Strong non-technical skills (NTS) can prevent or reduce these errors, considerable numbers of which occur in the operating theatre. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) requires manipulation of more...... complex equipment than open procedures, likely requiring a different set of NTS for each kind of team. The aims of this study were to identify the MIS teams' key NTS and investigate the effect of training and assessment of NTS on MIS teams. METHODS: The databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Psyc...... were included. All were observational studies without blinding, and they differed in aims, types of evaluation, and outcomes. Only two studies evaluated patient outcomes other than operative time, and overall, the studies' quality of evidence was low. Different communication types were encountered...
Flin, Rhona; Maran, Nikki
In this paper, we explain the conceptual background to non-technical skills and show how they can influence job performance in anaesthesia. We then describe the taxonomy of anaesthetists' non-technical skills (ANTS) and related systems, such as ANTS-AP for anaesthetic practitioners. We discuss the training courses that have been designed to teach these non-technical skills, which are called crew resource management (CRM), crisis resource management (CRM) or crisis avoidance resource management (CARMA). Finally, we discuss the application of non-technical skills assessment systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gøtzsche, Ole; Eika, Berit
Purpose: Little is known about factors of relevance for achieving technical skills of echocardiography (TTE); one of the essential skills defined by the European Society of Cardiology Core Curriculum. In an earlier study we have shown that there is a strong correlation between physiology knowledge...... and interpretation skills of intermediately trained echocardiographers. This study investigates the role of physiology knowledge in the development of echocardiographic technical expertise. Methods: Forty-five physicians (15 novices, 15 intermediates and 15 experts) were evaluated on technical skills. Participants...... of echocardiography relevant physiology knowledge. Results: A strong and significant correlation between expertise level and technical checklist scores was found (r = .76, p
Irwin, Amy; Poots, Jill
Farming is a high-risk sector with up to 170,000 worldwide fatalities reported per year; it is therefore vital to identify methods of mitigating the dangers of this industry. Research within high-risk industries, such as aviation, shipping, and agriculture, has identified the importance of non-technical skills (NTS) in maintaining effective, safe performance and reducing error and injury. However, there is a lack of research evaluating factors that may contribute to NTS attitudes and behaviors. As a first step to address this literature gap, the current study evaluated a range of individual and environmental factors as potential predictors of attitudes toward NTS in agriculture. A sample of 170 farmers from within the United Kingdom and Ireland were surveyed using an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included measures of personality, stress, attitudes toward safety (safety climate, motivation, and risk), environmental stressors (workload, work-life imbalance), and non-technical skills (team and lone worker). Attitudes toward safety climate, compliance, and motivation showed a significant association with both team-based and lone worker NTS. Conscientiousness correlated positively with the majority of the NTS elements. Multiple regression analysis indicated neuroticism and conscientiousness demonstrated capacity to predict NTS attitudes. Concerns about costs and equipment, attitudes toward safety climate, and safety motivation were also found to be significant predictors of NTS attitudes. The results indicate the utility of individual characteristics and environmental factors when predicting farming NTS attitudes. As a result, these elements could be important when evaluating engagement with NTS and developing NTS training initiatives in agriculture.
... Parts 4, 8, 15, 19, 22, 23, 28, 42, and 52 Government procurement. Dated: December 21, 2011. Laura... paragraph (a)(2) ``http:// www.sba.gov/GC/pcr.html'' and adding ``http://www.sba.gov/content/ procurement-center-representatives'' in its place. PART 22--APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS 22...
... concerns, HUBZone small business concerns, small disadvantaged business concerns, women-owned small... date, and revising paragraph (a)(10) to read as follows: 252.225-7009 Restriction on Acqusition of Certain Articles Containing Specialty Metals. * * * * * RESTRICTION ON ACQUISITION OF CERTAIN ARTICLES...
... changes to the FAR. List of Subject in 48 CFR Parts 31 and 52 Government procurement. Dated: November 18, 2013. William Clark, Acting Director, Office of Government-Wide Acquisition Policy, Office of... procedures of FAR Part 25. For line items covered by the WTO GPA, the Government will evaluate offers of U.S...
Marlow, Nicholas; Altree, Meryl; Babidge, Wendy; Field, John; Hewett, Peter; Maddern, Guy J
Training in basic laparoscopic skills can be undertaken using traditional methods, where trainees are educated by experienced surgeons through a process of graduated responsibility or by simulation-based training. This study aimed to assess whether simulation trained individuals reach the same level of proficiency in basic laparoscopic skills as traditional trained participants when assessed in a simulated environment. A prospective study was undertaken. Participants were allocated to one of two cohorts according to surgical experience. Participants from the inexperienced cohort were randomized to receive training in basic laparoscopic skills on either a box trainer or a virtual reality simulator. They were then assessed on the simulator on which they did not receive training. Participants from the experienced cohort, considered to have received traditional training in basic laparoscopic skills, did not receive simulation training and were randomized to either the box trainer or virtual reality simulator for skills assessment. The assessment scores from different cohorts on either simulator were then compared. A total of 138 participants completed the assessment session, 101 in the inexperienced simulation-trained cohort and 37 on the experienced traditionally trained cohort. There was no statistically significant difference between the training outcomes of simulation and traditionally trained participants, irrespective of the simulator type used. The results demonstrated that participants trained on either a box trainer or virtual reality simulator achieved a level of basic laparoscopic skills assessed in a simulated environment that was not significantly different from participants who had been traditionally trained in basic laparoscopic skills. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Aalaa, Maryam; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Shahbazi, Samimeh; Shayeganmehr, Zahra; Abooeirad, Maryam; Amini, Mohammad Reza; Adibi, Hossien; Mehrdad, Neda
Diabetes mellitus as one of the most common metabolic disorders has some complications, one of the main ones is diabetic foot (DF). Appropriate care and education prevents 85% of diabetic foot amputations. An ideal management to prevent and treat diabetic foot necessitates a close collaboration between the health team members and the diabetic patient. Therefore, improving nurses' knowledge about DF care and advancement in the quality of care provided by the nurses could significantly improve diabetic foot prevention and management. Therefore, the aim of DF workshop was to improve technical and educational skills of the nurses to prevent and manage diabetic foot. Considering the vital role of the nurses in providing DF care, EMRI decided to conduct Diabetic foot workshop for them. The following five steps were designed for the 14 coordinating sessions in the workshop: Goals definition, deciding about attendees, location selection, creating agenda, and developing a follow-up plan. "Diabetic Foot Workshop for Nurses" provides appropriate training to DF nurses at the national level; and combining theory and practice in this workshop not only increases nurses' knowledge, but also improves their skills in the field of the diabetic foot. Providing education and care to patients by DF nurse specialists instead of general nurses could be an important output of this workshop, which may lead to DF prevention and amputation decrease in the long term.
Jorm, Christine; Roberts, Chris; Lim, Renee; Roper, Josephine; Skinner, Clare; Robertson, Jeremy; Gentilcore, Stacey; Osomanski, Adam
There is little research on large-scale complex health care simulations designed to facilitate student learning of non-technical skills in a team-working environment. We evaluated the acceptability and effectiveness of a novel natural disaster simulation that enabled medical students to demonstrate their achievement of the non-technical skills of collaboration, negotiation and communication. In a mixed methods approach, survey data were available from 117 students and a thematic analysis undertaken of both student qualitative comments and tutor observer participation data. Ninety three per cent of students found the activity engaging for their learning. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data: the impact of fidelity on student learning, reflexivity on the importance of non-technical skills in clinical care, and opportunities for collaborative teamwork. Physical fidelity was sufficient for good levels of student engagement, as was sociological fidelity. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the simulation in allowing students to reflect upon and evidence their acquisition of skills in collaboration, negotiation and communication, as well as situational awareness and attending to their emotions. Students readily identified emerging learning opportunities though critical reflection. The scenarios challenged students to work together collaboratively to solve clinical problems, using a range of resources including interacting with clinical experts. A large class teaching activity, framed as a simulation of a natural disaster is an acceptable and effective activity for medical students to develop the non-technical skills of collaboration, negotiation and communication, which are essential to team working. The design could be of value in medical schools in disaster prone areas, including within low resource countries, and as a feasible intervention for learning the non-technical skills that are needed for patient safety.
Green, Courtney A; Huang, Emily; Zhao, Nina W; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Kim, Edward; Chern, Hueylan
Sustainability of skill acquisition gained from graduating medical student (GMS) preparatory courses remains uncertain. GMS skills were assessed before (T1) and after a preparatory course (T2) and then again 2 (T3) and 4 (T4) months into residency and compared to surgical interns without such a course. In April, GMS took the preparatory course. In July-August all interns participated in a basic skills curriculum. Learners completed four technical exercises pre/post each course. Three surgeons scored performances. GMS scores were compared across the 4 time points. Control interns were compared at T3 and T4. Thirty-two interns completed all pre/post course assessments (T3 and T4); seven of those were GMSs. GMS scores increased from 74.5%(T1) to 94.2%(T2) (p starting residency compared to control interns (T3, 89.08% vs 65.03%, p start. Without such course, interns require a steep learning curve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ludolph, Nicolas; Giese, Martin A; Ilg, Winfried
There is increasing evidence that sensorimotor learning under real-life conditions relies on a composition of several learning processes. Nevertheless, most studies examine learning behaviour in relation to one specific learning mechanism. In this study, we examined the interaction between reward-based skill acquisition and motor adaptation to changes of object dynamics. Thirty healthy subjects, split into two groups, acquired the skill of balancing a pole on a cart in virtual reality. In one group, we gradually increased the gravity, making the task easier in the beginning and more difficult towards the end. In the second group, subjects had to acquire the skill on the maximum, most difficult gravity level. We hypothesized that the gradual increase in gravity during skill acquisition supports learning despite the necessary adjustments to changes in cart-pole dynamics. We found that the gradual group benefits from the slow increment, although overall improvement was interrupted by the changes in gravity and resulting system dynamics, which caused short-term degradations in performance and timing of actions. In conclusion, our results deliver evidence for an interaction of reward-based skill acquisition and motor adaptation processes, which indicates the importance of both processes for the development of optimized skill acquisition schedules.
McPherson, Gary E.
Reports on a longitudinal study of high school instrumentalists that examined the development of four distinct types of musical performance (playing by ear, playing from memory, sight reading, and improvising) over three years. Reveals a significant improvement in these skills while also demonstrating changes in aural and creative activities. (CMK)
Preece, Abdul Shakhour Duncan
The study investigates the effectiveness of community of inquiry method in preparing students to develop listening and speaking skills in a sample of junior secondary school students in Borno state, Nigeria. A sample of 100 students in standard classes was drawn in one secondary school in Maiduguri metropolis through stratified random sampling…
Vann, William F., Jr.; And Others
A traditional method of teaching psychomotor skills in a preclinical restorative dentistry laboratory course was compared with an experimental method. The experimental group was taught using a guided systematic approach that relied on detailed checklists and exhaustive faculty feedback. (Author/MLW)
Mann, D.L.; Ryu, D.; Abernethy, B.A.; Poolton, J.M.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether decision-making skill in perceptual-cognitive tasks could be enhanced using a training technique that impaired selective areas of the visual field. Recreational basketball players performed perceptual training over 3 days while viewing with a
Meegan, Sarah; Maraj, Brian K. V.; Weeks, Daniel; Chua, Romeo
The purpose of this study was to assess whether verbal-motor performances deficits exhibited by individuals with Down syndrome limited their ability to acquire gross motor skills when given visual and verbal instruction together and then transferred to either a visual or verbal instructional mode to reproduce the movement. Nine individuals with…
Deal, Shanley B; Lendvay, Thomas S; Haque, Mohamad I; Brand, Timothy; Comstock, Bryan; Warren, Justin; Alseidi, Adnan
Objective, unbiased assessment of surgical skills remains a challenge in surgical education. We sought to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of Crowd-Sourced Assessment of Technical Skills. Seven volunteer general surgery interns were given time for training and then testing, on laparoscopic peg transfer, precision cutting, and intracorporeal knot-tying. Six faculty experts (FEs) and 203 Amazon.com Mechanical Turk crowd workers (CWs) evaluated 21 deidentified video clips using the Global Objective Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills validated rating instrument. Within 19 hours and 15 minutes we received 662 eligible ratings from 203 CWs and 126 ratings from 6 FEs over 10 days. FE video ratings were of borderline internal consistency (Krippendorff's alpha = .55). FE ratings were highly correlated with CW ratings (Pearson's correlation coefficient = .78, P Assessment of Technical Skills as a reliable, basic tool to standardize the evaluation of technical skills in general surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sellés, Pilar; Ávila, Vicenta; Martínez, Tomás; Ysla, Liz
This paper deals with the skills related to the early reading acquisition in two countries that share language. Traditionally on reading readiness research there is a great interest to find out what factors affect early reading ability, but differ from other academic skills that affect general school learnings. Furthermore, it is also known how the influence of pre-reading variables in two countries with the same language, affect the development of the reading. On the other hand, several studies have examined what skills are related to reading readiness (phonological awareness, alphabetic awareness, naming speed, linguistic skills, metalinguistic knowledge and basic cognitive processes), but there are no studies showing whether countries can also influence the development of these skills.Our main objective in this study was to establish whether there were differences in the degree of acquisition of these skills between Spanish (119 children) and Peruvian (128 children), five years old children assessed in their own countries and after controlling Economic, Social and Cultural Status (ESCS). The results show that there are significant differences in the degree of acquisition of these skills between these two samples. It's especially relevant, in these results, that the main predictor in a regression study was the country of origin, explaining a higher percentage of variance than other variables such as age differences, in months, or gender. These findings corroborate the results obtained in other studies with migrant population.
Gelfman, Laura P; Lindenberger, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Helen; Goldberg, Gabrielle R; Lim, Betty B; Litrivis, Evgenia; O'Neill, Lynn; Smith, Cardinale B; Kelley, Amy S
Communication skills are critical in Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine because these patients confront complex clinical scenarios. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Geritalk communication skills course by comparing pre- and post-course real-time assessment of the participants leading family meetings. We also evaluated the participants' sustained skills practice. We compare the participants' skill acquisition before and after Geritalk using a direct observation Family Meeting Communication Assessment Tool and assess their deliberate practice at follow-up. First-year Geriatrics or Palliative Medicine fellows at Mount Sinai Medical Center and the James J. Peters Bronx VA Medical Center participated in Geritalk. Pre- and post-course family meeting assessments were compared. An average net gain of 6.8 skills represented a greater than 20% improvement in use of applicable skills. At two month follow-up, most participants reported deliberate practice of fundamental and advanced skills. This intensive training and family meeting assessment offers evidence-based communication skills training. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Examples Design constraints make software acquisition and development t l iti lex reme y cr ca Application domain – Operational Flight Program, Air...environment – used to produce the software Ri k t t bli h d d i t i d i k ts managemen – es a s e an ma n a ne r s managemen systems Milestone reviews...Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that
Hill, Randall W., Jr.; Johnson, W. Lewis
We are interested in developing effective performance-oriented training for the operation of systems that are used for monitor and control purposes. We have focused on one such system, the communications Link Monitor and Control (LMC) system used in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), which is a worldwide system for navigating, tracking and communicating with unmanned interplanetary spacecraft. The tasks in this domain are procedural in nature and require reactive, goal-oriented skills; we have previously described a cognitive model for problem solving that accounts for both novice and expert levels of behavior as well as how skill is acquired. Our cognitive modeling work in this task domain led us to make a number of predictions about tutoring that have influenced the design of the system described in this paper.
Khair, Kate; Meerabeau, Liz; Gibson, Faith
There is an increasing prevalence of children/young people with long-term conditions (LTC) in the UK due to improvements in health-care management and delivery. These children are often involved, from an early age, in their own care and management; yet, there are little data to support how or when they develop the necessary skills and knowledge to become competent at this care. This study aimed to understand self-management of haemophilia, from a child's perspective, in the 21st century in the UK where intensive prophylactic therapy is given from early childhood. A qualitative study using grounded theory to evaluate life-experiences of children and young people with haemophilia. Thirty boys aged 4-16 with severe haemophilia treated at a single paediatric haemophilia care centre were interviewed at home or in a focus group. Multimethod qualitative research including age-appropriate research tools (draw and write, photo-elicitation and interviews) to facilitate data collection from children. Boys develop self-management skills over time. They learn from health-care professionals, their parents and other family members with haemophilia. Self-management skills (bleed recognition, self-infusion, self and medicines management, pain and risk management and conceptualizing preventative therapy) are developed through experiential learning and individualized education, and not through formalized expert patient programmes. The boys in this study have benefited from early prophylactic factor replacement therapy. They develop skills in haemophilia and self-management at a relatively young age and are experts in their own haemophilia care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ryu, Donghyun; Mann, David L; Abernethy, Bruce; Poolton, Jamie M
The purpose of this study was to determine whether decision-making skill in perceptual-cognitive tasks could be enhanced using a training technique that impaired selective areas of the visual field. Recreational basketball players performed perceptual training over 3 days while viewing with a gaze-contingent manipulation that displayed either (a) a moving window (clear central and blurred peripheral vision), (b) a moving mask (blurred central and clear peripheral vision), or (c) full (unrestricted) vision. During the training, participants watched video clips of basketball play and at the conclusion of each clip made a decision about to which teammate the player in possession of the ball should pass. A further control group watched unrelated videos with full vision. The effects of training were assessed using separate tests of decision-making skill conducted in a pretest, posttest, and 2-week retention test. The accuracy of decision making was greater in the posttest than in the pretest for all three intervention groups when compared with the control group. Remarkably, training with blurred peripheral vision resulted in a further improvement in performance from posttest to retention test that was not apparent for the other groups. The type of training had no measurable impact on the visual search strategies of the participants, and so the training improvements appear to be grounded in changes in information pickup. The findings show that learning with impaired peripheral vision offers a promising form of training to support improvements in perceptual skill.
Larsen, Peter Gorm; Kristiansen, Erik Lasse; Bennedsen, Jens; Bjerge, Kim
In general engineering studies focus on the technical skills in their own discipline. However, in their subsequent industrial careers, a significant portion of their time needs to be devoted to non-technical skills. In addition, in an increasingly globalised world collaboration in teams across cultures and disciplines is paramount to the creation…
Kennedy, Kristen M; Partridge, Ty; Raz, Naftali
Aging is associated with reduced performance on information processing speed, memory, and executive functions tasks. Although older adults are also less apt in acquiring new perceptual-motor skills, it is unclear whether and how skill acquisition difficulties are associated with age-related general cognitive differences. We addressed this question by examining structural relations among measures of cognitive resources (working memory) and indices of perceptual-motor skill acquisition (pursuit rotor and mirror tracing) in 96 healthy adults aged 19-80 years of age. Three competing structural models were tested: a single (common) factor model, a dual correlated factors model, and a hierarchical dual-factor model. The third model provided the best fit to the data, indicating age differences in simple perceptual-motor skill are partially mediated by more complex abilities.
Pires, Sara; Monteiro, Sara; Pereira, Anabela; Chaló, Daniela; Melo, Elsa; Rodrigues, Alexandre
In nursing, non-technical skills are recognized as playing an important role to increase patient safety and successful clinical outcomes (Pearson and McLafferty, 2011). Non-technical skills are cognitive and social resource skills that complement technical skills and contribute to safe and efficient task performance (Flin et al., 2008). In order to effectively provide non-technical skills training, it is essential to have an instrument to measure these skills. An online search was conducted. Articles were selected if they referred to and/or described instruments assessing non-technical skills for nurses and/or prelicensure nursing students in educational, clinical and/or simulated settings with validation evidence (inclusion criteria). Of the 53 articles located, 26 met the inclusion criteria. Those referred to and/or described 16 instruments with validation evidence developed to assess non-technical skills in multidisciplinary teams including nurses. Although articles have shown 16 valid and reliable instruments, to our knowledge, no instrument has been published or developed and validated for the assessment of non-technical skills of only nurses in general, relevant for use in high-fidelity simulation-based training for prelicensure nursing students. Therefore, there is a need for the development of such an instrument. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify portions of the literature in the areas of Information Technology (IT management, skills development, and curriculum development that support the design of a holistic conceptual framework for instruction in non-technical skills within the IT higher education context. This article review provides a framework for understanding how the critical success factors related to IT and Information Systems (IS professional success is impacted by developing students’ non-technical skills. The article culminates in a holistic conceptual framework for developing non-technical skills within the IT higher education context. Implications for theory and research are provided.
Brunckhorst, Oliver; Shahid, Shahab; Aydin, Abdullatif; Khan, Shahid; McIlhenny, Craig; Brewin, James; Sahai, Arun; Bello, Fernando; Kneebone, Roger; Shamim Khan, Muhammad; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran
Little integration of technical and nontechnical skills (e.g., situational awareness, communication, decision making, teamwork, and leadership) teaching exists within surgery. We therefore aimed to (1) evaluate the relationship between these 2 skill sets within a simulation-based environment and (2) assess if certain nontechnical skill components are of particular relevance to technical performance. A prospective analysis of data acquired from a comparative study of simulation vs nonsimulation training was conducted. Half of the participants underwent training of technical and nontechnical skills within ureteroscopy, with the remaining half undergoing no training. All were assessed within a full immersion environment against both technical (time to completion, Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills, and task-specific checklist scores) and nontechnical parameters (Nontechnical Skills for Surgeons [NOTSS] rating scale). The data of whole and individual cohorts were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient. The trial took place within the Simulation and Interactive Learning Centre at Guy's Hospital, London, UK. In total, 32 novice participants with no prior practical ureteroscopy experience were included within the data analysis. A correlation was found within all outcome measures analyzed. For the whole cohort, a strong negative correlation was found between time to completion and NOTSS scores (r = -0.75, p Technical Skills (r = 0.89, p technical skill parameters, regardless of training. A strong correlation between technical and nontechnical performance exists, which was demonstrated to be irrespective of training received. This may suggest an inherent link between skill sets. Furthermore, all nontechnical skill sets are important in technical performance. This supports the notion that both of these skills should be trained and assessed together within 1 curriculum. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by
Wolfgang H Sommer
Full Text Available The striatum plays a key role in motor learning. Striatal function depends strongly on dopaminergic neurotransmission, but little is known about neuroadaptions of the dopamine system during striatal learning. Using an established task that allows differentiation between acquisition and consolidation of motor learning, we here investigate D1 and D2-like receptor binding and transcriptional levels after initial and long-term training of mice. We found profound reduction in D1 binding within the dorsomedial striatum (DMS after the first training session on the accelerated rotarod and a progressive reduction in D2-like binding within the dorsolateral striatum (DLS after extended training. Given that similar phase- and region-specific striatal neuroadaptations have been found also during learning of complex procedural tasks including habit formation and automatic responding, the here observed neurochemical alterations are important for our understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders that show a dysbalance in the function of striatal circuits, such as in addictive behaviours.
Modi, Hemel Narendra; Singh, Harsimrat; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Leff, Daniel Richard
Functional neuroimaging technologies enable assessment of operator brain function and can deepen our understanding of skills learning, ergonomic optima, and cognitive processes in surgeons. Although there has been a critical mass of data detailing surgeons' brain function, this literature has not been reviewed systematically. A systematic search of original neuroimaging studies assessing surgeons' brain function and published up until November 2016 was conducted using Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO databases. Twenty-seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including 3 feasibility studies, 14 studies exploring the neural correlates of technical skill acquisition, and the remainder investigating brain function in the context of intraoperative decision-making (n = 1), neurofeedback training (n = 1), robot-assisted technology (n = 5), and surgical teaching (n = 3). Early stages of learning open surgical tasks (knot-tying) are characterized by prefrontal cortical activation, which subsequently attenuates with deliberate practice. However, with complex laparoscopic skills (intracorporeal suturing), prefrontal cortical engagement requires substantial training, and attenuation occurs over a longer time course, after years of refinement. Neurofeedback and interventions that improve neural efficiency may enhance technical performance and skills learning. Imaging surgeons' brain function has identified neural signatures of expertise that might help inform objective assessment and selection processes. Interventions that improve neural efficiency may target skill-specific brain regions and augment surgical performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Serrano, L; Timmer, MP
In a recent contribution, Acemoglu [Quarterly Journal of Economics 113 (1998) 1055] modelled the effects of an increase in the supply of skills on the skill premium. We estimate a model to disentangle the short-run substitution effects and the effects of skill-biased technical change using industry
Wan-Mohamed, Wan Azlinda; Yunus, Mohamed Hafis
Generic skills are skills which contribute towards individual's effective and successful participation in the workplace. For juveniles, Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) is one of the platforms that provide them generic skills which enable them to compete for job market. The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of generic…
Ciechanski, Patrick; Cheng, Adam; Lopushinsky, Steven; Hecker, Kent; Gan, Liu Shi; Lang, Stefan; Zareinia, Kourosh; Kirton, Adam
Recent changes in surgical training environments may have limited opportunities for trainees to gain proficiency in skill. Complex skills such as neurosurgery require extended periods of training. Methods to enhance surgical training are required to overcome duty-hour restrictions, to ensure the acquisition of skill proficiency. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance motor skill learning, but is untested in surgical procedural training. We aimed to determine the effects of tDCS on simulation-based neurosurgical skill acquisition. Medical students were trained to acquire tumor resection skills using a virtual reality neurosurgical simulator. The primary outcome of change in tumor resection was scored at baseline, over 8 repetitions, post-training, and again at 6 weeks. Participants received anodal tDCS or sham over the primary motor cortex. Secondary outcomes included changes in brain resected, resection effectiveness, duration of excessive forces (EF) applied, and resection efficiency. Additional outcomes included tDCS tolerability. Twenty-two students consented to participate, with no dropouts over the course of the trial. Participants receiving tDCS intervention increased the amount of tumor resected, increased the effectiveness of resection, reduced the duration of EF applied, and improved resection efficiency. Little or no decay was observed at 6 weeks in both groups. No adverse events were documented, and sensation severity did not differ between stimulation groups. The addition of tDCS to neurosurgical training may enhance skill acquisition in a simulation-based environment. Trials of additional skills in high-skill residents, and translation to nonsimulated performance are needed to determine the potential utility of tDCS in surgical training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Haddawy, Peter; Rhienmora, Phattanapon; Jittimanee, Pannapa; Viratket, Piyanuch
We have developed a haptic virtual reality system for dental skill training. In this study we examined several kinds of kinematic information about the movement provided by the system supplement knowledge of results (KR) in dental skill acquisition. The kinematic variables examined involved force utilization (F) and mirror view (M). This created three experimental conditions that received augmented kinematic feedback (F, M, FM) and one control condition that did not (KR-only). Thirty-two dental students were randomly assigned to four groups. Their task was to perform access opening on the upper first molar with the haptic virtual reality system. An acquisition session consisted of two days of ten trials of practice in which augmented kinematic feedback was provided for the appropriate experimental conditions after each trial. One week after, a retention test consisting of two trials without augmented feedback was completed. The results showed that the augmented kinematic feedback groups had larger mean performance scores than the KR-only group in Day 1 of the acquisition and retention sessions (ANOVA, p0.05). The trends in acquisition and retention sessions suggest that the augmented kinematic feedback can enhance the performance earlier in the skill acquisition and retention sessions.
Kolman, Nikki S; Kramer, Tamara; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Huijgen, Barbara C H; Visscher, Chris
The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of outcome measures and instruments identified in the literature for examining technical and tactical skills in tennis related to performance levels. Such instruments can be used to identify talent or the specific skill development training needs of particular players. Searches for this review were conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycInfo databases. Out of 733 publications identified through these searches, 40 articles were considered relevant and included in this study. They were divided into three categories: (1) technical skills, (2) tactical skills and (3) integrated technical and tactical skills. There was strong evidence that technical skills (ball velocity and to a lesser extent ball accuracy) and tactical skills (decision making, anticipation, tactical knowledge and visual search strategies) differed among players according to their performance levels. However, integrated measurement of these skills is required, because winning a point largely hinges on a tactical decision to perform a particular stroke (i.e., technical execution). Therefore, future research should focus on examining the relationship between these skills and tennis performance and on the development of integrated methods for measuring these skills.
Hummel, Hans; Paas, Fred; Koper, Rob
Hummel, H. G. K., Paas, F., & Koper, R. (2006). Effects of cueing and collaboration on the Acquisition of Complex Legal Skills. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(3), 613-632. [Also availabe at http://hdl.handle.net/1820/1646
Hummel, Hans; Paas, Fred; Koper, Rob
Hummel, H. G. K., Paas, F., & Koper, R. (2006). Effects of cueing and collaboration on the Acquisition of Complex Legal Skills. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(3), 613-632. [Also availabe at http://hdl.handle.net/1820/482
This paper examines the effect of adaptive skill acquisition on youth development in the Niger delta area of Nigeria with emphasis on Bayelsa State. A structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from 99 respondents, which cut across four stakeholder institutions in the study area. Data analysis was by ...
This article presents a framework for the elaboration of Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) grammar materials for adults based on the application to SLA of Skill Acquisition Theory (SAT). This theory is argued to compensate for the major drawbacks of FLT settings in comparison with second language contexts (lack of classroom learning time and limited…
Guidance Oriented Acquisition of Learning Skills (Project GOALS) was a federally-funded project in three Brooklyn (New York) high schools in its fourth year of operation in 1992-93. It served 312 limited-English-proficient and 57 English-proficient students through instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), native language arts (NLA) in…
Frank, David J.; Macnamara, Brooke N.
Performance on verbal and mathematical tasks is enhanced when participants shift from using algorithms to retrieving information directly from memory (Siegler, 1988a). However, it is unknown whether a shift to retrieval is involved in dynamic spatial skill acquisition. For example, do athletes mentally extrapolate the trajectory of the ball, or do…
Pressler, Anna-Lena; Krajewski, Kristin; Hasselhorn, Marcus
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether preschool children with limitations in the visual or phonological working memory are disadvantaged in the acquisition of school relevant precursor skills at school entry. A sample of 92 children was divided into three subgroups depending on their performance in visual and phonological working…
Yule, Steven; Parker, Sarah Henrickson; Wilkinson, Jill; McKinley, Aileen; MacDonald, Jamie; Neill, Adrian; McAdam, Tim
To investigate the effect of coaching on non-technical skills and performance during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated operating room (OR). Non-technical skills (situation awareness, decision making, teamwork, and leadership) underpin technical ability and are critical to the success of operations and the safety of patients in the OR. The rate of developing assessment tools in this area has outpaced development of workable interventions to improve non-technical skills in surgical training and beyond. A randomized trial was conducted with senior surgical residents (n = 16). Participants were randomized to receive either non-technical skills coaching (intervention) or to self-reflect (control) after each of 5 simulated operations. Coaching was based on the Non-Technical Skills For Surgeons (NOTSS) behavior observation system. Surgeon-coaches trained in this method coached participants in the intervention group for 10 minutes after each simulation. Primary outcome measure was non-technical skills, assessed from video by a surgeon using the NOTSS system. Secondary outcomes were time to call for help during bleeding, operative time, and path length of laparoscopic instruments. Non-technical skills improved in the intervention group from scenario 1 to scenario 5 compared with those in the control group (p = 0.04). The intervention group was faster to call for help when faced with unstoppable bleeding in the final scenario (no. 5; p = 0.03). Coaching improved residents' non-technical skills in the simulated OR compared with those in the control group. Important next steps are to implement non-technical skills coaching in the real OR and assess effect on clinically important process measures and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
psychomotor skills based on the 'see one, do one, teach one' ethos. By trial ... approach that begins with building cognitive skills, which can then ...  Whatever strategy is used, the objective ... Forward-thinking leadership should be alarmed.
Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass
investigated the influence of baclofen and diazepam on acquisition of a visuomotor skill. The study was designed as a semi-randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 16 healthy human subjects. The motor skill task required the subjects to match a given force trajectory by increasing...... that diazepam and baclofen interfere with the acquisition of a motor skill by disrupting some of the neuroplastic changes that are involved in improved motor performance. This suggests that antispastic treatment should be used with caution in subjects receiving concomitant physiotherapy.......Antispastic medication is often used in the clinic together with physiotherapy. However, some of the antispastic drugs, e.g., baclofen and diazepam, may influence the plastic mechanisms that are necessary for motor learning and hence efficient physiotherapy. In the present study, we consequently...
Kang, Evelyn; Massey, Debbie; Gillespie, Brigid M
To identify and describe the factors that impact on the performance of scrub nurses' non-technical skills performance during the intra-operative phase of surgery. Non-technical skills have been identified as important precursors to errors in the operating room. However, few studies have investigated factors influencing non-technical skills of scrub nurses. Prospective observational study. Structured observations were performed on a sample of 182 surgical procedures across eight specialities by two trained observers from August 2012-April 2013 at two hospital sites. Participants were purposively selected scrub nurses. Bivariate correlations and a multiple linear regression model were used to identify associations among length of surgery, patients' acuity using the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification system, team familiarity, number of occasions scout nurses leave the operating room, change of scout nurse and the outcome, the non-technical skills performance of scrub nurses. Patient acuity and team familiarity were the strongest predictors of scrub nurses' non-technical skills performance at hospital site A. There were no correlations between the predictors and the performance of scrub nurses at hospital site B. A dedicated surgical team and patient acuity potentially influence the performance of scrub nurses' non-technical skills. Familiarity with team members foster advanced planning, thus minimizing distractions and interruptions that impact on scrub nurses' performance. Development of interventions aimed at improving non-technical skills has the potential to make a substantial difference and enhance patient care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the research was to determine basic technical skills (throws in 17-19-year-old judokas and the level of their performance. Material: The study involved 30 judo athletes (aged 17-19. Results: To determine the athletes’ basic technical skills (throws, an analysis of source materials and a diagnostic survey were used. To determine the level of technical skills, the method of expert assessment was applied. Statistical software package Statistica 8 was used in the statistical analysis. In the coaches’ opinion, 17-19-year-old judokas have a specific, characteristic of this age group, set of basic technical skills (throws aptly defining their technical preparation. Conclusions: The tested group of judokas exhibited the highest level of demonstrating throws of the koshi-waza (hip group, and the lowest one of the ashi-waza (foot group.
Grover, Samir C; Garg, Ankit; Scaffidi, Michael A; Yu, Jeffrey J; Plener, Ian S; Yong, Elaine; Cino, Maria; Grantcharov, Teodor P; Walsh, Catharine M
GI endoscopy simulation-based training augments early clinical performance; however, the optimal manner by which to deliver training is unknown. We aimed to validate a simulation-based structured comprehensive curriculum (SCC) designed to teach technical, cognitive, and integrative competencies in colonoscopy. Single-blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Endoscopic simulation course at an academic hospital. Thirty-three novice endoscopists were allocated to an SCC group or self-regulated learning (SRL) group. The SCC group received a curriculum consisting of 6 hours of didactic lectures and 8 hours of virtual reality simulation-based training with expert feedback. The SRL group was provided a list of desired objectives and was instructed to practice on the simulator for an equivalent time (8 hours). Clinical transfer was assessed during 2 patient colonoscopies using the Joint Advisory Group Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (JAG DOPS) scale. Secondary outcome measures included differences in procedural knowledge, immediate post-training simulation performance, and delayed post-training (4-6 weeks) performance during an integrated scenario test on the JAG DOPS communication and integrated scenario global rating scales. There was no significant difference in baseline or post-training performance on the simulator task. The SCC group performed superiorly during their first and second clinical colonoscopies. Additionally, the SCC group demonstrated significantly better knowledge and colonoscopy-specific performance, communication, and global performance during the integrated scenario. We were unable to measure SRL participants' effort outside of mandatory training. In addition, feedback metrics and number of available simulation cases are limited. These results support integration of endoscopy simulation into a structured curriculum incorporating instructional feedback and complementary didactic knowledge as a means to augment technical, cognitive, and
Pena, G; Altree, M; Field, J; Thomas, M J W; Hewett, P; Babidge, W; Maddern, G J
An important factor that may influence an individual's performance is self-efficacy, a personal judgement of capability to perform a particular task successfully. This prospective study explored newly qualified surgeons' and surgical trainees' self-efficacy in non-technical skills compared with their non-technical skills performance in simulated scenarios. Participants undertook surgical scenarios challenging non-technical skills in two simulation sessions 6 weeks apart. Some participants attended a non-technical skills workshop between sessions. Participants completed pretraining and post-training surveys about their perceived self-efficacy in non-technical skills, which were analysed and compared with their performance in surgical scenarios in two simulation sessions. Change in performance between sessions was compared with any change in participants' perceived self-efficacy. There were 40 participants in all, 17 of whom attended the non-technical skills workshop. There was no significant difference in participants' self-efficacy regarding non-technical skills from the pretraining to the post-training survey. However, there was a tendency for participants with the highest reported self-efficacy to adjust their score downwards after training and for participants with the lowest self-efficacy to adjust their score upwards. Although there was significant improvement in non-technical skills performance from the first to second simulation sessions, a correlation between participants' self-efficacy and performance in scenarios in any of the comparisons was not found. The results suggest that new surgeons and surgical trainees have poor insight into their non-technical skills. Although it was not possible to correlate participants' self-belief in their abilities directly with their performance in a simulation, in general they became more critical in appraisal of their abilities as a result of the intervention. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Spanager, Lene; Lyk-Jensen, Helle Teglgaard; Dieckmann, Peter
Errors in surgery often stem from failure related to non-technical skills such as communication and teamwork. Tools for training and assessment of non-technical skills are needed to ensure safe surgery. The aim of this study was to customize the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) rating...
Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa
The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS that acquire them in the first year of life. Infants with DS (N=20) and typical infants (N=25), both aged between 3 and 12 months, were evaluated monthly using the AIMS. In the prone position, a difference of up to 3 months was found for the acquisition of the 3rd to 16th skill. There was a difference in the percentage of infants with DS who acquired the 10th to 21st skill (from 71% to 7%). In the supine position, a difference of up to one month was found from the 3rd to 7th skill; however, 100% were able to perform these skills. In the sitting position, a difference of 1-4 months was found from the 1st to 12th skill, ranging from 69% to 29% from the 9th to 12th. In the upright position, the difference was 2-3 months from the 3rd to 8th skill. Only 13% acquired the 8th skill and no other skill was acquired up to the age of 12 months. The more complex the skills the greater the difference in age between typical infants and those with DS and the lower the percentage of DS individuals who performed the skills in the prone, sitting and upright positions. None of the DS infants were able to stand without support. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona; Yule, Steven; Mitchell, Janet; Coutts, Kathy; Youngson, George
Efforts to reduce adverse event rates in healthcare have revealed the importance of identifying the essential non-technical (cognitive and social) skills for safe and effective performance. Previous research on non-technical skills for operating theatre staff has concentrated on doctors rather than nursing professionals. The aim of the study was to identify the critical non-technical skills that are essential for safe and effective performance as an operating theatre scrub nurse. Experienced scrub nurses (n = 25) and consultant surgeons (n = 9) from four Scottish hospitals were interviewed using a semi-structured format. The protocols were designed to identify the main social and cognitive skills required by scrub nurses. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and independently coded to extract behaviours in order to produce a list of the main non-technical skills for safe and effective scrub nurse performance. The non-technical skills of situation awareness, communication, teamwork, task management and coping with stress were identified as key to successful scrub nurse task performance. Component sets of behaviours for each of these categories were also noted. The interviews with subject matter experts from scrub nursing and surgery produced preliminary evidence that situation awareness, communication, teamwork and coping with stress are the principal non-technical skills required for effective performance as a scrub nurse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yule, J; Hill, K; Yule, S
Non-technical skills are essential for safe and effective surgery. Several tools to assess surgeons' non-technical skills from the clinician's perspective have been developed. However, a reliable measurement tool using a patient-centred approach does not currently exist. The aim of this study was to translate the existing Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) tool into a patient-centred evaluation tool. Data were gathered from four cohorts of patients using an iterative four-stage mixed-methods research design. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to establish the psychometric properties of the tool, focusing on validity, reliability, usability and parsimony. Some 534 patients were recruited to the study. A total of 24 patient-centred non-technical skill items were developed in stage 1, and reduced to nine items in stage 2 using exploratory factor analysis. In stage 3, confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that these nine items each loaded on to one of three factors, with excellent internal consistency: decision-making, leadership, and communication and teamwork. In stage 4, validity testing established that the new tool was independent of physician empathy and predictive of surgical quality. Surgical leadership emerged as the most dominant skill that patients could recognize and evaluate. A novel nine-item assessment tool has been developed. The Patients' Evaluation of Non-Technical Skills (PENTS) tool allows valid and reliable measurement of surgeons' non-technical skills from the patient perspective. © 2018 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Skilled movement is an integral part of the human existence. A better understanding of motor skills and their development is a prerequisite to the construction of truly flexible intelligent agents. We present MAEANDER, a computational model of human motor behavior, that uniformly addresses both the acquisition of skills through observation and the improvement of skills through practice. MAEANDER consists of a sensory-effector interface, a memory of movements, and a set of performance and learning mechanisms that let it recognize and generate motor skills. The system initially acquires such skills by observing movements performed by another agent and constructing a concept hierarchy. Given a stored motor skill in memory, MAEANDER will cause an effector to behave appropriately. All learning involves changing the hierarchical memory of skill concepts to more closely correspond to either observed experience or to desired behaviors. We evaluated MAEANDER empirically with respect to how well it acquires and improves both artificial movement types and handwritten script letters from the alphabet. We also evaluate MAEANDER as a psychological model by comparing its behavior to robust phenomena in humans and by considering the richness of the predictions it makes.
Loureiro, Elizabete M; Severo, Milton; Bettencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Maria A
Results of third year medical students' attitudes and stress levels towards the acquisition of communication skills before and after a Communication and Clinical Skills Course (CCSC) at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto (FMUP), Portugal, are presented. 115 students attending third-year CCSC completed a demographic questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Communication Skills Attitudes Scale and Interpersonal Behavior Survey. Significant negative correlation was found between anxiety levels and attitudes towards learning communication skills in general as well as the teaching and learning process. At the end of the Course students reported that when compared to the start, their communication skills are less sufficient. At the end of this CCSC at FMUP, students recognized its major importance and how they need to invest and improve communication skills. However, it seems important to monitor the attitudes and anxiety levels of students towards patient care and communication during the medical course and to identify ways of overcoming barriers towards learning communication skills. It is recommended that there should be a complete (transversal and vertical) integration of communication skills, including effective teaching methods, assessments, and examinations in order to be valued by the students. This would necessitate curricular changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adi, Henny Pratiwi
Labors skills is an important part of construction projects implementation. Suitability between the skills possessed by labors with the skills needed by user is required to increase employment opportunities. Malaysia is a country that using construction labors from Indonesia. This study aims to get the kind of technical skills required by users of Indonesian constructian labors in Malaysia and also the importance level of technical skills. Data collecting in this research was conducted through interviews and questionnaires on contractors in Malaysia. The next stage was determine the importance level of technical skills in work field of carpenter, bricklayer, plumber and painters. The importance level of technical skills analyzed using the Relative Importance Index (RII). The results showed that mastering the operation of both instruments either manually or electrically is the most importance in the technical skills. Therefore, an understanding of the types of equipment for work field and the manner of operation is need to had by Indonesian construction labors who will work in Malaysia.
To investigate workplace cultures in the acquisition of computer usage skills by mature age workers. Data were gathered through focus groups conducted at job network centres in the Greater Brisbane metropolitan region. Participants who took part were a mixture of workers and job-seekers. The results suggest that mature age workers can be exposed to inappropriate computer training practices and age-insensitive attitudes towards those with low base computer skills. There is a need for managers to be observant of ageist attitudes in the work place and to develop age-sensitive strategies to help mature age workers learn computer usage skills. Mature age workers also need to develop skills in ways which are practical and meaningful to their work.
Spanager, Lene; Beier-Holgersen, Randi; Dieckmann, Peter
Nontechnical skills are essential for safe and efficient surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of an assessment tool for surgeons' nontechnical skills, Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons dk (NOTSSdk), and the effect of rater training.......Nontechnical skills are essential for safe and efficient surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of an assessment tool for surgeons' nontechnical skills, Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons dk (NOTSSdk), and the effect of rater training....
Fransen, A.F.; Ven, van de J.; Merién, A.E.R.; Wit-Zuurendonk, de L.D.; Houterman, S.; Mol, B.W.J.; Oei, S.G.
Objective To determine whether obstetric team training in a medical simulation centre improves the team performance and utilisation of appropriate medical technical skills of healthcare professionals. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting The Netherlands. Sample The obstetric
Gjeraa, Kirsten; Mundt, Anna S.; Spanager, Lene
Background Safety in the operating room is dependent on the team's non-technical skills. The importance of non-technical skills appears to be different for minimally invasive surgery as compared with open surgery. The aim of this study was to identify which non-technical skills are perceived...... with complementary and overlapping scopes of practice between surgical and anesthesia subteams. Conclusions This study identified six non-technical skills that serve as the foundation for shared mental models of the patient, the current situation, and team resources. These findings contribute three important...... by team members to be most important for patient safety, in the setting of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy. Methods This was an explorative, semistructured interview-based study with 21 participants from all four thoracic surgery centers in Denmark that perform VATS lobectomy. Data...
Willems, Anneliese; Waxman, Bruce; Bacon, Andrew K; Smith, Julian; Kitto, Simon
Natural disasters impose a significant burden on society. Current disaster training programmes do not place an emphasis on equipping surgeons with non-technical skills for disaster response. This literature review sought to identify non-technical skills required of surgeons in disaster response through an examination of four categories of literature: "disaster"; "surgical"; "organisational management"; and "interprofessional". Literature search criteria included electronic database searches, internet searches, hand searching, ancestry searching and networking strategies. Various potential non-technical skills for surgeons in disaster response were identified including: interpersonal skills such as communication, teamwork and leadership; cognitive strategies such flexibility, adaptability, innovation, improvisation and creativity; physical and psychological self-care; conflict management, collaboration, professionalism, health advocacy and teaching. Such skills and the role of interprofessionalism should be considered for inclusion in surgical disaster response training course curricula.
Brewin, James; Tang, Jessica; Dasgupta, Prokar; Khan, Muhammad S; Ahmed, Kamran; Bello, Fernando; Kneebone, Roger; Jaye, Peter
To evaluate the face, content and construct validity of the distributed simulation (DS) environment for technical and non-technical skills training in endourology. To evaluate the educational impact of DS for urology training. DS offers a portable, low-cost simulated operating room environment that can be set up in any open space. A prospective mixed methods design using established validation methodology was conducted in this simulated environment with 10 experienced and 10 trainee urologists. All participants performed a simulated prostate resection in the DS environment. Outcome measures included surveys to evaluate the DS, as well as comparative analyses of experienced and trainee urologist's performance using real-time and 'blinded' video analysis and validated performance metrics. Non-parametric statistical methods were used to compare differences between groups. The DS environment demonstrated face, content and construct validity for both non-technical and technical skills. Kirkpatrick level 1 evidence for the educational impact of the DS environment was shown. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of simulated operating room training on real operating room performance. This study has shown the validity of the DS environment for non-technical, as well as technical skills training. DS-based simulation appears to be a valuable addition to traditional classroom-based simulation training. © 2014 The Authors BJU International © 2014 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zahiri, Mohsen; Booton, Ryan; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun
This article presents a hardware/software simulation environment suitable for anytime/anywhere surgical skills training. It blends the advantages of physical hardware and task analogs with the flexibility of virtual environments. This is further enhanced by a web-based implementation of training feedback accessible to both trainees and trainers. Our training system provides a self-paced and interactive means to attain proficiency in basic tasks that could potentially be applied across a spectrum of trainees from first responder field medical personnel to physicians. This results in a powerful training tool for surgical skills acquisition relevant to helping injured warfighters.
Full Text Available This paper aims to expose the study of: (1 technical skill; (2 the working practices of the industry (Prakerin; and (3 technical skill on implementation prakerin. Conclusions it can be concluded that, the real form of Prakerin is the implementation of the system of education in SMK is Double System Education (PSG. The program was drawn up jointly between prakerin school and industrial world in order to meet the needs of students. The party was active in the activities of prakerin include: (1 the implementing party as students practice; and (2 the industrial world and the teacher as the party that train students. The existence of activities expected prakerin can give students experience before entering the world of work. Through the activities, indirectly prakerin students have gained technical skill required as a provision for entering the workforce. Given the current state of infrastructure development is preferred, the demand for construction workers is the main one. Graduates of Vocational School building techniques is expected to have the technical skill to be able to compete with the foreign worker entering the era of the MEA as of now. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk memaparkan kajian tentang: (1 technical skill; (2 Praktik Kerja Industri (Prakerin; dan (3 technical skill pada pelaksanaan prakerin. Kesimpulan yang dapat disimpulkan bahwa, prakerin merupakan wujud nyata dari pelaksanaan sistem pendidikan di SMK yaitu Pendidikan Sistem Ganda (PSG. Program prakerin disusun bersama antara sekolah dan dunia industri dalam rangka memenuhi kebutuhan siswa. Pihak yang aktif dalam kegiatan prakerin, meliputi (1 siswa sebagai pihak pelaksana praktik; serta (2 dunia industri dan guru sebagai pihak yang melatih siswa. Adanya kegiatan prakerin diharapkan dapat memberi pengalaman siswa sebelum memasuki dunia kerja. Melalui kegiatan prakerin, secara tidak langsung siswa telah mendapatkan technical skill yang dibutuhkan sebagai bekal memasuki dunia kerja
Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A
The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between spatial abilities and technical skills performance in health care in beginners and to compare this relationship with those in intermediate and autonomous learners. Search criteria included 'spatial abilities' and 'technical skills'. Keywords related to these criteria were defined. A literature search was conducted to 20 December, 2013 in Scopus (including MEDLINE) and in several databases on EBSCOhost platforms (CINAHL Plus with Full Text, ERIC, Education Source and PsycINFO). Citations were obtained and reviewed by two independent reviewers. Articles related to retained citations were reviewed and a final list of eligible articles was determined. Articles were assessed for quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network-50 assessment instrument. Data were extracted from articles in a systematic way. Correlations between spatial abilities test scores and technical skills performance were identified. A series of 8289 citations was obtained. Eighty articles were retained and fully reviewed, yielding 36 eligible articles. The systematic review found a tendency for spatial abilities to be negatively correlated with the duration of technical skills and positively correlated with the quality of technical skills performance in beginners and intermediate learners. Pooled correlations of studies were -0.46 (p = 0.03) and -0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.53 to -0.21) for duration and 0.33 (95% CI 0.20-0.44) and 0.41 (95% CI 0.26-0.54) for quality of technical skills performance in beginners and intermediate learners, respectively. However, correlations between spatial abilities test scores and technical skills performance were not statistically significant in autonomous learners. Spatial abilities are an important factor to consider in selecting and training individuals in technical skills in health care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gjeraa, Kirsten; Mundt, Anna S; Spanager, Lene; Hansen, Henrik J; Konge, Lars; Petersen, René H; Østergaard, Doris
Safety in the operating room is dependent on the team's non-technical skills. The importance of non-technical skills appears to be different for minimally invasive surgery as compared with open surgery. The aim of this study was to identify which non-technical skills are perceived by team members to be most important for patient safety, in the setting of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy. This was an explorative, semistructured interview-based study with 21 participants from all four thoracic surgery centers in Denmark that perform VATS lobectomy. Data analysis was deductive, and directed content analysis was used to code the text into the Oxford Non-Technical Skills system for evaluating operating teams' non-technical skills. The most important non-technical skills described by the VATS teams were planning and preparation, situation awareness, problem solving, leadership, risk assessment, and teamwork. These non-technical skills enabled the team to achieve shared mental models, which in turn facilitated their efforts to anticipate next steps. This was viewed as important by the participants as they saw VATS lobectomy as a high-risk procedure with complementary and overlapping scopes of practice between surgical and anesthesia subteams. This study identified six non-technical skills that serve as the foundation for shared mental models of the patient, the current situation, and team resources. These findings contribute three important additions to the shared mental model construct: planning and preparation, risk assessment, and leadership. Shared mental models are crucial for patient safety because they enable VATS teams to anticipate problems through adaptive patterns of both implicit and explicit coordination. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona; Yule, Steven; Mitchell, Janet; Coutts, Kathy; Youngson, George
Adverse events still occur despite ongoing efforts to reduce harm to patients. Contributory factors to adverse events are often due to limitations in clinicians' non-technical skills (e.g. communication, situation awareness), rather than deficiencies in technical competence. We developed a behavioural rating system to provide a structured means for teaching and assessing scrub practitioners' (i.e. nurse, technician, operating department practitioner) non-technical skills. Psychologists facilitated focus groups (n = 4) with experienced scrub practitioners (n = 16; 4 in each group) to develop a preliminary taxonomy. Focus groups reviewed lists of non-technical-skill-related behaviours that were extracted from an interview study. The focus groups labelled skill categories and elements and also provided examples of good and poor behaviours for those skills. An expert panel (n = 2 psychologists; n = 1 expert nurse) then used an iterative process to individually and collaboratively review and refine those data to produce a prototype skills taxonomy. A preliminary taxonomy containing eight non-technical skill categories with 28 underlying elements was produced. The expert panel reduced this to three categories (situation awareness, communication and teamwork, task management), each with three underlying elements. The system was called the Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills system. A scoring system and a user handbook were also developed. A prototype behavioural rating system for scrub practitioners' non-technical skills was developed, to aid in teaching and providing formative assessment. This important aspect of performance is not currently explicitly addressed in any educational route to qualify as a scrub practitioner. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Kahirol Mohd Salleh
Full Text Available The workforce is a social environment where particular skills are essential in order for workers to perform well, have a competitive edge and succeed in their careers. A soft skill is one of the skills needed in every type of workplace setting. Soft skills include communication skills, collaboration skills, entrepreneurship, and others. Workplace need workers who are competent not only with technical skills but who also have soft skills. There is lack of literature discussion on the perceptions of needed soft skills in the workplace. Therefore, this study aimed to close the gap in the literature concerning the perceptions of instructors and students in the area of soft skills especially in communication skills, collaboration skills, and entrepreneurship at the workplace. This study aims to decrease the divide in soft skills differences among instructors and students in higher learning institutions so that students have the opportunity to excel in their learning process. This study employs quantitative method specifically using survey as an instrument. The findings shows soft skills including communication, collaboration, and entrepreneurship skills are one of the aspects stressed by the students and instructors at higher learning institutions to ensure that graduates will be employable and competent in order to contribute to the nation development.
Doumouras, A G; Hamidi, M; Lung, K; Tarola, C L; Tsao, M W; Scott, J W; Smink, D S; Yule, S
Deficiencies in non-technical skills (NTS) have been increasingly implicated in avoidable operating theatre errors. Accordingly, this study sought to characterize the impact of surgeon and anaesthetist non-technical skills on time to crisis resolution in a simulated operating theatre. Non-technical skills were assessed during 26 simulated crises (haemorrhage and airway emergency) performed by surgical teams. Teams consisted of surgeons, anaesthetists and nurses. Behaviour was assessed by four trained raters using the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) and Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) rating scales before and during the crisis phase of each scenario. The primary endpoint was time to crisis resolution; secondary endpoints included NTS scores before and during the crisis. A cross-classified linear mixed-effects model was used for the final analysis. Thirteen different surgical teams were assessed. Higher NTS ratings resulted in significantly faster crisis resolution. For anaesthetists, every 1-point increase in ANTS score was associated with a decrease of 53·50 (95 per cent c.i. 31·13 to 75·87) s in time to crisis resolution (P technical skills scores were lower during the crisis phase of the scenarios than those measured before the crisis for both surgeons and anaesthetists. A higher level of NTS of surgeons and anaesthetists led to quicker crisis resolution in a simulated operating theatre environment. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rizan, C; Ansell, J; Tilston, T W; Warren, N; Torkington, J
Self-assessment is a way of improving technical capabilities without the need for trainer feedback. It can identify areas for improvement and promote professional medical development. The aim of this review was to identify whether self-assessment is an accurate form of technical skills appraisal in general surgery. The PubMed, MEDLINE(®), Embase(™) and Cochrane databases were searched for studies assessing the reliability of self-assessment of technical skills in general surgery. For each study, we recorded the skills assessed and the evaluation methods used. Common endpoints between studies were compared to provide recommendations based on the levels of evidence. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria from 22,292 initial papers. There was no level 1 evidence published. All papers compared the correlation between self-appraisal versus an expert score but differed in the technical skills assessment and the evaluation tools used. The accuracy of self-assessment improved with increasing experience (level 2 recommendation), age (level 3 recommendation) and the use of video playback (level 3 recommendation). Accuracy was reduced by stressful learning environments (level 2 recommendation), lack of familiarity with assessment tools (level 3 recommendation) and in advanced surgical procedures (level 3 recommendation). Evidence exists to support the reliability of self-assessment of technical skills in general surgery. Several variables have been shown to affect the accuracy of self-assessment of technical skills. Future work should focus on evaluating the reliability of self-assessment during live operating procedures.
Lyk-Jensen, H T; Jepsen, R M H G; Spanager, L; Dieckmann, P; Østergaard, D
Incident reporting and fieldwork in operating rooms have shown that some of the errors that arise in anaesthesia relate to inadequate use of non-technical skills. To provide a tool for training and feedback on nurse anaesthetists' non-technical skills, this study aimed to adapt the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) as a behavioural marker system for the formative assessment of nurse anaesthetists' non-technical skills in the operating room. A qualitative approach with focus group interviews was used to identify the non-technical skills of nurse anaesthetists in the operating room. The interview data were transcribed verbatim. Directed content analysis was used to code and sort data deductively into the ANTS categories: task management, team working, situation awareness and decision making. The prototype named Nurse Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (N-ANTS) was presented and discussed in a group of subject matter experts to ensure face validity. The N-ANTS system consists of the same four categories as ANTS and 15 underlying elements. Three to five good and poor behavioural markers for each element were identified. The headings and definitions of the categories and elements were adjusted to encompass the behavioural markers in N-ANTS. The differences that emerged mainly reflected statements regarding the establishment of role, competence, and task delegation. A behavioural marker system, N-ANTS, for nurse anaesthetists was adapted from a behavioural marker system, ANTS, for anaesthesiologists. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Victor Fernando PlÁcido da ConceiçÌo
Full Text Available Despite the adoption of crew resource management training for bridge teams over the last decades, the training is still heavily focussed on technical achievements. In an educational context, the situation is more problematical, since with requirement of developing the technical skills, there is a need to build and evaluate the non-technical skills of cadets with little experience in bridge team management. In parallel with the application of team leadership models, the Portuguese Naval Academy conducted a research to improve the development and assessment of non-technical skills in bridge simulators. This paper describes the method used to identify the key non-technical skills required for naval cadets and to develop a behavioural marker system for their measurement. A literature review of behavioural marker systems was supplemented with an analysis of interviews conducted with students and simulator instructors. Additionally, further analysis of Portuguese Navy accidents reports was made, applying the HFACS framework to identify the relevant non-technical skills involved in the accidents. The resulting rating system covers five skill categories (leadership, situational awareness, communication, team work and decision making, each one with three rating elements. The framework is currently under evaluation tests in bridge simulators sessions, within an educational context.
Siu, Ka-Chun; Best, Bradley J; Kim, Jong Wook; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Ritter, Frank E
The Department of Defense has pursued the integration of virtual reality simulation into medical training and applications to fulfill the need to train 100,000 military health care personnel annually. Medical personnel transitions, both when entering an operational area and returning to the civilian theater, are characterized by the need to rapidly reacquire skills that are essential but have decayed through disuse or infrequent use. Improved efficiency in reacquiring such skills is critical to avoid the likelihood of mistakes that may result in mortality and morbidity. We focus here on a study testing a theory of how the skills required for minimally invasive surgery for military surgeons are learned and retained. Our adaptive virtual reality surgical training system will incorporate an intelligent mechanism for tracking performance that will recognize skill deficiencies and generate an optimal adaptive training schedule. Our design is modeling skill acquisition based on a skill retention theory. The complexity of appropriate training tasks is adjusted according to the level of retention and/or surgical experience. Based on preliminary work, our system will improve the capability to interactively assess the level of skills learning and decay, optimizes skill relearning across levels of surgical experience, and positively impact skill maintenance. Our system could eventually reduce mortality and morbidity by providing trainees with the reexperience they need to help make a transition between operating theaters. This article reports some data that will support adaptive tutoring of minimally invasive surgery and similar surgical skills. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Bakar, Ab Rahim; Mohamed, Shamsiah; Hamzah, Ramlah
This study was performed to identify the employability skills of technical students from the Industrial Training Institutes (ITI) and Indigenous People's Trust Council (MARA) Skills Training Institutes (IKM) in Malaysia. The study sample consisted of 850 final year trainees of IKM and ITI. The sample was chosen by a random sampling procedure from…
Apunda, Edwinah Amondi; de Klerk, Helena M.; Ogina, Teresa
Custom tailors working in the informal sector in Nairobi, Kenya, mainly acquire technical skills through undertaking traditional apprenticeships (TAs). However, most of these tailors are semi-skilled, produce low-quality products and are often poorer than their formally trained counterparts. This qualitative case study explores the aspects of…
Gragson, Derek E.; Hagen, John P.
Writing formal "journal-style" lab reports is often one of the requirements chemistry and biochemistry students encounter in the physical chemistry laboratory. Helping students improve their technical writing skills is the primary reason this type of writing is a requirement in the physical chemistry laboratory. Developing these skills is an…
Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014
Washington's Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training Program (I-BEST) quickly teaches students literacy, work, and college-readiness skills so they can move through school and into living wage jobs faster. Pioneered by Washington's community and technical colleges, I-BEST uses a team-teaching approach to combine college-readiness classes…
Ste-Marie, Diane M.; Vertes, Kelly A.; Law, Barbi; Rymal, Amanda M.
There were two main objectives of this research. First, we wanted to examine whether video feedback of the self (self-observation) was more effective for motor skill learning when the choice to view the video was provided to the learner (learner-controlled, LC) as opposed to an experimenter-controlled (EC) delivery. Secondly, we explored whether there were differences in the self-regulatory processes of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation, as well as perceived choice between the LC and EC conditions. Two groups (LC and EC) of children (M age of 11.2 years; SD = 1.89) attempted to learn a progression of trampoline skills during a 2-day acquisition phase in which video self-observation was available. The second acquisition day was followed by a no self-observation retention test 1 day later. It was hypothesized that, during retention, the LC group would be more self-efficacious about their ability to progress through the trampoline skills, show greater intrinsic motivation and perceived choice, and go further in skill progression than the EC group. Analysis of the acquisition data showed the LC group had greater increases in self-efficacy as compared to the EC group. Results of the retention test showed that the participants in the LC group obtained higher scores on the intrinsic motivation and perceived choice measures and had higher skill progression scores as compared to the EC group. Regression analysis showed that group assignment and self-efficacy were significant predictors of the physical performance benefits noted in retention. These findings are discussed within Zimmerman’s (2004) self-regulation of learning model. PMID:23355826
Diane M Ste-Marie
Full Text Available There were two main objectives of this research. First, we wanted to examine whether video feedback of the self (self-observation was more effective for motor skill learning when the choice to view the video was provided to the learner (learner-controlled; LC as opposed to an experimenter-controlled (EC delivery. Secondly, we explored whether there were differences in the self-regulatory processes of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation, as well as perceived choice between the LC and EC conditions. Two groups (LC and EC of children (M age of 11.2 years; SD = 1.89 attempted to learn a progression of trampoline skills during a two-day acquisition phase in which video self-observation was available. The second acquisition day was followed by a no self-observation retention test one day later. It was hypothesized that, during retention, the LC group would be more self-efficacious about their ability to progress through the trampoline skills, show greater intrinsic motivation and perceived choice, and go further in skill progression than the EC group. Analysis of the acquisition data showed the LC group had greater increases in self-efficacy as compared to the EC group. Results of the retention test showed that the participants in the LC group obtained higher scores on the intrinsic motivation and perceived choice measures and had higher skill progression scores as compared to the EC group. Regression analysis showed that group assignment and self-efficacy were significant predictors of the physical performance benefits noted in retention. These findings are discussed within Zimmerman’s (2004 self-regulation of learning model.
Vries, A.H. de; Schout, B.M.A.; Merriënboer, J.J.G. van; Pelger, R.C.M.; Koldewijn, E.L.; Wagner, C.
Background: Although simulation training is increasingly used to meet modern technology and patient safety demands, its successful integration within surgical curricula is still rare. The Dutch Urological Practical Skills (D-UPS) curriculum provides modular simulation-based training of technical
Hull, Louise; Arora, Sonal; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Darzi, Ara; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick
Failures in nontechnical and teamwork skills frequently lie at the heart of harm and near-misses in the operating room (OR). The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the impact of nontechnical skills on technical performance in surgery. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO databases were searched, and 2,041 articles were identified. After limits were applied, 341 articles were retrieved for evaluation. Of these, 28 articles were accepted for this review. Data were extracted from the articles regarding sample population, study design and setting, measures of nontechnical skills and technical performance, study findings, and limitations. Of the 28 articles that met inclusion criteria, 21 articles assessed the impact of surgeons' nontechnical skills on their technical performance. The evidence suggests that receiving feedback and effectively coping with stressful events in the OR has a beneficial impact on certain aspects of technical performance. Conversely, increased levels of fatigue are associated with detriments to surgical skill. One article assessed the impact of anesthesiologists' nontechnical skills on anesthetic technical performance, finding a strong positive correlation between the 2 skill sets. Finally, 6 articles assessed the impact of multiple nontechnical skills of the entire OR team on surgical performance. A strong relationship between teamwork failure and technical error was empirically demonstrated in these studies. Evidence suggests that certain nontechnical aspects of performance can enhance or, if lacking, contribute to deterioration of surgeons' technical performance. The precise extent of this effect remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2012 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jepsen, Rikke M H G; Spanager, Lene; Lyk-Jensen, Helle T; Dieckmann, Peter; Østergaard, Doris
The objectives of the study were to identify Danish anaesthesiologists' non-technical skills and to customise the Scottish-developed Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills instrument for Danish anaesthesiologists. Six semi-structured group interviews were conducted with 31 operating room team members: anaes-thesiologists, nurse anaesthetists, surgeons, and scrub nurses. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using directed content analysis. Anaesthesiologists' non-technical skills were identified, coded, and sorted using the original instrument as a basis. The resulting prototype instrument was discussed with anaesthesiologists from 17 centres to ensure face validity. Interviews lasted 46-67 minutes. Identified examples of anaesthesiologists' good or poor non-technical skills fit the four categories in the original instrument: situation awareness; decision making; team working; and task management. Anaesthesiologists' leadership role in the operating room was emphasised: the original 'Task Management' category was named 'Leadership'. One new element, 'Demonstrating self-awareness' was added under the category 'Situation Awareness'. Compared with the original instrument, half of the behavioural markers were new, which reflected that being aware of and communicating one's own abilities to the team; working systematically; and speaking up to avoid adverse events were important skills. The Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills instrument was customised to a Danish setting using the identified non-technical skills for anaesthesiologists and the original instrument as basis. The customised instrument comprises four categories and 16 underpinning elements supported by multiple behavioural markers. Identifying non-technical skills through semi-structured group interviews and analysing them using direct content analysis proved a useful method for customising an assessment instrument to another setting.
Forsman, Hannele; Gråstén, Arto; Blomqvist, Minna; Davids, Keith; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Konttinen, Niilo
The objective of this 1-year, longitudinal study was to examine the development of perceived competence, tactical skills, motivation, technical skills, and speed and agility characteristics of young Finnish soccer players. We also examined associations between latent growth models of perceived competence and other recorded variables. Participants were 288 competitive male soccer players ranging from 12 to 14 years (12.7 ± 0.6) from 16 soccer clubs. Players completed the self-assessments of perceived competence, tactical skills, and motivation, and participated in technical, and speed and agility tests. Results of this study showed that players' levels of perceived competence, tactical skills, motivation, technical skills, and speed and agility characteristics remained relatively high and stable across the period of 1 year. Positive relationships were found between these levels and changes in perceived competence and motivation, and levels of perceived competence and speed and agility characteristics. Together these results illustrate the multi-dimensional nature of talent development processes in soccer. Moreover, it seems crucial in coaching to support the development of perceived competence and motivation in young soccer players and that it might be even more important in later maturing players.
Nakata, Bruce Negrello; Cavalini, Worens; Bonin, Eduardo A; Salvalaggio, Paolo R; Loureiro, Marcelo P
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) requires the mastery of manual skills and a specific training is required. Apart from residencies and fellowships in MIS, other learning opportunities utilize massive training, mainly with use of simulators in short courses. A long-term postgraduate course represents an opportunity to learn through training using distributed practice. The objective of this study is to assess the use of distributed practice for acquisition of basic minimally invasive skills in surgeons who participated in a long-term MIS postgraduate course. A prospective, longitudinal and quantitative study was conducted among surgeons who attended a 1-year postgraduate course of MIS in Brazil, from 2012 to 2014. They were tested through five different exercises in box trainers (peg-transfer, passing, cutting, intracorporeal knot, and suture) in the first (t0), fourth (t1) and last, eighth, (t2) meetings of this course. The time and penalties of each exercise were collected for each participant. Participant skills were assessed based on time and accuracy on a previously tested score. Fifty-seven surgeons (participants) from three consecutive groups participated in this study. There was a significant improvement in scores in all exercises. The average increase in scores between t0 and t2 was 88% for peg-transfer, 174% for passing, 149% for cutting, 130% for intracorporeal knot, and 120% for suture (p < 0.001 for all exercises). Learning through distributed practice is effective and should be integrated into a MIS postgraduate course curriculum for acquisition of core skills.
Full Text Available Studies have suggested that having students observe peers while acquiring physical-examination (PE skills fosters the acquisition of the psychomotor skills required to conduct a PE. One difficulty, however, has been to disentangle the effect of peer observation from peer feedback, both of which occur when students learn in groups. This study investigated the influence of peer feedback on learning the neurolocomotor physical exam for low-back pain. 120 second-year medical students were randomly assigned to a peer-feedback group (n=61 or a no-peer-feedback group (n=53, during a regular learning activity with a standardized-patient instructor. Students first practised the NLE in groups of three, with or without peer feedback, depending on the group to which they were assigned. Subsequently, the members of both groups performed the NLE individually. The final NLE was videotaped and assessed later. Peer feedback had a positive effect on the acquisition of PE skills (87.9% vs. 90.8%, p=0.023, despite the fact that students had an initial preference for instructor feedback compared with peer feedback. These results support the use of group activities that give students the opportunity to provide feedback to their peers while learning PE skills.
Full Text Available BackgroundThis study aims to evaluate medical students’ perception ofthe usefulness and effectiveness of an e-learning packagedeveloped to enhance the acquisition of consulting skills.MethodA survey with mixed method data analysis was conducted.Participants were 67 medical students completing theirthird year primary care rotation as part of a five-year degreeat the University of Tasmania. Participants completed a 10question anonymous online survey after using the elearningpackageResultsOf the participants, 92% found it enjoyable and 95% foundthe e-learning package useful; 75% perceived it to beeffective in increasing their performance and 91% believedit increased their knowledge in consulting skills. Benefits forparticipants’ confidence, style and structure of consultingskills were found.ConclusionParticipants found the e-learning package to be enjoyableand effective. E-learning should be further utilised in ablended learning environment to support face-to-faceteaching in consulting skills.
Cantarero, Gabriela; Spampinato, Danny; Reis, Janine; Ajagbe, Loni; Thompson, Tziporah; Kulkarni, Kopal; Celnik, Pablo
The cerebellum is involved in the update of motor commands during error-dependent learning. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a form of noninvasive brain stimulation, has been shown to increase cerebellar excitability and improve learning in motor adaptation tasks. Although cerebellar involvement has been clearly demonstrated in adaptation paradigms, a type of task that heavily relies on error-dependent motor learning mechanisms, its role during motor skill learning, a behavior that likely involves error-dependent as well as reinforcement and strategic mechanisms, is not completely understood. Here, in humans, we delivered cerebellar tDCS to modulate its activity during novel motor skill training over the course of 3 d and assessed gains during training (on-line effects), between days (off-line effects), and overall improvement. We found that excitatory anodal tDCS applied over the cerebellum increased skill learning relative to sham and cathodal tDCS specifically by increasing on-line rather than off-line learning. Moreover, the larger skill improvement in the anodal group was predominantly mediated by reductions in error rate rather than changes in movement time. These results have important implications for using cerebellar tDCS as an intervention to speed up motor skill acquisition and to improve motor skill accuracy, as well as to further our understanding of cerebellar function. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353285-06$15.00/0.
Vitish-Sharma, P; Knowles, J; Patel, B
Laparoscopic surgery requires working in a three-dimensional environment with a two-dimensional view. Skills such as depth perception, hand to eye co-ordination and bimanual manipulation are crucial to its efficacy. To compare the efficiency of training in laparoscopic skills on a VR simulator with a traditional box trainer. Twenty medical students were recruited. An initial training session on the relevant anatomy and steps of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy was given. Baseline skills were recorded using a pre-training laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the VR trainer. Parameters measured were: (1) total time taken (mins); (2) number of movements right and left instrument; (3) path length (cms) of right and left instrument was recorded. Ten students trained on a VR simulator, and ten on a box trainer, for three hours each. The box trainer group exercises were based on the Royal College of Surgeons core laparoscopic skills course, and the VR trainer exercises were based on the Simbionix LapMentor basic skills tasks. Following this both groups were reassessed by a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the VR trainer. Both groups showed improvement in all measured parameters. A student T-test at 95% confidence interval showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups pre and post training. Both the VR and box trainer are effective in the acquisition of laparoscopic skills. Copyright © 2011 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fouilloux, V; Doguet, F; Kotsakis, A; Dubrowski, A; Berdah, S
To develop a standardized simulation-based curriculum to teach medical knowledge and technical, communication and critical thinking skills necessary to initiate and wean from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to junior cardiac trainees (CTs) in France. Performance on post-curricular tests was compared between CTs who participated in the new curriculum to those who did not. The simulation-based curriculum was developed by content and education experts. Simulations sequentially taught the skills necessary for initiating and weaning from CPB as well as managing crises by adding fidelity and complexity to scenarios. Nine CTs were randomly assigned to the new curriculum (n=5) or the traditional curriculum (n=4). Skills were assessed using tests of medical knowledge and technical, communication (GRS) and critical thinking (SCT) skills. A two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test compared average scores between the two groups. Alpha of 0.05 was set to indicate statistically significant differences. The resutls revealed that CTs in the new curriculum significantly outperformed CTs in the traditional curriculum on technical (18.2 vs 14.8, p=0.05) and communication (3.5 vs 2.2, p=0.013) skills. There was no significant difference between CTs in the new curriculum in the Script Concordance Test (16.5 vs 14.8, p=0.141) and knowledge tests (26.9 vs 24.6, p=0.14) compared to CTs in the traditional curriculum. Our new curriculum teaches communication and technical skills necessary for CPB. The results of this pilot study are encouraging and relevant. They give grounds for future research with a larger panel of trainees. Based on the current distribution of scores, a sample size of 12 CTs per group should yield significant results for all tests. © The Author(s) 2014.
Michinov, Estelle; Jamet, Eric; Dodeler, Virginie; Haegelen, Claire; Jannin, Pierre
The management of non-technical skills is a major factor affecting teamwork quality and patient safety. This article presents a behavioural marker system for assessing neurosurgical non-technical skills (BMS-NNTS). We tested the BMS during deep brain stimulation surgery. We developed the BMS in three stages. First, we drew up a provisional assessment tool based on the literature and observation tools developed for other surgical specialties. We then analysed videos made in an operating room (OR) during deep brain stimulation operations in order to ensure there were no significant omissions from the skills list. Finally, we used five videos of operations to identify the behavioural markers of non-technical skills in verbal communications. Analyses of more than six hours of observations revealed 3515 behaviours from which we determined the neurosurgeon's non-technical skills behaviour pattern. The neurosurgeon frequently engaged in explicit coordination, situation awareness and leadership behaviours. In addition, the neurosurgeon's behaviours differed according to the stage of the operation and the OR staff members with whom she was communicating. Our behavioural marker system provides a structured approach to assessing non-technical skills in the field of neurosurgery. It can also be transferred to other surgical specialties and used in surgeon training curricula. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Misawa, Ryo; Sasou, Kunihide
To maintain and improve the efficiency and safety of operations in numerous industries, it is necessary to develop programs that enhance teamwork. This can be achieved through empirical investigations that identify influential factors contributing to teamwork. This study focused on technical skill proficiency and leadership as influential factors and examined the relationships among these factors and teamwork behaviors. A series of measurements was performed on 54 operations teams with the cooperation of the training center of thermal power plants. Teamwork behaviors in training under simulated abnormal conditions were evaluated through instructors' observation using a behavior checklist. Technical skill proficiency was measured by conducting a brief survey on instructors. Leadership was measured on the basis of followers' responses on questionnaire scales. Based on the scores of technical skill proficiency and leadership, hierarchical cluster analysis revealed three types of teams: (a) F-type - the technical skills of followers are superior to those of leaders; (b) LF-type - both leaders and followers are proficient in technical skills; and (c) L-type - the technical skills of leaders are superior to those of followers. ANOVAs were conducted to examine differences in teamwork behavior for the three types of teams. The main results revealed that LF-type teams actively engaged in information gathering and that leaders played a central role in these activities. In addition, the followers of F-type teams freely exchanged their ideas and opinions regarding problems and actively discussed how to solve them. These findings suggest that teamwork behaviors can vary depending on technical skill proficiency and leadership in teams. Future research is needed to identify additional factors affecting teamwork that are not measured in this study. (author)
Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona
This paper is a report of a review to identify the non-technical (cognitive and social) skills used by scrub nurses. Recognition that failures in non-technical skills contributed to accidents in high-risk industries led to the development of research programmes to study the role of cognition and social interactions in operational safety. Recently, psychological research in operating theatres has revealed the importance of non-technical skills in safe and efficient performance. Most of the studies to date have focused on anaesthetists and surgeons. On-line sources and university library catalogues, publications of the Association for Perioperative Practice, National Association of Theatre Nurses and Association of Peri-Operative Registered Nurses were searched in 2007. Studies were included in the review if they presented data from scrub nurses on one or more of their non-technical skills. These findings were examined in relation to an existing medical non-technical skills framework with categories of communication, teamwork, leadership, situation awareness and decision-making. Of 424 publications retrieved, 13 were reviewed in detail. Ten concerned communication and eight of those also had data on teamwork. In 11 papers teamwork was examined, and one focused on nurses' situation awareness, teamwork and communication. None of the papers we reviewed examined leadership or decision-making by scrub nurses. Further work is needed to identify formally the non-technical skills which are important to the role of scrub nurse and then to design training in the identified non-technical skills during the education and development of scrub nurses.
Ferman, Sara; Karni, Avi
A leading notion is that language skill acquisition declines between childhood and adulthood. While several lines of evidence indicate that declarative ("what", explicit) memory undergoes maturation, it is commonly assumed that procedural ("how-to", implicit) memory, in children, is well established. The language superiority of children has been ascribed to the childhood reliance on implicit learning. Here we show that when 8-year-olds, 12-year-olds and young adults were provided with an equivalent multi-session training experience in producing and judging an artificial morphological rule (AMR), adults were superior to children of both age groups and the 8-year-olds were the poorest learners in all task parameters including in those that were clearly implicit. The AMR consisted of phonological transformations of verbs expressing a semantic distinction: whether the preceding noun was animate or inanimate. No explicit instruction of the AMR was provided. The 8-year-olds, unlike most adults and 12-year-olds, failed to explicitly uncover the semantic aspect of the AMR and subsequently to generalize it accurately to novel items. However, all participants learned to apply the AMR to repeated items and to generalize its phonological patterns to novel items, attaining accurate and fluent production, and exhibiting key characteristics of procedural memory. Nevertheless, adults showed a clear advantage in learning implicit task aspects, and in their long-term retention. Thus, our findings support the notion of age-dependent maturation in the establishment of declarative but also of procedural memory in a complex language task. In line with recent reports of no childhood advantage in non-linguistic skill learning, we propose that under some learning conditions adults can effectively express their language skill acquisition potential. Altogether, the maturational effects in the acquisition of an implicit AMR do not support a simple notion of a language skill learning advantage
Full Text Available A leading notion is that language skill acquisition declines between childhood and adulthood. While several lines of evidence indicate that declarative ("what", explicit memory undergoes maturation, it is commonly assumed that procedural ("how-to", implicit memory, in children, is well established. The language superiority of children has been ascribed to the childhood reliance on implicit learning. Here we show that when 8-year-olds, 12-year-olds and young adults were provided with an equivalent multi-session training experience in producing and judging an artificial morphological rule (AMR, adults were superior to children of both age groups and the 8-year-olds were the poorest learners in all task parameters including in those that were clearly implicit. The AMR consisted of phonological transformations of verbs expressing a semantic distinction: whether the preceding noun was animate or inanimate. No explicit instruction of the AMR was provided. The 8-year-olds, unlike most adults and 12-year-olds, failed to explicitly uncover the semantic aspect of the AMR and subsequently to generalize it accurately to novel items. However, all participants learned to apply the AMR to repeated items and to generalize its phonological patterns to novel items, attaining accurate and fluent production, and exhibiting key characteristics of procedural memory. Nevertheless, adults showed a clear advantage in learning implicit task aspects, and in their long-term retention. Thus, our findings support the notion of age-dependent maturation in the establishment of declarative but also of procedural memory in a complex language task. In line with recent reports of no childhood advantage in non-linguistic skill learning, we propose that under some learning conditions adults can effectively express their language skill acquisition potential. Altogether, the maturational effects in the acquisition of an implicit AMR do not support a simple notion of a language skill
Sarkiss, Christopher A; Philemond, Steven; Lee, James; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Holloway, Terrell D; Moore, Maximillian M; Costa, Anthony B; Gordon, Errol L; Bederson, Joshua B
Although technical skills are fundamental in neurosurgery, there is little agreement on how to describe, measure, or compare skills among surgeons. The primary goal of this study was to develop a quantitative grading scale for technical surgical performance that distinguishes operator skill when graded by domain experts (residents, attendings, and nonsurgeons). Scores provided by raters should be highly reliable with respect to scores from other observers. Neurosurgery residents were fitted with a head-mounted video camera while performing craniotomies under attending supervision. Seven videos, 1 from each postgraduate year (PGY) level (1-7), were anonymized and scored by 16 attendings, 8 residents, and 7 nonsurgeons using a grading scale. Seven skills were graded: incision, efficiency of instrument use, cauterization, tissue handling, drilling/craniotomy, confidence, and training level. A strong correlation was found between skills score and PGY year (P Technical skills of neurosurgery residents recorded during craniotomy can be measured with high interrater reliability. Surgeons and nonsurgeons alike readily distinguish different skill levels. This type of assessment could be used to coach residents, to track performance over time, and potentially to compare skill levels. Developing an objective tool to evaluate surgical performance would be useful in several areas of neurosurgery education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sánchez García, Raúl; Sebastián, Miguel Ángel
This article states that research in skill acquisition and execution has underestimated the relevance of some features of attention. We present and theoretically discuss two essential features of attention that have been systematically overlooked in the research of skill acquisition and execution. First, attention alters the appearance of the perceived stimuli in an essential way; and second, attention plays a fundamental role in action, being crucial for solving the so called ’ma...
Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna
Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2 years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition to the age of 3 years. A total of 70 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, mean age of 21.9 months, were scored using Interest Level Sco...
Goldenberg, Mitchell G; Fok, Kai H; Ordon, Michael; Pace, Kenneth T; Lee, Jason Y
To develop a unique simulation-based assessment using a laparoscopic inferior vena cava (IVC) injury scenario that allows for the safe assessment of urology resident's technical and nontechnical skills, and investigate the effect of personality traits performance in a surgical crisis. Urology residents from our institution were recruited to participate in a simulation-based training laparoscopic nephrectomy exercise. Residents completed demographic and multidimensional personality questionnaires and were instructed to play the role of staff urologist. A vasovagal response to pneumoperitoneum and an IVC injury event were scripted into the scenario. Technical and nontechnical skills were assessed by expert laparoscopic surgeons using validated tools (task checklist, GOALS, and NOTSS). Ten junior and five senior urology residents participated. Five residents were unable to complete the exercise safely. Senior residents outperformed juniors on technical (checklist score 15.1 vs 9.9, p Technical performance scores correlated with NOTSS scores (p technical performance (p technical score (p = 0.03) and pass/fail rating (p = 0.04). Resident level of training and laparoscopic experience correlated with technical performance during a simulation-based laparoscopic IVC injury crisis management scenario, as well as multiple domains of nontechnical performance. Personality traits of our surgical residents are similar and did not predict technical skill. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mohamed, Abdullah-Adnan; Asmawi, Adelina; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Mustafa, Zainol bin
This paper reports a pilot study of Context Evaluation using a self-developed questionnaire distributed among engineering undergraduates at a university under study. The study aims to validate the self-developed questionnaires used in the Context evaluation, a component in the CIPP Model. The Context evaluation assesses background information for needs, assets, problems and opportunities relevant to beneficiaries of the study in a defined environment. Through the questionnaire, background information for the assessment of needs, assets and problems related to the engineering undergraduates' perceptions on the teaching and learning of technical oral presentation skills was collected and analysed. The questionnaire was developed using 5-points Likert scale to measure the constructs under study. They were distributed to 100 respondents with 79 returned. The respondents consisted of engineering undergraduates studied at various faculties at one technical university in Malaysia. The descriptive analysis of data for each item which makes up the construct for Context evaluation is found to be high. This implied that engineering undergraduates showed high interest in teaching and learning of technical oral presentation skills, thus their needs are met. Also, they agreed that assets and facilities are conducive to their learning. In conclusion, the context evaluation involving needs and assets factors are both considerably important; their needs are met and the assets and facilities do support their technical oral presentation skills learning experience.
Mueller, Genevieve; Hunt, Bonnie; Wall, Van; Rush, Robert; Molof, Alan; Schoeff, Jonathan; Wedmore, Ian; Schmid, James; Laporta, Anthony
The effects of stress induced cortisol on learning and memory is well documented in the literature.1-3 Memory and learning are enhanced at low levels while high levels are detrimental. Repetitive training in stressful situations enables management of the stress response4 as demonstrated by the high intensity training military members undergo to prepare for tactical situations. Appropriate management of one?s stress response is critical in the medical field, as the negative effects of stress can potentially hinder life-saving procedures and treatments. This also applies to physicians-in-training as they learn and practice triage, emergency medicine, and surgical skills prior to graduation. Rocky Vista University?s Military Medicine Honor?s Track (MMHT) held a week long high-intensity emergency medicine and surgical Intensive Skills Week (ISW), facilitated by military and university physicians, to advance students? skills and maximize training using the Human Worn Partial Surgical Task Simulator (Cut Suit). The short-term goal of the ISW was to overcome negative stress responses to increase confidence, technical and non-technical knowledge, and skill in surgery and emergency medicine in an effort to improve performance as third-year medical students. The long-term goal was to enhance performance and proficiency in residency and future medical practice. The metrics for the short-term goals were the focus of this pilot study. Results show an increase in confidence and decrease in perceived stress as well as statistically significant improvements in technical and non-technical skills and surgical instrumentation knowledge throughout the week. There is a correlative benefit to physician and non-physician military personnel, especially Special Operations Forces (SOF) medical personnel, from developing and implementing similar training programs when live tissue or cadaver models are unavailable or unfeasible. 2012.
Dean, S. L.; DeDios,Y. E.; MacDougall, H. G.; Moore, S. T.; Wood, S. J.
Following long-duration exploration transits, adaptive changes in sensorimotor function may impair the crew's ability to safely perform manual control tasks such as operating pressurized rovers. Postflight performance will also be influenced by the level of preflight skill proficiency they have attained. The purpose of this study was to characterize the acquisition of skills in a motion-based rover simulation over multiple sessions, and to investigate the effects of varying the simulation scenarios. METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects were tested in 5 sessions, with 1-3 days between sessions. Each session consisted of a serial presentation of 8 discrete tasks to be completed as quickly and accurately as possible. Each task consisted of 1) perspective-taking, using a map that defined a docking target, 2) navigation toward the target around a Martian outpost, and 3) docking a side hatch of the rover to a visually guided target. The simulator utilized a Stewart-type motion base (CKAS, Australia), single-seat cabin with triple scene projection covering 150 deg horizontal by 50 deg vertical, and joystick controller. Subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (tasks identical in the first 4 sessions) or a varied-practice group. The dependent variables for each task included accuracy toward the target and time to completion. RESULTS: The greatest improvements in time to completion occurred during the docking phase. The varied-practice group showed more improvement in perspective-taking accuracy. Perspective-taking accuracy was also affected by the relative orientation of the rover to the docking target. Skill acquisition was correlated with self-ratings of previous gaming experience. DISCUSSION: Varying task selection and difficulty will optimize the preflight acquisition of skills when performing novel operational tasks. Simulation of operational manual control will provide functionally relevant evidence regarding the impact of sensorimotor adaptation on early
Boot, Walter R; Sumner, Anna; Towne, Tyler J; Rodriguez, Paola; Anders Ericsson, K
Video games are ideal platforms for the study of skill acquisition for a variety of reasons. However, our understanding of the development of skill and the cognitive representations that support skilled performance can be limited by a focus on game scores. We present an alternative approach to the study of skill acquisition in video games based on the tools of the Expert Performance Approach. Our investigation was motivated by a detailed analysis of the behaviors responsible for the superior performance of one of the highest scoring players of the video game Space Fortress (Towne, Boot, & Ericsson, ). This analysis revealed how certain behaviors contributed to his exceptional performance. In this study, we recruited a participant for a similar training regimen, but we collected concurrent and retrospective verbal protocol data throughout training. Protocol analysis revealed insights into strategies, errors, mental representations, and shifting game priorities. We argue that these insights into the developing representations that guided skilled performance could only easily have been derived from the tools of the Expert Performance Approach. We propose that the described approach could be applied to understand performance and skill acquisition in many different video games (and other short- to medium-term skill acquisition paradigms) and help reveal mechanisms of transfer from gameplay to other measures of laboratory and real-world performance. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Ramos, Giovanni; Blizzard, Angela M; Barroso, Nicole E; Bagner, Daniel M
In the U.S., there is a growing Latino population, in which parents primarily speak Spanish to their children. Despite the evidence that language preference is associated with level of acculturation and influences parenting practices in these families, no study has compared how Spanish-and English-speaking Latino families acquire and utilize the skills taught during parent-training programs such as Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Twenty-seven mother-infant Latino dyads received a home-based adaptation of the Child-Directed Interaction (CDI) phase of PCIT as part of a larger randomized control trial. Most infants were male (63%), and their average age was 13.7 months ( SD = 1.43). Most families (52%) lived below the poverty line. The Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System-Third Edition (DPICS-III) was employed to evaluate PCIT skills at baseline and post-treatment, as well as at 3- and 6-month follow-up, assessments. We conducted multiple linear regression analyses among Spanish-speaking (55%) and English-speaking (45%) families to examine differences in acquisition and utilization of do and don't skills at each assessment while controlling for mother's education. Results yielded no group differences in the acquisition rate of do or don't skills at any time point. However, Spanish-speaking mothers used significantly more don't skills than English-speaking mothers at each assessment. Specifically, Spanish-speaking families used significantly more commands at baseline, post-treatment, and the 6-month followup assessments, as well as more questions at post-treatment and at the 6-month follow-up assessments. These findings highlight the importance of addressing cultural values such as respeto to ensure culturally robust parent-training programs for Latino families.
Houlton, H. R.; Ricci, J.; Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C.
Professional development experiences, such as internships, research presentations and professional network building, are becoming increasingly important to enhance students' employability post-graduation. The practical, non-technical skills that are important for succeeding during these professional development experiences, such as public speaking, project management, ethical practices and writing, transition well and are imperative to the workplace. Thereby, graduates who have honed these skills are more competitive candidates for geoscience employment. Fortunately, the geoscience community recognizes the importance of these professional development opportunities and the skills required to successfully complete them, and are giving students the chance to practice non-technical skills while they are still enrolled in academic programs. The American Geosciences Institute has collected data regarding students' professional development experiences, including the preparation they receive in the corresponding non-technical skills. This talk will discuss the findings of two of AGI's survey efforts - the Geoscience Student Exit Survey and the Geoscience Careers Master's Preparation Survey (NSF: 1202707). Specifically, data highlighting the role played by internships, career opportunities and the complimentary non-technical skills will be discussed. As a practical guide, events informed by this research, such as AGI's professional development opportunities, networking luncheons and internships, will also be included.
Ewertsson, Mona; Gustafsson, Margareta; Blomberg, Karin; Holmström, Inger K; Allvin, Renée
One comprehensive part of nursing practice is performing technical skills and handling of medical equipment. This might be challenging for new registered nurses (RNs) to do in patient-safe way. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the extent to which new RNs perform various technical skills and handle medical devices in different settings, and to investigate their possibility for continued learning in this respect. A further aim was to describe their perceptions of incident reporting related to technical skills and medical devices. A cross-sectional study with descriptive and comparative design. RNs who recently graduated from a nursing programme at three Swedish universities and had worked as a RN for up to 1 year were included in the study (n=113, response rate 57%). Data were collected by means of a postal questionnaire. Half of the RNs reported that they performed several of the listed tasks every day or every week, regardless of workplace. These tasks were most frequently performed in surgical departments. The majority of the participants (76%) stated a need of continued practical training. However, less than half of them (48%) had access to a training environment. Several participants (43%) had been involved in incidents related to technical skills or medical devices, which were not always reported. Nearly a third of the participants (31%) did not use the existing guidelines when performing technical skills, and reflection on performance was uncommon. This study highlights the importance of shared responsibilities between nurse educators and health care employers to provide learning opportunities for new RNs in technical skills, to maintain patient safety. To increase the safety culture where nursing students and new RNs understand the importance of using evidence-based guidelines and taking a reflective approach in the performance of technical tasks is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nathan J Washington
Full Text Available Background: Australia’s interest and participation in ice hockey is increasing, however a lack of access to facilities means familiarity with this sport is limited, and so too is the facilitation of skill development within an ecologically valid context. Objective: While numerous methods may be employed to address this, one resource which remains relatively unexplored is the StrideDeck Treadmill, therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of this equipment with specific reference to the biomechanical changes for skating ability. Methods: N = 16 male athletes (Mage = 15.0 ± 0.76 yrs from a junior league competition participated in this intervention based study. n = 9 were assigned to the training intervention (StrideDeck once a week, while the control group (n = 7 continued their normal training routines. Further, monthly sprint tests both on the StrideDeck and an on-ice protocol were conducted to track progress via kinematic analysis. Results: Data analysis revealed no significant overall effects for on-ice sprint skating performance after StrideDeck training; however there were significant kinematic differences between StrideDeck and ice conditions. Conclusions: Therefore while the StrideDeck may have merit in regard to physiological paramters, the results of this study do not support its use as a skill acquisition tool in regard to increasing skating ability. Keywords: Simulation training, skill acquisition, treadmill, ice skating, ice hockey skating, ice skating stride
Clay, Collette A
Mobile learning has the potential to supplement information communication technology (ICT), online learning and the traditional teaching and learning methods to educate practitioners in the clinical practice area. Following the development of several Post Graduate modules of learning for the theory and clinical skills required to undertake the Newborn Infant Physical Examination (NIPE), a small research study was undertaken to combine mobile learning and NIPE. The research study explored the hypothesis that mobile devices could be used in pedagogically effective ways to support and enhance the learning and acquisition of clinical skills in the clinical arena. Participants in the study each received a handheld mobile device (iPod) that had been loaded with several Reusable Learning Objects (RLO) outlining each aspect of the physical examination to be performed. At the end of the module (12 weeks in duration), each participant completed an evaluation questionnaire. Participants confirmed that mobile learning afforded flexibility in time and place of learning and captured their interest in the learning material. This study reports that the use of mobile technology for skill acquisition is creative and innovative, placing learning firmly in the hands of the learner. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: on the basis of the analysis of the special literature and their own experimental studies, to determine the characteristics of the systems for assessing the technical and tactical skills of qualified volleyball players. Material & Methods: study was conducted on the basis of the material of the national team of Zaporozhye State Medical University on volleyball. Analysis and generalization of the data of scientific and methodical literature are used; registration, analysis and interpretation of indicators of technical and tactical actions of qualified volleyball players in training and competitive processes; pedagogical observations; algorithms for calculating the quantitative and qualitative indicators of technical and tactical skill in volleyball; methods of mathematical statistics. Results: data on the existence of a strong statistical relationship between the systems of assessment of technical and tactical skills of qualified volleyball players, taking into account the specificity of the game role. Conclusion: shows the specifics of the application of various systems for assessing the technical and tactical skills of qualified volleyball players, taking into account the factors of the game role, noted the methodological features of special analysis and interpretation of indicators of technical and tactical actions in the adversarial process.
Welsher, Arthur; Grierson, Lawrence E. M.
A broad foundation of behavioural (Hayes et al. in "Exp Brain Res" 204(2): 199-206, 2010) and neurophysiological (Kohler et al. in "Science" 297(5582): 846-848, 2002) evidence has revealed that the acquisition of psychomotor skills, including those germane to clinical practice (Domuracki et al. in "Med Educ" 49(2):…
Full Text Available Purpose: perfection of elite sportsmen’s technical skillfulness in competition kinds of light athletic. Material: the data of more than 60 literature sources were systemized. Expert questioning of 36 coaches, having experience of work with elite sportsmen, was carried out; documents of training process planning were analyzed as well as sportsmen’s diaries (n=244. Results: we have presented main principles of sportsmen’s technical skillfulness perfection and elucidated characteristics of technical training methodic. We have determined main priorities of technical training building for light athletes at every stage of many years’ perfection. Dynamic of competition practice volume has been found as well as main requirements to selection of training means of technical orientation. The data of bio-mechanical criteria of sportsmen’s technical skillfulness assessment have been supplemented. Conclusions: effectiveness of sportsmen’s training methodic is determined by realization of previous stages’ technical potential in final competition results. It can be achieved by determination of means of and methods of different orientation rational correlation.
Full Text Available Purpose: perfection of elite sportsmen’s technical skillfulness in competition kinds of light athletic. Material: the data of more than 60 literature sources were systemized. Expert questioning of 36 coaches, having experience of work with elite sportsmen, was carried out; documents of training process planning were analyzed as well as sportsmen’s diaries (n=244. Results: we have presented main principles of sportsmen’s technical skillfulness perfection and elucidated characteristics of technical training methodic. We have determined main priorities of technical training building for light athletes at every stage of many years’ perfection. Dynamic of competition practice volume has been found as well as main requirements to selection of training means of technical orientation. The data of bio-mechanical criteria of sportsmen’s technical skillfulness assessment have been supplemented. Conclusions: effectiveness of sportsmen’s training methodic is determined by realization of previous stages’ technical potential in final competition results. It can be achieved by determination of means of and methods of different orientation rational correlation.
Koyama, Maki S; Hansen, Peter C; Stein, John F
It is well-established that phonological skills are important for literacy acquisition in all scripts. However, the role of visual skills is less well understood. For logographic scripts in which a symbol represents a whole word or a meaningful unit, the importance of visual memory in literacy acquisition might be expected to be high because of the visual complexity of logographic characters, but in fact its role remains poorly understood. The Japanese writing system uses both phonographic "Kana" and logographic "Kanji" scripts concurrently and thus allows for the assessment of the contribution of phonological and visual processing to literacy acquisition in these two different scripts in the same language. We tested 74 Japanese children (39 second graders and 35 fourth graders) on a range of literacy, sensory, and cognitive tasks. We found that Kana literacy performance was significantly predicted by low-level sensory processing (both auditory frequency modulation sensitivity and visual motion sensitivity) as well as phonological awareness, but not by visual memory. This result is largely consistent with previous studies in other phonographic scripts such as English. In contrast, Kanji literacy performance was strongly predicted by visual memory (particularly visual long-term memory), but not by either low-level sensory processing or phonological awareness. Our results show differences in the skills that predict literacy performance in phonographic Kana and logographic Kanji, as well as providing experimental evidence that visual memory is important when learning Kanji. Therefore, children's literacy problems and remediation programs should be considered in the context of the script in which children are learning to read and write.
Full Text Available Communication competence includes four main activities: speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Listening is the most difficult skill for many of our students. But that of the time a person is engaged in communication, approximately 9% is devoted to writing, 16% to reading, 30% to speaking, and 45% to listening. That’s why for non-linguistic universities the perfection and development of the speech learning procedure becomes actual especially when we use academic hours of student independent work (self-study for this purpose.
The author presents some additional information about what he considers are some really great opportunities for the business community to participate in developing the greatest scientific project in the history of mankind. Facility Engineering Services is part of Laboratory Technical Services. As part of this group, it has the responsibility to direct the construction of interim facilities, scientific labs, production process, cooling towers, cooling ponds and the operation and control of SSC Laboratory conventional support systems. These operations and controls will be accomplished through the employment of a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system (SCADA)
Full Text Available A reinforcement learning agent that autonomously explores its environment can utilize a curiosity drive to enable continual learning of skills, in the absence of any external rewards. We formulate curiosity-driven exploration, and eventual skill acquisition, as a selective sampling problem. Each environment setting provides the agent with a stream of instances. An instance is a sensory observation that, when queried, causes an outcome that the agent is trying to predict. After an instance is observed, a query condition, derived herein, tells whether its outcome is statistically known or unknown to the agent, based on the confidence interval of an online linear classifier. Upon encountering the first unknown instance, the agent "queries'' the environment to observe the outcome, which is expected to improve its confidence in the corresponding predictor. If the environment is in a setting where all instances are known, the agent generates a plan of actions to reach a new setting, where an unknown instance is likely to be encountered. The desired setting is a self-generated goal, and the plan of action, essentially a program to solve a problem, is a skill. The success of the plan depends on the quality of the agent's predictors, which are improved as mentioned above. For validation, this method is applied to both a simulated and real Katana robot arm in its "blocks-world'' environment. Results show that the proposed method generates sample-efficient curious exploration behavior, which exhibits developmental stages, continual learning, and skill acquisition, in an intrinsically-motivated playful agent.
Forand, Nicholas R; Barnett, Jeffrey G; Strunk, Daniel R; Hindiyeh, Mohammed U; Feinberg, Jason E; Keefe, John R
Guided internet CBT (iCBT) is a promising treatment for depression; however, it is less well known through what mechanisms iCBT works. Two possible mediators of change are the acquisition of cognitive skills and increases in behavioral activation. We report results of an 8-week waitlist controlled trial of guided iCBT, and test whether early change in cognitive skills or behavioral activation mediated subsequent change in depression. The sample was 89 individuals randomized to guided iCBT (n = 59) or waitlist (n = 30). Participants were 75% female, 72% Caucasian, and 33 years old on average. The PHQ9 was the primary outcome measure. Mediators were the Competencies of Cognitive Therapy Scale-Self Report and the Behavioral Activation Scale for Depression-Short Form. Treatment was Beating the Blues plus manualized coaching. Outcomes were analyzed using linear mixed models, and mediation with a bootstrap resampling approach. The iCBT group was superior to waitlist, with large effect sizes at posttreatment (Hedges' g = 1.45). Dropout of iCBT was 29% versus 10% for waitlist. In the mediation analyses, the acquisition of cognitive skills mediated subsequent depression change (indirect effect = -.61, 95% bootstrapped biased corrected CI: -1.47, -0.09), but increases in behavioral activation did not. iCBT is an effective treatment for depression, but dropout rates remain high. Change in iCBT appears to be mediated by improvements in the use of cognitive skills, such as critically evaluating and restructuring negative thoughts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Arima, Hiroshi; Sagawa, Wataru; Ogawa, Yukio
Due to environmental concerns such as global warming, needs for nuclear power is increasing. However, many expert engineers and technicians are now entering a period of retirement. And due to weak demands of new plant construction for long years, opportunity for technology learning/experience had been lost. Therefore, to secure human resource and to develop their ability are urgent issues for nuclear industries. Hitachi nuclear division continues efforts for technology transfer and human resource training. This paper describes the following two activities. (1) Improvement of common technical basis, and implementation of PDCA cycle, (2) Development of supporting tools to accelerate technology transfer through OJT (On the Job Training). (author)
Full Text Available Technology of perfection to technical tactical to preparedness of skilled footballers in the microcycles of preparation of competition process is considered. It is shown that for development of this technology key positions of general theory of preparation of sportsmen are used in Olympic and professional sport and technical tactical actions of players taking into account the internal and external parameters of the physical loading. Information of training process of footballers of youth composition of command «Metallurgist» (Zaporozhia is utillized in research. It is analysed and generalized information of complex scientific group. The program of perfection of technical and tactical preparedness is developed. It is set that the use of this program will allow to optimize individual, group and command technical tactical preparedness of skilled footballers on the basis of account of parameters of playing actions and factors, детерминирующих a physical capacity.
Mundt, Anna Sofie; Spanager, Lene; Lyk-Jensen, Helle Teglgaard; Østergaard, Doris
The aim of this study was to adapt the Scottish tool, Scrub Practitioners List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, to Danish organisation and culture. With an explorative and qualitative approach, four group interviews with scrub practitioners, surgeons and anaesthesia staff were conducted. The main differences found were related to communication and teamwork regarding scrub practitioners focus on the team and speaking up. Differences in the non-technical skills described in the behavioural markers are perhaps explained by cultural differences between Scotland and Denmark. A new tool for scrub practitioners in Denmark was adapted. Copyright the Association for Perioperative Practice.
Mundt, Anna Sofie; Spanager, Lene; Lyk-Jensen, Helle Teglgaard
The aim of this study was to adapt the Scottish tool, Scrub Practitioners List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, to Danish organisation and culture. With an explorative and qualitative approach, four group interviews with scrub practitioners, surgeons and anaesthesia staff were conducted....... The main differences found were related to communication and teamwork regarding scrub practitioners focus on the team and speaking up. Differences in the non-technical skills described in the behavioural markers are perhaps explained by cultural differences between Scotland and Denmark. A new tool...
Jirativanont, T; Raksamani, K; Aroonpruksakul, N; Apidechakul, P; Suraseranivongse, S
We sought to evaluate the validity of two non-technical skills evaluation instruments, the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) behavioural marker system and the Ottawa Global Rating Scale (GRS), to apply them to anaesthesia training. The content validity, response process, internal structure, relations with other variables and consequences were described for validity evidence. Simulated crisis management sessions were initiated during which two trained raters evaluated the performance of postgraduate first-, second- and third-year (PGY-1, PGY-2 and PGY-3) anaesthesia residents. The study included 70 participants, composed of 24 PGY-1, 24 PGY-2 and 22 PGY-3 residents. Both instruments differentiated the non-technical skills of PGY-1 from PGY-3 residents ( P skills were 0.86, 0.83, 0.84, 0.87, 0.80 and 0.86, respectively. The Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency of the ANTS instrument was 0.93, and was 0.96 for the Ottawa GRS. There was a high correlation between the ANTS and Ottawa GRS. The raters reported the ease of use of the Ottawa GRS compared to the ANTS. We found sufficient evidence of validity in the ANTS instrument and the Ottawa GRS for the evaluation of non-technical skills in a simulated anaesthesia setting, but the Ottawa GRS was more practical and had higher reliability.
Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Two main competence approaches are under the discussion. There is evidence that graduates do not fully perceive and/or underestimate the influence of non-technical competences on their employability. An understanding of the necessity of non-technical competences develops after a graduate has already been hired and is working at that job.
Leraas, Harold J; Cox, Morgan L; Bendersky, Victoria A; Sprinkle, Shanna S; Gilmore, Brian F; Gunasingha, Rathnayaka M; Tracy, Elisabeth T; Sudan, Ranjan
Surgical skills training varies greatly between institutions and is often left to students to approach independently. Although many studies have examined single interventions of skills training, no data currently exists about the implementation of surgical skills assessment as a component of the medical student surgical curriculum. We created a technical skills competition and evaluated its effect on student surgical skill development. Second-year medical students enrolled in the surgery clerkship voluntarily participated in a surgical skills competition consisting of knot tying, laparoscopic peg transfer, and laparoscopic pattern cut. Winning students were awarded dinner with the chair of surgery and a resident of their choice. Individual event times and combined times were recorded and compared for students who completed without disqualification. Disqualification included compromising cutting pattern, dropping a peg out of the field of vision, and incorrect knot tying technique. Timed performance was compared for 2 subsequent academic years using Mann-Whitney U test. Overall, 175 students competed and 71 students met qualification criteria. When compared by academic year, 2015 to 2016 students (n = 34) performed better than 2014 to 2015 students (n = 37) in pattern cut (133s vs 167s, p = 0.040), peg transfer (66s vs 101s, p skills competition improves student technical performance. Further research is needed regarding long-term benefits of surgical competitions for medical students. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Van Sickle, K R; Gallagher, A G; Smith, C D
In the acquisition of new skills that are difficult to master, such as those required for laparoscopy, feedback is a crucial component of the learning experience. Optimally, feedback should accurately reflect the task performance to be improved and be proximal to the training experience. In surgery, however, feedback typically is in vivo. The development of virtual reality training systems currently offers new training options. This study investigated the effect of feedback type and quality on laparoscopic skills acquisition. For this study, 32 laparoscopic novices were prospectively randomized into four training conditions, with 8 in each group. Group 1 (control) had no feedback. Group 2 (buzzer) had audio feedback when the edges were touched. Group 3 (voiced error) had an examiner voicing the word "error" each time the walls were touched. Group 4 (both) received both the audio buzzer and "error" voiced by the examiner All the subjects performed a maze-tracking task with a laparoscopic stylus inserted through a 5-mm port to simulate the fulcrum effect in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). A computer connected to the stylus scored an error each time the edge of the maze was touched, and the subjects were made aware of the error in the aforementioned manner. Ten 2-min trials were performed by the subjects while viewing a monitor. At the conclusion of training, all the subjects completed a 2-min trial of a simple laparoscopic cutting task, with the number of correct and incorrect incisions recorded. Group 4 (both) made significantly more correct incisions than the other three groups (F = 12.13; df = 3, 28; p < 0.001), and also made significantly fewer errors or incorrect incisions (F = 14.4; p < 0.0001). Group 4 also made three times more correct incisions and 7.4 times fewer incorrect incisions than group 1 (control). The type and quality of feedback during psychomotor skill acquisition for MIS have a large effect on the strength of skills generalization to a simple
Edward M. Reeve
Full Text Available Those involved in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET must properly prepare their students to live and work in the 21st Century. This preparation includes providing students with a solid knowledge and skills in the discipline being studied and developing instruction based on contemporary educational thinking and practices. It also means providing them with important skills needed in 21st Century. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the reader to important and “key” 21st Century Skills that the author believes are needed by students enrolled in TVET programs and to provide suggestions on how to build these skills into TVET programs. In this paper, the following “key” 21st Century Skills were reviewed: Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM; Problem-Solving; and the Four 4Cs: Critical Thinking, Communication, Collaboration, & Creativity.
Gjeraa, K; Møller, T P; Østergaard, D
Trauma resuscitation is a complex situation, and most organisations have multi-professional trauma teams. Non-technical skills are challenged during trauma resuscitation, and they play an important role in the prevention of critical incidents. Simulation-based training of these is recommended. Our research question was: Does simulation-based trauma team training of non-technical skills have effect on reaction, learning, behaviour or patient outcome? The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library and found 13 studies eligible for analysis. We described and compared the educational interventions and the evaluations of effect according to the four Kirkpatrick levels: reaction, learning (knowledge, skills, attitudes), behaviour (in a clinical setting) and patient outcome. No studies were randomised, controlled and blinded, resulting in a moderate to high risk of bias. The multi-professional trauma teams had positive reactions to simulation-based training of non-technical skills. Knowledge and skills improved in all studies evaluating the effect on learning. Three studies found improvements in team performance (behaviour) in the clinical setting. One of these found difficulties in maintaining these skills. Two studies evaluated on patient outcome, of which none showed improvements in mortality, complication rate or duration of hospitalisation. A significant effect on learning was found after simulation-based training of the multi-professional trauma team in non-technical skills. Three studies demonstrated significantly increased clinical team performance. No effect on patient outcome was found. All studies had a moderate to high risk of bias. More comprehensive randomised studies are needed to evaluate the effect on patient outcome. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hinck, Glori; Bergmann, Thomas F
Objective : We evaluated the feasibility of using mobile device technology to allow students to record their own psychomotor skills so that these recordings can be used for self-reflection and formative evaluation. Methods : Students were given the choice of using DVD recorders, zip drive video capture equipment, or their personal mobile phone, device, or digital camera to record specific psychomotor skills. During the last week of the term, they were asked to complete a 9-question survey regarding their recording experience, including details of mobile phone ownership, technology preferences, technical difficulties, and satisfaction with the recording experience and video critique process. Results : Of those completing the survey, 83% currently owned a mobile phone with video capability. Of the mobile phone owners 62% reported having email capability on their phone and that they could transfer their video recording successfully to their computer, making it available for upload to the learning management system. Viewing the video recording of the psychomotor skill was valuable to 88% of respondents. Conclusions : Our results suggest that mobile phones are a viable technology to use for the video capture and critique of psychomotor skills, as most students own this technology and their satisfaction with this method is high.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore non-technical skills from the perspective of Australian business graduates who had recently made the transition from higher education into full-time employment. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed-methods approach was applied through the use of an online survey containing closed and open-ended…
Olaitan, Olawale O.; Ikeh, Joshua O.
The study focused on identifying the employability and technical skills needed to establish small-scale automobile workshop in Nsukka Urban of Enugu State. Five purposes of the study were stated to guide the study. Five research questions were stated and answered in line with the purpose of the study. The population for the study is 1,500…
Wang, Jingying; Wen, Ming-Lee; Jou, Min
Practical training and actual application of acquired knowledge and techniques are crucial for the learning of technical skills. We established a wireless sensor network system (WSNS) based on the 5E learning cycle in a practical learning environment to improve students' reflective abilities and to reduce difficulties for the learning of technical…
Jung, James J; Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Jüni, Peter; Grantcharov, Teodor P
To critically appraise the development and measurement properties, including sensibility, reliability, and validity of the Non-Technical Skills of Surgeons (NOTSS) system. Articles that described development process of the NOTSS system were identified. Relevant primary studies that presented evidence of reliability and validity were identified through a comprehensive literature review. NOTSS was developed through robust item generation and reduction strategies. It was shown to have good content validity, acceptability, and feasibility. Inter-rater reliability increased with greater expertise and number of assessors. Studies demonstrated evidence of cross-sectional construct validity, in that the tool was able to differentiate known groups of varied non-technical skill levels. Evidence of longitudinal construct validity also existed to demonstrate that NOTSS detected changes in non-technical skills before and after targeted training. In populations and settings presented in our critical appraisal, NOTSS provided reliable and valid measurements of intraoperative non-technical skills of surgeons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hawkins, Jeremy R.; Sharp, Elizabeth B.; Williams, Skip M.
Context: The ability to demonstrate sound clinical reasoning is needed for a practicing athletic trainer. However, instruction on how to make a correct clinical decision may be deficient in many athletic training programs. Objective: To provide an overview of how to teach technical and tactical skills, using both a tradition and a nontraditional…
Fransen, A. F.; van de Ven, J.; Merién, A. E. R.; de Wit-Zuurendonk, L. D.; Houterman, S.; Mol, B. W.; Oei, S. G.
Please cite this paper as: Fransen A, van de Ven J, Merien A, de Wit-Zuurendonk L, Houterman S, Mol B, Oei S. Effect of obstetric team training on team performance and medical technical skills: a randomised controlled trial. BJOG 2012;119:13871393. Objective To determine whether obstetric team
І. В. Кривенцова
Full Text Available Study objective: to reveal the relations between the indicators of physical and mental performance and the development of technical and tactical skills in fencers, to determine the significant criteria and tests for selecting students for health-improving and sports fencing groups. Methods: study and analysis of literature; pedagogical observations; physiological methods (physical performance by the Harvard step test with HSTI (Harvard step test Index calculation, mental performance by the correction tables, special exercises to assess fencers’ technical and tactical skills; statistical methods. The reference group students (9 female fencers had five workouts a week, the students (13 female students of test group 1 (TG1 had 2 hours of physical training per week, the TG2 and TG3 (8 and 10 female students respectively had 4 hours of fencing workouts per week. The TG2 had 4 months of fencing experience, and TG3 had one year and 4 months thereof. Results. The reciprocal effects of the performance indicators and the correlation between the indicators of technical and tactical skills of the student fencers allowed to establish the informative value of individual indicators for quality selection of students for the fencing group. The Harvard step test index and the standardized number of errors of the correction test can serve as the prognostic criteria for developing technical and tactical skills in student fencing.
Carr, Jeremy M.
The technique, termed "collaborative critiquing", was developed to teach fundamental technical writing skills to analytical chemistry students for the preparation of laboratory reports. This exercise, which can be completed prior to peer-review activities, is novel, highly interactive, and allows students to take responsibility for their…
Larsen, Peter Gorm; Kristiansen, Erik Lasse; Bennedsen, Jens; Bjerge, Kim
In general engineering studies focus on the technical skills in their own discipline. However, in their subsequent industrial careers, a significant portion of their time needs to be devoted to non-technical skills. In addition, in an increasingly globalised world collaboration in teams across cultures and disciplines is paramount to the creation of new and innovative products. In order to enhance the non-technical skills for groups of engineering students a series of innovation courses has been arranged and delivered in close collaboration with an industrial company (Bang & Olufsen). These courses have been organised as summer schools called 'Conceptual Design and Development of Innovative Products' (CD-DIP) and delivered outside the usual educational environment. In order to explore the impact of this single course, we have conducted a study among the students participating from 2007 to 2013. This has been carried out both qualitatively using interviews with selected students as well as quantitatively using a survey. The results are outstanding in demonstrating that the non-technical skills obtained in this single course have been of high value for a large portion of the students' subsequent professional life.
One way to bring the accounting office into the classroom is to conduct the class as a "company." Such a class is aimed at developing students' technical and managerial skills, as well as their career awareness and career goals. Performance goals, a course description, and overall objectives of the course are given and might serve as a model.…
Dieckmann, Gerhard Peter; Glavin, Ronnie; Jepsen, Rikke Malene Hartvigsen Grønholm
Acquiring the concepts of non-technical skills (NTS) beyond a superficial level is a challenge for healthcare professionals and simulation faculty. Current simulation-based approaches to teach NTS are challenged when learners have to master NTS concepts, clinically challenging situations, and sim....... NTS Bingo is based on theoretical considerations on concept learning, which we describe to support the rationale for its conduct....
Crichton, M.T.; Flin, R.
Training of the non-technical (social and cognitive) skills that are crucial to safe and effective management by teams in emergency situations is an issue that is receiving increasing emphasis in many organisations, particularly in the nuclear power industry. As teams play a major role in emergency response organisations (ERO), effective functioning and interactions within, between and across teams is crucial, particularly as the management of an emergency situation often requires that teams are extended by members from various other sections and strategic groups throughout the company, as well as members of external agencies. A series of interviews was recently conducted with members of a UK nuclear emergency response organisation to identify the non-technical skills required by team members that would be required for managing an emergency. Critical skills have been identified as decision making and situation assessment, as well as communication, teamwork, and stress management. A number of training strategies are discussed which can be tailored to the roles and responsibilities of the team members and the team leader, based on the roles within the team being defined as either Decision Maker, Evaluator, or Implementor, according to Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) classifications. It is anticipated that enhanced learning of the necessary non-technical skills, through experience and directed practice, will improve the skills of members of emergency response teams
Crichton, M.T. E-mail: email@example.com; Flin, R
Training of the non-technical (social and cognitive) skills that are crucial to safe and effective management by teams in emergency situations is an issue that is receiving increasing emphasis in many organisations, particularly in the nuclear power industry. As teams play a major role in emergency response organisations (ERO), effective functioning and interactions within, between and across teams is crucial, particularly as the management of an emergency situation often requires that teams are extended by members from various other sections and strategic groups throughout the company, as well as members of external agencies. A series of interviews was recently conducted with members of a UK nuclear emergency response organisation to identify the non-technical skills required by team members that would be required for managing an emergency. Critical skills have been identified as decision making and situation assessment, as well as communication, teamwork, and stress management. A number of training strategies are discussed which can be tailored to the roles and responsibilities of the team members and the team leader, based on the roles within the team being defined as either Decision Maker, Evaluator, or Implementor, according to Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) classifications. It is anticipated that enhanced learning of the necessary non-technical skills, through experience and directed practice, will improve the skills of members of emergency response teams.
Teresa Maria Monllau Jaques
Full Text Available This work has had as objective to analyze the skills acquired through internships in business companies by gender that have made the students of the Faculty of Economics and Business at the University Pompeu Fabra. The internship is a basic item in order to obtain a hard connection between the University and social-economic world where University and Enterprises develop their activity. In this study we want to know about two aspects. The first one, we want to know the profit that is obtained from the Student as a consequence of internship and mentoring. Also, we want to study about the importance of mentoring as a principal element that establish the relationship between the Student and the Company. Moreover, it has sought to analyze if certain factors such as the size of the company where the practices has been performed, the study rank level that was achieved or the fact of being a man or a woman, were among the determining factors at the time of acquiring the skills. The results presented here indicate that the size of the company that have been making the practices and the gender of the student are related to the acquisition of certain skills. There was not a statistically significant relationship related to the rank level have by the students in the practice. In the future we are going to study if the labor market Integration is easier if the Student has performed work placement.
Cosman, Peter H; Cregan, Patrick C; Martin, Christopher J; Cartmill, John A
Medical technology is currently evolving so rapidly that its impact cannot be analysed. Robotics and telesurgery loom on the horizon, and the technology used to drive these advances has serendipitous side-effects for the education and training arena. The graphical and haptic interfaces used to provide remote feedback to the operator--by passing control to a computer--may be used to generate simulations of the operative environment that are useful for training candidates in surgical procedures. One additional advantage is that the metrics calculated inherently in the controlling software in order to run the simulation may be used to provide performance feedback to individual trainees and mentors. New interfaces will be required to undergo evaluation of the simulation fidelity before being deemed acceptable. The potential benefits fall into one of two general categories: those benefits related to skill acquisition, and those related to skill assessment. The educational value of the simulation will require assessment, and comparison to currently available methods of training in any given procedure. It is also necessary to determine--by repeated trials--whether a given simulation actually measures the performance parameters it purports to measure. This trains the spotlight on what constitutes good surgical skill, and how it is to be objectively measured. Early results suggest that virtual reality simulators have an important role to play in this aspect of surgical training.
Kardas, Michael; O'Brien, Ed
Modern technologies such as YouTube afford unprecedented access to the skilled performances of other people. Six experiments ( N = 2,225) reveal that repeatedly watching others can foster an illusion of skill acquisition. The more people merely watch others perform (without actually practicing themselves), the more they nonetheless believe they could perform the skill, too (Experiment 1). However, people's actual abilities-from throwing darts and doing the moonwalk to playing an online game-do not improve after merely watching others, despite predictions to the contrary (Experiments 2-4). What do viewers see that makes them think they are learning? We found that extensive viewing allows people to track what steps to take (Experiment 5) but not how those steps feel when taking them. Accordingly, experiencing a "taste" of performing attenuates the illusion: Watching others juggle but then holding the pins oneself tempers perceived change in one's own ability (Experiment 6). These findings highlight unforeseen problems for self-assessment when watching other people.
Johnco, C; Wuthrich, V M; Rapee, R M
Cognitive flexibility is one aspect of executive functioning that encompasses the ability to produce diverse ideas, consider response alternatives, and modify behaviors to manage changing circumstances. These processes are likely to be important for implementing cognitive restructuring. The present study investigated the impact of cognitive flexibility on older adults' ability to learn cognitive restructuring. Neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility were administered to 40 normal community-dwelling older adult volunteers and their ability to implement cognitive restructuring was coded and analyzed. Results indicated that the majority of participants showed good cognitive restructuring skill acquisition with brief training. The multiple regression analysis suggested that those with poorer cognitive flexibility on neuropsychological testing demonstrated poorer quality cognitive restructuring. In particular, perseverative thinking styles appear to negatively impact the ability to learn cognitive restructuring. Further research is needed to clarify whether older adults with poor cognitive flexibility can improve their cognitive restructuring skills with repetition over treatment or whether alternative skills should be considered. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ashitaka, Yuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki
In the present study, using a new keyboard layout with only eight keys, we conducted typing training for unskilled typists. In this task, Japanese college students received training in typing words consisting of a pair of hiragana characters with four keystrokes, using the alphabetic input method, while keeping the association between the keys and typists' finger movements; the task was constructed so that chunking was readily available. We manipulated the association between the hiragana characters and alphabet letters (hierarchical materials: overlapped and nonoverlapped mappings). Our alphabet letter materials corresponded to the regular order within each hiragana word (within the four letters, the first and third referred to consonants, and the second and fourth referred to vowels). Only the interkeystroke intervals involved in the initiation of typing vowel letters showed an overlapping effect, which revealed that the effect was markedly large only during the early period of skill development (the effect for the overlapped mapping being larger than that for the nonoverlapped mapping), but that it had diminished by the time of late training. Conversely, the response time and the third interkeystroke interval, which are both involved in the latency of typing a consonant letter, did not reveal an overlapped effect, suggesting that chunking might be useful with hiragana characters rather than hiragana words. These results are discussed in terms of the fan effect and skill acquisition. Furthermore, we discuss whether there is a need for further research on unskilled and skilled Japanese typists.
Ossmy, Ori; Mukamel, Roy
Visual feedback in general, and from the body in particular, is known to influence the performance of motor skills in humans. However, it is unclear how the acquisition of motor skills depends on specific visual feedback parameters such as the size of performing effector. Here, 21 healthy subjects physically trained to perform sequences of finger movements with their right hand. Through the use of 3D Virtual Reality devices, visual feedback during training consisted of virtual hands presented on the screen, tracking subject's hand movements in real time. Importantly, the setup allowed us to manipulate the size of the displayed virtual hands across experimental conditions. We found that performance gains increase with the size of virtual hands. In contrast, when subjects trained by mere observation (i.e., in the absence of physical movement), manipulating the size of the virtual hand did not significantly affect subsequent performance gains. These results demonstrate that when it comes to short-term motor skill learning, the size of visual feedback matters. Furthermore, these results suggest that highest performance gains in individual subjects are achieved when the size of the virtual hand matches their real hand size. These results may have implications for optimizing motor training schemes.
Full Text Available Visual feedback in general, and from the body in particular, is known to influence the performance of motor skills in humans. However, it is unclear how the acquisition of motor skills depends on specific visual feedback parameters such as the size of performing effector. Here, 21 healthy subjects physically trained to perform sequences of finger movements with their right hand. Through the use of 3D Virtual Reality devices, visual feedback during training consisted of virtual hands presented on the screen, tracking subject's hand movements in real time. Importantly, the setup allowed us to manipulate the size of the displayed virtual hands across experimental conditions. We found that performance gains increase with the size of virtual hands. In contrast, when subjects trained by mere observation (i.e., in the absence of physical movement, manipulating the size of the virtual hand did not significantly affect subsequent performance gains. These results demonstrate that when it comes to short-term motor skill learning, the size of visual feedback matters. Furthermore, these results suggest that highest performance gains in individual subjects are achieved when the size of the virtual hand matches their real hand size. These results may have implications for optimizing motor training schemes.
Iwata, Takashi; Kurita, Nobuhiro; Nishioka, Masanori; Morimoto, Shinya; Yoshikawa, Kozo; Higashijima, Jun; Nakao, Toshihiro; Komatsu, Masato; Shimada, Mitsuo
Laparoscopic skills training is becoming the standard for educating surgical residents. Because of the specific procedure which differs from that of open surgery, it is imperative to establish a unique training system to promote efficiency of learning laparoscopic skills. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of learning laparoscopic skills with or without authorized experts of JSES. Among 71 patients who underwent laparoscopic colectomy from 2004 to 2009, 30 patients who underwent operation in introduction era without a technical expert (2004-2006), 17 patients who underwent operation in late period of introduction era without a technical expert (2006-2008), 12 patients who underwent operation by resident with technical expert (2008-2009) and 12 patients who underwent operation by technical expert, were investigated. Operative time, amount of blood loss, intra- and post-operative complications and conversion to open surgery were investigated. Operative time: 477:333:262:220 minutes (early period:late period:resident:expert), amount of blood loss: 494:73:21:20mL and complications: ileus: 0:1:0:0, leakage: 1:1:3:0, neurological disturbance: 2:1:0:0. Instruction by authorized technical experts of JSES is helpful to avoid pitfalls which are not seen in open surgery without an expert.
Letchworth, Pippa M; Duffy, Shane P; Phillips, Dan
To determine the effect of a decision support technology on teamwork and associated non-technical (NTS) and technical skills when teams manage post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) in the simulated environment. Multidisciplinary (MDT) maternity teams were taught how to manage post partum haemorrhage. They were randomised to the intervention: using a decision support mobile digital platform or a control group. Each team managed a post-partum simulation, which was recorded and reviewed by assessors. Primary outcome measures to assess teams NTS were the validated Global Assessment of Obstetric Team Performance (GAOTP) and Clinical Teamwork Scale (CTS). Secondary outcome measures were the 'friends and family test', technical skills, and the System Usability Scale (SUS). Sample size estimation was calculated by using 80% power 5% significance two tailed test (p1=85% p2=40%) n=34. 38 teams from August 2014-February 2016, were recruited, technical issues with failure of recording equipment meant 4 teams were excluded from teamwork analysis (1 intervention 3 control). Teamwork improved across all domains with the intervention (using a decision support mobile digital platform) p teamwork by 25% using CTS and 22% using GAOTP. Fewer technical skills were missed with the intervention (pteamwork is often cited as the cause of failures in care and we report a usable technology that assists with and improves teamwork during an emergency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: to study the structure of technical and tactical training of skilled goalkeepers in football. Material : the study involved 40 goalkeepers in age from 21 to 39 years (team Premier League Championship of Ukraine. According to teacher’s observations were under direct competition activity of skilled goalkeepers. Results : It is shown that the technical and tactical activities goalkeeper characterized by two phases of the game: action to protect and attack. In turn, they include eight typical situations. It was found that in accordance with these typical situations goalkeeper applying a technical and tactical actions. Conclusions : It is recommended to increase the efficiency of the game keeper in protective and offensive actions to use specific and non-specific exercises in a variety of standard situations arising during the match.
The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.
Full Text Available The growing importance of automatized systems for interchange of commercial and technical information prompts searching for new forms of knowledge modelling. One of the possible solutions presented in this article is the use of relational databases for acquisition of information comprised in technical standards and of a rule-based reasoning system providing access to these bases. The study describes the structure of a database created under the assumption that concepts describing knowledge will be recorded in data collecting system and not in relational schema. The user is free to define by himself the structure of the knowledge without the need of introducing any changes to the relational schema. At the same time, the reasoning system enables very efficient knowledge searching. At present, tests are carried out on a software operating on a MS SQL Server. The project work and test performance of the system confirm that the adopted assumptions have been right and correct. The development of a new interface is anticipated using internet techniques. As a next step, the information resources collected in the system will be successively expanded using also information sources other than the technical standards.
The purpose of this comparative study was to identify the technical skills and abilities needed by prospective employees of construction industries in Ghana and Nigeria. Potential employees were defined here as recent graduates of construction industry programs with entry-level technical skills. The continuous growth in and expansion of these two…
Kruit, P. M.; Oostdam, R. J.; van den Berg, E.; Schuitema, J. A.
In most primary science classes, students are taught science inquiry skills by way of learning by doing. Research shows that explicit instruction may be more effective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of explicit instruction on the acquisition of inquiry skills. Participants included 705 Dutch fifth and sixth graders. Students in an explicit instruction condition received an eight-week intervention of explicit instruction on inquiry skills. In the lessons of the implicit condition, all aspects of explicit instruction were absent. Students in the baseline condition followed their regular science curriculum. In a quasi-experimental pre-test-post-test design, two paper-and-pencil tests and three performance assessments were used to examine the acquisition and transfer of inquiry skills. Additionally, questionnaires were used to measure metacognitive skills. The results of a multilevel analysis controlling for pre-tests, general cognitive ability, age, gender and grade level indicated that explicit instruction facilitates the acquisition of science inquiry skills. Specifically on the performance assessment with an unfamiliar topic, students in the explicit condition outperformed students of both the implicit and baseline condition. Therefore, this study provides a strong argument for including an explicit teaching method for developing inquiry skills in primary science education.
Banaszek, Daniel; You, Daniel; Chang, Justues; Pickell, Michael; Hesse, Daniel; Hopman, Wilma M; Borschneck, Daniel; Bardana, Davide
Work-hour restrictions as set forth by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and other governing bodies have forced training programs to seek out new learning tools to accelerate acquisition of both medical skills and knowledge. As a result, competency-based training has become an important part of residency training. The purpose of this study was to directly compare arthroscopic skill acquisition in both high-fidelity and low-fidelity simulator models and to assess skill transfer from either modality to a cadaveric specimen, simulating intraoperative conditions. Forty surgical novices (pre-clerkship-level medical students) voluntarily participated in this trial. Baseline demographic data, as well as data on arthroscopic knowledge and skill, were collected prior to training. Subjects were randomized to 5-week independent training sessions on a high-fidelity virtual reality arthroscopic simulator or on a bench-top arthroscopic setup, or to an untrained control group. Post-training, subjects were asked to perform a diagnostic arthroscopy on both simulators and in a simulated intraoperative environment on a cadaveric knee. A more difficult surprise task was also incorporated to evaluate skill transfer. Subjects were evaluated using the Global Rating Scale (GRS), the 14-point arthroscopic checklist, and a timer to determine procedural efficiency (time per task). Secondary outcomes focused on objective measures of virtual reality simulator motion analysis. Trainees on both simulators demonstrated a significant improvement (p virtual reality simulation group consistently outperformed the bench-top model group in the diagnostic arthroscopy crossover tests and in the simulated cadaveric setup. Furthermore, the virtual reality group demonstrated superior skill transfer in the surprise skill transfer task. Both high-fidelity and low-fidelity simulation trainings were effective in arthroscopic skill acquisition. High-fidelity virtual reality
Ghaderi, Iman; Manji, Farouq; Park, Yoon Soo; Juul, Dorthea; Ott, Michael; Harris, Ilene; Farrell, Timothy M
The purpose of this study was to create a technical skills assessment toolbox for 35 basic and advanced skills/procedures that comprise the American College of Surgeons (ACS)/Association of Program Directors in Surgery (APDS) surgical skills curriculum and to provide a critical appraisal of the included tools, using contemporary framework of validity. Competency-based training has become the predominant model in surgical education and assessment of performance is an essential component. Assessment methods must produce valid results to accurately determine the level of competency. A search was performed, using PubMed and Google Scholar, to identify tools that have been developed for assessment of the targeted technical skills. A total of 23 assessment tools for the 35 ACS/APDS skills modules were identified. Some tools, such as Operative Performance Rating System (OSATS) and Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OPRS), have been tested for more than 1 procedure. Therefore, 30 modules had at least 1 assessment tool, with some common surgical procedures being addressed by several tools. Five modules had none. Only 3 studies used Messick's framework to design their validity studies. The remaining studies used an outdated framework on the basis of "types of validity." When analyzed using the contemporary framework, few of these studies demonstrated validity for content, internal structure, and relationship to other variables. This study provides an assessment toolbox for common surgical skills/procedures. Our review shows that few authors have used the contemporary unitary concept of validity for development of their assessment tools. As we progress toward competency-based training, future studies should provide evidence for various sources of validity using the contemporary framework.
Pucer, Patrik; Trobec, Irena; Žvanut, Boštjan
Both academics and practitioners agree that critical thinking skills are necessary to provide safe and comprehensive nursing care. In order to promote the development of critical thinking, nurse educators need to keep the teaching/learning process captivating and interesting using active learning environments. These can be implemented by using modern information and communication technologies that are simple, fun, and time and cost effective. The goal of our study was to design and test an approach, which allows individual and fast acquisition of critical thinking skills with the use of information and communication technology. A combination of qualitative and quantitative research design was implemented. The study consisted of a quasi-experiment (phases 1-3): (1) pre-test discussion board, (2) use of e-contents based on the presented approach, and (3) post-test discussion board. The participants' opinion about the presented approach was identified in phase 4. The study was performed in May 2012 during the course "Ethics and Philosophy in Nursing" at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Primorska, Slovenia. Forty first-year undergraduate nursing students. Qualitative analysis of the discussion boards (phases 1, 3) and an anonymous survey with open- and closed-ended questions (phase 4). Qualitative analysis of the discussion boards showed a significant (pcritical thinking skills. Repeated confirmation of the validity of the presented approach through methodological triangulation represents a strong indication that the presented approach is a valuable tool to develop nursing students' critical thinking skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Matsui, Yuko; Hikono, Masaru; Iwasaki, Mari; Morita, Miduho
This study aimed at characterizing a non-technical skill exercise for on-site managers in charge of initial response at an emergency response center by extracting and clarifying the behavior examples of non-technical skills shown in the exercise scenario. From video observations, the non-technical skill examples were identified from seven of the eight non-technical skill categories which had been defined when the training program was developed. At the same time, the limitation when extracting the cases by observations was identified. The extracted non-technical skill cases are expected to be used for characterizing exercise scenarios, as well as provide knowledge to raise the awareness of exercise participants. (author)
Arcidiacono, William J.
CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited The objective of this thesis is to determine whether the Strategic Systems Programs (SSP) should apply the concepts of Performance-Based Service Acquisition (PBSA) to Strategic Weapons Systems (SWS) Technical Engineering Support (TES) Services. This thesis provides a Department of Defense (DoD), Department of the Navy (DON), and SSP SWS program acquisition and PBSA history background, ...
Learning clinical reasoning is an important core activity of the modern dental curriculum. This article describes an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for clinical reasoning skill acquisition. The system is designed to provide an experience that emulates that of live human-tutored problem-based learning (PBL) sessions as much as possible, while at the same time permitting the students to participate collaboratively from disparate locations. The system uses Bayesian networks to model individual student knowledge and activity, as well as that of the group. Tutoring algorithms use the models to generate tutoring hints. The system incorporates a multimodal interface that integrates text and graphics so as to provide a rich communication channel between the students and the system, as well as among students in the group. Comparison of learning outcomes shows that student clinical reasoning gains from the ITS are similar to those obtained from human-tutored sessions.
Manoel, Edison de J; Dantas, Luiz; Gimenez, Roberto; de Oliveira, Dalton Lustosa
The organization of actions is based on modules in memory as a result of practice, easing the demand of performing more complex actions. If this modularization occurs, the elements of the module must remain invariant in new tasks. To test this hypothesis, 35 children, age 10 yr., practiced a graphic criterion task on a digital tablet and completed a complex graphic task enclosing the previous one. Total movement and pause times to draw the figure indicated skill acquisition. A module was identified by the variability of relative timing, pause time, and sequencing. Total movement to perform the criterion task did not increase significantly when it was embedded in the more complex task. Modularity was evidenced by the stability of relative timing and pause time and sequencing. The spatial position of new elements did not perturb the module, so the grammar of action may still have been forming.
Full Text Available The article presents a description of 17 computer-based programs, which were used over the last 5 years (2008—2013 in 15 studies of computer-assisted reading instruction and intervention of schoolchildren. The article includes a description of specificity of various terms used in the above-mentioned studies and the contents of training sessions. The article also carries out a brief analysis of main characteristics of computer-based techniques — language of instruction, age and basic characteristics of students, duration and frequency of training sessions, dependent variables of education. Special attention is paid to efficiency of acquisition of different reading skills through computer-based programs in comparison to traditional school instruction.
DeBourgh, Gregory A
Use of classroom response systems (a.k.a. "clickers" or "audience polling systems") are growing in popularity among faculty in colleges and universities. When used by faculty in a strategic instructional design, clickers can raise the level of participation and the effectiveness of interaction, promote engagement of students in active learning, foster communication to clarify misunderstanding and incorrect thinking, and provide a method to instructionally embed assessment as a learning activity rather than reliance on the traditional approach of summative assessment for assigning grades. This article describes the use of clicker technology in a baccalaureate nursing program to promote acquisition and application of advanced reasoning skills. Methods are suggested for embedding formative assessment and the tactical use of questioning as feedback and a powerful learning tool. Operational aspects of clickers technology are summarized and students' perceptions and satisfaction with use of this teaching and learning technology are described.
Prakash, Ruchika S; De Leon, Angeline A; Mourany, Lyla; Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W; Boot, Walter R; Basak, Chandramallika; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Kramer, Arthur F
Acquisition of complex skills is a universal feature of human behavior that has been conceptualized as a process that starts with intense resource dependency, requires effortful cognitive control, and ends in relative automaticity on the multi-faceted task. The present study examined the effects of different theoretically based training strategies on cortical recruitment during acquisition of complex video game skills. Seventy-five participants were recruited and assigned to one of three training groups: (1) Fixed Emphasis Training (FET), in which participants practiced the game, (2) Hybrid Variable-Priority Training (HVT), in which participants practiced using a combination of part-task training and variable priority training, or (3) a Control group that received limited game play. After 30 h of training, game data indicated a significant advantage for the two training groups relative to the control group. The HVT group demonstrated enhanced benefits of training, as indexed by an improvement in overall game score and a reduction in cortical recruitment post-training. Specifically, while both groups demonstrated a significant reduction of activation in attentional control areas, namely the right middle frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, participants in the control group continued to engage these areas post-training, suggesting a sustained reliance on attentional regions during challenging task demands. The HVT group showed a further reduction in neural resources post-training compared to the FET group in these cognitive control regions, along with reduced activation in the motor and sensory cortices and the posteromedial cortex. Findings suggest that training, specifically one that emphasizes cognitive flexibility can reduce the attentional demands of a complex cognitive task, along with reduced reliance on the motor network.
Ruchika S Prakash
Full Text Available Acquisition of complex skills is a universal feature of human behavior that has been conceptualized as a process that starts with intense resource dependency, requires effortful cognitive control, and ends in relative automaticity on the multi-faceted task. The present study examined the effects of different theoretically-based training strategies on cortical recruitment during acquisition of complex videogame skills. Seventy-five participants were recruited and assigned to one of three training groups: Fixed Emphasis Training (FET, in which participants practiced the game, Hybrid Variable Priority Training (HVT, in which participants practiced using a combination of part-task training and variable priority training, or a Control group that received limited game play. After 30 hours of training, game data indicated a significant advantage for the two training groups relative to the control group. The HVT group demonstrated enhanced benefits of training, as indexed by an improvement in overall game score and a reduction in cortical recruitment post-training. Specifically, while both groups demonstrated a significant reduction of activation in attentional control areas, namely the right middle frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, participants in the control group continued to engage these areas post-training, suggesting a sustained reliance on attentional regions during challenging task demands. The HVT group showed a further reduction in neural resources post-training compared to the FET group in these cognitive control regions, along with reduced activation in the motor and sensory cortices and the posteromedial cortex. Findings suggest that training, specifically one that emphasizes cognitive flexibility can reduce the attentional demands of a complex cognitive task, along with reduced reliance on the motor network.
Tsifetakis, Emmanuel; Kontogiannis, Tom
To develop and validate a classification of non-technical skills (NTS) in military aviation, a study was conducted, using data from real operations of F16 aircraft formations. Phase 1 developed a NTS classification based on the literature review (e.g. NOTECHS) and a workshop with pilots. The Non-TEChnical-MILitary-Skills (NOTEMILS) scheme was tested in Phase 2 in a series of Principal Component Analysis with data from After-Action-Review sessions (i.e. 900 records from a wide range of operations). The NTS were found to make a good prediction of Mission Essential Components (R 2 > 0.80) above the effect of experience. Phase 3 undertook a reliability analysis where three raters assessed the NOTEMILS scheme with good results (i.e. all r wg > 0.80). To look into the consistency of classifications, another test indicated that, at least, two out of three raters were in agreement in over 70% of the assessed flight segments. Practitioner Summary: A classification scheme of Non-Technical Skills (NTS) was developed and tested for reliability in military aviation operations. The NTS scheme is a valuable tool for assessing individual and team skills of F-16 pilots in combat. It is noteworthy that the tool had a good capability of predicting Mission Essential Competencies.
Knobbs, C. G.; Grayson, D. J.
There is mounting evidence to show that engineers need more than technical skills to succeed in industry. This paper describes a curriculum innovation in which so-called "soft" skills, specifically inter-personal and intra-personal skills, were integrated into a final year mining engineering course. The instructional approach was…
Quick, Jacob A; Kudav, Vishal; Doty, Jennifer; Crane, Megan; Bukoski, Alex D; Bennett, Bethany J; Barnes, Stephen L
Surgical resident ability to accurately evaluate one's own skill level is an important part of educational growth. We aimed to determine if differences exist between self and observer technical skill evaluation of surgical residents performing a single procedure. We prospectively enrolled 14 categorical general surgery residents (six post-graduate year [PGY] 1-2, three PGY 3, and five PGY 4-5). Over a 6-month period, following each laparoscopic cholecystectomy, residents and seven faculty each completed the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). Spearman's coefficient was calculated for three groups: senior (PGY 4-5), PGY3, and junior (PGY 1-2). Rho (ρ) values greater than 0.8 were considered well correlated. Of the 125 paired assessments (resident-faculty each evaluating the same case), 58 were completed for senior residents, 54 for PGY3 residents, and 13 for junior residents. Using the mean from all OSATS categories, trainee self-evaluations correlated well to faculty (senior ρ 0.97, PGY3 ρ 0.9, junior ρ 0.9). When specific OSATS categories were analyzed, junior residents exhibited poor correlation in categories of respect for tissue (ρ -0.5), instrument handling (ρ 0.71), operative flow (ρ 0.41), use of assistants (ρ 0.05), procedural knowledge (ρ 0.32), and overall comfort with the procedure (ρ 0.73). PGY3 residents lacked correlation in two OSATS categories, operative flow (ρ 0.7) and procedural knowledge (ρ 0.2). Senior resident self-evaluations exhibited strong correlations to observers in all areas. Surgical residents improve technical skill self-awareness with progressive training. Less-experienced trainees have a tendency to over-or-underestimate technical skill. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available One of the challenges in writing an article reviewing the current state of cyber education and workforce development is that there is a paucity of quantitative assessment regarding the cognitive aptitudes, work roles, or team organization required by cybersecurity professionals to be successful. In this review, we argue that the people who operate within the cyber domain need a combination of technical skills, domain specific knowledge, and social intelligence to be successful. They, like the networks they operate, must also be reliable, trustworthy, and resilient. Defining the knowledge, skills, attributes, and other characteristics is not as simple as defining a group of technical skills that people can be trained on; the complexity of the cyber domain makes this a unique challenge. There has been little research devoted to exactly what attributes individuals in the cyber domain need. What research does exist places an emphasis on technical and engineering skills while discounting the important social and organizational influences that dictate success or failure in everyday settings. This paper reviews the literature on cyber expertise and cyber workforce development to identify gaps and then argues for the important contribution of social fit in the highly complex and heterogenous cyber workforce. We then identify six assumptions for the future of cybersecurity workforce development, including the requirement for systemic thinkers, team players, a love for continued learning, strong communication ability, a sense of civic duty, and a blend of technical and social skill. Finally, we make recommendations for social and cognitive metrics which may be indicative of future performance in cyber work roles to provide a roadmap for future scholars.
Dawson, Jessica; Thomson, Robert
One of the challenges in writing an article reviewing the current state of cyber education and workforce development is that there is a paucity of quantitative assessment regarding the cognitive aptitudes, work roles, or team organization required by cybersecurity professionals to be successful. In this review, we argue that the people who operate within the cyber domain need a combination of technical skills, domain specific knowledge, and social intelligence to be successful. They, like the networks they operate, must also be reliable, trustworthy, and resilient. Defining the knowledge, skills, attributes, and other characteristics is not as simple as defining a group of technical skills that people can be trained on; the complexity of the cyber domain makes this a unique challenge. There has been little research devoted to exactly what attributes individuals in the cyber domain need. What research does exist places an emphasis on technical and engineering skills while discounting the important social and organizational influences that dictate success or failure in everyday settings. This paper reviews the literature on cyber expertise and cyber workforce development to identify gaps and then argues for the important contribution of social fit in the highly complex and heterogenous cyber workforce. We then identify six assumptions for the future of cybersecurity workforce development, including the requirement for systemic thinkers, team players, a love for continued learning, strong communication ability, a sense of civic duty, and a blend of technical and social skill. Finally, we make recommendations for social and cognitive metrics which may be indicative of future performance in cyber work roles to provide a roadmap for future scholars.
Allington, Ruth; Fernandez-Fuentes, Isabel
There is consensus that reliable ground models, based on a sound understanding of the geology and surface processes are vital as a basis for natural hazard identification and risk assessment, and there is a great deal of skill and experience in the geoscience community with mapping, modelling and predicting natural hazards and their likely impacts. This presentation will highlight the contributions of geology and geomorphology in the identification of natural hazards and mitigation of their impacts. It will then consider a range of "professional skills" that are needed by geoscientists working with other specialists and non-specialists (e.g. engineers, emergency services, land-use planners, architects responsible for building codes, politicians, regulators, the public etc) alongside technical and scientific excellence. It will argue that development and application of both scientific/technical and professional skills is essential to ensure that the maps, models and other data relevant to natural hazards and environmental change are used to provide effective public protection through communication, land-use planning and planning for resilience. The professional skills of particular importance include interdisciplinary collaboration; project management; cost-benefit analysis; effective communication with specialists and non specialists (especially the public); and facilitative skills. All the technical, scientific and professional skills need to be applied competently and with the highest standards of ethical underpinning. The contribution will consider how this can be achieved (or at least facilitated) through professional training, award of professional titles, licensure etc, drawing on international examples of best practice in professional codes of conduct and regulation directed to the protection of the public.
Matyal, Robina; Montealegre-Gallegos, Mario; Mitchell, John D; Kim, Han; Bergman, Remco; Hawthorne, Katie M; O'Halloran, David; Wong, Vanessa; Hess, Phillip E; Mahmood, Feroze
To investigate whether a transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) simulator with motion analysis can be used to impart proficiency in TEE in an integrated curriculum-based model. A prospective cohort study. A tertiary-care university hospital. TEE-naïve cardiology fellows. Participants underwent an 8-session multimodal TEE training program. Manual skills were assessed at the end of sessions 2 and 8 using motion analysis of the TEE simulator's probe. At the end of the course, participants performed an intraoperative TEE; their examinations were video captured, and a blinded investigator evaluated the total time and image transitions needed for each view. Results are reported as mean±standard deviation, or median (interquartile range) where appropriate. Eleven fellows completed the knowledge and kinematic portions of the study. Five participants were excluded from the evaluation in the clinical setting because of interim exposure to TEE or having participated in a TEE rotation after the training course. An increase of 12.95% in post-test knowledge scores was observed. From the start to the end of the course, there was a significant reduction (pcardiology fellows can be complemented with kinematic analyses to objectify acquisition of manual skills during simulator-based training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Naimo, Marshall A; Zourdos, Michael C; Wilson, Jacob M; Kim, Jeong-Su; Ward, Emery G; Eccles, David W; Panton, Lynn B
The purpose of this study was to investigate contextual interference effects on skill acquisition and strength gains during the learning of the bench press movement. Twenty-four healthy, college-aged males and females were stratified to control, high contextual interference (HCI), and low contextual interference (LCI) groups. Treatment groups were provided with written and visual instruction on proper bench press form and practiced the bench press and dart throwing for four weeks. Within each session, LCI performed all bench press sets before undertaking dart-throws. HCI undertook dart-throws immediately following each set of bench press. Control only did testing. Measurements, including one repetition maximum (1RM), checklist scores based on video recordings of participants' 1RM's, and dart-throw test scores were taken at pre-test, 1 week, 2 week, post-test, and retention test. Results were consistent with the basic premise of the contextual interference effect. LCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores during training, but were mostly absent after training (post-test and retention test). HCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores both during and after training. Thus, HCI may augment strength and movement skill on the bench press since proper technique is an important component of resistance exercise movements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A series of training programs entitled Technical Supervisory Skills Programs for management personnel are described. The first level of this program, TSSP-1, is a seven week program designed for first-line supervisors and other selected management personnel responsible for directing the work forces in the stations. TSSP-1 includes training in PWR/BWR Technology, Supervision, Aberrant Behavior Identification, Labor Relations and Ethics, Technical Administration, Quality Assurance Program, On-the-job Training, and Specific Departmental Training. TSSP-2, TSSP-3, and TSSP-4 courses are described in this paper
de Vries, Anna H; Schout, Barbara M A; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; Pelger, Rob C M; Koldewijn, Evert L; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Wagner, Cordula
Although simulation training is increasingly used to meet modern technology and patient safety demands, its successful integration within surgical curricula is still rare. The Dutch Urological Practical Skills (D-UPS) curriculum provides modular simulation-based training of technical and non-technical basic urological skills in the local hospital setting. This study aims to assess the educational impact of implementing the D-UPS curriculum in the Netherlands and to provide focus points for improvement of the D-UPS curriculum according to the participants. Educational impact was assessed by means of qualitative individual module-specific feedback and a quantitative cross-sectional survey among residents and supervisors. Twenty out of 26 Dutch teaching hospitals participated. The survey focussed on practical aspects, the D-UPS curriculum in general, and the impact of the D-UPS curriculum on the development of technical and non-technical skills. A considerable survey response of 95 % for residents and 76 % for supervisors was obtained. Modules were attended by junior and senior residents, supervised by a urologist, and peer teaching was used. Ninety percent of supervisors versus 67 % of residents judged the D-UPS curriculum as an important addition to current residency training (p = 0.007). Participants' aggregated general judgement of the modules showed a substantial percentage favorable score (M ± SE: 57 ± 4 %). The impact of training on, e.g., knowledge of materials/equipment and ability to anticipate on complications was high, especially for junior residents (77 ± 5 and 71 ± 7 %, respectively). Focus points for improvement of the D-UPS curriculum according to the participants include adaptation of the training level to residents' level of experience and focus on logistics. The simulation-based D-UPS curriculum has a high educational impact. Residents and supervisors consider the curriculum to be an important addition to current residency
Willems, Anneliese; Waxman, Buce; Bacon, Andrew K; Smith, Julian; Peller, Jennifer; Kitto, Simon
Interprofessional non-technical skills for surgeons in disaster response have not yet been developed. The aims of this study were to identify the non-technical skills required of surgeons in disaster response and training for disaster response and to explore the barriers and facilitators to interprofessional practice in surgical teams responding to disasters. Twenty health professionals, with prior experience in natural disaster response or education, participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. A qualitative matrix analysis design was used to thematically analyze the data. Non-technical skills for surgeons in disaster response identified in this study included skills for austere environments, cognitive strategies and interprofessional skills. Skills for austere environments were physical self-care including survival skills, psychological self-care, flexibility, adaptability, innovation and improvisation. Cognitive strategies identified in this study were "big picture" thinking, situational awareness, critical thinking, problem solving and creativity. Interprofessional attributes include communication, team-player, sense of humor, cultural competency and conflict resolution skills. "Interprofessionalism" in disaster teams also emerged as a key factor in this study and incorporated elements of effective teamwork, clear leadership, role adjustment and conflict resolution. The majority of participants held the belief that surgeons needed training in non-technical skills in order to achieve best practice in disaster response. Surgeons considerring becoming involved in disaster management should be trained in these skills, and these skills should be incorporated into disaster preparation courses with an interprofessional focus.
Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Kang, Yi-No; Wang, Wei-Lin; Huang, Hung-Chang; Wu, Chien-Chih; Hsu, Wayne; Tong, Yiu-Shun; Wei, Po-Li
To evaluate the effectiveness of a simulation-based flipped classroom in gaining the laparoscopic skills in medical students. An intervention trial. Taipei Medical University Hospital, an academic teaching hospital. Fifty-nine medical students participating in a 1-hour laparoscopic skill training session were randomly assigned to a conventional classroom (n = 29) or a flipped classroom approach (n = 30) based on their registered order. At the end of the session, instructors assessed participants' performance in laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot-tying using the assessment checklist based on a modified Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills tool. Students in the flipped group completed more numbers of stitches (mean [M] = 0.47; standard deviation [SD] = 0.507) than those in the conventional group (M = 0.10; SD = 0.310) (mean difference: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.114-582; p = 0.002). Moreover, students in the flipped group also had higher stitch quality scores (M = 7.17; SD = 2.730) than those in the conventional group (M = 5.14; SD = 1.767) (mean difference = 2.03; 95% CI: 0.83-3.228; p = 0.001). Meanwhile, students in the flipped group had higher pass rates for the second throw (p flipped classroom approach may improve laparoscopic intracorporeal knot-tying skill acquisition in medical students. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nam, Sang S.; Hwang, Young S.
A literature review was conducted to describe important concepts involved in functional analysis of verbal behavior as well as to evaluate empirical research findings on acquisition of picture exchange-based vs. signed mands to suggest instructional implications for teachers and therapists to teach functional communication skills to children with…
Arias, Ana; Scott, Raymond; Peters, Ove A; McClain, Elizabeth; Gluskin, Alan H
The aim of this prospective quantitative study was to compare the effect of different instructional formats on dental students' skills and knowledge acquisition for access cavity preparation. All first-year dental students were invited to participate in this study conducted during the four consecutive two-week endodontic rotation courses at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in spring semester 2015. Four alphabetically distributed intact groups of students were randomly allocated to two groups (n=70 each) that participated in either small-group discussion or a traditional lecture on access preparation. The first outcome measure was skill acquisition, measured by the quality of access cavities prepared in extracted teeth at the conclusion of the session. Two blinded raters scored direct observations on a continuous scale. Knowledge, the second outcome measure, was scored with a multiple-choice and open-ended question test at the end of each two-week session. Data were obtained for 134 of the 140 students, for a 96% response rate. The results showed that students in the small-group discussion groups scored significantly higher than those in the lecture groups when skill performance was tested (p=8.9 × 10(-7)). However, no significant differences were found in the acquisition of knowledge between the two groups on the written test. Active student participation was significantly related to improved manual skill acquisition, but the format of the session does not seem to have had a direct influence on acquired knowledge.
Winsler, Adam; Kim, Yoon Kyong; Richard, Erin R.
This article analyzes the role that individual differences in children's cognitive, Spanish competence, and socio-emotional and behavioral skills play in predicting the concurrent and longitudinal acquisition of English among a large sample of ethnically diverse, low-income, Hispanic preschool children. Participants assessed at age 4 for language,…
Ehrich, John; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Helmer, Janet; Oteng, Georges; Lea, Tess; Bartlett, Claire; Smith, Heather; Emmett, Sue
As part of an evaluation of a web-based early literacy intervention, ABRACADABRA, a small exploratory study was conducted over one term in three primary schools in the Northern Territory. Of particular concern was the relationship between attendance and the acquisition of early literacy skills of Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. Using the…
Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna
Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2?years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill…
Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Joseph, Laurice M.; Kanotz, Brittany; Rouse, Christina A.; Sawyer, Mary R.
This study examined the effects of implementing word boxes as a supplemental instruction method on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of word identification and spelling. Word box intervention consists of using manipulatives to learn phonological decoding skills. The participants were three African-American urban first graders…
Soler Vilageliu, Olga; Kandel, Sonia
Previous studies have shown the relevance of the syllable as a programming unit in handwriting production, both in adults and elementary school children. This longitudinal study focuses on the acquisition of writing skills in a group of preschoolers. It examines how and when the syllable structure of the word starts regulating motor programming in…
Harms, Melanie D.
Individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders are challenged with memory and language deficits that impact their skills acquisition (Martin, Klusek, Estigarriba, & Roberts, 2009; Turner & Alborz, 2003). The value of music when applied as an antecedent and a reinforcer has long been established to address such memory and language deficits…
Charity, Dimlong; Ozoji, Bernadette Ebele; Osasebor, Florence Osaze; Ibn Umar, Suleiman
This study investigated the effects of teaching gardening on science students' attitudes toward entrepreneurial skills acquisition in Jos South, Plateau State, Nigeria. The study employed the non-randomized pre-test post-test non-equivalent control group design. A sample of 75 senior secondary school students from two intact classes, randomly…
Heaton, Samuel R; Little, Zoe; Akhtar, Kash; Ramachandran, Manoj; Lee, Joshua
To enhance non-technical skills and to analyse participant's experience of a course tailored for orthopaedic surgeons. A Delphi technique was used to develop a course in human factors specific to orthopaedic residents. Twenty-six residents (six per course) participated in total with seven course facilitators all trained in Crisis Resource Management providing structured feedback. Six scenarios recreated challenging real-life situations using high-fidelity mannequins and simulated patients. Environments included a simulated operating suite, clinic room and ward setting. All were undertaken in a purpose built simulation suite utilising actors, mock operating rooms, mock clinical rooms and a high fidelity adult patient simulator organised through a simulation control room. Participants completed a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire (strongly disagree to strongly agree) before and after the course. This assessed their understanding of non-technical skills, scenario validity, relevance to orthopaedic training and predicted impact of the course on future practice. A course evaluation questionnaire was also completed to assess participants' feedback on the value and quality of the course itself. Twenty-six orthopaedic residents participated (24 male, 2 female; post-graduation 5-10 years), mean year of residency program 2.6 out of 6 years required in the United Kingdom. Pre-course questionnaires showed that while the majority of candidates recognised the importance of non-technical (NT) skills in orthopaedic training they demonstrated poor understanding of non-technical skills and their role. This improved significantly after the course (Likert score 3.0-4.2) and the perceived importance of these skills was reported as good or very good in 100%. The course was reported as enjoyable and provided an unthreatening learning environment with the candidates placing particular value on the learning opportunity provided by reflecting on their performance. All agreed that the
Kodate, Naonori; Ross, Anthony; Anderson, Janet E.; Flin, R.
Problems in team communication and decision making have been implicated in accidents in high risk industries such as aviation, off shore oil processing, nuclear power generation. Recognition of the role that breakdowns in communication and teamwork play in patient safety incidents has led to a plethora of studies in the area of what has come to be widely known as non-technical skills (NTS); a term initially used in European aviation (1). This has led to increasing interest in i...
Jepsen, Rikke M H G; Spanager, Lene; Lyk-Jensen, Helle T
operating room team members: anaes-thesiologists, nurse anaesthetists, surgeons, and scrub nurses. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using directed content analysis. Anaesthesiologists' non-technical skills were identified, coded, and sorted using the original instrument as a basis......; decision making; team working; and task management. Anaesthesiologists' leadership role in the operating room was emphasised: the original 'Task Management' category was named 'Leadership'. One new element, 'Demonstrating self-awareness' was added under the category 'Situation Awareness'. Compared...
Irwin, A; Weidmann, A E
Non-technical skills refer to the social and cognitive factors that may influence efficient and safe job performance. Non-technical skills are an important element of patient safety in a variety of health care disciplines, including surgery, anesthesia and nursing. However, the use of non-technical skills in pharmacy practice has not yet been fully assessed. To examine attitudes toward, and use of, non-technical skills by pharmacy personnel. A mixed methods approach was used: An attitude survey explored pharmacy personnel attitudes towards non-technical skills and inter-professional collaboration, with community and hospital pharmacy staff (n = 62). Qualitative interviews were then conducted using the critical incident technique, with community pharmacists (n = 11). The survey results demonstrated differences in the opinions of community and hospital pharmacists on three non-technical skill constructs: team structure, mutual support, and situation monitoring, with community pharmacists reporting significantly more positive attitudes about all three constructs. Both groups reported low levels of collaboration with primary care physicians. The interviews identified five non-technical skills as key elements of successful pharmacist performance from the interview transcripts: teamwork; leadership; task management; situation awareness; decision-making. The survey and interviews identified the non-technical skills that are important to pharmacists. This represents the first step towards the development of a behavioral rating system for training purposes that could potentially improve the non-technical skills of pharmacists and enhance patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nathwani, Jay N; Fiers, Rebekah M; Ray, Rebecca D; Witt, Anna K; Law, Katherine E; DiMarco, ShannonM; Pugh, Carla M
The purpose of this study is to coevaluate resident technical errors and decision-making capabilities during placement of a subclavian central venous catheter (CVC). We hypothesize that there would be significant correlations between scenario-based decision-making skills and technical proficiency in central line insertion. We also predict residents would face problems in anticipating common difficulties and generating solutions associated with line placement. Participants were asked to insert a subclavian central line on a simulator. After completion, residents were presented with a real-life patient photograph depicting CVC placement and asked to anticipate difficulties and generate solutions. Error rates were analyzed using chi-square tests and a 5% expected error rate. Correlations were sought by comparing technical errors and scenario-based decision-making skills. This study was performed at 7 tertiary care centers. Study participants (N = 46) largely consisted of first-year research residents who could be followed longitudinally. Second-year research and clinical residents were not excluded. In total, 6 checklist errors were committed more often than anticipated. Residents committed an average of 1.9 errors, significantly more than the 1 error, at most, per person expected (t(44) = 3.82, p technical errors committed negatively correlated with the total number of commonly identified difficulties and generated solutions (r (33) = -0.429, p = 0.021, r (33) = -0.383, p = 0.044, respectively). Almost half of the surgical residents committed multiple errors while performing subclavian CVC placement. The correlation between technical errors and decision-making skills suggests a critical need to train residents in both technique and error management. Copyright Â© 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hitchins, Charlotte R; Metzner, Magdalena; Edworthy, Judy; Ward, Catherine
Non-technical skills (NTS) have gained increasing recognition in recent years for their role in safe, effective team performance in healthcare. Gastrointestinal endoscopy is a procedure-based specialty with rapidly advancing technology, significant operational pressures and rapidly changing 'teams of experts'. However, to date there has been little focus on the effect of NTS in this field. This review aims to examine the existing literature on NTS in gastrointestinal endoscopy and identify areas for further research. A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, PsychINFO, CINAHL Plus and PubMed databases was performed using search terms Non-Technical Skills, Team Performance or Team Skills, and Endoscopy, Colonoscopy, OGD, Gastroscopy, Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography or Endoscopic Ultrasound. Eighteen relevant publications were found. NTS are deemed an essential component of practice, but so far there is little evidence of their integration into training or competency assessment. Those studies examining the effects of NTS and team training in endoscopy are small and have variable outcome measures with limited evidence of improvement in skills or clinical outcomes. NTS assessment in endoscopy is in its early phases with a few tools in development. The current literature on NTS in gastrointestinal endoscopy is limited. NTS, however, are deemed an essential component of practice, with potential positive effects on team performance and clinical outcomes. A validated reliable tool would enable evaluation of training and investigation into the effects of NTS on outcomes. There is a clear need for further research in this field.
Krüger, A; Gillmann, B; Hardt, C; Döring, R; Beckers, S K; Rossaint, R
Physicians have to demonstrate non-technical skills, such as communication and team leading skills, while coping with critical incidents. These skills are not taught during medical education. A crisis resource management (CRM) training was established for 4th to 6th year medical students using a full-scale simulator mannikin (Emergency Care Simulator, ECS, METI). The learning objectives of the course were defined according to the key points of Gaba's CRM concept. The training consisted of theoretical and practical parts (3 simulation scenarios with debriefing). Students' self-assessment before and after the training provided the data for evaluation of the training outcome. A total of 65 students took part in the training. The course was well received in terms of overall course quality, debriefings and didactic presentation, the mean overall mark being 1.4 (1: best, 6: worst). After the course students felt significantly more confident when facing incidents in clinical practice. The main learning objectives were achieved. The effectiveness of applying the widely used ECS full-scale simulator in interdisciplinary teaching has been demonstrated. The training exposes students to crisis resource management issues and motivates them to develop non-technical skills.
Brydges, Ryan; Mallette, Claire; Pollex, Heather; Carnahan, Heather; Dubrowski, Adam
Educators often simplify complex tasks by setting learning objectives that focus trainees on isolated skills rather than the holistic task. We designed 2 sets of learning objectives for intravenous catheterization using goal setting theory. We hypothesized that setting holistic goals related to technical, cognitive, and communication skills would result in superior holistic performance, whereas setting isolated goals related to technical skills would result in superior technical performance. We randomly assigned practicing health care professionals to set holistic (n = 14) or isolated (n = 15) goals. All watched an instructional video and studied a list of 9 goals specific to their group. Participants practiced independently in a hybrid simulation (standardized patient combined with an arm simulator). The first and the last practice trials were videotaped for analysis. One-week later, participants completed a transfer test in another hybrid simulation scenario. Blinded experts evaluated performance on all 3 trials using the Direct Observation of Procedural Skills tool. The holistic group scored higher than the isolated group on the holistic Direct Observation of Procedural Skills score for all 3 trials [mean (SD), 45.0 (9.16) vs. 38.4 (9.17); P = 0.01]. The isolated group did not perform better than the holistic group on the technical skills score [10.3 (2.73) vs. 11.6 (3.01); P = 0.11]. Our results suggest that asking learners to set holistic goals did not interfere with their attaining competent holistic and technical skills during hybrid simulation training. This exploratory trial provides preliminary evidence for how to consider integrating hybrid simulation into medical curricula and for the design of learning goals in simulation-based education.
Keane, C. M.
Employer-applicant skill compatibility represents a major component of the career development process, particularly for new entrants to the job market. Newly minted geoscientists largely bring a distinct set of skills learned during their formal education and training, which combined with a broader view of the person are evaluated for career potential in today's major employers. University departments possess a strong view of their role in educating future geoscientists, including the skill sets imparted, the basis of education provided, and the expectation for how their students will evolve into colleagues in the profession. Regretfully, based on numerous surveys by both the American Geological Institute's Human Resources program and other independent studies, the formally transferred skills and expectations do not necessarily match those of many geoscience employers. While academia has increased its focus on increasing technical skills and greater specialization, most geoscience employers have further increased the technology gap between themselves and academia, leading most employers to seek broadly trained and well-educated graduates. Additionally, soft skills represent an area of major disagreement between what is considered important and what is considered feasible in a formal education. While debate continues both within industry and academia over the ideal set of soft skills, the great variance in soft skill demands lead to better opportunities for matching of graduate to employer. This debate further enhances the ongoing discussion of the role of the university, the importance of employer needs, and the health of the geoscience discipline within society. Fundamentally, the hiring and career development process remains as sequence of compromises for both the employer and the recent graduate.
Papaspyros, Sotiris C; Kar, Ashok; O'Regan, David
Over the past two centuries the surgical profession has undergone a profound evolution in terms of efficiency and outcomes. Societal concerns in relation to quality assurance, patient safety and cost reduction have highlighted the issue of training expert surgeons. The core elements of a training model build on the basic foundations of gross and fine motor skills. In this paper we provide an analysis of the ergonomic principles involved and propose relevant training techniques. We have endeavored to provide both the trainer and trainee perspectives. This paper is structured into four sections: 1) Pre-operative preparation issues, 2) technical skills and instrument handling, 3) low fidelity simulation models and 4) discussion of current concepts in crew resource management, deliberate practice and assessment. Rehearsal, warm-up and motivation-enhancing techniques aid concentration and focus. Appropriate posture, comprehension of ergonomic principles in relation to surgical instruments and utilisation of the non-dominant hand are essential skills to master. Low fidelity models can be used to achieve significant progress through the early stages of the learning curve. Deliberate practice and innate ability are complementary to each other and may be considered useful adjuncts to surgical skills development. Safe medical care requires that complex patient interventions be performed by highly skilled operators supported by reliable teams. Surgical ergonomics lie at the heart of any training model that aims to produce professionals able to function as leaders of a patient safety oriented culture. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between Chinese reading skills and metalinguistic awareness skills such as phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness for 101 Preschool, 94 Grade-1, 98 Grade-2, and 98 Grade-3 children from two primary schools in Mainland China. The aim of the study was to examine how each of these metalinguistic awareness skills would exert their influence on the success of reading in Chinese with age. The results showed that all three metalinguistic awareness skills significantly predicted reading success. It further revealed that orthographic awareness played a dominant role in the early stages of reading acquisition, and its influence decreased with age, while the opposite was true for the contribution of morphological awareness. The results were in stark contrast with studies in English, where phonological awareness is typically shown as the single most potent metalinguistic awareness factor in literacy acquisition. In order to account for the current data, a three-stage model of reading acquisition in Chinese is discussed.
Meaney, Peter A.; Sutton, Robert M.; Tsima, Billy; Steenhoff, Andrew P.; Shilkofski, Nicole; Boulet, John R.; Davis, Amanda; Kestler, Andrew M.; Church, Kasey K.; Niles, Dana E.; Irving, Sharon Y.; Mazhani, Loeto; Nadkarni, Vinay M.
Objective Globally, one third of deaths each year are from cardiovascular diseases, yet no strong evidence supports any specific method of CPR instruction in a resource-limited setting. We hypothesized that both existing and novel CPR training programs significantly impact skills of hospital-based healthcare providers (HCP) in Botswana. Methods HCP were prospectively randomized to 3 training groups: instructor led, limited instructor with manikin feedback, or self-directed learning. Data was collected prior to training, immediately after and at 3 and 6 months. Excellent CPR was prospectively defined as having at least 4 of 5 characteristics: depth, rate, release, no flow fraction, and no excessive ventilation. GEE was performed to account for within subject correlation. Results Of 214 HCP trained, 40% resuscitate ≥1/month, 28% had previous formal CPR training, and 65% required additional skills remediation to pass using AHA criteria. Excellent CPR skill acquisition was significant (infant: 32% vs. 71%, p CPR skill retention was significant at 3 (39% vs. 70%, p CPR skills were retained to 3 months (34% vs. 51%, p = 0.02). On multivariable analysis, low cognitive score and need for skill remediation, but not instruction method, impacted CPR skill performance. Conclusions HCP in resource-limited settings resuscitate frequently, with little CPR training. Using existing training, HCP acquire and retain skills, yet often require remediation. Novel techniques with increased student: instructor ratio and feedback manikins were not different compared to traditional instruction. PMID:22561463
Gillespie, Brigid M; Harbeck, Emma; Kang, Evelyn; Steel, Catherine; Fairweather, Nicole; Chaboyer, Wendy
Communication and teamwork failures have frequently been identified as the root cause of adverse events and complications in surgery. Few studies have examined contextual factors that influence teams' non-technical skills (NTS) in surgery. The purpose of this prospective study was to identify and describe correlates of NTS. We assessed NTS of teams and professional role at 2 hospitals using the revised 23-item Non-TECHnical Skills (NOTECHS) and its subscales (communication, situational awareness, team skills, leadership and decision-making). Over 6 months, 2 trained observers evaluated teams' NTS using a structured form. Interobserver agreement across hospitals ranged from 86% to 95%. Multiple regression models were developed to describe associations between operative time, team membership, miscommunications, interruptions, and total NOTECHS and subscale scores. We observed 161 surgical procedures across 8 teams. The total amount of explained variance in NOTECHS and its 5 subscales ranged from 14% (adjusted R 2 0.12, p<0.001) to 24% (adjusted R 2 0.22, p<0.001). In all models, inverse relationships between the total number of miscommunications and total number of interruptions and teams' NTS were observed. Miscommunications and interruptions impact on team NTS performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Sweet, Robert M; Hananel, David; Lawrenz, Frances
To present modern educational psychology theory and apply these concepts to validity and reliability of surgical skills training and assessment. In a series of cross-disciplinary meetings, we applied a unified approach of behavioral science principles and theory to medical technical skills education given the recent advances in the theories in the field of behavioral psychology and statistics. While validation of the individual simulation tools is important, it is only one piece of a multimodal curriculum that in and of itself deserves examination and study. We propose concurrent validation throughout the design of simulation-based curriculum rather than once it is complete. We embrace the concept that validity and curriculum development are interdependent, ongoing processes that are never truly complete. Individual predictive, construct, content, and face validity aspects should not be considered separately but as interdependent and complementary toward an end application. Such an approach could help guide our acceptance and appropriate application of these exciting new training and assessment tools for technical skills training in medicine.
Bjerrum, Flemming; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Nayahangan, Leizl Joy; Konge, Lars
Simulation-based training (SBT) has become a standard component of modern surgical education, yet successful implementation of evidence-based training programs remains challenging. In this narrative review, we use Kern's framework for curriculum development to describe where we are now and what lies ahead for SBT within surgery with a focus on technical skills in operative procedures. Despite principles for optimal SBT (proficiency-based, distributed, and deliberate practice) having been identified, massed training with fixed time intervals or a fixed number of repetitions is still being extensively used, and simulators are generally underutilized. SBT should be part of surgical training curricula, including theoretical, technical, and non-technical skills, and be based on relevant needs assessments. Furthermore, training should follow evidence-based theoretical principles for optimal training, and the effect of training needs to be evaluated using relevant outcomes. There is a larger, still unrealized potential of surgical SBT, which may be realized in the near future as simulator technologies evolve, more evidence-based training programs are implemented, and cost-effectiveness and impact on patient safety is clearly demonstrated.
Neuschwander, A; Job, A; Younes, A; Mignon, A; Delgoulet, C; Cabon, P; Mantz, J; Tesniere, A
Sleep deprivation is common in anaesthesia residents, but its impact on performance remains uncertain. Non-technical skills (team working, situation awareness, decision making, and task management) are key components of quality of care in anaesthesia, particularly in crisis situations occurring in the operating room. The impact of sleep deprivation on non-technical skills is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that in anaesthesia residents sleep deprivation is associated with impaired non-technical skills. Twenty anaesthesia residents were randomly allocated to undergo a simulation session after a night shift [sleep-deprived (SLD) group, n =10] or after a night of rest [rested (R) group, n =10] from January to March 2015. The simulated scenario was a situation of crisis management in the operating room. The primary end point was a composite score of anaesthetists' non-technical skills (ANTS) assessed by two blinded evaluators. Non-technical skills were significantly impaired in the SLD group [ANTS score 12.2 (interquartile range 10.5-13)] compared with the R group [14.5 (14-15), P technical skills of anaesthesia residents in a simulated anaesthesia intraoperative crisis scenario. NCT02622217. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Bamford, R; Langdon, L; Rodd, C A; Eastaugh-Waring, S; Coulston, J E
The transition to surgical training can be a stressful time for trainees and is most evident during national handover periods where new graduates start and senior trainees rotate to new programmes. During this time, patient mortality can increase and Hospital efficiency reduces. This influence is compounded by the impact of working time directives. Intensive, simulation rich training programmes or "Boot Camps" have been postulated as a solution. This article highlights the development of a surgical boot camp for novice surgical trainees and the impact this can have on training. A novel surgical boot camp was developed for all trainees within a surgical training region including nine acute NHS trusts. Participating cohort of trainees completed pre and post course questionnaires to assess technical and non-technical skills. 25 trainees attended and completed the pre and post boot camp questionnaire. Significant improvements were seen with technical skills (p = 0.0429), overall non-technical skills (p skills (p = 0.005) and outpatient skill (p = 0.002). Trainees reported significantly increased ability to assess and manage a critically unwell patient (p = 0.001) and a trauma patient (p = 0.001). 96% of trainees have utilised the skills they learnt on Boot Camp and all trainees would recommend it as an induction programme. Surgical Boot Camps offer a timely chance to develop technical and non-technical skills whilst enhancing a trainee's confidence and knowledge and reduce the patient safety impact of the handover period. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kilgus, Stephen P.; von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Scott, Katherine; Paxton, Sara
The purpose of this investigation was to develop and initially validate the "Intervention Selection Profile-Social Skills" (ISP-SS), a novel brief social skills assessment method intended for use at Tier 2. Participants included 54 elementary school teachers and their 243 randomly selected students. Teachers rated students on two rating…
Buescher, Julian Frederik; Mehdorn, Anne-Sophie; Neumann, Philipp-Alexander; Becker, Felix; Eichelmann, Ann-Kathrin; Pankratius, Ulrich; Bahde, Ralf; Foell, Daniel; Senninger, Norbert; Rijcken, Emile
To investigate the effect of motion parameter feedback on laparoscopic basic skill acquisition and retention during a standardized box training curriculum. A Lap-X Hybrid laparoscopic simulator was designed to provide individual and continuous motion parameter feedback in a dry box trainer setting. In a prospective controlled trial, surgical novices were randomized into 2 groups (regular box group, n = 18, and Hybrid group, n = 18) to undergo an identical 5-day training program. In each group, 7 standardized tasks on laparoscopic basic skills were completed twice a day on 4 consecutive days in fixed pairs. Additionally, each participant performed a simulated standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy before (day 1) and after training (day 5) on a LAP Mentor II virtual reality (VR) trainer, allowing an independent control of skill progress in both groups. A follow-up assessment of skill retention was performed after 6 weeks with repetition of both the box tasks and VR cholecystectomy. Muenster University Hospital Training Center, Muenster, Germany. Medical students without previous surgical experience. Laparoscopic skills in both groups improved significantly during the training period, measured by the overall task performance time. The 6 week follow-up showed comparable skill retention in both groups. Evaluation of the VR cholecystectomies demonstrated significant decrease of operation time (p Simulation training on both trainers enables reliable acquisition of laparoscopic basic skills. Furthermore, individual and continuous motion feedback improves laparoscopic skill enhancement significantly in several aspects. Thus, training systems with feedback of motion parameters should be considered to achieve long-term improvement of motion economy among surgical trainees. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Livingston, Patricia; Zolpys, Lauren; Mukwesi, Christian; Twagirumugabe, Theogene; Whynot, Sara; MacLeod, Anna
Patient safety depends on excellent practice of anaesthetists' non-technical skills (ANTS). The ANTS framework has been validated in developed countries but there is no literature on the practice of ANTS in low-income countries. This study examines ANTS in this unexplored context. This qualitative ethnographic study used observations of Rwandan anaesthesia providers and in-depth interviews with both North American and Rwandan anaesthesia providers to understand practice of ANTS in Rwanda. Communication is central to the practice of ANTS. Cultural factors in Rwanda, such as lack of assertiveness and discomfort taking leadership, and the strains of working in a resource-limited environment hinder the unfettered and focused communication needed for excellent anaesthesia practice. Despite the challenges, anaesthesia providers are able to coordinate activities when good communication is actively encouraged. Future teaching interventions should address leadership and communication skills through encouraging both role definition and speaking up for patient safety.
Holst, Daniel; Kowalewski, Timothy M; White, Lee W; Brand, Timothy C; Harper, Jonathan D; Sorenson, Mathew D; Kirsch, Sarah; Lendvay, Thomas S
Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining services from a large group of people, typically an online community. Validated methods of evaluating surgical video are time-intensive, expensive, and involve participation of multiple expert surgeons. We sought to obtain valid performance scores of urologic trainees and faculty on a dry-laboratory robotic surgery task module by using crowdsourcing through a web-based grading tool called Crowd Sourced Assessment of Technical Skill (CSATS). IRB approval was granted to test the technical skills grading accuracy of Amazon.com Mechanical Turk™ crowd-workers compared to three expert faculty surgeon graders. The two groups assessed dry-laboratory robotic surgical suturing performances of three urology residents (PGY-2, -4, -5) and two faculty using three performance domains from the validated Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills assessment tool. After an average of 2 hours 50 minutes, each of the five videos received 50 crowd-worker assessments. The inter-rater reliability (IRR) between the surgeons and crowd was 0.91 using Cronbach's alpha statistic (confidence intervals=0.20-0.92), indicating an agreement level between the two groups of "excellent." The crowds were able to discriminate the surgical level, and both the crowds and the expert faculty surgeon graders scored one senior trainee's performance above a faculty's performance. Surgery-naive crowd-workers can rapidly assess varying levels of surgical skill accurately relative to a panel of faculty raters. The crowds provided rapid feedback and were inexpensive. CSATS may be a valuable adjunct to surgical simulation training as requirements for more granular and iterative performance tracking of trainees become mandated and commonplace.
Bracco, Fabrizio; Masini, Michele; De Tonetti, Gabriele; Brogioni, Francesca; Amidani, Arianna; Monichino, Sara; Maltoni, Alessandra; Dato, Andrea; Grattarola, Claudia; Cordone, Massimo; Torre, Giancarlo; Launo, Claudio; Chiorri, Carlo; Celleno, Danilo
Simulation in healthcare has proved to be a useful method in improving skills and increasing the safety of clinical operations. The debriefing session, after the simulated scenario, is the core of the simulation, since it allows participants to integrate the experience with the theoretical frameworks and the procedural guidelines. There is consistent evidence for the relevance of non-technical skills (NTS) for the safe and efficient accomplishment of operations. However, the observation, assessment and feedback on these skills is particularly complex, because the process needs expert observers and the feedback is often provided in judgmental and ineffective ways. The aim of this study was therefore to develop and test a set of observation and rating forms for the NTS behavioural markers of multi-professional teams involved in delivery room emergency simulations (MINTS-DR, Multi-professional Inventory for Non-Technical Skills in the Delivery Room). The MINTS-DR was developed by adapting the existing tools and, when needed, by designing new tools according to the literature. We followed a bottom-up process accompanied by interviews and co-design between practitioners and psychology experts. The forms were specific for anaesthetists, gynaecologists, nurses/midwives, assistants, plus a global team assessment tool. We administered the tools in five editions of a simulation training course that involved 48 practitioners. Ratings on usability and usefulness were collected. The mean ratings of the usability and usefulness of the tools were not statistically different to or higher than 4 on a 5-point rating scale. In either case no significant differences were found across professional categories. The MINTS-DR is quick and easy to administer. It is judged to be a useful asset in maximising the learning experience that is provided by the simulation.
Nair, Sankaran N.; Czaja, Sara J.; Sharit, Joseph
This article explores the role of age, cognitive abilities, prior experience, and knowledge in skill acquisition for a computer-based simulated customer service task. Fifty-two participants aged 50–80 performed the task over 4 consecutive days following training. They also completed a battery that assessed prior computer experience and cognitive abilities. The data indicated that overall quality and efficiency of performance improved with practice. The predictors of initial level of performan...
Khatri, Chetan; Sugand, Kapil; Anjum, Sharika; Vivekanantham, Sayinthen; Akhtar, Kash; Gupte, Chinmay
Previous studies have suggested that there is a positive correlation between the extent of video gaming and efficiency of surgical skill acquisition on laparoscopic and endovascular surgical simulators amongst trainees. However, the link between video gaming and orthopaedic trauma simulation remains unexamined, in particular dynamic hip screw (DHS) stimulation. To assess effect of prior video gaming experience on virtual-reality (VR) haptic-enabled DHS simulator performance. 38 medical students, naïve to VR surgical simulation, were recruited and stratified relative to their video gaming exposure. Group 1 (n = 19, video-gamers) were defined as those who play more than one hour per day in the last calendar year. Group 2 (n = 19, non-gamers) were defined as those who play video games less than one hour per calendar year. Both cohorts performed five attempts on completing a VR DHS procedure and repeated the task after a week. Metrics assessed included time taken for task, simulated flouroscopy time and screw position. Median and Bonett-Price 95% confidence intervals were calculated for seven real-time objective performance metrics. Data was confirmed as non-parametric by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test for independent data whilst the Wilcoxon signed ranked test was used for paired data. A result was deemed significant when a two-tailed p-value was less than 0.05. All 38 subjects completed the study. The groups were not significantly different at baseline. After ten attempts, there was no difference between Group 1 and Group 2 in any of the metrics tested. These included time taken for task, simulated fluoroscopy time, number of retries, tip-apex distance, percentage cut-out and global score. Contrary to previous literature findings, there was no correlation between video gaming experience and gaining competency on a VR DHS simulator.
Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that there is a positive correlation between the extent of video gaming and efficiency of surgical skill acquisition on laparoscopic and endovascular surgical simulators amongst trainees. However, the link between video gaming and orthopaedic trauma simulation remains unexamined, in particular dynamic hip screw (DHS stimulation.To assess effect of prior video gaming experience on virtual-reality (VR haptic-enabled DHS simulator performance.38 medical students, naïve to VR surgical simulation, were recruited and stratified relative to their video gaming exposure. Group 1 (n = 19, video-gamers were defined as those who play more than one hour per day in the last calendar year. Group 2 (n = 19, non-gamers were defined as those who play video games less than one hour per calendar year. Both cohorts performed five attempts on completing a VR DHS procedure and repeated the task after a week. Metrics assessed included time taken for task, simulated flouroscopy time and screw position. Median and Bonett-Price 95% confidence intervals were calculated for seven real-time objective performance metrics. Data was confirmed as non-parametric by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test for independent data whilst the Wilcoxon signed ranked test was used for paired data. A result was deemed significant when a two-tailed p-value was less than 0.05.All 38 subjects completed the study. The groups were not significantly different at baseline. After ten attempts, there was no difference between Group 1 and Group 2 in any of the metrics tested. These included time taken for task, simulated fluoroscopy time, number of retries, tip-apex distance, percentage cut-out and global score.Contrary to previous literature findings, there was no correlation between video gaming experience and gaining competency on a VR DHS simulator.
van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Mulenga, Innocent Chitalu; Chidester, Diana Lisensky
In a highly social species like chimpanzees, the process by which individuals become attuned to their social environment may be of vital importance to their chances of survival. Typically, this socialization process, defined by all acquisition experiences and fine-tuning efforts of social interaction patterns during ontogeny, occurs in large part through parental investment. In this study, we investigated whether maternal presence enhances the socialization process in chimpanzees by comparing the social interactions of orphaned and mother-reared individuals at the Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage Trust in Zambia. As response variables, we selected social interactions during which an elaborate level of fine-tuning is assumed to be necessary for sustaining the interaction and preventing escalation: social play. Comparing orphaned (n = 8) to sex- and age-matched mother-reared juvenile chimpanzees (n = 9), we hypothesized that the orphaned juveniles would play less frequently than the mother-reared and would be less equipped for fine-tuning social play (which we assayed by rates of aggression) because of the lack of a safe and facilitating social environment provided by the mother. First, contrary to our hypothesis, results showed that the orphaned juveniles engaged in social play more frequently than the mother-reared juveniles, although for significantly shorter amounts of time. Second, in support of our hypothesis, results showed that social play of the orphaned juveniles more often resulted in aggression than social play of the mother-reared juveniles. In conjunction, these results may indicate that, just like in humans, chimpanzee mothers provide their offspring with adequate social skills that might be of pivotal importance for future challenges like successful group-living and securing competitive fitness advantages.
Full Text Available The present study investigated the contribution of the educational and technical courses in the English Language Teacher Training Program (ELTTP at universities in Turkey to the information and communication technologies (ICT knowledge and skills of the students. The participants were 74 teachers/trainees who were attending their last year in the Faculty of Education at Uludag University or graduates of the ELTTP from nine different universities in Turkey. The data were collected by a Likert scale questionnaire by which teacher trainees were asked to rate each course that fell under the specific group of educational or technical courses that they attended during their education; and by interviews through which participants were asked to evaluate to what degree the technical courses contributed to their ICT-informed personal and professional development, and whether they felt ready to employ ICT in their classes as teachers. Results revealed that neither the educational nor the technical courses supported the ICT knowledge and skills of the participants at a satisfactory level, suggesting that the pedagogical knowledge that teacher trainees receive during their education is not in parallel with the technical knowledge that in fact should facilitate the implementation of pedagogical skills in the current age of technology. The present study speculated that the insufficient technical knowledge of the field and underdeveloped technical skills result in evasion of technology use and innovation in education. The study ended with suggestions related to teacher training programs and to the philosophies and approaches to English Language Teaching education.
Alkhayal, Abdullah; Aldhukair, Shahla; Alselaim, Nahar; Aldekhayel, Salah; Alhabdan, Sultan; Altaweel, Waleed; Magzoub, Mohi Elden; Zamakhshary, Mohammed
After almost a decade of implementing competency-based programs in postgraduate training programs, the assessment of technical skills remains more subjective than objective. National data on the assessment of technical skills during surgical training are lacking. We conducted this study to document the assessment tools for technical skills currently used in different surgical specialties, their relationship with remediation, the recommended tools from the program directors' perspective, and program directors' attitudes toward the available objective tools to assess technical skills. This study was a cross-sectional survey of surgical program directors (PDs). The survey was initially developed using a focus group and was then sent to 116 PDs. The survey contains demographic information about the program, the objective assessment tools used, and the reason for not using assessment tools. The last section discusses the recommended tools to be used from the PDs' perspective and the PDs' attitude and motivation to apply these tools in each program. The associations between the responses to the assessment questions and remediation were statistically evaluated. Seventy-one (61%) participants responded. Of the respondents, 59% mentioned using only nonstandardized, subjective, direct observation for technical skills assessment. Sixty percent use only summative evaluation, whereas 15% perform only formative evaluations of their residents, and the remaining 22% conduct both summative and formative evaluations of their residents' technical skills. Operative portfolios are kept by 53% of programs. The percentage of programs with mechanisms for remediation is 29% (19 of 65). The survey showed that surgical training programs use different tools to assess surgical skills competency. Having a clear remediation mechanism was highly associated with reporting remediation, which reflects the capability to detect struggling residents. Surgical training leadership should invest more in
Shipper, Edward S; Miller, Sarah E; Hasty, Brittany N; Merrell, Sylvia Bereknyei; Lin, Dana T; Lau, James N
Prior interventions to address declining interest in surgical careers have focused on creating early exposure and fostering mentorship at the preclinical medical student level. Navigating the surgical environment can be challenging, however, and preclinical students may be more likely to pursue a surgical career if they are given the tools to function optimally. We designed a 10-wk technical and nontechnical skills curriculum to provide preclinical students with knowledge and skills necessary to successfully navigate the surgical learning environment, followed by placement in high-fidelity surgical simulations and scrubbing in on operative cases with attending surgeons. We administered pre-post surveys to assess student confidence levels in operative skills, self-perceptions of having a mentor, overall course efficacy, and interest in a career in surgery. The overall response rates presurvey and postsurvey were 100% (30 of 30) and 93.3% (28 of 30), respectively. Confidence levels across all operative skills increased significantly after completing the course. Faculty mentorship increased significantly from 30.0% before to 61.5% after the course. Overall effectiveness of the course was 4.00 of 5 (4 = "very effective"), and although insignificant, overall interest in a career in surgery increased at the completion of the course from 3.77 (standard deviation = 1.01) to 4.17 (standard deviation = 0.94). Our curriculum was effective in teaching the skills necessary to enjoy positive experiences in planned early exposure and mentorship activities. Further study is warranted to determine if this intervention leads to an increase in students who formally commit to a career in surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Flowerdew, Lynsey; Gaunt, Arran; Spedding, Jessica; Bhargava, Ajay; Brown, Ruth; Vincent, Charles; Woloshynowych, Maria
To evaluate a new tool to assess emergency physicians' non-technical skills. This was a multicentre observational study using data collected at four emergency departments in England. A proportion of observations used paired observers to obtain data for inter-rater reliability. Data were also collected for test-retest reliability, observability of skills, mean ratings and dispersion of ratings for each skill, as well as a comparison of skill level between hospitals. Qualitative data described the range of non-technical skills exhibited by trainees and identified sources of rater error. 96 assessments of 43 senior trainees were completed. At a scale level, intra-class coefficients were 0.575, 0.532 and 0.419 and using mean scores were 0.824, 0.702 and 0.519. Spearman's ρ for calculating test-retest reliability was 0.70 using mean scores. All skills were observed more than 60% of the time. The skill Maintenance of Standards received the lowest mean rating (4.8 on a nine-point scale) and the highest mean was calculated for Team Building (6.0). Two skills, Supervision & Feedback and Situational Awareness-Gathering Information, had significantly different distributions of ratings across the four hospitals (ptechnical skills, especially in relation to leadership. The framework of skills may be used to identify areas for development in individual trainees, as well as guide other patient safety interventions.
Tsuburaya, Akira; Soma, Takahiro; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Cho, Haruhiko; Miki, Tamotsu; Uramatsu, Masashi; Fujisawa, Yoshikazu; Youngson, George; Yule, Steven
Non-technical skills rating systems, which are designed to support surgical performance, have been introduced worldwide, but not officially in Japan. We performed a pilot study to evaluate the "non-technical skills for surgeons" (NOTSS) rating system in a major Japanese cancer center. Upper gastrointestinal surgeons were selected as trainers or trainees. The trainers attended a master-class on NOTSS, which included simulated demo-videos, to promote consistency across the assessments. The trainers thereafter commenced observing the trainees and whole teams, utilizing the NOTSS and "observational teamwork assessment for surgery" (OTAS) rating systems, before and after their education. Four trainers and six trainees were involved in this study. Test scores for understanding human factors and the NOTSS system were 5.89 ± 1.69 and 8.00 ± 1.32 before and after the e-learning, respectively (mean ± SD, p = 0.010). The OTAS scores for the whole team improved significantly after the trainees' education in five out of nine stages (p < 0.05). There were no differences in the NOTSS scores before and after education, with a small improvement in the total scores for the "teamwork and communication" and "leadership" categories. These findings demonstrate that implementing the NOTSS system is feasible in Japan. Education of both surgical trainers and trainees would contribute to better team performance.
Dieckmann, Peter; Glavin, Ronnie; Hartvigsen Grønholm Jepsen, Rikke Malene; Krage, Ralf
Acquiring the concepts of non-technical skills (NTS) beyond a superficial level is a challenge for healthcare professionals and simulation faculty. Current simulation-based approaches to teach NTS are challenged when learners have to master NTS concepts, clinically challenging situations, and simulation as a complex technique. The combination of all three aspects might overwhelm learners. To facilitate the deeper comprehension of NTS concepts, we describe an innovative video-based game, the Non-Technical Skills (NTS) Bingo. Participants get NTS Bingo cards that show five NTS elements each. While observing (non-medical) video clips, they try to find examples for the elements on their cards, typically observable behaviours that match a given element. After the video, participants "defend" their solution in a discussion with the game leader and other players. This discussion and the reflection aim to deepen the processing of the NTS concepts. We provide practical guidance for the conduct of NTS Bingo, including a selection of usable video clips and tips for the facilitated discussion after a clip. We use NTS in anaesthesia as example and provide guidance on how to adapt NTS Bingo to other disciplines. NTS Bingo is based on theoretical considerations on concept learning, which we describe to support the rationale for its conduct.
used ICTs for communication, teaching and learning activities, also that they acquired skills ... development, “tertiary education is deemed to be ... Nigerian universities is fraught with challenges ..... this with Mirrilla's (2000) skills demand profile.
Perez, Monica A.; Lungholt, Bjarke K.S.; Nielsen, Jens Bo
Sensory information continuously converges on the spinal cord during a variety of motor behaviours. Here, we examined presynaptic control of group Ia afferents in relation to acquisition of a novel motor skill. We tested whether repetition of two motor tasks with different degrees of difficulty......, a novel visuo-motor task involving the ankle muscles, and a control task involving simple voluntary ankle movements, would induce changes in the size of the soleus H-reflex. The slope of the H-reflex recruitment curve and the H-max/M-max ratio were depressed after repetition of the visuo-motor skill task...... of the monosynaptic Ia facilitation of the soleus H-reflex evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. The D1 inhibition was increased and the femoral nerve facilitation was decreased following the visuo-motor skill task, suggesting an increase in presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents. No changes were observed...
Olufemi B Bankole
Full Text Available Background: Our teaching hospitals have different grades of doctors with varied exposure to cardiac arrest settings and their resuscitation skills are often inadequate. Objectives: We investigated whether the grade of a doctor influenced acquisition of knowledge and skill during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR training in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Doctors who attended a two-day resuscitation training program between December 2007 and April 2009 were scored on their knowledge of Basic Life Support, Advanced Life Support, and performance at five skill stations. A pass mark was awarded for a post-test score ≥ 75% and a pass in all skill stations. Results: A total of 130 doctors were studied with a mean of 10.99 ± 6.51 years since medical qualification (range, 2-28 years. The mean pre-test score was 54.43 ± 16.10% (range 30.5-91.8% while the mean post-test score was 88.48 ± 6.8% (range, 54.6-94%, (P < 0.001. Mean post-test scores were not significantly different between grades. Mean scores for questions on Basic Life Support, defibrillator use, and drug therapy and in performance at skill stations were not significantly different between grades. A significant difference however existed in questions on cardiac arrest rhythms (P = 0.031. Sixty-five participants (50% passed the post-test at first attempt. Consultants, senior registrars, and registrars had pass rates of 59.2%, 53.6%, and 43.5% respectively (P = 0.336. After re-training at performance stations, 124 doctors (95.4% passed the test with no significant difference in overall pass in the various grades (P = 0.605. Conclusion : Grade of doctor did not affect the acquisition of knowledge and skill during resuscitation training.
Caskey, Robert C; Owei, Lily; Rao, Raghavendra; Riddle, Elijah W; Brooks, Ari D; Dempsey, Daniel T; Morris, Jon B; Neylan, Christopher J; Williams, Noel N; Dumon, Kristoffel R
Nontechnical skills are an essential component of surgical education and a major competency assessed by the ACGME milestones project. However, the optimal way to integrate nontechnical skills training into existing curricula and then objectively evaluate the outcome is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect laparoscopic team-based task training would have on the nontechnical skills needed for laparoscopic surgery. 9 PGY-1 residents underwent an established training curriculum for teaching the knowledge and technical skills involved in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Initial training involved a didactic session, expert-led practice on a porcine model in a simulated operating room and laparoscopic skills practice on a virtual reality trainer. Residents then performed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the same porcine model as a preintervention test. Three to four months following this, residents were subjected to specific nontechnical skills training involving 2 simple team-based laparoscopic tasks. They then practiced a further 4 to 6 hours on the virtual reality trainer. A repeat postintervention laparoscopic cholecystectomy was then performed 3 to 4 months after nontechnical skills training. Both the preintervention and postintervention laparoscopic cholecystectomies were audiovisually recorded and then evaluated by 2 independent surgeons in a blinded fashion. Technical skills were assessed using objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) and a technique specific rating scale (TRS) that we developed for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Nontechnical skills were assessed using nontechnical skills for surgeons (NOTSS). Residents also completed a survey at the beginning and end of the training. Tertiary care, university based teaching institution. A total of 9 general surgery residents at the intern level. The mean OSATS score improved from 13.7 ± 1.24 to 26.7 ± 0.31 (p training. There was a strong correlation between OSATS and
Fransen, A F; van de Ven, J; Merién, A E R; de Wit-Zuurendonk, L D; Houterman, S; Mol, B W; Oei, S G
To determine whether obstetric team training in a medical simulation centre improves the team performance and utilisation of appropriate medical technical skills of healthcare professionals. Cluster randomised controlled trial. The Netherlands. The obstetric departments of 24 Dutch hospitals. The obstetric departments were randomly assigned to a 1-day session of multiprofessional team training in a medical simulation centre or to no such training. Team training was given with high-fidelity mannequins by an obstetrician and a communication expert. More than 6 months following training, two unannounced simulated scenarios were carried out in the delivery rooms of all 24 obstetric departments. The scenarios, comprising a case of shoulder dystocia and a case of amniotic fluid embolism, were videotaped. The team performance and utilisation of appropriate medical skills were evaluated by two independent experts. Team performance evaluated with the validated Clinical Teamwork Scale (CTS) and the employment of two specific obstetric procedures for the two clinical scenarios in the simulation (delivery of the baby with shoulder dystocia in the maternal all-fours position and conducting a perimortem caesarean section within 5 minutes for the scenario of amniotic fluid embolism). Seventy-four obstetric teams from 12 hospitals in the intervention group underwent teamwork training between November 2009 and July 2010. The teamwork performance in the training group was significantly better in comparison to the nontraining group (median CTS score: 7.5 versus 6.0, respectively; P = 0.014). The use of the predefined obstetric procedures for the two clinical scenarios was also significantly more frequent in the training group compared with the nontraining group (83 versus 46%, respectively; P = 0.009). Team performance and medical technical skills may be significantly improved after multiprofessional obstetric team training in a medical simulation centre. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An
Alici, Ferizan; Buerkle, Bernd; Tempfer, Clemens B
To describe the performance curve of hysteroscopy-naïve probands repeatedly working through a surgery algorithm on a hysteroscopy trainer. We prospectively recruited medical students to a 30min demonstration session teaching a standardized surgery algorithm. Subjects subsequently performed three training courses immediately after training (T1) and after 24h (T2) and 48h (T3). Skills were recorded with a 20-item Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) at T1, T2, and T3. The presence of a sustained OSATS score improvement from T1 to T3 was the primary outcome. Performance time (PT) and self assessment (SA) were secondary outcomes. Statistics were performed using paired T-test and multiple linear regression analysis. 92 subjects were included. OSATS scores significantly improved over time from T1 to T2 (15.21±1.95 vs. 16.02±2.06, respectively; ptraining courses on a hysteroscopy trainer. Serial hysteroscopy trainings may be helpful for teaching hysteroscopy skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
White, Eoin J; McMahon, Muireann; Walsh, Michael T; Coffey, J Calvin; O Sullivan, Leonard
To create a human information-processing model for laparoscopic surgery based on already established literature and primary research to enhance laparoscopic surgical education in this context. We reviewed the literature for information-processing models most relevant to laparoscopic surgery. Our review highlighted the necessity for a model that accounts for dynamic environments, perception, allocation of attention resources between the actions of both hands of an operator, and skill acquisition and retention. The results of the literature review were augmented through intraoperative observations of 7 colorectal surgical procedures, supported by laparoscopic video analysis of 12 colorectal procedures. The Wickens human information-processing model was selected as the most relevant theoretical model to which we make adaptions for this specific application. We expanded the perception subsystem of the model to involve all aspects of perception during laparoscopic surgery. We extended the decision-making system to include dynamic decision-making to account for case/patient-specific and surgeon-specific deviations. The response subsystem now includes dual-task performance and nontechnical skills, such as intraoperative communication. The memory subsystem is expanded to include skill acquisition and retention. Surgical decision-making during laparoscopic surgery is the result of a highly complex series of processes influenced not only by the operator's knowledge, but also patient anatomy and interaction with the surgical team. Newer developments in simulation-based education must focus on the theoretically supported elements and events that underpin skill acquisition and affect the cognitive abilities of novice surgeons. The proposed human information-processing model builds on established literature regarding information processing, accounting for a dynamic environment of laparoscopic surgery. This revised model may be used as a foundation for a model describing robotic
Spanager, Lene; Beier-Holgersen, Randi; Dieckmann, Peter; Konge, Lars; Rosenberg, Jacob; Oestergaard, Doris
Nontechnical skills are essential for safe and efficient surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of an assessment tool for surgeons' nontechnical skills, Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons dk (NOTSSdk), and the effect of rater training. A 1-day course was conducted for 15 general surgeons in which they rated surgeons' nontechnical skills in 9 video recordings of scenarios simulating real intraoperative situations. Data were gathered from 2 sessions separated by a 4-hour training session. Interrater reliability was high for both pretraining ratings (Cronbach's α = .97) and posttraining ratings (Cronbach's α = .98). There was no statistically significant development in assessment skills. The D study showed that 2 untrained raters or 1 trained rater was needed to obtain generalizability coefficients >.80. The high pretraining interrater reliability indicates that videos were easy to rate and Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons dk easy to use. This implies that Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons dk (NOTSSdk) could be an important tool in surgical training, potentially improving safety and quality for surgical patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bahl, Rachna; Murphy, Deirdre J; Strachan, Bryony
Non-technical skills are cognitive and social skills required in an operational task. These skills have been identified and taught in the surgical domain but are of particular relevance to obstetrics where the patient is awake, the partner is present and the clinical circumstances are acute and often stressful. The aim of this study was to define the non-technical skills of an operative vaginal delivery (forceps or vacuum) to facilitate transfer of skills from expert obstetricians to trainee obstetricians. Qualitative study using interviews and video recordings. The study was conducted at two university teaching hospitals (St. Michael's Hospital, Bristol and Ninewells Hospital, Dundee). Participants included 10 obstetricians and eight midwives identified as experts in conducting or supporting operative vaginal deliveries. Semi-structured interviews were carried out using routine clinical scenarios. The experts were also video recorded conducting forceps and vacuum deliveries in a simulation setting. The interviews and video recordings were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic coding. The anonymised data were independently coded by the three researchers and then compared for consistency of interpretation. The experts reviewed the coded data for respondent validation and clarification. The themes that emerged were used to identify the non-technical skills required for conducting an operative vaginal delivery. The final skills list was classified into seven main categories. Four categories (situational awareness, decision making, task management, and team work and communication) were similar to the categories identified in surgery. Three further categories unique to obstetrics were also identified (professional relationship with the woman, maintaining professional behaviour and cross-monitoring of performance). This explicitly defined skills taxonomy could aid trainees' understanding of the non-technical skills to be considered when conducting an operative
Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to examine the role of cue utilization in the initial acquisition of psychomotor skills. Two experiments were undertaken, the first of which examined the relationship between cue utilization typologies and levels of accuracy following four simulated, power-off landing trials in a light aircraft simulator. The results indicated that higher levels of cue utilization were associated with a greater level of landing accuracy following training exposure. In the second study, participants’ levels of cue utilization were assessed prior to two 15 minute periods during which they practiced take-offs and landings using a simulated Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV. Consistent with Study 1, the outcomes of Study 2 revealed a statistically significant relationship between levels of cue utilization and the number of trials to criterion on the take-off task, and the proportion of successful trials during both take-off and landing. In combination, the results suggest that the capacity for the acquisition and the subsequent utilization of cues is an important predictor of skill acquisition, particularly during the initial stages of the process. The implications for theory and applied practice are discussed.
Hernández-Padilla, José Manuel; Suthers, Fiona; Granero-Molina, José; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano
To determine and compare the effects of two different retraining strategies on nursing students' acquisition and retention of BLS/AED skills. Nursing students (N = 177) from two European universities were randomly assigned to either an instructor-directed (IDG) or a student-directed (SDG) 4-h retraining session in BLS/AED. A multiple-choice questionnaire, the Cardiff Test, Laerdal SkillReporter(®) software and a self-efficacy scale were used to assess students' overall competency (knowledge, psychomotor skills and self-efficacy) in BLS/AED at pre-test, post-test and 3-month retention-test. GEE, chi-squared and McNemar tests were performed to examine statistical differences amongst groups across time. There was a significant increase in the proportion of students who achieved competency for all variables measuring knowledge, psychomotor skills and self-efficacy between pre-test and post-test in both groups (all p-valuesstudy demonstrated that using a student-directed strategy to retrain BLS/AED skills has resulted in a higher proportion of nursing students achieving and retaining competency in BLS/AED at three months when compared to an instructor-directed strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aggarwal, R.; Grantcharov, T.; Moorthy, K.
.72). Conclusions: Video-based technical skills evaluation in the operating room is feasible, valid and reliable. Global rating scales hold promise for summative assessment, though further work is necessary to elucidate the value of procedural rating scales Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2......Objective: To determine the feasibility, validity, inter-rater, and intertest reliability of 4 previously published video-based rating scales, for technical skills assessment on a benchmark laparoscopic procedure. Summary Background Data: Assessment of technical skills is crucial...... to the demonstration and maintenance of competent healthcare practitioners. Traditional assessment methods are prone to subjectivity through a lack of proven validity and reliability. Methods: Nineteen surgeons (6 novice and 13 experienced) performed a median of 2 laparoscopic cholecystectomies each (range 1-5) on 53...
Winkel, Abigail Ford; Lerner, Veronica; Zabar, Sondra R; Szyld, Demian
Educators of trainees in procedure-based specialties need focused assessment tools that are valid, objective, and assess technical skills in a realistic context. A framework for hybrid assessment using standardized patient scenarios and bench skills testing might facilitate evaluation of competency. Seven PGY-1 obstetrics and gynecology residents participated in a hybrid assessment that used observed structured clinical examination (OSCE) by a standardized patient who had sustained a vaginal laceration during vaginal delivery. The residents elicited a history and counseled the patient, and then completed a laceration repair on a pelvic model. The residents were rated on their performance in the scenario, which included issues of cultural competency, rapport-building, patient counseling. The technical skills were videotaped and rated using a modified global assessment form by 2 faculty members on a 3-point scale from "not done" to "partly done" to "well-done." Residents also completed a subjective assessment of the station. Mean technical performance of the residents on the technical skills was 55% "well-done," with a range of 20%-90%. The assessment identified 3 residents as below the mean, and 1 resident with areas of deficiency. Subjective assessment by the residents was that juggling the technical, cognitive, and affective components of the examination was challenging. Technical skills can be included in a case-based assessment using scenarios that address a range of cognitive and affective skills required of physicians. Results may help training programs assess individuals' abilities as well as identify program needs for curricular improvement. This framework might be useful in setting standards for competency and identifying poor performers. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lladó Grove, Gabriela; Langager Høgh, Annette; Nielsen, Judith
OBJECTIVE: The concept of the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) is to quantify surgical skills in an objective way and, thereby, produce an additional procedure-specific assessment tool. Since 2005, a 2-day practical course for upcoming specialist registrars in vascular...... surgery has been obligatory. The aim of this study is to describe the results from a tailored OSATS test as a tool for the evaluation of practical skills during an intensive training session in a simple simulator box for vascular anastomoses. METHOD: Between 2005 and 2013, we registered the OSATS scores......, or the experience with vascular anastomoses and outcomes. CONCLUSION: OSATS is a valuable tool for evaluating the advancement of technical skills during an intensive practical course in performing vascular anastomoses. (C) 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights...
Andersen, P.O.; Jensen, Michael Kammer; Lippert, A.
Background: The application of non-technical skills (NTSs) in health care has previously been described in other health-care educational programmes. NTSs are behavioural principles such as leadership, task distribution and communication. The aim of this study was to identify NTSs suitable...... for improving team performance in multi-professional cardiac arrest teams, and to describe barriers to the use and implementation of such NTSs by using a qualitative method. Methods: Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 Danish Advanced Life Support instructors during the period April...... 2006 to November 2006. Interviews were focussed on barriers and recommendations for teamwork in the cardiac arrest team, optimal policy for improvement of resuscitation training and clinical practice, use of cognitive aids and adoption of European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Guidelines 2005. Interviews...
Everhart, Julie M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Park, Ju Hee
This study investigated the effects of computer-based practice on the acquisition and maintenance of basic academic skills for two children with moderate to intensive disabilities. The special education teacher created individualized computer games that enabled the participants to independently practice academic skills that corresponded with their…
Carroll, Regina A.; Kodak, Tiffany; Adolf, Kari J.
We used an adapted alternating treatments design to compare skill acquisition during discrete-trial instruction using immediate reinforcement, delayed reinforcement with immediate praise, and delayed reinforcement for 2 children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants acquired the skills taught with immediate reinforcement; however, delayed…
Zammar, Samer G; El Tecle, Najib E; El Ahmadieh, Tarek Y; Adelson, P David; Veznedaroglu, Erol; Surdell, Daniel L; Harrop, James S; Benes, Vladimir; Rezai, Ali R; Resnick, Daniel K; Bendok, Bernard R
To assess microsurgical and diagnostic cerebral angiography modules and their corresponding objective assessment scales as educational tools for European neurosurgical residents at the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies Resident Vascular Neurosurgery course, which was held in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 2013. Microsurgical skills and cerebral angiography are fundamental skills in vascular neurosurgery. There is a need to develop a simulation-based curriculum focusing on these skills for neurosurgical trainees worldwide. The course consisted of 2 modules: microanastomosis and diagnostic cerebral angiography. In addition to an initial screening survey, each module was divided into 3 components: 1) a before didactic cognitive knowledge and technical skills testing, 2) a didactic lecture, and 3) an after didactic cognitive knowledge and technical skills testing. We compared the trainees' cognitive and technical scores from the before and after testing phases. Wilcoxon sum rank test was used to test statistical significance. The knowledge test median scores increased from 63% and 68% to 80% and 88% (P technical proficiency. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Jaffer, U; Singh, P; Pandey, V A; Aslam, M; Standfield, N J
Duplex ultrasound facilitates bedside diagnosis and hence timely patient care. Its uptake has been hampered by training and accreditation issues. We have developed an assessment tool for Duplex arterial stenosis measurement for both simulator and patient based training. A novel assessment tool: duplex ultrasound assessment of technical skills was developed. A modified duplex ultrasound assessment of technical skills was used for simulator training. Novice, intermediate experience and expert users of duplex ultrasound were invited to participate. Participants viewed an instructional video and were allowed ample time to familiarize with the equipment. Participants' attempts were recorded and independently assessed by four experts using the modified duplex ultrasound assessment of technical skills. 'Global' assessment was also done on a four point Likert scale. Content, construct and concurrent validity as well as reliability were evaluated. Content and construct validity as well as reliability were demonstrated. The simulator had good satisfaction rating from participants: median 4; range 3-5. Receiver operator characteristic analysis has established a cut point of 22/ 34 and 25/ 40 were most appropriate for simulator and patient based assessment respectively. We have validated a novel assessment tool for duplex arterial stenosis detection. Further work is underway to establish transference validity of simulator training to improved skill in scanning patients. We have developed and validated duplex ultrasound assessment of technical skills for simulator training.
Abdullah, M. R; Maliki, A. B. H. M; Musa, R. M; Kosni, N. A; Juahir, H
This study aims to predict the potential pattern of soccer technical skill on Malaysia youth soccer players relative performance using multivariate analysis and artificial neural network techniques. 184 male youth soccer players were recruited in Malaysia soccer academy (average age = 15.2±2.0) underwent to, physical fitness test, anthropometric, maturity, motivation and the level of skill related soccer. Unsupervised pattern recognition of principal component analysis (PCA) was used to ident...
Matharoo, Manmeet; Haycock, Adam; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan
To investigate whether novel, non-technical skills training for Bowel Cancer Screening (BCS) endoscopy teams enhanced patient safety knowledge and attitudes. A novel endoscopy team training intervention for BCS teams was developed and evaluated as a pre-post intervention study. Four multi-disciplinary BCS teams constituting BCS endoscopist(s), specialist screening practitioners, endoscopy nurses and administrative staff (A) from English BCS training centres participated. No patients were involved in this study. Expert multidisciplinary faculty delivered a single day's training utilising real clinical examples. Pre and post-course evaluation comprised participants' patient safety awareness, attitudes, and knowledge. Global course evaluations were also collected. Twenty-three participants attended and their patient safety knowledge improved significantly from 43%-55% (P ≤ 0.001) following the training intervention. 12/41 (29%) of the safety attitudes items significantly improved in the areas of perceived patient safety knowledge and awareness. The remaining safety attitude items: perceived influence on patient safety, attitudes towards error management, error management actions and personal views following an error were unchanged following training. Both qualitative and quantitative global course evaluations were positive: 21/23 (91%) participants strongly agreed/agreed that they were satisfied with the course. Qualitative evaluation included mandating such training for endoscopy teams outside BCS and incorporating team training within wider endoscopy training. Limitations of the study include no measure of increased patient safety in clinical practice following training. A novel comprehensive training package addressing patient safety, non-technical skills and adverse event analysis was successful in improving multi-disciplinary teams' knowledge and safety attitudes.
Labbé, Mathilde; Young, Meredith; Nguyen, Lily H P
Quality monitoring of assessment practices should be a priority in all residency programs. Validity evidence is one of the main hallmarks of assessment quality and should be collected to support the interpretation and use of assessment data. Our objective was to identify, synthesize, and present the validity evidence reported supporting different technical skill assessment tools in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OTL-HNS). We performed a secondary analysis of data generated through a systematic review of all published tools for assessing technical skills in OTL-HNS (n = 16). For each tool, we coded validity evidence according to the five types of evidence described by the American Educational Research Association's interpretation of Messick's validity framework. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted. All 16 tools included in our analysis were supported by internal structure and relationship to variables validity evidence. Eleven articles presented evidence supporting content. Response process was discussed only in one article, and no study reported on evidence exploring consequences. We present the validity evidence reported for 16 rater-based tools that could be used for work-based assessment of OTL-HNS residents in the operating room. The articles included in our review were consistently deficient in evidence for response process and consequences. Rater-based assessment tools that support high-stakes decisions that impact the learner and programs should include several sources of validity evidence. Thus, use of any assessment should be done with careful consideration of the context-specific validity evidence supporting score interpretation, and we encourage deliberate continual assessment quality-monitoring. NA. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
de Montbrun, Sandra; Louridas, Marisa; Szasz, Peter; Harris, Kenneth A; Grantcharov, Teodor P
There is a recognized need to develop high-stakes technical skills assessments for decisions of certification and resident promotion. High-stakes examinations requires a rigorous approach in accruing validity evidence throughout the developmental process. One of the first steps in development is the creation of a blueprint which outlines the potential content of examination. The purpose of this validation study was to develop an examination blueprint for a Canadian General Surgery assessment of technical skill certifying examination. A Delphi methodology was used to gain consensus amongst Canadian General Surgery program directors as to the content (tasks or procedures) that could be included in a certifying Canadian General Surgery examination. Consensus was defined a priori as a Cronbach's α ≥ 0.70. All procedures or tasks reaching a positive consensus (defined as ≥80% of program directors rated items as ≥4 on the 5-point Likert scale) were then included in the final examination blueprint. Two Delphi rounds were needed to reach consensus. Of the 17 General Surgery Program directors across the country, 14 (82.4%) and 10 (58.8%) program directors responded to the first and second round, respectively. A total of 59 items and procedures reached positive consensus and were included in the final examination blueprint. The present study has outlined the development of an examination blueprint for a General Surgery certifying examination using a consensus-based methodology. This validation study will serve as the foundational work from which simulated model will be developed, pilot tested and evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Matharoo, Manmeet; Haycock, Adam; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan
AIM: To investigate whether novel, non-technical skills training for Bowel Cancer Screening (BCS) endoscopy teams enhanced patient safety knowledge and attitudes. METHODS: A novel endoscopy team training intervention for BCS teams was developed and evaluated as a pre-post intervention study. Four multi-disciplinary BCS teams constituting BCS endoscopist(s), specialist screening practitioners, endoscopy nurses and administrative staff (A) from English BCS training centres participated. No patients were involved in this study. Expert multidisciplinary faculty delivered a single day’s training utilising real clinical examples. Pre and post-course evaluation comprised participants’ patient safety awareness, attitudes, and knowledge. Global course evaluations were also collected. RESULTS: Twenty-three participants attended and their patient safety knowledge improved significantly from 43%-55% (P ≤ 0.001) following the training intervention. 12/41 (29%) of the safety attitudes items significantly improved in the areas of perceived patient safety knowledge and awareness. The remaining safety attitude items: perceived influence on patient safety, attitudes towards error management, error management actions and personal views following an error were unchanged following training. Both qualitative and quantitative global course evaluations were positive: 21/23 (91%) participants strongly agreed/agreed that they were satisfied with the course. Qualitative evaluation included mandating such training for endoscopy teams outside BCS and incorporating team training within wider endoscopy training. Limitations of the study include no measure of increased patient safety in clinical practice following training. CONCLUSION: A novel comprehensive training package addressing patient safety, non-technical skills and adverse event analysis was successful in improving multi-disciplinary teams’ knowledge and safety attitudes. PMID:25516665
Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Okebukola, Peter Akinsola
The supposition that observational skills can be influenced by students' belief in traditional African cosmology, beliefs, and superstitions was investigated. Students with a high level of belief in African traditional cosmology made fewer correct observations on the Traditional Cosmology Test (TCT) and the Test of Observational Skills (TOS) as…
Small, Jason W.; Lee, Jon; Frey, Andy J.; Seeley, John R.; Walker, Hill M.
As specialized instructional support personnel begin learning and using motivational interviewing (MI) techniques in school-based settings, there is growing need for context-specific measures to assess initial MI skill development. In this article, we describe the iterative development and preliminary evaluation of two measures of MI skill adapted…
Keneley, Monica; Jackling, Beverley
The changing nature of higher education and the structure of graduate labour markets have increased emphasis on employability and graduate outcomes. Universities have responded to this changed environment by embedding generic skills in the curriculum. This paper examines the generic skills that students perceived they acquired in their accounting…
Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa
The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS…
Sinitsky, Daniel M; Fernando, Bimbi; Berlingieri, Pasquale
The unique psychomotor skills required in laparoscopy result in reduced patient safety during the early part of the learning curve. Evidence suggests that these may be safely acquired in the virtual reality (VR) environment. Several VR simulators are available, each preloaded with several psychomotor skills tasks that provide users with computer-generated performance metrics. This review aimed to evaluate the usefulness of specific psychomotor skills tasks and metrics, and how trainers might build an effective training curriculum. We performed a comprehensive literature search. The vast majority of VR psychomotor skills tasks show construct validity for one or more metrics. These are commonly for time and motion parameters. Regarding training schedules, distributed practice is preferred over massed practice. However, a degree of supervision may be needed to counter the limitations of VR training. In the future, standardized proficiency scores should facilitate local institutions in establishing VR laparoscopic psychomotor skills curricula. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sevdalis, Nick; Undre, Shabnam; Henry, Janet; Sydney, Elaine; Koutantji, Mary; Darzi, Ara; Vincent, Charles A
The recent emergence of the Systems Approach to the safety and quality of surgical care has triggered individual and team skills training modules for surgeons and anaesthetists and relevant observational assessment tools have been developed. To develop an observational tool that captures operating room (OR) nurses' technical skill and can be used for assessment and training. The Imperial College Assessment of Technical Skills for Nurses (ICATS-N) assesses (i) gowning and gloving, (ii) setting up instrumentation, (iii) draping, and (iv) maintaining sterility. Three to five observable behaviours have been identified for each skill and are rated on 1-6 scales. Feasibility and aspects of reliability and validity were assessed in 20 simulation-based crisis management training modules for trainee nurses and doctors, carried out in a Simulated Operating Room. The tool was feasible to use in the context of simulation-based training. Satisfactory reliability (Cronbach alpha) was obtained across trainers' and trainees' scores (analysed jointly and separately). Moreover, trainer nurse's ratings of the four skills correlated positively, thus indicating adequate content validity. Trainer's and trainees' ratings did not correlate. Assessment of OR nurses' technical skill is becoming a training priority. The present evidence suggests that the ICATS-N could be considered for use as an assessment/training tool for junior OR nurses.
Chalwin, R P; Flabouris, A
Efforts are ongoing to improve outcomes from cardiac arrest and medical emergencies. A promising quality improvement modality is use of non-technical skills (NTS) that aim to address human factors through improvements in performance of leadership, communication, situational awareness and decision-making. Originating in the airline industry, NTS training has been successfully introduced into anaesthesia, surgery, emergency medicine and other acute medical specialities. Some aspects of NTS have already achieved acceptance for cardiac arrest teams. Leadership skills are emphasised in advanced life support training and have shown favourable results when employed in simulated and clinical resuscitation scenarios. The application of NTS in medical emergency teams as part of a rapid response system attending medical emergencies is less certain; however, observations of simulations have also shown promise. This review highlights the potential benefits of NTS competency for cardiac arrest teams and, more importantly, medical emergency teams because of the diversity of clinical scenarios encountered. Discussion covers methods to assess and refine NTS and NTS training to optimise performance in the clinical environment. Increasing attention should be applied to yielding meaningful patient and organisational outcomes from use of NTS. Similarly, implementation of any training course should receive appropriate scrutiny to refine team and institutional performance. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Seemann, R; Münzberg, M; Stange, R; Rüsseler, M; Egerth, M; Bouillon, B; Hoffmann, R; Mutschler, M
Patient safety has increasingly gained significance as criterion which clinics and doctors will be measured against in terms of ethics and finances. The "human factor" moved into focus regarding the question of how to reduce treatment errors in clinical daily routine. Nevertheless, systematic mediation of interpersonal competences only plays a minor role in the catalogue of requirements for medical specialization and professional training. This is the case not only in orthopedics and traumatology, but in other medical fields as well. At the insistence of DGOU and in cooperation with Lufthansa Flight Training, a training model was initiated, comparable to training models used in aviation. In aviation, apart from the training of procedural and technical abilities, regular soft skills training has become standard in the training of all Lufthansa staff. Several studies confirm that by improving communication, interaction, and teamwork skills not only a reduction of intolerable incidents is observed, but also a positive economic effect. Interpersonal competences should be firmly anchored in orthopedics and traumatology and thus be implemented as third post in specialist training.
Aceto, Donato Gonzalo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gaudioso, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Numerous terrorist organizations have openly expressed interest in producing and deploying biological weapons. However, a limiting factor for many terrorists has been the acquisition of dangerous biological agents, as evidenced by the very few successful instances of biological weapons use compared to the number of documented hoaxes. Biological agents vary greatly in their ability to cause loss of life and economic damage. Some agents, if released properly, can kill many people and cause an extensive number of secondary infections; other agents will sicken only a small number of people for a short period of time. Consequently, several biological agents can potentially be used to perpetrate a bioterrorism attack but few are likely capable of causing a high consequence event. It is crucial, from a US national security perspective, to more deeply understand the likelihood that terrorist organizations can acquire the range of these agents. Few studies have attempted to comprehensively compile the technical information directly relevant to the acquisition of dangerous bacteria, viruses and toxins. In this report, technical fact sheets were assembled for 46 potentially dangerous biological agents. Much of the information was taken from various research sources which could ultimately and significantly expedite and improve bioterrorism threat assessments. By systematically examining a number of specific agent characteristics included in these fact sheets, it may be possible to detect, target, and implement measures to thwart future terrorist acquisition attempts. In addition, the information in these fact sheets may be used as a tool to help laboratories gain a rudimentary understanding of how attractive a method laboratory theft is relative to other potential acquisition modes.
Fidel Marimón Ramírez
Full Text Available This research had as purpose to elaborate a system of activities for the development of the orthographic competition in the students of masonry of the Technical and Professional Education. It is extremely important in the training of skilled workers since it has presented problems in order to guarantee the effectiveness of the teaching-learning process, by addressing the contents with an end in themselves and not in an integrated and contextualized way; given to a large extent by the lack of knowledge of the new approaches that are linked to the multiple communicative possibilities, which requires a study capable of making the necessary adjustments or redesigns that fit the needs of students to improve orthographic problems. In the investigative process were used, methods, techniques and procedures of the theoretical level, of the empirical level and statistical-mathematical, such as the system approach, modeling, analysis and synthesis, observation, surveys, documentary analysis and descriptive statistics the percentage analysis. The evaluation of specialists and the pre-experiment carried out make it possible to recommend the system of activities as a valid option for the development of orthographic competence in first-year masonry students in Technical and Professional Education.
Delextrat, A; Martinez, A
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 2 training interventions based on small-sided games (SGG) and high-intensity interval training (HIT) on physical and technical performance of male junior basketball players. A secondary objective was to investigate if these effects were similar in starting and bench players. 18 players participated in a pre-testing session, 6-weeks intervention period and a post-testing session. Pre- and post-sessions involved assessments of aerobic fitness, repeated sprint ability (RSA), defensive and offensive agility, upper and lower body power, shooting and passing skills. Mixed-design analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni corrected pairwise comparisons examined the effects of time and type of intervention on physical and technical performances. The main results showed that both interventions resulted in similar improvements in aerobic capacity (+3.4% vs. +4.1%), with greater improvements in bench players compared to starting players (+7.1% vs. +1.1%, Pbasketball players during the season. However, when RSA is targeted, more specific training seems necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Chang, Olivia H; King, Louise P; Modest, Anna M; Hur, Hye-Chun
To develop a teaching and assessment tool for laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot tying. We designed an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) tool that includes a procedure-specific checklist (PSC) and global rating scale (GRS) to assess laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot-tying performance. Obstetrics and Gynecology residents at our institution were videotaped while performing a laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot-tying task at a surgical simulation workshop. A total of 2 expert reviewers assessed resident performance using the OSATS tool during live performance and 1 month later using the videotaped recordings. OSATS scores were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Data are presented as median scores (interquartile range [IQR]). Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were assessed using a Spearman correlation and are presented as an r correlation coefficient and p value. An r ≥ 0.8 was considered as a high correlation. After testing, we received feedback from residents and faculty to improve the OSATS tool as part of an iterative design process. In all, 14 of 21 residents (66.7%) completed the study, with 9 junior residents and 5 senior residents. Junior residents had a lower score on the PSC than senior residents did; however, this was not statistically significant (median = 6.0 [IQR: 4.0-10.0] and median = 13.0 [IQR: 10.0-13.0]; p = 0.09). There was excellent intrarater reliability with our OSATS tool (for PSC component, r = 0.88 for Rater 1 and 0.93 for Rater 2, both p assessment and teaching tool for laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot-tying skills. Overall, good intrarater reliability was demonstrated, suggesting that this tool may be useful for longitudinal assessment of surgical skills. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abdullah Alkhayal,1 Shahla Aldhukair,2 Nahar Alselaim,1 Salah Aldekhayel,1 Sultan Alhabdan,1 Waleed Altaweel,3 Mohi Elden Magzoub,4 Mohammed Zamakhshary1,21Department of Surgery, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Public Health Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Urology Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medical Education, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: After almost a decade of implementing competency-based programs in postgraduate training programs, the assessment of technical skills remains more subjective than objective. National data on the assessment of technical skills during surgical training are lacking. We conducted this study to document the assessment tools for technical skills currently used in different surgical specialties, their relationship with remediation, the recommended tools from the program directors’ perspective, and program directors’ attitudes toward the available objective tools to assess technical skills.Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey of surgical program directors (PDs. The survey was initially developed using a focus group and was then sent to 116 PDs. The survey contains demographic information about the program, the objective assessment tools used, and the reason for not using assessment tools. The last section discusses the recommended tools to be used from the PDs’ perspective and the PDs’ attitude and motivation to apply these tools in each program. The associations between the responses to the assessment questions and remediation were statistically evaluated.Results: Seventy-one (61% participants responded. Of the respondents, 59% mentioned using only nonstandardized, subjective, direct observation for technical skills assessment. Sixty percent use only summative
DeBourgh, Gregory A
Deficiencies in procedural competency compromise patient safety and the quality of care provided. Educators in prelicensure nursing programs are challenged to design effective instruction to develop psychomotor skills abilities among novice learners. Highly contextualized learning and frequent opportunities for performance rehearsal promote knowledge retention and procedural competence. The author discusses data from an evaluation study that explored students' perceptions of the effectiveness of skills instruction and suggests strategies for curricular integration and effective instruction.
Michaelis, Rosa; Andrews, Donna J; Reiter, Joel M; von Schoen-Angerer, Tido
A recent review of psychobehavioral therapy for epilepsy recommends case reports as a research design to explore specific psychological mediators of psychobehavioral interventions for epilepsy that address the bidirectional relationship between psychological states and seizures. The report was prepared according to the consensus-based CARE guidelines for standardized clinical case reporting. This is a case of a 16-year-old male individual with a diagnosed seizure disorder and learning disability who continued to have daytime and nighttime seizures on a regular basis despite exhausting of available conventional treatment options. A psychological assessment led to the working hypothesis that cognitive dissonance between fear of failure and high expectations of self had led to a "broken" self-image and active avoidance of responsibility that resulted in intense emotional distress which correlated with the occurrence of seizures. This working hypothesis resulted in a treatment plan that employed the acquisition of self-organizational skills and relaxation techniques as the main therapeutic strategy. Motivational strategies were employed to facilitate the regulation of lifestyle-related seizure precipitants. In this case, the acquisition of self-organizational skills and the development of seizure interruption techniques correlated with a clinically significant decrease of seizures. Methodological limitations of the interpretation of the presented data are discussed.
Goldenberg, Mitchell G; Lee, Jason Y; Kwong, Jethro C C; Grantcharov, Teodor P; Costello, Anthony
To systematically review and synthesise the validity evidence supporting intraoperative and simulation-based assessments of technical skill in urological robot-assisted surgery (RAS), and make evidence-based recommendations for the implementation of these assessments in urological training. A literature search of the Medline, PsycINFO and Embase databases was performed. Articles using technical skill and simulation-based assessments in RAS were abstracted. Only studies involving urology trainees or faculty were included in the final analysis. Multiple tools for the assessment of technical robotic skill have been published, with mixed sources of validity evidence to support their use. These evaluations have been used in both the ex vivo and in vivo settings. Performance evaluations range from global rating scales to psychometrics, and assessments are carried out through automation, expert analysts, and crowdsourcing. There have been rapid expansions in approaches to RAS technical skills assessment, both in simulated and clinical settings. Alternative approaches to assessment in RAS, such as crowdsourcing and psychometrics, remain under investigation. Evidence to support the use of these metrics in high-stakes decisions is likely insufficient at present. © 2018 The Authors BJU International © 2018 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The present study investigated the contribution of the educational and technical courses in the English Language Teacher Training Program (ELTTP) at universities in Turkey to the information and communication technologies (ICT) knowledge and skills of the students. The participants were 74 teachers/trainees who were attending their last year in…
Edu, Chukwuma Nwofe; Ogba, Ernest Ituma
The study identifies technical training skills needs of youth for sustainable job security in rice production in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This study was carried out in secondary schools in three educational zones in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Ebonyi state is one of the states in the southeast geopolitical zone in Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was…
Al-Roud, Atallah A.; Thawabiah, Ahmad
The study aimed to identify the degree of possessing study skills (SS) by the students of Tafila Technical (TTU) University from their perspectives. The population of the study consisted of 5015 students in TTU for the second semester of the academic year 2015/2016. The sample of the study was chosen randomly from the population of the study with…
Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A.; Brydges, Ryan; Hawkins, Richard
In order to construct and evaluate the validity argument for the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS), based on Kane's framework, we conducted a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus, and selected reference lists through February 2013. Working in duplicate, we selected…
Kushner, Nicole Blake
With the increasing prevalence of autism diagnoses, large percentage of diagnosed individuals with comorbid language difficulties, and negative effects of these difficulties on language development and overall functioning, research on language acquisition in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is essential. The current study used data…
Vintere, Parsla; Hemmes, Nancy S.; Brown, Bruce L.; Poulson, Claire L.
The effects of two training procedures -- (a) modeling and praise and (b) self-instruction, modeling, and praise -- on complex gross-motor chain acquisition for preschool dance class students were evaluated. Six girls participated in the study. A multiple baseline design across six gross-motor chains with a secondary group comparison for treatment…
Shariff, U; Kullar, N; Haray, P N; Dorudi, S; Balasubramanian, S P
Conventional teaching in surgical training programmes is constrained by time and cost, and has room for improvement. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a multimedia educational tool developed for an index colorectal surgical procedure (anterior resection) in teaching and assessment of cognitive skills and to evaluate its acceptability amongst general surgical trainees. Multimedia educational tools in open and laparoscopic anterior resection were developed by filming multiple operations which were edited into procedural steps and substeps and then integrated onto interactive navigational platforms using Adobe® Flash® Professional CS5 10.1. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on general surgical trainees to evaluate the effectiveness of online multimedia in comparison with conventional 'study day' teaching for the acquisition of cognitive skills. All trainees were assessed before and after the study period. Trainees in the multimedia group evaluated the tools by completing a survey. Fifty-nine trainees were randomized but 27% dropped out, leaving 43 trainees randomized to the multimedia group (n = 25) and study day group (n = 18) who were available for analysis. Posttest scores improved significantly in both groups (P multimedia group was not significantly different from the study day group (6.02 ± 5.12 and 5.31 ± 3.42, respectively; P = 0.61). Twenty-five trainees completed the evaluation survey and experienced an improvement in their decision making (67%) and in factual and anatomical knowledge (88%); 96% agreed that the multimedia tool was a useful additional educational resource. Multimedia tools are effective for the acquisition of cognitive skills in colorectal surgery and are well accepted as an educational resource. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
... concerning the collection of data about H-1B Technical Skills Training (H-1B) [SGA/DFA PY-10-13] and H-1B... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Comment Request for Information Collection for the H-1B Technical Skills Training (H-1B) and the H-1B Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge (JIAC) Grant Programs, New...
Kemper, P.F.; van Noord, I.; de Bruijne, M.C.; Knol, D.L.; Wagner, C.; van Dyck, C.
Background A lack of non-technical skills is increasingly recognised as an important underlying cause of adverse events in healthcare. The nature and number of things professionals communicate to each other can be perceived as a product of their use of non-technical skills. This paper describes the
Kemper, P.F.; Noord, I. van; Bruijne, M. de; Knol, D.L.; Wagner, C.; Dyck, C. van
Background: A lack of non-technical skills is increasingly recognised as an important underlying cause of adverse events in healthcare. The nature and number of things professionals communicate to each other can be perceived as a product of their use of non-technical skills. This paper describes the
Stephens, Dawn L; Collins, Michael D; Dodder, Richard A
Recent legislation, especially the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990, generated the closure of institutions for people with disabilities and inclusion into community residences and employment. It has been well documented that individuals with developmental disabilities often experience difficulties with employment including both obtaining and maintaining jobs, and many researchers have looked for ways to make employment more successful [McConkey, R. & Mezza F. (2001). Employment aspirations of people with learning disabilities attending day centers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 5(4), 309-318; Stevens, G. (2002). Employers' perceptions and practice in the employability of disabled people: a survey of companies in south east UK. Disability and Society, 17(7), 779-796; Capella, M., Roessler, R., & Hemmeria, K. (2002). Work-related skills awareness in high-school students with disabilities. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 33(2), 17-23; Ingraham, K., Rahimi, M., Tsang, H., Chan, F., & Oulvey, E. (2001). Work support groups in state vocational rehabilitation agency settings: a case study. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Skills, 5(1), 6-21; Gosling, V. & Cotterill, L. (2000). An employment project as a route to social inclusion for people with learning difficulties? Disability and Society, 15(7), 1001-1018; Neitupski, J. & Hamre-Nietupski, S. (2000). A systematic process for carving supported employment positions for people with severe disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 12(2), 103-119]. While research has accumulated that has examined predictors of successful employment, this research assessed longitudinal outcomes of employment. Data were obtained from an existing data set of all known persons receiving services from the Developmental Disabilities Division of the Oklahoma Department of Human Services (N=2760). Results indicated that as people moved to employment, scores on adaptive skills increased, that as people moved
Myers, J A; Powell, D M C; Aldington, S; Sim, D; Psirides, A; Hathaway, K; Haney, M F
The relationship between fatigue-related risk and impaired clinical performance is not entirely clear. Non-technical factors represent an important component of clinical performance and may be sensitive to the effects of fatigue. The hypothesis was that the sum score of overall non-technical performance is degraded by fatigue. Nineteen physicians undertook two different simulated air ambulance missions, once when rested, and once when fatigued (randomised crossover design). Trained assessors blinded to participants' fatigue status performed detailed structured assessments based on expected behaviours in four non-technical skills domains: teamwork, situational awareness, task management, and decision making. Participants also provided self-ratings of their performance. The primary endpoint was the sum score of overall non-technical performance. The main finding, the overall non-technical skills performance rating of the clinicians, was better in rested than fatigued states (mean difference with 95% CI, 2.8 [2.2-3.4]). The findings remained consistent across individual non-technical skills domains; also when controlling for an order effect and examining the impact of a number of possible covariates. There was no difference in self-ratings of clinical performance between rested and fatigued states. Non-technical performance of critical care air transfer clinicians is degraded when they are fatigued. Fatigued clinicians may fail to recognise the degree to which their performance is compromised. These findings represent risk to clinical care quality and patient safety in the dynamic and isolated environment of air ambulance transfer. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Emerson, Robert Wall; Holbrook, M. Cay; D'Andrea, Frances Mary
The Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study examined the reading and writing skills of young braille-reading students. Students who were introduced to more contractions earlier in instruction performed better on reading measures, such as vocabulary, decoding, and comprehension, but all students did well in spelling. Thus, the authors…
The findings showed that the development of skill of critical thinking promote the ability to analysis issues and weigh arguments before making decisions/choice. The development of empathy foster cooperation between management and labour. Education for tolerance creates the feeling of altruism, respect for others and ...
Ongoing research investigating perceptual and contextual influences on skilled human performance in dynamic decision making environments is discussed. The research is motivated by two general classes of findings in recent decision making research. First, many studies suggest that the concrete context in which a task is presented has strong influences on the psychological processes used to perform the task and on subsequent performance. Second, studies of skilled behavior in a wide variety of task environments typically implicate the perceptual system as an important contributor to decision-making performance, either in its role as a mediator between the current decision context and stored knowledge, or as a mechanism capable of directly initiating activity through the development of a 'trained eye.' Both contextual and perceptual influences place limits on the ability of traditional utility-theoretic accounts of decision-making to guide display design, as variance in behavior due to contextual factors or the development of a perceptual skill is left unexplained. The author outlines a framework in which to view questions of perceptual and contextual influences on behavior and describe an experimental task and analysis technique which will be used to diagnose the possible role of perception in skilled decision making performance.
Training, Mortar, Mortar Gunner’s Exam , Tests SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 19. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 20...training offsets in 11C OSUT, and ( c ) provide guidance and tools for developing effective training offsets to enhance Soldiers’ core skills proficiencies...Two-Week Mortar Training Including Gunner’s Exam ............................... 13 Knowledge and Application Tests
Hutchison, Billy Eugene
Accelerated transitional nursing programs (ATNPs) designed specifically for licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) to transition to become registered nurses (RNs) are graduating novice nurses who need critical thinking skills to solve patient problems. The health care industry and patient outcomes depend on graduate nurses to be proficient with quality…
Chatila, Hanadi; Al Husseiny, Fatima
Recent research findings have shown that cooperative learning improves students' thinking skills as it allows them to communicate actively with each other (Johnson, Johnson and Smith, 2014). Therefore, cooperative learning has been proposed by many educators to be implemented in classrooms to produce lifelong learners and critical thinkers…
Gobel, Eric W; Parrish, Todd B; Reber, Paul J
Learning of complex motor skills requires learning of component movements as well as the sequential structure of their order and timing. Using a Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task, participants learned a sequence of precisely timed interception responses through training with a repeating sequence. Following initial implicit learning of the repeating sequence, functional MRI data were collected during performance of that known sequence and compared with activity evoked during novel sequences of actions, novel timing patterns, or both. Reduced activity was observed during the practiced sequence in a distributed bilateral network including extrastriate occipital, parietal, and premotor cortical regions. These reductions in evoked activity likely reflect improved efficiency in visuospatial processing, spatio-motor integration, motor planning, and motor execution for the trained sequence, which is likely supported by nondeclarative skill learning. In addition, the practiced sequence evoked increased activity in the left ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, while the posterior cingulate was more active during periods of better performance. Many prior studies of perceptual-motor skill learning have found increased activity in motor areas of the frontal cortex (e.g., motor and premotor cortex, SMA) and striatal areas (e.g., the putamen). The change in activity observed here (i.e., decreased activity across a cortical network) may reflect skill learning that is predominantly expressed through more accurate performance rather than decreased reaction time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alstot, Andrew E.; Kang, Minsoo; Alstot, Crystal D.
Techniques based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to be useful across a variety of settings to improve numerous behaviors. Specifically within physical activity settings, several studies have examined the effect of interventions based in ABA on a variety of motor skills, but the overall effects of these interventions are unknown.…
Obrusnikova, Iva; Rattigan, Peter J.
Video-based modeling is becoming increasingly popular for teaching fundamental motor skills to children in physical education. Two frequently used video-based instructional strategies that incorporate modeling are video prompting (VP) and video modeling (VM). Both strategies have been used across multiple disciplines and populations to teach a…
Department of Surgery, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria ... Majority, 59 (70.2%) had had some experience with intravenous antibiotics administration. Forty-one (48.7%) .... in developed countries revealed obvious deficiencies .... Du Boulay C, Medway C. The clinical skills resource: A.
Schout, Barbara M. A.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Hendrikx, Ad J. M.; Ananias, Hildo J. K.; Dolmans, Valerie E. M. G.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; Bemelmans, Bart L. H.
OBJECTIVE To assess the construct validity of the URO MentorTM (Simbionix Corp., Cleveland, OH, USA) virtual reality training model for several variables of skills training in cysto-urethroscopy, addressing two research questions: (i) Does training on the URO Mentor significantly improve novices'
Brown, Kevin; Mosley, Natalie; Tierney, James
Virtual reality simulators are increasingly used to gain robotic surgical skills. This study compared use of the da Vinci Surgical Skills Simulator (dVSSS) to the standard da Vinci (SdV) robot for skills acquisition in a prospective randomized study. Residents from urology, gynecology, and general surgery programs performed three virtual reality tasks (thread the ring, ring rail, and tubes) on the dvSSS. Participants were then randomized to one of the two study groups (dVSSS and SdV). Each participant then practiced on either the dVSSS or the SdV (depending on randomization) for 30 min per week over a 4-week time period. The dVSSS arm was not permitted to practice ring rail (due to no similar practice scenario available for the SdV group). Following 4 weeks of practice, participants performed the same three virtual reality tasks and the results were recorded and compared to baseline. Overall and percent improvement were recorded for all participants from pre-test to post-test. Two-way ANOVA analyses were used to compare the dVSSS and SdV groups and three tasks. Initially, 30 participants were identified and enrolled in the study. Randomization resulted in 15 participants in each arm. During the course of the study, four participants were unable to complete all tasks and practice sessions and were, therefore, excluded. This resulted in a total of 26 participants (15 in the dVSSS group and 11 in the SdV group) who completed the study. Overall total improvement score was found to be 23.23 and 23.48 for the SdV and dVSSS groups, respectively (p = 0.9245). The percent improvement was 60 and 47 % for the SdV and dVSSS groups respectively, which was a statistically significant difference between the two groups and three tasks. Practicing on the standard da Vinci is comparable to practicing on the da Vinci simulator for acquiring robotic surgical skills. In spite of several potential advantages, the dVSSS arm performed no better than the SdV arm in the final
... not align with the protection requirements in the NISPOM. 3. Policy Regarding Outsourcing, Cloud... contractors and on international information sharing agreements. Response: The technical information covered... be applied to all systems. Comments also indicated that DFARS should not apply to International...
Ho Bin Yim
Full Text Available Human capabilities, such as technical/nontechnical skills, have begun to be recognized as crucial factors for nuclear safety. One of the most common ways to improve human capabilities in general is training. The nuclear industry has constantly developed and used training as a tool to increase plant efficiency and safety. An integrated training framework was suggested for one of those efforts, especially during simulation training sessions of nuclear power plant operation teams. The developed training evaluation methods are based on measuring the levels of situation awareness of teams in terms of the level of shared confidence and consensus as well as the accuracy of team situation awareness. Verification of the developed methods was conducted by analyzing the training data of real nuclear power plant operation teams. The teams that achieved higher level of shared confidence showed better performance in solving problem situations when coupled with high consensus index values. The accuracy of nuclear power plant operation teams' situation awareness was approximately the same or showed a similar trend as that of senior reactor operators' situation awareness calculated by a situation awareness accuracy index (SAAI. Teams that had higher SAAI values performed better and faster than those that had lower SAAI values.
Dearden, Effie; Mellanby, Edward; Cameron, Helen; Harden, Jeni
Prescribing errors are a major source of avoidable morbidity and mortality. Junior doctors write most in-hospital prescriptions and are the least experienced members of the healthcare team. This puts them at high risk of error and makes them attractive targets for interventions to improve prescription safety. Error analysis has shown a background of complex environments with multiple contributory conditions. Similar conditions in other high risk industries, such as aviation, have led to an increased understanding of so-called human factors and the use of non-technical skills (NTS) training to try to reduce error. To date no research has examined the NTS required for safe prescribing. The aim of this review was to develop a prototype NTS taxonomy for safe prescribing, by junior doctors, in hospital settings. A systematic search identified 14 studies analyzing prescribing behaviours and errors by junior doctors. Framework analysis was used to extract data from the studies and identify behaviours related to categories of NTS that might be relevant to safe and effective prescribing performance by junior doctors. Categories were derived from existing literature and inductively from the data. A prototype taxonomy of relevant categories (situational awareness, decision making, communication and team working, and task management) and elements was constructed. This prototype will form the basis of future work to create a tool that can be used for training and assessment of medical students and junior doctors to reduce prescribing error in the future. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.
Umunadi, E. Kennedy
This paper was designed to look at technical education curriculum and mode of implementation in Scotland in order to adopt the advantageous attributes of the Scottish technical education in Nigeria. The paper x-rayed the staff perceptions of technical education and its roles in Scotland; history of technical education before the advent of British…
Helena A Rocha
Full Text Available One of the key factors in the swimming teaching-learning process seems to be the variation of water’s depth.However, there are almost no studies about this topic and the existing ones usually follow a basic approach and with no control of the educational program used. It was our purpose to determine the effect of deep versus shallow water differences on developing pre-schoolers’ aquatic skills after 6 months of practice. Twenty-one Portuguese school-aged children of both genders (4.70 ± 0.51 yrs., inexperienced in aquatic programs, participated in this study. The children were divided into two groups performing a similar aquatic program but in a different water depth: shallow water (n=10 and deep water (n=11. Each participant was evaluated twice for their aquatic readiness using an observation check list of 17 aquatic motor skills: during the first session (T0 and after six months of practice (two sessions per week with a total of 48 sessions (T1. The aquatic proficiency on each skill was compared between the groups and a stepwise discriminant analysis was conducted to predict the conditions with higher or lower aquatic competence. Results suggested that swimming practice contributed positively to improvements on several basic aquatic skills, in both groups. The results showed that shallow water group managed to acquire a higher degree of aquatic competence particularly in five basic aquatic skills (p< .05: breath control combined with face immersion and eye opening; horizontal buoyancy; body position at ventral gliding; body position at dorsal gliding; leg kick with breath control at ventral body position, without any flutter device. The discriminant function revealed a significant association between both groups and four included factors (aquatic skills (p< .001, accounting for 88% between group variability. The body position at ventral gliding was the main relevant predictor (r=0.535. Shallow water swimming lessons generated greater
Calha, António Geraldo Manso
In this article we try to analyze the learning processes of health literacy skills in informal contexts. We intend to broaden the understanding of the learning process beyond the formal contexts, thus contributing to the elucidation of health professionals on how individuals acquire and manage their knowledge in health matters. Given our goal, we use an analytic corpus constituted by one hundred autobiographical narratives written between 2006 and 2011, in educational contexts but with recognized potential for use in different scientific fields, including health. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i) learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii) learning processes that result from problem solving; iii) learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality.
António Geraldo Manso Calha
Full Text Available In this article we try to analyze the learning processes of health literacy skills in informal contexts. We intend to broaden the understanding of the learning process beyond the formal contexts, thus contributing to the elucidation of health professionals on how individuals acquire and manage their knowledge in health matters. Given our goal, we use an analytic corpus constituted by one hundred autobiographical narratives written between 2006 and 2011, in educational contexts but with recognized potential for use in different scientific fields, including health. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii learning processes that result from problem solving; iii learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality.
Minh Vu Huynh
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the statistical ability of both neural networks and discriminant function analysis on the newly developed SATB program. Using these statistical tools, we identified the accuracy of the SATB in classifying badminton players into different skill level groups. Forty-one participants, classified as advanced, intermediate, or beginner skilled level, participated in this study. Results indicated neural networks are more effective in predicting group membership, and displayed higher predictive validity when compared to discriminant analysis. Using these outcomes, in conjunction with the physiological and biomechanical variables of the participants, we assessed the authenticity and accuracy of the SATB and commented on the overall effectiveness of the visual based training approach to training badminton athletes
USAF (Ret.) This research proposes a method to leverage the use of subjective service quality in both selecting contractors and managing their...acquisition programs? How could they improve their contractor policies and procedures in this area to enhance the benefits of global technology sourcing...3 In cr ea se t he C M ca p ac it y fo r th re at “V ic ti m R ig ht s & S up p o rt ” fo r th e vu ln er ab ili ty o f “V ic ti m
Lladó Grove, Gabriela; Langager Høgh, Annette; Nielsen, Judith; Sandermann, Jes
The concept of the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) is to quantify surgical skills in an objective way and, thereby, produce an additional procedure-specific assessment tool. Since 2005, a 2-day practical course for upcoming specialist registrars in vascular surgery has been obligatory. The aim of this study is to describe the results from a tailored OSATS test as a tool for the evaluation of practical skills during an intensive training session in a simple simulator box for vascular anastomoses. Between 2005 and 2013, we registered the OSATS scores of all course participants. The following data were collected from the questionnaires: years as a candidate, months in vascular surgery or in another type of surgery, and the number of vascular anastomoses performed before the course. The assessment of surgical skills was conducted with an OSATS score template specifically made for this purpose. It consists of a 12-item table with a 5-point grading scale. OSATS score (points) and time for the procedure (OSATS time in min) were registered at baseline (OSATS I) and at the end of the course (OSATS II). OSATS scores were given in both OSATS I and OSATS II for the 83 trainees, and the mean difference was 8.1 points (95% CI: 6.7; 9.5, p technical skills during an intensive practical course in performing vascular anastomoses. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Duvivier Robbert J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of deliberate practice in medical students' development from novice to expert was examined for preclinical skill training. Methods Students in years 1-3 completed 34 Likert type items, adapted from a questionnaire about the use of deliberate practice in cognitive learning. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis were used to validate the questionnaire. Analysis of variance examined differences between years and regression analysis the relationship between deliberate practice and skill test results. Results 875 students participated (90%. Factor analysis yielded four factors: planning, concentration/dedication, repetition/revision, study style/self reflection. Student scores on 'Planning' increased over time, score on sub-scale 'repetition/revision' decreased. Student results on the clinical skill test correlated positively with scores on subscales 'planning' and 'concentration/dedication' in years 1 and 3, and with scores on subscale 'repetition/revision' in year 1. Conclusions The positive effects on test results suggest that the role of deliberate practice in medical education merits further study. The cross-sectional design is a limitation, the large representative sample a strength of the study. The vanishing effect of repetition/revision may be attributable to inadequate feedback. Deliberate practice advocates sustained practice to address weaknesses, identified by (self-assessment and stimulated by feedback. Further studies should use a longitudinal prospective design and extend the scope to expertise development during residency and beyond.
B1 /SHOW2 1/BORROW 2/BORROW 1/SHOW X/OVRWRT W/OVRWRT Figure 2-12...34,,** ’% ".."’ ’ ° ’ . . . . " " *, . . " " . " ". .". , . • " . " . ., ’ -". ,""" ’" - . , ’ ’. " FETcHi PATTERNS 229 V,., *AC1:AC LC:A C1 :COL A1 :BLK C2:COL A2:BLK T1DIG T B1 T2:DIGIT...Glen Bryan ERIC Facility-Acquisitions . Dr. Edward C. Weiss 6208 Poe Road 4833 Rugby Avenue National Science Foundation Bethesda, MD 20817 Bethesda.
Kiluk, Brian D; DeVito, Elise E; Buck, Matthew B; Hunkele, Karen; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M
The acquisition of coping skills has long been considered one of the putative mechanisms of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders, yet consistent statistical support is lacking. This study sought to replicate and extend prior findings regarding the quality of coping skills as a mediator of abstinence outcomes from a computerized CBT program for substance users. Participants were methadone-maintained, cocaine dependent individuals enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of computer-based training for CBT ('CBT4CBT') as an add-on to treatment as usual (TAU+CBT4CBT) compared to TAU only. A subsample (N=71) completed a role play assessment to measure coping skills, the Drug Risk Response Test (DRRT), which was administered before, during (week 4), and after the 8-week treatment period. Participants' verbal responses to various high-risk situations for cocaine use were recorded and independent evaluators rated the quality of the coping responses. Results of repeated measures analyses revealed a main effect of time for the quality of overall responses [F(1, 141.26)=4.29, pskills across groups, yet no differential effect of treatment. Despite the significant association between coping responses and abstinence outcomes, analyses did not support the quality of coping skills as a mediator of treatment effects. However, among the high-risk situations wherein individuals provided lower quality responses at baseline, those assigned to TAU+CBT4CBT showed greater improvement compared to those assigned to TAU only [F(1, 697.65)=6.47, p=0.01]. This study failed to replicate the quality of coping skills as a mediator of CBT4CBT's effect on reducing drug use previously shown in a mixed outpatient substance use sample. However, in this methadone maintained sample, those with poorer quality skills in response to certain high-risk situations at baseline appeared to improve their coping strategies following CBT4CBT compared to standard methadone
Kumar, Abhishek; Grigoriadis, Joannis; Trulsson, Mats
Sensory information from the orofacial mechanoreceptors are used by the nervous system to optimize the positioning of food, determine the force levels, and force vectors involved in biting of food morsels. Moreover, practice resulting from repetition could be a key to learning and acquiring a motor...... movements. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to intraorally manipulate and split a chocolate candy, into two equal halves. The participants performed three series (with ten 10 trials) of the task before and after a short-term (approximately 30min) training. The accuracy of the split and vertical jaw...... task induces behavior learning, skill acquisition and optimization of jaw movements in terms of better performance and reduction in the duration of jaw movements, during the task. The finding of the present study provides insights on into how humans learn oral motor behaviors or the kind of adaptation...
Nair, Sankaran N; Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph
This article explores the role of age, cognitive abilities, prior experience, and knowledge in skill acquisition for a computer-based simulated customer service task. Fifty-two participants aged 50-80 performed the task over 4 consecutive days following training. They also completed a battery that assessed prior computer experience and cognitive abilities. The data indicated that overall quality and efficiency of performance improved with practice. The predictors of initial level of performance and rate of change in performance varied according to the performance parameter assessed. Age and fluid intelligence predicted initial level and rate of improvement in overall quality, whereas crystallized intelligence and age predicted initial e-mail processing time, and crystallized intelligence predicted rate of change in e-mail processing time over days. We discuss the implications of these findings for the design of intervention strategies.
Hetzroni, Orit E; Banin, Irit
People with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often demonstrate difficulties in social skills. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive intervention program on the acquisition of social skills among students with mild IDD. Single subject multiple baseline design across situations was used for teaching five school-age children with mild IDD social skills embedded in school-based situations. Results demonstrate that the intervention program that included video modelling and games embedded with group discussions and simulations increased the level and use of adequate social behaviours within the school's natural environment. Results demonstrate the unique attribution of a comprehensive interactive program for acquisition and transfer of participants' social skills such as language pragmatics and social rules within the school environment. Group discussions and simulations were beneficial and enabled both group and personalized instruction through the unique application of the program designed for the study. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
children: Capacity or processing deficits? Memory and Cognition, 1976, 4, 559-S72. Craik , F. I. M., & Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : A framework...learning and memory research. In F. I. M. Craik & L. S. Cermak (Eds.), Levels of processing and theories of memory. Hillsdale, N. J.: Erlbaum, 1978...functions. Cognitive activities are described at a highly theoretical (technical) level as well as in a pragmatic manner. Differences in processing
Ellis, Scott Michael; Varley, Martin; Howell, Stuart; Trochsler, Markus; Maddern, Guy; Hewett, Peter; Runge, Tina; Mees, Soeren Torge
Training in laparoscopic surgery is important not only to acquire and improve skills but also avoid the loss of acquired abilities. The aim of this single-centre, prospective randomized study was to assess skill acquisition of different laparoscopic techniques and identify the point in time when acquired skills deteriorate and training is needed to maintain these skills. Sixty surgical novices underwent laparoscopic surgery (LS) and single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) baseline training (BT) performing two validated tasks (peg transfer, precision cutting). The novices were randomized into three groups and skills retention testing (RT) followed after 8 (group A), 10 (group B) or 12 (group C) weeks accordingly. Task performance was measured in time with time penalties for insufficient task completion. 92 % of the participants completed the BT and managed to complete the task in the required time frame of proficiency. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that SILS (P skills (comparison of BT vs RT) was not identified; however, for SILS a significant deterioration of skills (adjustment of BT and RT values) was demonstrated for all groups (A-C) (P skills more difficult to maintain. Acquired LS skills were maintained for the whole observation period of 12 weeks but SILS skills had begun to deteriorate at 8 weeks. These data show that maintenance of LS and SILS skills is divergent and training curricula need to take these specifics into account.
Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.; Spelt, P.F.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.
A two-phase, multi-year research program entitled ``development of a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research`` was recently completed. The primary objective of the project was to develop a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) that will allow drive performance data to be collected using a large variety of vehicle types and that would be capable of being installed on a given vehicle type within a relatively short-time frame. During phase 1 a feasibility study for designing and fabricating DASCAR was conducted. In phase 2 of the research DASCAR was actually developed and validated. This technical memorandum documents the results from the feasibility study. It is subdivided into three volumes. Volume one (this report) addresses the last five items in the phase 1 research and the first issue in the second phase of the project. Volumes two and three present the related appendices, and the design specifications developed for DASCAR respectively. The six tasks were oriented toward: identifying parameters and measures; identifying analysis tools and methods; identifying measurement techniques and state-of-the-art hardware and software; developing design requirements and specifications; determining the cost of one or more copies of the proposed data acquisition system; and designing a development plan and constructing DASCAR. This report also covers: the background to the program; the requirements for the project; micro camera testing; heat load calculations for the DASCAR instrumentation package in automobile trunks; phase 2 of the research; the DASCAR hardware and software delivered to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; and crash avoidance problems that can be addressed by DASCAR.
Capio Catherine M
Full Text Available Abstract An implicit approach to motor learning suggests that relatively complex movement skills may be better acquired in environments that constrain errors during the initial stages of practice. This current concept paper proposes that reducing the number of errors committed during motor learning leads to stable performance when attention demands are increased by concurrent cognitive tasks. While it appears that this approach to practice may be beneficial for motor learning, further studies are needed to both confirm this advantage and better understand the underlying mechanisms. An approach involving error minimization during early learning may have important applications in paediatric rehabilitation.
Jackson, Denise; Hancock, Phil
The development of discipline-specific skills and knowledge is no longer considered sufficient in graduates of Bachelor level degrees in Business. Higher education providers are becoming increasingly responsible for the development of a generic skill set deemed essential in undergraduates. This required skill set comprises a broad range of…
Full Text Available The ultimate aim of proteomics is to fully identify and quantify the entire complement of proteins and post-translational modifications in biological samples of interest. For the last 15 years, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS in data-dependent acquisition (DDA mode has been the standard for proteomics when sampling breadth and discovery were the main objectives; multiple reaction monitoring (MRM LC-MS/MS has been the standard for targeted proteomics when precise quantification, reproducibility, and validation were the main objectives. Recently, improvements in mass spectrometer design and bioinformatics algorithms have resulted in the rediscovery and development of another sampling method: data-independent acquisition (DIA. DIA comprehensively and repeatedly samples every peptide in a protein digest, producing a complex set of mass spectra that is difficult to interpret without external spectral libraries. Currently, DIA approaches the identification breadth of DDA while achieving the reproducible quantification characteristic of MRM or its newest version, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM. In comparative de novo identification and quantification studies in human cell lysates, DIA identified up to 89% of the proteins detected in a comparable DDA experiment while providing reproducible quantification of over 85% of them. DIA analysis aided by spectral libraries derived from prior DIA experiments or auxiliary DDA data produces identification and quantification as reproducible and precise as that achieved by MRM/PRM, except on low‑abundance peptides that are obscured by stronger signals. DIA is still a work in progress toward the goal of sensitive, reproducible, and precise quantification without external spectral libraries. New software tools applied to DIA analysis have to deal with deconvolution of complex spectra as well as proper filtering of false positives and false negatives. However, the future outlook is
Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F
Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also be useful in predicting the acquisition of skill in complex tasks, such as strategy-based video games. Twenty older adults were trained for over 20 h to play Rise of Nations, a complex real-time strategy game. These adults showed substantial improvements over the training period in game performance. MRI scans obtained prior to training revealed that the volume of a number of brain regions, which have been previously associated with subsets of the trained skills, predicted a substantial amount of variance in learning on the complex game. Thus, regional differences in brain volume can predict learning in complex tasks that entail the use of a variety of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available It is often assumed that implicit learning of skills based on predictive relationships proceeds independently of awareness. To test this idea, four groups of subjects played a game in which a fast-moving "demon" made a brief appearance at the bottom of the computer screen, then disappeared behind a V-shaped occluder, and finally re-appeared briefly on either the upper-left or upper-right quadrant of the screen. Points were scored by clicking on the demon during the final reappearance phase. Demons differed in several visible characteristics including color, horn height and eye size. For some subjects, horn height perfectly predicted which side the demon would reappear on. For subjects not told the rule, the subset who demonstrated at the end of the experiment that they had spontaneously discovered the rule showed strong evidence of exploiting it by anticipating the demon's arrival and laying in wait for it. Those who could not verbalize the rule performed no better than a control group for whom the demons moved unpredictably. The implications of this tight linkage between conscious awareness and implicit skill learning are discussed.
Hagelsteen, Kristine; Langegård, Anders; Lantz, Adam; Ekelund, Mikael; Anderberg, Magnus; Bergenfelz, Anders
The study investigated whether 3D vision and haptic feedback in combination in a virtual reality environment leads to more efficient learning of laparoscopic skills in novices. Twenty novices were allocated to two groups. All completed a training course in the LapSim ® virtual reality trainer consisting of four tasks: 'instrument navigation', 'grasping', 'fine dissection' and 'suturing'. The study group performed with haptic feedback and 3D vision and the control group without. Before and after the LapSim ® course, the participants' metrics were recorded when tying a laparoscopic knot in the 2D video box trainer Simball ® Box. The study group completed the training course in 146 (100-291) minutes compared to 215 (175-489) minutes in the control group (p = .002). The number of attempts to reach proficiency was significantly lower. The study group had significantly faster learning of skills in three out of four individual tasks; instrument navigation, grasping and suturing. Using the Simball ® Box, no difference in laparoscopic knot tying after the LapSim ® course was noted when comparing the groups. Laparoscopic training in virtual reality with 3D vision and haptic feedback made training more time efficient and did not negatively affect later video box-performance in 2D. [Formula: see text].
Bruno, C J; Angert, R; Rosen, O; Lee, C; Vega, M; Kim, M; Yu, Y; Bernstein, P S; Goffman, D
Our goal was to compare the confidence, knowledge, and performance of obstetric residents taught initial neonatal resuscitation steps in a simulation-based versus lecture-based format. Our study was a prospective randomized controlled trial of 33 obstetric residents. Baseline confidence, knowledge, and clinical skills assessments were performed. Subjects were randomized to traditional lecture (n = 14) or simulation-based (n = 19) neonatal resuscitation curriculum with a focus on initial steps. Follow-up assessments were performed at 3 and 6 months. Total confidence, knowledge, and clinical performance scores and change from baseline in these scores were calculated and compared between groups. Both the lecture-based and simulated-based groups demonstrated significant improvement in confidence, knowledge, and performance over time. However, compared with the lecture group, the magnitude of the mean change from baseline in performance scores was significantly greater in the simulation group at 3 months (2.9 versus 10.1; p < 0.001), but not at 6 months (7.0 versus 9.3; p = 0.11). Our study demonstrates the superiority of simulation in teaching obstetric residents initial neonatal resuscitation steps compared with a traditional lecture format. Skills are retained for upwards of 3-6 months. Refresher instruction by 6 months post-instruction may be beneficial.
Public procurement is one of the areas of the single market where the results of the liberalization drive have not yet measured up to expectations. This communication presents some technical issues versus public acquisition legal issues and suggests ways and means of improving contract award procedures. Procurement area includes the acquisition of goods, services and works, thus assumption not only for purchasing equipment, components, spare-parts or materials, but also hiring of the contractors or consultants to carry out services and works. Procurement is related to the function of management of supply, which encompasses aside range of planning function, coding and classification, stockholding policies, store-keeping, stores accounting, etc. but it is also related to the hiring of contractors or consultants for work or services. As an answer to the challenge of the increasing market globalization it has been developed the ISO quality system, within 9000 family of standards. The very intensive competition for all market clients, either locally or globally, encouraged development of a new concept of quality management systems. Due to its specificity of activity and with respect to the rules and legislation requirements imposed either by the internal Romanian Laws and Regulations or/and by international market rules and constrains, the development, construction and operation of a Nuclear Power Plant shall be performed in a controlled condition and based on specific authorizations obtained by the Owner of the NPP from the Romanian Regulatory Authorities. The experience, accumulated by over 10 years of operation of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 by our company, demonstrates the high importance of the Quality Management System that imposes the quality of the components installed on the plant, the services and the works developed to assure a safety operation of the nuclear unit, with a strongly dependence by the procurement system established for purchasing of goods, services and
Draganov, Peter V; Chang, Myron; Coman, Roxana M; Wagh, Mihir S; An, Qi; Gotoda, Takuji
To evaluate the role of observation of experts performing endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in the acquisition of ESD skills. This prospective study is documenting the learning curve of one Western endoscopist. The study consisted of three periods. In the first period (pre-observation), the trainee performed ESDs in animal models in his home institution in the United States. The second period (observation) consisted of visit to Japan and observation of live ESD cases done by experts. The observation of cases occurred over a 5-wk period. During the third period (post-observation), the trainee performed ESD in animal models in a similar fashion as in the first period. Three animal models were used: live 40-50 kg Yorkshire pig, explanted pig stomach model, and explanted pig rectum model. The outcomes from the ESDs done in the animal models before and after observation of live human cases (main study intervention) were compared. Statistical analysis of the data included: Fisher's exact test to compare distributions of a categorical variable, Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare distributions of a continuous variable between the two groups (pre-observation and post-observation), and Kruskal-Wallis test to evaluate the impact of lesion location and type of model (ex-vivo vs live pig) on lesion removal time. The trainee performed 38 ESDs in animal model (29 pre-observation/9 post-observation). The removal times post-observation were significantly shorter than those pre-observation (32.7 ± 15.0 min vs 63.5 ± 9.8 min, P < 0.001). To minimize the impact of improving physician skill, the 9 lesions post-observation were compared to the last 9 lesions pre-observation and the removal times remained significantly shorter (32.7 ± 15.0 min vs 61.0 ± 7.4 min, P = 0.0011). Regression analysis showed that ESD observation significantly reduced removal time when controlling for the sequence of lesion removal (P = 0.025). Furthermore, it was also noted a trend towards decrease in
Maignan, Maxime; Koch, François-Xavier; Chaix, Jordane; Phellouzat, Pierre; Binauld, Gery; Collomb Muret, Roselyne; Cooper, Simon J; Labarère, José; Danel, Vincent; Viglino, Damien; Debaty, Guillaume
Evaluation of team performances during medical simulation must rely on validated and reproducible tools. Our aim was to build and validate a French version of the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) score, which was developed for the assessment of team performance and non-technical skills during resuscitation. A forward and backward translation of the initial TEAM score was made, with the agreement and the final validation by the original author. Ten medical teams were recruited and performed a standardized cardiac arrest simulation scenario. Teams were videotaped and nine raters evaluate non-technical skills for each team thanks to the French TEAM Score. Psychometric properties of the score were then evaluated. French TEAM score showed an excellent reliability with a Cronbach coefficient of 0.95. Mean correlation coefficient between each item and the global score range was 0.78. The inter-rater reliability measured by intraclass correlation coefficient of the global score was 0.93. Finally, expert teams had higher French TEAM score than intermediate and novice teams. The French TEAM score shows good psychometric properties to evaluate team performance during cardiac arrest simulation. Its utilization could help in the assessment of non-technical skills during simulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hussain, Riffat Parveen
Routine work in nuclear medicine requires the careful elution of radioactivity and its subsequent, storage and handling. Though all effort is maintained to prevent any “spill” of this radioactivity, accidents are bound to happen. The response to this spill is a methodically worked out a plan that is written and adopted as a “standard operating procedure.” This protocol is taught to all involved in the area of working as a mock drill/apprenticeship model. No formal evaluation of learning is in place except for the mock drills. The objectively structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) is a variation on the Objective Structured Clinical Examination, which is a form of workplace based assessment. The OSATS is cited in the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education evaluation toolbox on the website as the most desirable evaluation tool for the patient care topics. It is the objective of this paper is to introduce the “OSATS” for teaching, and assessment of the learning, of the protocol for the management of radioactive spill. As a review of the literature on the subject failed to reveal any such teaching protocol/material/document for this important technical skill, we hope that it may act as a landmark for the development of teaching and assessment of other technical skills also
Labbé, Mathilde; Young, Meredith; Nguyen, Lily H P
To support the development of programs of assessment of technical skills in the operating room (OR), we systematically reviewed the literature to identify assessment tools specific to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OTL-HNS) core procedures and summarized their characteristics. We systematically searched Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane to identify and report on assessment tools that can be used to assess residents' technical surgical skills in the operating room for OTL-HNS core procedures. Of the 736 unique titles retrieved, 16 articles met inclusion criteria, covering 11 different procedures (in otology, rhinology, laryngology, head and neck, and general otolaryngology). The tools were composed of a task-specific checklist and/or global rating scale and were developed in the OR, on human cadavers, or in a simulation setting. Our study reports on published tools for assessing technical skills for OTL-HNS residents during core procedures conducted in the OR. These assessment tools could facilitate the provision of timely feedback to trainees including specific goals for improvement. However, the paucity of publications suggests little agreement on how to best perform work-based direct-observation assessment for core surgical procedures in OTL-HNS. The sparsity of tools specific to OTL-HNS may become a barrier to a fluid transition to competency-based medical education. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background International initiatives such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the President's Malaria Initiative have significantly increased availability and access to medicines in some parts of the developing world. Despite this, however, skills remain limited on quantifying needs for medications and ordering, receiving and storing medications appropriately; recording medications inventories accurately; distributing medications for use appropriately; and advising patients on how to use medications appropriately. The Regional Technical Resource Collaboration for Pharmaceutical Management (RTRC has been established to help address the problem of skills shortage in pharmaceutical management in East Africa. Methods The initiative brings together academic institutions from four East African countries to participate in skills-building activities in pharmaceutical supply management. The initiative targeted the institutions' ability to conduct assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and to develop and implement effective skills-building programmes for pharmaceutical supply chain management. Results Over a two-year period, the RTRC succeeded in conducting assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and practices in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. In 2006, the RTRC participated in a materials-development workshop in Kampala, Uganda, and contributed to the development of comprehensive HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management training materials; these materials are now widely available in all four countries. In Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been involved with the training of health care workers in HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management. In Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been conducting operations research to find solutions to their countries' skills-shortage problems. Some of the interventions tested include applying and evaluating the
Ibrahim, Rosli; Boerhannoeddin, Ali; Bakare, Kazeem Kayode
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of soft skill acquisition and the training methodology adopted on employee work performance. In this study, the authors study the trends of research in training and work performance in organisations that focus on the acquisition of technical or "hard skills" for employee…
Yoganathan, S; Finch, D A; Parkin, E; Pollard, J
360° virtual reality (VR) video is an exciting and evolving field. Current technology promotes a totally immersive, 3-dimensional (3D), 360° experience anywhere in the world using simply a smart phone and virtual reality headset. The potential for its application in the field of surgical education is enormous. The aim of this study was to determine knot tying skills taught with a 360-degree VR video compared to conventional 2D video teaching. This trial was a prospective, randomised controlled study. 40 foundation year doctors (first year postgraduate) were randomised to either the 360-degree VR video (n = 20) or 2D video teaching (n = 20). Participants were given 15 min to watch their allocated video. Ability to tie a single handed reef knot was then assessed against a marking criteria developed for the Royal College of Surgeons, England, (RCSeng) Basic Surgical Skills (BSS) course, by a blinded assessor competent in knot tying. Each candidate then underwent further teaching using Peyton's four step model. Knot tying technique was then re-assessed. Knot tying scores were significantly better in the VR video teaching arm when compared with conventional (median knot score 5.0 vs 4.0 p = 0.04). When used in combination with face to face skills teaching this difference persisted (median knot score 9.5 vs 9.0 p = 0.01). More people in the VR arm constructed a complete reef knot than in the 2D arm following face to face teaching (17/20 vs 12/20). No difference between the groups existed in the time taken to construct a reef knot following video and teaching (median time 31.0s vs 30.5s p = 0.89). This study shows there is significant merit in the application of 360-degree VR video technology in surgical training, both as an independent teaching aid and when used as an adjunct to traditional face to face teaching. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abu Saim Mohammad Shahabuddin
Full Text Available Islam exhorts for cooperation in righteous and God conscious acts. This exhortation has individual and institutional implications for efforts geared towards promoting the welfare of less privileged marginal segment of society. Conceiving an institutional form of cooperation, this paper proposes and explains a program which will target at empowering this segment. The program is for developing non-professional skills which have to be founded on and inspired by the Islamic principles of cooperation and self-reliance. As non-professional skills are mostly learned informally and on-the-job, business houses will be the cooperator who will provide platforms for training. Members of a marginal segment of society will be the beneficiaries who will receive training for acquiring job skills and mobility towards achieving their self-reliance. Government organ will be a facilitating party that shall provide support for the collaborative venture to occur and sustain. Apart from Islamic principles of cooperation and self-reliance, this paper will draw upon the theory of social learning, theory of conforming to group norms and doctrine of market supervision (al-Hisbah in Islamic civilization to expound the role of the triad—the cooperator, the beneficiaries, and the facilitator—in achieving the major outcomes of the program. =========================================== Islam mendorong kerjasama dalam kebaikan dan bertindak semata-mata karena Allah. Dorongan ini memiliki implikasi individual dan institusional dalam upaya mensejahterakan masyarakat marjinal yang kurang beruntung. Dalam suatu bentuk upaya kerjasama secara institusional, artikel ini menawarkan dan menjelaskan suatu program yang akan menargetkan dalam memberdayakan segmen ini. Program ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan keterampilan non-professional yang dibentuk dan didorong oleh prinsip-prinsip Islam dalam kerjasama dan kemandirian. Keterampilan non-professional sebagian besar dipelajari secara
Vergis, Ashley; Steigerwald, Sarah
Background Both general and technique-specific assessments of technical skill have been validated in surgical education. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between the objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) and the global operative assessment of laparoscopic skills (GOALS) rating scales using a high-fidelity porcine laparoscopic cholecystectomy model. Methods Post-graduate year-one general surgery and urology residents (n=14) performed a live laparoscopic porcine cholecystectomy. Trained surgeons rated their performance using OSATS and GOALS assessment scales. Results Pearson's correlation coefficient between OSATS and GOALS was 0.96 for overall scores. It ranged from 0.78 - 0.89 for domains that overlapped between the two scales. Conclusion There is a very high correlation between OSATS and GOALS. This implies that they likely measure similar constructs and that either may be used for summative-type assessments of trainee skill. However, further investigation is needed to determine if technique-specific assessments may provide more useful feedback in formative evaluation.
Rolskov Bojsen, Signe; Räder, Sune Bernd Emil Werner; Holst, Anders Gaardsdal
BACKGROUND: Electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation is of great importance for patient management. However, medical students frequently lack proficiency in ECG interpretation and rate their ECG training as inadequate. Our aim was to examine the effect of a standalone web-based ECG tutorial...... and to assess the retention of skills using multiple follow-up intervals. METHODS: 203 medical students were included in the study. All participants completed a pre-test, an ECG tutorial, and a post-test. The participants were also randomised to complete a retention-test after short (2-4 weeks), medium (10.......6), respectively). When comparing the pre-test to retention-test delta scores, junior students had learned significantly more than senior students (junior students improved 10.7 points and senior students improved 4.7 points, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: A standalone web-based ECG tutorial can be an effective means...
Kim, Sang Suk; Kim, Eun Joo; Lim, Ji Young; Kim, Geun Myun; Baek, Hee Chong
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is essential for enhancing nurses' quality of care. We identified Korean nursing students' practices, attitudes, and knowledge concerning EBP, as well as their critical thinking disposition (CTD). The EBP Questionnaire (EBPQ) was administered to a convenience sample of 266 nursing students recruited from four nursing schools in Seoul and its metropolitan area. Average EBPQ and CTD total scores were 4.69 ± 0.64 and 3.56 ± 0.32, respectively. Students who were ages ⩾23 years, male, and satisfied with their major demonstrated higher EBPQ and CTD scores. EBPQ scores were significantly correlated with CTD scores (r = .459, p students improve their CTD and information utilization skills, as well as integrate EBP in undergraduate programs to enhance nurses' EBP abilities. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(1):21-27.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Smith, Molly; Ayres, Kevin; Mechling, Linda; Smith, Katie
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two forms of video modeling: video modeling that includes narration (VMN) and video models without narration (VM) on skill acquisition of four adolescent boys with a primary diagnosis of autism enrolled in an Extended School Year (ESY) summer program. An adapted alternating treatment design…
Anderson, Sarah K.
The purpose of my study was to develop a grounded theory of the underlying social processes and/or other ecological factors that impact the effectiveness of skill acquisition for students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD) in "sister" cities located in the United States (Site One) and in Norway (Site Two). Theory…
Mwale, Omero Gonekani; Kalawa, Roselyn
Acquisition of psychomotor clinical skills has been shown to improve the quality of care provided to patients when care providers are competent. The aim of this study was to explore students, nurses and tutors experience on factors affecting acquisition of psychomotor clinical skills. The study employed an exploratory qualitative research design. The population was students, clinical nurses and tutors from a nursing College and mission hospital in the southern region of Malawi. In depth interviews using a semi structured guide was used to collect data. Thematic analysis method was employed to analyze the collected data. Ethical principles of respect of human dignity, beneficence and justice were observed. The findings have shown that acquisition of psychomotor skills is affected by: student motivation, lack of resources, learning environment, knowledge gap between the qualified nurses and tutors, and role modeling. In principle when student nurses have acquired necessary skills the quality of care provided to patients improve. Basing on the findings of this study it is recommended that Student should be well prepared before clinical placement Nurses and tutors should also update their knowledge and clinical teaching skills for them to adequately guide students. The clinical arena should have adequate resources.
Van Daele, Tom; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Raes, Filip; Hermans, Dirk
Research has shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a valid predictor for the course of depression. It is not known, however, whether OGM also moderates information uptake and consolidation in a psychoeducation program to prevent stress, anxiety and depression. The present study was designed to investigate whether the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams, & Broadbent, 1986) is a valid predictor for the actual unfolding of skills learned through psychoeducation. The questionnaire included primarily the AMT and the Stress Anxiety Depression Means-Ends Problem Solving Questionnaire (SAD-MEPS). It was filled in prior to and after the psychoeducational course by 23 participants. Correlations were calculated for the AMT at baseline and the differences between the pre and post measurements on the SAD-MEPS. Significant correlations were observed between the number of specific responses and the changes in the number of relevant means (r = .49, p < .01). The sample size was rather small, but several checks were able to reduce the chance of spurious findings. These findings may have important implications for the guidance to and the setup of psychoeducational interventions. Suggestions include screening and memory specificity training prior to course commencement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kumar, Anup; Smith, Roger; Patel, Vipul R
This article provides an overview of the current status of simulator systems in robotic surgery training curriculum, focusing on available simulators for training, their comparison, new technologies introduced in simulation focusing on concepts of training along with existing challenges and future perspectives of simulator training in robotic surgery. The different virtual reality simulators available in the market like dVSS, dVT, RoSS, ProMIS and SEP have shown face, content and construct validity in robotic skills training for novices outside the operating room. Recently, augmented reality simulators like HoST, Maestro AR and RobotiX Mentor have been introduced in robotic training providing a more realistic operating environment, emphasizing more on procedure-specific robotic training . Further, the Xperience Team Trainer, which provides training to console surgeon and bed-side assistant simultaneously, has been recently introduced to emphasize the importance of teamwork and proper coordination. Simulator training holds an important place in current robotic training curriculum of future robotic surgeons. There is a need for more procedure-specific augmented reality simulator training, utilizing advancements in computing and graphical capabilities for new innovations in simulator technology. Further studies are required to establish its cost-benefit ratio along with concurrent and predictive validity.
Kaul, Paritosh; Fisher, Jennifer H; Hanson, Janice L
To develop and evaluate an educational activity designed to teach the adolescent Home, Education and employment, Eating, Activities, Drugs, Sexuality, Suicide/depression, and Safety (HEADS) examination. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were third-year medical students in their pediatric clerkships. Students received an article on the HEADS interview and attended an adolescent medicine educational session. The session included individualized goal-setting and coached role play. Students' skills in doing a HEADS interview were evaluated through a standardized patient encounter (SPE) with a checklist and a retrospective pre- and post-test survey. The SPE checklist was used to assess whether the students included questions in 6 key areas of a HEADS interview. One hundred fifty-two students participated. During the SPE, 90% of students queried the adolescent's home life, 91% education, 82% activities, 84% drug/substance abuse, 95% sexual history, and 61% symptoms of depression. Pre- and postintervention data were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis Test and showed a statistically significant difference in the students' ability to list key topic areas of the HEADS exam (P interview using the HEADS exam (P interview during a SPE. Only three-fifths of the students, however, included questions about symptoms of depression. Coached role play with goal-setting facilitated effective learning of this approach to adolescent interviewing. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pedro Miguel Parreira
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the change in the social representation structure of entrepreneurship in Portuguese students after training sessions in entrepreneurship. Method: An exploratory research was conducted, based on the structural approach of the theory of social representations. A group of 4th-year undergraduate nursing students of a Portuguese nursing school participated in this study: 192 in the pre-intervention phase and 139 in the post-intervention phase (N=331 participants. Social representations of entrepreneurship were assessed through the technique of free association in the pre- and post-test (before and after the 14-hour training. Results: A total of 1200 evocations with 169 different words and an overall mean order of 2.62 were obtained. The arrangement of data into four quadrants in the pre- and post-test found no change in the structure of representations in terms of the core components. However, a higher variability and dispersion of corpus was observed after the training period, which reflects a higher cognitive complexity and awareness for entrepreneurship/ to acquire entrepreneurial skills. Conclusions: The intervention showed a consistency between the central themes of entrepreneurship and its representation structure. It proved to contribute to a process of entrepreneurship change, although it requires a longer and more intense intervention.
Putnam, Matthew D; Adams, Julie E; Lender, Paul; Van Heest, Ann E; Shanedling, Janet R; Nuckley, David J; Bechtold, Joan E
Primary: Assess the ability of faculty graders to predict the objectively measured strength of distal radius fracture fixation. Secondary: Compare resident skill variation and retention related to other knowable training data. Residents were allowed 60 minutes to stabilize a standardized distal radius fracture using an assigned fixed-angle volar plate. Faculty observed and subjectively graded the residents without providing real-time feedback. Objective biomechanical evaluation (construct strength and stiffness) was compared to subjective grades. Resident-specific characteristics (sex, PGY, and ACGME case log) were also used to compare the objective data. A simulated operating room in our laboratory. Post-graduate year 2, 3, 4, and 5 orthopedic residents. Primary: Faculty were not successful at predicting objectively measured fixation, and their subjective scoring suggests confirmation bias as PGY increased. Secondary: Resident year-in-training alone did not predict objective measures (p = 0.53), but was predictive of subjective scores (p external faculty unfamiliar with tested residents, might alter these results. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The operator of an accelerator experiment often appears to be a highly skilled magician. The diagnostics used, such as oscilloscope traces, may be only indirectly related to the state of the accelerator. The operator adjusts the knobs so that the experiment runs well, but is not always able to describe in words exactly what is happening. The tool described in this paper, acc-plot-tool, was developed as a supplement to note-taking while attempting to develop an expert system that might function as an apprentice operator. During an experiment, a historical record is made of all operator actions and the resulting changes in the state of the equipment, including digitized records of the oscilloscope traces used to make decisions. These records are transformed into a set of graphical objects in the knowledge engineering environment (KEE). A flexible set of KEE functions has been developed, allowing both graphical and numerical manipulation of the data. The acc-plot-tool is not only useful in helping to understand the operator's actions, but also in discovering correlations between operator actions and system-parameter changes, in detecting equipment failures and in the mathematical modeling of the system. Examples will be given from ion-source operation. (orig.)
This study focused on the impact of teacher quality, teaching methods, and access to training materials on students' acquisition of employable skills in vocational technical subjects, for self employment in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Three questions and three hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study.
Background Skills lab training has become a widespread tool in medical education, and nowadays, skills labs are ubiquitous among medical faculties across the world. An increasingly prevalent didactic approach in skills lab teaching is peer-assisted learning (PAL), which has been shown to be not only effective, but can be considered to be on a par with faculty staff-led training. The aim of the study is to determine whether voluntary preclinical skills teaching by peer tutors is a feasible method for preparing medical students for effective workplace learning in clerkships and to investigate both tutees’ and tutors’ attitudes towards such an intervention. Methods A voluntary clerkship preparation skills course was designed and delivered. N = 135 pre-clinical medical students visited the training sessions. N = 10 tutors were trained as skills-lab peer tutors. Voluntary clerkship preparation skills courses as well as tutor training were evaluated by acceptance ratings and pre-post self-assessment ratings. Furthermore, qualitative analyses of skills lab tutors’ attitudes towards the course were conducted following principles of grounded theory. Results Results show that a voluntary clerkship preparation skills course is in high demand, is highly accepted and leads to significant changes in self-assessment ratings. Regarding qualitative analysis of tutor statements, clerkship preparation skills courses were considered to be a helpful and necessary asset to preclinical medical education, which benefits from the tutors’ own clerkship experiences and a high standardization of training. Tutor training is also highly accepted and regarded as an indispensable tool for peer tutors. Conclusions Our study shows that the demand for voluntary competence-oriented clerkship preparation is high, and a peer tutor-led skills course as well as tutor training is well accepted. The focused didactic approach for tutor training is perceived to be effective in preparing
Blohm, Mats; Krautter, Markus; Lauter, Jan; Huber, Julia; Weyrich, Peter; Herzog, Wolfgang; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph
Skills lab training has become a widespread tool in medical education, and nowadays, skills labs are ubiquitous among medical faculties across the world. An increasingly prevalent didactic approach in skills lab teaching is peer-assisted learning (PAL), which has been shown to be not only effective, but can be considered to be on a par with faculty staff-led training. The aim of the study is to determine whether voluntary preclinical skills teaching by peer tutors is a feasible method for preparing medical students for effective workplace learning in clerkships and to investigate both tutees' and tutors' attitudes towards such an intervention. A voluntary clerkship preparation skills course was designed and delivered. N = 135 pre-clinical medical students visited the training sessions. N = 10 tutors were trained as skills-lab peer tutors. Voluntary clerkship preparation skills courses as well as tutor training were evaluated by acceptance ratings and pre-post self-assessment ratings. Furthermore, qualitative analyses of skills lab tutors' attitudes towards the course were conducted following principles of grounded theory. Results show that a voluntary clerkship preparation skills course is in high demand, is highly accepted and leads to significant changes in self-assessment ratings. Regarding qualitative analysis of tutor statements, clerkship preparation skills courses were considered to be a helpful and necessary asset to preclinical medical education, which benefits from the tutors' own clerkship experiences and a high standardization of training. Tutor training is also highly accepted and regarded as an indispensable tool for peer tutors. Our study shows that the demand for voluntary competence-oriented clerkship preparation is high, and a peer tutor-led skills course as well as tutor training is well accepted. The focused didactic approach for tutor training is perceived to be effective in preparing tutors for their teaching activity in this context. A
Radford, Eleanor J; Fotis, Theo
Operating theatre scrub nurses (OTSNs) are not required to have undertaken a secondary or specialist post-registration theatre qualification to work in the operating theatre (OT) setting in the UK. From the systematic review there is only very limited literature or research in how technical scrub skills are acquired. This study explores the lived experiences of OTSNs learning technical scrub skills. The study employed the qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Data was collected from six participating OTSNs using semi-structured interviews. Four superordinate themes emerged: How technical scrub skills are established, Gatekeepers, How the learner feels whilst learning and, Reflections of the experienced scrub nurse. The study found that the experiences of OTSNs learning technical scrub skills are varied and a variety of teaching and learning methods are utilised. These experiences were influenced by the team, mentor and surgeon within the OT environment. Lived experiences were also influenced by organisational structure and service pressures within the NHS.
Walliczek-Dworschak, U; Mandapathil, M; Förtsch, A; Teymoortash, A; Dworschak, P; Werner, J A; Güldner, C
The increasing use of minimally invasive techniques such as robotic-assisted devices raises the question of how to acquire robotic surgery skills. The da Vinci Skills Simulator has been demonstrated to be an effective training tool in previous reports. To date, little data are available on how to acquire proficiency through simulator training. We investigated the outcome of a structured training programme for robotic surgical skills by robotic novices. This prospective study was conducted from January to December 2013 using the da Vinci Skills Simulator. Twenty participants, all robotic novices, were enrolled in a 4-week training curriculum. After a brief introduction to the simulator system, three consecutive repetitions of five selected exercises (Match Board 1, 2, 3 and Ring and Rail 1, 2) were performed in a defined order on days 1, 8, 15 and 22. On day 22, one repetition of a previously unpractised more advanced module (Needle Targeting) was also performed. After completion of each study day, the overall performance, time to completion, economy in motion, instrument collisions, excessive instrument force, instruments out of view, master workspace range and number of drops were analysed. Comparing the first and final repetition, overall score and time needed to complete all exercises, economy of motion and instrument collisions were significantly improved in nearly all exercises. Regarding the new exercise, a positive training effect could be demonstrated. While its overall entry score was significantly higher, the time to completion and economy of motion were significantly lower than the scores on the first repetition of the previous 5 exercises. It could be shown that training on the da Vinci Skills Simulator led to an improvement in technical performance of robotic novices. With regard to a new exercise, the training had a positive effect on the technical performance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Warnock, James N.; Mohammadi-Aragh, M. Jean
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogy that has attracted attention for many biomedical engineering curricula. The aim of the current study was to address the research question, "Does PBL enable students to develop desirable professional engineering skills?" The desirable skills identified were communication, teamwork, problem…
Gearhart, Susan; Marohn, Michael; Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Adrales, Gina; Owodunni, Oluwafemi; Duncan, Kim; Petrusa, Emil; Lipsett, Pamela
The demonstration of competency in endoscopy is required prior to obtaining American Board of Surgery Certification. To demonstrate competency, the resident must pass a national high-stakes cognitive test and a technical skills exam on a virtual reality simulator. The purpose of this preliminary study was to design a proficiency-based endoscopy simulation curriculum to meet this competency requirement. This is a mixed methods prospective cohort study at a single academic medical institution. Prior to taking the national exam, surgery residents were required to participate in a skills lab and demonstrate proficiency on 10 simulation tasks. Proficiency was based on time and percent of objects targeted/mucosa seen. Simulation practice time, number of task repetitions to proficiency, and prior endoscopic experience were recorded. Resident's self-reported confidence scores in endoscopic skills prior to and following simulation lab training were obtained. From January 1, 2016 through August 1, 2017, 20 surgical residents (8 PGY2, 8 PGY3, 4 PGY4) completed both a faculty-supervised endoscopy skills lab and independent learning with train-to-proficiency simulation tasks. Median overall simulator time per resident was 306 min (IQR: 247-405 min). Median overall time to proficiency in all tasks was 235 min (IQR: 208-283 min). The median time to proficiency decreased with increasing PGY status (r = 0.4, P = 0.05). There was no correlation between prior real-time endoscopic experience and time to proficiency. Reported confidence in endoscopic skills increased significantly from mean of 5.75 prior to 7.30 following the faculty-supervised endoscopy skills lab (P = 0.0002). All 20 residents passed the national exam. In this preliminary study, a train-to-proficiency curriculum in endoscopy improved surgical resident's confidence in their endoscopic skills and 100% of residents passed the FES technical skills test on their first attempt. Our findings also indicate
Nicksa, Grace A; Anderson, Cristan; Fidler, Richard; Stewart, Lygia
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies stress nontechnical skills that can be difficult to evaluate and teach to surgical residents. During emergencies, surgeons work in interprofessional teams and are required to perform certain procedures. To obtain proficiency in these skills, residents must be trained. To educate surgical residents in leadership, teamwork, effective communication, and infrequently performed emergency surgical procedures with the use of interprofessional simulations. SimMan 3GS was used to simulate high-risk clinical scenarios (15-20 minutes), followed by debriefings with real-time feedback (30 minutes). A modified Oxford Non-Technical Skills scale (score range, 1-4) was used to assess surgical resident performance during the first half of the academic year (July-December 2012) and the second half of the academic year (January-June 2013). Anonymous online surveys were used to solicit participant feedback. Simulations were conducted in the operating room, intensive care unit, emergency department, ward, and simulation center. A total of 43 surgical residents (postgraduate years [PGYs] 1 and 2) participated in interdisciplinary clinical scenarios, with other health care professionals (nursing, anesthesia, critical care, medicine, respiratory therapy, and pharmacy; mean number of nonsurgical participants/session: 4, range 0-9). Thirty seven surgical residents responded to the survey. Simulation of high-risk clinical scenarios: postoperative pulmonary embolus, pneumothorax, myocardial infarction, gastrointestinal bleeding, anaphylaxis with a difficult airway, and pulseless electrical activity arrest. Evaluation of resident skills: communication, leadership, teamwork, problem solving, situation awareness, and confidence in performing emergency procedures (eg, cricothyroidotomy). A total of 31 of 35 (89%) of the residents responding found the sessions useful. Additionally, 28 of 33 (85%) reported improved confidence
Scott, John; Revera Morales, Dianali; McRitchie, Andrew; Riviello, Robert; Smink, Douglas; Yule, Steven
Health care workers must possess high levels of medical knowledge, technical skills and also non-technical skills (NTS) in order to provide safe, effective and patient-centred care. Although there has been a recent proliferation of NTS assessment and training tools developed in high-income countries, little is known about NTS in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), which face a variety of provider-level and system-level challenges. The aim of this study was to identify the NTS used by providers in LMICs that have been studied, describe how they are assessed and taught, and explain the contextual factors in LMICs that affect their use. We conducted a systematic literature review in accordance with preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines for primary research publications from January 1994 to December 2013 on evaluation or teaching of NTS used by health care workers in LMICs using MEDLINE, Embase, CIHHAL and Web of Science. Bibliographies of relevant manuscripts were also hand-searched to identify all potentially eligible manuscripts. We identified 21 manuscripts from 17 LMICs involving eight types of health care providers and trainees. These studies covered five NTS categories: decision making, communication, teamwork, leadership and stress management. The most commonly used methods were questionnaires, interviews and observations, and 43% (n = 9) scored > 10 points using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument. Although many studies highlighted the ways in which overburdened health care systems, lack of provider empowerment and deficiencies in provider training had an impact on providers' use of these NTS, no context-specific assessment or educational tools were identified. There is growing worldwide interest in understanding and teaching critical non-technical skills to health care providers. This review highlights several studies describing a variety of important non-technical skills. However, these
Papadimitriou, Lila; Xanthos, Theodoros; Bassiakou, Eleni; Stroumpoulis, Kostantinos; Barouxis, Dimitrios; Iacovidou, Nicolleta
The present study aims to investigate whether the distribution of the Basic Life Support and Automated External Defibrillation (BLS/AED) manual, 4 weeks prior to the course, has an effect on skill acquisition, theoretical knowledge and skill retention, compared with courses where manuals were not distributed. A total of 303 laypeople were included in the present study. The courses were randomised with sealed envelopes in 12 courses, where manuals were distributed to participants (group A) and in 12 courses, where manuals were not distributed to participants (group B). The participants were formally evaluated at the end of the course, and at 1, 3 and 6 months after each course. The evaluation procedure was the same at all time intervals and consisted of two distinct parts: a written test and a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in skill acquisition at the time of initial training. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the groups in performing BLS/AED skills at 1, 3 and 6 months after initial training. Theoretical knowledge in either group at the specified time intervals did not exhibit any significant difference. Significant deterioration of skills was observed in both groups between initial training and at 1 month after the course, as well as between the first and third month after the course. The present study shows that distribution of BLS/AED manuals 1 month prior to the course has no effect on theoretical knowledge, skill acquisition and skill retention in laypeople. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rodman, Mary E.
Despite years of educational reform, secondary students have demonstrated only modest increases in achievement. Career and technical education students have not demonstrated the same level of performance as non-career and technical education students. Except for teachers, principals have the greatest influence over student achievement. What should…
Park, Chong Myung
The purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of the ways in which educational experiences might differ between a regional vocational technical high school (RVTH) and short-term career-training programs. A particular regional vocational technical high school was selected for its outstanding academic records and placement rates, and a…
Gratton, David G; Kwon, So Ran; Blanchette, Derek; Aquilino, Steven A
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of digital tooth preparation imaging and evaluation technology on dental students' technical abilities, self-evaluation skills, and the assessment of their simulated clinical work. A total of 80 second-year students at one U.S. dental school were assigned to one of three groups: control (n=40), E4D Compare (n=20), and Sirona prepCheck (n=20). Students in the control group were taught by traditional teaching methodologies, and the technology-assisted groups received both traditional training and supplementary feedback from the corresponding digital system. Three outcomes were measured: faculty technical score, self-evaluation score, and E4D Compare scores at 0.30 mm tolerance. Correlations were determined between the groups' scores from visual assessment and self-evaluation and between the visual assessment and digital scores. The results showed that the visual assessment and self-evaluation scores did not differ among groups (p>0.05). Overall, correlations between visual and digital assessment scores were modest though statistically significant (5% level of significance). These results suggest that the use of digital tooth preparation evaluation technology did not impact the students' prosthodontic technical and self-evaluation skills. Visual scores given by faculty and digital assessment scores correlated moderately in only two instances.
Zamparo, Paola; Zorzi, Elena; Marcantoni, Sara; Cesari, Paola
The aim of this study was to compare experts to naïve practitioners in rating the beauty and the technical quality of a Tai Chi sequence observed in video-clips (of high and middle level performances). Our hypothesis are: i) movement evaluation will correlate with the level of skill expressed in the kinematics of the observed action but ii) only experts will be able to unravel the technical component from the aesthetic component of the observed action. The judgments delivered indicate that both expert and non-expert observers are able to discern a good from a mediocre performance; however, as expected, only experts discriminate the technical from the aesthetic component of the action evaluated and do this independently of the level of skill shown by the model (high or middle level performances). Furthermore, the judgments delivered were strongly related to the kinematic variables measured in the observed model, indicating that observers rely on specific movement kinematics (e.g. movement amplitude, jerk and duration) for action evaluation. These results provide evidence of the complementary functional role of visual and motor action representation in movement evaluation and underline the role of expertise in judging the aesthetic quality of movements.
Rutherford, J S; Flin, R; Irwin, A
The outcome of critical incidents in the operating theatre has been shown to be influenced by the behaviour of anaesthetic technicians (ATs) assisting anaesthetists, but the specific non-technical skills involved have not been described. We performed a review of critical incidents (n=1433) reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring System between 2002 and 2008 to identify which non-technical skills were used by ATs. The reports were assessed if they mentioned anaesthetic assistance or had the boxes ticked to identify "inadequate assistance" or "absent supervision or assistance". A total of 90 critical incidents involving ATs were retrieved, 69 of which described their use of non-technical skills. In 20 reports, the ATs ameliorated the critical incident, whilst in 46 they exacerbated the critical incident, and three cases had both positive and negative non-technical skills described. Situation awareness was identified in 39 reports, task management in 23, teamwork in 21 and decision-making in two, but there were no descriptions of issues related to leadership, stress or fatigue management. Situation awareness, task management and teamwork appear to be important non-technical skills for ATs in the development or management of critical incidents in the operating theatre. This analysis has been used to support the development of a non-technical skills taxonomy for anaesthetic assistants.
Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig
Non-technical, employability skills are in high demand for entry-level job-seekers. As such, this study sought to describe the perceptions of Oklahoma's animal science industry leaders as it related to the employability skills needed for entry-level employment of high school graduates who had completed coursework in Oklahoma's Agricultural, Food…
Factors influencing effective learning in instructional skill training for vocational instructors : learning for change : a case of Training Institute for Technical Instruction (TITI), Bhaktapur, Nepal
This study was based on Instructional Skills (IS) training module which was imparted by Training Institute for Technical Instruction (TITI) Nepal to improve the performance of vocational instructors. Instructional skill training is a three months training course split in to three modules; each