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Sample records for technical note quantifying

  1. Technical Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    In this report on four patients, we did not use any of these techniques. The existence and the site of the fistulas was clearly demonstrated using basic but important preoperative detailed assessment and two intraoperative findings. The preoperative referral note that indicated the site of technical difficulty during the previous ...

  2. Technical Note: Mesocosm approach to quantify dissolved inorganic carbon percolation fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Eike Marie; Jessen, S.; Ambus, Per

    2014-01-01

    unplanted soil. Carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO(2)), alkalinity, soil moisture and temperature were measured with depth and time, and DIC in the percolate was quantified using a sodium hydroxide trap. Results showed good reproducibility between two replicate mesocosms. The pCO(2) varied between 0.......2 and 1.1 %, and the alkalinity was 0.1-0.6 meq L-1. The measured cumulative effluent DIC flux over the 78-day experimental period was 185-196 mg L-1 m(-2) and in the same range as estimates derived from pCO(2) and alkalinity in samples extracted from the side of the mesocosm column and the drainage flux...

  3. Writing a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K H; Peh, W C G

    2010-02-01

    A technical note is a short article giving a brief description of a specific development, technique or procedure, or it may describe a modification of an existing technique, procedure or device applicable to medicine. The technique, procedure or device described should have practical value and should contribute to clinical diagnosis or management. It could also present a software tool, or an experimental or computational method. Technical notes are variously referred to as technical innovations or technical developments. The main criteria for publication will be the novelty of concepts involved, the validity of the technique and its potential for clinical applications.

  4. Technical note: a method to quantify prolamin proteins in corn that are negatively related to starch digestibility in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, J; Hoffman, P C

    2008-12-01

    Compared with floury or high-moisture corns, dry corn with a greater percentage of vitreous endosperm has been demonstrated to be negatively related to starch digestibility and milk yield of lactating dairy cows. Starch granules in corn are encapsulated by hydrophobic prolamin proteins that are innately insoluble in the rumen environment. Corn prolamin proteins are named zein, and laboratory methods to quantify zein exist but are seldom employed in ruminant nutrition because of their arduous nature. In this study, advances in cereal chemistry were combined with rapid turbidimetric methods yielding a modified turbidimetric zein method (mTZM) to quantify zein in whole corn. Ten dry corns containing unique endosperms were evaluated using the mTZM. Corns with flint, dent, floury, or opaque endosperms were found to contain 19.3, 11.3, 5.8, and 4.9 g of zein/100 g of starch, respectively. The ability of mTZM to differentiate corn endosperm types as defined by least significant difference was 2.6 g of zein/100 g of starch. Ten high-moisture corns of varying moisture content were also evaluated using the mTZM. Zein content of high-moisture corns as defined by mTZM ranged from 8.3 to 2.8 g of zein/100 g of starch with a least significant difference of 1.2 g of zein/100 g of starch. The mTZM determined that zein contents of high-moisture, floury, and opaque corns were markedly less than those of flint and dent dry corns, indicating that mTZM has the ability to quantify starch granule encapsulation by hydrophobic prolamin proteins in whole corn.

  5. Technical note on drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system......, where rainwater and sewage is transported in the same pipe, and a separate system where the two types of water are transported in individual pipe. This note will only focus on the separate rain/stormwater system, however, if domestic sewage should be included in the dimensioning procedure, it......’s not major different than described below - just remember to include this contribution for combined systems where the surface water (rain) and sewage are carried in the same pipes in the system and change some of the parameters for failure allowance (this will be elaborated further later on). The technical...

  6. Lecture Note on Discrete Mathematics: Predicates and Quantifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    This lecture note supplements the treatment of predicates and quantifiers given in standard textbooks on Discrete Mathematics (e.g.: [1]) and introduces the notation used in this course. We will present central concepts that are important, when predicate logic is used for specification...

  7. Technical note An investigation of the franchising option for water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical note An investigation of the franchising option for water services operation ... of water services, and outlines the need to formulate a franchise model that ... made available to emerging entrepreneurs as the basis of a viable business.

  8. Earth-covered buildings: technical notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, F L; Higgs, F; Shih, J [eds.

    1978-01-01

    John Cable, Architectural and Engineering Systems Branch, Division of Buildings and Community Systems, Department of Energy, kicked off the conference and spelled out the role of DOE in this area. One of his points was that the technical problems are easier than the institutional problems. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 18 papers of this volume; all of the abstracts will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA), and 16 were selected for Energy Abstractss for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (DCK)

  9. Quantifying resilience for resilience engineering of socio technical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Häring, Ivo; Ebenhöch, Stefan; Stolz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Resilience engineering can be defined to comprise originally technical, engineering and natural science approaches to improve the resilience and sustainability of socio technical cyber-physical systems of various complexities with respect to disruptive events. It is argued how this emerging interdisciplinary technical and societal science approach may contribute to civil and societal security research. In this context, the article lists expected benefits of quantifying resilience. Along the r...

  10. Technical note: New table look-up lossless compression method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical note: New table look-up lossless compression method based on binary index archiving. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... This paper intends to present a common use archiver, made up following the dictionary technique and using the index archiving method as a simple and ...

  11. Technical note: Development of a Linear Flow Channel Reactor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical note: Development of a Linear Flow Channel Reactor for sulphur removal ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... 000 mg∙ℓ-1 Na2SO4 solution) and the Liner Flow Channel Reactors (surface area ...

  12. Technical Note: Application of Decision Theory Based Criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical Note: Application of Decision Theory Based Criteria for Structural Appraisal of a Building during Construction. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... reliability of concrete in a structure during construction, a case study of laboratory block for College of Continuing Education, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

  13. Technical note The formulation of synthetic domestic wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical note The formulation of synthetic domestic wastewater sludge medium to study anaerobic biological treatment of acid mine drainage in the laboratory. ... Journal Home > Vol 42, No 2 (2016) > ... Domestic wastewater sludge is however highly variable in its composition, making laboratory experimentation difficult.

  14. Quantifying ataxia: ideal trajectory analysis--a technical note

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, M. D.; Krebs, D. E.; Wall, C. 3rd

    2000-01-01

    We describe a quantitative method to assess repeated stair stepping stability. In both the mediolateral (ML) and anterioposterior (AP) directions, the trajectory of the subject's center of mass (COM) was compared to an ideal sinusoid. The two identified sinusoids were unique in each direction but coupled. Two dimensionless numbers-the mediolateral instability index (IML) and AP instability index (IAP)-were calculated using the COM trajectory and ideal sinusoids for each subject with larger index values resulting from less stable performance. The COM trajectories of nine nonimpaired controls and six patients diagnosed with unilateral or bilateral vestibular labyrinth hypofunction were analyzed. The average IML and IAP values of labyrinth disorder patients were respectively 127% and 119% greater than those of controls (panalysis distinguishes persons with labyrinth disorder from those without. The COM trajectories also identify movement inefficiencies attributable to vestibulopathy.

  15. Dealer Group or Financial Planning Group? A Brief Technical Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujer Santacruz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This technical note examines whether the industry practice of using the term dealer group when referring to afinancial planning group contributes to the general perception that financial advisers are not objective whenmaking financial product recommendations. An experimental design carried out through an online survey isused. This is supplemented by a direct comparison survey on the two terminologies. The results provide acase for the industry to adopt a new terminology.

  16. Electronic property measurements for piezoelectric ceramics. Technical notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, M.; Stewart, M.; Gee, M.

    1998-01-01

    A series of measurement notes are presented, with emphasis placed on the technical nature of the testing methodology, for the determination of key electronic properties for piezoelectric ceramic materials that are used as sensors and actuators. The report is segmented into 'sections' that may be read independently from the rest of the report. The following measurement issues are discussed: Polarisation/Electric field (PE) loop measurements including a discussion of commercial and an in-house constructed system that measures PE loops; Dielectric measurements at low and high stress application, including some thermal and stress dependency modelling of piezo materials properties, developed at NPL; Strain measurement techniques developed at CMMT; Charge measurement techniques suitable for PE loop and other data acquisition; PE loop measurement and software analysis developed at CMMT and Manchester University. The primary objective of this report is to provide a framework on which the remainder of the testing procedures are to be developed for measurements of piezoelectric properties at high stress and stress rate. These procedures will be the subject of a future publication. (author)

  17. PLAY HANDS PROTECTIVE GLOVES: TECHNICAL NOTE ON DESIGN AND CONCEPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Hicks, Michele; Lura, Derek J; Highsmith, M Jason

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the leading cause of childhood motor disability, with a global incidence of 1.6 to 2.5/1,000 live births. Approximately 23% of children with CP are dependent upon assistive technologies. Some children with developmental disabilities have self-injurious behaviors such as finger biting but also have therapeutic needs. The purpose of this technical note is to describe design considerations for a protective glove and finger covering that maintains finger dexterity for children who exhibit finger and hand chewing (dermatophagia) and require therapeutic range of motion and may benefit from sensory stimulation resulting from constant contact between glove and skin. Protecting Little and Adolescent Youth (PLAY) Hands are protective gloves for children with developmental disorders such as CP who injure themselves by biting their hands due to pain or sensory issues. PLAY Hands will be cosmetically appealing gloves that provide therapeutic warmth, tactile sensory feedback, range of motion for donning/ doffing, and protection to maximize function and quality of life for families of children with developmental disorders. The technology is either a per-finger protective orthosis or an entire glove solution designed from durable 3D-printed biodegradable/bioabsorbable materials such as thermoplastics. PLAY Hands represent a series of protective hand wear interventions in the areas of self-mutilating behavior, kinematics, and sensation. They will be made available in a range of protective iterations from single- or multi-digit finger orthoses to a basic glove design to a more structurally robust and protective iteration. To improve the quality of life for patients and caregivers, they are conceptualized to be cosmetically appealing, protective, and therapeutic.

  18. Minimally invasive tethered cord release in children: A technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kağan Başarslan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tethered cord release is commonly performed in pediatric neurosurgery. Nowadays, minimally invasive procedures are created growing interest due to its highly tolerable nature for surgery. It has been main purpose a minimal damaging on access route and maximum protection of normal structures in surgery. We present a surgical treatment of tethered cord syndrome, by which is provided the cord releasing unlike the many methods being applied with tissue removal. The main advantage of performing this surgery through 2 cm hole is to avoid removing ligamentum flavum and bony structure like lamina in addition to reduce the length of the incision and the related scar tissue. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 115-117 Technical note: the patient was taken on the operating table in the sitting-prone position, and L5-S1 distance was determined by fluoroscopy. The skin and subcutaneous tissues was passed via a 2 cm vertical incision settled in 0.5 cm laterally from midline. L5-S1 distance and its covering ligamentum flavum are displayed by the guidance of L5 lamina. Williams’s retractor was placed in the distance after fetching microscope. The foregoing procedures are the same with microdiscectomic surgery. By a vertical incision made on the flavum, its both layer was lifted up and hanged with simple suture on the back tissue for a comfortable exposure of the Dura. Thecal sac was opened by 0.5 cm long vertical incision on the Dura after obtaining secure CSF drainage with the help of yellow-tipped syringe needle. With finding by a nerve hook, the phylum was burned and released securely. Then the Dura was sutured primarily for the closure by means of microsurgery instruments, and flavum was laid on it again.

  19. NOTES: issues and technical details with introduction of NOTES into a small general surgery residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavic, Michael S; Mirza, Brian; Horne, Walter; Moskowitz, Jesse B

    2008-01-01

    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a development of recent origin. In 2004, Kalloo et al first described NOTES investigation in an animal model. Since then, several investigators have pursued NOTES study in animal survival and nonsurvival models. Our objectives for this project included studying NOTES intervention in a laboratory environment using large animal (swine) models and learning to do so in a safe, controlled manner. Ultimately, we intend to introduce NOTES methodology into our surgical residency training program. The expertise of an experienced laparoscopic surgeon, fellowship-trained laparoendoscopic surgeon, and veterinarian along with a senior surgical resident was utilized to bring the input of several disciplines to this study. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine and Pharmacy (NEOUCOM/COP) approved this study. A series of 5 laboratory sessions using mixed breed farm swine varying in weight from 37 kg to 43.1 kg was planned for the initial phase of NOTES introduction into our residency program. Animals were not kept alive in this investigation. All animals were anesthetized using a standard swine protocol and euthanized following guidelines issued by the American Veterinary Medical Association Panel on Euthanasia. Equipment included a Fujinon EVE endoscope 0.8 cm in diameter with a suction/irrigation channel and one working channel. Initially, a US Endoscopy gastric overtube, 19.5 mm OD and 50 cm in length, was used to facilitate passage of the endoscope. However, this device was found to have insufficient length. Subsequently, commercially available 5/8" diameter clear plastic tubing, 70 cm to 80 cm in length, was adapted for use as an overtube. Standard endoscopic instruments included Boston Scientific biopsy forceps, needle-knife, papillotome, endoscopic clip applier, and Valley Lab electrosurgical unit. A Karl Storz laparoscope and tower were used for

  20. Technical note - Considerations for MR imaging of small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    Routine clinical veterinary use of MR scanning is becoming more common. This article addresses the major technical considerations for radiographers performing MR examinations on small animals and provides practical advice for scanning techniques.

  1. TECHNICAL DESIGN NOTE: Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2009-11-01

    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market.

  2. Technical Note: Development of a Photobioreactor for Microalgae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of the technical and biological limitations of open pond systems, a study was conducted to develop a cost-effective experimental photobioreactor that would permit efficient cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production. The photobioreactor was developed using low cost materi- als, cylindrical translucent tubes ...

  3. Undocumented College Students, Taxation, and Financial Aid: A Technical Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivas, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    A surprising amount of litigation and legislation has erupted over undocumented college students. Victims at the federal level are the DREAM Act and immigration reform. Financial aid raises technical issues for undocumented college applicants and for the citizen children of undocumented parents. Generally, the undocumented are ineligible for…

  4. Technical note: New applications for on-line automated solid phase extraction

    OpenAIRE

    MacFarlane, John D.

    1997-01-01

    This technical note explains the disadvantages of manual solid phase extraction (SPE) techniques and the benefits to be gained with automatic systems. The note reports on a number of general and highly specific applications using the Sample Preparation Unit OSP-2A.

  5. Technical note on drainage systems:design of pipes and detention facilities for rainwater

    OpenAIRE

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    2014-01-01

    This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system, where rainwater and sewage is transported in the same pipe, and a separate system where the two types of water are transported in individual pipe. This note will only focus on the separate rain/st...

  6. Parotid Duct Repair with Intubation Tube: Technical Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Muhammed Beşir; Barutca, Seda Asrufoğlu; Keskin, Elif Seda; Atik, Bekir

    2017-01-01

    The parotid duct can be damaged in traumatic injuries and surgical interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment of a duct injury is of great importance because complications such as sialocele and salivary gland fistula may develop if the duct is not surgically repaired. We think the cuff of an intubation tube is an ideal material in parotid duct repair, because of its technical characteristics, easiness of availability, and low-cost. In this paper, we described the use of the cuff cannula of an intubation tube for the diagnosis and treatment of parotid duct laceration, as a low-cost and easy to access material readily available in every operating room. PMID:28713751

  7. Technical note: the humeral canal approach to the brachial plexus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Frizelle, H P

    2012-02-03

    Many variations to the axillary approach to the brachial plexus have been described. However, the success rate varies depending on the approach used and on the definition of success. Recent work describes a new approach to regional anaesthesia of the upper limb at the humeral\\/brachial canal using selective stimulation of the major nerves. This report outlines initial experience with this block, describing the technique and results in 50 patients undergoing hand and forearm surgery. All patients were assessed for completeness of motor and sensory block. The overall success rate was 90 percent. Motor block was present in 80 percent of patients. Completion of the block was necessary in 5 patients. Two patients required general anaesthesia. The preponderance of ulnar deficiencies agrees with previously published data on this technique. No complications were described. Initial experience confirms the high success rate described using the Dupre technique. This technically straightforward approach with minimal complications can be recommended for regional anaesthesia of the upper limb.

  8. Technical note: Bayesian calibration of dynamic ruminant nutrition models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, K F; Arhonditsis, G B; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2016-08-01

    Mechanistic models of ruminant digestion and metabolism have advanced our understanding of the processes underlying ruminant animal physiology. Deterministic modeling practices ignore the inherent variation within and among individual animals and thus have no way to assess how sources of error influence model outputs. We introduce Bayesian calibration of mathematical models to address the need for robust mechanistic modeling tools that can accommodate error analysis by remaining within the bounds of data-based parameter estimation. For the purpose of prediction, the Bayesian approach generates a posterior predictive distribution that represents the current estimate of the value of the response variable, taking into account both the uncertainty about the parameters and model residual variability. Predictions are expressed as probability distributions, thereby conveying significantly more information than point estimates in regard to uncertainty. Our study illustrates some of the technical advantages of Bayesian calibration and discusses the future perspectives in the context of animal nutrition modeling. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Technical Note: Updated durability/composition relationships for Hanford high-level waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepel, G.F.; Hartley, S.A.; Redgate, P.E.

    1996-03-01

    This technical note presents empirical models developed in FYI 995 to predict durability as functions of glass composition. Models are presented for normalized releases of B, Li, Na, and Si from the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT) applied to quenched and canister centerline cooled (CCC) glasses as well as from the 28-day Materials Characterization Center-1 (MCC-1) test applied to quenched glasses. Models are presented for Composition Variation Study (CVS) data from low temperature melter (LTM) studies (Hrma, Piepel, et al. 1994) and high temperature melter (HTM) studies (Vienna et al. 1995). The data used for modeling in this technical note are listed in Appendix A

  10. Standard distribution for unclassified scientific and technical reports: instructions and category scope notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Technical Information Center (DOE/TIC) uses a subject category scheme for classifying and distributing DOE-originated or -sponsored unclassified scientific and technical reports. This document contains the subject category scope notes used for these purposes. Originators of DOE or DOE-sponsored scientific and technical reports are urged to adhere to the instructions contained this publication. A limited number of copies of the unabridged version (addresses included) are available to Department of Energy offices and their contractors as DOE/TIC-4500(Rev.69)(Unabridged)

  11. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshier, W.C.; Tack, W.T.; Phull, B.

    1992-01-01

    Lithium is a potent addition to Al alloys for increasing their specific strength and stiffness, which makes Li-containing Al alloys attractive materials for typical aerospace applications in which reduced weight and increased strength and stiffness can improve system performance. Weldalite 049 (AA X2094) [Al-(4.0-6.3) Cu-1.3 Li-0.4 Ag-0.4 Mg-0.14 Zr] was recently developed as an ultra-high strength, weldable alloy designed for use in launch vehicle structures. Standard SCC testing contains the inherent difficulty of test duration and unclear interpretation of results. Use of slow strain rate tests (SSRTs) on aluminum alloys has met with mixed results, and the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the feasibility of using SSRT to evaluate the SCC susceptibility of two Weldalite 049 variants

  12. Technical note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Cancino-Padilla, N.; Romero, J.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular techniques are important tools for microbiological studies in different habitats, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) has been proved to be useful for analyzing fungal diversity. The aim of this study was to use the ITS region to generate ruminal yeast profile and to identify rumi...

  13. Technical note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, S F; Bexiga, R; Cavaco, L M

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial resistance traits of staphylococci responsible for subclinical bovine mastitis in Portugal, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 7 antimicrobial agents, frequently administered for mastitis treatment, were determined for 30 Staphylococcus aureus and 31...

  14. Technical note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jonas S; Fonslet, Jesper; Søndergaard, Lasse R

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To provide a faster and more intuitive way of designing shielding for PET facilities, while still relying on the principles of the AAPM 108 Taskforce guidelines, as well as illustrating the calculation output using dose maps that are easily evaluated. METHODS: A graphical user interface ...

  15. Technical note:

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WIN uE10

    de Ciencias, Universidad de La Serena, Av. Raúl Bitrán 1305, La Serena, ... this key species of high-Andean ecosystems, and assist restoration and conservation ... environmental conditions (3500-4200 m) in the high-Andean Río Estrecho ...

  16. Publications and services of the Cryogenics Division, National Bureau of Standards, 1953--1977. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frizen, D.J.; Mendenhall, J.R.

    1978-04-01

    This NBS Technical Note catalogs the publications of the Cryogenics Division, along with author and subject indexes, for the period 1953 through 1977. It also contains a listing of available thermodynamic properties charts, bibliographies, and miscellaneous reports of cryogenic interest. A resume of the activities of and services provided by the Cryogenics Division is also included

  17. Technical Note: On The Usage and Development of the AWAKE Web Server and Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Dillon Tanner

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to give a brief explanation of the AWAKE Web Server, the current web applications it serves, and how to edit, maintain, and update the source code. The majority of this paper is dedicated to the development of the server and its web applications.

  18. Republic of Poland; Technical Note on Stress Testing the Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Technical Note discusses results of stress testing of the banking sector in Poland. The Polish banking system is well capitalized and liquid, as confirmed by stress tests results. Polish banks are, in aggregate, resilient even under severe adverse scenarios. Some small banks could fail to meet minimum regulatory capital and liquidity requirements in these scenarios, but with little impact on the overall banking system. Tests showed that only small banks, together representing up to 30 pe...

  19. Mexico; Financial Sector Assessment Program Update: Technical Note: Derivatives Market: Overview and Potential Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This technical note provides an overview of Mexico’s derivatives markets, and describes concisely the derivatives regulatory framework and risk management practices in financial institutions active in these markets. The most important derivatives market in Mexico is the over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives market, which is fully integrated with the global derivatives market. The origin of the OTC derivatives market can be traced back to the 1994 Mexican crisis that forced Mexico to abandon its ...

  20. Denmark; Systemic Issues in Mortgage Loans and Covered Bond Finance: Technical Note

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This technical note analyzes systemic issues in mortgage loans and covered bond finance in Denmark. Mortgage lending has seen significant product innovation in recent years. Loans with adjustable interest rates and/or interest-only periods, which have been introduced since the late 1990s, had grown to 75 percent and 53 percent, respectively, of total outstanding mortgage loans at the end of 2013. The major changes in the characteristics of the underlying mortgage loans have naturally been ref...

  1. Noted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunberg, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Considering how much attention people lavish on the technologies of writing--scroll, codex, print, screen--it's striking how little they pay to the technologies for digesting and regurgitating it. One way or another, there's no sector of the modern world that is not saturated with note-taking--the bureaucracy, the liberal professions, the…

  2. Zebra Mussel Research Technical Notes. Impacts of Zebra Mussel Infestations on Water Quality. Section 1 - Environmental Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashby, Steven

    1998-01-01

    ..., and sediment quality. The purpose of this technical note describes potential changes in water quality as a result of zebra mussel infestations in aquatic systems, based on a review of the literature...

  3. Technical Note: Introduction of variance component analysis to setup error analysis in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Yukinori, E-mail: ymatsuo@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this technical note is to introduce variance component analysis to the estimation of systematic and random components in setup error of radiotherapy. Methods: Balanced data according to the one-factor random effect model were assumed. Results: Analysis-of-variance (ANOVA)-based computation was applied to estimate the values and their confidence intervals (CIs) for systematic and random errors and the population mean of setup errors. The conventional method overestimates systematic error, especially in hypofractionated settings. The CI for systematic error becomes much wider than that for random error. The ANOVA-based estimation can be extended to a multifactor model considering multiple causes of setup errors (e.g., interpatient, interfraction, and intrafraction). Conclusions: Variance component analysis may lead to novel applications to setup error analysis in radiotherapy.

  4. Technical Note: Introduction of variance component analysis to setup error analysis in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this technical note is to introduce variance component analysis to the estimation of systematic and random components in setup error of radiotherapy. Methods: Balanced data according to the one-factor random effect model were assumed. Results: Analysis-of-variance (ANOVA)-based computation was applied to estimate the values and their confidence intervals (CIs) for systematic and random errors and the population mean of setup errors. The conventional method overestimates systematic error, especially in hypofractionated settings. The CI for systematic error becomes much wider than that for random error. The ANOVA-based estimation can be extended to a multifactor model considering multiple causes of setup errors (e.g., interpatient, interfraction, and intrafraction). Conclusions: Variance component analysis may lead to novel applications to setup error analysis in radiotherapy.

  5. The production costs of the French nuclear fleet. Synthesis and conclusions. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    Whereas the French Energy Multi-year Programming (PPE) notably aims at preserving the purchasing power of consumers and the competitiveness of energy prices, this note aims at reporting an assessment of the production cost of the French present nuclear fleet, i.e. the electric power cost at the output of the production installation. The authors first discuss the choice for the methodology of 'cash costs' for the decision to continue of not the exploitation of existing units. They propose a mean assessment of about 33 euro/MWh, state that the present nuclear-based power production in France is profitable, and consider that there is no 'investment wall' to be faced in the near future. They also state that nuclear costs are hardly supposed to increase because they are little sensitive to uranium prices. They consider that dismantling and waste costs are covered at more than 100 per cent by dedicated assets. A technical note comes with this discussion. It discusses cost calculation methods, the assessment of the production cost of French existing reactors (second generation), and some additional elements regarding some cost components

  6. Technical note 2. A review of the creep ductility of copper for nuclear waste canister application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Kjell

    2011-03-01

    Background: The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) reviews the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Company's (SKB) applications under the Act on Nuclear Activities (SFS 1984:3) for the construction and operation of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and for an encapsulation facility. As part of the review, SSM commissions consultants to carry out work in order to obtain information on specific issues. The results from the consultants' tasks are reported in SSM's Technical Note series. Objectives of the project: This project is part of SSM:s review of SKB:s license application for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment concerns review of creep mechanisms for copper material used as a corrosion barrier in canisters for nal disposal of nuclear fuel in Sweden. Summary by the author: SKB has presented insufficient evidence to justify their position that the OFP copper has an adequate creep ductility during long term storage. Their large body of experiments only serves to prove that the creep ductility is sufficient for much shorter time spans than the intended storage times. There is a clear need for a credible theory of creep brittleness of OFP copper which will permit extrapolations to long term storage. The theory presented by SKB does not in its present state permit credible extrapolations. Alternatively SKB needs to find an explanation to the effect of phosphorus on the creep ductility and that it ensures the absence of creep brittleness in OFP copper. It is interesting to note that SKB has presented experimental evidence that intergranular cracks can form in OFP material tested in cracked specimens. Perhaps it is possible to more systematically study formation and growth of intergranular cracks in specimens of OFP copper with cracks

  7. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations Embolized Using a Micro Vascular Plug System: Technical Note on a Preliminary Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boatta, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.boatta@yahoo.it; Jahn, Christine, E-mail: christine.jahn@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Imagerie Interventionelle, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Canuet, Matthieu, E-mail: matthieu.canuet@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service Service de Pneumologie, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juleiengarnon@gmail.com [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Imagerie Interventionelle, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: nitin-ramamurthy@hotmail.com [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Imagerie Interventionelle, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France)

    2017-02-15

    AIMTo report our preliminary experience using a Micro Vascular Plug (MVP) deployed through a 2.8Fr micro-catheter for the treatment of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) in a cohort of patients affected by Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT).Materials and MethodsFour consecutive female patients (mean age 38.0 years; range 25–55 years) with PAVMs diagnosed on echocardiogram/bubble test and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) underwent MVP embolization. One patient was symptomatic with recent transient ischaemic attack. Follow-up was undertaken at 1-month post-procedure with CECT to assess PAVMs permeability and MVP positioning and at 1-, 6-, and 12-month post-procedure, with echocardiography/bubble test and standard neurological history, to confirm absence of right-to-left shunts and recurrent symptoms.ResultsEight PAVMs were treated in 4 patients over 5 interventional sessions (mean 1.6 PAVMs per session). All PAVMs were simple, with mean feeding artery diameter of 4.25 mm. Eight 6.5 mm MVPs were deployed in total (one per lesion). Technical success was 100%. Mean procedural time and patient dose per session were 70 min (range 40–70 min) and 53418 mGy.cm{sup 2} (range 6113–101628 mGy.cm{sup 2}), respectively. No signs of reperfusion neither of MPV migration were noted at 1-month CECT follow-up. At early follow-up (mean 3.75 months; range 1–12 months), clinical success was 100% with no evidence of recurrent right-to-left shunt, and no neurological symptoms. No immediate or late complications were observed.ConclusionsMVP embolization of PAVMs appears technically feasible, safe, and effective at early follow-up. Further prospective studies are required to confirm long-term safety and efficacy of this promising technique.

  8. Mandibular angle resection and masticatory muscle hypertrophy - a technical note and morphological optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreishchev, A R; Nicot, R; Ferri, J

    2014-11-01

    Mandibular angle resection is rarely used, but is a highly effective means of correcting facial defects. We report a mandibular angle resection technique associated with the removal of a part of hypertrophic masseter muscles and resection of buccal fat pad. Anatomical reminders: the most important entities are the facial artery and vein, crossing the lower margin of the jaw just in front of the anterior boarder of the masseter muscle and the temporomaxillary vein, passing through the temporomaxillary fossa; preoperative aspects: the preoperative examination included a radiological assessment of the shape and size of the mandibular angle; surgical technique: an intra-oral approach was usually used. The most effective and convenient method for the osteotomy was using a reciprocating saw. This technique allowed achieving a smooth contour of masseter muscles during masticatory movements or at rest. Eleven mandibular angle resections were performed from 2001 to 2009. The surgery was supplemented by remodeling the lower margin of the jaw for 5 other patients. No permanent facial palsy was noted. One patient presented a unilateral long-term loss of sensitivity of the lower lip and chin. This surgical technique if simple even requires using good technical equipment, and observing a set of rules. Using these principles allows simplifying the surgical technique, and decreasing its morbidity. A part of the masseter muscles and the buccal fat pad can sometimes be resected to improve the morphological results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Time Value of Money and Its Applications in Corporate Finance: A Technical Note on Linking Relationships between Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeng-Hong

    2009-01-01

    Time Value of Money (TVM) is the most important chapter in the basic corporate finance course. It is imperative to understand TVM formulas because they imply important TVM concepts. Students who really understand TVM concepts and formulas can learn better in chapters of TVM applications. This technical note intends to present more complete TVM…

  10. The E052 - GSI Experiment, Deceleration of highly charged ions by crystal channeling. (Technical notes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, R.

    2003-01-01

    The report on the E052 - GSI Experiment, devoted to 'Deceleration of highly charged ions by crystal channeling' present the technical notes and the status of this experiment in 2003. The report contains 13 sections and two annexes. The sections deal with the following issues: 1. File system of the 'PC monitor' for E052 - GSI Experiment in 2003; 2. Parameters of the 'PC monitor' file system; 3. Operation of the two PCs; 3.1. Layout of goniometer remote control; 3.2. 'PC motors' side by the beam hall; 3.3. RS232 connection cabling; 3.4. RS232 configuration on the COM1 ports of the two PCs; 4. Motor connection; 4.1. SubD-25 acquisition PC monitor arm on 'COM1'; 4.2. Motors step by step feeding side SubD-25 on 'COM1'; 4.3. Distribution of digital step by step control signals; 4.5. Upper an lower goniometer connection; 4.6. Rotation and inclination outer goniometer connection; 4.7. Ultra vacuum inner rotation and inclination connection; 5. Motor characteristics; 5.1. Upstream and downstream; 5.2. Rotation; 5.3 Inclination; 5.4. Feedings; 6. Goniometer in-beam positioning; 6.1. Height fine motor positioning; 6.2. Side manual positioning; 7. Goniometer movements; 8. Crystals and electron detection; 8.1. General layout; 8.2. 1 μm Si(100) crystal; 8.3. 33 μm Si(100) crystal; 8.4. Crystal mounting; 8.5. Electron detection; 9. Reference laser positioning of angular movements; 10. Beam track and collimators upstream the target; 11. User manual - Monitoring programme; 11.Start scanning program (GSIscan.exe); 11.2. SCANNING the crystal (Scan Control window); 11.3. MOVING THE GONIOMETER MANUALY (goniometer control window); 11.4. USING THE COUNTERS (counter display window); 11.5. MULTISCALER PLOT DISPLAY; 11.6. SELECT ACTIVE PLOT; 11.7. CURSORS; 11.8. STATISTICS; 11.9. Y SCALE change; 11.10. PLOT view and hide counter; 11.11. SAVE multiscaler spectra; 11.12. PRINT plot; 12. Simplified acquisition electronic setup; 13. The 'PC motors' software; 13.1. The code structure; 13

  11. Technical note. A review of the mechanical integrity of the canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segle, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) reviews the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Company's (SKB) applications under the Act on Nuclear Activities (SFS 1984:3) for the construction and operation of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and for an encapsulation facility. As part of the review, SSM commissions consultants to carry out work in order to obtain information on specific issues. The results from the consultants' tasks are reported in SSM's Technical Note series. Objectives of the project: This project is part of SSM:s review of SKB:s license application for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment concerns a review of the mechanical integrity of the canister. Summary by the author: An introductory review of SR-Site has been conducted with respect to the mechanical integrity of the canister. The review is focused on the copper canister and the nodular cast iron insert. Review results show that a number of loads and loading scenarios for the copper canister has not been analysed by SKB. The importance of sufficient creep ductility of the copper material and sufficient ductility and fracture toughness of the nodular cast iron material is pointed out in the review. A sensitivity study is suggested where the impact of these properties on the mechanical integrity of the canister is investigated. It is also suggested that potential damage mechanisms influencing these properties are further investigated. SKB's modelling of creep elongation at rupture under repository conditions is questioned. Needs for complementary information from SKB for the main review of SR-Site is listed. A list of review topics for SSM is also suggested

  12. Some technical notes on using UAV-based remote sensing for post disaster assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhmana, Catur Aries; Andaru, Ruli

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia is located in an area prone to disasters, which are various kinds of natural disasters happen. In disaster management, the geoinformation data are needed to be able to evaluate the impact area. The UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)-Based remote sensing technology is a good choice to produce a high spatial resolution of less than 15 cm, while the current resolution of the satellite imagery is still greater than 50 cm. This paper shows some technical notes that should be considered when using UAV-Based remote sensing system in post disaster for rapid assessment. Some cases are Aceh Earthquake in years 2013 for seeing infrastructure damages, Banjarnegara landslide in year 2014 for seeing the impact; and Kelud volcano eruption in year 2014 for seeing the impact and volumetric material calculation. The UAV-Based remote sensing system should be able to produce the Orthophoto image that can provide capabilities for visual interpretation the individual damage objects, and the changes situation. Meanwhile the DEM (digital Elevation model) product can derive terrain topography, and volumetric calculation with accuracy 3-5 pixel or sub-meter also. The UAV platform should be able for working remotely and autonomously in dangerous area and limited infrastructures. In mountainous or volcano area, an unconventional flight plan should implemented. Unfortunately, not all impact can be seen from above such as wall crack, some parcel boundaries, and many objects that covered by others higher object. The previous existing geoinformation data are also needed to be able to evaluate the change detection automatically.

  13. Technical note: Improving modeling of coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of sheep milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolat-Gotet, Claudio; Pazzola, Michele; Ferragina, Alessandro; Cecchinato, Alessio; Dettori, Maria L; Vacca, Giuseppe M

    2018-04-18

    The importance of milk coagulation properties for milk processing, cheese yield, and quality is widely recognized. The use of traditional coagulation traits presents several limitations for testing bovine milk and even more for sheep milk, due to its rapid coagulation and curd firming, and early syneresis of coagulum. The aim of this technical note is to test and improve model fitting for assessing coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of sheep milk. Using milk samples from 87 Sarda ewes, we performed in duplicate lactodynamographic testing. On each of the 174 analyzed milk aliquots, using 180 observations from each aliquot (one every 15 s for 45 min after rennet addition), we compared 4 different curd firming models as a function of time (CF t , mm) using a nonlinear procedure. The most accurate and informative results were observed using a modified 4-parameter model, structured as follows: [Formula: see text] , where t is time, RCT eq (min) is the gelation time, CF P (mm) is the potential asymptotical CF at an infinite time, k CF (%/min) is the curd firming rate constant, and k SR (%/min) is the curd syneresis rate constant. To avoid nonconvergence and computational problems due to interrelations among the equation parameters, CF P was preliminarily defined as a function of maximum observed curd firmness (CF max , mm) recorded during the analysis. For this model, all the modeling equations of individual sheep milk aliquots were converging, with a negligible standard error of the estimates (coefficient of determination >0.99 for all individual sample equations). Repeatability of the modeled parameters was acceptable, also in the presence of curd syneresis during the lactodynamographic analysis. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preformed titanium cranioplasty after resection of skull base meningiomas - a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebesch, Karl-Michael; Höhne, Julius; Gassner, Holger G; Brawanski, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Meningiomas of the fronto-basal skull are difficult to manage as the treatment usually includes extensive resection of the lesion, consecutive reconstruction of the meninges and of the skull. Especially after removal of spheno-orbital and sphenoid-wing meningiomas, the cosmetic result is of utmost importance. In this technical note, we present our institutional approach in the treatment of skull base meningiomas, focussing on the reconstruction of the neurocranium with individually preformed titanium cranioplasty (CRANIOTOP(®), CL Instruments, Germany). Two female patients (40 years, 64 years) are presented. Both patients presented with skull base lesions suggestive of meningiomas. The preoperative thin-sliced CT scan was processed to generate a 3D-model of the skull. On it, the resection was mapped and following a simulated resection, the cranioplasty was manufactured. Intra-operatively, the titanium plate served as a template for the skull resection and was implanted after microsurgical tumour removal, consecutively. The cosmetic result was excellent. Immediate postoperative CT scan revealed accurate fitting and complete tumour removal. Control Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) within 12 weeks was possible without any artifacts. The comprehensive approach described indicates only one surgical procedure for tumour removal and for reconstruction of the skull. The titanium plate served as an exact template for complete resection of the osseous parts of the tumour. Cosmetic outcome was excellent and control MRI was possible post operatively. CRANIOTOP(®) cranioplasty is a safe and practical tool for reconstruction of the skull after meningioma surgery. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Switzerland; Financial Sector Assessment Program: Technical Note: An Assessment of Insurance Core Principles for the Reinsurance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This technical note discusses key findings of the assessment of Insurance Core Principles (ICP) for the reinsurance industry for Switzerland. It reveals that the Swiss reinsurance market is dominated by three large players with a strong international presence. The reinsurance industry comprises 20 professional reinsurers and 50 reinsurance captives with gross premiums written totaling SwF 37.4 billion for 2005. Swiss Re, European Re, and Converium have consistently maintained more than 75 per...

  16. Technical Note: Approximate Bayesian parameterization of a process-based tropical forest model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, F.; Dislich, C.; Wiegand, T.; Huth, A.

    2014-02-01

    Inverse parameter estimation of process-based models is a long-standing problem in many scientific disciplines. A key question for inverse parameter estimation is how to define the metric that quantifies how well model predictions fit to the data. This metric can be expressed by general cost or objective functions, but statistical inversion methods require a particular metric, the probability of observing the data given the model parameters, known as the likelihood. For technical and computational reasons, likelihoods for process-based stochastic models are usually based on general assumptions about variability in the observed data, and not on the stochasticity generated by the model. Only in recent years have new methods become available that allow the generation of likelihoods directly from stochastic simulations. Previous applications of these approximate Bayesian methods have concentrated on relatively simple models. Here, we report on the application of a simulation-based likelihood approximation for FORMIND, a parameter-rich individual-based model of tropical forest dynamics. We show that approximate Bayesian inference, based on a parametric likelihood approximation placed in a conventional Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler, performs well in retrieving known parameter values from virtual inventory data generated by the forest model. We analyze the results of the parameter estimation, examine its sensitivity to the choice and aggregation of model outputs and observed data (summary statistics), and demonstrate the application of this method by fitting the FORMIND model to field data from an Ecuadorian tropical forest. Finally, we discuss how this approach differs from approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), another method commonly used to generate simulation-based likelihood approximations. Our results demonstrate that simulation-based inference, which offers considerable conceptual advantages over more traditional methods for inverse parameter estimation

  17. Technical Note: Approximate Bayesian parameterization of a complex tropical forest model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, F.; Dislich, C.; Wiegand, T.; Huth, A.

    2013-08-01

    Inverse parameter estimation of process-based models is a long-standing problem in ecology and evolution. A key problem of inverse parameter estimation is to define a metric that quantifies how well model predictions fit to the data. Such a metric can be expressed by general cost or objective functions, but statistical inversion approaches are based on a particular metric, the probability of observing the data given the model, known as the likelihood. Deriving likelihoods for dynamic models requires making assumptions about the probability for observations to deviate from mean model predictions. For technical reasons, these assumptions are usually derived without explicit consideration of the processes in the simulation. Only in recent years have new methods become available that allow generating likelihoods directly from stochastic simulations. Previous applications of these approximate Bayesian methods have concentrated on relatively simple models. Here, we report on the application of a simulation-based likelihood approximation for FORMIND, a parameter-rich individual-based model of tropical forest dynamics. We show that approximate Bayesian inference, based on a parametric likelihood approximation placed in a conventional MCMC, performs well in retrieving known parameter values from virtual field data generated by the forest model. We analyze the results of the parameter estimation, examine the sensitivity towards the choice and aggregation of model outputs and observed data (summary statistics), and show results from using this method to fit the FORMIND model to field data from an Ecuadorian tropical forest. Finally, we discuss differences of this approach to Approximate Bayesian Computing (ABC), another commonly used method to generate simulation-based likelihood approximations. Our results demonstrate that simulation-based inference, which offers considerable conceptual advantages over more traditional methods for inverse parameter estimation, can

  18. Quality Concerns in Technical Education in India: A Quantifiable Quality Enabled Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Victor; Wadhwa, N. C.; Grover, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to discuss current Technical Education scenarios in India. It proposes modelling the factors affecting quality in a technical institute and then applying a suitable technique for assessment, comparison and ranking. Design/methodology/approach: The paper chose graph theoretic approach for quantification of quality-enabled…

  19. A technical note on seismic microzonation in the central United States

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mitigation strategies such as seismic risk assessment, emergency response and preparedness, and land-use ... regional mapping, data limitations, generalization, and computer modeling. .... in quantifying liquefaction hazard potential is to.

  20. TECHNICAL DESIGN NOTE: Currency verification by a 2D infrared barcode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Simonetti, Carla

    2010-10-01

    Nowadays all the National Central Banks are continuously studying innovative anti-counterfeiting systems for banknotes. In this note, an innovative solution is proposed, which combines the potentiality of a hylemetric approach (methodology conceptually similar to biometry), based on notes' intrinsic characteristics, with a well-known and consolidated 2D barcode identification system. In particular, in this note we propose to extract from the banknotes a univocal binary control sequence (template) and insert an encrypted version of it in a barcode printed on the same banknote. For a more acceptable look and feel of a banknote, the superposed barcode can be stamped using IR ink that is visible to near-IR image sensors. This makes the banknote verification simpler.

  1. Technical specifications (replaces note T.62). Irradiation of graphite at ambient temperature, Note T. 76; Specification technique, (Annule et remplace la note T. 62), Irradiation de graphite a temperature ambiante, Note T. 76

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reseau, R A [Services des grandes piles experimentales, Section ' Physique et Experimentation, Saclay (France)

    1962-12-15

    The objective is to study the effects of fast neutron irradiation of different graphite samples. The irradiation conditions should be as follows: integral fast neutron flux should be higher than 10{sup 20} neutrons/cm{sup 2}, the reactor should operate at steady state for 15 days, the temperature od samples should not be higher than 100 deg C, preferably 80 deg C. Note T. 62 which is replaced by this Note is attached.

  2. 50-year of the Technical Assistance Service to Industry (SATI): notes from a heterodoxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enriquez, Santiago N.

    2011-01-01

    This report is in honor of the 50° creation anniversary of the Service of Technical Assistance to Industry (SATI),a service with no background in Argentina. This occasion is appropriate to think the historical conditions which made possible the existence of the SATI in the National Atomic Energy Commission. Secondly, this report describes its operative characteristics and its achievements in different fields: from the technical and industry-learning aspects, up to the development of the conception about the relation between Science, Technology and Society. (author) [es

  3. Technical note: CT-guided biopsy of lung masses using an automated guiding apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellathurai, Amarnath; Kanhirat, Saneej; Chokkappan, Kabilan; Swaminathan, Thiruchendur S; Kulasekaran, Nadhamuni

    2009-01-01

    Automated guiding apparatuses for CT-guided biopsies are now available. We report our experience with an indigenous system to guide lung biopsies. This system gave results similar to those with the manual technique. Automated planning also appears to be technically easier, it requires fewer number of needle passes, consumes less time, and requires fewer number of check scans

  4. Precision in robotic rectal surgery using the da Vinci Xi system and integrated table motion, a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; Harper, Mick; Hall, Stuart; Figueiredo, Nuno; Qureshi, Tahseen; Parvaiz, Amjad

    2017-09-15

    Robotic rectal surgery is becoming increasingly more popular among colorectal surgeons. However, time spent on robotic platform docking, arm clashing and undocking of the platform during the procedure are factors that surgeons often find cumbersome and time consuming. The newest surgical platform, the da Vinci Xi, coupled with integrated table motion can help to overcome these problems. This technical note aims to describe a standardised operative technique of single docking robotic rectal surgery using the da Vinci Xi system and integrated table motion. A stepwise approach of the da Vinci docking process and surgical technique is described accompanied by an intra-operative video that demonstrates this technique. We also present data collected from a prospectively maintained database. 33 consecutive rectal cancer patients (24 male, 9 female) received robotic rectal surgery with the da Vinci Xi during the preparation of this technical note. 29 (88%) patients had anterior resections, and four (12%) had abdominoperineal excisions. There were no conversions, no anastomotic leaks and no mortality. Median operation time was 331 (249-372) min, blood loss 20 (20-45) mls and length of stay 6.5 (4-8) days. 30-day readmission rate and re-operation rates were 3% (n = 1). This standardised technique of single docking robotic rectal surgery with the da Vinci Xi is safe, feasible and reproducible. The technological advances of the new robotic system facilitate the totally robotic single docking approach.

  5. [Depressor anguli oris sign (DAO) in facial paresis. How to search it and release the smile (technical note)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, D; Bénichou, L; Iodice, A; Giot, J-P

    2012-06-01

    After facial paralysis recovery, it is common to note a co-contraction between depressor anguli oris (DAO) muscle and zygomatic muscles. This DAO co-contraction will "obstruct" the patient's smile. The purpose of this technical note is to show how to find the DAO sign and how to free up the smile. TECHNICAL: This co-contraction between the zygomatic muscles and DAO research is placing a finger on marionette line, asking the patient to smile: we perceive a rope under the skin corresponding to the abnormal contraction and powerful DAO. A diagnostic test with lidocaine injection into the DAO can be performed to confirm the diagnosis. The treatment of pathological DAO's contraction can be by injection of botulinum toxin in the DAO, or by surgical myectomy. In all cases, a speech therapy complete the treatment. The DAO sign is a semiological entity easy to find. His treatment releases smile without negative effect on the facial expression as the DAO is especially useful in the expression of disgust. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of movement disorders using deep brain stimulation – illustrative case reports and technical notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Strojnik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Operative neuromodulation is the field of electrically or chemically altering the signal transmission in the nervous system by implanted devices in order to excite, inhibit or tune the activities of neurons or neural networks to produce therapeutic effects. Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an important component of the therapy of movement disorders and has almost completely replaced high-frequency coagulation of brain tissue in stereotactic neurosurgery. This article presents the first DBS cases in Slovenia. In the article the technical features and adjustments of magnetic resonance (MR imaging and development of a new microdrive, which was clinically successfully tested, are described and discussed.

  7. Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty in Chiari surgery: A technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ferreira Sabba

    Full Text Available Summary Chiari malformation (CM is the most common and prevalent symptomatic congenital craniocervical malformation. Radiological diagnosis is established when the cerebellar tonsils are located 5 mm or more below the level of the foramen magnum on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Surgical treatment is indicated whenever there is symptomatic tonsillar herniation or syringomyelia/hydrocephalus. The main surgical treatment for CM without craniocervical instability (such as atlantoaxial luxation is posterior fossa decompression, with or without duraplasty. The authors describe in details and in a stepwise fashion the surgical approach of patients with CM as performed at the State University of Campinas, emphasizing technical nuances for minimizing the risks of the procedure and potentially improving patient outcome.

  8. Technical note: Quantifying and characterizing behavior in dairy calves using the IceTag automatic recording device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trénel, P.; Jensen, Margit Bak; Decker, Erik Luc

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were 1) to validate the IceTag ( http://www.icerobotics.com/ ) automatic recording device for measuring lying, standing, and moving behavior in dairy calves, and 2) to improve the information yield from this device by applying a filtering procedure allowing...... for the detection of lying versus upright. The IceTag device provides measures of intensity (I) of lying, standing, and activity measured as percent lying, percent standing, and percent active, but does not directly measure lying, standing, and moving behavior because body movements occurring while lying (e...... (LPC) was established empirically, and IceTag data were filtered according to the LPC, providing information on the posture of the animal as lying versus being upright. Third, a new threshold of I was estimated for moving activity conditional on the animal being upright. IceTag recordings from 9 calves...

  9. A new technical approach to quantify cell-cell adhesion forces by AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puech, Pierre-Henri; Poole, Kate; Knebel, Detlef; Muller, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Cell-cell adhesion is a complex process that is involved in the tethering of cells, cell-cell communication, tissue formation, cell migration and the development and metastasis of tumors. Given the heterogeneous and complex nature of cell surfaces it has previously proved difficult to characterize individual cell-cell adhesion events. Force spectroscopy, using an atomic force microscope, is capable of resolving such individual cell-cell binding events, but has previously been limited in its application due to insufficient effective pulling distances. Extended pulling range is critical in studying cell-cell interactions due to the potential for large cell deformations. Here we describe an approach to such experiments, where the sample stage can be moved 100 μm in the z-direction, by closed loop, linearized piezo elements. Such an approach enables an increase in pulling distance sufficient for the observation of long-distance cell-unbinding events without reducing the imaging capabilities of the atomic force microscope. The atomic force microscope head and the piezo-driven sample stage are installed on an inverted optical microscope fitted with a piezo-driven objective, to allow the monitoring of cell morphology by conventional light microscopy, concomitant with force spectroscopy measurements. We have used the example of the WM115 melanoma cell line binding to human umbilical vein endothelial cells to demonstrate the capabilities of this system and the necessity for such an extended pulling range when quantifying cell-cell adhesion events

  10. Technical note: An inverse method to relate organic carbon reactivity to isotope composition from serial oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Hemingway

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Serial oxidation coupled with stable carbon and radiocarbon analysis of sequentially evolved CO2 is a promising method to characterize the relationship between organic carbon (OC chemical composition, source, and residence time in the environment. However, observed decay profiles depend on experimental conditions and oxidation pathway. It is therefore necessary to properly assess serial oxidation kinetics before utilizing decay profiles as a measure of OC reactivity. We present a regularized inverse method to estimate the distribution of OC activation energy (E, a proxy for bond strength, using serial oxidation. Here, we apply this method to ramped temperature pyrolysis or oxidation (RPO analysis but note that this approach is broadly applicable to any serial oxidation technique. RPO analysis directly compares thermal reactivity to isotope composition by determining the E range for OC decaying within each temperature interval over which CO2 is collected. By analyzing a decarbonated test sample at multiple masses and oven ramp rates, we show that OC decay during RPO analysis follows a superposition of parallel first-order kinetics and that resulting E distributions are independent of experimental conditions. We therefore propose the E distribution as a novel proxy to describe OC thermal reactivity and suggest that E vs. isotope relationships can provide new insight into the compositional controls on OC source and residence time.

  11. Technical note: An inverse method to relate organic carbon reactivity to isotope composition from serial oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Jordon D.; Rothman, Daniel H.; Rosengard, Sarah Z.; Galy, Valier V.

    2017-11-01

    Serial oxidation coupled with stable carbon and radiocarbon analysis of sequentially evolved CO2 is a promising method to characterize the relationship between organic carbon (OC) chemical composition, source, and residence time in the environment. However, observed decay profiles depend on experimental conditions and oxidation pathway. It is therefore necessary to properly assess serial oxidation kinetics before utilizing decay profiles as a measure of OC reactivity. We present a regularized inverse method to estimate the distribution of OC activation energy (E), a proxy for bond strength, using serial oxidation. Here, we apply this method to ramped temperature pyrolysis or oxidation (RPO) analysis but note that this approach is broadly applicable to any serial oxidation technique. RPO analysis directly compares thermal reactivity to isotope composition by determining the E range for OC decaying within each temperature interval over which CO2 is collected. By analyzing a decarbonated test sample at multiple masses and oven ramp rates, we show that OC decay during RPO analysis follows a superposition of parallel first-order kinetics and that resulting E distributions are independent of experimental conditions. We therefore propose the E distribution as a novel proxy to describe OC thermal reactivity and suggest that E vs. isotope relationships can provide new insight into the compositional controls on OC source and residence time.

  12. Technical Note: Modeling a complex micro-multileaf collimator using the standard BEAMnrc distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairn, T.; Kenny, J.; Crowe, S. B.; Fielding, A. L.; Franich, R. D.; Johnston, P. N.; Knight, R. T.; Langton, C. M.; Schlect, D.; Trapp, J. V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The component modules in the standard BEAMnrc distribution may appear to be insufficient to model micro-multileaf collimators that have trifaceted leaf ends and complex leaf profiles. This note indicates, however, that accurate Monte Carlo simulations of radiotherapy beams defined by a complex collimation device can be completed using BEAMnrc's standard VARMLC component module. Methods: That this simple collimator model can produce spatially and dosimetrically accurate microcollimated fields is illustrated using comparisons with ion chamber and film measurements of the dose deposited by square and irregular fields incident on planar, homogeneous water phantoms. Results: Monte Carlo dose calculations for on-axis and off-axis fields are shown to produce good agreement with experimental values, even on close examination of the penumbrae. Conclusions: The use of a VARMLC model of the micro-multileaf collimator, along with a commissioned model of the associated linear accelerator, is therefore recommended as an alternative to the development or use of in-house or third-party component modules for simulating stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery treatments. Simulation parameters for the VARMLC model are provided which should allow other researchers to adapt and use this model to study clinical stereotactic radiotherapy treatments.

  13. Technical note: Use of a simplified equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, I; Miyano, A; Sasaki, Y; Hirata, T; Ichijo, T; Satoh, H; Sato, S; Furuhama, K

    2013-11-01

    This study was performed to clarify whether a formula (Holstein equation) based on a single blood sample and the isotonic, nonionic, iodine contrast medium iodixanol in Holstein dairy cows can apply to the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for beef cattle. To verify the application of iodixanol in beef cattle, instead of the standard tracer inulin, both agents were coadministered as a bolus intravenous injection to identical animals at doses of 10 mg of I/kg of BW and 30 mg/kg. Blood was collected 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the injection, and the GFR was determined by the conventional multisample strategies. The GFR values from iodixanol were well consistent with those from inulin, and no effects of BW, age, or parity on GFR estimates were noted. However, the GFR in cattle weighing less than 300 kg, aged<1 yr old, largely fluctuated, presumably due to the rapid ruminal growth and dynamic changes in renal function at young adult ages. Using clinically healthy cattle and those with renal failure, the GFR values estimated from the Holstein equation were in good agreement with those by the multisample method using iodixanol (r=0.89, P=0.01). The results indicate that the simplified Holstein equation using iodixanol can be used for estimating the GFR of beef cattle in the same dose regimen as Holstein dairy cows, and provides a practical and ethical alternative.

  14. Technical note: Modeling primate occlusal topography using geographic information systems technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccotti, L F; Williamson, M D; Limp, W F; Ungar, P S

    1998-09-01

    Most functional analyses of primate tooth form have been limited to linear or area measurements. Such studies have offered but a limited glimpse at differences in occlusal relief among taxa. Such differences in dental topography may relate to tooth function and, so, have considerable implications for the inference of diet from fossil teeth. In this article, we describe a technique to model and compare primate molars in three dimensions using Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) software. We examine unworn lower second molars of three extant hominoids with known differences in diet (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, and Pongo pygmaeus), and two fossil forms, (Afropithecus turkanesis and Dryopithecus laietanus). First, we obtained approximately 400 landmarks on the occlusal surfaces of each tooth using an electromagnetic digitizer. Raster "terrain models" of occlusal surfaces were then created by interpolation of the coordinate data. We used GRASS terrain analysis automated techniques to quantify the volumes and slopes of individual cusps. We also used the GRASS watershed technique to identify the volume of liquid that would accumulate in each tooth's basin (a measure of basin area), and the directions and intensity of drainage over the occlusal surface. In sum, GRASS shows considerable potential for the characterization and comparison of tooth surfaces. Furthermore, techniques described here are not limited to the study of teeth, but may be broadly applicable to studies of skulls, joints, and other biological structures.

  15. Technical Note: New methodology for measuring viscosities in small volumes characteristic of environmental chamber particle samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Renbaum-Wolff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, a method for the determination of viscosities of small sample volumes is introduced, with important implications for the viscosity determination of particle samples from environmental chambers (used to simulate atmospheric conditions. The amount of sample needed is < 1 μl, and the technique is capable of determining viscosities (η ranging between 10−3 and 103 Pascal seconds (Pa s in samples that cover a range of chemical properties and with real-time relative humidity and temperature control; hence, the technique should be well-suited for determining the viscosities, under atmospherically relevant conditions, of particles collected from environmental chambers. In this technique, supermicron particles are first deposited on an inert hydrophobic substrate. Then, insoluble beads (~1 μm in diameter are embedded in the particles. Next, a flow of gas is introduced over the particles, which generates a shear stress on the particle surfaces. The sample responds to this shear stress by generating internal circulations, which are quantified with an optical microscope by monitoring the movement of the beads. The rate of internal circulation is shown to be a function of particle viscosity but independent of the particle material for a wide range of organic and organic-water samples. A calibration curve is constructed from the experimental data that relates the rate of internal circulation to particle viscosity, and this calibration curve is successfully used to predict viscosities in multicomponent organic mixtures.

  16. The flying buttress construct for posterior spinopelvic fixation: a technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ooij Bas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Posterior fusion of the spine to the pelvis in paediatric and adult spinal deformity is still challenging. Especially assembling of the posterior rod construct to the iliac screw is considered technically difficult. A variety of spinopelvic fixation techniques have been developed. However, extreme bending of the longitudinal rods or the use of 90-degree lateral offset connectors proved to be difficult, because the angle between the rod and the iliac screw varies from patient to patient. Methods We adopted a new spinopelvic fixation system, in which iliac screws are side-to-side connected to the posterior thoracolumbar rod construct, independent of the angle between the rod and the iliac screw. Open angled parallel connectors are used to connect short iliac rods from the posterior rod construct to the iliac screws at both sides. The construct resembles in form and function an architectural Flying Buttress, or lateral support arches, used in Gothic cathedrals. Results and discussion Three different cases that illustrate the Flying Buttress construct for spinopelvic fixation are reported here with the clinical details, radiographic findings and surgical technique used. Conclusion The Flying Buttress construct may offer an alternative surgical option for spinopelvic fixation in circumstances wherein coronal or sagittal balance cannot be achieved, for example in cases with significant residual pelvic obliquity, or in revision spinal surgery for failed lumbosacral fusion.

  17. The flying buttress construct for posterior spinopelvic fixation: a technical note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Posterior fusion of the spine to the pelvis in paediatric and adult spinal deformity is still challenging. Especially assembling of the posterior rod construct to the iliac screw is considered technically difficult. A variety of spinopelvic fixation techniques have been developed. However, extreme bending of the longitudinal rods or the use of 90-degree lateral offset connectors proved to be difficult, because the angle between the rod and the iliac screw varies from patient to patient. Methods We adopted a new spinopelvic fixation system, in which iliac screws are side-to-side connected to the posterior thoracolumbar rod construct, independent of the angle between the rod and the iliac screw. Open angled parallel connectors are used to connect short iliac rods from the posterior rod construct to the iliac screws at both sides. The construct resembles in form and function an architectural Flying Buttress, or lateral support arches, used in Gothic cathedrals. Results and discussion Three different cases that illustrate the Flying Buttress construct for spinopelvic fixation are reported here with the clinical details, radiographic findings and surgical technique used. Conclusion The Flying Buttress construct may offer an alternative surgical option for spinopelvic fixation in circumstances wherein coronal or sagittal balance cannot be achieved, for example in cases with significant residual pelvic obliquity, or in revision spinal surgery for failed lumbosacral fusion. PMID:21489256

  18. Endoscopic extradural supraorbital approach to the temporal pole and adjacent area: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Fuminari; Imai, Masaaki; Shigematsu, Hideaki; Aoki, Rie; Oda, Shinri; Shimoda, Masami; Matsumae, Mitsunori

    2017-08-25

    The authors' initial experience with the endoscopic extradural supraorbital approach to the temporal pole and adjacent area is reported. Fully endoscopic surgery using the extradural space via a supraorbital keyhole was performed for tumors in or around the temporal pole, including temporal pole cavernous angioma, sphenoid ridge meningioma, and cavernous sinus pituitary adenoma, mainly using 4-mm, 0° and 30° endoscopes and single-shaft instruments. After making a supraorbital keyhole, a 4-mm, 30° endoscope was advanced into the extradural space of the anterior cranial fossa during lifting of the dura mater. Following identification of the sphenoid ridge, orbital roof, and anterior clinoid process, the bone lateral to the orbital roof was drilled off until the dura mater of the anterior aspect of the temporal lobe was exposed. The dura mater of the temporal lobe was incised and opened, exposing the temporal pole under a 4-mm, 0° endoscope. Tumors in or around the temporal pole were safely removed under a superb view through the extradural corridor. The endoscopic extradural supraorbital approach was technically feasible and safe. The anterior trajectory to the temporal pole using the extradural space under endoscopy provided excellent visibility, allowing minimally invasive surgery. Further surgical experience and development of specialized instruments would promote this approach as an alternative surgical option.

  19. Technical Note: Seasonality in alpine water resources management - a regional assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D.; Fleischhacker, E.; Rauch, W.

    2008-01-01

    Alpine regions are particularly affected by seasonal variations in water demand and water availability. Especially the winter period is critical from an operational point of view, as being characterised by high water demands due to tourism and low water availability due to the temporal storage of precipitation as snow and ice. The clear definition of summer and winter periods is thus an essential prerequisite for water resource management in alpine regions. This paper presents a GIS-based multi criteria method to determine the winter season. A snow cover duration dataset serves as basis for this analysis. Different water demand stakeholders, the alpine hydrology and the present day water supply infrastructure are taken into account. Technical snow-making and (winter) tourism were identified as the two major seasonal water demand stakeholders in the study area, which is the Kitzbueheler region in the Austrian Alps. Based upon different geographical datasets winter was defined as the period from December to March, and summer as the period from April to November. By determining potential regional water balance deficits or surpluses in the present day situation and in future, important management decisions such as water storage and allocation can be made and transposed to the local level.

  20. Technical Note: The Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy - a new approach towards Earth System Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jöckel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a comprehensive Earth System Model (ESM to study the interactions between chemical, physical, and biological processes, requires coupling of the different domains (land, ocean, atmosphere, .... One strategy is to link existing domain-specific models with a universal coupler, i.e. an independent standalone program organizing the communication between other programs. In many cases, however, a much simpler approach is more feasible. We have developed the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy. It comprises (1 a modular interface structure to connect to a , (2 an extendable set of such for miscellaneous processes, and (3 a coding standard. MESSy is therefore not a coupler in the classical sense, but exchanges data between a and several within one comprehensive executable. The internal complexity of the is controllable in a transparent and user friendly way. This provides remarkable new possibilities to study feedback mechanisms (by two-way coupling. Note that the MESSy and the coupler approach can be combined. For instance, an atmospheric model implemented according to the MESSy standard could easily be coupled to an ocean model by means of an external coupler. The vision is to ultimately form a comprehensive ESM which includes a large set of submodels, and a base model which contains only a central clock and runtime control. This can be reached stepwise, since each process can be included independently. Starting from an existing model, process submodels can be reimplemented according to the MESSy standard. This procedure guarantees the availability of a state-of-the-art model for scientific applications at any time of the development. In principle, MESSy can be implemented into any kind of model, either global or regional. So far, the MESSy concept has been applied to the general circulation model ECHAM5 and a number of process boxmodels.

  1. Technical Note: Statistical dependences between channels in radiochromic film readings. Implications in multichannel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-López, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.gonzalez7@carm.es [Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Ctra. Madrid-Cartagena, El Palmar, Murcia 30120 (Spain); Vera-Sánchez, Juan Antonio [Servicio de Protección Radiológica y Física Médica Hospital Universitari Sant Joan de Reus, Av. del Dr. Josep Laporte, 2, Reus, Tarragona 43204 (Spain); Ruiz-Morales, Carmen [Hospital IMED Elche, Max Planck No. 3, Elche, Alicante 03203 (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: This note studies the statistical relationships between color channels in radiochromic film readings with flatbed scanners. The same relationships are studied for noise. Finally, their implications for multichannel film dosimetry are discussed. Methods: Radiochromic films exposed to wedged fields of 6 MV energy were read in a flatbed scanner. The joint histograms of pairs of color channels were used to obtain the joint and conditional probability density functions between channels. Then, the conditional expectations and variances of one channel given another channel were obtained. Noise was extracted from film readings by means of a multiresolution analysis. Two different dose ranges were analyzed, the first one ranging from 112 to 473 cGy and the second one from 52 to 1290 cGy. Results: For the smallest dose range, the conditional expectations of one channel given another channel can be approximated by linear functions, while the conditional variances are fairly constant. The slopes of the linear relationships between channels can be used to simplify the expression that estimates the dose by means of the multichannel method. The slopes of the linear relationships between each channel and the red one can also be interpreted as weights in the final contribution to dose estimation. However, for the largest dose range, the conditional expectations of one channel given another channel are no longer linear functions. Finally, noises in different channels were found to correlate weakly. Conclusions: Signals present in different channels of radiochromic film readings show a strong statistical dependence. By contrast, noise correlates weakly between channels. For the smallest dose range analyzed, the linear behavior between the conditional expectation of one channel given another channel can be used to simplify calculations in multichannel film dosimetry.

  2. Effects of filtering methods on muscle and fat cross-sectional area measurement by pQCT: a technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Bemben, Michael G; Palmer, Ian J; Bemben, Debra A

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) is most commonly used for bone density and morphology assessment of the limbs, but it can also be used for soft tissue area quantification by segmenting regions representing different tissues. Scanning and analyzing cross-sectional areas of larger thighs present a special challenge due to increased statistical noise created from fewer detected x-ray photons. The purpose of this technical note is to compare total, muscle and fat cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements of the midthigh with Stratec 3000 pQCT scans using no filter, a weak smoothing filter and a strong smoothing filter to CSA measurements of midthigh MRI scans analyzed by Image J, a public domain image processing program. Nine healthy men and women participated in this study. CSAs did not differ significantly between MRI and strongly filtered pQCT images with per cent differences ranging from −3.1% for muscle to +6.5% for fat. The per cent difference in muscle CSA values between MRI and pQCT with the weak filter (−24.0 ± 38.0%) or no filter (−44.9 ± 22.7%) was strongly related to total thigh CSA (r = 0.78–0.92, p < 0.05). We propose that the midthigh can be assessed for soft tissue area measurements with pQCT, provided that strong smoothing filter is utilized. (note)

  3. Ultrasonographic, quantitative comparison of lower extremity lymphedema versus normal control. Technical note with case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Lôbo de Carvalho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of tissue by ultrasonography (CATUS is a modern-day research endeavor intended to improve visual perception and image quantification. Visual perception increases with color. Quantification focuses on pixel echo brightnesses. A previously presented case report demonstrated reappearance of lymphatic channels a few days after manual drainage. Ultrasonographic images (US of lymphatic leg and foot were quantitated and compared to a normal extremity based on proportions of pixels in specific brightness intervals. Anatomy evaluated included control- subcutaneous and lymphatic compartments. US with 256 brightness levels were obtained at the proximal, mid and distal leg and foot. Control and lymphatic Gray Scale Medians (GSM and histograms were compared using t-test and Chi-square statistics. Average GSM was 97±9 (SD (82-114, n=12 images for control, greater than 51±15 (24-69, n=12 for lymphedematous leg/foot (P99% of pixels with brightness in the muscle-fiber range (41-196, in contrast to 62% for the lymphatic extremity (P<0.001. Lymphedema averaged 7%, 3%, 15% and 14% of pixels in blood, blood/fat, fat and fat/muscle-like regions (0-4, 5-7, 8-26, 27- 40 brightness intervals. Such regions were visually interpreted as lymphatic channels or lakes. Visual perception by colorization is subjective, but most people perceives details better, for example, during the day than at night. Furthermore, US images have 16 times more shades of gray, 256, than that perceived by the human visual system, 16 on average. Colorization improved perception of lymphatic channels and lakes by transforming blood echoes into red and lymphatic liquid with echoes similar to fat into yellow. Pixel proportions in low brightness intervals were higher in the lymphatic than in the normal extremity. Lymphedema severity was quantified. The CATUS technique may be used to monitor treatment effects or disease evolution.

  4. Technical Note: Advances in flash flood monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Perks

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs have the potential to capture information about the earth's surface in dangerous and previously inaccessible locations. Through image acquisition of flash flood events and subsequent object-based analysis, highly dynamic and oft-immeasurable hydraulic phenomena may be quantified at previously unattainable spatial and temporal resolutions. The potential for this approach to provide valuable information about the hydraulic conditions present during dynamic, high-energy flash floods has until now not been explored. In this paper we adopt a novel approach, utilizing the Kande–Lucas–Tomasi (KLT algorithm to track features present on the water surface which are related to the free-surface velocity. Following the successful tracking of features, a method analogous to the vector correction method has enabled accurate geometric rectification of velocity vectors. Uncertainties associated with the rectification process induced by unsteady camera movements are subsequently explored. Geo-registration errors are relatively stable and occur as a result of persistent residual distortion effects following image correction. The apparent ground movement of immobile control points between measurement intervals ranges from 0.05 to 0.13 m. The application of this approach to assess the hydraulic conditions present in the Alyth Burn, Scotland, during a 1 : 200 year flash flood resulted in the generation of an average 4.2 at a rate of 508 measurements s−1. Analysis of these vectors provides a rare insight into the complexity of channel–overbank interactions during flash floods. The uncertainty attached to the calculated velocities is relatively low, with a spatial average across the area of ±0.15 m s−1. Little difference is observed in the uncertainty attached to out-of-bank velocities (±0.15 m s−1, and within-channel velocities (±0.16 m s−1, illustrating the consistency of the approach.

  5. Technical Note: Experimental results from a prototype high-field inline MRI-linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liney, G. P., E-mail: gary.liney@sswahs.nsw.gov.au [Department of Medical Physics, Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool NSW 2170 (Australia); Dong, B.; Zhang, K. [Department of Medical Physics, Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool NSW 2170 (Australia); and others

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: The pursuit of real-time image guided radiotherapy using optimal tissue contrast has seen the development of several hybrid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-treatment systems, high field and low field, and inline and perpendicular configurations. As part of a new MRI-linac program, an MRI scanner was integrated with a linear accelerator to enable investigations of a coupled inline MRI-linac system. This work describes results from a prototype experimental system to demonstrate the feasibility of a high field inline MR-linac. Methods: The magnet is a 1.5 T MRI system (Sonata, Siemens Healthcare) was located in a purpose built radiofrequency (RF) cage enabling shielding from and close proximity to a linear accelerator with inline (and future perpendicular) orientation. A portable linear accelerator (Linatron, Varian) was installed together with a multileaf collimator (Millennium, Varian) to provide dynamic field collimation and the whole assembly built onto a stainless-steel rail system. A series of MRI-linac experiments was performed to investigate (1) image quality with beam on measured using a macropodine (kangaroo) ex vivo phantom; (2) the noise as a function of beam state measured using a 6-channel surface coil array; and (3) electron contamination effects measured using Gafchromic film and an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Results: (1) Image quality was unaffected by the radiation beam with the macropodine phantom image with the beam on being almost identical to the image with the beam off. (2) Noise measured with a surface RF coil produced a 25% elevation of background intensity when the radiation beam was on. (3) Film and EPID measurements demonstrated electron focusing occurring along the centerline of the magnet axis. Conclusions: A proof-of-concept high-field MRI-linac has been built and experimentally characterized. This system has allowed us to establish the efficacy of a high field inline MRI-linac and study a number of the technical

  6. Technical Note: Using experimentally determined proton spot scanning timing parameters to accurately model beam delivery time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiajian; Tryggestad, Erik; Younkin, James E; Keole, Sameer R; Furutani, Keith M; Kang, Yixiu; Herman, Michael G; Bues, Martin

    2017-10-01

    To accurately model the beam delivery time (BDT) for a synchrotron-based proton spot scanning system using experimentally determined beam parameters. A model to simulate the proton spot delivery sequences was constructed, and BDT was calculated by summing times for layer switch, spot switch, and spot delivery. Test plans were designed to isolate and quantify the relevant beam parameters in the operation cycle of the proton beam therapy delivery system. These parameters included the layer switch time, magnet preparation and verification time, average beam scanning speeds in x- and y-directions, proton spill rate, and maximum charge and maximum extraction time for each spill. The experimentally determined parameters, as well as the nominal values initially provided by the vendor, served as inputs to the model to predict BDTs for 602 clinical proton beam deliveries. The calculated BDTs (T BDT ) were compared with the BDTs recorded in the treatment delivery log files (T Log ): ∆t = T Log -T BDT . The experimentally determined average layer switch time for all 97 energies was 1.91 s (ranging from 1.9 to 2.0 s for beam energies from 71.3 to 228.8 MeV), average magnet preparation and verification time was 1.93 ms, the average scanning speeds were 5.9 m/s in x-direction and 19.3 m/s in y-direction, the proton spill rate was 8.7 MU/s, and the maximum proton charge available for one acceleration is 2.0 ± 0.4 nC. Some of the measured parameters differed from the nominal values provided by the vendor. The calculated BDTs using experimentally determined parameters matched the recorded BDTs of 602 beam deliveries (∆t = -0.49 ± 1.44 s), which were significantly more accurate than BDTs calculated using nominal timing parameters (∆t = -7.48 ± 6.97 s). An accurate model for BDT prediction was achieved by using the experimentally determined proton beam therapy delivery parameters, which may be useful in modeling the interplay effect and patient throughput. The model may

  7. Technical note: real-time web-based wireless visual guidance system for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Danny; Kim, Siyong; Palta, Jatinder R; Kim, Taeho

    2017-06-01

    Describe a Web-based wireless visual guidance system that mitigates issues associated with hard-wired audio-visual aided patient interactive motion management systems that are cumbersome to use in routine clinical practice. Web-based wireless visual display duplicates an existing visual display of a respiratory-motion management system for visual guidance. The visual display of the existing system is sent to legacy Web clients over a private wireless network, thereby allowing a wireless setting for real-time visual guidance. In this study, active breathing coordinator (ABC) trace was used as an input for visual display, which captured and transmitted to Web clients. Virtual reality goggles require two (left and right eye view) images for visual display. We investigated the performance of Web-based wireless visual guidance by quantifying (1) the network latency of visual displays between an ABC computer display and Web clients of a laptop, an iPad mini 2 and an iPhone 6, and (2) the frame rate of visual display on the Web clients in frames per second (fps). The network latency of visual display between the ABC computer and Web clients was about 100 ms and the frame rate was 14.0 fps (laptop), 9.2 fps (iPad mini 2) and 11.2 fps (iPhone 6). In addition, visual display for virtual reality goggles was successfully shown on the iPhone 6 with 100 ms and 11.2 fps. A high network security was maintained by utilizing the private network configuration. This study demonstrated that a Web-based wireless visual guidance can be a promising technique for clinical motion management systems, which require real-time visual display of their outputs. Based on the results of this study, our approach has the potential to reduce clutter associated with wired-systems, reduce space requirements, and extend the use of medical devices from static usage to interactive and dynamic usage in a radiotherapy treatment vault.

  8. Technical Note: The impact of deformable image registration methods on dose warping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, An; Liang, Jian; Han, Xiao; O'Connell, Nicolette; Yan, Di

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical-relevant discrepancy between doses warped by pure image based deformable image registration (IM-DIR) and by biomechanical model based DIR (BM-DIR) on intensity-homogeneous organs. Ten patients (5Head&Neck, 5Prostate) were included. A research DIR tool (ADMRIE_v1.12) was utilized for IM-DIR. After IM-DIR, BM-DIR was carried out for organs (parotids, bladder, and rectum) which often encompass sharp dose gradient. Briefly, high-quality tetrahedron meshes were generated and deformable vector fields (DVF) from IM-DIR were interpolated to the surface nodes of the volume meshes as boundary condition. Then, a FEM solver (ABAQUS_v6.14) was used to simulate the displacement of internal nodes, which were then interpolated to image-voxel grids to get the more physically plausible DVF. Both geometrical and subsequent dose warping discrepancies were quantified between the two DIR methods. Target registration discrepancy(TRD) was evaluated to show the geometry difference. The re-calculated doses on second CT were warped to the pre-treatment CT via two DIR. Clinical-relevant dose parameters and γ passing rate were compared between two types of warped dose. The correlation was evaluated between parotid shrinkage and TRD/dose discrepancy. The parotid shrunk to 75.7% ± 9% of its pre-treatment volume and the percentage of volume with TRD>1.5 mm) was 6.5% ± 4.7%. The normalized mean-dose difference (NMDD) of IM-DIR and BM-DIR was -0.8% ± 1.5%, with range (-4.7% to 1.5%). 2 mm/2% passing rate was 99.0% ± 1.4%. A moderate correlation was found between parotid shrinkage and TRD and NMDD. The bladder had a NMDD of -9.9% ± 9.7%, with BM-DIR warped dose systematically higher. Only minor deviation was observed for rectum NMDD (0.5% ± 1.1%). Impact of DIR method on treatment dose warping is patient and organ-specific. Generally, intensity-homogeneous organs, which undergo larger deformation/shrinkage during

  9. Electrochemical techniques to detect corrosion in concrete structures in nuclear installations - Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of corrosion in aqueous media is of electrochemical nature. This means that the oxidation of the metal is counterbalanced by the reduction of another substance in another region of the metallic surface. Therefore, zones (anodes and cathodes) with different electrochemical potential, develop. In the case of concrete the electrolyte is constituted by the pore solution, which is very alkaline. This pore solution is formed by mainly a mixture of KOH and NaOH presenting pH values ranging between 12.6-14. The solution is saturated in Ca(OH) 2 . Steel embedded in concrete is naturally protected by this high alkalinity and by the barrier effect of the cover itself. The two main causes of electrochemical corrosion are carbonation and the presence of chlorides. Carbonation usually induces a generalized corrosion while chloride will lead into pitting or localized attack. The corrosion can be easily recognized by the rust presence on the rebar and by the appearance of cracks running parallel to the rebars. The objective of this report is to describe the electrochemical non-destructive techniques that can be used in real size reinforced concrete structures to assess the corrosion condition of their reinforcement. These techniques can be used indistinctly in conventional civil engineering structures or in those of nuclear installations. Electrochemical techniques are used to detect electrochemical corrosion activity of metallic reinforcements. They cannot quantify stress corrosion cracking or hydrogen embrittlement although may give some qualitative information about them. The aims of their applications may be one of the following circumstances: 1. Quality control of new constructions; 2. Condition evaluation of existing structures for: - Identification of steel de-passivation, - Detecting corroding areas for rehabilitation purposes, - Calculation of residual load-bearing capacity of the structure, - Prediction of the damage evolution, - Determination of the

  10. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  11. A Technical Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    naturally to become Ulanzi, the highly cherished alcoholic drink by the people in the vicinities and some townships. There are three main problems associated with traditional production of Ulanzi. First, the handling conditions of the product from production to consumption are unhygienic, secondly, there are large price ...

  12. A Technical Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Food Science and Technology Sokoine University of ... Key words: Traditional foods, bamboo juice, Oxytenanthera abysinica~ .... No 14. February 1993, IDRC- South Asia ... contributed to the fast sales given that the sensory.

  13. Computer-simulation movie of ionospheric electric fields and currents for a magnetospheric substorm life cycle. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, Y.; Matsushita, S.

    1980-07-01

    Numerical solution of the current conservation equation gives the distributions of electric fields and currents in the global ionosphere produced by the field-aligned currents. By altering ionospheric conductivity distributions as well as the field-aligned current densities and configurations to simulate a magnetospheric substorm life cycle, which is assumed to last for five hours, various patterns of electric fields and currents are computed for every 30-second interval in the life cycle. The simulated results are compiled in the form of a color movie, where variations of electric equi-potential curves are the first sequence, electric current-vector changes are the second, and fluctuations of the electric current system are the third. The movie compresses real time by a factor of 1/180, taking 1.7 minutes of running time for one sequence. One of the most striking features of this simulation is the clear demonstration of rapid and large scale interactions between the auroral zone and middle-low latitudes during the substorm sequences. This technical note provides an outline of the numerical scheme and world-wide contour maps of the electric potential, ionospheric current vectors, and the equivalent ionospheric current system at 5-minute intervals as an aid in viewing the movie and to further detailed study of the 'model' substorms

  14. Technical note: A simple rumen collection device for calves: An adaptation of a manual rumen drenching system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopp, R N; Oconitrillo, M J; Sackett, A; Hill, T M; Schlotterbeck, R L; Lascano, G J

    2018-07-01

    A limited amount of research is available related to the rumen microbiota of calves, yet there has been a recent spike of interest in determining the diversity and development of calf rumen microbial populations. To study the microbial populations of a calf's rumen, a sample of the rumen fluid is needed. One way to take a rumen fluid sample from a calf is by fistulating the animal. This method requires surgery and can be very stressful on a young animal that is trying to adapt to a new environment and has a depressed immune system. Another method that can be used instead of fistulation surgery is a rumen pump. This method requires a tube to be inserted into the rumen through the calf's esophagus. Once inside the rumen, fluid can be pumped out and collected in a few minutes. This method is quick, inexpensive, and does not cause significant stress on the animal. This technical note presents the materials and methodology used to convert a drenching system into a rumen pump and its respective utilization in 2 experiments using dairy bull calves. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinically Relevant Subregions of Articular Cartilage of the Hip for Analysis and Reporting Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowiec, Rachel K; Lucas, Erin P; Wilson, Katharine J; Saroki, Adriana J; Ho, Charles P

    2014-01-01

    Before quantitative imaging techniques can become clinically valuable, the method, and more specifically, the regions of locating and reporting these values should be standardized toward reproducibility comparisons across centers and longitudinal follow-up of individual patients. The purpose of this technical note is to describe a rigorous and reproducible method of locating, analyzing, and reporting quantitative MRI values in hip articular cartilage with an approach that is consistent with current orthopedic literature. To demonstrate this localization and documentation, 3 patients (age, 23 ± 5.1 years; 2 males, 1 female) who presented with symptomatic mixed-type femoroacetabular impingement (α angle, 63.3° ± 2.1°; center edge angle, 39° ± 4.2°) were evaluated with T2-mapping at 3 T MRI prior to hip arthroscopy. Manual segmentation was performed and cartilage of the acetabulum and femur was divided into 12 subregions adapted from the geographic zone method. Bone landmarks in the acetabulum and femur, identifiable both in arthroscopy and MR images, were manually selected and the coordinates exported for division of cartilage. Mean T2 values in each zone are presented. The current work outlines a standardized system to locate and describe quantitative mapping values that could aid in surgical decision making, planning, and the noninvasive longitudinal follow-up of implemented cartilage preservation and restoration techniques.

  16. Technical note: Analysis of claims and disputes in contracts for oil and gas development projects in Iran with solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollah Sajedi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Contracts for oil and gas development projects are naturally complex, they are explained with some of maps and technical specifications. To supply the goals of contracts, it is necessary to construct by a team having owner, consulting engineer and contractor. The unique aspects of each project and team working are resulting to disagreements. It should be noted that the majority of team workers have not previously worked together. It may not be expected to forecast all project aspects in design and preparation of tender documents process. However, in some cases it will occur inconsistencies in contract documents and possibly may be disagreements on commentary of the cases which there are in the provisions of the contract. Every root of disagreement resulted in to claim and finally dispute. Lack of foresight and/or existing ambiguous texts in some provisions of contract, not being aware of components of the project to conditions and obligations and rules of contract will complex and sometimes impossible the agreement on implementation problems. Therefore, the claims will be resulted in disputes and inflict financial losses to contractors and/or owners and then the projects will not be completed. In Iran many activities have not been carried out about claims and disputes in different orientations especially in areas futures and hence, it was studied in this research. Firstly, research history was considered and the causes of claims and disputes were identified in process of different levels of oil projects construction from primary to exploitation and then a questionnaire was prepared using the comments of experts. Finally, the questionnaire was analysed by SPSS and the approved factors in creation of claims and disputes and in their roots were ranked.

  17. Final Technical Report on Quantifying Dependability Attributes of Software Based Safety Critical Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidts, Carol; Huang, Fuqun; Li, Boyuan; Li, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    from expert opinion elicitation for each of the software dependability attributes. The measures extracted are presented in this chapter. Stage 4 (Chapter 5): Assessment of the coverage of the causal maps via measures. Coverage was assessed to determine whether the measures obtained were sufficient to quantify software dependability, and what measures are further required. Stage 5 (Chapter 6): Identification of 'missing' measures and measurement approaches for concepts not covered. New measures, for concepts that had not been covered sufficiently as determined in Stage 4, were identified using supplementary expert opinion elicitation as well as literature reviews. Stage 6 (Chapter 7): Building of a detailed quantification model based on the causal maps and measurements obtained. Ability to derive such a quantification model shows that the causal models and measurements derived from the previous stages (Stage 1 to Stage 5) can form the technical basis for developing dependability quantification models. Scope restrictions have led us to prioritize this demonstration effort. The demonstration was focused on a critical system, i.e. the reactor protection system. For this system, a ranking of the software dependability attributes by nuclear stakeholders was developed. As expected for this application, the stakeholder ranking identified safety as the most critical attribute to be quantified. A safety quantification model limited to the requirements phase of development was built. Two case studies were conducted for verification. A preliminary control gate for software safety for the requirements stage was proposed and applied to the first case study. The control gate allows a cost effective selection of the duration of the requirements phase.

  18. Final Technical Report on Quantifying Dependability Attributes of Software Based Safety Critical Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidts, Carol [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Huang, Funqun [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Li, Boyuan [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Li, Xiang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-03-25

    elicitation for each of the software dependability attributes. The measures extracted are presented in this chapter. Stage 4 (Chapter 5): Assessment of the coverage of the causal maps via measures. Coverage was assessed to determine whether the measures obtained were sufficient to quantify software dependability, and what measures are further required. Stage 5 (Chapter 6): Identification of “missing” measures and measurement approaches for concepts not covered. New measures, for concepts that had not been covered sufficiently as determined in Stage 4, were identified using supplementary expert opinion elicitation as well as literature reviews. Stage 6 (Chapter 7): Building of a detailed quantification model based on the causal maps and measurements obtained. Ability to derive such a quantification model shows that the causal models and measurements derived from the previous stages (Stage 1 to Stage 5) can form the technical basis for developing dependability quantification models. Scope restrictions have led us to prioritize this demonstration effort. The demonstration was focused on a critical system, i.e. the reactor protection system. For this system, a ranking of the software dependability attributes by nuclear stakeholders was developed. As expected for this application, the stakeholder ranking identified safety as the most critical attribute to be quantified. A safety quantification model limited to the requirements phase of development was built. Two case studies were conducted for verification. A preliminary control gate for software safety for the requirements stage was proposed and applied to the first case study. The control gate allows a cost effective selection of the duration of the requirements phase.

  19. Austria; Financial Sector Assessment Program Update Technical Note: Factual Update and Analysis of the IOSCO Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    This technical note focuses on the International Organization of Securities Commissions objectives and principles of securities regulations of Austria. The 2003 assessment found that Austria had fully broadly implemented a large majority of principles. The human resources of the Securities Supervision Department of the Financial Market Authority (FMA) should be increased, especially to conduct on-site inspections, in addition to the 14 planned appointments. Administrative fines should be rais...

  20. Technical Note: The Effect of The Fed’s Quantitative Easing Policy on the Performance of Listed Companies and the Banking Sector in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuar Rizky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While the efficient market hypothesis suggests that stock price reflects the fundamental condition of companies, which could affect investors’ decisions, this technical note reports empirical evidence that stock price is also influenced by the public’s perception of the market situation. This note shows that the source of funds circulating in the Indonesia Stock Exchange is related to excess liquidity resulting from the policy of quantitative easing (QE by developed countries’ central banks. Banks funding assets with debt results in leverage relationships with the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR negatively affected. Thus it is evident that the Indonesian banking strategy is "reactive" and is influenced by external factors. External factors can be influenced by global issues as well as internal (enterprise performance issues. Therefore foreign and global issues may be important (perhaps dominant in determining the perceptions of the Indonesian stock market.

  1. A guiding oblique osteotomy cut to prevent bad split in sagittal split ramus osteotomy: a technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gururaj Arakeri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To present a simple technical modification of a medial osteotomy cut which prevents its misdirection and overcomes various anatomical variations as well as technical problems. Methods: The medial osteotomy cut is modified in the posterior half at an angle of 15°-20° following novel landmarks. Results: The proposed cut exclusively directs the splitting forces downwards to create a favorable lingual fracture, preventing the possibility of an upwards split which would cause a coronoid or condylar fracture. Conclusion: This modification has proven to be successful to date without encountering the complications of a bad split or nerve damage.

  2. Development and reliability of the explicit professional oral communication observation tool to quantify the use of non-technical skills in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Peter F; van Noord, Inge; de Bruijne, Martine; Knol, Dirk L; Wagner, Cordula; van Dyck, Cathy

    2013-07-01

    A lack of non-technical skills is increasingly recognised as an important underlying cause of adverse events in healthcare. The nature and number of things professionals communicate to each other can be perceived as a product of their use of non-technical skills. This paper describes the development and reliability of an instrument to measure and quantify the use of non-technical skills by direct observations of explicit professional oral communication (EPOC) in the clinical situation. In an iterative process we translated, tested and refined an existing checklist from the aviation industry, called self, human interaction, aircraft, procedures and environment, in the context of healthcare, notably emergency departments (ED) and intensive care units (ICU). The EPOC comprises six dimensions: assertiveness, working with others; task-oriented leadership; people-oriented leadership; situational awareness; planning and anticipation. Each dimension is specified into several concrete items reflecting verbal behaviours. The EPOC was evaluated in four ED and six ICU. In the ED and ICU, respectively, 378 and 1144 individual and 51 and 68 contemporaneous observations of individual staff members were conducted. All EPOC dimensions occur frequently, apart from assertiveness, which was hardly observed. Intraclass correlations for the overall EPOC score ranged between 0.85 and 0.91 and for underlying EPOC dimensions between 0.53 and 0.95. The EPOC is a new instrument for evaluating the use of non-technical skills in healthcare, which is reliable in two highly different settings. By quantifying professional behaviour the instrument facilitates measurement of behavioural change over time. The results suggest that EPOC can also be translated to other settings.

  3. Technical Note: Example of the Application of Jet Grouting to the Neutralisation of Geotechnical Hazard in Shaft Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybeł Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a geotechnical hazard neutralisation technology for shaft structures. The diagnosis of problems with uncontrolled subsidence of the ventilation duct provided by the authors enabled the development of a schedule of works required for the protection and reinforcement of foundation soil in the shaft area. The technology of protection works was selected after the analysis of the technical condition of shaft structures as well as hydrological and geomechanical conditions. Due to the closeness of the shaft lining, it was necessary to form grout columns using jet grouting and low-pressure grouting technologies. The article presents the issues related to the selected technology and its application to the neutralisation of the emergent geotechnical hazard. The method of performance of recommended works was also described together with their impact on the technical condition of structures discussed as well as their functionality and usage.

  4. Notes for a pedagogical approach to skills training for entrepreneurship in technical and technological institutes of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Roxana Chiquito-Chilán; Blanca Cortón-Romero

    2016-01-01

    The enterprise value has increased with the passage of time; and today has special significance especially in countries as in the case of Ecuador; where efforts to changing the productive matrix, a process that involves a productive revolution through the development of knowledge and human talent develop. The achievement of the purposes of this strategy depends largely on the quality of the formation of enterprising professionals. A technical and technological institutes are in business techn...

  5. Technical note: Evaluation of the simultaneous measurements of mesospheric OH, HO2, and O3 under a photochemical equilibrium assumption - a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Mikhail Y.; Nechaev, Anton A.; Belikovich, Mikhail V.; Ermakova, Tatiana S.; Feigin, Alexander M.

    2018-05-01

    This Technical Note presents a statistical approach to evaluating simultaneous measurements of several atmospheric components under the assumption of photochemical equilibrium. We consider simultaneous measurements of OH, HO2, and O3 at the altitudes of the mesosphere as a specific example and their daytime photochemical equilibrium as an evaluating relationship. A simplified algebraic equation relating local concentrations of these components in the 50-100 km altitude range has been derived. The parameters of the equation are temperature, neutral density, local zenith angle, and the rates of eight reactions. We have performed a one-year simulation of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere using a 3-D chemical-transport model. The simulation shows that the discrepancy between the calculated evolution of the components and the equilibrium value given by the equation does not exceed 3-4 % in the full range of altitudes independent of season or latitude. We have developed a statistical Bayesian evaluation technique for simultaneous measurements of OH, HO2, and O3 based on the equilibrium equation taking into account the measurement error. The first results of the application of the technique to MLS/Aura data (Microwave Limb Sounder) are presented in this Technical Note. It has been found that the satellite data of the HO2 distribution regularly demonstrate lower altitudes of this component's mesospheric maximum. This has also been confirmed by model HO2 distributions and comparison with offline retrieval of HO2 from the daily zonal means MLS radiance.

  6. Intraarticular Sacroiliac Joint Injection Under Computed Tomography Fluoroscopic Guidance: A Technical Note to Reduce Procedural Time and Radiation Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Nam Chull

    2016-01-01

    PurposeA technique for computed tomography fluoroscopy (CTF)-guided intraarticular (IA) sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injection was devised to limit procedural time and radiation dose.MethodsOur Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective analysis and waived the requirement for informed consent. Overall, 36 consecutive diagnostic or therapeutic IA SIJ injections (unilateral, 20; bilateral, 16) performed in 34 patients (female, 18; male, 16) with a mean age of 45.5 years (range 20–76 years) under CTF guidance were analyzed, assessing technical success (i.e., IA contrast spread), procedural time, and radiation dose.ResultsAll injections were successful from a technical perspective and were free of serious complications. Respective median procedural times and effective doses of SIJ injection were as follows: unilateral, 5.28 min (range 3.58–8.00 min) and 0.11 millisievert (mSv; range 0.07–0.24 mSv); and bilateral, 6.72 min (range 4.17–21.17 min) and 0.11 mSv (range 0.09–0.51 mSv).ConclusionsGiven the high rate of technical success achieved in limited time duration and with little radiation exposure, CTF-guided IA SIJ injection is a practical and low-risk procedure.

  7. Intraarticular Sacroiliac Joint Injection Under Computed Tomography Fluoroscopic Guidance: A Technical Note to Reduce Procedural Time and Radiation Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, Nam Chull, E-mail: pncspine@gmail.com [Arumdaun Wooldul Spine Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    PurposeA technique for computed tomography fluoroscopy (CTF)-guided intraarticular (IA) sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injection was devised to limit procedural time and radiation dose.MethodsOur Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective analysis and waived the requirement for informed consent. Overall, 36 consecutive diagnostic or therapeutic IA SIJ injections (unilateral, 20; bilateral, 16) performed in 34 patients (female, 18; male, 16) with a mean age of 45.5 years (range 20–76 years) under CTF guidance were analyzed, assessing technical success (i.e., IA contrast spread), procedural time, and radiation dose.ResultsAll injections were successful from a technical perspective and were free of serious complications. Respective median procedural times and effective doses of SIJ injection were as follows: unilateral, 5.28 min (range 3.58–8.00 min) and 0.11 millisievert (mSv; range 0.07–0.24 mSv); and bilateral, 6.72 min (range 4.17–21.17 min) and 0.11 mSv (range 0.09–0.51 mSv).ConclusionsGiven the high rate of technical success achieved in limited time duration and with little radiation exposure, CTF-guided IA SIJ injection is a practical and low-risk procedure.

  8. Insight into the da Vinci® Xi - technical notes for single-docking left-sided colorectal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, James Chi-Yong; Sim, Sarah; Yusof, Sulaiman; Ng, Chee-Yung; Wong, Andrew Siang-Yih

    2017-12-01

    The adoption of robot-assisted laparoscopic colorectal surgery has been hampered by issues with docking, operative duration, technical difficulties in multi-quadrant access, and cost. The da Vinci® Xi has been designed to overcome some of these limitations. We describe our experience with the system and offer technical insights to its application in left-sided colorectal procedures. Our initial series of left-sided robotic colorectal procedures was evaluated. Patient demographics and operative outcomes were recorded prospectively using a predefined database. Between March 2015 and April 2016, 54 cases of robot-assisted laparoscopic left-sided colorectal procedures were successfully completed with no cases of conversion. The majority were low anterior resections for colorectal malignancies. Using the da Vinci® Xi Surgical System, multi-quadrant surgery involving dissection from the splenic flexure to the pelvis was possible without redocking. The da Vinci® Xi simplifies the docking procedure and makes single-docking feasible for multi-quadrant left-sided colorectal procedures. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Some Notes About Medical Vocabulary in 18th Century New Spain: Technical and Colloquial Words for the Denomination of Illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis RAMÍREZ LUENGO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the 18th Century medical vocabulary is something that has been studied during recent years in Spain, the situation is very different in Latin America, where papers on this subject are very limited. In this case, this paper aims to study the denominations for illnesses that were discovered in a 18th Century New Spain document corpus: to do so, the corpus will be described and then the vocabulary used in the documents will be analysed; the paper will pay special attention to questions such as neologisms, fluctuating words and the presence of colloquial vocabulary. Thus, the purposes of the paper are three: 1 to demonstrate the importance of official documents for the study of medical vocabulary; 2 to provide some data for writing the history of this vocabulary; and 3 to note some analyses that should be done in the future. 

  10. Technical note: Characterization of key volatile odorants in rabbit meat using gas chromatography mass spectrometry with simultaneous distillation extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.J. Xie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the key volatile compounds in both male and female rabbit meat. Simultaneous distillation extraction with dichloromethane was adopted to extract the volatile compounds in Hyla rabbit meat. A total of 35 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and quantified with 2, 4, 6-thimethylpyridine as internal standard. Seventeen volatile aldehydes, 4 alcohols, 2 ketones, 2 acids, 1 heterocyclic compound, 2 alkanes and 7 esters were detected. Hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, (E, E-2, 4-decadienal, 1-octen-3-ol and (Z-2-decenal were the key odorant compounds, with high relative odour activity value. Furthermore, the concentration of volatile compounds in male rabbit meat was higher than that in female rabbit meat.

  11. Lecture notes of the technical training curriculum of the Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report is a transcript of lectures for the technical staff, held in the Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, from November 1990 to April 1992. Following themes are included in this report. (1) Cyclotron technology, (2) measuring technology of the peripheral devices for cyclotron, (3) heavy ion cyclotron technology, (4) beam cooling technology, (5) proton linac technology, (6) heavy ion linac technology, (7) measuring technology of electron and its equipments, (8) the latest high energy large experimental device and its measurement (HERA, ZENS experiment), (9) superconducting kaon spectrometer (SKS) and large superconducting magnet, (10) present status of the precision technology for accelerators, (11) the computer as basic technology of elementary particle and nuclear experiments, (12) present status of radiation management and measurement technology, (13) handling and processing method of the hazardous materials, (14) analog technology of the equipments for accelerators, and the summary of NIRS-Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). (T.F.)

  12. Notes for a pedagogical approach to skills training for entrepreneurship in technical and technological institutes of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Roxana Chiquito-Chilán

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The enterprise value has increased with the passage of time; and today has special significance especially in countries as in the case of Ecuador; where efforts to changing the productive matrix, a process that involves a productive revolution through the development of knowledge and human talent develop. The achievement of the purposes of this strategy depends largely on the quality of the formation of enterprising professionals. A technical and technological institutes are in business technologists have a key role in such training, in this sense the author of this article as part of the doctoral studies performed in Cuba works, this article contains the fundamentals and Ideas around which develops a pedagogical approach to skills training for entrepreneurship.

  13. Technical Note: Experimental determination of the effective point of measurement of two cylindrical ionization chambers in a clinical proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, Yuya, E-mail: yuya.sugama@gmail.com [Proton Therapy Center, Aizawa Hospital, Nagano 390-0821, Japan and Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi 409-3898 (Japan); Nishio, Teiji [Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi 409-3898 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: IAEA TRS-398 notes that cylindrical ionization chambers are preferred for reference proton dosimetry. If a cylindrical ionization chamber is used in a phantom to measure the dose as a function of depth, the effective point of measurement (EPOM) must be taken into account. IAEA TRS-398 recommends a displacement of 0.75 times the inner cavity radius (0.75R) for heavy ion beams. Theoretical models by Palmans and by Bhullar and Watchman confirmed this value. However, the experimental results vary from author to author. The purpose of this study is to accurately measure the displacement and explain the past experimental discrepancies. Methods: In this work, we measured the EPOM of cylindrical ionization chambers with high accuracy by comparing the Bragg-peak position obtained with cylindrical ionization chambers (PTW 30013, PTW 31016) to that obtained using a plane-parallel ionization chamber (PTW 34045). Results: The EPOMs of PTW 30013 and 31016 were shifted by 0.92 ± 0.07 R with R = 3.05 mm and 0.90 ± 0.14 R with R = 1.45 mm, respectively, from the reference point toward the source. Conclusions: The EPOMs obtained were greater than the value of 0.75R proposed by the IAEA TRS-398 and the analytical results.

  14. Technical Note: Linking climate change and downed woody debris decomposition across forests of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Matthew B.; Woodall, Christopher W.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Fraver, Shawn; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Forest ecosystems play a critical role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Forest carbon (C) is stored through photosynthesis and released via decomposition and combustion. Relative to C fixation in biomass, much less is known about C depletion through decomposition of woody debris, particularly under a changing climate. It is assumed that the increased temperatures and longer growing seasons associated with projected climate change will increase the decomposition rates (i.e., more rapid C cycling) of downed woody debris (DWD); however, the magnitude of this increase has not been previously addressed. Using DWD measurements collected from a national forest inventory of the eastern United States, we show that the residence time of DWD may decrease (i.e., more rapid decomposition) by as much as 13% over the next 200 years, depending on various future climate change scenarios and forest types. Although existing dynamic global vegetation models account for the decomposition process, they typically do not include the effect of a changing climate on DWD decomposition rates. We expect that an increased understanding of decomposition rates, as presented in this current work, will be needed to adequately quantify the fate of woody detritus in future forests. Furthermore, we hope these results will lead to improved models that incorporate climate change scenarios for depicting future dead wood dynamics in addition to a traditional emphasis on live-tree demographics.

  15. Technical note: An experimental set-up to measure latent and sensible heat fluxes from (artificial plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Schymanski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaf transpiration and energy exchange are coupled processes that operate at small scales yet exert a significant influence on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and climate. Surprisingly, experimental capabilities required to quantify the energy–transpiration coupling at the leaf scale are lacking, challenging our ability to test basic questions of importance for resolving large-scale processes. The present study describes an experimental set-up for the simultaneous observation of transpiration rates and all leaf energy balance components under controlled conditions, using an insulated closed loop miniature wind tunnel and artificial leaves with pre-defined and constant diffusive conductance for water vapour. A range of tests documents the above capabilities of the experimental set-up and points to potential improvements. The tests reveal a conceptual flaw in the assumption that leaf temperature can be characterized by a single value, suggesting that even for thin, planar leaves, a temperature gradient between the irradiated and shaded or transpiring and non-transpiring leaf side can lead to bias when using observed leaf temperatures and fluxes to deduce effective conductances to sensible heat or water vapour transfer. However, comparison of experimental results with an explicit leaf energy balance model revealed only minor effects on simulated leaf energy exchange rates by the neglect of cross-sectional leaf temperature gradients, lending experimental support to our current understanding of leaf gas and energy exchange processes.

  16. Rapid and Minimally Traumatic Replacement of Stimulator Extension Cables: Technical Note on a Novel Use for Sternal Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Fraser; Takacs, Istvan

    2017-01-01

    Troubleshooting of deep brain stimulators (DBSs, Activa SC/PC/RC Medtronic PLC, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA) sometimes results in a decision to replace a tunneled stretch-coil extension cable. We present a simple technique to accomplish this atraumatically without a tunneling tool. In the treatment of patients with a DBS, complication avoidance and efficiency of operative time are paramount. We sought to find the safest, most effective, and fastest method of performing the conceptually simple yet technically nuanced act of replacing lead extension cables. We connected #6 (8.0 metric) surgical steel 18″ (45-cm) monofilament (Ethicon US, LLC, Somerville, New Jersey, USA), also known as #6 sternal wire, in line with DBS extension cables (Medtronic DBS Extension 37086-60) in novel fashion to overcome intraprocedural hurdles encountered during the past decade in a busy functional neurosurgery service. Patients tolerate the procedure well and return home shortly after recovery with no complications. A less expensive and faster technique for passing pulse generator extension cables may be the use of a sternal wire. Using the described technique, pulse generators may be quickly and safely adjusted from side to side and site to site as the clinical situation dictates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Technical Note: Motion-perturbation method applied to dosimetry of dynamic MLC target tracking—A proof-of-concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feygelman, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.feygelman@moffitt.org; Tonner, Brian; Hunt, Dylan; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Stambaugh, Cassandra [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Nelms, Benjamin E. [Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Previous studies show that dose to a moving target can be estimated using 4D measurement-guided dose reconstruction based on a process called virtual motion simulation, or VMS. A potential extension of VMS is to estimate dose during dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC)-tracking treatments. The authors introduce a modified VMS method and quantify its performance as proof-of-concept for tracking applications. Methods: Direct measurements with a moving biplanar diode array were used to verify accuracy of the VMS dose estimates. A tracking environment for variably sized circular MLC apertures was simulated by sending preprogrammed control points to the MLC while simultaneously moving the accelerator treatment table. Sensitivity of the method to simulated tracking latency (0–700 ms) was also studied. Potential applicability of VMS to fast changing beam apertures was evaluated by modeling, based on the demonstrated dependence of the cumulative dose on the temporal dose gradient. Results: When physical and virtual latencies were matched, the agreement rates (2% global/2 mm gamma) between the VMS and the biplanar dosimeter were above 96%. When compared to their own reference dose (0 induced latency), the agreement rates for VMS and biplanar array track closely up to 200 ms of induced latency with 10% low-dose cutoff threshold and 300 ms with 50% cutoff. Time-resolved measurements suggest that even in the modulated beams, the error in the cumulative dose introduced by the 200 ms VMS time resolution is not likely to exceed 0.5%. Conclusions: Based on current results and prior benchmarks of VMS accuracy, the authors postulate that this approach should be applicable to any MLC-tracking treatments where leaf speeds do not exceed those of the current Varian accelerators.

  18. Technical note: Rapid image-based field methods improve the quantification of termite mound structures and greenhouse-gas fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Nauer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Termite mounds (TMs mediate biogeochemical processes with global relevance, such as turnover of the important greenhouse gas methane (CH4. However, the complex internal and external morphology of TMs impede an accurate quantitative description. Here we present two novel field methods, photogrammetry (PG and cross-sectional image analysis, to quantify TM external and internal mound structure of 29 TMs of three termite species. Photogrammetry was used to measure epigeal volume (VE, surface area (AE and mound basal area (AB by reconstructing 3-D models from digital photographs, and compared against a water-displacement method and the conventional approach of approximating TMs by simple geometric shapes. To describe TM internal structure, we introduce TM macro- and micro-porosity (θM and θμ, the volume fractions of macroscopic chambers, and microscopic pores in the wall material, respectively. Macro-porosity was estimated using image analysis of single TM cross sections, and compared against full X-ray computer tomography (CT scans of 17 TMs. For these TMs we present complete pore fractions to assess species-specific differences in internal structure. The PG method yielded VE nearly identical to a water-displacement method, while approximation of TMs by simple geometric shapes led to errors of 4–200 %. Likewise, using PG substantially improved the accuracy of CH4 emission estimates by 10–50 %. Comprehensive CT scanning revealed that investigated TMs have species-specific ranges of θM and θμ, but similar total porosity. Image analysis of single TM cross sections produced good estimates of θM for species with thick walls and evenly distributed chambers. The new image-based methods allow rapid and accurate quantitative characterisation of TMs to answer ecological, physiological and biogeochemical questions. The PG method should be applied when measuring greenhouse-gas emissions from TMs to avoid large errors from inadequate shape

  19. Technical Note: Precise quantitative measurements of total dissolved inorganic carbon from small amounts of seawater using a gas chromatographic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hansen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT is one of the most frequently measured parameters used to calculate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater. Its determination has become increasingly important because of the rising interest in the biological effects of ocean acidification. Coulometric and infrared detection methods are currently favored in order to precisely quantify CT. These methods however are not sufficiently validated for CT measurements of biological experiments manipulating seawater carbonate chemistry with an extended CT measurement range (~1250–2400 μmol kg–1 compared to natural open ocean seawater (~1950–2200 μmol kg−1. The requirement of total sample amounts between 0.1–1 L seawater in the coulometric- and infrared detection methods potentially exclude their use for experiments working with much smaller volumes. Additionally, precise CT analytics become difficult with high amounts of biomass (e.g., phytoplankton cultures or even impossible in the presence of planktonic calcifiers without sample pre-filtration. Filtration however, can alter CT concentration through gas exchange induced by high pressure. Addressing these problems, we present precise quantification of CT using a small, basic and inexpensive gas chromatograph as a CT analyzer. Our technique is able to provide a repeatability of ±3.1 μmol kg−1, given by the pooled standard deviation over a CT range typically applied in acidification experiments. 200 μL of sample is required to perform the actual CT measurement. The total sample amount needed is 12 mL. Moreover, we show that sample filtration is applicable with only minor alteration of the CT. The method is simple, reliable and with low cumulative material costs. Hence, it is potentially attractive for all researchers experimentally manipulating the seawater carbonate system.

  20. Technical Note: Motion-perturbation method applied to dosimetry of dynamic MLC target tracking—A proof-of-concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feygelman, Vladimir; Tonner, Brian; Hunt, Dylan; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo; Stambaugh, Cassandra; Nelms, Benjamin E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies show that dose to a moving target can be estimated using 4D measurement-guided dose reconstruction based on a process called virtual motion simulation, or VMS. A potential extension of VMS is to estimate dose during dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC)-tracking treatments. The authors introduce a modified VMS method and quantify its performance as proof-of-concept for tracking applications. Methods: Direct measurements with a moving biplanar diode array were used to verify accuracy of the VMS dose estimates. A tracking environment for variably sized circular MLC apertures was simulated by sending preprogrammed control points to the MLC while simultaneously moving the accelerator treatment table. Sensitivity of the method to simulated tracking latency (0–700 ms) was also studied. Potential applicability of VMS to fast changing beam apertures was evaluated by modeling, based on the demonstrated dependence of the cumulative dose on the temporal dose gradient. Results: When physical and virtual latencies were matched, the agreement rates (2% global/2 mm gamma) between the VMS and the biplanar dosimeter were above 96%. When compared to their own reference dose (0 induced latency), the agreement rates for VMS and biplanar array track closely up to 200 ms of induced latency with 10% low-dose cutoff threshold and 300 ms with 50% cutoff. Time-resolved measurements suggest that even in the modulated beams, the error in the cumulative dose introduced by the 200 ms VMS time resolution is not likely to exceed 0.5%. Conclusions: Based on current results and prior benchmarks of VMS accuracy, the authors postulate that this approach should be applicable to any MLC-tracking treatments where leaf speeds do not exceed those of the current Varian accelerators

  1. Technical Note: Animal-borne CTD-Satellite Relay Data Loggers for real-time oceanographic data collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Boehme

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing need for continuous monitoring of the world oceans has stimulated the development of a range of autonomous sampling platforms. One novel addition to these approaches is a small, relatively inexpensive data-relaying device that can be deployed on marine mammals to provide vertical oceanographic profiles throughout the upper 2000 m of the water column. When an animal dives, the CTD-Satellite Relay Data Logger (CTD-SRDL records vertical profiles of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are compressed once the animal returns to the surface where it is located by, and relays data to, the Argos satellite system. The technical challenges met in the design of the CTD-SRDL are the maximising of energy efficiency and minimising size, whilst simultaneously maintaining the reliability of an instrument that cannot be recovered and is required to survive its lifetime attached to a marine mammal. The CTD-SRDLs record temperature and salinity with an accuracy of better than 0.005 °C and 0.02 respectively. However, due to the limited availability of reference data, real-time data from remote places are often associated with slightly higher errors. The potential to collect large numbers of profiles cost-effectively makes data collection using CTD-SRDL technology particularly beneficial in regions where traditional oceanographic measurements are scarce or even absent. Depending on the CTD-SRDL configuration, it is possible to sample and transmit hydrographic profiles on a daily basis, providing valuable and often unique information for a real-time ocean observing system.

  2. Phrenic nerve neurotization utilizing the spinal accessory nerve: technical note with potential application in patients with high cervical quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Pearson, Blake; Loukas, Marios; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Oakes, W Jerry

    2008-11-01

    High cervical quadriplegia is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Artificial respiration in these patients carries significant long-term risks such as infection, atelectasis, and respiratory failure. As phrenic nerve pacing has been proven to free many of these patients from ventilatory dependency, we hypothesized that neurotization of the phrenic nerve with the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) may offer one potential alternative to phrenic nerve stimulation via pacing and may be more efficacious and longer lasting without the complications of an implantable device. Ten cadavers (20 sides) underwent exposure of the cervical phrenic nerve and the SAN in the posterior cervical triangle. The SAN was split into anterior and posterior halves and the anterior half transposed to the ipsilateral phrenic nerve as it crossed the anterior scalene muscle. The mean distance between the cervical phrenic nerve and the SAN in the posterior cervical triangle was 2.5 cm proximally, 4 cm at a midpoint, and 6 cm distally. The range for these measurements was 2 to 4 cm, 3.5 to 5 cm, and 4 to 8.5 cm, respectively. The mean excess length of SAN available after transposition to the more anteromedially placed phrenic nerve was 5 cm (range 4 to 6.5 cm). The mean diameter of these regional parts of the spinal accessory and phrenic nerves was 2 and 2.5 mm, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found for measurements between sides. To our knowledge, using the SAN for neurotization to the phrenic nerve for potential use in patients with spinal cord injury has not been previously explored. Following clinical trials, these data may provide a mechanism for self stimulation of the diaphragm and obviate phrenic nerve pacing in patients with high cervical quadriplegia. Our study found that such a maneuver is technically feasible in the cadaver.

  3. Technical note: Validation of an automated system for monitoring and restricting water intake in group-housed beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwardt, K; Ahlberg, C; Broocks, A; Bruno, K; Taylor, A; Place, S; Richards, C; Krehbiel, C; Calvo-Lorenzo, M; DeSilva, U; VanOverbeke, D; Mateescu, R; Goad, C; Rolf, M M

    2017-09-01

    The Insentec Roughage Intake Control (RIC) system has been validated for the collection of water intake; however, this system has not been validated for water restriction. The objective of this validation was to evaluate the agreement between direct observations and automated intakes collected by the RIC system under both ad libitum and restricted water conditions. A total of 239 crossbred steers were used in a 3-d validation trial, which assessed intake values generated by the RIC electronic intake monitoring system for both ad libitum water intake ( = 122; BASE) and restricted water intake ( = 117; RES). Direct human observations were collected on 4 Insentec water bins for three 24-h periods and three 12-h periods for BASE and RES, respectively. An intake event was noted by the observer when the electronic identification of the animal was read by the transponder and the gate lowered, and starting and ending bin weights were recorded for each intake event. Data from direct observations across each validation period were compared to automated observations generated from the RIC system. Missing beginning or ending weight values for visual observations occasionally occurred due to the observer being unable to capture the value before the monitor changed when bin activity was high. To estimate the impact of these missing values, analyses denoted as OBS were completed with the incomplete record coded as missing data. These analyses were contrasted with analyses where observations with a single missing beginning or end weight (but not both) were assumed to be identical to that which was recorded by the Insentec system (OBS). Difference in mean total intake across BASE steers was 0.60 ± 2.06 kg OBS (0.54 ± 1.99 kg OBS) greater for system observations than visual observations. The comparison of mean total intake across the 3 RES validation days was 0.53 ± 2.30 kg OBS (0.13 ± 1.83 kg OBS) greater for system observations than direct observations. Day was not a

  4. Combination acetabular radiofrequency ablation and cementoplasty using a navigational radiofrequency ablation device and ultrahigh viscosity cement: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Adam N; Huang, Ambrose J; Vaswani, Devin; Chang, Randy O; Jennings, Jack W

    2016-03-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and cementoplasty is an alternative palliative therapy for painful metastases involving axial load-bearing bones. This technical report describes the use of a navigational radiofrequency probe to ablate acetabular metastases from an anterior approach followed by instillation of ultrahigh viscosity cement under CT-fluoroscopic guidance. The tumor ablation databases of two institutions were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients who underwent combination acetabular radiofrequency ablation and cementoplasty using the STAR Tumor Ablation and StabiliT Vertebral Augmentation Systems (DFINE; San Jose, CA). Pre-procedure acetabular tumor volume was measured on cross-sectional imaging. Pre- and post-procedure pain scores were measured using the Numeric Rating Scale (10-point scale) and compared. Partial pain improvement was categorically defined as ≥ 2-point pain score reduction. Patients were evaluated for evidence of immediate complications. Electronic medical records were reviewed for evidence of delayed complications. During the study period, 12 patients with acetabular metastases were treated. The median tumor volume was 54.3 mL (range, 28.3-109.8 mL). Pre- and post-procedure pain scores were obtained from 92% (11/12) of the cohort. The median pre-procedure pain score was 8 (range, 3-10). Post-procedure pain scores were obtained 7 days (82%; 9/11), 11 days (9.1%; 1/11) or 21 days (9.1%; 1/11) after treatment. The median post-treatment pain score was 3 (range, 1-8), a statistically significant difference compared with pre-treatment (P = 0.002). Categorically, 73% (8/11) of patients reported partial pain relief after treatment. No immediate symptomatic complications occurred. Three patients (25%; 3/12) were discharged to hospice within 1 week of treatment. No delayed complications occurred in the remaining 75% (9/12) of patients during median clinical follow-up of 62 days (range, 14-178 days). Palliative percutaneous

  5. Technical Note: Comparison of peripheral patient dose from MR-guided 60 Co therapy and 6 MV linear accelerator IGRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, Pascal; Hälg, Roger A; Schneider, Uwe

    2017-07-01

    The use of X-ray imaging in radiation therapy can give a substantial dose to the patient. A Cobalt machine combined with an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was recently introduced to clinical work. One positive aspect of using non-ionizing imaging devices is the reduction of the patient exposure. The purpose of this study was to quantify the difference in out-of-field dose to the patient between the image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) treatment applied with a linear accelerator with cone beam CT (CBCT) equipment and a Cobalt machine combined with an MRI. The treatment of a rhabdomyosarcoma in the prostate was planned and irradiated using different modalities and radiation therapy machines. The whole-body dose was measured for a 3D-conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and a volumetric-modulated arc therapy plan applied with a conventional linear accelerator operated at 6 MV beam energy. Additionally, the dose of an IMRT plan applied with a 60 Co machine combined with an MRI was measured. Furthermore, the dose of one CBCT scan using the linear accelerator's on-board imaging system was determined. The 3D dose measurements were performed in an anthropomorphic phantom containing 168 slots for thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). A combination of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD100) and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (TLD100H) was used to accurately determine the in- and out-of-field dose. The plans were rescaled to different fractionation schemes (2 Gy, 3 Gy, and 5 Gy fraction dose) and the dose of one CBCT scan was additionally added to the treatment dose per fraction applied with the linear accelerator. The resulting absorbed doses per fraction of the two machines were compared. In the target region, all measured treatment plans presented the same magnitude of dose, while the CBCT dose was a factor of 100 smaller. Close to the planned target volume (PTV), the dose from the 60 Co machine was a factor of two higher compared with the 3DCRT + CBCT dose. Up

  6. Minilaparoscopic Colorectal Resections: Technical Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic colorectal resections have been shown to provide short-term advantages in terms of postoperative pain, general morbidity, recovery, and quality of life. To date, long-term results have been proved to be comparable to open surgery irrefutably only for colon cancer. Recently, new trends keep arising in the direction of minimal invasiveness to reduce surgical trauma after colorectal surgery in order to improve morbidity and cosmetic results. The few reports available in the literature on single-port technique show promising results. Natural orifices endoscopic techniques still have very limited application. We focused our efforts in standardising a minilaparoscopic technique (using 3 to 5 mm instruments for colorectal resections since it can provide excellent cosmetic results without changing the laparoscopic approach significantly. Thus, there is no need for a new learning curve as minilaparoscopy maintains the principle of instrument triangulation. This determines an undoubted advantage in terms of feasibility and reproducibility of the procedure without increasing operative time. Some preliminary experiences confirm that minilaparoscopic colorectal surgery provides acceptable results, comparable to those reported for laparoscopic surgery with regard to operative time, morbidity, and hospital stay. Randomized controlled studies should be conducted to confirm these early encouraging results.

  7. Fotonovela. Technical Note No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Patricio; Villacis, Rodrigo

    This report contains a description of a program that sought to develop the fotonovela as an instrument for increasing literacy and consciousness awareness in Ecuador. Following a general introduction to the work of the Nonformal Education Project, the creator of this program, the report presents information about the antecedents and…

  8. Sphenopalatine artery ligation: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothier, David D; Mackeith, Samuel; Youngs, Robin

    2005-10-01

    Epistaxis is a common problem. Most patients presenting to hospital will stop bleeding with simple first-aid measures or with nasal packing. Those who do not stop will usually require surgical management. For persistent posterior epistaxis, the sphenopalatine artery may be ligated as the artery leaves the sphenopalatine foramen to enter the nasal mucosa of the lateral wall of the nose. This may be performed endoscopically. We describe the anatomy of the area and the surgical technique. We also present a brief review of the literature on this technique.

  9. Technical note: A hydrological routing scheme for the Ecosystem Demography model (ED2+R tested in the Tapajós River basin in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Pereira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Land surface models are excellent tools for studying how climate change and land use affect surface hydrology. However, in order to assess the impacts of Earth processes on river flows, simulated changes in runoff need to be routed through the landscape. In this technical note, we describe the integration of the Ecosystem Demography (ED2 model with a hydrological routing scheme. The purpose of the study was to create a tool capable of incorporating to hydrological predictions the terrestrial ecosystem responses to climate, carbon dioxide, and land-use change, as simulated with terrestrial biosphere models. The resulting ED2+R model calculates the lateral routing of surface and subsurface runoff resulting from the terrestrial biosphere models' vertical water balance in order to determine spatiotemporal patterns of river flows within the simulated region. We evaluated the ED2+R model in the Tapajós, a 476 674 km2 river basin in the southeastern Amazon, Brazil. The results showed that the integration of ED2 with the lateral routing scheme results in an adequate representation (Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency up to 0.76, Kling–Gupta efficiency up to 0.86, Pearson's R up to 0.88, and volume ratio up to 1.06 of daily to decadal river flow dynamics in the Tapajós. These results are a consistent step forward with respect to the no river representation common among terrestrial biosphere models, such as the initial version of ED2.

  10. Testing REACH draft technical guidance notes for conducting chemical safety assessments-the experience of a downstream user of a preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Anne Lill; Ovrebø, Steinar; Hylland, Ketil

    2008-07-01

    The goal of REACH is the safe use of chemicals. This study examines the efficiency and usefulness of two draft technical guidance notes in the REACH Interim Project 3.2-2 for the development of the chemical safety report and exposure scenarios. A case study was carried out for a paint system for protection of structural steel. The focuses of the study were risk assessment of preparations based on Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) and Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) and on effective and accurate communication in the supply chain. Exposure scenarios and generic descriptions of uses, risk management measures, and exposure determinants were developed. The study showed that communication formats, software tools, and guidelines for chemical risk assessment need further adjustment to preparations and real-life situations. Web platforms may simplify such communication. The downstream formulator needs basic substance data from the substance manufacturer during the pre-registration phase to develop exposure scenarios for preparations. Default values need to be communicated in the supply chain because these were critical for the derivation of applicable risk management demands. The current guidelines which rely on the available toxicological knowledge are insufficient to advise downstream users on how to develop exposure scenarios for preparations.

  11. Correspondence in relation to the case report "Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note." published in May issue of Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakta Pradipta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comment on 'Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note' Bhagat H, Agarwal A, Sharma MS Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury 2008, 3:14 (22 May 2008

  12. 1. On note taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, Alfred B J

    2005-02-01

    In this paper the author explores the theoretical and technical issues relating to taking notes of analytic sessions, using an introspective approach. The paper discusses the lack of a consistent approach to note taking amongst analysts and sets out to demonstrate that systematic note taking can be helpful to the analyst. The author describes his discovery that an initial phase where as much data was recorded as possible did not prove to be reliably helpful in clinical work and initially actively interfered with recall in subsequent sessions. The impact of the nature of the analytic session itself and the focus of the analyst's interest on recall is discussed. The author then describes how he modified his note taking technique to classify information from sessions into four categories which enabled the analyst to select which information to record in notes. The characteristics of memory and its constructive nature are discussed in relation to the problems that arise in making accurate notes of analytic sessions.

  13. Development and reliability of the explicit professional oral communication observation tool to quantify the use of non-technical skills in healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, P.F.; van Noord, I.; de Bruijne, M.C.; Knol, D.L.; Wagner, C.; van Dyck, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background A lack of non-technical skills is increasingly recognised as an important underlying cause of adverse events in healthcare. The nature and number of things professionals communicate to each other can be perceived as a product of their use of non-technical skills. This paper describes the

  14. Development and reliability of the explicit professional oral communication observation tool to quantify the use of non-technical skills in healthcare.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, P.F.; Noord, I. van; Bruijne, M. de; Knol, D.L.; Wagner, C.; Dyck, C. van

    2013-01-01

    Background: A lack of non-technical skills is increasingly recognised as an important underlying cause of adverse events in healthcare. The nature and number of things professionals communicate to each other can be perceived as a product of their use of non-technical skills. This paper describes the

  15. A note on Fukui’s note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Cheng-Yu Edwin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This commentary relates Fukui’s (2015 note on weak vs. strong generation to two aspects of quantification in Chinese: quantifier scope and the syntactic licensing conditions of noninterrogative wh-expressions. It is shown that the phenomena under discussion echo Fukui’s (2015 view that only strong generation allows for a deeper understanding of natural language and that dependencies are to be distinguished structurally.

  16. TECHNICAL NOTE: Effect of bait delivery interval in an automated head-chamber system on respiration gas estimates when cattle are grazing rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural methane emissions account for approximately 43% of all anthropogenic methane emissions and the majority of agricultural CH4 emissions are attributed to enteric fermentation within ruminant livestock, therefor interest is heightened in quantifying and mitigating this source. An automate...

  17. Debriefing Note Secondary Education Support Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, Neil; Vagnby, Bo Hellisen; Thomsen, Thomas J.

    Debriefing note regarding joint programming for the Secondary Education Support Programme (2003- 2007). The note specifies preparation of SIP Physical Guidelines; Training needs assessment for Physical School Status and Rapid Technical Assessments; SIP/DEP preparation; Selection criteria...

  18. Research Note:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behuria, Pritish; Buur, Lars; Gray, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    its core conceptual and methodological features. This Research Note starts by setting out our understanding of political settlements and provides an overview of existing political settlements literature on African countries. The note then explores how the key concept of ‘holding power’ has been...

  19. Balloon Occlusion of the Contralateral Iliac Artery to Assist Recanalization of the Ipsilateral Iliac Artery in Total Aortoiliac Occlusion: A Technical Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Aziz A. Jaffan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular recanalization of chronic total aortoiliac occlusion is technically challenging. Inability to reenter the true aortic lumen, following retrograde iliac recanalization, is one of the most common causes of failure. We describe a case of a total aortoiliac occlusion where balloon occlusion of the right common iliac artery, following its recanalization from a brachial approach, was used to facilitate antegrade recanalization of the occluded contralateral left common iliac artery.

  20. RESEARCH NOTE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    RESEARCH NOTE. CDKN2A and MC1R ... Department of Pharmacy and Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Frederick. University, Nicosia ..... Appears with highest frequency in African, Asian-Indian, and Papua. New Guinean ...

  1. Editorial note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Ahlbäck

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Editorial note of the Scripta Instituti Donneriani Aboensis, vol. 21, Postmodern Spirituality, based on papers read at the symposium on Postmodern Spirituality held at Åbo, Finland, on 11–13 June 2008.

  2. Project Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents sixteen project notes developed by pupils of Chipping Norton School and Bristol Grammar School, in the United Kingdom. These Projects include eight biology A-level projects and eight Chemistry A-level projects. (HM)

  3. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, Aaron K.; Webber, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

  4. 18F-FDOPA PET/CT-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Metastases from Neuroendocrine Tumours: Technical Note on a Preliminary Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juleiengarnon@gmail.com [Nouvel Hôpital Civil (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS), Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: nitin-ramamurthy@hotmail.com [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: georgia.tsoumakidou@chru-strasbourg.fr [Nouvel Hôpital Civil (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS), Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Imperiale, Alessio, E-mail: alessio.imperiale@chru-strasbourg.fr; Namer, Izzie Jacques, E-mail: izzie.jacques.namer@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpital de Hautepierre (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS), Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine (France); Bachellier, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.bachellier@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpital de Hautepierre (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS), Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation (France); Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr; Rao, Pramod, E-mail: pramodrao@me.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@chru-strasbourg.fr; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Nouvel Hôpital Civil (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS), Department of Interventional Radiology (France)

    2016-09-15

    AimTo review our preliminary experience with 6-l-18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-FDOPA) PET/CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumours (NETs).Materials and MethodsThree patients (mean age 51.3 years; range 43–56) with gastro-entero pancreatic NET (GEP-NET) liver metastases underwent 18F-FDOPA PET/CT-guided RFA. Patients were referred with oligometastatic hepatic-confined disease (1–6 metastases; <3 cm) on 18F-FDOPA PET/CT; poor lesion visualisation on US, CT, and MR; and ongoing symptoms. Procedures were performed in an interventional PET/CT scanner under general anaesthesia using a split-dose protocol. Lesion characteristics, procedural duration and technical success (accurate probe placement and post-procedural ablation-zone photopaenia), complications, patient and operator dose, and clinical outcomes were evaluated.ResultsThirteen liver metastases (mean size 11.4 mm, range 8–16) were treated in three patients (two presented with “carcinoid syndrome”). Technical success was 100 % with a mean procedural duration of 173.3 min (range 90–210) and no immediate complications. Mean patient dose was 2844 mGy·cm (range 2104–3686). Operator and radiographer doses were acceptable other than the operator’s right hand in the first case (149 µSv); this normalised in the second case. There was no local tumour or extra-hepatic disease progression at mid-term follow-up (mean 12.6 months; range 6–20); however, two cases progressed with new liver metastases at different sites. There was 100 % clinical success (n = 2) in resolving carcinoid syndrome symptoms.Conclusion18F-FDOPA PET/CT-guided RFA appears technically feasible, safe, and effective in patients with GEP-NETs and low-burden hepatic metastases. Further prospective studies are required to elucidate its precise role in tailored multimodality management of GEP-NET liver metastases.

  5. SAFETY NOTES

    CERN Document Server

    TIS Secretariat

    2001-01-01

    Please note that the revisions of safety notes no 3 (NS 3 Rev. 2) and no 24 (NS 24 REV.) entitled respectively 'FIRE PREVENTION FOR ENCLOSED SPACES IN LARGE HALLS' and 'REMOVING UNBURIED ELV AND LVA ELECTRIC CONDUITS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322811&version=1&filename=version_francaise.pdf http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322861&version=2&filename=version_francaise.pdf Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email tis.secretariat@cern.ch

  6. Flexibilization of methanization units in Germany. Overview of technical approaches, of the regulatory framework, and of the importance for the energy system - Synthesis note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trommler, Marcus; Dotzauer, Martin; Barchmann, Tino; Lauer, Markus; Hennig, Christiane; Mauky, Eric; Liebetrau, Jan; Thraen, Daniela; Risler, Julian

    2016-03-01

    Technologies of valorisation of biomass offer opportunities to produce a flexible and renewable energy suitable to compensate the intermittency of wind and solar energies which depend on meteorological conditions. As methanization units operated in a flexible way are now mainly present in Germany, notably due to public financial supports to flexibility, this publication describes the status of flexibilization in German methanization units, and highlights relationships with the electricity system, technical approaches to flexibility (implemented technology, gas valorisation in biomethane and injection in the natural gas network, adjustment of gas production for supply management, methanization units and hybrid concepts), and incentive policy (flexibility premium, marketing strategy). The publication finally discusses perspectives for these flexible methanization units

  7. Please note

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel are invited to take note that only parcels corresponding to official orders or contracts will be handled at CERN. Individuals are not authorised to have private merchandise delivered to them at CERN and private deliveries will not be accepted by the Goods Reception services. Thank you for your understanding. (Version française la semaine prochaine.)

  8. Editor's Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On another note: the editor and the editorial team acknowledge the financial support of the Carnegie Corporation of New York through the University of Ghana Building A New Generation of Academics in Africa (BANGA-Africa) Project. We also use this platform to express our gratitude for the support of various stakeholders, ...

  9. Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical experiment at Kamaishi mine. Technical note 08-96-01. Measurement data related to excavation of the test pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Sugita, Y.; Ishikawa, H.

    1997-07-01

    It is an important part of the near field performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal to evaluate coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) phenomena, e.g., thermal effects on groundwater flow through rock matrix and water seepage into the buffer material, the generation of swelling pressure of the buffer material, and thermal stresses potentially affecting porosity and fracture apertures of the rock. An in-situ T-H-M experiment named Engineered Barrier Experiment ' has been conducted at the Kamaishi Mine, of which host rock is granodiorite, in order to establish conceptual models of the coupled T-H-M processes and to build confidence in mathematical models and computer codes. In 1995, fourteen boreholes were excavated in order to install the various sensors. After the hydraulic tests, mechanical tests were carried out to obtain the rock properties. After that, a test pit, 1.7 m in diameter and 5.0 m in depth, was excavated. During the excavation, the change of pore pressure, displacement and temperature of rock mass were measured. Furthermore, pit convergence was measured. This note shows the results of mechanical tests and measurement data during the excavation of test pit. (author)

  10. Technical note: whole-pen assessments of nutrient excretion and digestibility from dairy replacement heifers housed in sand-bedded freestalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Bertram, M G

    2013-10-01

    Our objectives were to describe and test refined procedures for quantifying excreta produced from whole pens of dairy heifers. Previous research efforts attempting to make whole-pen measurements of excreta output have been complicated by the use of organic bedding, which requires cumbersome analytical techniques to quantify excreta apart from the bedding. Research pens equipped with sand-bedded freestalls offer a unique opportunity for refinement of whole-pen fecal collection methods, primarily because sand-bedded freestall systems contain no organic bedding; therefore, concentrations of ash within the manure, sand, and feces can be used to correct for contamination of manure by sand bedding. This study was conducted on a subset of heifers from a larger production-scale feeding trial evaluating ensiled eastern gamagrass [Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L.] haylage (EGG) that was incorporated into a corn silage/alfalfa haylage-based blended diet at rates of 0, 9.1, 18.3, or 27.4% of total DM. The diet without EGG also was offered on a limit-fed basis. Eighty Holstein dairy heifers were blocked (heavy weight, 424 ± 15.9 kg; light weight, 324 ± 22.4 kg) and then assigned to 10 individual pens containing 8 heifers/pen. One pen per block was assigned to each of the 5 research diets, and whole-pen fecal collections were conducted twice for each pen. Grab fecal samples also were gathered from individual heifers within each pen, and subsequent analysis of these whole-pen composites allowed reasonable estimates of OM and NDF excreta output. Under the conditions of our experimental design, pooled SEM for the excreta DM, OM, NDF, and NDF (ash corrected) output were 0.113, 0.085, 0.093, and 0.075 kg·heifer(-1)·d(-1), respectively. For DM excretion, this represented about one-third of the SEM reported for previous whole-pen collections from bedded-pack housing systems. Subsequent calculations of apparent DM and OM digestibilities indicated that the technique was sensitive, and

  11. Influence able and Avoidable Risk Factors for Systemic Air Embolism due to Percutaneous CT-Guided Lung Biopsy: Patient Positioning and Coaxial Biopsy Technique-Case Report, Systematic Literature Review, and a Technical Note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rott, G.; Boecker, F.

    2014-01-01

    Following the first case of a systemic air embolism due to percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy in our clinic we analysed the literature regarding this matter in view of influence able or avoidable risk factors. A systematic review of literature reporting cases of systemic air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy was performed to find out whether prone positioning might be a risk factor regarding this issue. In addition, a technical note concerning coaxial biopsy practice is presented. Prone position seems to have relevance for the development and/or clinical manifestation of air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy and should be considered a risk factor, at least as far as lesions in the lower parts of the lung are concerned. Biopsies of small or cavitary lesions in coaxial technique should be performed using a hemo static valve.

  12. Technical note: Development and validation of a new method for the quantification of soluble and micellar calcium, magnesium, and potassium in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzoi, M; Niero, G; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M; De Marchi, M

    2018-03-01

    Milk mineral content is a key trait for its role in dairy processes such as cheese-making, its use as source of minerals for newborns, and for all traits involving salt-protein interactions. This study investigated a new method for measuring mineral partition between soluble and micellar fractions in bovine milk after rennet coagulation. A new whey dilution step was added to correct the quantification bias due to whey trapped in curd and excluded volume. Moreover, the proposed method allowed the quantification of the diffusible volume after milk coagulation. Milk mineral content and concentration in whey, and diluted whey were quantified by acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The repeatability of the method for micellar Ca, Mg, and K was between 2.07 and 8.96%, whereas reproducibility ranged from 4.01 to 9.44%. Recovery of total milk minerals over 3 spiking levels ranged from 92 to 97%. The proposed method provided an accurate estimation of micellar and soluble minerals in milk, and curd diffusible volume. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ex-vivo release of Pipeline Embolization Device polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sleeves for improved distal landing zone accuracy in-vivo: A technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessenauer, Christoph J; Gupta, Raghav; Moore, Justin; Thomas, Ajith J; Ogilvy, Christopher S

    2016-12-01

    Distal landing zone accuracy is critical in some intracranial aneurysms treated with the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED), and delayed opening of the distal end of the device can complicate the procedure. Here, we report a technical nuance that facilitates accurate placement of the distal end of the PED by ex-vivo, pre-implantation release of the PED Flex polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sleeves. The PED Flex is partially pushed out of the introducer sheath ex-vivo, pre-implantation until the distal PED opens entirely and the PTFE sleeves are located distal to the device. Without inverting the PTFE sleeves, the PED is carefully pulled back into the introducer sheath placing the PTFE sleeves inside the device. The PED is loaded into the microcatheter and advanced toward the site of implantation. When the PED is initially deployed and pushed out of the microcatheter, it opens immediately and provides an anchor for the remainder of the deployment process. We present a video (supplementary material) that illustrates the technique along with an illustrative case. Ex-vivo, pre-implantation release of the PTFE sleeves is an option in aneurysm treatment where distal landing accuracy is critical. Even without the protection of the PTFE sleeves, our clinical observation shows that the PED can be advanced safely through the microcatheter in selected cases. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Creating a Strain Relief Loop during S1 Transforaminal Lead Placement for Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation for Foot Pain: A Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velsen, Valery; van Helmond, Noud; Chapman, Kenneth B

    2018-04-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain is often refractory to conventional medical treatments and leads to significant disability and socio-economic burden. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation has recently emerged as a treatment for persistent neuropathic pain, but creating a strain relief loop at the S1 level has thus far been a challenging technical component of DRG lead placement. We describe a refined technique for strain relief loop formation at the S1 level using a transforaminal approach that we employed in a 45-year-old patient with intractable foot pain. We successfully placed a strain relief loop in the sacral space in a predictable and easily reproducible manner using a transforaminal anchorless approach. The patient experienced a decrease in visual analog pain score (85%), and improvement in function during the trial period, and proceeded with permanent implantation. The described sacral transforaminal strain relief loop formation technique appears to be a more reliable and predictable technique of DRG lead placement in the sacrum than those previously documented. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  15. Technical Note: Error metrics for estimating the accuracy of needle/instrument placement during transperineal magnetic resonance/ultrasound-guided prostate interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmati, Ester; Hu, Yipeng; Villarini, Barbara; Rodell, Rachael; Martin, Paul; Han, Lianghao; Donaldson, Ian; Ahmed, Hashim U; Moore, Caroline M; Emberton, Mark; Barratt, Dean C

    2018-04-01

    Image-guided systems that fuse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) images for performing targeted prostate needle biopsy and minimally invasive treatments for prostate cancer are of increasing clinical interest. To date, a wide range of different accuracy estimation procedures and error metrics have been reported, which makes comparing the performance of different systems difficult. A set of nine measures are presented to assess the accuracy of MRI-US image registration, needle positioning, needle guidance, and overall system error, with the aim of providing a methodology for estimating the accuracy of instrument placement using a MR/US-guided transperineal approach. Using the SmartTarget fusion system, an MRI-US image alignment error was determined to be 2.0 ± 1.0 mm (mean ± SD), and an overall system instrument targeting error of 3.0 ± 1.2 mm. Three needle deployments for each target phantom lesion was found to result in a 100% lesion hit rate and a median predicted cancer core length of 5.2 mm. The application of a comprehensive, unbiased validation assessment for MR/US guided systems can provide useful information on system performance for quality assurance and system comparison. Furthermore, such an analysis can be helpful in identifying relationships between these errors, providing insight into the technical behavior of these systems. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. Flat-Panel Cone-Beam Ct-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Very Small (≤1.5 cm) Liver Tumors: Technical Note on a Preliminary Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: r.cazzato@unicampus.it; Buy, Xavier, E-mail: x.buy@bordeaux.unicancer.fr; Alberti, Nicolas, E-mail: nicoalbertibdx@gmail.com; Fonck, Mariane, E-mail: m.fonk@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Institut Bergonié 229 Cours de l’Argonne, Department of Radiology (France); Grasso, Rosario Francesco, E-mail: r.grasso@unicampus.it [Università “Campus Bio-Medico di Roma”, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Italy); Palussière, Jean, E-mail: j.palussiere@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Institut Bergonié 229 Cours de l’Argonne, Department of Radiology (France)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThe aim of the present study was to investigate the technical feasibility of flat-panel cone-beam CT (CBCT)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of very small (<1.5 cm) liver tumors.Materials and MethodsPatients included were candidates for hepatic percutaneous RFA as they had single biopsy-proven hepatic tumors sized ≤1.5 cm and poorly defined on ultrasonography. Following apnea induction, unenhanced CBCT scans were acquired and used to deploy the RF electrode with the aid of a virtual navigation system. If the tumor was not clearly identified on the unenhanced CBCT scan, a right retrograde arterial femoral access was established to carry out hepatic angiography and localize the tumor. Patients’ lesions and procedural variables were recorded and analyzed.ResultsThree patients (2 male and 1 female), aged 68, 76, and 87 years were included; 3 lesions (2 hepato-cellular carcinoma and 1 metastasis from colorectal cancer) were treated. One patient required hepatic angiography. Cycles of apnea used to acquire CBCT images and to deploy the electrode lasted <120 s. Mean fluoroscopic time needed to deploy the electrode was 36.6 ± 5.7 min. Mean overall procedural time was 66.0 ± 22.9 min. No peri- or post-procedural complications were noted. No cases of incomplete ablation were noted at 1-month follow-up.ConclusionPercutaneous CBCT-guided liver RFA with or without arterial hepatic angiography is technically feasible.

  17. Quantifying Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhouse, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Transmissibility is the defining characteristic of infectious diseases. Quantifying transmission matters for understanding infectious disease epidemiology and designing evidence-based disease control programs. Tracing individual transmission events can be achieved by epidemiological investigation coupled with pathogen typing or genome sequencing. Individual infectiousness can be estimated by measuring pathogen loads, but few studies have directly estimated the ability of infected hosts to transmit to uninfected hosts. Individuals' opportunities to transmit infection are dependent on behavioral and other risk factors relevant given the transmission route of the pathogen concerned. Transmission at the population level can be quantified through knowledge of risk factors in the population or phylogeographic analysis of pathogen sequence data. Mathematical model-based approaches require estimation of the per capita transmission rate and basic reproduction number, obtained by fitting models to case data and/or analysis of pathogen sequence data. Heterogeneities in infectiousness, contact behavior, and susceptibility can have substantial effects on the epidemiology of an infectious disease, so estimates of only mean values may be insufficient. For some pathogens, super-shedders (infected individuals who are highly infectious) and super-spreaders (individuals with more opportunities to transmit infection) may be important. Future work on quantifying transmission should involve integrated analyses of multiple data sources.

  18. Technical Note: Modification of the standard gain correction algorithm to compensate for the number of used reference flat frames in detector performance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinidis, Anastasios C.; Olivo, Alessandro; Speller, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The x-ray performance evaluation of digital x-ray detectors is based on the calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), and the resultant detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The flat images used for the extraction of the NPS should not contain any fixed pattern noise (FPN) to avoid contamination from nonstochastic processes. The ''gold standard'' method used for the reduction of the FPN (i.e., the different gain between pixels) in linear x-ray detectors is based on normalization with an average reference flat-field. However, the noise in the corrected image depends on the number of flat frames used for the average flat image. The aim of this study is to modify the standard gain correction algorithm to make it independent on the used reference flat frames. Methods: Many publications suggest the use of 10-16 reference flat frames, while other studies use higher numbers (e.g., 48 frames) to reduce the propagated noise from the average flat image. This study quantifies experimentally the effect of the number of used reference flat frames on the NPS and DQE values and appropriately modifies the gain correction algorithm to compensate for this effect. Results: It is shown that using the suggested gain correction algorithm a minimum number of reference flat frames (i.e., down to one frame) can be used to eliminate the FPN from the raw flat image. This saves computer memory and time during the x-ray performance evaluation. Conclusions: The authors show that the method presented in the study (a) leads to the maximum DQE value that one would have by using the conventional method and very large number of frames and (b) has been compared to an independent gain correction method based on the subtraction of flat-field images, leading to identical DQE values. They believe this provides robust validation of the proposed method.

  19. Technical Note: A fully automated purge and trap GC-MS system for quantification of volatile organic compound (VOC fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Andrews

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The oceans are a key source of a number of atmospherically important volatile gases. The accurate and robust determination of trace gases in seawater is a significant analytical challenge, requiring reproducible and ideally automated sample handling, a high efficiency of seawater–air transfer, removal of water vapour from the sample stream, and high sensitivity and selectivity of the analysis. Here we describe a system that was developed for the fully automated analysis of dissolved very short-lived halogenated species (VSLS sampled from an under-way seawater supply. The system can also be used for semi-automated batch sampling from Niskin bottles filled during CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth profiles. The essential components comprise a bespoke, automated purge and trap (AutoP & T unit coupled to a commercial thermal desorption and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (TD-GC-MS. The AutoP & T system has completed five research cruises, from the tropics to the poles, and collected over 2500 oceanic samples to date. It is able to quantify >25 species over a boiling point range of 34–180 °C with Henry's law coefficients of 0.018 and greater (CH22l, kHcc dimensionless gas/aqueous and has been used to measure organic sulfurs, hydrocarbons, halocarbons and terpenes. In the eastern tropical Pacific, the high sensitivity and sampling frequency provided new information regarding the distribution of VSLS, including novel measurements of a photolytically driven diurnal cycle of CH22l within the surface ocean water.

  20. Technical note: New particle formation event forecasts during PEGASOS-Zeppelin Northern mission 2013 in Hyytiälä, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, T.; Yli-Juuti, T.; Manninen, H. E.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.

    2015-11-01

    New particle formation (NPF) occurs frequently in the global atmosphere. During recent years, detailed laboratory experiments combined with intensive field observations in different locations have provided insights into the vapours responsible for the initial formation of particles and their subsequent growth. In this regard, the importance of sulfuric acid, stabilizing bases such as ammonia and amines as well as extremely low volatile organics, have been proposed. The instrumentation to observe freshly formed aerosol particles has developed to a stage where the instruments can be implemented as part of airborne platforms, such as aircrafts or a Zeppelin-type airship. Flight measurements are technically more demanding and require a greater detail of planning than field studies at the ground level. The high cost of flight hours, limited time available during a single research flight for the measurements, and different instrument payloads in Zeppelin airship for various flight missions demanded an analysis tool that would forecast whether or not there is a good chance for an NPF event. Here we present a methodology to forecast NPF event probability at the SMEAR II site in Hyytiälä, Finland. This methodology was used to optimize flight hours during the PEGASOS (Pan-European Gas Aerosol Climate Interaction Study)-Zeppelin Northern mission in May-June 2013. Based on the existing knowledge, we derived a method for estimating the nucleation probability that utilizes forecast air mass trajectories, weather forecasts, and air quality model predictions. With the forecast tool we were able to predict the occurrence of NPF events for the next day with more than 90 % success rate (10 out of 11 NPF event days correctly predicted). To our knowledge, no similar forecasts of NPF occurrence have been developed for other sites. This method of forecasting NPF occurrence could be applied also at other locations, provided that long-term observations of conditions favouring particle

  1. Endoscopic Transseptal Approach with Posterior Nasal Spine Removal: A Wide Surgical Corridor to the Craniovertebral Junction and Odontoid: Technical Note and Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Zefferino; Milani, Davide; Nicolosi, Federico; Costa, Francesco; Lasio, Giovanni Battista; D'Angelo, Vincenzo Antonio; Fornari, Maurizio; Colombo, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    The transnasal approach to lesions involving the craniovertebral junction represents a technical challenge because of limited inferior exposure. The endoscopic transseptal approach (EtsA) with posterior nasal spine (PNS) removal is described. This technique can create a wide exposure of the craniovertebral junction, thereby increasing the caudal exposure. On patients undergoing anterior craniovertebral junction decompression, we calculated the degree of exposure on the sagittal plan through a paraseptal route, an EtsA without and with PNS removal. The horizontal exposure and working area with the latter approach were also evaluated. Five patients underwent the transnasal procedure. The age of patients ranged from 34-71 years. All patients harbored basilar impression. The mean postoperative Nurick grade (1, 8) was improved versus the average preoperative grade (3). The average follow-up duration was 16 months. All patients underwent occipitocervical fixation. The mean vertical distances, from the clinoid recess to the inferior most limit with the paraseptal approach, EtsA without and with PNS removal were 38.52, 44.12, and 51.16 mm, respectively. The difference between our approach and a standard paraseptal route was statistically significant (P = 0.041; P< 0.05). The mean horizontal distances were 31.68 mm (mononostril entry) and 35.37 mm (binostril entry). The mean working area was 1795.53 mm 2 . Endoscopic endonasal approaches to the craniovertebral junction are increasing, but the downward extension on the anterior cervical spine represents a limit. Therefore, many surgeons prefer transoral or transcervical approaches. The EtsA with PNS removal allows for a more caudal exposure than the standard paraseptal approach, with reduced nasal trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Percutaneous Biopsy and Radiofrequency Ablation of Osteoid Osteoma with Excess Reactive New Bone Formation and Cortical Thickening Using a Battery-Powered Drill for Access: A Technical Note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippiadis, D., E-mail: dfilippiadis@yahoo.gr; Gkizas, C., E-mail: chgkizas@gmail.com; Kostantos, C., E-mail: drkarpen@yahoo.gr; Mazioti, A., E-mail: argyromazioti@yahoo.gr; Reppas, L., E-mail: l.reppas@yahoo.com; Brountzos, E., E-mail: ebrountz@med.uoa.gr; Kelekis, N., E-mail: kelnik@med.uoa.gr; Kelekis, A., E-mail: akelekis@med.uoa.gr [University General Hospital “ATTIKON”, 2nd Radiology Department (Greece)

    2016-10-15

    PurposeTo report our experience with the use of a battery-powered drill in biopsy and radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteoma with excess reactive new bone formation. The battery-powered drill enables obtaining the sample while drilling.Materials and MethodsDuring the last 18 months, 14 patients suffering from painful osteoid osteoma with excess reactive new bone formation underwent CT-guided biopsy and radiofrequency ablation. In order to assess and sample the nidus of the osteoid osteoma, a battery-powered drill was used. Biopsy was performed in all cases. Then, coaxially, a radiofrequency electrode was inserted and ablation was performed with osteoid osteoma protocol. Procedure time (i.e., drilling including local anesthesia), amount of scans, technical and clinical success, and the results of biopsy are reported.ResultsAccess to the nidus through the excess reactive new bone formation was feasible in all cases. Median procedure time was 50.5 min. Histologic verification of osteoid osteoma was performed in all cases. Radiofrequency electrode was coaxially inserted within the nidus and ablation was successfully performed in all lesions. Median amount CT scans, performed to control correct positioning of the drill and precise electrode placement within the nidus was 11. There were no complications or material failure reported in our study.ConclusionsThe use of battery-powered drill facilitates access to the osteoid osteoma nidus in cases where excess reactive new bone formation is present. Biopsy needle can be used for channel creation during the access offering at the same time the possibility to extract bone samples.

  3. A hybrid clinical-research depth electrode for acute and chronic in vivo microelectrode recording of human brain neurons. Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M A; Volkov, I O; Granner, M A; Damasio, H M; Ollendieck, M C; Bakken, H E

    1996-01-01

    For several decades, important scientific information has been gained from in vivo microelectrode recordings of individual human cerebral cortical neurons in patients with epilepsy. The experimental methods used, however, are technically complex and require a highly skilled intraoperative team. There are also significant experimental time limitations, as well as constraints on the type of behavioral tests conducted, and the brain regions that may be safely studied. In this report, a new method is described for obtaining in vivo microelectrode recordings using a hybrid depth electrode (HDE). High-impedance research recording contacts are interspersed between low-impedance clinical electroencephalographic (EEG) contacts along the HDE shaft. The HDE has the same external physical properties as a standard clinical depth electrode (DE). Following preclinical laboratory testing, 15 HDEs were used in the evaluation of six patients with medically refractory epilepsy. High-quality EEG recordings were obtained in all cases (two acute intraoperative, four from the chronic epilepsy monitoring unit). Action potentials from individual neurons were successfully recorded during all experimental sessions; however, the chronic preparations were clearly superior. Chronic HDEs are placed using a standard stereotactic system, and the locations of recording contacts are documented on a postimplantation imaging study. The quality of the chronic research recordings was excellent over study periods ranging from 5 to 14 days. The patients rested comfortably on the ward and were able to cooperate with complex experimental instructions. Basic neuroscientists participated fully in all aspects of the chronic investigations. The use of an HDE in place of a standard clinical DE may now allow detailed physiological investigations of any brain region targeted for clinical DE implantation.

  4. Application note :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Thomas V.

    2013-08-01

    The development of the XyceTM Parallel Electronic Simulator has focused entirely on the creation of a fast, scalable simulation tool, and has not included any schematic capture or data visualization tools. This application note will describe how to use the open source schematic capture tool gschem and its associated netlist creation tool gnetlist to create basic circuit designs for Xyce, and how to access advanced features of Xyce that are not directly supported by either gschem or gnetlist.

  5. Technical Notes: Notes and Proposed Guidelines on Updated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In light of recent expansion in the planning and construction of major building structures as well as other infrastructures such as railways, masshousing, dams, bridges, etc, this paper reviews the extent of seismic hazard in Ethiopia and proposes a review and update of the current out-dated and - in most cases ...

  6. Technical Note: Simultaneous measurement of sedimentary N2 and N2O production and a modified 15N isotope pairing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, T.-C.; Kao, S.-J.

    2013-12-01

    Dinitrogen (N2) and/or nitrous oxide (N2O) are produced through denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) or nitrification in sediments, of which entangled processes complicate the absolute rate estimations of gaseous nitrogen production from individual pathways. The classical isotope pairing technique (IPT), the most common 15N nitrate enrichment method to quantify denitrification, has recently been modified by different researchers to (1) discriminate between the N2 produced by denitrification and anammox or to (2) provide a more accurate denitrification rate under considering production of both N2O and N2. In case 1, the revised IPT focused on N2 production being suitable for the environments of a low N2O-to-N2 production ratio, while in case 2, anammox was neglected. This paper develops a modified method to refine previous versions of IPT. Cryogenic traps were installed to separately preconcentrate N2 and N2O, thus allowing for subsequent measurement of the two gases generated in one sample vial. The precision is better than 2% for N2 (m/z 28, m/z 29 and m/z 30), and 1.5% for N2O (m/z 44, m/z 45 and m/z 46). Based on the six m/z peaks of the two gases, the 15N nitrate traceable processes including N2 and N2O from denitrification and N2 from anammox were estimated. Meanwhile, N2O produced by nitrification was estimated via the production rate of unlabeled 44N2O. To validate the applicability of our modified method, incubation experiments were conducted using sediment cores taken from the Danshuei Estuary in Taiwan. Rates of the aforementioned nitrogen removal processes were successfully determined. Moreover, N2O yield was as high as 66%, which would significantly bias previous IPT approaches if N2O was not considered. Our modified method not only complements previous versions of IPT but also provides more comprehensive information to advance our understanding of nitrogen dynamics of the water-sediment interface.

  7. Technical note: Influence of surface roughness and local turbulence on coated-wall flow tube experiments for gas uptake and kinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coated-wall flow tube reactors are frequently used to investigate gas uptake and heterogeneous or multiphase reaction kinetics under laminar flow conditions. Coating surface roughness may potentially distort the laminar flow pattern, induce turbulence and introduce uncertainties in the calculated uptake coefficient based on molecular diffusion assumptions (e.g., Brown/Cooney–Kim–Davis (CKD/Knopf–Pöschl–Shiraiwa (KPS methods, which has not been fully resolved in earlier studies. Here, we investigate the influence of surface roughness and local turbulence on coated-wall flow tube experiments for gas uptake and kinetic studies. According to laminar boundary theory and considering the specific flow conditions in a coated-wall flow tube, we derive and propose a critical height δc to evaluate turbulence effects in the design and analysis of coated-wall flow tube experiments. If a geometric coating thickness δg is larger than δc, the roughness elements of the coating may cause local turbulence and result in overestimation of the real uptake coefficient (γ. We further develop modified CKD/KPS methods (i.e., CKD-LT/KPS-LT to account for roughness-induced local turbulence effects. By combination of the original methods and their modified versions, the maximum error range of γCKD (derived with the CKD method or γKPS (derived with the KPS method can be quantified and finally γ can be constrained. When turbulence is generated, γCKD or γKPS can bear large difference compared to γ. Their difference becomes smaller for gas reactants with lower uptake (i.e., smaller γ and/or for a smaller ratio of the geometric coating thickness to the flow tube radius (δg ∕ R0. On the other hand, the critical height δc can also be adjusted by optimizing flow tube configurations and operating conditions (i.e., tube diameter, length, and flow velocity, to ensure not only unaffected laminar flow patterns but also other specific requirements for an

  8. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  9. Editors' note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Carsten; Feller, Alex; Schmidt, Wolfgang; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2012-11-01

    This topical issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes is a collection of reference articles covering the GREGOR solar telescope, its science capabilities, its subsystems, and its dedicated suite of instruments for high-resolution observations of the Sun. Because ground-based telescopes have life spans of several decades, it is only natural that they continuously reinvent themselves. Literally, the GREGOR telescope builds on the foundations of the venerable Gregory-Coudé Telescope (GCT) at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. Acknowledging the fact that new discoveries in observational solar physics are driven by larger apertures to collect more photons and to scrutinize the Sun in finer detail, the GCT was decommissioned and the building was made available to the GREGOR project.

  10. Editorial note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Hrymak, A.; Lee, J.

    2009-01-01

    industrial and educational applications. These articles will highlight theory, models, algorithms and applications with respect to value preservation and/or value creation or growth within the chemical product supply chain. To highlight and motivate research in the emerging challenges in PSE, we plan...... components of PSE—modeling, numerical analysis, optimization, systems and control theory, computer science, and, management science will be highlighted through the published articles (full-length papers, perspective papers, review papers, short notes and letters to the editor). They will cover...... and intelligent systems, integrated approaches to design, control and data analysis, systematic techniques for managing complexity, etc.), PSE emerging domains (product-process design, enterprise-wide optimization, energy and sustainability, biological engineering, pharmaceutical engineering, etc.) and novel...

  11. Editorial Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, F.; Ommen Kloeke, E.

    2015-07-01

    With this editorial note we would like to update you on the performance of the International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation (JAG) and inform you about changes that have been made to the composition of the editorial team. Our Journal publishes original papers that apply earth observation data for the management of natural resources and the environment. Environmental issues include biodiversity, land degradation, industrial pollution and natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods and landslides. As such the scope is broad and ranges from conceptual and more fundamental work on earth observation and geospatial sciences to the more problem-solving type of work. When I took over the role of Editor-in-Chief in 2012, I together with the Publisher set myself the mission to position JAG in the top-3 of the remote sensing and GIS journals. To do so we strived at attracting high quality and high impact papers to the journal and to reduce the review turnover time to make JAG a more attractive medium for publications. What has been achieved? Have we reached our ambitions? We can say that: The submissions have increased over the years with over 23% for the last 12 months. Naturally not all may lead to more papers, but at least a portion of the additional submissions should lead to a growth in journal content and quality.

  12. Note & Recensioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available VolumiVito Campanelli, Web Aesthetics. How Digital Media Affect Culture and Society; Id., Remix It Yourself. Analisi socio-estetica delle forme comunicative del Web [Emanuele Crescimanno] • Jean-François Bordron, Image et vérité. Essais sur les dimensions iconiques de la connaissance [Veronica Estay Stange] • Stéphane Dumas, Les peaux créatrices – Esthétique de la sécrétion [Marc-Vincent Howlett]NoteQuidam veritatis effectus. A proposito di A Plea for Balance in Philosophy. Essays in honour of Paolo Parrini [Fabrizio Desideri] • A Single Face to Capture the Whole World: Literary Shapes and Shadows. An Interview With Tolm Coibin [Fabrizia Abbate] •Convegno Le sensible a l’oeuvre: savoirs du corps entre esthetique et neurosciences, Parigi, 15 Maggio 2014 [Jessica Murano] 

  13. Technical note: Spine loading in automotive seating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenk, R.; Franz, M.; Bubb, H.; Vink, P.

    2012-01-01

    For car manufacturers, seat comfort is becoming more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. Therefore, many studies on participative seat comfort are carried out. In this paper, an objective assessment approach is reported which evaluates the concept of "optimal load

  14. Technical Note: Effect of Incorporating Expanded Polystyrene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, aects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction leads to reduction in both ...

  15. Letter Dice. Technical Note No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Jock

    Letter and syllable dice devised for a project in rural Ecuador provide inexpensive, easily reproducible learning materials for practice in basic literary skills. Eleven wooden cubes with six letters on each cube are cast onto a surface and the player constructs words from the letters on the top side of the dice. After a word is formed and…

  16. TECHNICAL NOTES SEISMIC SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    SEISMIC SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION AS A POTENTIAL TOOL FOR. ECONOMICAL ... ground motion at the interface with the rock. The soil can .... half space have an elastic modulus of E and a mass density of ρ . .... The trial solution to.

  17. The Facilitator. Technical Note No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Patricio; And Others

    This paper describes the concept, training, and experiences of community facilitators as change agents in a nonformal education project in rural Ecuador. Presently, the social, economic, and political context of the rural Ecuadorian consists of poverty, racial prejudice, economic exploitation, and psychological dependency. The project attempted to…

  18. Technical note: Design flood under hydrological uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botto, Anna; Ganora, Daniele; Claps, Pierluigi; Laio, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    Planning and verification of hydraulic infrastructures require a design estimate of hydrologic variables, usually provided by frequency analysis, and neglecting hydrologic uncertainty. However, when hydrologic uncertainty is accounted for, the design flood value for a specific return period is no longer a unique value, but is represented by a distribution of values. As a consequence, the design flood is no longer univocally defined, making the design process undetermined. The Uncertainty Compliant Design Flood Estimation (UNCODE) procedure is a novel approach that, starting from a range of possible design flood estimates obtained in uncertain conditions, converges to a single design value. This is obtained through a cost-benefit criterion with additional constraints that is numerically solved in a simulation framework. This paper contributes to promoting a practical use of the UNCODE procedure without resorting to numerical computation. A modified procedure is proposed by using a correction coefficient that modifies the standard (i.e., uncertainty-free) design value on the basis of sample length and return period only. The procedure is robust and parsimonious, as it does not require additional parameters with respect to the traditional uncertainty-free analysis. Simple equations to compute the correction term are provided for a number of probability distributions commonly used to represent the flood frequency curve. The UNCODE procedure, when coupled with this simple correction factor, provides a robust way to manage the hydrologic uncertainty and to go beyond the use of traditional safety factors. With all the other parameters being equal, an increase in the sample length reduces the correction factor, and thus the construction costs, while still keeping the same safety level.

  19. Technical note: Examining ozone deposition over seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface layer resistance plays an important role in determining ozone deposition velocity over sea-water and can be influenced by chemical interactions at the air-water interface. Here, we examine the effect of chemical interactions of iodide, dimethylsulfide, dissolved organic c...

  20. Freehand technique for putaminal hemorrhage. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosuka, Kimihiko; Uno, Masaaki; Hirano, Kazuhiro; Toi, Hiroyuki; Matsuzaki, Kazuhito; Matsubara, Shunji

    2011-01-01

    We designed a new endoscopic surgical procedure for putaminal hemorrhage (freehand technique) and evaluated its effectiveness and safety in patients with putaminal hemorrhage. Computed tomography (CT) data sets from 40 healthy patients were used. The CT data were transformed into three-dimensional images using AZE VirtualPlace Plus. The nasion and external auditory foramen were the intraoperative reference points. The median point from medial of the globus pallidus to the insula was the target point. The location of the burr hole point was 80-125 mm above and 27.5 mm lateral to the nasion, and the direction was parallel to the midline and a line drawn from the burr hole to the ipsilateral external auditory foramen. This point was used for 15 patients with putaminal hemorrhage. In all cases, only one puncture was required, and there were no complications. The median surgical time was 91.7 minutes, and the median hematoma removal rate was 95.9%. No recurrent bleeding or operative complications occurred. The freehand technique is a simple and safe technique for patients with putaminal hemorrhage. We believe that this technique of endoscopic hematoma evacuation may provide a less-invasive method for treating patients with putaminal hemorrhage. (author)

  1. "Technical note. Harmonization of the multi-scale multi-model activities HTAP, AQMEII and MICS-Asia: simulations, emission inventories, boundary conditions and output formats." For submission to ACP Special Issue on "Global and regional assessment of intercontinental transport of air pollution: results from HTAP, AQMEII and MICS"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ACP Special Issue is being organized to draw together analysis of a set of cooperative modeling experiments (referred to as HTAP2). The purpose of this technical note is to provide a common description of the experimental design and set up for HTAP2 that can be referred to b...

  2. technical note: technical note: on the correctness of load loss factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Load Loss Factor (LLF) is a function of the estimate of the losses between the grid supply point and the consumers. estimate ... i.e. the ratio of average demand to peak demand, and using this ratio to determine an approximation to the. LLF via ...

  3. Quantifiers and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.; Zajenkowski, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a study examining the role of working memory in quantifier verification. We created situations similar to the span task to compare numerical quantifiers of low and high rank, parity quantifiers and proportional quantifiers. The results enrich and support the data obtained

  4. Quantifiers and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.; Zajenkowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a study examining the role of working memory in quantifier verification. We created situations similar to the span task to compare numerical quantifiers of low and high rank, parity quantifiers and proportional quantifiers. The results enrich and support the data obtained

  5. Note Taking and Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Judith L.; Harris, Mary B.

    1974-01-01

    To study the effect of note taking and opportunity for review on subsequent recall, 88 college students were randomly assigned to five treatment groups utilizing different note taking and review combinations. No treatment effects were found, although quality of notes was positively correlated with free recall an multiple-choice measures.…

  6. Ensino técnico: uma necessidade ou uma falácia? Notas para a compreensão da filosofia do ensino técnico em Portugal e no Brasil - Technical teaching: a necessity or a fallacy? Notes for the comprehension of the philosophy of technical teaching in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alberto Marques Alves, Portugal.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 1024x768 Falar de ensino técnico obriga a cruzar vertentes científicas diversas - história, sociologia, economia - e contextualizar a informação no âmbito da História da Educação. A herança recebida do sistema corporativo, a partilha de responsabilidades entre público e privado, as expectativas sociais e económicas, a sua relação com o desenvolvimento e a difícil relação entre o nacional e o internacional são algumas das vertentes que importa analisar quando procuramos fazer um trajeto breve na dimensão mais alargada no tempo. Inserir ainda uma preocupação comparativa entre Portugal e Brasil, ainda que pontual, exige uma síntese das ideias nucleares marginalizando o acessório. Procura este artigo, numa cronologia que vai do século 18 aos fins do 20, elencar as mudanças de filosofia, de investimento, de credibilidade social e de necessidade económica.Palavras-chave: ensino técnico, profissionalização, capitalismo industrial, neoprofissionalismo, Portugal, Brasil, ensino secundário. TECHNICAL TEACHING: A NECESSITY OR A FALLACY? NOTES FOR THE COMPREHENSION OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF TECHNICAL TEACHING IN PORTUGAL AND BRAZILAbstractTo talk about technical teaching forces us to cross several scientific fields - history, sociology, economy - and to contextualize the information regarding the History of Education. The inheritance received from the corporative system, the share of responsibilities between public and private, the social and economical expectations, its relation with development and the difficult relation between national and international are some of the fields that we must analyse when we aim to create a path brief in its dimension but stretched in time. To also insert a comparative concern between Portugal and Brazil, even if punctual, demands a synthesis of the nuclear ideas marginalizing the accessory. This article aims to, in a chronology going from the 18 century to the late 20th, specify the changes in the

  7. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND REPORTS Record of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    50. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND. REPORTS. Record of Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus from Mukundara Hills Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan,. India. Sailaja Nayak1*, Sunny Shah2 and Jimmy Borah2 .... Prey status and abundance in Mukundara Hills Tiger. Reserve. Technical Report, WWF-India. Rao, J.P. ...

  8. Botswana - Accrual Accounting Policy Note and Guide

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This paper comprises two volumes: volume one, this concise policy and guidance note that deals with the request as outlined, and a volume two which provides more detailed technical guidance on the implementation of International Public Sector accounting Standards (IPSAS) accrual based standards. Recommended reforms directly relevant to this paper include: 1) fiscal reforms on both the reve...

  9. A note on notes: note taking and containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard B

    2007-07-01

    In extreme situations of massive projective identification, both the analyst and the patient may come to share a fantasy or belief that his or her own psychic reality will be annihilated if the psychic reality of the other is accepted or adopted (Britton 1998). In the example of' Dr. M and his patient, the paradoxical dilemma around note taking had highly specific transference meanings; it was not simply an instance of the generalized human response of distracted attention that Freud (1912) had spoken of, nor was it the destabilization of analytic functioning that I tried to describe in my work with Mr. L. Whether such meanings will always exist in these situations remains a matter to be determined by further clinical experience. In reopening a dialogue about note taking during sessions, I have attempted to move the discussion away from categorical injunctions about what analysis should or should not do, and instead to foster a more nuanced, dynamic, and pair-specific consideration of the analyst's functioning in the immediate context of the analytic relationship. There is, of course, a wide variety of listening styles among analysts, and each analyst's mental functioning may be affected differently by each patient whom the analyst sees. I have raised many questions in the hopes of stimulating an expanded discussion that will allow us to share our experiences and perhaps reach additional conclusions. Further consideration may lead us to decide whether note taking may have very different meanings for other analysts and analyst-patient pairs, and whether it may serve useful functions in addition to the one that I have described.

  10. The role of Multidetector CT in the evaluation of the left atrium and pulmonary veins anatomy before and after radio-frequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. Preliminary results and work in progress.Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centoze, Maurizio; Della Sala, Sabino Walter; Dalla Palma, Francesco; Del Greco, Maurizio; Marini, Massimiliano; Nollo, Giandomenico; Ravelli, Flavia

    2005-01-01

    Radio-frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of the distal pulmonary veins is increasingly being used to treat recurrent or refractory atrial fibrillation that doesn't respond to pharmacologic therapy or cardioversion. Successful RFCA of atrial al fibrillation depends on the pre-procedural understanding of the complex anatomy of the distal pulmonary veins and the left atrium. Aim of this parer is to describe the technical main features that characterise the multidetector helical computed tomography in the evaluation of this anatomic region before and after RFCA procedure. The 3D post-processing techniques useful for pre-RFCA planning are straightforward [it

  11. Technical note: In vitro digestibility of amylase-treated, ash-corrected neutral detergent fiber, with addition of sodium sulfite, at 240 hours with or without rumen fluid reinoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmonari, A; Canestrari, G; Bonfante, E; Fustini, M; Mammi, L; Formigoni, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term in vitro fermentation (240 h) evaluating amylase-treated, ash-corrected neutral detergent fiber, with addition of sodium sulfite (aNDFom) digestibility is required to quantify the indigestible fiber fraction. It is commonly accepted to inoculate rumen fluid more than one time during such fermentations, every 96 h or at 120 h. However, no studies have been conducted to verify if the reinoculation is actually required to properly carry out the fermentation process. The current study aims to evaluate the effects of these procedures on aNDFom digestibility at 240 h. The study was conducted on a total of 24 forage samples (8 alfalfa hays, 8 grass hays, and 8 corn silages). Samples were digested in triplicate at 240 h in vitro. Rumen fluid was added twice (at 96 and 192 h) in treatment 1, after 120 h in treatment 2, whereas no addition was made in treatment 3. At the end of the fermentations, residual aNDFom was quantified to calculate digestibility. Among treatments, no difference was found in digestibility of aNDFom. Moreover, treatment 1 resulted in higher variability compared with other treatments. Results obtained in the current study show that subsequent addition of rumen fluid is not necessary for a proper estimation of aNDFom digestibility, and can be avoided. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Summary list of CEA notes published by the French Atomic Energy Commission (April 1953 - September 1957)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1957-09-01

    This document is a summary list of the bibliographic references of all technical notes (CEA-N) published by the French Atomic Energy Commission between April 1953 and September 1957 (note number, authors, title)

  13. Summary list of CEA notes published by the French Atomic Energy Commission (October 1957 - January 1958)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    This document is a summary list of the bibliographic references of all technical notes (CEA-N) published by the French Atomic Energy Commission between October 1957 and January 1958 (note number, authors, title)

  14. On that Note...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Harry

    1988-01-01

    Provides suggestions for note-taking from books, lectures, visual presentations, and laboratory experiments to enhance student knowledge, memory, and length of attention span during instruction. Describes topical and structural outlines, visual mapping, charting, three-column note-taking, and concept mapping. Benefits and application of…

  15. Making Notes, Making Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Introduces notetaking tools used successfully with English-as-a-second-language students and low-achieving high school freshmen. Provides an overview of each tool and explains how students use them to take notes when reading textbooks and articles. Notes these tools and academic habits have helped students succeed in their mainstream academic…

  16. Quantifiers for quantum logic

    OpenAIRE

    Heunen, Chris

    2008-01-01

    We consider categorical logic on the category of Hilbert spaces. More generally, in fact, any pre-Hilbert category suffices. We characterise closed subobjects, and prove that they form orthomodular lattices. This shows that quantum logic is just an incarnation of categorical logic, enabling us to establish an existential quantifier for quantum logic, and conclude that there cannot be a universal quantifier.

  17. Semiannual report for the period October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980 of work on: (1) superconducting power transmission system development; (2) cable insulation development. Power Transmission Project Technical Note No. 106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-07

    Progress is reported in a program whose objective is to develop an underground superconducting power transmission system which is economical and technically attractive to the utility industry. The system would be capable of carrying very large blocks of electric power, and would supplant overhead lines in urban and suburban areas and regions of natural beauty. The program consisted initially of work in the laboratory to develop suitable materials, cryostats, and cable concepts. The materials work covers the development and testing of suitable superconductors and dielectric insulation. The laboratory work has now been extended to an outside test facility which represents an intermediate step between the laboratory scale and a full-scale system. The facility will allow cables several hundred feet long to be tested under realistic conditions. In addition, the refrigerator has been designed for optimum service for utility applications.

  18. MixedNotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokela, Tero; Lucero, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Affinity Diagramming is a technique to organize and make sense of qualitative data. It is commonly used in Contextual Design and HCI research. However, preparing notes for and building an Affinity Diagram remains a laborious process, with a wide variety of different approaches and practices....... In this paper, we present MixedNotes, a novel technique to prepare physical paper notes for Affinity Diagramming, and a software tool to support this technique. The technique has been tested with large real-life Affinity Diagrams with overall positive results....

  19. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  20. Lagos Notes and Records

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Lagos Notes and Records is an annual, interdisciplinary journal of the humanities. ... Insuring the Nation: Europeans and the Emergence of Modern Insurance Business in Colonial Nigeria ...

  1. Notes on Contributors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS. Samuel AMOAKO, Associate Researcher, South African Research Unit in Social Change. Contact Details: C/o Lucinda Bercony, Humanities Research Village (House No. 3). University of Johannesburg, P. O. Box 524. Bunting Road Campus, Auckland Park, 2006.

  2. NCEP Internal Office Notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and its predecessors have produced internal publications, known as Office Notes, since the mid-1950's. In...

  3. Writing a Condolence Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through the eyes of others. For example, a mother whose son had died found out that her ... few suggestions on ending your condolence note: “Our love and support will always be here for you.” “ ...

  4. Analytical dynamics course notes

    CERN Document Server

    Lindenbaum, Samuel D

    1994-01-01

    This book comprises a set of lecture notes on rational mechanics, for part of the graduate physics curriculum, delivered by the late Prof. Shirley L. Quimby during his tenure at Columbia University, New York. The notes contain proofs of basic theorems, derivations of formulae and amplification of observations, as well as the presentation and solution of illustrative problems. Collateral readings from more than 50 source references are indicated at appropriate places in the text.

  5. Analysis of medication adherence-related notes from a service-oriented community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witry, Matthew; Parry, Rachel; McDonough, Randal; Deninger, Michael

    2017-07-15

    Medication nonadherence is a significant public health problem. Community pharmacists are positioned to intervene, however, the process is not well understood. To classify and quantify the reasons for nonadherence documented by community pharmacists. A retrospective content analysis of pharmacist notes related to nonadherence at a service oriented community pharmacy in the Midwest United States. Notes from the site's dispensing custom documentation software were obtained from September 1, 2014 through February 28, 2015 that were labeled "compliance", either prompted by proportion of days covered calculations or entered as a drug therapy problem. A code list was iterated for the notes based on the literature and by reading the notes and generating descriptive codes. A reliability analysis was calculated for two coders. Notes were coded, check-coded, and discrepancies were resolved using a consensus process. Frequencies were calculated for each code and representative text was selected. Pharmacists documented 3491 notes as part of their continuous medication monitoring process. Nineteen codes were developed. The reliability for the coders had a Cohen's Kappa of 0.749. The majority of notes (61.4%) documented the pharmacist evaluated the refill and had no concerns or would continue to follow. Also documented were specific reasons for out of range PDCs not indicative of a nonadherence problem. Only 2.2% of notes specifically documented a nonadherence problem, such as forgetfulness or cost. While pharmacists encountered many false positive nonadherence alerts, following up with patients led to hundreds of discussions and clarifications about how patients use their medications at home. These results suggest a small minority of late refills are judged by pharmacists as indicative of an adherence problem, contrary to the prevailing literature. Pharmacists may benefit from modifying their approach to nonadherence interviewing and documentation as they seek to address

  6. Note Taking and Note Sharing While Browsing Campaign Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Scott P.; Vatrapu, Ravi; Abraham, George

    2009-01-01

    Participants were observed while searching and browsing the internet for campaign information in a mock-voting situation in three online note-taking conditions: No Notes, Private Notes, and Shared Notes. Note taking significantly influenced the manner in which participants browsed for information...

  7. Lecture notes for criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.

    1992-03-01

    These lecture notes for criticality safety are prepared for the training of Department of Energy supervisory, project management, and administrative staff. Technical training and basic mathematics are assumed. The notes are designed for a two-day course, taught by two lecturers. Video tapes may be used at the options of the instructors. The notes provide all the materials that are necessary but outside reading will assist in the fullest understanding. The course begins with a nuclear physics overview. The reader is led from the macroscopic world into the microscopic world of atoms and the elementary particles that constitute atoms. The particles, their masses and sizes and properties associated with radioactive decay and fission are introduced along with Einstein's mass-energy equivalence. Radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, radiation penetration, shielding and health-effects are discussed to understand protection in case of a criticality accident. Fission, the fission products, particles and energy released are presented to appreciate the dangers of criticality. Nuclear cross sections are introduced to understand the effectiveness of slow neutrons to produce fission. Chain reactors are presented as an economy; effective use of the neutrons from fission leads to more fission resulting in a power reactor or a criticality excursion. The six-factor formula is presented for managing the neutron budget. This leads to concepts of material and geometric buckling which are used in simple calculations to assure safety from criticality. Experimental measurements and computer code calculations of criticality are discussed. To emphasize the reality, historical criticality accidents are presented in a table with major ones discussed to provide lessons-learned. Finally, standards, NRC guides and regulations, and DOE orders relating to criticality protection are presented

  8. Prototipagem como forma alternativa para realização de cranioplastia com metilmetacrilato: nota técnica Prototyping as an alternative to cranioplasty using methylmethacrylate: technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Yacubian-Fernandes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A prototipagem, método de reconstrução de segmentos do corpo humano através de programas de computação, tem sido usada na neurocirurgia para reproduzir o crânio de pacientes permitindo a programação de atos cirúrgicos e a produção de próteses para reconstruir falhas ósseas no crânio. Apresentamos dois casos de cranioplastia realizadas com o uso de próteses de acrílico construídas por prototipagem. Após 10 meses de acompanhamento, os pacientes não apresentaram sinais de infecção e apresentam bom resultado estético. As vantagens apontadas na literatura para este método (redução do tempo cirúrgico, facilidade técnica e bom resultado estético foram observadas.The prototyping is a method for reconstruction of human body segments by computer software. It has been used in neurosurgery for cranial reproduction in patients allowing the programming of surgical procedures and the production of prosthesis to reconstruct bone failures in the skull. We present two cases of cranioplasty performed with the use of acrylic prosthesis constructed by prototyping. After 10 months of follow-up, they donot present signs of infection and show good aesthetic result. The advantages pointed at the literature for this method (reduction of surgical time, easy technical handle, and good aesthetic result were confirmed.

  9. Physicians’ Progress Notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen; Havn, Erling C.; Mønsted, Troels

    2013-01-01

    in patient care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of the progress notes. As a consequence, CSCW research has not yet taken fully into account the fact that progress notes are coordinative artifacts of a rather special kind, an open-ended chain of prose texts, written...... sequentially by cooperating physicians for their own use as well as for that of their colleagues. We argue that progress notes are the core of the medical record, in that they marshal and summarize the overwhelming amount of data that is available in the modern hospital environment, and that their narrative...... format is uniquely adequate for the pivotal epistemic aspect of cooperative clinical work: the narrative format enables physicians to not only record ‘facts’ but also—by filtering, interpreting, organizing, and qualifying information—to make sense and act concertedly under conditions of uncertainty...

  10. Technical writing versus technical writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillingham, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two terms, two job categories, 'technical writer' and 'technical author' are discussed in terms of industrial and business requirements and standards. A distinction between 'technical writing' and technical 'writing' is made. The term 'technical editor' is also considered. Problems inherent in the design of programs to prepare and train students for these jobs are discussed. A closer alliance between industry and academia is suggested as a means of preparing students with competent technical communication skills (especially writing and editing skills) and good technical skills.

  11. Grouping Notes Through Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie Jøhnk; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    , both individually and when grouped, and their role in categorisation in semantic long-term memory. To do this, we adopt a multimodal analytical approach focusing on interaction between humans, and between humans and artefacts, alongside language. We discuss in detail examples of four different...... externalisation functions served by Post-ItTM notes, and show how these functions are present in complex overlapping combinations rather than being discrete. We then show how the temporal development of Post-ItTM note interactions supports categorisation qualities of semantic long-term memory....

  12. Grouping Notes Through Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    2017-01-01

    , both individually and when grouped, and their role in categorisation in semantic long-term memory. To do this, we adopt a multimodal analytical approach focusing on interaction between humans, and between humans and artefacts, alongside language. We discuss in detail examples of four different...... externalisation functions served by Post-ItTM notes, and show how these functions are present in complex overlapping combinations rather than being discrete. We then show how the temporal development of Post-ItTM note interactions supports categorisation qualities of semantic long-term memory....

  13. Notes on Piezoelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-03

    These notes provide a pedagogical discussion of the physics of piezoelectricity. The exposition starts with a brief analysis of the classical (continuum) theory of piezoelectric phenomena in solids. The main subject of the notes is, however, a quantum mechanical analysis. We first derive the Frohlich Hamiltonian as part of the description of the electron-phonon interaction. The results of this analysis are then employed to derive the equations of piezoelectricity. A couple of examples with the zinc blende and and wurtzite structures are presented at the end

  14. "Plug" ósseo autógeno para orifícios de trepanação: nota técnica Autogenic bone plug to seal burr holes: technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSUÉ GUIMARÃES GRANHA VIALOGO

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Vários materiais são utilizados para ocluir os orifícios de trepanação em neurocirurgia, por motivos variados: para evitar fístula liquórica após trepanações, para auxiliar a fixação do "flap" ósseo e por motivos estéticos, na região frontal. Dentre estes materiais citamos os heterólogos (botões de silicone, miniplacas de metal, cera de osso, metilmetacrilato, gelfoam, cimento de polímero vegetal, cerâmica de hidroxiapatita, e os autólogos (pó de osso originado da trepanação, gordura, músculo, aponeurose. Os materiais heterólogos ou sintéticos podem provocar reação de corpo estranho com erosão da pele e exposição do material, tornando necessária sua retirada, em tempo variável no pós-operatório. Há cerca de três anos, o autor vem utilizando um botão ou "plug" ósseo autólogo, feito com surgicel e o pó de osso proveniente da trepanação, com bom resultado estético eliminando as desconfortáveis depressões cranianas pós-trepanação. Apresentamos a técnica de confecção deste prático `plug ósseo autólogo'. Nas neuroendoscopias, praticamente sanou-se o problema da fístula liquórica e reação de corpo estranho. Encorajamos a utilização deste botão ósseo autólogo em nosso meio, como método eficiente, econômico e biologicamente aceitável para ocluir orifícios cranianos de trepanação.Many neurosurgical procedures can be performed by a single burr hole: neuroendoscopy, microvascular decompression, stereotactic procedures, chronic subdural haematomas. It is technically difficult to suture and close the dura, located at the bottom of such holes, which can lately lead to CSF leakage. On the other hand, the surgical material used to seal the burr holes can be divided in heterogenic (metal screws, silicon plugs, gelfoam, bone wax, metilmetacrilate, hidroxiapatite, and autogenic (fat, aponeurosis, muscle, and bone dust from trephination. The heterogenic group always brings the possibility of

  15. Is Time Predictability Quantifiable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Computer architects and researchers in the realtime domain start to investigate processors and architectures optimized for real-time systems. Optimized for real-time systems means time predictable, i.e., architectures where it is possible to statically derive a tight bound of the worst......-case execution time. To compare different approaches we would like to quantify time predictability. That means we need to measure time predictability. In this paper we discuss the different approaches for these measurements and conclude that time predictability is practically not quantifiable. We can only...... compare the worst-case execution time bounds of different architectures....

  16. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of 'cold' and 'warm' materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  17. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of ‘cold’ and ‘warm’ materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  18. Quantifying requirements volatility effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Verhoef, C.

    2008-01-01

    In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements volatility. This representative portfolio

  19. The quantified relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaher, J.; Nyholm, S.R.; Earp, B.

    2018-01-01

    The growth of self-tracking and personal surveillance has given rise to the Quantified Self movement. Members of this movement seek to enhance their personal well-being, productivity, and self-actualization through the tracking and gamification of personal data. The technologies that make this

  20. Quantifying IT estimation risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Peters, R.J.; Verhoef, C.

    2009-01-01

    A statistical method is proposed for quantifying the impact of factors that influence the quality of the estimation of costs for IT-enabled business projects. We call these factors risk drivers as they influence the risk of the misestimation of project costs. The method can effortlessly be

  1. Note by Note: a New Revolution in Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Roisin; Danaher, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Note by note cooking is an application of Molecular Gastronomy. It was first proposed by French Physical Chemist and Molecular Gastronomy Co-founder, Hervé This. Note by Note dishes are being created as part of Ph.D. research in the Dublin Institute of Technology, Cathal Brugha Street.

  2. LHC Availability 2017: Technical Stop 1 to Technical Stop 2

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Apollonio, Andrea; Walsh, David John; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    This document summarises the LHC machine availability for the period of Technical Stop 1 (TS1) to Technical Stop 2 (TS2) in 2017. This period was dedicated to proton physics with a bunch spacing of 25ns. This note has been produced and ratified by the Availability Working Group which has complied fault information for the period in question using the Accelerator Fault Tracker.

  3. Limitaciones técnicas de los métodos para cuantificar tiroglobulina sérica y su repercusión clínica Technical limitations of methods to quantify the serum thyroglobulin and its clinical repercussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Rodríguez González

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La determinación de tiroglobulina sérica se emplea, sobre todo, como marcador tumoral en el seguimiento posoperatorio de pacientes con cáncer diferenciado del tiroides. Lamentablemente, los métodos de tiroglobulina sérica presentan gran variabilidad en sus cualidades analíticas y padecen problemas técnicos que repercuten sobre la utilidad clínica de esta prueba. Para cuantificar tiroglobulina sérica se emplean 2 tecnologías diferentes: los iniciales radioinmunoensayos competitivos y los más recientes métodos inmunométricos no competitivos. Estos últimos son más propensos a sufrir las interferencias provocadas por la presencia de autoanticuerpos tiroglobulina y anticuerpos heterofílicos, a pesar de brindar los beneficios técnicos relativos al uso de reactivos no isotópicos, menor volumen de muestra, tiempos de incubación más cortos, así como mejor sensibilidad y facilidad de automatización. Resulta esencial que los clínicos conozcan y comprendan las limitaciones técnicas inherentes a la determinación de tiroglobulina sérica y su repercusión sobre la utilidad clínica de esta, con la finalidad de hacer un uso efectivo y eficiente de esta prueba en el seguimiento posoperatorio de pacientes con cáncer diferenciado del tiroides.The serum thyroglobulin assessment is used mainly as tumor marker during the postoperative follow-up of patients presenting with thyroid differentiated cancer. Progressively, the serum thyroglobulin methods have much variability in its analytical qualities and also have technical problems affecting on the technical usefulness of this test. To quantify the serum thyroglobulin we used two different technologies: the initial competitive radioimmunoassays and the most recent non competitive inmunometrical methods. These latter are more prone to have interferences provoked by presence of thyroglobulin antibodies and heterophilic antibodies despite to offer technical beneficial relative to use of non

  4. Note Taking for Geography Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneale, Pauline E.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses geography students' questions about why, when, and how to take notes. Outlines a step-by-step process for taking notes from written sources and from class lectures. Discusses what types of notes are appropriate for various types of sources. Suggests some ideas for making notes useful for individual learning styles. (DSK)

  5. Quantifying light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution, defined as the alteration of the natural quantity of light in the night environment due to introduction of manmade light. With the introduction of recent radiative transfer methods for the computation of light pollution propagation, several new indicators become available. These indicators represent a primary step in light pollution quantification, beyond the bare evaluation of the night sky brightness, which is an observational effect integrated along the line of sight and thus lacking the three-dimensional information. - Highlights: • We review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution. • These indicators are a primary step in light pollution quantification. • These indicators allow to improve light pollution mapping from a 2D to a 3D grid. • These indicators allow carrying out a tomography of light pollution. • We show an application of this technique to an Italian region

  6. OpenLabNotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Franz, Michael; Tan, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    be advantageous if an ELN was Integrated with a laboratory information management system to allow for a comprehensive documentation of experimental work including the location of samples that were used in a particular experiment. Here, we present OpenLabNotes, which adds state-of-the-art ELN capabilities to Open......LabFramework, a powerful and flexible laboratory information management system. In contrast to comparable solutions, it allows to protect the intellectual property of its users by offering data protection with digital signatures. OpenLabNotes effectively Closes the gap between research documentation and sample management......, thus making Open-Lab Framework more attractive for laboratories that seek to increase productivity through electronic data management....

  7. A note on Marx

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Finn; Jensen, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Throughout all his life Karl Marx wrote angrily about capitalism. By use of a dialectic approach he was convinced that the working class had to unite and make a social revolution and thereby free them selves from exploitation. Marx himself was in many ways a dialectic person as we try to show in the note. So in some sense he became one with his scientific methodology.

  8. Methodology for technical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, L.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for and applied to the assessment of the technical risks associated with an evolving technology. This methodology, originally developed for fusion by K. W. Billman and F. R. Scott at EPRI, has been applied to assess the technical risk of a fuel system for a fusion reactor. Technical risk is defined as the risk that a particular technology or component which is currently under development will not achieve a set of required technical specifications (i.e. probability of failure). The individual steps in the technical risk assessment are summarized. The first step in this methodology is to clearly and completely quantify the technical requirements for the particular system being examined. The next step is to identify and define subsystems and various options which appear capable of achieving the required technical performance. The subsystem options are then characterized regarding subsystem functions, interface requirements with the subsystems and systems, important components, developmental obstacles and technical limitations. Key technical subsystem performance parameters are identified which directly or indirectly relate to the system technical specifications. Past, existing and future technical performance data from subsystem experts are obtained by using a Bayesian Interrogation technique. The input data is solicited in the form of probability functions. Thus the output performance of the system is expressed as probability functions

  9. Technical Note: Filler and superplasticizer usage on high strength concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sümer, M.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of filler (rock-dust usage on high strength concrete have been investigated through lab experiments and some results have been obtained. The experiments involved three series of concrete with different cement proportions of 375 kg/m3, 400 kg/m3, and 425 kg/m3. For each series of concrete, three different groups of samples have been prepared, the first one being the reference concrete which contained 0% chemical admixture and 0% filler, the second one contained 1.5% chemical admixture and 0% filler and finally the last group contained 1.5% chemical admixture and 5% filler to the weight of cement used. The chemical admixture used was a type of Super plasticizer with a brand name of “DARACEM 190”, and the cement used was Ordinary Portland Cement of target compressive strength 42.5 N/mm2, obtained from Nuh Cement Plant. For each batch, Slump Tests and Unit Weight Tests were performed. For each stage and group, two 15 cm cubic samples have been tested for Compressive Strength after being cured in water at 20 ± 2 °C for ages of 3 days, 7 days, 28 and 60 days. The total number of samples was 72. As a result, filler usage was found to reduce the porosity of Concrete, increase the Unit Weight of Concrete, increase the need for water and improve the Compressive Strength Properties of Concrete.En el presente trabajo se estudia la influencia de la utilización de un “filler” (polvo mineral en el comportamiento del hormigón de altas prestaciones. Para ello, se realizan ensayos de laboratorio en los que se emplean tres series de hormigón, cada una con una dosificación de cemento distinta, de 375, 400 y 425 kg/m3. Se preparan tres grupos de probetas de cada serie, el primero o de referencia con 0% de aditivo químico y 0% de “filler”, el segundo con un 1,5% del aditivo químico y 0% de “filler” y el tercero con un 1,5% del aditivo químico y un 5% de “filler” en peso del cemento. Como aditivo se utiliza un superplastificante de nombre comercial “DARACEM 190”, siendo el cemento, suministrado por la Nuh Cement Plant, de tipo Portland con una resistencia a la compresión característica de 42,5 N/mm2. En todas las amasadas se realizan los ensayos del cono de Abrams y de densidad. Para cada serie y grupo, se fabrican dos probetas cúbicas de 15 x 15 x 15 cm que se someten a ensayos de resistencia a la compresión, previo curado en agua a 20 ± 2 ºC durante 3, 7, 28 y 60 días. En total, se fabrican 72 probetas. Los resultados confirman que la utilización del “filler” reduce la porosidad del hormigón, aumentando tanto su densidad como su demanda de agua y mejorando sus propiedades mecánicas.

  10. Technical note: New table look-up lossless compression method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Three-dimensional digital projection in neurosurgical education: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carolina; Ribas, Eduardo Carvalhal; Rhoton, Albert L; Ribas, Guilherme Carvalhal

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional images have become an important tool in teaching surgical anatomy, and its didactic power is enhanced when combined with 3D surgical images and videos. This paper describes the method used by the last author (G.C.R.) since 2002 to project 3D anatomical and surgical images using a computer source. Projecting 3D images requires the superposition of 2 similar but slightly different images of the same object. The set of images, one mimicking the view of the left eye and the other mimicking the view of the right eye, constitute the stereoscopic pair and can be processed using anaglyphic or horizontal-vertical polarization of light for individual use or presentation to larger audiences. Classically, 3D projection could be obtained by using a double set of slides, projected through 2 slide projectors, each of them equipped with complementary filters, shooting over a medium that keeps light polarized (a silver screen) and having the audience wear appropriate glasses. More recently, a digital method of 3D projection has been perfected. In this method, a personal computer is used as the source of the images, which are arranged in a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation. A beam splitter device is used to connect the computer source to 2 digital, portable projectors. Filters, a silver screen, and glasses are used, similar to the classic method. Among other advantages, this method brings flexibility to 3D presentations by allowing the combination of 3D anatomical and surgical still images and videos. It eliminates the need for using film and film developing, lowering the costs of the process. In using small, powerful digital projectors, this method substitutes for the previous technology, without incurring a loss of quality, and enhances portability.

  12. Technical Note: Spot characteristic stability for proton pencil beam scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Cheng; Chang, Chang; Moyers, Michael F; Gao, Mingcheng; Mah, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    The spot characteristics for proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) were measured and analyzed over a 16 month period, which included one major site configuration update and six cyclotron interventions. The results provide a reference to establish the quality assurance (QA) frequency and tolerance for proton pencil beam scanning. A simple treatment plan was generated to produce an asymmetric 9-spot pattern distributed throughout a field of 16 × 18 cm for each of 18 proton energies (100.0-226.0 MeV). The delivered fluence distribution in air was measured using a phosphor screen based CCD camera at three planes perpendicular to the beam line axis (x-ray imaging isocenter and up/down stream 15.0 cm). The measured fluence distributions for each energy were analyzed using in-house programs which calculated the spot sizes and positional deviations of the Gaussian shaped spots. Compared to the spot characteristic data installed into the treatment planning system, the 16-month averaged deviations of the measured spot sizes at the isocenter plane were 2.30% and 1.38% in the IEC gantry x and y directions, respectively. The maximum deviation was 12.87% while the minimum deviation was 0.003%, both at the upstream plane. After the collinearity of the proton and x-ray imaging system isocenters was optimized, the positional deviations of the spots were all within 1.5 mm for all three planes. During the site configuration update, spot positions were found to deviate by 6 mm until the tuning parameters file was properly restored. For this beam delivery system, it is recommended to perform a spot size and position check at least monthly and any time after a database update or cyclotron intervention occurs. A spot size deviation tolerance of spot positions were <2 mm at any plane up/down stream 15 cm from the isocenter.

  13. Technical Note: Spot characteristic stability for proton pencil beam scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chin-Cheng; Chang, Chang; Mah, Dennis; Moyers, Michael F.; Gao, Mingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The spot characteristics for proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) were measured and analyzed over a 16 month period, which included one major site configuration update and six cyclotron interventions. The results provide a reference to establish the quality assurance (QA) frequency and tolerance for proton pencil beam scanning. Methods: A simple treatment plan was generated to produce an asymmetric 9-spot pattern distributed throughout a field of 16 × 18 cm for each of 18 proton energies (100.0–226.0 MeV). The delivered fluence distribution in air was measured using a phosphor screen based CCD camera at three planes perpendicular to the beam line axis (x-ray imaging isocenter and up/down stream 15.0 cm). The measured fluence distributions for each energy were analyzed using in-house programs which calculated the spot sizes and positional deviations of the Gaussian shaped spots. Results: Compared to the spot characteristic data installed into the treatment planning system, the 16-month averaged deviations of the measured spot sizes at the isocenter plane were 2.30% and 1.38% in the IEC gantry x and y directions, respectively. The maximum deviation was 12.87% while the minimum deviation was 0.003%, both at the upstream plane. After the collinearity of the proton and x-ray imaging system isocenters was optimized, the positional deviations of the spots were all within 1.5 mm for all three planes. During the site configuration update, spot positions were found to deviate by 6 mm until the tuning parameters file was properly restored. Conclusions: For this beam delivery system, it is recommended to perform a spot size and position check at least monthly and any time after a database update or cyclotron intervention occurs. A spot size deviation tolerance of <15% can be easily met with this delivery system. Deviations of spot positions were <2 mm at any plane up/down stream 15 cm from the isocenter

  14. Scaled multiple holes suction tip for microneurosurgery; Technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkarim Rahmanian, Associate Professor of Neurosurgery

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The new suction tip permits easy and precise adjustment of suction power in microneurosirgical operations. Our scaled 3 and 4-hole suction tip is a simple and useful device for controlling the suction power during the microneurosurgeical procedures.

  15. Zebra Mussel Research Technical Notes. Section 1 - Environmental Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...: Biology, Ecology, and Recommended Control Strategies, Larval Monitoring in a Chlorine Treatment Program to Prevent Zebra Mussel Settlement in Hydropower Facilities, Louisville District Initiates...

  16. A Technical Note on Australian Default Superannuation Investment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Iskra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Superannuation has become more complex over time. Individual investors are inclined to seek the ‘path of least resistance’ and invest in default investment funds which are typically concentrated in high risk assets. Understanding how these funds will meet the individual needs of members relative to their changing circumstances can provide peace of mind and confidence in the market. Given the value of superannuation as an investment in terms of the economy, it is paramount than an appropriate mechanism be in place for default fund investors. This paper will clarify the existing position relative to default fund investment options and outline future research which will provide the impetus for change in terms ofgovernment policy, the financial planning profession and for industry superannuation funds.

  17. Technical Note: Spot characteristic stability for proton pencil beam scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chin-Cheng, E-mail: chen.ccc@gmail.com; Chang, Chang; Mah, Dennis [ProCure Treatment Center, Somerset, New Jersey 08873 (United States); Moyers, Michael F. [ProCure Treatment Center, Somerset, New Jersey 08873 and Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center, Shanghai 201321 (China); Gao, Mingcheng [CDH Proton Center, Warrenville, Illinois 60555 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: The spot characteristics for proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) were measured and analyzed over a 16 month period, which included one major site configuration update and six cyclotron interventions. The results provide a reference to establish the quality assurance (QA) frequency and tolerance for proton pencil beam scanning. Methods: A simple treatment plan was generated to produce an asymmetric 9-spot pattern distributed throughout a field of 16 × 18 cm for each of 18 proton energies (100.0–226.0 MeV). The delivered fluence distribution in air was measured using a phosphor screen based CCD camera at three planes perpendicular to the beam line axis (x-ray imaging isocenter and up/down stream 15.0 cm). The measured fluence distributions for each energy were analyzed using in-house programs which calculated the spot sizes and positional deviations of the Gaussian shaped spots. Results: Compared to the spot characteristic data installed into the treatment planning system, the 16-month averaged deviations of the measured spot sizes at the isocenter plane were 2.30% and 1.38% in the IEC gantry x and y directions, respectively. The maximum deviation was 12.87% while the minimum deviation was 0.003%, both at the upstream plane. After the collinearity of the proton and x-ray imaging system isocenters was optimized, the positional deviations of the spots were all within 1.5 mm for all three planes. During the site configuration update, spot positions were found to deviate by 6 mm until the tuning parameters file was properly restored. Conclusions: For this beam delivery system, it is recommended to perform a spot size and position check at least monthly and any time after a database update or cyclotron intervention occurs. A spot size deviation tolerance of <15% can be easily met with this delivery system. Deviations of spot positions were <2 mm at any plane up/down stream 15 cm from the isocenter.

  18. Technical note: Equivalent genomic models with a residual polygenic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Goddard, M E; Hayes, B J; Reinhardt, F; Reents, R

    2016-03-01

    Routine genomic evaluations in animal breeding are usually based on either a BLUP with genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP) or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BLUP model. For a multi-step genomic evaluation, these 2 alternative genomic models were proven to give equivalent predictions for genomic reference animals. The model equivalence was verified also for young genotyped animals without phenotypes. Due to incomplete linkage disequilibrium of SNP markers to genes or causal mutations responsible for genetic inheritance of quantitative traits, SNP markers cannot explain all the genetic variance. A residual polygenic effect is normally fitted in the genomic model to account for the incomplete linkage disequilibrium. In this study, we start by showing the proof that the multi-step GBLUP and SNP BLUP models are equivalent for the reference animals, when they have a residual polygenic effect included. Second, the equivalence of both multi-step genomic models with a residual polygenic effect was also verified for young genotyped animals without phenotypes. Additionally, we derived formulas to convert genomic estimated breeding values of the GBLUP model to its components, direct genomic values and residual polygenic effect. Third, we made a proof that the equivalence of these 2 genomic models with a residual polygenic effect holds also for single-step genomic evaluation. Both the single-step GBLUP and SNP BLUP models lead to equal prediction for genotyped animals with phenotypes (e.g., reference animals), as well as for (young) genotyped animals without phenotypes. Finally, these 2 single-step genomic models with a residual polygenic effect were proven to be equivalent for estimation of SNP effects, too. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Technical Notes: Glare pollution in Urban areas | Gelan | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glare pollution is an unnatural element in the global environment that has emerged as a result of human beings inefficient and destructive use of technology and resources. It refers to the tangible and the intangible interaction of natural light reflecting off synthetic materials, for example sunlight on rooftops, walls, windows, ...

  20. Technical note: Measurement and expression of granular filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of dirty filter media at water treatment plants, despite having good backwash systems, is a serious challenge that requires constant monitoring and maintenance. To aid the systematic analysis of filter media and the troubleshooting of problem filters, this paper firstly proposes a standard procedure for ...

  1. Road-to-Birth Game. Technical Note No. 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Julie; Bialosiewicz, Frank

    Intended to help pregnant women in Third World regions acquire the attitudes and skills necessary to help them maintain their health and that of their unborn children, the game uses role playing and simulation to stress the importance of prenatal care, teach the recognition and treatment of common pregnancy problems and danger signals, and…

  2. Intraoperative Hypoglossal Nerve Mapping During Carotid Endarterectomy: Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Atsuhiro; Saga, Isako; Ishikawa, Mami

    2018-05-01

    Hypoglossal nerve deficit is a possible complication caused by carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The accidental injury of the hypoglossal nerve during surgery is one of the major reasons for permanent hypoglossal nerve palsy. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of intraoperative mapping of the hypoglossal nerve to identify this nerve during CEA. Five consecutive patients who underwent CEA for the treatment of symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis were studied. A hand-held probe was used to detect the hypoglossal nerve in the operative field, and the tongue motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded. The tongue MEPs were obtained in all the patients. The invisible hypoglossal nerve was successfully identified without any difficulty when the internal carotid artery was exposed. Intraoperative mapping was particularly useful for identifying the hypoglossal nerve when the hypoglossal nerve passed beneath the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. In 1 of 2 cases, MEP was also elicited when the ansa cervicalis was stimulated, although the resulting amplitude was much smaller than that obtained by direct stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve. Postoperatively, none of the patients presented with hypoglossal nerve palsy. Intraoperative hypoglossal nerve mapping enabled us to locate the invisible hypoglossal nerve during the exposure of the internal carotid artery accurately without retracting the posterior belly of the digastric muscle and other tissues in the vicinity of the internal carotid artery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Customizable rigid head fixation for infants: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayakumaran, Suhas; Onyia, Chiazor U

    2016-01-01

    The need and advantages of rigid fixation of the head in cranial surgeries are well documented (Berryhill et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121:269-273, 1999). Head fixation for neurosurgical procedures in infants and in early years has been a challenge and is fraught with risk. Despite the fact that pediatric pins are designed, rigid head fixation involving direct application of pins to the head of infants and slightly older children is still generally not safe (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). Yet, there are some surgeries in which some form of rigid fixation is required (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). We describe a simple technique to achieve rigid fixation of the head in infants for neurosurgical procedures. This involves applying a head band made of Plaster of Paris (POP) around the head and then applying the fixation pins of the fixation frame directly on to the POP. We have used this technique of head fixation successfully for infants with no complications.

  4. TECHNICAL NOTE LIQUID WASTE DISPOSAL IN URBAN LOW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the ideal case the liquid waste can safely be disposed of in a properly designed and integrated network of pipes, which collect and transmit the liquid waste into a treatment plant. However, such a system is costly and needs a substantial amount of initial investment to start operating and subsequently to maintain.

  5. Technical Note: Computation of Electric Field Strength Necessary for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obviously, electric field is established by this charge. The effects of this field on the objects lying within its vicinity depend on its intensity. In this paper, the electric field of 33kV overhead line is considered. The aim of the paper is to determine the maximum electric field strength or potential gradient, E of the 33kV overhead ...

  6. Technical notes: when all things are not equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John H

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses 2 questions. First, how useful is adult patients' information about health and healthcare when they use the Internet for a "health checkup"? We find that patietns' reports are very strongly associated with medical record information for blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose. Second, what are the biases in information from Internet respondents? Although we find that "health checkup" Internet users seem to be representative for patients in actual practice, much more research will be needed to fully address this question.

  7. Technical note: Combining quantile forecasts and predictive distributions of streamflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Konrad; Liechti, Katharina; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2017-11-01

    The enhanced availability of many different hydro-meteorological modelling and forecasting systems raises the issue of how to optimally combine this great deal of information. Especially the usage of deterministic and probabilistic forecasts with sometimes widely divergent predicted future streamflow values makes it even more complicated for decision makers to sift out the relevant information. In this study multiple streamflow forecast information will be aggregated based on several different predictive distributions, and quantile forecasts. For this combination the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) approach, the non-homogeneous Gaussian regression (NGR), also known as the ensemble model output statistic (EMOS) techniques, and a novel method called Beta-transformed linear pooling (BLP) will be applied. By the help of the quantile score (QS) and the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS), the combination results for the Sihl River in Switzerland with about 5 years of forecast data will be compared and the differences between the raw and optimally combined forecasts will be highlighted. The results demonstrate the importance of applying proper forecast combination methods for decision makers in the field of flood and water resource management.

  8. Technical Note: Methionine, a precursor of methane in living plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, K.; Althoff, F.; Greule, M.; Keppler, F.

    2015-03-01

    When terrestrial plants were identified as producers of the greenhouse gas methane, much discussion and debate ensued not only about their contribution to the global methane budget but also with regard to the validity of the observation itself. Although the phenomenon has now become more accepted for both living and dead plants, the mechanism of methane formation in living plants remains to be elucidated and its precursor compounds to be identified. We made use of stable isotope techniques to verify the in vivo formation of methane, and, in order to identify the carbon precursor, 13C positionally labeled organic compounds were employed. Here we show that the amino acid L-methionine acts as a methane precursor in living plants. Employing 13C-labeled methionine clearly identified the sulfur-bound methyl group of methionine as a carbon precursor of methane released from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Furthermore, when lavender plants were stressed physically, methane release rates and the stable carbon isotope values of the emitted methane greatly increased. Our results provide additional support that plants possess a mechanism for methane production and suggest that methionine might play an important role in the formation of methane in living plants, particularly under stress conditions.

  9. Technical note: Computer-manufactured inserts for prosthetic sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Joan E; McLean, Jake B; Cagle, John C; Gardner, David W; Allyn, Katheryn J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to use computer-aided design software and a tabletop 3-D additive manufacturing system to design and fabricate custom plastic inserts for trans-tibial prosthesis users. Shape quality of inserts was tested right after they were inserted into participant's test sockets and again after four weeks of wear. Inserts remained properly positioned and intact throughout testing. Right after insertion the inserts caused the socket to be slightly under-sized, by a mean of 0.11mm, approximately 55% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. After four weeks of wear the under-sizing was less, averaging 0.03mm, approximately 15% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. Thus the inserts settled into the sockets over time. If existing prosthetic design software packages were enhanced to conduct insert design and to automatically generate fabrication files for manufacturing, then computer manufactured inserts may offer advantages over traditional methods in terms of speed of fabrication, ease of design, modification, and record keeping. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Technical note: Alternatives to reduce adipose tissue sampling bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, G D; Wang, Y; Fadel, J G

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which nutritional and pharmaceutical factors can manipulate adipose tissue growth and development in production animals has direct and indirect effects in the profitability of an enterprise. Adipocyte cellularity (number and size) is a key biological response that is commonly measured in animal science research. The variability and sampling of adipocyte cellularity within a muscle has been addressed in previous studies, but no attempt to critically investigate these issues has been proposed in the literature. The present study evaluated 2 sampling techniques (random and systematic) in an attempt to minimize sampling bias and to determine the minimum number of samples from 1 to 15 needed to represent the overall adipose tissue in the muscle. Both sampling procedures were applied on adipose tissue samples dissected from 30 longissimus muscles from cattle finished either on grass or grain. Briefly, adipose tissue samples were fixed with osmium tetroxide, and size and number of adipocytes were determined by a Coulter Counter. These results were then fit in a finite mixture model to obtain distribution parameters of each sample. To evaluate the benefits of increasing number of samples and the advantage of the new sampling technique, the concept of acceptance ratio was used; simply stated, the higher the acceptance ratio, the better the representation of the overall population. As expected, a great improvement on the estimation of the overall adipocyte cellularity parameters was observed using both sampling techniques when sample size number increased from 1 to 15 samples, considering both techniques' acceptance ratio increased from approximately 3 to 25%. When comparing sampling techniques, the systematic procedure slightly improved parameters estimation. The results suggest that more detailed research using other sampling techniques may provide better estimates for minimum sampling.

  11. Technical Note: Assessment of Impact Damage to Apple Fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An impact damage assessment of fresh apple fruits was carried out to ascertain the effects of height and surfaces on bruise area and impact energy. Five different impact surfaces namely: Cardboard (E), wood (F), metal (G), plastic (H) and foam (I) were used for the experiment. The weighed fruits were dropped from different ...

  12. Technical Note: Homogeneity of Gafchromic EBT2 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Bernadette; Martisikova, Maria; Jaekel, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The self-developing Gafchromic EBT film is a radiochromic film, widely used for relative photon dosimetry. Recently, the manufacturer has replaced the well-investigated EBT film by the new Gafchromic EBT2 film. It has the same sensitive component and, in addition, it contains a yellow marker dye in order to protect the film against ambient light exposure and to serve as a base for corrections of small differences in film response. Furthermore, the configuration of the film layers as well as the binder material have been changed in comparison to the EBT film. When investigating the properties of EBT2 film, all characteristics were found to be similar to those of EBT film, except for the film response homogeneity. Thus, in this article special focus was put on examining the homogeneity of EBT2 film. Methods: A scan protocol established for EBT film and published previously was used. The uniformity of the film coloration was investigated for unirradiated and irradiated EBT2 film sheets. The dose response of EBT2 film was measured and the influence of film inhomogeneities on dose determination was evaluated. Results: Inhomogeneities in pixel values of up to ±3.7% within one film were detected. The relative inhomogeneities were found to be approximately independent of the dose. Nonuniformities of the film response lead to uncertainties in dose determination of ±8.7% at 1 Gy. When using net optical densities for dose calibration, uncertainties in dose determination amount to more than ±6%. Conclusions: EBT2 films from the lot investigated in this study show response inhomogeneities, which lead to uncertainties in dose determination exceeding the commonly accepted tolerance levels. It is important to test further EBT2 lots regarding homogeneity before using the film in clinical routine.

  13. Scarless abdominal fat graft harvest for neurosurgical procedures: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Victoria T; Duckworth, Edward A M

    2015-02-01

    Background Abdominal fat grafts are often harvested for use in skull base reconstruction and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak repairs, and for operations traversing the nasal sinuses or mastoid bone. Although the endoscopic transnasal surgery has gained significant popularity, in part because it is considered "scarless," a common adjunct, the abdominal fat graft, can result in a disfiguring scar across the abdomen. Objective This is the first report of a scarless abdominal fat graft technique for skull base reconstruction. Methods Ten patients with a median age of 56.5 years (range: 45-73 years) underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal tumor resection with intraumbilical fat graft harvest. Careful circumferential fat dissection at the umbilicus, with progressive retraction of the graft, was crucial to ensure maximal visualization and to prevent injury to the subcutaneous vessels and rectus fascia. Results Following reconstruction of the sellar skull base, all patients did well postoperatively with no evidence of CSF leak. At 12-week follow-up for all patients, there was no evidence of scar, intracavity hematoma, or wound infection. Conclusions Fat graft harvest through an intraumbilical incision results in a scar-free abdominal harvest, and is a useful procedural adjunct to complement "scarless" brain surgery.

  14. Technical note: An inorganic water chemistry dataset (1972–2011 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A national dataset of inorganic chemical data of surface waters (rivers, lakes, and dams) in South Africa is presented and made freely available. The dataset comprises more than 500 000 complete water analyses from 1972 up to 2011, collected from more than 2 000 sample monitoring stations in South Africa. The dataset ...

  15. Properties of selected superconductive materials, 1978 supplement. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.W.

    1978-10-01

    This report includes data on additional superconductive materials extracted from the world literature up to fall 1977 and is an addendum to the data set published in J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 5, no. 3, 581-821 (1976) (Reprint no. 84). The data presented are new values and have not been selected or compared to values (except for selected values of the elements) previously assembled by the Superconductive Materials Data Center. The properties included are composition, critical temperature, critical magnetic field, crystal structure and the results of negative experiments. Special tabulations of high magnetic field materials with Type II behavior and materials with organic components are included. All entries are keyed to the literature. A list of recent reviews centered on superconductive materials is included

  16. Technical note: Guide to groundwater monitoring for the coal industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well established in literature that the environmental impacts associated with the coal industry are numerous. In respect of South Africa's groundwater resources the major impact of the coal industry is a reduction in groundwater quantity and quality. There is therefore a need to proactively prevent or minimise these ...

  17. Technical note: River modelling to infer flood management framework

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    River hydraulic models have successfully identified the weaknesses and areas for improvement with respect to flooding in the Sarawak River system, and can also be used to support decisions on flood management measures. Often, the big question is 'how'. This paper demonstrates a theoretical flood management ...

  18. Technical note - the incorporation of ash content into gas content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creech, M.; Mahoney, M. [Powercoal Pty. Ltd., Budgewoi, NSW (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    For gas content analysis in recent years, it has been standard procedure to report results on a `dry ash free` (daf) basis, under the assumption that gas only adsorbs onto coaly material. In order to test the relationship between ash and gas content, samples of various rock types were taken from two drillholes in the Newcastle Coalfield. The results of this study confirmed the correlation between gas content and ash, providing an accurate means of relating gas contents for all carbonaceous rock types. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Technical Note: Calibration device for the krypton hygrometer KH20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Foken

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A calibration device for krypton hygrometers (KH20, Campbell Scientific, Inc. with variable path length is presented. This unit allows for in-situ calibrations of the krypton hygrometer, which is typically not very stable over time, during measuring campaigns. It was constructed mainly for application at high altitudes and low temperatures, where further improvements are needed to the IR-hygrometers which are normally used. The changing path length requires that a changing concentration of the absorber be simulated. Because oxygen absorbs more strongly than water vapour, the calibration is made against oxygen and transferred to water vapour. The design of the calibration instrument is made as one unit containing a stepper motor system, PC and humidity sensor. For the calibration, it is necessary to install the krypton hygrometer on this unit.

  20. Technical note: stress analysis of cellulosic-manure composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y.H. Ro; J.F. Hunt; R.E. Rowlands

    2017-01-01

    Ability to determine stresses in loaded, perforated cellulosic-manure composites from recorded temperature information was demonstrated. Being able to stress analyze such green materials addresses several societal issues. These include providing engineering members fabricated from materials that are suitable for developed and developing nations, relieving a troubling...

  1. Technical note: Significance and determination of fraction of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degree of destabilisation ä corresponds to the collision frequency factor áP in the Smoluchowski equation for the perikinetic coagulation. The degree of aggregation áA corresponds to the collision frequency factor áO in the Smoluchowski equation for orthokinetic coagulation. Keywords: non-separable particles, number ...

  2. Dural opening/removal for combined petrosal approach: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaka, Shunsuke; Asaoka, Katsuyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Taku; Yamaguchi, Shigeru

    2011-03-01

    Detailed descriptions of stepwise dural opening/removal for combined petrosal approach are presented. Following maximum bone work, the first dural incision was made along the undersurface of the temporal lobe parallel to the superior petrosal sinus. Posterior extension of the dural incision was made in a curved fashion, keeping away from the transverse-sigmoid junction and taking care to preserve the vein of Labbé. A second incision was made perpendicular to the first incision. After sectioning the superior petrosal sinus around the porus trigeminus, the incision was extended toward the posterior fossa dura in the middle fossa region. The tentorium was incised toward the incisura at a point just posterior to the entrance of the trochlear nerve. A third incision was made longitudinally between the superior petrosal sinus and the jugular bulb. A final incision was initiated perpendicular to the third incision in the presigmoid region and extended parallel to the superior petrosal sinus connecting the second incision. The dural complex consisting of the temporal lobe dura, the posterior fossa dura, and the freed tentorium could then be removed. In addition to extensive bone resection, our strategic cranial base dural opening/removal can yield true advantages for the combined petrosal approach.

  3. Technical note: Rapid calculation of genomic evaluations for new animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggans, G R; VanRaden, P M; Cooper, T A

    2015-03-01

    A method was developed to calculate preliminary genomic evaluations daily or weekly before the release of official monthly evaluations by processing only newly genotyped animals using estimates of single nucleotide polymorphism effects from the previous official evaluation. To minimize computing time, reliabilities and genomic inbreeding are not calculated, and fixed weights are used to combine genomic and traditional information. Correlations of preliminary and September official monthly evaluations for animals with genotypes that became usable after the extraction of genotypes for August 2014 evaluations were >0.99 for most Holstein traits. Correlations were lower for breeds with smaller population size. Earlier access to genomic evaluations benefits producers by enabling earlier culling decisions and genotyping laboratories by making workloads more uniform across the month. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 3-Dimensional printing guide template assisted percutaneous vertebroplasty: Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Lin, JiSheng; Yang, Yong; Xu, JunChuan; Fei, Qi

    2018-06-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) is currently considered as an effective treatment for pain caused by acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture. Recently, puncture-related complications are increasingly reported. It's important to find a precise technique to reduce the puncture-related complications. We report a case and discussed the novel surgical technique with step-by-step operating procedures, to introduce the precise PVP assisted by a 3-dimensional printing guide template. Based on the preoperative CT scan and infrared scan data, a well-designed individual guide template could be established in a 3-dimensional reconstruction software and printed out by a 3-dimensional printer. In real operation, by matching the guide template to patient's back skin, cement needles' insertion orientation and depth were easily established. Only 14 times C-arm fluoroscopy with HDF mode (total exposure dose was 4.5 mSv) were required during the procedure. The operation took only 17 min. Cement distribution in the vertebral body was very good without any puncture-related complications. Pain was significantly relieved after surgery. In conclusion, the novel precise 3-dimensional printing guide template system may allow (1) comprehensive visualization of the fractured vertebral body and the individual surgical planning, (2) the perfect fitting between skin and guide template to ensure the puncture stability and accuracy, and (3) increased puncture precision and decreased puncture-related complications, surgical time and radiation exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Technical note: Ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Engbæk, Marie; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested for ef...... no major effect on apparent animal health and performance traits, and the cannula proved useful for multiple samplings of ruminal contents in young calves.......Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested...... for effects on performance traits and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract compared with a control group not undergoing surgery. Five calves were ruminally cannulated at approximately 10 d of age and 5 matching calves were used as controls. All calves were fed milk replacer and a diet based on clover...

  6. Technical Note: SCUDA: A software platform for cumulative dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seyoun; McNutt, Todd; Quon, Harry; Wong, John; Lee, Junghoon, E-mail: rshekhar@childrensnational.org, E-mail: junghoon@jhu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Plishker, William [IGI Technologies, Inc., College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Shekhar, Raj, E-mail: rshekhar@childrensnational.org, E-mail: junghoon@jhu.edu [IGI Technologies, Inc., College Park, Maryland 20742 and Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children’s National Health System, Washington, DC 20010 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: Accurate tracking of anatomical changes and computation of actually delivered dose to the patient are critical for successful adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Additionally, efficient data management and fast processing are practically important for the adoption in clinic as ART involves a large amount of image and treatment data. The purpose of this study was to develop an accurate and efficient Software platform for CUmulative Dose Assessment (SCUDA) that can be seamlessly integrated into the clinical workflow. Methods: SCUDA consists of deformable image registration (DIR), segmentation, dose computation modules, and a graphical user interface. It is connected to our image PACS and radiotherapy informatics databases from which it automatically queries/retrieves patient images, radiotherapy plan, beam data, and daily treatment information, thus providing an efficient and unified workflow. For accurate registration of the planning CT and daily CBCTs, the authors iteratively correct CBCT intensities by matching local intensity histograms during the DIR process. Contours of the target tumor and critical structures are then propagated from the planning CT to daily CBCTs using the computed deformations. The actual delivered daily dose is computed using the registered CT and patient setup information by a superposition/convolution algorithm, and accumulated using the computed deformation fields. Both DIR and dose computation modules are accelerated by a graphics processing unit. Results: The cumulative dose computation process has been validated on 30 head and neck (HN) cancer cases, showing 3.5 ± 5.0 Gy (mean±STD) absolute mean dose differences between the planned and the actually delivered doses in the parotid glands. On average, DIR, dose computation, and segmentation take 20 s/fraction and 17 min for a 35-fraction treatment including additional computation for dose accumulation. Conclusions: The authors developed a unified software platform that provides accurate and efficient monitoring of anatomical changes and computation of actually delivered dose to the patient, thus realizing an efficient cumulative dose computation workflow. Evaluation on HN cases demonstrated the utility of our platform for monitoring the treatment quality and detecting significant dosimetric variations that are keys to successful ART.

  7. Technical Note: How to use Winbugs to infer animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Lars Holm

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with Bayesian inferences of animal models using Gibbs sampling. First, we suggest a general and efficient method for updating additive genetic effects, in which the computational cost is independent of the pedigree depth and increases linearly only with the size of the pedigree....... Second, we show how this approach can be used to draw inferences from a wide range of animal models using the computer package Winbugs. Finally, we illustrate the approach in a simulation study, in which the data are generated and analyzed using Winbugs according to a linear model with i.i.d errors...... having Student's t distributions. In conclusion, Winbugs can be used to make inferences in small-sized, quantitative, genetic data sets applying a wide range of animal models that are not yet standard in the animal breeding literature...

  8. Technical note: A linear model for predicting δ13 Cprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestle, William J; Hubbe, Mark; Smith, Erin K; Stevenson, Joseph M

    2015-08-01

    Development of a model for the prediction of δ(13) Cprotein from δ(13) Ccollagen and Δ(13) Cap-co . Model-generated values could, in turn, serve as "consumer" inputs for multisource mixture modeling of paleodiet. Linear regression analysis of previously published controlled diet data facilitated the development of a mathematical model for predicting δ(13) Cprotein (and an experimentally generated error term) from isotopic data routinely generated during the analysis of osseous remains (δ(13) Cco and Δ(13) Cap-co ). Regression analysis resulted in a two-term linear model (δ(13) Cprotein (%) = (0.78 × δ(13) Cco ) - (0.58× Δ(13) Cap-co ) - 4.7), possessing a high R-value of 0.93 (r(2)  = 0.86, P analysis of human osseous remains. These predicted values are ideal for use in multisource mixture modeling of dietary protein source contribution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Technical Note: Calibration and validation of geophysical observation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salama, M.S.; van der Velde, R.; van der Woerd, H.J.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Philippart, C.J.M.; Joseph, A.T.; O'Neill, P.E.; Lang, R.H.; Gish, T.; Werdell, P.J.; Su, Z.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method to calibrate and validate observational models that interrelate remotely sensed energy fluxes to geophysical variables of land and water surfaces. Coincident sets of remote sensing observation of visible and microwave radiations and geophysical data are assembled and subdivided

  10. Technical note Flood map development by coupling satellite maps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flood maps are important for local authorities in designing mitigation plans to minimise damage and loss due to flooding. In recent years, flood events in the Sarawak River Basin, Malaysia have caused damage to property, loss of life and disruption of productive activities. Currently, the available flood map for Sarawak River ...

  11. The Manufacture of Mail in Medieval Europe: A technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Alan R.

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available THE oldest specimen of interlinked mail yet found has been excavated from a 3rd cent. B. C. Celtic grave in Romania, and this was probably developed from protective garments made up of rings threaded onto cords, like netting. A fragment of such a garment has been found in a Hallstatt grave, perhaps of the 8th cent. B. C. in Bohemia. Representations of Roman soldiers prior to the 1st cent. A. D. show them clad in mail-shirts rather than in plate. Mail returned to favour in the straitened economic circumstances of the Migration Period. and. indeed. remained the basis of most personal armour in the Middle Ages until gradually replaced by plate again in the 15th cent.

    No disponible.

  12. Technical Note: On maximizing Cherenkov emissions from medical linear accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrock, Zachary; Yoon, Suk W; Gunasingha, Rathnayaka; Oldham, Mark; Adamson, Justus

    2018-04-19

    Cherenkov light during MV radiotherapy has recently found imaging and therapeutic applications but is challenged by relatively low fluence. Our purpose is to investigate the feasibility of increasing Cherenkov light production during MV radiotherapy by increasing photon energy and applying specialized beam-hardening filtration. GAMOS 5.0.0, a GEANT4-based framework for Monte Carlo simulations, was used to model standard clinical linear accelerator primary photon beams. The photon source was incident upon a 17.8 cm 3 cubic water phantom with a 94 cm source to surface distance. Dose and Cherenkov production was determined at depths of 3-9 cm. Filtration was simulated 15 cm below the photon beam source. Filter materials included aluminum, iron, and copper with thicknesses of 2-20 cm. Histories used depended on the level of attenuation from the filter, ranging from 100 million to 2 billion. Comparing average dose per history also allowed for evaluation of dose-rate reduction for different filters. Overall, increasing photon beam energy is more effective at improving Cherenkov production per unit dose than is filtration, with a standard 18 MV beam yielding 3.3-4.0× more photons than 6 MV. Introducing an aluminum filter into an unfiltered 2400 cGy/min 10 MV beam increases the Cherenkov production by 1.6-1.7×, while maintaining a clinical dose rate of 300 cGy/min, compared to increases of ~1.5× for iron and copper. Aluminum was also more effective than the standard flattening filter, with the increase over the unfiltered beam being 1.4-1.5× (maintaining 600 cGy/min dose rate) vs 1.3-1.4× for the standard flattening filter. Applying a 10 cm aluminum filter to a standard 18 MV, photon beam increased the Cherenkov production per unit dose to 3.9-4.3× beyond that of 6 MV (vs 3.3-4.0× for 18 MV with no aluminum filter). Through a combination of increasing photon energy and applying specialized beam-hardening filtration, the amount of Cherenkov photons per unit radiotherapy dose can be increased substantially. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Electrocautery skin incision for neurosurgery procedures--technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Naoki; Fukami, Tadateru; Nozaki, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The reluctance to incise skin with electrocautery is partly attributable to concerns about excessive scarring and poor wound healing. However, recently no difference was reported in wound complications between the cold scalpel and electrocautery scalpel. We assessed the safety and efficacy of electrocautery skin incision in 22 scalp incisions, including 4 cases of reoperation. Electrocautery skin incisions were created using a sharp needle electrode. The generator unit was set on cutting mode, with power of 6 W and 330 kHz sinusoid waveform. Subcutaneous dissections also used the sharp needle electrode, set on coagulating mode, with power of 10 W and 1 MHz pulse-modulated waveform. Galea incisions used a standard blade tip, set on coagulating mode, with power of 20 W and 1 MHz pulse-modulated waveform. Skin incision with the sharp needle electrode caused no charring of the wound. Little bleeding or oozing were observed and skin clips were not necessary. No wound complication such as necrosis or infection occurred. Electrocautery skin incisions for re-operations were also performed safely without complications. Electrocautery skin incision is sufficiently safe procedure not only for first operation but also for re-operation. Electrocautery skin incision is efficacious, especially for extended operation times, because of little blood loss from the edges of skin incision and possible avoidance of skin edge necrosis or alopecia caused by skin clips.

  14. Construction cost forecast model : model documentation and technical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Construction cost indices are generally estimated with Laspeyres, Paasche, or Fisher indices that allow changes : in the quantities of construction bid items, as well as changes in price to change the cost indices of those items. : These cost indices...

  15. Examination of Cervical Spine Histological Sections - A Technical Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Ullerup, Rita; Vesterby, Annie

    2006-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the cervical spine facet joints morphology and anatomy is increasingly important since improved understanding of clinical syndromes, such as whiplash injuries, and therapeutic interventions is based on this knowledge. So far systematic examination of the age-related morphology...... of these joints has not yet been performed, nor has any generally accepted histological classification system for degenerative changes in the cervical spine facet joints been proposed. In the case of whiplash injuries the presented histological method has particular relevance since it allows detailed description...

  16. Dangers of collapsible ventricular drainage systems. Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, A H; Wallace, D

    1982-02-01

    Ventricular drainage systems employing a collapsible plastic bag for fluid collection were postulated to cause an increasing back-pressure produced in part by the elasticity of the bag. This postulate was shown to be correct in an experimental situation. There was a logarithmic rise in cerebrospinal fluid pressure as the bag filled. By increasing the size of the bag, the problem was overcome.

  17. Examination of Cervical Spine Histological Sections - A Technical Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Ullerup, Rita; Vesterby, Annie

    2006-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the cervical spine facet joints morphology and anatomy is increasingly important since improved understanding of clinical syndromes, such as whiplash injuries, and therapeutic interventions is based on this knowledge. So far systematic examination of the age-related morphology...... of these joints has not yet been performed, nor has any generally accepted histological classification system for degenerative changes in the cervical spine facet joints been proposed. In the case of whiplash injuries the presented histological method has particular relevance since it allows detailed description...... of the anatomy and pathoanatomical status of the osteo-cartilagenous structures, including the facet joints from where a major portion of chronic whiplash patients experience their pain symptoms....

  18. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012......). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities...

  19. Notes on Laser Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    2008-01-01

    This note intends to motivate our effort toward the advent of new methods of particle acceleration, utilizing the fast rising laser technology. By illustrating the underlying principles in an intuitive manner and thus less jargon-clad fashion, we seek a direction in which we shall be able to properly control and harness the promise of laser acceleration. First we review the idea behind the laser wakefield. We then go on to examine ion acceleration by laser. We examine the sheath acceleration in particular and look for the future direction that allows orderly acceleration of ions in high energies

  20. MISCELLANEOUS BOTANICAL NOTES 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.G.H KOSTERMANS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1.   Durio  cupreus Ridley is considered to  represent a  distinct  species.2.   Durio wyatt-smithii Kosterm. is reported from Borneo.3.   Machilus nervosa Merr. represents Meliosma bontoeensis Merr.4.   Beilschmiedia brassii Allen represents Vavaea brassii (Allen Kosterm.5.   The author of the generic name Heritiera is Aiton.6.   Heritiera macrophylla (non Wall. Merr. is conspecific with H. ungus-tata Pierre.7.   Some specimens from N. Celebes, attributed formerly to H. sylvatica Merr., belong to H. arafurensis Kosterm.8.   Additional note on Heritiera littoralis Ait. and H. macrophylla Wall, ex Kurz.9.   Heritiera   montana   Kosterm.,   nov.   spec,   from   New   Guinea   and H. khidii Kosterm., nov. spec, from Northern Siam.10.   Additional note on Heritiera, novoguineensis Kosterm. and H. pereo-riacea Kosterm. and an undescribed species.11.   Heritiera acuminata Wall, ex Kurz represents a distinct species.12.   Heritiera  solomonensis  Kosterm.,  nov.  spec,  from the  Solomon  Isl.13.   A note on Firmiana bracteata A. DC.14.   Firmiana fulgens (Wall, ex King  Corner is based on a mixtum com-positum and has been the source of constant confusion. For the element, which occurs in Malaysia a new name is coined: F. malayana Kosterm. It does not occur in Tenasserim.15.   A revised bibliography of Firmiana colorata R. Br., F. pallens Stearn and F. malayana Kosterm. is presented.16.   Additional note on Firmiana hainanensis Kosterm.17.   Firmiana kerrii (Craib Kosterm., comb, nov., based on Sterculia kerrii Craib.18.   Additional specimens of Firmiana papuana Mildbr.19.   Cryptocarya hintonii Allen is referred to Primus as Primus hintonii (Allen  Kosterm.20.   Beilschmiedia wallichiana (G. Don   Kosterm., based on Sideroxylon wallichianum, G. Don, is described. Formerly it was relegated to Litsea by Kurz.21.   New species in Lauraceae: Beilschmiedia aborensis Kosterm., B

  1. Notes on functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    These notes are a record of a one semester course on Functional Analysis given by the author to second year Master of Statistics students at the Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi. Students taking this course have a strong background in real analysis, linear algebra, measure theory and probability, and the course proceeds rapidly from the definition of a normed linear space to the spectral theorem for bounded selfadjoint operators in a Hilbert space. The book is organised as twenty six lectures, each corresponding to a ninety minute class session. This may be helpful to teachers planning a course on this topic. Well prepared students can read it on their own.

  2. Imagining Technicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liboriussen, Bjarke; Plesner, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    to the elements of taste and skill. In the final analysis those references were synthesized as five imagined technicities: the architect, the engineer, the client, the Chinese, and the Virtual World native. Because technicities are often assumed and rarely discussed as actants who influence practice, their role......, this article focuses on innovative uses of virtual worlds in architecture. We interviewed architects, industrial designers and other practitioners. Conceptually supported by an understanding of technicity found in Cultural Studies, the interviews were then coded with a focus on interviewees’ references...... in cooperation and development of ICTs seems to pass unnoticed. However, since they are aligned into ICTs, technicities impact innovation....

  3. Teaching Furlow palatoplasty: the sticky note method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mona Mengyue; Kim, JeeHong; Jabbour, Noel

    2014-11-01

    The double-opposing Z-plasty (Furlow palatoplasty) procedure is a well-established method for palate repair in children. We propose a simple and easily accessible sticky note model to demonstrate the lengthening in palatal anatomy afforded by this technically challenging procedure. Our model involves creating a lengthened three-dimensional representation of the Z-plasty through making specified incisions and rearrangements of the palatal layers. The sticky note model was made a total of 20 times and length of the palate model pre and post Z-plasty was measured. The average length of the palate pre-procedure was 72 mm. The average length of the palate post procedure was 78.9 mm, showing an increase of 6.9 mm (9.6%). Our model provides an accurate and valuable educational tool that will aid in the visualization and understanding of the Furlow palatoplasty procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Technical Note A note on the occuffence of mycotoxins in cereals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    came from food companies, co-operatives, insurance compa- nies, millers, hospitals, rural ..... culture for the detection of mycotoxins. Letts. Appl. Microbiol. ... Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phytotoxins, Mexico City,. Mexico. TAKITANI, S.

  5. Quantifying global exergy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Weston A.

    2006-01-01

    Exergy is used as a common currency to assess and compare the reservoirs of theoretically extractable work we call energy resources. Resources consist of matter or energy with properties different from the predominant conditions in the environment. These differences can be classified as physical, chemical, or nuclear exergy. This paper identifies the primary exergy reservoirs that supply exergy to the biosphere and quantifies the intensive and extensive exergy of their derivative secondary reservoirs, or resources. The interconnecting accumulations and flows among these reservoirs are illustrated to show the path of exergy through the terrestrial system from input to its eventual natural or anthropogenic destruction. The results are intended to assist in evaluation of current resource utilization, help guide fundamental research to enable promising new energy technologies, and provide a basis for comparing the resource potential of future energy options that is independent of technology and cost

  6. Note e Recensioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a cura di Mariagrazia Portera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Volumi Winfried Menninghaus, La promessa della bellezza, [Fabrizio Desideri, p. 272] • David Rothenberg, Survival of the Beautiful. Art, Science and Evolution [Danae Crocchiola, p. 274] • Lev Manovich, Software Takes Command [Angela Maiello, p. 277]. Note Method in Aesthetics: Philosophy, Evolution and the Cognitive Sciences [Aaron Meskin, Matthew Kieran, Gregory Currie, p. 280] • L’Abitare possibile. Estetica, Architettura e New Media, Ravello, Auditorium Oscar Niemeyer, 28-30 maggio 2013 [Sara Matetich, p. 282] • Copenhagen Summer School in Phenomenology and Philosophy of Mind, University of Copenhagen, 12-16 Agosto 2013 [Raoul Frauenfelder, p. 289] • Ciò che è vivo e ciò che è morto nell’estetica di Archibald Ali- son. Nota a margine del convegno: Neoestetica ed emozione. Archibald Alison e l’estetica con- temporanea, Palermo, 4-5 ottobre 2013 [Giuseppe Pucci, p. 294

  7. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  8. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Angeler

    Full Text Available The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011 data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  9. Quantifying Anthropogenic Dust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Pierre, Caroline

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic land use and land cover change, including local environmental disturbances, moderate rates of wind-driven soil erosion and dust emission. These human-dust cycle interactions impact ecosystems and agricultural production, air quality, human health, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. While the impacts of land use activities and land management on aeolian processes can be profound, the interactions are often complex and assessments of anthropogenic dust loads at all scales remain highly uncertain. Here, we critically review the drivers of anthropogenic dust emission and current evaluation approaches. We then identify and describe opportunities to: (1) develop new conceptual frameworks and interdisciplinary approaches that draw on ecological state-and-transition models to improve the accuracy and relevance of assessments of anthropogenic dust emissions; (2) improve model fidelity and capacity for change detection to quantify anthropogenic impacts on aeolian processes; and (3) enhance field research and monitoring networks to support dust model applications to evaluate the impacts of disturbance processes on local to global-scale wind erosion and dust emissions.

  10. Quantifying loopy network architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Katifori

    Full Text Available Biology presents many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture containing closed loops at many different levels. Although a number of approaches have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework, the hierarchical loop decomposition, that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated graphs, such as artificial models and optimal distribution networks, as well as natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and vasculature of rat cerebral neocortex. We calculate various metrics based on the asymmetry, the cumulative size distribution and the Strahler bifurcation ratios of the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information (exact location of edges and nodes from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs.

  11. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  12. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  13. Quantifying the quiet epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    During the late 20th century numerical rating scales became central to the diagnosis of dementia and helped transform attitudes about its causes and prevalence. Concentrating largely on the development and use of the Blessed Dementia Scale, I argue that rating scales served professional ends during the 1960s and 1970s. They helped old age psychiatrists establish jurisdiction over conditions such as dementia and present their field as a vital component of the welfare state, where they argued that ‘reliable modes of diagnosis’ were vital to the allocation of resources. I show how these arguments appealed to politicians, funding bodies and patient groups, who agreed that dementia was a distinct disease and claimed research on its causes and prevention should be designated ‘top priority’. But I also show that worries about the replacement of clinical acumen with technical and depersonalized methods, which could conceivably be applied by anyone, led psychiatrists to stress that rating scales had their limits and could be used only by trained experts. PMID:25866448

  14. Y-Notes; Introductory Sessions on Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This chapter is divided into next parts: What is 'Y-Notes ; Young generation opening session; Nuclear education and transfer of know-how; Nuclear technology; Other applications of nuclear technology; Nuclear programs and technical cooperation; Political aspects; Environment and safety; Communication and public perception; Economics; Fuel cycle challenges; Video

  15. Using multiple linear regression techniques to quantify carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fallow ecosystems provide a significant carbon stock that can be quantified for inclusion in the accounts of global carbon budgets. Process and statistical models of productivity, though useful, are often technically rigid as the conditions for their application are not easy to satisfy. Multiple regression techniques have been ...

  16. FRAGSTATS: spatial pattern analysis program for quantifying landscape structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin McGarigal; Barbara J. Marks

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a program, FRAGSTATS, developed to quantify landscape structure. FRAGSTATS offers a comprehensive choice of landscape metrics and was designed to be as versatile as possible. The program is almost completely automated and thus requires little technical training. Two separate versions of FRAGSTATS exist: one for vector images and one for raster...

  17. Notes in Colombian Herpetology, II Notes in Colombian Herpetology, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn Emmett Reid

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lizard Genus Echinosaura (Teiidae in Colombia / Notes on the habits of the Tadpole-Carrying Frog Hyloxalus granuliventris / A New Marsupian Frog (Gastrotheca from Colombia The Lizard Genus Echinosaura (Teiidae in Colombia / Notes on the habits of the Tadpole-Carrying Frog Hyloxalus granuliventris / A New Marsupian Frog (Gastrotheca from Colombia.

  18. The Fallacy of Quantifying Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Defense AT&L: September–October 2012 18 The Fallacy of Quantifying Risk David E. Frick, Ph.D. Frick is a 35-year veteran of the Department of...a key to risk analysis was “choosing the right technique” of quantifying risk . The weakness in this argument stems not from the assertion that one...of information about the enemy), yet achiev- ing great outcomes. Attempts at quantifying risk are not, in and of themselves, objectionable. Prudence

  19. Quantifying the perceived risks associated with nuclear energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for quantifying and assessing perceived risks in an empirical manner. The analytical model provides for the identification and assignment of any number of quantifiable risk perception factors that can be incorporated within standard risk methodology. The set of risk perception factors used to demonstrate the model are those that have been identified by social and behavioural scientists as principal factors influencing people in their perception of risks associated with major technical issues. These same risk factors are commonly associated with nuclear energy issues. A rational means is proposed for determining and quantifying these risk factors for a given application. The model should contribute to improved understanding of the basis and logic of public risk perception and provide practical and effective means for addressing perceived risks when they arise over important technical issues and projects. (author)

  20. A note on axial symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetle, Christopher; Wilder, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    This note describes how to characterize and normalize an axial Killing field on a general Riemannian geometry or four-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. No global assumptions are necessary, such as that the orbits of the Killing field all have period 2π. Rather, any Killing field that vanishes at at least one point necessarily has the expected global properties. (note)

  1. The Anatomy of a Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Herb

    1986-01-01

    Suggests that students can learn the physics of a musical note by learning how to synthesize sounds on a computer. Discusses ADSR (attack, decay, sustain, and release of a note) and includes a program (with listing) which students can use to examine ADSR on a Commodore 64 microcomputer. (JN)

  2. Multidominance, ellipsis, and quantifier scope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, Tanja Maria Hugo

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides a novel perspective on the interaction between quantifier scope and ellipsis. It presents a detailed investigation of the scopal interaction between English negative indefinites, modals, and quantified phrases in ellipsis. One of the crucial observations is that a negative

  3. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience At the end of the first full-year running period of LHC, CMS is established as a reliable, robust and mature experiment. In particular common systems and infrastructure faults accounted for <0.6 % CMS downtime during LHC pp physics. Technical operation throughout the entire year was rather smooth, the main faults requiring UXC access being sub-detector power systems and rack-cooling turbines. All such problems were corrected during scheduled technical stops, in the shadow of tunnel access needed by the LHC, or in negotiated accesses or access extensions. Nevertheless, the number of necessary accesses to the UXC averaged more than one per week and the technical stops were inevitably packed with work packages, typically 30 being executed within a few days, placing a high load on the coordination and area management teams. It is an appropriate moment for CMS Technical Coordination to thank all those in many CERN departments and in the Collaboration, who were involved in CMS techni...

  4. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience Since the closure of the detector in February, the technical operation of CMS has been quite smooth and reliable. Some minor interventions in UXC were required to cure failures of power supplies, fans, readout boards and rack cooling connections, but all these failures were repaired in scheduled technical stops or parasitically during access dedicated to fixing LHC technical problems. The only occasion when CMS had to request an access between fills was to search for the source of an alarm from the leak-detection cables mounted in the DT racks. After a few minutes of diagnostic search, a leaking air-purge was found. Replacement was complete within 2 hours. This incident demonstrated once more the value of these leak detection cables; the system will be further extended (during the end of year technical stop) to cover more racks in UXC and the floor beneath the detector. The magnet has also been operating reliably and reacted correctly to the 14s power cut on 29 May (see below). In or...

  5. Technical endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalar, K.O.

    1988-01-01

    A survey is provided on different versions of endoscopes, taking into account the new developments of video endoscopy. With a variety of practical examples it is shown that technical tests using endoscopy are a demanding task for nondestructive testing, whose requirements can only be met on a customized basis. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Monday 9 February 2004 From 10:00 to 12:00 - IT Auditorium - bldg. 31, 3rd floor ANSOFT High-Frequency Seminar David Prestaux, Application Engineer, ANSOFT F-78535 BUC, France This Technical Training seminar will present two Ansoft application products: Ansoft HFSS and Ansoft Designer. Ansoft HFSS makes use of the Finite Element Method (FEM) to calculate field solutions from first principles. It can accurately predict all high-frequency behaviours such as dispersion, mode conversion, and losses due to materials and radiation. Ansoft Designer is a suite of design tools to fully integrate high-frequency, physics-based electromagnetic simulations into a seamless system-level simulation environment. Ansoft Designer uses a simple interface to give complete control over every design task, by a method allowing multiple solvers, Solver on Demand. • Introduction • Overview of the Ansoft Total solution • Ansoft HFSS 9...

  7. Quantifying the Benefits of NEC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Court, Georgia; Sharp, Lynda C

    2005-01-01

    ...). The white paper notes that NEC, through enabling "the ability to respond more quickly and precisely, will act as a force multiplier enabling our forces to achieve the desired effect through a smaller...

  8. Credit with Education and Title II Programs. Technical Note. Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Helen

    "Credit with Education" is a way to provide self-financing microfinance (or small-scale banking) to women, primarily in very poor rural areas, while at the same time providing education for business and family survival. Within the village banking environment, attempts to integrate education with village bank meetings have fallen into two…

  9. Note on the ABC Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Carella, N. A.

    2006-01-01

    This note imparts heuristic arguments and theorectical evidences that contradict the abc conjecture over the rational numbers. In addition, the rudimentary datails for transforming this problem into the doimain of equidistribution theory are provided.

  10. Lecture notes on quantum statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    These notes are meant to form the material for an introductory course on quantum statistics at the graduate level aimed at mathematical statisticians and probabilists No background in physics quantum or otherwise is required They are still far from complete

  11. Alcune Note di Analisi Matematica

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2011-01-01

    Lectures notes (in italian) of some arguments of classical analysis, with exercises. A particular emphasis to functional analysis and elementary operator algebra theory is given, by means of exercises and examples.

  12. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Overview From a technical perspective, CMS has been in “beam operation” state since 6th November. The detector is fully closed with all components operational and the magnetic field is normally at the nominal 3.8T. The UXC cavern is normally closed with the radiation veto set. Access to UXC is now only possible during downtimes of LHC. Such accesses must be carefully planned, documented and carried out in agreement with CMS Technical Coordination, Experimental Area Management, LHC programme coordination and the CCC. Material flow in and out of UXC is now strictly controlled. Access to USC remains possible at any time, although, for safety reasons, it is necessary to register with the shift crew in the control room before going down.It is obligatory for all material leaving UXC to pass through the underground buffer zone for RP scanning, database entry and appropriate labeling for traceability. Technical coordination (notably Stephane Bally and Christoph Schaefer), the shift crew and run ...

  13. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2011-01-01

    In this report we will review the main achievements of the Technical Stop and the progress of several centrally-managed projects to support CMS operation and maintenance and prepare the way for upgrades. Overview of the extended Technical Stop  The principal objectives of the extended Technical Stop affecting the detector itself were the installation of the TOTEM T1 telescopes on both ends, the readjustment of the alignment link-disk in YE-2, the replacement of the light-guide sleeves for all PMs of both HFs, and some repairs on TOTEM T2 and CASTOR. The most significant tasks were, however, concentrated on the supporting infrastructure. A detailed line-by-line leak search was performed in the C6F14 cooling system of the Tracker, followed by the installation of variable-frequency drives on the pump motors of the SS1 and SS2 tracker cooling plants to reduce pressure transients during start-up. In the electrical system, larger harmonic filters were installed in ...

  14. SAFETY INSTRUCTION AND SAFETY NOTE

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch

  15. Quantifiers in Russian Sign Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Paperno, D.; Keenan, E.L.

    2017-01-01

    After presenting some basic genetic, historical and typological information about Russian Sign Language, this chapter outlines the quantification patterns it expresses. It illustrates various semantic types of quantifiers, such as generalized existential, generalized universal, proportional,

  16. Quantified Self in de huisartsenpraktijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Martijn; Timmers, Bart; Kooiman, Thea; van Ittersum, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Quantified Self staat voor de zelfmetende mens. Het aantal mensen dat met zelf gegeneerde gezondheidsgegevens het zorgproces binnenwandelt gaat de komende jaren groeien. Verschillende soorten activity trackers en gezondheidsapplicaties voor de smartphone maken het relatief eenvoudig om persoonlijke

  17. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 30 March TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR From 9:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Technical conferences: 09:00 - 12:00 Data acquisition systems on PCs. Industrial measurement and control techniques. 13:00 - 16:00 Advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation. Measuring instruments and system components for teststand automation. Introductory courses: 09:00 - 12:00 DIAdem: Data analysis and presentation 13:00 - 16:00 Data acquisition with LabVIEW Language: English and French Free special seminar. Registration is recommended with National Instruments Switzerland (please sp...

  18. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 30 March TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR From 9:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Technical conferences: 09:00 - 12:00 Data acquisition systems on PCs. Industrial measurement and control techniques. 13:00 - 16:00 Advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation. Measuring instruments and system components for teststand automation. Introductory courses: 09:00 - 12:00 DIAdem: Data analysis and presentation 13:00 - 16:00 Data acquisition with LabVIEW Language: English and French Free special seminar. Registration is recommended with National Instruments Swi...

  19. Data Used in Quantified Reliability Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, Diana; Kleinhammer, Roger K.; Kahn, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Data is the crux to developing quantitative risk and reliability models, without the data there is no quantification. The means to find and identify reliability data or failure numbers to quantify fault tree models during conceptual and design phases is often the quagmire that precludes early decision makers consideration of potential risk drivers that will influence design. The analyst tasked with addressing a system or product reliability depends on the availability of data. But, where is does that data come from and what does it really apply to? Commercial industries, government agencies, and other international sources might have available data similar to what you are looking for. In general, internal and external technical reports and data based on similar and dissimilar equipment is often the first and only place checked. A common philosophy is "I have a number - that is good enough". But, is it? Have you ever considered the difference in reported data from various federal datasets and technical reports when compared to similar sources from national and/or international datasets? Just how well does your data compare? Understanding how the reported data was derived, and interpreting the information and details associated with the data is as important as the data itself.

  20. INDOT Technical Training Plan : [Technical Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of job classifications, increasing technical : performance expectations, licensing and certification requirements, : budget restrictions and frequent department : reorganization has made technical training of employees : more difficult, ...

  1. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Document Server

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2013-01-01

    For the reporting period, the CMS common systems and infrastructure worked well, without failures that caused significant data losses. One more disconnection of the magnet cold box occurred in the shadow of interruptions in data taking, caused by a series of technical faults. The recognition during 2012 that re-connection can only safely be done at around 2 T implies a minimum magnet recovery time of 12 hours and raises serious concerns about the number of ramping cycles of the magnet these incidents cause. This has triggered studies of how to make the cryo-system of the magnet more robust against failures. The proton-proton run ended just before the end-of-year CERN closure, during which CASTOR was installed on the negative end of CMS and both ZDC calorimeters were installed in TAN absorbers the LHC tunnel, in preparation for the heavy-ion run. The installation of CASTOR was an excellent “engineering test” of procedures for working in an activated environment. Despite some technical pr...

  2. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Austin Ball

    Summary of progress since last CMS week. Ten years of construction work have been completed. CMS is closed, in very close to the ideal low luminosity configuration, and performed well in the first tests with LHC beam. Behind this encouraging news is the story of a summer of intense commitment by many teams (from the collaboration and 3 CERN departments) working together, against the clock and despite many minor setbacks, to ensure that the experiment was ready to play a leading role in the excitement of September 10. Following beampipe bakeout and refill with pure neon, a magnificent effort by the ECAL group and the pt 5 technical crew made it possible to install and commission all 4 ECAL endcap Dees before the end of August. In the shadow of this activity, the barrel and forward pixel trackers and part of the beam monitoring were installed within the vac tank. The pt 5 technical teams then succeeded in safely removing the 20t installation tables and their support blocks from beneath the already installed ...

  3. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2011-01-01

      Operational experience 2011 CMS is approaching the end of a very successful year of operation. Proton- proton running ended in the late afternoon of 30th October with a stunning 5.73 fb–1 delivered by LHC, of which CMS recorded 5.22 fb–1. During heavy-ion operation, which continues until 7th December, both the accelerator and the CMS detector have also performed very well. Despite the encouraging overall reliability of technical operation, several infrastructure failures which occurred since the last Bulletin are worthy of mention, with one leading for the first time to significant data-loss. On 10th July, a CERN-wide power failure brought down essentially all services including the magnet, due to an MCS setting being left in “manual” after the recent technical stop, but there was no significant damage and the detector was operational before the LHC, despite a slow and tortuous recovery (one of several indications this year that there is room for improve...

  4. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-09-01

    Contents include articles entitled: House votes 309 to 107 to approve Texas compact; Nebraska governor hosts LLRW meeting; Southeast Compact considers funding proposal; Chem-Nuclear explores options re SC revenue requirements; Legislation sets revenue requirements for Barnwell; TCC meets: Supports CA request for technical assistance; DOE approves part of California's technical assistance request; State legislators discuss LLRW management for OH, IL, NC; Washington governor re Potential New Hanford Role; Federal court enjoins DOE from excluding WCS on new disposal; Appellate court in favor of DOE in surcharge rebates dispute; Hearing set for October in Ward Valley case; court rejects federal motion to dismiss Ward Valley suit; NE sues commission re veto over export authorizations; US Supreme Court dismisses line-item veto challenge; Department of Interior Inspector General investigation requested; USEC privatization plan approved; DOD finalizes LLRW disposal charter; Clinton nominates six DOE appointees; Congress moves FUSRAP to Army Corps of Engineers; Schaefer named interim director of USGS: Nichols leaves EPA: NRC Commissioner Rogers' term expires; NRC: CA ''Well-Quantified'' to license Ward Valley facility; EPA objects to state permit for Louisiana facility; Petitions submitted to EPA oppose Shintech permits; ECOS draft recommendations re Enviro programs; Legislation introduced to prohibit spent fuel shipments to the Goshutes; and HLW legislation ready for floor action

  5. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-09-01

    Contents include articles entitled: House votes 309 to 107 to approve Texas compact; Nebraska governor hosts LLRW meeting; Southeast Compact considers funding proposal; Chem-Nuclear explores options re SC revenue requirements; Legislation sets revenue requirements for Barnwell; TCC meets: Supports CA request for technical assistance; DOE approves part of California`s technical assistance request; State legislators discuss LLRW management for OH, IL, NC; Washington governor re Potential New Hanford Role; Federal court enjoins DOE from excluding WCS on new disposal; Appellate court in favor of DOE in surcharge rebates dispute; Hearing set for October in Ward Valley case; court rejects federal motion to dismiss Ward Valley suit; NE sues commission re veto over export authorizations; US Supreme Court dismisses line-item veto challenge; Department of Interior Inspector General investigation requested; USEC privatization plan approved; DOD finalizes LLRW disposal charter; Clinton nominates six DOE appointees; Congress moves FUSRAP to Army Corps of Engineers; Schaefer named interim director of USGS: Nichols leaves EPA: NRC Commissioner Rogers` term expires; NRC: CA ``Well-Quantified`` to license Ward Valley facility; EPA objects to state permit for Louisiana facility; Petitions submitted to EPA oppose Shintech permits; ECOS draft recommendations re Enviro programs; Legislation introduced to prohibit spent fuel shipments to the Goshutes; and HLW legislation ready for floor action.

  6. Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kullman, Mikael; Campillo, Javier; Dahlquist, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Globally, more than 50% of all people are living in cities today. Enhancing sustainability and efficiency of urban energy systems is thus of high priority for global sustainable development. The European research project PLEEC (Planning for Energy Efficient Cities) focuses on technological...

  7. TECHNICAL COURSES

    CERN Multimedia

    Enseignement Technique; Technical Training; Monique Duval - Tel. 74924

    2000-01-01

    C++ for Particle Physicists By Paul KUNZ Please note that Paul Kunz will be giving his very popular and highly recommended C++ course again on 20 ­ 24 November. The course costs 200 CHF, and advance registration is required. People with CERN EDH accounts can apply electronically directly from the Web course description page : C++ for Particle Physicists Team Visitors should ask their Group Leader to send an e-mail to the DTO of EP Division, M. Burri, referring to the ‘C++ for Particle Physicists’ course and giving their name, CERN ID number, the Team account number to which the course fee should be charged, and VERY IMPORTANTLY an email address to which an invitation to the course can be sent.

  8. TECHNICAL COURSES

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2000-01-01

    C++ for Particle Physicists By Paul KUNZ Please note that Paul Kunz will be giving his very popular and highly recommended C++ course again on 20 ­ 24 November. The course costs 200 CHF, and advance registration is required. People with CERN EDH accounts can apply electronically directly from the Web course description page : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ENSTEC/P9798/Software/cpppp_e.htm Team Visitors should ask their Group Leader to send an e-mail to the DTO of EP Division, M. Burri, referring to the ‘C++ for Particle Physicists’ course and giving their name, CERN ID number, the Team account number to which the course fee should be charged, and VERY IMPORTANTLY an email address to which an invitation to the course can be sent.

  9. Quantifying the uncertainty in heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlotte, Nicholas A; Heckerman, David; Lippert, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The use of mixed models to determine narrow-sense heritability and related quantities such as SNP heritability has received much recent attention. Less attention has been paid to the inherent variability in these estimates. One approach for quantifying variability in estimates of heritability is a frequentist approach, in which heritability is estimated using maximum likelihood and its variance is quantified through an asymptotic normal approximation. An alternative approach is to quantify the uncertainty in heritability through its Bayesian posterior distribution. In this paper, we develop the latter approach, make it computationally efficient and compare it to the frequentist approach. We show theoretically that, for a sufficiently large sample size and intermediate values of heritability, the two approaches provide similar results. Using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort, we show empirically that the two approaches can give different results and that the variance/uncertainty can remain large.

  10. Gaz de France. Operation note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  11. Technical presentation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    10 March 2010 DYNEOS 10:00 – 12:00 - Main Building, Room B, 61-1-009 Dyneos AG is active in the fields of photonics, laser and high-precision positioning. Our highly qualified engineer team has more than 30 years of experience in electro-optical solutions sales. The engineers are supported by a technical and administrative team. We are focused on the Swiss market and represent six suppliers (Coherent, PI Physik Instrumente, SIOS, Nanonics Imaging, APE, Ekspla) in order to give a qualified sales and service support to our customers. Our products are dedicated to the research field as well as to industry. In addition to standard catalog products, we offer custom designs to fulfill the specific needs of OEM customers or specific applications.

  12. Technical presentation

    CERN Document Server

    FP Department

    2009-01-01

    07 April 2009 Technical presentation by Leuze Electronics: 14.00 – 15.00, Main Building, Room 61-1-017 (Room A) Photoelectric sensors, data identification and transmission systems, image processing systems. We at Leuze Electronics are "the sensor people": we have been specialising in optoelectronic sensors and safety technology for accident prevention for over 40 years. Our dedicated staff are all highly customer oriented. Customers of Leuze Electronics can always rely on one thing – on us! •\tFounded in 1963 •\t740 employees •\t115 MEUR turnover •\t20 subsidiaries •\t3 production facilities in southern Germany Product groups: •\tPhotoelectric sensors •\tIdentification and measurements •\tSafety devices

  13. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2010-01-01

    Overview Once again, the bulk of this article reviews the intense activity of a recently completed shutdown, which, although quite unforeseeable until a few weeks before it started, proved by its success that our often advertised capability to conduct major maintenance within a two month period is real. Although safely completed, on-time to remarkable precision, the activity was not without incident, and highlighted our dependence on many experienced, specialist teams and their precise choreography. Even after the yoke was safely closed, magnet re-commissioning and beampipe pumpdown showed new and thought-provoking behaviour. The struggle to maintain adequate technical resources will be a pre-occupation over the coming months, in parallel with the start of truly sustained operation, for which various procedures are still being put in place. Planning for future shutdowns must now become a high priority, with many working groups and task forces already in existence to prepare infrastructure improvements and to...

  14. Technical presentation

    CERN Document Server

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    RADIOSPARES, the leading catalogue distributor of components (electronic, electrical, automation, etc.) and industrial supplies will be at CERN on Friday 3 October 2008 (Main Building, Room B, from 9.00 a.m. to 3.00 p.m.) to introduce its new 2008/2009 catalogue. This will be the opportunity for us to present our complete range of products in more detail: 400 000 part numbers available on our web site (Radiospares France, RS International, extended range of components from other manufacturers); our new services: quotations, search for products not included in the catalogue, SBP products (Small Batch Production: packaging in quantities adapted to customers’ requirements); partnership with our focus manufacturers; demonstration of the on-line purchasing tool implemented on our web site in conjunction with CERN. RADIOSPARES will be accompanied by representatives of FLUKE and TYCO ELECTRONICS, who will make presentations, demonstrate materials and answer any technical questio...

  15. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Tuesday 3 February 2004 From 09:00 to 13:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593, room 11 USB (Universal Serial Bus) CYPRESS Seminar Claudia Colombini, Field Application Engineer CYPRESS ActiveComp Electronic GmbH D-85077 MANCHING, Germany As a pioneer in USB, CYPRESS sets the standard for cost-effective solutions without sacrificing functionality, performance or reliability. Having shipped over 200 million USB devices, Cypress is the undisputed market leader and demonstrates unmatched USB expertise. With the industry's broadest selection of USB solutions, Cypress has the right silicon, software and support for every USB application, from Low-speed to High-Speed and USB On-The-Go (OTG). 9:00 - 10:30 Overview of USB systems. USB CYPRESS product overview. Peripherals: Low Speed, Full Speed, High Speed (1.1 and 2.0). Hub Solutions, Embedded Host Solutions, On-The-Go (OTG) and wireless USB. USB Development Tools (first part) 10:30 -...

  16. Churchill on Stalin: A note.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellman, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to draw attention to two limitations of Churchill's war memoirs as a source of accurate information about Stalin, his views ans actions. they concern, first Stalin's alleged remarks in 1942 about collectivisation, and second Stalin's allleged response to Churchill's

  17. Lecture notes on ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedbloed, J.P.

    1983-03-01

    Notes, prepared for a course of lectures held at the Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil (June-August 1978). An extensive theoretical treatment of the behaviour of hot plasmas caught in equations and mathematical models is presented in 12 chapters

  18. Developing INDCs: a guidance note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim; Bee, Skylar; Naswa, Prakriti

    needs and low capability, would need means of implementation (MoI) for adaptation and to take ambitious mitigation actions. Developing countries would include MoI needs in the context of mitigation and adaptation. The note explains briefly how countries can identify their unconditional contributions....

  19. A note on hypoplastic yielding

    OpenAIRE

    Nader, José Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This note discusses briefly the definition of yield surface in hypoplasticity in connection with the physical notion of yielding. The relation of yielding with the vanishing of the material time derivative of the stress tensor and the vanishing of the corotational stress rate is investigated.

  20. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2011-01-01

    1 Operational experience 2011 1.1 Overview Starting on a positive note, it is encouraging that, for the period of this report, the operation of CMS and its entire infrastructure at Point 5 was remarkably stable and efficient. No luminosity was lost due to failures of common systems or infrastructure. The major faults were two failures of rack ventilation turbines, a leak in a water pump in the endcap circuit and the first fast dump of the magnet since underground commissioning. As the rack ventilation units have two turbines, these single turbine failures were tolerated until the next possible access. The water pump survived until the end of the fill after which the circuit was switched to a reserve pump (which in principle is also possible “on the fly”). A faulty position controller of a cryo-valve serving the cryo-power leads caused a spontaneous closure of the valve leading to the fast dump of the magnet. In this case, CMS was lucky once again, since the incident happened on the first ...

  1. Downsizing Technical Communication Staff: The Risk to Corporate Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smudde, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that companies responding to the struggling economy are downsizing staff, including technical communicators. Maintains that such cutbacks affect not only employee confidence and productivity but also product quality, customer satisfaction, and future sales. States that technical communicators' critical knowledge is an asset that companies…

  2. 75 FR 33989 - Export Administration Regulations: Technical Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... 0694-AE69 Export Administration Regulations: Technical Corrections AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... section of Export Control Classification Number 2B001 and the other is in the Technical Note on Adjusted... language regarding certain performance criteria of turning machines covered by Export Control...

  3. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Austin Ball

    2013-01-01

      Since the last report, much visible progress has been made, as the LS1 programme approaches the halfway point. From early October, technical and safety shift-crew have been present around the clock, allowing detectors to stay switched on overnight, ensuring that safety systems are operational and instructions for non-expert shift-crew are clear. LS1 progress Throughout the summer, whilst the solenoid vacuum tank and YB0 surfaces were accessible, an extensive installation programme took place to prepare for Tracker colder operation and the PLT installation, in 2014, the Phase 1 Pixel Tracker installation, in 2016–’17, and the HCAL Phase 1 upgrade completion, ending in LS2. This included pipework for N2 or dry air to flush the Tracker bulkhead region, many sensors to monitor temperature and dew point in the Tracker and its service channels, heating wires outside the Tracker cooling bundles, supports for the new vacuum-jacketed, concentric, CO2 Pixel cooling lines, the PLT cool...

  4. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2012-01-01

      UXC + detectors As explained in detail in the November 2011 bulletin, the bellows unit at −18.5 m from the CMS interaction point was identified as a prime candidate for the regularly occurring pressure spikes which occasionally led to sustained severe background conditions in 2011, affecting dead time and data quality. Similar regions in LHC with vacuum instabilities were observed to be close to bellows, which radiography showed to have distorted RF-fingers — on removal, they proved to have been severely overheated. The plans for the Year-End Technical Stop were adapted to prioritise radiography of the bellows at 16 m to 18 m either end of CMS. Excellent work by the beam pipe, survey and heavy mechanical teams allowed the X-rays to be taken as planned on 20th December, showing that the bellow at −18.5m had an obvious non-conformity. The RF-fingers were found inside the end of the opposing flared pipe instead of outside. In addition, the overlap between fingers and...

  5. Notes on instrumentation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, G J

    2013-01-01

    Notes on Instrumentation and Control presents topics on pressure (i.e., U-tube manometers and elastic type gauges), temperature (i.e. glass thermometer, bi-metallic strip thermometer, filled system thermometer, vapor pressure thermometer), level, and flow measuring devices. The book describes other miscellaneous instruments, signal transmitting devices, supply and control systems, and monitoring systems. The theory of automatic control and semi-conductor devices are also considered. Marine engineers will find the book useful.

  6. Notes on modeling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    These notes present a high-level overview of how modeling and simulation are carried out by practitioners. The discussion is of a general nature; no specific techniques are examined but the activities associated with all modeling and simulation approaches are briefly addressed. There is also a discussion of validation and verification and, at the end, a section on why modeling and simulation are useful.

  7. Quantifying and simulating human sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quantifying and simulating human sensation – relating science and technology of indoor climate research Abstract In his doctoral thesis from 1970 civil engineer Povl Ole Fanger proposed that the understanding of indoor climate should focus on the comfort of the individual rather than averaged...... this understanding of human sensation was adjusted to technology. I will look into the construction of the equipment, what it measures and the relationship between theory, equipment and tradition....

  8. Quantifying emissions from spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous combustion can be a significant problem in the coal industry, not only due to the obvious safety hazard and the potential loss of valuable assets, but also with respect to the release of gaseous pollutants, especially CO2, from uncontrolled coal fires. This report reviews methodologies for measuring emissions from spontaneous combustion and discusses methods for quantifying, estimating and accounting for the purpose of preparing emission inventories.

  9. Technical innovation and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yang Cheol

    1982-08-15

    This book gives explanations of the conception of technical innovation, development plan in Korea, connection between technology and a growth factor in national income, problem of technical innovation in developing country, analysis on cooperation between a developed country and a developing country, evaluation and strategy of technical development in Korea, technical innovation of industry, management of technical industry, analysis of special condition in Korea.

  10. Technical innovation and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yang Cheol

    1982-08-01

    This book gives explanations of the conception of technical innovation, development plan in Korea, connection between technology and a growth factor in national income, problem of technical innovation in developing country, analysis on cooperation between a developed country and a developing country, evaluation and strategy of technical development in Korea, technical innovation of industry, management of technical industry, analysis of special condition in Korea.

  11. Revising Lecture Notes: How Revision, Pauses, and Partners Affect Note Taking and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Linlin; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Samuelson, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Note taking has been categorized as a two-stage process: the recording of notes and the review of notes. We contend that note taking might best involve a three-stage process where the missing stage is revision. This study investigated the benefits of revising lecture notes and addressed two questions: First, is revision more effective than…

  12. Notes on elementary particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Muirhead, William Hugh

    1972-01-01

    Notes of Elementary Particle Physics is a seven-chapter text that conveys the ideas on the state of elementary particle physics. This book emerged from an introductory course of 30 lectures on the subject given to first-year graduate students at the University of Liverpool. The opening chapter deals with pertinent terminologies in elementary particle physics. The succeeding three chapters cover the concepts of transition amplitudes, probabilities, relativistic wave equations and fields, and the interaction amplitude. The discussion then shifts to tests of electromagnetic interactions, particul

  13. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Programmation STEP7 niveau 1 : 14-17.9.2004 (4 jours) ANSYS : Thermal Analysis : 22 - 24.9.2004 (3 days) LabVIEW Migration 6 à 7 : 23.9.2004 (one day) ANSYS : Advanced Topics : 27.9 - 1.10.2004 (5 days) Word 2003 - niveau 2 : 27 & 28.9.2004 (2 jours) LabVIEW - Basics 1 : 27 - 29.9.2004 (3 days) MAGNE-04 : Magnétisme pour l'électrotechnique : 28 - 30.9.2004 (3 jours) LabVIEW - Basics 2 : 30.9 & 1.10.2004 (2 days) Introduction à Windows XP au CERN : 4.10.2004 (matin) FrontPage 2003 - niveau 1 : 7 & 8.10.04 (2 jours) Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 22.10.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes: 22.10.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Introduction à ANSYS : 23 - 26.11.2004 (4 jours) ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval 74924...

  14. Quantifying Quantum-Mechanical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jen-Hsiang; Chen, Shih-Hsuan; Li, Che-Ming

    2017-10-19

    The act of describing how a physical process changes a system is the basis for understanding observed phenomena. For quantum-mechanical processes in particular, the affect of processes on quantum states profoundly advances our knowledge of the natural world, from understanding counter-intuitive concepts to the development of wholly quantum-mechanical technology. Here, we show that quantum-mechanical processes can be quantified using a generic classical-process model through which any classical strategies of mimicry can be ruled out. We demonstrate the success of this formalism using fundamental processes postulated in quantum mechanics, the dynamics of open quantum systems, quantum-information processing, the fusion of entangled photon pairs, and the energy transfer in a photosynthetic pigment-protein complex. Since our framework does not depend on any specifics of the states being processed, it reveals a new class of correlations in the hierarchy between entanglement and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering and paves the way for the elaboration of a generic method for quantifying physical processes.

  15. Fiscal year 1981 scientific and technical reports, articles, papers, and presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, S. S. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography lists approximately 503 formal NASA technical reports, papers published in technical journals, and presentations by MSFC personnel in FY-1981. It also includes papers of MSFC contractors. Citations announced in the NASA scientific and technical information system are noted.

  16. Note-Making in Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    Note-making is one excellent method for helping students retain important points made by the teacher. Techniques that elementary and secondary social studies teacher can use to teach note-making skills are described. (RM)

  17. Taking notes as an interactive process

    OpenAIRE

    Hornig, Wolfgang

    1984-01-01

    Taking notes as an interactive process : how to improve students´ notes / Hornig W. ; Nowak, J. - In: Nowak, Johann: Textverstehen und Textrekonstruktion in Vorlesungen. - Augsburg : HDZ, 1984. - S. 227-253. - (Augsburger Studien zur Hochschuldidaktik ; 12)

  18. The new bank note distribution system

    OpenAIRE

    Gerrit Bilkes

    1997-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines the recent changes made to the way Canada's bank notes are distributed. The new system allows financial institutions to exchange notes directly with one another at designated points across the country, rather than through Bank of Canada agencies, as was previously the case. The institutions communicate with the Bank of Canada through a computerized inventory-management system. Two Bank of Canada operations centres monitor note quality and supply new notes ...

  19. What Predicts Skill in Lecture Note Taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peverly, Stephen T.; Ramaswamy, Vivek; Brown, Cindy; Sumowski, James; Alidoost, Moona; Garner, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of good lecture notes to test performance, very little is known about the cognitive processes that underlie effective lecture note taking. The primary purpose of the 2 studies reported (a pilot study and Study 1) was to investigate 3 processes hypothesized to be significantly related to quality of notes: transcription…

  20. Lecture notes on diophantine analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zannier, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    These lecture notes originate from a course delivered at the Scuola Normale in Pisa in 2006. Generally speaking, the prerequisites do not go beyond basic mathematical material and are accessible to many undergraduates. The contents mainly concern diophantine problems on affine curves, in practice describing the integer solutions of equations in two variables. This case historically suggested some major ideas for more general problems. Starting with linear and quadratic equations, the important connections with Diophantine Approximation are presented and Thue's celebrated results are proved in full detail. In later chapters more modern issues on heights of algebraic points are dealt with, and applied to a sharp quantitative treatment of the unit equation. The book also contains several Supplements, hinted exercises and an Appendix on recent work on heights.

  1. Lecture notes on wavelet transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic exposition of the basic ideas and results of wavelet analysis suitable for mathematicians, scientists, and engineers alike. The primary goal of this text is to show how different types of wavelets can be constructed, illustrate why they are such powerful tools in mathematical analysis, and demonstrate their use in applications. It also develops the required analytical knowledge and skills on the part of the reader, rather than focus on the importance of more abstract formulation with full mathematical rigor.  These notes differs from many textbooks with similar titles in that a major emphasis is placed on the thorough development of the underlying theory before introducing applications and modern topics such as fractional Fourier transforms, windowed canonical transforms, fractional wavelet transforms, fast wavelet transforms, spline wavelets, Daubechies wavelets, harmonic wavelets and non-uniform wavelets. The selection, arrangement, and presentation of the material in these ...

  2. Quantifying Pilot Visual Attention in Low Visibility Terminal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kyle K.; Arthur, J. J.; Latorella, Kara A.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Norman, Robert M.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying pilot visual behavior allows researchers to determine not only where a pilot is looking and when, but holds implications for specific behavioral tracking when these data are coupled with flight technical performance. Remote eye tracking systems have been integrated into simulators at NASA Langley with effectively no impact on the pilot environment. This paper discusses the installation and use of a remote eye tracking system. The data collection techniques from a complex human-in-the-loop (HITL) research experiment are discussed; especially, the data reduction algorithms and logic to transform raw eye tracking data into quantified visual behavior metrics, and analysis methods to interpret visual behavior. The findings suggest superior performance for Head-Up Display (HUD) and improved attentional behavior for Head-Down Display (HDD) implementations of Synthetic Vision System (SVS) technologies for low visibility terminal area operations. Keywords: eye tracking, flight deck, NextGen, human machine interface, aviation

  3. Strategy of technical innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ga Jong

    1990-12-01

    This book deals with policy of scientific technique and technical innovation such as research for development and types of technical innovation, historical development and process of technical innovation, economic growth, technology change and investment for research and development, structure and form of technical transfer with the meaning process, from, structure and theory, economic growth and investment of research and development with experiential analysis and case study on strategy of technical innovation in electron and fine chemical industry.

  4. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. Th...

  5. Quantifying sound quality in loudspeaker reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerends, John G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Kevin; van den Broek, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    We present PREQUEL: Perceptual Reproduction Quality Evaluation for Loudspeakers. Instead of quantifying the loudspeaker system itself, PREQUEL quantifies the overall loudspeakers' perceived sound quality by assessing their acoustic output using a set of music signals. This approach introduces a

  6. Quantifier Scope in Categorical Compositional Distributional Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In previous work with J. Hedges, we formalised a generalised quantifiers theory of natural language in categorical compositional distributional semantics with the help of bialgebras. In this paper, we show how quantifier scope ambiguity can be represented in that setting and how this representation can be generalised to branching quantifiers.

  7. Quantifying the vitamin D economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D enters the body through multiple routes and in a variety of chemical forms. Utilization varies with input, demand, and genetics. Vitamin D and its metabolites are carried in the blood on a Gc protein that has three principal alleles with differing binding affinities and ethnic prevalences. Three major metabolites are produced, which act via two routes, endocrine and autocrine/paracrine, and in two compartments, extracellular and intracellular. Metabolic consumption is influenced by physiological controls, noxious stimuli, and tissue demand. When administered as a supplement, varying dosing schedules produce major differences in serum metabolite profiles. To understand vitamin D's role in human physiology, it is necessary both to identify the foregoing entities, mechanisms, and pathways and, specifically, to quantify them. This review was performed to delineate the principal entities and transitions involved in the vitamin D economy, summarize the status of present knowledge of the applicable rates and masses, draw inferences about functions that are implicit in these quantifications, and point out implications for the determination of adequacy. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Quantify the complexity of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xingtian; Wu, Huixuan

    2017-11-01

    Many researchers have used Reynolds stress, power spectrum and Shannon entropy to characterize a turbulent flow, but few of them have measured the complexity of turbulence. Yet as this study shows, conventional turbulence statistics and Shannon entropy have limits when quantifying the flow complexity. Thus, it is necessary to introduce new complexity measures- such as topology complexity and excess information-to describe turbulence. Our test flow is a classic turbulent cylinder wake at Reynolds number 8100. Along the stream-wise direction, the flow becomes more isotropic and the magnitudes of normal Reynolds stresses decrease monotonically. These seem to indicate the flow dynamics becomes simpler downstream. However, the Shannon entropy keeps increasing along the flow direction and the dynamics seems to be more complex, because the large-scale vortices cascade to small eddies, the flow is less correlated and more unpredictable. In fact, these two contradictory observations partially describe the complexity of a turbulent wake. Our measurements (up to 40 diameters downstream the cylinder) show that the flow's degree-of-complexity actually increases firstly and then becomes a constant (or drops slightly) along the stream-wise direction. University of Kansas General Research Fund.

  9. Quantifying Cancer Risk from Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Alexander P; Richardson, David B

    2017-12-06

    Complex statistical models fitted to data from studies of atomic bomb survivors are used to estimate the human health effects of ionizing radiation exposures. We describe and illustrate an approach to estimate population risks from ionizing radiation exposure that relaxes many assumptions about radiation-related mortality. The approach draws on developments in methods for causal inference. The results offer a different way to quantify radiation's effects and show that conventional estimates of the population burden of excess cancer at high radiation doses are driven strongly by projecting outside the range of current data. Summary results obtained using the proposed approach are similar in magnitude to those obtained using conventional methods, although estimates of radiation-related excess cancers differ for many age, sex, and dose groups. At low doses relevant to typical exposures, the strength of evidence in data is surprisingly weak. Statements regarding human health effects at low doses rely strongly on the use of modeling assumptions. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Quantifying China's regional economic complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao

    2018-02-01

    China has experienced an outstanding economic expansion during the past decades, however, literature on non-monetary metrics that reveal the status of China's regional economic development are still lacking. In this paper, we fill this gap by quantifying the economic complexity of China's provinces through analyzing 25 years' firm data. First, we estimate the regional economic complexity index (ECI), and show that the overall time evolution of provinces' ECI is relatively stable and slow. Then, after linking ECI to the economic development and the income inequality, we find that the explanatory power of ECI is positive for the former but negative for the latter. Next, we compare different measures of economic diversity and explore their relationships with monetary macroeconomic indicators. Results show that the ECI index and the non-linear iteration based Fitness index are comparative, and they both have stronger explanatory power than other benchmark measures. Further multivariate regressions suggest the robustness of our results after controlling other socioeconomic factors. Our work moves forward a step towards better understanding China's regional economic development and non-monetary macroeconomic indicators.

  11. Quantifying and Reducing Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Vayujeet; Caples, David; Goins, Jordan; Herdman, Ashley; Pankey, Steven; Wren, Emily

    2018-06-01

    We describe the current level of light pollution in and around Kirksville, Missouri and around Anderson Mesa near Flagstaff, Arizona. We quantify the amount of light that is projected up towards the sky, instead of the ground, using Unihedron sky quality meters installed at various locations. We also present results from DSLR photometry of several standard stars, and compare the photometric quality of the data collected at locations with varying levels of light pollution. Presently, light fixture shields and ‘warm-colored’ lights are being installed on Truman State University’s campus in order to reduce light pollution. We discuss the experimental procedure we use to test the effectiveness of the different light fixtures shields in a controlled setting inside the Del and Norma Robison Planetarium.Apart from negatively affecting the quality of the night sky for astronomers, light pollution adversely affects migratory patterns of some animals and sleep-patterns in humans, increases our carbon footprint, and wastes resources and money. This problem threatens to get particularly acute with the increasing use of outdoor LED lamps. We conclude with a call to action to all professional and amateur astronomers to act against the growing nuisance of light pollution.

  12. Quantifying meniscal kinematics in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Brian H; Banks, Scott A; Pozzi, Antonio

    2017-11-06

    The dog has been used extensively as an experimental model to study meniscal treatments such as meniscectomy, meniscal repair, transplantation, and regeneration. However, there is very little information on meniscal kinematics in the dog. This study used MR imaging to quantify in vitro meniscal kinematics in loaded dog knees in four distinct poses: extension, flexion, internal, and external rotation. A new method was used to track the meniscal poses along the convex and posteriorly tilted tibial plateau. Meniscal displacements were large, displacing 13.5 and 13.7 mm posteriorly on average for the lateral and medial menisci during flexion (p = 0.90). The medial anterior horn and lateral posterior horns were the most mobile structures, showing average translations of 15.9 and 15.1 mm, respectively. Canine menisci are highly mobile and exhibit movements that correlate closely with the relative tibiofemoral positions. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Quantifying the invasiveness of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of invasive species has been explained by two contrasting but non-exclusive views: (i intrinsic factors make some species inherently good invaders; (ii species become invasive as a result of extrinsic ecological and genetic influences such as release from natural enemies, hybridization or other novel ecological and evolutionary interactions. These viewpoints are rarely distinguished but hinge on distinct mechanisms leading to different management scenarios. To improve tests of these hypotheses of invasion success we introduce a simple mathematical framework to quantify the invasiveness of species along two axes: (i interspecific differences in performance among native and introduced species within a region, and (ii intraspecific differences between populations of a species in its native and introduced ranges. Applying these equations to a sample dataset of occurrences of 1,416 plant species across Europe, Argentina, and South Africa, we found that many species are common in their native range but become rare following introduction; only a few introduced species become more common. Biogeographical factors limiting spread (e.g. biotic resistance, time of invasion therefore appear more common than those promoting invasion (e.g. enemy release. Invasiveness, as measured by occurrence data, is better explained by inter-specific variation in invasion potential than biogeographical changes in performance. We discuss how applying these comparisons to more detailed performance data would improve hypothesis testing in invasion biology and potentially lead to more efficient management strategies.

  14. Integrated cosmological probes: concordance quantified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicola, Andrina; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre, E-mail: andrina.nicola@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: adam.amara@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: alexandre.refregier@phys.ethz.ch [Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-10-01

    Assessing the consistency of parameter constraints derived from different cosmological probes is an important way to test the validity of the underlying cosmological model. In an earlier work [1], we computed constraints on cosmological parameters for ΛCDM from an integrated analysis of CMB temperature anisotropies and CMB lensing from Planck, galaxy clustering and weak lensing from SDSS, weak lensing from DES SV as well as Type Ia supernovae and Hubble parameter measurements. In this work, we extend this analysis and quantify the concordance between the derived constraints and those derived by the Planck Collaboration as well as WMAP9, SPT and ACT. As a measure for consistency, we use the Surprise statistic [2], which is based on the relative entropy. In the framework of a flat ΛCDM cosmological model, we find all data sets to be consistent with one another at a level of less than 1σ. We highlight that the relative entropy is sensitive to inconsistencies in the models that are used in different parts of the analysis. In particular, inconsistent assumptions for the neutrino mass break its invariance on the parameter choice. When consistent model assumptions are used, the data sets considered in this work all agree with each other and ΛCDM, without evidence for tensions.

  15. Quantifying uncertainty in nuclear analytical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    Laboratories to quantify the uncertainty of measurement results, and the fact that this standard is used as a basis for the development and implementation of quality management systems in many laboratories performing nuclear analytical measurements, triggered the demand for specific guidance to cover uncertainty issues of nuclear analytical methods. The demand was recognized by the IAEA and a series of examples was worked out by a group of consultants in 1998. The diversity and complexity of the topics addressed delayed the publication of a technical guidance report, but the exchange of views among the experts was also beneficial and led to numerous improvements and additions with respect to the initial version. This publication is intended to assist scientists using nuclear analytical methods in assessing and quantifying the sources of uncertainty of their measurements. The numerous examples provide a tool for applying the principles elaborated in the GUM and EURACHEM/CITAC publications to their specific fields of interest and for complying with the requirements of current quality management standards for testing and calibration laboratories. It also provides a means for the worldwide harmonization of approaches to uncertainty quantification and thereby contributes to enhanced comparability and competitiveness of nuclear analytical measurements

  16. Notes--"state of the art" surgical gastroenterology: the beginning of the voyage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlin, Valeriu; Saftoiu, Adrian; Rimbas, Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Since its birth, already 5 years ago, the interest for NOTES is still growing among surgeons and gastroenterologists. From the first report of transgastric peritoneoscopy, many interventions have been achieved in experimental animal models. Technical progress is mandatory to allow more complex...

  17. Lecture notes on: Electrical theory behind the measurement of body fluids with bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    The lecture notes describe how body fluid volumes can be measured/estimated using the technique bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS). The opening chapters assume little or none technical/mathematical knowledge and can hopefully be read by anyone interested in the techneque. Later chapters become more...

  18. The Effect of Note-Taking on University Students' Listening Comprehension of Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliçkaya, Ferit; Çokal Karadas, Derya

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of note-taking on comprehension of lectures by 44 undergraduate EFL students who are in the first year of their undergraduate level in the Department of Foreign Language Education in Middle East Technical University. The participants were divided into two groups, namely experimental and control groups. The…

  19. Notes on the quantum tetrahedron

    CERN Document Server

    Coquereaux, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This is a set of notes describing several aspects of the space of paths on ADE Dynkin diagrams, with a particular attention paid to the graph E6. Many results originally due to A. Ocneanu are here described in a very elementary way (manipulation of square or rectangular matrices). We define the concept of essential matrices for a graph and describe their module properties with respect to right and left actions of fusion algebras. In the case of the graph E6, essential matrices build up a right module with respect to its fusion algebra but a left module with respect to the fusion algebra of A11. We present two original results: 1) We show how to recover the Ocneanu graph of quantum symmetries of the Dynkin diagram E6 from the natural multiplication defined in the tensor square of its fusion algebra (the tensor product should be taken over a particular subalgebra); this is the Cayley graph for the two generators of the twelve dimensional algebra (E6 \\otimes_A3 E6); here A3 and E6 refer to the commutative fusion...

  20. Revisiting convergence: A research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rob

    2015-09-01

    A number of recent studies show that income inequality is declining between countries. In this research note, I question the significance of this trend by examining the role of initial conditions in producing convergence. An important (but neglected) property of inequality dynamics is the tendency for extreme distributions to become more moderate. When income disparities are large, the subsequent trend is biased toward convergence. Conversely, when initial conditions approach parity, divergence becomes the more likely long-term outcome. I apply this principle to trends in GDP PC across 127 countries during the 1980-2010 period. Using counterfactual analysis, I manipulate the initial level of inequality in GDP PC while holding constant each country's observed growth rate during the sample period. I find that the growth dynamics of GDP PC produce either convergence or divergence based simply on the initial distribution of income. The point of transition occurs at a moderate level of inequality, whether using population weights (Gini=.365) or not (Gini=.377). I conclude that the recent convergence observed in GDP PC is primarily a function of large income gaps between countries and would not have materialized at more moderate levels of initial inequality. By contrast, an examination of the pre-1950 period reveals divergent growth patterns that are not sensitive to initial conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Notes on the Spatial Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stipe Grgas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of ever-mounting evidence, amongst which is the “zone” problematic of the Zadar conference that occassioned these notes, it can be concluded that the spatial turn has insinuated itself as an all-pervading heuristic tool throughout the humanities and the social sciences. The extent to which space and spatiality have usurped the central stage in the various branches of reasearch can be gauged by admonishments that what we are witnessing is a new fundamentalism that has simply inverted the terms of the dualism of time and space (May and Thrift 2001: “Introduction”. According to Michael Dear the sway of space is manifested in multifold ways: in the ubiquity of spatial analysis in social theories and practices; in the explosion of publications devoted to the exploration of the interface of the social and the spatial; in the reintegration of human geography into various domains of knowledge; in the focus given to difference and the consequent diversification of theoretical and empirical practices; in a theoretically informed exploration of the relation between geographical knowledge and social action; and, finally, in the unprecedented proliferation of research agendas and publications pertaining to these isuuses (Dear 2001: 24. Two recent collections of papers are indicative of the ubiquity of spatial issues in scholarly work.

  2. Neural basis for generalized quantifier comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Corey T; Clark, Robin; Moore, Peachie; Devita, Christian; Grossman, Murray

    2005-01-01

    Generalized quantifiers like "all cars" are semantically well understood, yet we know little about their neural representation. Our model of quantifier processing includes a numerosity device, operations that combine number elements and working memory. Semantic theory posits two types of quantifiers: first-order quantifiers identify a number state (e.g. "at least 3") and higher-order quantifiers additionally require maintaining a number state actively in working memory for comparison with another state (e.g. "less than half"). We used BOLD fMRI to test the hypothesis that all quantifiers recruit inferior parietal cortex associated with numerosity, while only higher-order quantifiers recruit prefrontal cortex associated with executive resources like working memory. Our findings showed that first-order and higher-order quantifiers both recruit right inferior parietal cortex, suggesting that a numerosity component contributes to quantifier comprehension. Moreover, only probes of higher-order quantifiers recruited right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, suggesting involvement of executive resources like working memory. We also observed activation of thalamus and anterior cingulate that may be associated with selective attention. Our findings are consistent with a large-scale neural network centered in frontal and parietal cortex that supports comprehension of generalized quantifiers.

  3. Open Oncology Notes: A Qualitative Study of Oncology Patients' Experiences Reading Their Cancer Care Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayastha, Neha; Pollak, Kathryn I; LeBlanc, Thomas W

    2018-04-01

    Electronic medical records increasingly allow patients access to clinician notes. Although most believe that open notes benefits patients, some suggest negative consequences. Little is known about the experiences of patients with cancer reading their medical notes; thus we aimed to describe this qualitatively. We interviewed 20 adults with metastatic or incurable cancer receiving cancer treatment. The semistructured qualitative interviews included four segments: assessing their overall experience reading notes, discussing how notes affected their cancer care experiences, reading a real note with the interviewer, and making suggestions for improvement. We used a constant comparison approach to analyze these qualitative data. We found four themes. Patients reported that notes resulted in the following: (1) increased comprehension; (2) ameliorated uncertainty, relieved anxiety, and facilitated control; (3) increased trust; and (4) for a subset of patients, increased anxiety. Patients described increased comprehension because notes refreshed their memory and clarified their understanding of visits. This helped mitigate the unfamiliarity of cancer, addressing uncertainty and relieving anxiety. Notes facilitated control, empowering patients to ask clinicians more questions. The transparency of notes also increased trust in clinicians. For a subset of patients, however, notes were emotionally difficult to read and raised concerns. Patients identified medical jargon and repetition in notes as areas for improvement. Most patients thought that reading notes improved their care experiences. A small subset of patients experienced increased distress. As reading notes becomes a routine part of the patient experience, physicians might want to elicit and address concerns that arise from notes, thereby further engaging patients in their care.

  4. Station Program Note Pull Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Upon commencement of my internship, I was in charge of maintaining the CoFR (Certificate of Flight Readiness) Tool. The tool acquires data from existing Excel workbooks on NASA's and Boeing's databases to create a new spreadsheet listing out all the potential safety concerns for upcoming flights and software transitions. Since the application was written in Visual Basic, I had to learn a new programming language and prepare to handle any malfunctions within the program. Shortly afterwards, I was given the assignment to automate the Station Program Note (SPN) Pull process. I developed an application, in Python, that generated a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that will be used by the International Space Station Safety & Mission Assurance team here at Johnson Space Center. The application will allow its users to download online files with the click of a button, import SPN's based on three different pulls, instantly manipulate and filter spreadsheets, and compare the three sources to determine which active SPN's (Station Program Notes) must be reviewed for any upcoming flights, missions, and/or software transitions. Initially, to perform the NASA SPN pull (one of three), I had created the program to allow the user to login to a secure webpage that stores data, input specific parameters, and retrieve the desired SPN's based on their inputs. However, to avoid any conflicts with sustainment, I altered it so that the user may login and download the NASA file independently. After the user has downloaded the file with the click of a button, I defined the program to check for any outdated or pre-existing files, for successful downloads, to acquire the spreadsheet, convert it from a text file to a comma separated file and finally into an Excel spreadsheet to be filtered and later scrutinized for specific SPN numbers. Once this file has been automatically manipulated to provide only the SPN numbers that are desired, they are stored in a global variable, shown on the GUI, and

  5. Technical Assistance Plan (TAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Technical Assistance Plan (TAP) enables community groups to retain the services of an independent technical advisor and to provide resources for a community group to help inform other community members about site decisions.

  6. Technical report writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoli, Carol A.

    1992-01-01

    This manual covers the fundamentals of organizing, writing, and reviewing NASA technical reports. It was written to improve the writing skills of LeRC technical authors and the overall quality of their reports.

  7. Technical Report Writing Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riordan, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Section 1: Technical Communication Basics (8 chapters on tech com, audiences, tech com process, tech com style, researching, designing pages, using visual aids, describing). Section 2: Technical Communication Applications (7 chapters on sets of instructions, informal reports and email, developing...

  8. Technical training: places available

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  9. Technical training - places available

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or have any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  10. Technical training: places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tél : 74924)  

  11. VANDAL technical overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, M.D.

    1989-07-01

    This document is concerned with the technicalities of the VANDAL code and covers the technical details of each of the systems modules in turn. Covered are SAMPLING, FLOW, VAULT, GEOSPHERE, BIOSPHERE and TIMESTEPPING. (author)

  12. Technical training: places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or have any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  13. Technical training: places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or have any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Marie Lahchimi, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  14. Detecting clinically relevant new information in clinical notes across specialties and settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Arsoniadis, Elliot G; Lee, Janet T; Wang, Yan; Melton, Genevieve B

    2017-07-05

    Automated methods for identifying clinically relevant new versus redundant information in electronic health record (EHR) clinical notes is useful for clinicians and researchers involved in patient care and clinical research, respectively. We evaluated methods to automatically identify clinically relevant new information in clinical notes, and compared the quantity of redundant information across specialties and clinical settings. Statistical language models augmented with semantic similarity measures were evaluated as a means to detect and quantify clinically relevant new and redundant information over longitudinal clinical notes for a given patient. A corpus of 591 progress notes over 40 inpatient admissions was annotated for new information longitudinally by physicians to generate a reference standard. Note redundancy between various specialties was evaluated on 71,021 outpatient notes and 64,695 inpatient notes from 500 solid organ transplant patients (April 2015 through August 2015). Our best method achieved at best performance of 0.87 recall, 0.62 precision, and 0.72 F-measure. Addition of semantic similarity metrics compared to baseline improved recall but otherwise resulted in similar performance. While outpatient and inpatient notes had relatively similar levels of high redundancy (61% and 68%, respectively), redundancy differed by author specialty with mean redundancy of 75%, 66%, 57%, and 55% observed in pediatric, internal medicine, psychiatry and surgical notes, respectively. Automated techniques with statistical language models for detecting redundant versus clinically relevant new information in clinical notes do not improve with the addition of semantic similarity measures. While levels of redundancy seem relatively similar in the inpatient and ambulatory settings in the Fairview Health Services, clinical note redundancy appears to vary significantly with different medical specialties.

  15. Employers' views on the fit note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, E

    2014-12-01

    The fit note replaced the sick note in 2010. The statement of fitness for work (fit note) is expected to benefit the British economy by helping more people stay in work and prevent long-term sickness absence. Understanding and responding to employers' views on the fit note is key, in order for this goal to be achieved. To explore employers' views on the fit note. A qualitative study was undertaken and face-to-face interviews were conducted with participants representing employers from a variety of industries. There were 21 participants who were mainly human resources officers and line managers. Employers welcomed the introduction of the fit note and felt that it was an improvement on the sick note. The majority of employers felt the fit note had the potential to promote an earlier return to work, if used properly. The main problems reported were the completion of the fit notes and quality of advice received from general practitioners. Employers felt that the most helpful advice came from fit notes with information on the functional effects of the medical condition. Some employers found return to work decisions problematic. The fit note has the potential to promote an earlier return to work. In order for the fit note to achieve its aim, further understanding of the difficulties employers are having when making return to work decisions is important, in order to develop guidance to enable them to provide the practical support employees need to return to work sooner. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Clinical Note Creation, Binning, and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Deliberato, Rodrigo Oct?vio; Celi, Leo Anthony; Stone, David J

    2017-01-01

    The creation of medical notes in software applications poses an intrinsic problem in workflow as the technology inherently intervenes in the processes of collecting and assembling information, as well as the production of a data-driven note that meets both individual and healthcare system requirements. In addition, the note writing applications in currently available electronic health records (EHRs) do not function to support decision making to any substantial degree. We suggest that artifici...

  17. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT FOR NATURAL EVENT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    This technical basis document was developed to support the documented safety analysis (DSA) and describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins for natural event hazard (NEH)-initiated accidents. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous conditions based on an evaluation of the frequency and consequence. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers, because all facility worker hazardous conditions are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls

  18. Technical Tarining: C++ for Particle Physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    Please note that Paul Kunz will be giving his very popular and highly recommended C++ course again on 7-11 March. The course costs 200 CHF, and advance registration is required. People with CERN EDH accounts can apply electronically directly from the Web course description page : http://cern.ch/TechnicalTraining/ENSTEC/p2002/Software/cpppp_e.asp Team Visitors should ask their Group Leader to send an e-mail to the DTO of PH Department, M. Burri, referring to the ‘C++ for Particle Physicists' course and giving their name, CERN ID number, the Team account number to which the course fee should be charged, and VERY IMPORTANTLY an email address to which an invitation to the course can be sent. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval 74924 technical.training@cern.ch

  19. Technical Training: C++ for Particle Physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    Please note that Paul Kunz will be giving his very popular and highly recommended C++ course again on 7-11 March. The course costs 200 CHF, and advance registration is required. People with CERN EDH accounts can apply electronically directly from the Web course description page : http://cern.ch/TechnicalTraining/ENSTEC/p2002/Software/cpppp_e.asp Team Visitors should ask their Group Leader to send an e-mail to the DTO of PH Department, M. Burri, referring to the ‘C++ for Particle Physicists' course and giving their name, CERN ID number, the Team account number to which the course fee should be charged, and VERY IMPORTANTLY an email address to which an invitation to the course can be sent. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval 74924 technical.training@cern.ch

  20. Technical basis document for natural event hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARSON, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    This technical basis document was developed to support the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), and describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins for natural event hazards (NEH)-initiated representative accident and associated represented hazardous conditions. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous conditions based on an evaluation of the frequency and consequence. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers, because all facility worker hazardous conditions are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', as described in this report

  1. Handbook of Technical Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mehler , Alexander; Romary , Laurent; Gibbon , Dafydd

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The handbook "Technical Communication" brings together a variety of topics which range from the role of technical media in human communication to the linguistic, multimodal enhancement of present-day technologies. It covers the area of computer-mediated text, voice and multimedia communication as well as of technical documentation. In doing so, the handbook takes professional and private communication into account. Special emphasis is put on technical communication bas...

  2. Euro-NOTES Status Paper: from the concept to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, K H; Meining, A; von Renteln, D; Fernandez-Esparrach, G; Breithaupt, W; Zornig, C; Lacy, A

    2013-05-01

    The concept of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) consists of the reduction of access trauma by using a natural orifice access to the intra-abdominal cavity. This could possibly lead to less postoperative pain, quicker recovery from surgery, fewer postoperative complications, fewer wound infections, and fewer long-term problems such as hernias. The Euro-NOTES Foundation has organized yearly meetings to work on this concept to bring it safely into clinical practice. The aim of this Euro-NOTES status update is to assess the yearly scientific working group reports and provide an overview on the current clinical practice of NOTES procedures. After the Euro-NOTES meeting 2011 in Frankfurt, Germany, an analysis was started regarding the most important topics of the European working groups. All prospectively documented information was gathered from Euro-NOTES and D-NOTES working groups from 2007 to 2011. The top five topics were analyzed. The statements of the working group activities demonstrate the growing information and changing insights. The most important selected topics were infection issue, peritoneal access, education and training, platforms and new technology, closure, suture, and anastomosis. The focus on research topics changed over time. The principle of hybrid access has overcome the technical and safety limitations of pure NOTES. Currently the following NOTES access routes are established for several indications: transvaginal access for cholecystectomy, appendectomy and colon resections; transesophageal access for myotomy; transgastric access for full-thickness small-tumor resections; and transanal/transcolonic access for rectal and colon resections. NOTES and hybrid NOTES techniques have emerged for all natural orifices and were introduced into clinical practice with a good safety record. There are different indications for different natural orifices. Each technique has been optimized for the purpose of finding a safe and realistic

  3. Quantifying the role of forested lands in providing surface drinking water supply for Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika Cohen; Ge Sun; Liangxia Zhang; Peter Caldwell; Suzanne Krieger

    2017-01-01

    The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture published a General Technical Report (GTR-SRS-197) in 2014 that quantified the role that water originating on National Forest System lands contributed to the drinking water supply and determined what population and communities were being served in the 13 Southern States of Region 8 of the Forest Service. The...

  4. Teaching Technical Writing - Towards Technical Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I will present key aspects of the curriculum for the university degree in technical translation that I have designed for and subsequently implemented at the German Department of the Aarhus School of Business, Denmark. My starting point will be a critical discussion of the norm that ...... of technical writing.......In this paper I will present key aspects of the curriculum for the university degree in technical translation that I have designed for and subsequently implemented at the German Department of the Aarhus School of Business, Denmark. My starting point will be a critical discussion of the norm...... that used to govern what the quality of an LSP text should be as opposed to the standpoint, which I advocate. By way of summing up, I will show how a university curriculum is designed so that - upon graduation - the technical translator could also be methodological quite well suited to take on the challenge...

  5. Technical rules in law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelius, J

    1978-08-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself.

  6. Technical rules in law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debelius, J.

    1978-01-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself. (orig.) [de

  7. Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3(NOTE: Part II A item 1 indicates ''PAPER'', but a report is attached electronically)

  8. Fiscal year 1977 scientific and technical reports, articles, papers, and presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, O. L. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography lists 78 NASA technical memoranda, notes, papers, and reports presented by Marshall Space Flight Center personnel in FY 1977. In addition, 525 papers by contractors to that facility are cited along with 129 papers cleared for presentation.

  9. Notes on Loricata (Mollusca) 11-14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, P.

    1985-01-01

    Four new species of chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) are described, viz Leptochiton (L.) dispersus and L. (L.) permodestus from Transkei, L. (L.) meiringae from the eastern Cape Province, S Africa (note 11) and Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) vanbellei from the Mediterranean Sea (note 14). New records

  10. Suicide Notes in Hong Kong in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W. C.; Yeung, April W. M.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Yip, Paul S. F.; Tang, Arthur K. H.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide notes have been regarded as one of the most informative data sources to understand the reasons why people commit suicide. However, there is a paucity of suicide note studies, leaving researchers with an assumption that this phenomenon remains static over time. This study examines this assumption by comparing the characteristics of…

  11. Stalin and Marxism: a research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, E.

    1997-01-01

    This article concerns the research done by the author in Stalin‘s private library. The notes made in the works of Marx, Engels and Lenin suggest that until the end of his life Stalin felt himself in general agreement with these "classics." The choice of books and the notes support the thesis that,

  12. Children's note taking as a mnemonic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskritt, Michelle; McLeod, Kellie

    2008-09-01

    When given the opportunity to take notes in memory tasks, children sometimes make notes that are not useful. The current study examined the role that task constraints might play in the production of nonmnemonic notes. In Experiment 1, children played one easy and one difficult memory game twice, once with the opportunity to make notes and once without that opportunity. More children produced functional notations for the easier task than for the more difficult task, and their notations were beneficial to memory performance. Experiment 2 found that the majority of children who at first made nonmnemonic notations were able to produce functional notations with minimal training, and there was no significant difference in notation quality or memory performance between spontaneous and trained note takers. Experiment 3 revealed that the majority of children could transfer their training to a novel task. The results suggest that children's production of nonmnemonic notes may be due in part to a lack of knowledge regarding what task information is important to represent or how to represent it in their notes rather than to an inability to make functional notes in general.

  13. Observing professionals taking notes on screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this study 38 participants wrote a piece of advice based on reading and annotating information from an extensive Web site. Half of the participants took notes in a separate window, the other half used an advanced annotation tool. In text annotations were far more used than separate notes. The

  14. Mysore study: A study of suicide notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namratha, P; Kishor, M; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; Raman, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths. Recent data suggest South India as one of the regions with highest suicide rates in the world. In 2013, 134,799 people committed suicide in India according to the statistics released by the National Crime Records Bureau. Suicide note is one of the most important sources to understand suicide, which may be beneficial in suicide prevention. Studies on suicidal notes from this part of the world are sparse. The aim was to study the themes in suicide notes that might be useful in prevention strategies. A descriptive study of all suicide notes of those individuals who committed suicide between 2010 and 2013 available with Police Department, Mysore district was obtained and analyzed. A total of 22 suicide note were available. A majority of suicide note was in age group of 16-40 years (86%) and most were men (59%). All suicide notes were handwritten, the majority (70%) in regional language Kannada. Length of notes varied from just few words to few pages. Contents of suicide notes included apology/shame/guilt (80%), love for those left behind (55%) and instruction regarding practical affairs (23%). Most have blamed none for the act (50%). 23% mentioned that they are committing suicide to prove their innocence. 32% mentioned a last wish. The majority of suicidal note contained "guilt" which is a strong indicator of possible depression in deceased. Creating awareness about suicide among public and ensuring access to professionals trained in suicide prevention is need of the hour in this part of the world.

  15. Suicide note themes and suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to determine if suicide note themes might inform suicide prevention strategies. The themes of 42 suicide notes from the Northern Ireland Suicide Study (major psychological autopsy study) were examined. The commonest themes were "apology/shame" (74%), "love for those left behind" (60%), "life too much to bear" (48%), "instructions regarding practical affairs post-mortem" (36%), "hopelessness/nothing to live for" (21%) and "advice for those left behind" (21%). Notes of suicides with major unipolar depression were more likely than notes of suicides without major unipolar depression to contain the themes "instructions regarding practical affairs post-mortem" (67% versus 19%, p = 0.005) and "hopelessness/nothing to live for" (40% versus 11%, p = 0.049). Notes of suicides with a previous history of deliberate self-harm were less likely than notes of suicides without a history of deliberate self-harm to contain the theme "apology/shame" (58% versus 87%, p = 0.04). Notes of elderly suicides were more likely than non-elderly notes to contain the theme "burden to others" (40% versus 3%, p = 0.03). The fact that three quarters of suicide notes contained the theme "apology/shame" suggests that the deceased may have welcomed alternative solutions for their predicaments. Scrutiny of suicide note themes in the light of previous research findings suggests that cognitive therapy techniques, especially problem solving, may have an important role to play in suicide prevention and that potential major unipolar depressive (possibly less impulsive) suicides, in particular, may provide fertile ground for therapeutic intervention (physical and psychological). Ideally all primary care doctors and mental health professionals working with (potentially) suicidal people should be familiar with basic cognitive therapy techniques, especially problem solving skills training.

  16. Note Taking on Trial: A Legal Application of Note-Taking Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This article is about note taking, but it is not an exhaustive review of note-taking literature. Instead, it portrays the application of note-taking research to an unusual and important area of practice--the law. I was hired to serve as an expert witness on note taking in a legal case that hinged, in part, on the completeness and accuracy of…

  17. Quantifying forecast quality of IT business value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eveleens, J.L.; van der Pas, M.; Verhoef, C.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how to quantify the forecasting quality of IT business value. We address a common economic indicator often used to determine the business value of project proposals, the Net Present Value (NPV). To quantify the forecasting quality of IT business value, we develop a generalized

  18. Bank note recognition for the vision impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinwood, A; Preston, P; Suaning, G J; Lovell, N H

    2006-06-01

    Blind Australians find great difficulty in recognising bank notes. Each note has the same feel, with no Braille markings, irregular edges or other tangible features. In Australia, there is only one device available that can assist blind people recognise their notes. Internationally, there are devices available; however they are expensive, complex and have not been developed to cater for Australian currency. This paper discusses a new device, the MoneyTalker that takes advantage of the largely different colours and patterns on each Australian bank note and recognises the notes electronically, using the reflection and transmission properties of light. Different coloured lights are transmitted through the inserted note and the corresponding sensors detect distinct ranges of values depending on the colour of the note. Various classification algorithms were studied and the final algorithm was chosen based on accuracy and speed of recognition. The MoneyTalker has shown an accuracy of more than 99%. A blind subject has tested the device and believes that it is usable, compact and affordable. Based on the devices that are available currently in Australia, the MoneyTalker is an effective alternative in terms of accuracy and usability.

  19. Open notes: doctors and patients signing on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbanco, Tom; Walker, Jan; Darer, Jonathan D; Elmore, Joann G; Feldman, Henry J; Leveille, Suzanne G; Ralston, James D; Ross, Stephen E; Vodicka, Elisabeth; Weber, Valerie D

    2010-07-20

    Few patients read their doctors' notes, despite having the legal right to do so. As information technology makes medical records more accessible and society calls for greater transparency, patients' interest in reading their doctors' notes may increase. Inviting patients to review these notes could improve understanding of their health, foster productive communication, stimulate shared decision making, and ultimately lead to better outcomes. Yet, easy access to doctors' notes could have negative consequences, such as confusing or worrying patients and complicating rather than improving patient-doctor communication. To gain evidence about the feasibility, benefits, and harms of providing patients ready access to electronic doctors' notes, a team of physicians and nurses have embarked on a demonstration and evaluation of a project called OpenNotes. The authors describe the intervention and share what they learned from conversations with doctors and patients during the planning stages. The team anticipates that "open notes" will spread and suggests that over time, if drafted collaboratively and signed by both doctors and patients, they might evolve to become contracts for care.

  20. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kavita; Lloyd, Shane; Sarkar, Vikren

    2016-01-01

    The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases.

  1. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Ganesan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases.

  2. The Social Perspective and Pedagogy in Technical Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thralls, Charlotte; Blyler, Nancy Roundy

    1993-01-01

    Notes that as teachers integrate social theory into the technical communication classroom, they interpret the connection between writing and culture in different ways. Describes four social pedagogies of writing--the social constructionist, the ideologic, the social cognitive, and the paralogic hermeneutic--distinguishing them by their pedagogic…

  3. Memos with Personality: A Model from British Technical Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Carole

    1986-01-01

    Notes that while American technical writing texts stress brevity and directness as important characteristics of business correspondence, British texts stress qualities of personality and courtesy, especially in the memo. Shows how to incorporate personality into correspondence, thereby building cooperation among colleagues. (FL)

  4. Guidelines for safe handling of toxins. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, M.

    1995-11-01

    Toxins are highly toxic chemicals which cause illness through all routes of entry into the body. This technical note has been prepared to ensure that preparation, handling, and disposal of toxins does not constitute a greater occupational hazard than is necessary. It includes hazards that may be encountered and the precautions that should be taken against such hazards.

  5. EndNote 7.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eapen Bell

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available EndNote is a useful software for online literature search and efficient bibliography management. It helps to format the bibliography according to the citation style of each journal. EndNote stores references in a library file, which can be shared with others. It can connect to online resources like PubMed and retrieve search results as per the search criteria. It can also effortlessly integrate with popular word processors like MS Word. The Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology website has a provision to import references to EndNote.

  6. Air/Superfund National Technical Guidance Study Series. Data Base of emission-rate-measurement projects. Technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, B.; Petrinec, C.; Ranum, D.; Howlett, L.

    1991-06-01

    A compilation and evaluation of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emission rate data was performed. The three primary objectives were (1) to determine typical averages and ranges of emissions for various types of sources; (2) to determine the degree of correlation between emission rate results from different sampling methods; and (3) to examine the effects of different variables on measured emission rates. Emission rate data are presented for 33 studies covering 13 types of emission sources. The sources include landfills, surface impoundments, waste water treatment systems, leaking underground storage tanks, soil piles and landfarms. The emission rate data were obtained by using the Emission Isolation Flux Chamber, Downhole Emissions Isolation Flux Chamber, the Concentration Profile method and the Transect method. For each source, the total non-methane hydrocarbon and benzene emission rates are reported along with three other compounds that had the highest emission rate. Source concentration data (e.g. concentration in soil or waste water) are also reported for comparison to the measured emission rates.

  7. Technical Elements (CCT1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    Many of the aspects dealt with in the CA EPBD are closely interlinked with each other and may refer to both new and existing buildings, as well as to inspection and certification. This is also true for technical aspects, such as the calculation methodologies, and how to include technical systems......’ efficiency or how to integrate renewable energy within them. The central team for Technical Elements deals with issues of a technical nature, which are common to new and existing buildings, and/or with minimum demands, certification and inspection. This report focuses on the implementation of Articles 3, 4...

  8. Bare quantifier fronting as contrastive topicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available I argue that indefinites (in particular bare quantifiers such as ‘something’, ‘somebody’, etc. which are neither existentially presupposed nor in the restriction of a quantifier over situations, can undergo topicalization in a number of Romance languages (Catalan, Italian, Romanian, Spanish, but only if the sentence contains “verum” focus, i.e. focus on a high degree of certainty of the sentence. I analyze these indefinites as contrastive topics, using Büring’s (1999 theory (where the term ‘S-topic’ is used for what I call ‘contrastive topic’. I propose that the topic is evaluated in relation to a scalar set including generalized quantifiers such as {lP $x P(x, lP MANYx P(x, lP MOSTx P(x, lP “xP(x} or {lP $xP(x, lP P(a, lP P(b …}, and that the contrastive topic is the weakest generalized quantifier in this set. The verum focus, which is part of the “comment” that co-occurs with the “Topic”, introduces a set of alternatives including degrees of certainty of the assertion. The speaker asserts that his claim is certainly true or highly probable, contrasting it with stronger claims for which the degree of probability is unknown. This explains the observation that in downward entailing contexts, the fronted quantified DPs are headed by ‘all’ or ‘many’, whereas ‘some’, small numbers or ‘at least n’ appear in upward entailing contexts. Unlike other cases of non-specific topics, which are property topics, these are quantifier topics: the topic part is a generalized quantifier, the comment is a property of generalized quantifiers. This explains the narrow scope of the fronted quantified DP.

  9. Usage Notes in the Oxford American Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, R. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Compares the "Oxford American Dictionary" with the "American Heritage Dictionary." Examines the dictionaries' differences in philosophies of language, introductory essays, and usage notes. Concludes that the "Oxford American Dictionary" is too conservative, paternalistic, and dogmatic for the 1980s. (DMM)

  10. A study of actions in operative notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Burkart, Nora E; Ryan, James O; Melton, Genevieve B

    2012-01-01

    Operative notes contain rich information about techniques, instruments, and materials used in procedures. To assist development of effective information extraction (IE) techniques for operative notes, we investigated the sublanguage used to describe actions within the operative report 'procedure description' section. Deep parsing results of 362,310 operative notes with an expanded Stanford parser using the SPECIALIST Lexicon resulted in 200 verbs (92% coverage) including 147 action verbs. Nominal action predicates for each action verb were gathered from WordNet, SPECIALIST Lexicon, New Oxford American Dictionary and Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Coverage gaps were seen in existing lexical, domain, and semantic resources (Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, SPECIALIST Lexicon, WordNet and FrameNet). Our findings demonstrate the need to construct surgical domain-specific semantic resources for IE from operative notes.

  11. Interpreters' notes. On the choice of language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale empirical study on note-taking in consecutive interpreting. As data, the study draws on the notes produced by four subjects while interpreting one Spanish source text consecutively into Danish, on the one hand, and one Danish source text into Spanish...... to particular scrutiny here. However, somewhat surprisingly, the results of the analyses indicate that the choice of language in note-taking is governed mainly by the status of the language in the interpreters' language combination, i.e. whether it is an A- or a B-language, and much less by its status......, on the other. The aim of the study is to explore what governs conference interpreters' choice of language for their notes. The categories traditionally used to discuss, describe and explain this choice are those of 'source language' and 'target language', and these categories are therefore subject...

  12. A NOTE ON THE POCHHAMMER FREQUENCY EQUATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    A note on the Pochhammer frequency equation. ),,,,(. ),,,,(;/. 2 zwura. ZWURA. tT ρω. µ. = ω= , where ωis the angular frequency of the wave, which is considered to be imposed in this problem. We also introduce a material parameter α defined by. )2. /(. µ+λµ=α , which is related to Poisson's ratio ν by n- n-. =a. 22. 21 . We note ...

  13. Electronic health records improve clinical note quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Harry B; Sessums, Laura L; Hoang, Albert; Becher, Dorothy A; Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Stephens, Mark; Pangaro, Louis N; O'Malley, Patrick G; Baxi, Nancy S; Bunt, Christopher W; Capaldi, Vincent F; Chen, Julie M; Cooper, Barbara A; Djuric, David A; Hodge, Joshua A; Kane, Shawn; Magee, Charles; Makary, Zizette R; Mallory, Renee M; Miller, Thomas; Saperstein, Adam; Servey, Jessica; Gimbel, Ronald W

    2015-01-01

    The clinical note documents the clinician's information collection, problem assessment, clinical management, and its used for administrative purposes. Electronic health records (EHRs) are being implemented in clinical practices throughout the USA yet it is not known whether they improve the quality of clinical notes. The goal in this study was to determine if EHRs improve the quality of outpatient clinical notes. A five and a half year longitudinal retrospective multicenter quantitative study comparing the quality of handwritten and electronic outpatient clinical visit notes for 100 patients with type 2 diabetes at three time points: 6 months prior to the introduction of the EHR (before-EHR), 6 months after the introduction of the EHR (after-EHR), and 5 years after the introduction of the EHR (5-year-EHR). QNOTE, a validated quantitative instrument, was used to assess the quality of outpatient clinical notes. Its scores can range from a low of 0 to a high of 100. Sixteen primary care physicians with active practices used QNOTE to determine the quality of the 300 patient notes. The before-EHR, after-EHR, and 5-year-EHR grand mean scores (SD) were 52.0 (18.4), 61.2 (16.3), and 80.4 (8.9), respectively, and the change in scores for before-EHR to after-EHR and before-EHR to 5-year-EHR were 18% (pquality scores significantly improved over the 5-year time interval. The EHR significantly improved the overall quality of the outpatient clinical note and the quality of all its elements, including the core and non-core elements. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the EHR significantly improves the quality of clinical notes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  14. Remedial action programs annual meeting: Meeting notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office was pleased to host the 1987 Remedial Action programs Annual Meeting and herein presents notes from that meeting as prepared (on relatively short notice) by participants. These notes are a summary of the information derived from the workshops, case studies, and ad hoc committee reports rather than formal proceedings. The order of the materials in this report follows the actual sequence of presentations during the annual meeting

  15. Lecture Notes in Statistics. 3rd Semester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The lecture note is prepared to meet the requirements for the 3rd semester course in statistics at the Aarhus School of Business. It focuses on multiple regression models, analysis of variance, and log-linear models.......The lecture note is prepared to meet the requirements for the 3rd semester course in statistics at the Aarhus School of Business. It focuses on multiple regression models, analysis of variance, and log-linear models....

  16. Note-taking Strategies and Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Haghverdi, Hamid; Biria, Reza; Karimi, Lotfollah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is two fold. That is, revealing the significance, underlying theory and findings concerning note-taking in the literature related and exploring, through a survey study, the Iranian professors‘ and students‘ attitudes towards the effect of teaching note-taking strategies on the students‘ academic achievement. To this end, many previous studies were reviewed and we knew that many scholars, conducting empirical studies, surveys and interviews, have highlighted ...

  17. "You Will": Technology, Magic, and the Cultural Contexts of Technical Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitalong, Karla Saari

    2000-01-01

    Provides some background on the use of magical language in technical contexts, gives examples of magical discourse in technology advertisements and newsmagazine articles, and proposes a technical communication pedagogy of media analysis. Notes that the proposed pedagogy involves students conducting diagnostic critiques of media texts and affords…

  18. Quantified safety objectives in high technology: Meaning and demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.F.; Gilby, E.; Chicken, J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview and trends-analysis is given of the types of quantified criteria and objectives which are presently applied or envisaged and discussed in Europe in the nuclear application, more specifically Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), and in non-nuclear applications, more specifically in the chemical and petrochemical process industry. Some comparative deductions are made. Attention is paid to the similarities or discrepancies between such criteria and objectives and to problems associated with the demonstration that they are implemented. The role of cost-effectiveness of Risk deduction is briefly discussed and mention made of a search made into combining the technical, economic and socio-political factors playing a role in Risk acceptance

  19. Quantifying phenomenological importance in best-estimate plus uncertainty analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a general methodology for quantifying the importance of specific phenomenological elements to analysis measures evaluated from non-parametric best-estimate plus uncertainty evaluation methodologies. The principal objective of an importance analysis is to reveal those uncertainty contributors having the greatest influence on key analysis measures. This characterization supports the credibility of the uncertainty analysis, the applicability of the analytical tools, and even the generic evaluation methodology through the validation of the engineering judgments that guided the evaluation methodology development. A demonstration of the importance analysis is provided using data from a sample problem considered in the development of AREVA's Realistic LBLOCA methodology. The results are presented against the original large-break LOCA Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table developed by the Technical Program Group responsible for authoring the Code Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty methodology. (author)

  20. Note taking, review, memory, and comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohay, Mark; Blakely, Daniel P; Tamplin, Andrea K; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2011-01-01

    In previous work assessing memory at various levels of representation, namely the surface form, textbase, and situation model levels, participants read texts but were otherwise not actively engaged with the texts. The current study tested the influence of active engagement with the material via note taking, along with the opportunity to review such notes, and the modality of presentation (text vs. spoken). The influence of these manipulations was assessed both immediately and 1 week later. In Experiment 1 participants read a text, whereas in Experiment 2 participants watched a video recording of the material being read as a lecture. For each experiment the opportunity to take notes was manipulated within participants, and the opportunity to review these notes before the test was manipulated between participants. Note taking improved performance at the situation model level in both experiments, although there was also some suggestion of benefit for the surface form. Thus, active engagement with material, such as note taking, appears to have the greatest benefit at the deeper levels of understanding.

  1. Technical basis to describe and document the use of the E-600 and SHP-380 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, J.R.

    1997-06-01

    This technical basis document describes and documents the parameters under which the Eberline E-600 ratemeter and the associated SHP-380 detector can be operated to quantify alpha and beta contamination levels. 3 refs., 3 tabs

  2. Technical Basis to Describe the Use of the Eberline E-600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, D.M.

    1998-03-01

    This technical basis document describes the parameters and conditions under which the Eberline E-600 rate meter and the associated detectors can be operated to quantify ionizing radiation and radiological contamination

  3. Quantify Risk to Manage Cost and Schedule

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raymond, Fred

    1999-01-01

    Too many projects suffer from unachievable budget and schedule goals, caused by unrealistic estimates and the failure to quantify and communicate the uncertainty of these estimates to managers and sponsoring executives...

  4. Quantifying drug-protein binding in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, B; Bench, G; Keating III, G; Palmblad, M; Vogel, J; Grant, P G; Hillegonds, D

    2004-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) provides precise quantitation of isotope labeled compounds that are bound to biological macromolecules such as DNA or proteins. The sensitivity is high enough to allow for sub-pharmacological (''micro-'') dosing to determine macromolecular targets without inducing toxicities or altering the system under study, whether it is healthy or diseased. We demonstrated an application of AMS in quantifying the physiologic effects of one dosed chemical compound upon the binding level of another compound in vivo at sub-toxic doses [4].We are using tissues left from this study to develop protocols for quantifying specific binding to isolated and identified proteins. We also developed a new technique to quantify nanogram to milligram amounts of isolated protein at precisions that are comparable to those for quantifying the bound compound by AMS

  5. New frontiers of quantified self 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Amon; Cena, Federica; Kay, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Quantified Self (QS) field needs to start thinking of how situated needs may affect the use of self-tracking technologies. In this workshop we will focus on the idiosyncrasies of specific categories of users....

  6. Scientific and Technical Information Output of the Langley Research Center, for calendar year 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Documents listed include NASA Technical Reports, Technical Notes, Technical Memorandums, Special Publications, Contractor Reports, journal articles, and technical presentations made at Society meetings. NASA formal reports listed are those that were mailed and distributed to the ultimate user. The material presented here is listed first by Division and then under the following headings: (a) Formal Reports, (b) Contractor Reports, (c) Articles and Meeting Presentations, and (d) High Number Technical Memorandums (High TMX's). Under each heading, the material cited authors in alphabetical order. If a report has more than one author and these authors are from different Divisions, the report is listed only once, under the senior author's name.

  7. Technical Training for Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverland, Edgar M.

    The question has arisen as to what kind of information a manager without extensive technical training needs to learn to supervise effectively. For example, the Nike Hercules fire control platoon leader, usually an officer in his first active duty assignment, seldom has had extensive technical training. Yet he is responsibile for the…

  8. Technical Manual. The ACT®

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    This manual contains technical information about the ACT® college readiness assessment. The principal purpose of this manual is to document the technical characteristics of the ACT in light of its intended purposes. ACT regularly conducts research as part of the ongoing formative evaluation of its programs. The research is intended to ensure that…

  9. Developing Technical Skill Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2009-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing the career and technical education (CTE) community as it works to implement the 2006 Perkins Act is responding to more rigorous requirements for reporting on CTE students' technical skill attainment. The U.S. Department of Education suggested in non-regulatory guidance that states and locals use the number of…

  10. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply.......article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply....

  11. TRANSLATING SERVICE TECHNICAL PROSE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    language. The Application of Technical Service. Prose. To form a good idea of the appl ication .... cost lives. In this particular domain, translators must have a sound technical ... These semantic ... another language and often, in doing so, changing its meaning. The words ..... He will hand out tasks to each translator and after.

  12. Technical Writing Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Patrick M.

    2004-01-01

    The main reason engineers, technicians, and programmers write poor technical documents is because they have had little training or experience in that area. This article addresses some of the basics that students can use to master technical writing tasks. The article covers the most common problems writers make and offers suggestions for improving…

  13. Research in Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to list and demonstrate areas in which research needs to be carried out, or questions answered, in order to raise the quality of technical education. Design/methodology/approach: The area of technical education expanded very rapidly in the late 1950s, and there was little comprehensive knowledge regarding the…

  14. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, Alan H. [Fusion Theory and Computation Inc., Kingston, WA (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Final technical report on DE-SC0016106. This is the final technical report for a portion of the multi-institutional CEMM project. This report is centered around 3 publications and a seminar presentation, which have been submitted to E-Link.

  15. Technical Agency in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    ) description of hybrid networks in which human and non-human actants are granted agency without differentiating different kinds of agency, EMCA focuses on the member's perspectives and the situated construction of technical agency that is made relevant within an ongoing interaction. Based on an EMCA analysis......The paper combines the discussion of technical agency and hybrid networks of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) with an ethnomethodological/conversation analytical (EMCA) perspective on situated practices in which participants ascribe agency to technical artefacts. While ANT works with (ethnographic...... of three video recordings of situations in which technical agency is made relevant by the human participants, the paper demonstrates different ways in which agency is granted to technical artefacts. Human participants can treat a technology as communication partner, as an active part (and actant...

  16. Quantifying complexity in translational research: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, David A; Nembhard, Harriet Black; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to quantify complexity in translational research. The impact of major operational steps and technical requirements is calculated with respect to their ability to accelerate moving new discoveries into clinical practice. A three-phase integrated quality function deployment (QFD) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was used to quantify complexity in translational research. A case study in obesity was used to usability. Generally, the evidence generated was valuable for understanding various components in translational research. Particularly, the authors found that collaboration networks, multidisciplinary team capacity and community engagement are crucial for translating new discoveries into practice. As the method is mainly based on subjective opinion, some argue that the results may be biased. However, a consistency ratio is calculated and used as a guide to subjectivity. Alternatively, a larger sample may be incorporated to reduce bias. The integrated QFD-AHP framework provides evidence that could be helpful to generate agreement, develop guidelines, allocate resources wisely, identify benchmarks and enhance collaboration among similar projects. Current conceptual models in translational research provide little or no clue to assess complexity. The proposed method aimed to fill this gap. Additionally, the literature review includes various features that have not been explored in translational research.

  17. Quantifying Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin Congener Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Bogdal, Christian; Berger, Urs; MacLeod, Matthew; Gebbink, Wouter A; Alsberg, Tomas; de Wit, Cynthia A

    2017-09-19

    Accurate quantification of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) poses an exceptional challenge to analytical chemists. SCCPs are complex mixtures of chlorinated alkanes with variable chain length and chlorination level; congeners with a fixed chain length (n) and number of chlorines (m) are referred to as a "congener group" C n Cl m . Recently, we resolved individual C n Cl m by mathematically deconvolving soft ionization high-resolution mass spectra of SCCP mixtures. Here we extend the method to quantifying C n Cl m by introducing C n Cl m specific response factors (RFs) that are calculated from 17 SCCP chain-length standards with a single carbon chain length and variable chlorination level. The signal pattern of each standard is measured on APCI-QTOF-MS. RFs of each C n Cl m are obtained by pairwise optimization of the normal distribution's fit to the signal patterns of the 17 chain-length standards. The method was verified by quantifying SCCP technical mixtures and spiked environmental samples with accuracies of 82-123% and 76-109%, respectively. The absolute differences between calculated and manufacturer-reported chlorination degrees were -0.9 to 1.0%Cl for SCCP mixtures of 49-71%Cl. The quantification method has been replicated with ECNI magnetic sector MS and ECNI-Q-Orbitrap-MS. C n Cl m concentrations determined with the three instruments were highly correlated (R 2 > 0.90) with each other.

  18. Technical Training: C++ for Particle Physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    Please note that Paul Kunz will be giving his very popular and highly recommended C++ course again on 15 - 19 November. The course costs 200 CHF, and advance registration is required. People with CERN EDH accounts can apply electronically directly from the Web course description page: Team Visitors should ask their Group Leader to send an e-mail to the DTO of PH Department, M. Burri, referring to the 'C++ for Particle Physicists' course and giving their name, CERN ID number, the Team account number to which the course fee should be charged, and VERY IMPORTANTLY an email address to which an invitation to the course can be sent. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval 74924 technical.training@cern.ch

  19. Technical Training: C++ for Particle Physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    Please note that Paul Kunz will be giving his very popular and highly recommended C++ course again on 15 - 19 November. The course costs 200 CHF, and advance registration is required. People with CERN EDH accounts can apply electronically directly from the Web course description page. Team Visitors should ask their Group Leader to send an e-mail to the DTO of PH Department, M. Burri, referring to the 'C++ for Particle Physicists' course and giving their name, CERN ID number, the Team account number to which the course fee should be charged, and VERY IMPORTANTLY an email address to which an invitation to the course can be sent. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval 74924 technical.training@cern.ch

  20. An Information Foraging Analysis of Note Taking and Note Sharing While Browsing Campaign Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Robertson, Scott

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present an experimental study of political information foraging in the context of e-voting. Participants were observed while searching and browsing the internet for campaign information in a mock-voting situation in three online note-taking conditions: No Notes, Private Notes...... with lack of scent, low value perception, and value depletion of information. Implications for the voter centered design of e-voting portals are discussed....

  1. What happens when patients can see their doctors' note? - the Open Notes movement

    OpenAIRE

    Mende, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:  The Open Notes movement represents a culture change, enabling patients’ access to their providers’ notes, thereby increasing transparency and patient engagement.Policy context, objective and highlights:  OpenNotes involves allowing patients on-line or hard copy access to their providers’ notes. The one-year initial pilot began in 2010 with twenty thousand patients and one hundred primary care physicians at three medical centers in the United States.  The pilot’s evaluation foun...

  2. Towards common technical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat, H.; Suardi, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, PETRONAS launched its Total Quality Management (TQM) program. In the same year the decision was taken by the PETRONAS Management to introduce common technical standards group wide. These standards apply to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of all PETRONAS installations in the upstream, downstream and petrochemical sectors. The introduction of common company standards is seen as part of an overall technical management system, which is an integral part of Total Quality Management. The Engineering and Safety Unit in the PETRONAS Central Office in Kuala Lumpur has been charged with the task of putting in place a set of technical standards throughout PETRONAS and its operating units

  3. Quantifying the purchasing power of public transportation in Texas : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Investments in public transportation in Texas contribute to the state and local economy by improving : transportation options, which in turn creates benefits for individuals, businesses, and governments. Many : different agencies provide public trans...

  4. 76 FR 9534 - Development of Technical Guidelines and Scientific Methods for Quantifying GHG Emissions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... crops, agroforestry, wetland restoration, residue removal and alternatives to biomass burning. [[Page..., fertilization, and species selection. 2.3.3 Agroforestry practices and technologies to increase carbon...

  5. Clinical Note Creation, Binning, and Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliberato, Rodrigo Octávio; Celi, Leo Anthony; Stone, David J

    2017-08-03

    The creation of medical notes in software applications poses an intrinsic problem in workflow as the technology inherently intervenes in the processes of collecting and assembling information, as well as the production of a data-driven note that meets both individual and healthcare system requirements. In addition, the note writing applications in currently available electronic health records (EHRs) do not function to support decision making to any substantial degree. We suggest that artificial intelligence (AI) could be utilized to facilitate the workflows of the data collection and assembly processes, as well as to support the development of personalized, yet data-driven assessments and plans. ©Rodrigo Octávio Deliberato, Leo Anthony Celi, David J Stone. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 03.08.2017.

  6. VA OpenNotes: exploring the experiences of early patient adopters with access to clinical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazi, Kim M; Turvey, Carolyn L; Klein, Dawn M; Hogan, Timothy P; Woods, Susan S

    2015-03-01

    To explore the experience of early patient adopters who accessed their clinical notes online using the Blue Button feature of the My HealtheVet portal. A web-based survey of VA patient portal users from June 22 to September 15, 2013. 33.5% of respondents knew that clinical notes could be viewed, and nearly one in four (23.5%) said that they had viewed their notes at least once. The majority of VA Notes users agreed that accessing their notes will help them to do a better job of taking medications as prescribed (80.1%) and be better prepared for clinic visits (88.6%). Nine out of 10 users agreed that use of visit notes will help them understand their conditions better (91.8%), and better remember the plan for their care (91.9%). In contrast, 87% disagreed that VA Notes will make them worry more, and 88.4% disagreed that access to VA Notes will be more confusing than helpful. Users who had either contacted their provider or healthcare team (11.9%) or planned to (13.5%) primarily wanted to learn more about a health issue, medication, or test results (53.7%). Initial assessment of the patient experience within the first 9 months of availability provides evidence that patients both value and benefit from online access to clinical notes. These findings are congruent with OpenNotes study findings on a broader scale. Additional outreach and education is needed to enhance patient awareness. Healthcare professionals should author notes keeping in mind the opportunity patient access presents for enhanced communication. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Technical standards in nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimberg, M.

    1978-01-01

    The technical standardization in nuclear area is discussed. Also, the competence of CNEN in standardization pursuit is analysed. Moreover, the process of working up of technical standards is explained; in addition, some kinds of technical standards are discussed. (author) [pt

  8. Xyce parallel electronic simulator release notes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R; Hoekstra, Robert John; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Coffey, Todd S; Pawlowski, Roger P; Santarelli, Keith R.

    2010-05-01

    The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been written to support, in a rigorous manner, the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. Specific requirements include, among others, the ability to solve extremely large circuit problems by supporting large-scale parallel computing platforms, improved numerical performance and object-oriented code design and implementation. The Xyce release notes describe: Hardware and software requirements New features and enhancements Any defects fixed since the last release Current known defects and defect workarounds For up-to-date information not available at the time these notes were produced, please visit the Xyce web page at http://www.cs.sandia.gov/xyce.

  9. Application Note: Power Grid Modeling With Xyce.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholander, Peter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This application note describes how to model steady-state power flows and transient events in electric power grids with the SPICE-compatible Xyce TM Parallel Electronic Simulator developed at Sandia National Labs. This application notes provides a brief tutorial on the basic devices (branches, bus shunts, transformers and generators) found in power grids. The focus is on the features supported and assumptions made by the Xyce models for power grid elements. It then provides a detailed explanation, including working Xyce netlists, for simulating some simple power grid examples such as the IEEE 14-bus test case.

  10. Cervical Hemilaminoplasty with Miniplates in Long Segment Intradural Extramedullary Ependymoma: Case Report and Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Sukru; Tumturk, Abdulfettah; Kucuk, Ahmet; Menku, Ahmet

    2018-01-01

    The surgical approaches for spinal tumors, to a great extent, have been developed in accordance with the developments in medical technology. Today, many surgical techniques are implemented as anterior, anterolateral, posterior, posterolateral and combined approaches. Due to its low morbidity, the posterior approach is the more preferred one. Laminectomy is a widely used technique, especially in neoplastic lesions. However, following laminectomy, there are numerous complications such as instability, kyphotic deformity and scar formation. In this paper, the excision of a tumor that was located intradural-extramedullary at the C3-C7 level with the cervical hemilaminoplasty technique is described. A 47-year-old female patient presented to our clinic with increasing complaints of neck and left arm pain, left arm numbness and searing pain for the last 10 years. On examination, hypoesthesia at the C4-7 dermatomes in the left upper extremity, an increase in deep tendon reflexes, and bilateral positive Hoffmann reflexes were observed. C3-C7 laminae were opened unilaterally on the right side with a midline skin incision. The laminae were drilled with a high-speed drill to provide a wide opening, both on the midline obliquely and from the border of the lamina-facet joint. After the tumor was totally excised, hemilaminae were placed into the previous position and reconstructed with mini-plates and screws. Cervical hemilaminoplasty provides a wide field of vision in tumor surgery of this region. Besides, the reconstruction of hemilaminae is important for stability. As the integrity of the spinal canal is preserved during reoperations of this region, the risk of complications is decreased.

  11. Intra- and Extracranial MR Venography: Technical Notes, Clinical Application, and Imaging Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paoletti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific debate over chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI has drawn attention to venous system involvement in a series of pathologic brain conditions. In the last few decades, the MRI venography (MRV field has developed a number of valuable sequences to better investigate structural anatomy, vessel patency, and flow characteristics of venous drainage in the intra- and extracranial systems. A brief two-tier protocol is proposed to encompass the study of intra- and extracranial venous drainage with and without contrast administration, respectively. Contrast-enhanced protocol is based on time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRV of the whole region plus extracranial flow quantification through 2D Cine phase contrast (PC; non-contrast-enhanced protocol includes intracranial 3D PC, extracranial 2D time of flight (TOF, and 2D Cine PC flow quantification. Total scanning time is reasonable for clinical applications: approximately seven minutes is allocated for the contrast protocol (most of which is due to 2D Cine PC, while the noncontrast protocol accounts for around twenty minutes. We believe that a short though exhaustive MRI scan of the whole intra- and extracranial venous drainage system can be valuable for a variety of pathologic conditions, given the possible venous implication in several neurological conditions.

  12. Carotid angioplasty with stenting for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion: technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Nozomu; Tanasawa, Toshihiko; Okada, Takeshi; Endo, Otone; Yamamoto, Naohito [Kainan Hospital Aichi Prefectural Welfare Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives, Department of Neurosurgery, Aichi (Japan); Miyachi, Shigeru; Hattori, Kenichi [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    Carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is becoming accepted as an effective and reliable treatment option for severe carotid artery stenosis. However, it is rarely applied for carotid occlusion, especially in its chronic stage. We report our experience of CAS for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion representing compromised cerebral blood flow using various protection methods. A 77-year-old woman, who was already diagnosed with severe left internal carotid artery stenosis, suddenly had right hemiparesis and aphasia. At that time, she was treated conservatively because her neurological status was quite good, in spite of left carotid artery occlusion. Her symptoms improved in the short term, except slight aphasia, but deteriorated again 18 days from the onset, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed new ischemic lesions. CAS was then performed for the occluded carotid artery on the 23rd day from the first onset. Using the proximal protection technique, the occluded lesion was crossed carefully with a microguidewire. Stents were also placed successfully with the distal protection technique. The occluded carotid artery was completely recanalized without any unfavorable events or neurological deterioration. In this patient, CAS was successfully to treat chronic carotid artery occlusion. These procedures and techniques are reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  13. Optimisation of post mortem cardiac computed tomography compared to optical coherence tomography and histopathology - Technical note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Erling

    2014-01-01

    . Here, a new method for optimising cardiac coronary CT with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histopathology is presented. Materials and methods: Twenty human hearts obtained from autopsies were used. A contrast agent that solidifies after cooling was injected into the coronary arteries. CT...... of the images was also developed. Results: We have succeeded in developing a new method for post-mortem coronary CT angiography in which an autopsy heart is placed in a chest phantom to simulate clinical CT. Conclusion: The new method permits comparison of CT with OCT and histopathology. This method can also...

  14. Technical note: Intercomparison of three AATSR Level 2 (L2 AOD products over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Che

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of four main focus areas of the PEEX initiative is to establish and sustain long-term, continuous, and comprehensive ground-based, airborne, and seaborne observation infrastructure together with satellite data. The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR aboard ENVISAT is used to observe the Earth in dual view. The AATSR data can be used to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD over both land and ocean, which is an important parameter in the characterization of aerosol properties. In recent years, aerosol retrieval algorithms have been developed both over land and ocean, taking advantage of the features of dual view, which can help eliminate the contribution of Earth's surface to top-of-atmosphere (TOA reflectance. The Aerosol_cci project, as a part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI, provides users with three AOD retrieval algorithms for AATSR data, including the Swansea algorithm (SU, the ATSR-2ATSR dual-view aerosol retrieval algorithm (ADV, and the Oxford-RAL Retrieval of Aerosol and Cloud algorithm (ORAC. The validation team of the Aerosol-CCI project has validated AOD (both Level 2 and Level 3 products and AE (Ångström Exponent (Level 2 product only against the AERONET data in a round-robin evaluation using the validation tool of the AeroCOM (Aerosol Comparison between Observations and Models project. For the purpose of evaluating different performances of these three algorithms in calculating AODs over mainland China, we introduce ground-based data from CARSNET (China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network, which was designed for aerosol observations in China. Because China is vast in territory and has great differences in terms of land surfaces, the combination of the AERONET and CARSNET data can validate the L2 AOD products more comprehensively. The validation results show different performances of these products in 2007, 2008, and 2010. The SU algorithm performs very well over sites with different surface conditions in mainland China from March to October, but it slightly underestimates AOD over barren or sparsely vegetated surfaces in western China, with mean bias error (MBE ranging from 0.05 to 0.10. The ADV product has the same precision with a low root mean square error (RMSE smaller than 0.2 over most sites and the same error distribution as the SU product. The main limits of the ADV algorithm are underestimation and applicability; underestimation is particularly obvious over the sites of Datong, Lanzhou, and Urumchi, where the dominant land cover is grassland, with an MBE larger than 0.2, and the main aerosol sources are coal combustion and dust. The ORAC algorithm has the ability to retrieve AOD at different ranges, including high AOD (larger than 1.0; however, the stability deceases significantly with increasing AOD, especially when AOD > 1.0. In addition, the ORAC product is consistent with the CARSNET product in winter (December, January, and February, whereas other validation results lack matches during winter.

  15. Technical note: Quantification of neurocranial shape variation using the shortest paths connecting pairs of anatomical landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yusuke; Ogihara, Naomichi; Kanai, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiromasa

    2013-08-01

    Three-dimensional geometric morphometric techniques have been widely used in quantitative comparisons of craniofacial morphology in humans and nonhuman primates. However, few anatomical landmarks can actually be defined on the neurocranium. In this study, an alternative method is proposed for defining semi-landmarks on neurocranial surfaces for use in detailed analysis of cranial shape. Specifically, midsagittal, nuchal, and temporal lines were approximated using Bezier curves and equally spaced points along each of the curves were defined as semi-landmarks. The shortest paths connecting pairs of anatomical landmarks as well as semi-landmarks were then calculated in order to represent the surface morphology between landmarks using equally spaced points along the paths. To evaluate the efficacy of this method, the previously outlined technique was used in morphological analysis of sexual dimorphism in modern Japanese crania. The study sample comprised 22 specimens that were used to generate 110 anatomical semi-landmarks, which were used in geometric morphometric analysis. Although variations due to sexual dimorphism in human crania are very small, differences could be identified using the proposed landmark placement, which demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed method. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Urban Data Book : Volume 2. Urban Data - Milwaukee-Washington, Notes and Technical Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    A quick reference compilation of certain population, socio-economic, employment, and modal split characteristics of the 35 largest Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA) in the United States is presented. The three basic groups of urban data ...

  17. Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ceccherini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval of concentration vertical profiles of atmospheric constituents from spectroscopic measurements is often an ill-conditioned problem and regularization methods are frequently used to improve its stability. Recently a new method, that provides a good compromise between precision and vertical resolution, was proposed to determine analytically the value of the regularization parameter. This method is applied for the first time to real measurements with its implementation in the operational retrieval code of the satellite limb-emission measurements of the MIPAS instrument and its performances are quantitatively analyzed. The adopted regularization improves the stability of the retrieval providing smooth profiles without major degradation of the vertical resolution. In the analyzed measurements the retrieval procedure provides a vertical resolution that, in the troposphere and low stratosphere, is smaller than the vertical field of view of the instrument.

  18. Technical Note: Reducing the spin-up time of integrated surface water–groundwater models

    KAUST Repository

    Ajami, H.

    2014-06-26

    One of the main challenges in catchment scale application of coupled/integrated hydrologic models is specifying a catchment\\'s initial conditions in terms of soil moisture and depth to water table (DTWT) distributions. One approach to reduce uncertainty in model initialization is to run the model recursively using a single or multiple years of forcing data until the system equilibrates with respect to state and diagnostic variables. However, such "spin-up" approaches often require many years of simulations, making them computationally intensive. In this study, a new hybrid approach was developed to reduce the computational burden of spin-up time for an integrated groundwater-surface water-land surface model (ParFlow.CLM) by using a combination of ParFlow.CLM simulations and an empirical DTWT function. The methodology is examined in two catchments located in the temperate and semi-arid regions of Denmark and Australia respectively. Our results illustrate that the hybrid approach reduced the spin-up time required by ParFlow.CLM by up to 50%, and we outline a methodology that is applicable to other coupled/integrated modelling frameworks when initialization from equilibrium state is required.

  19. Technical Note: On methodologies for determining the size-normalised weight of planktic foraminifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Beer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The size-normalised weight (SNW of planktic foraminifera, a measure of test wall thickness and density, is potentially a valuable palaeo-proxy for marine carbon chemistry. As increasing attention is given to developing this proxy it is important that methods are comparable between studies. Here, we compare SNW data generated using two different methods to account for variability in test size, namely (i the narrow (50 μm range sieve fraction method and (ii the individually measured test size method. Using specimens from the 200–250 μm sieve fraction range collected in multinet samples from the North Atlantic, we find that sieving does not constrain size sufficiently well to isolate changes in weight driven by variations in test wall thickness and density from those driven by size. We estimate that the SNW data produced as part of this study are associated with an uncertainty, or error bar, of about ±11%. Errors associated with the narrow sieve fraction method may be reduced by decreasing the size of the sieve window, by using larger tests and by increasing the number tests employed. In situations where numerous large tests are unavailable, however, substantial errors associated with this sieve method remain unavoidable. In such circumstances the individually measured test size method provides a better means for estimating SNW because, as our results show, this method isolates changes in weight driven by variations in test wall thickness and density from those driven by size.

  20. Technical note: preservation of tissues and gastrointestinal tract portions by plastic coating or plastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, K R; Holladay, S D; Luginbuhl, J M

    1992-04-01

    Two methods to preserve gastrointestinal tract (GIT) organs and tissues, plastic coating (PC) and plastination (PN), were investigated and compared. Specimens to be preserved were removed from animals within 2 h of death and immediately cleaned with water. Digesta contents were removed by flushing desired portions of GIT with water until the exiting water was clear. In the PC method, cleaned specimens were dehydrated by immersion in an isopropanol solution, dried with forced air after positioning and orientation as in situ, and finally coated on the outer and inner surfaces with a clear plastic material. In the PN procedure, specimens were filled with, and submerged in, a low-formaldehyde fixative, then dehydrated by immersion in a cold acetone solution. Dehydrated specimens were immersed in silicone and placed in a freeze drier for impregnation under low vacuum, followed by overnight gas curing with a silicone crosslinker. Finally, viewing windows were cut out with a scalpel in GIT preserved by both methods. Preserved GIT and tissues had an appearance similar to their appearance in vivo. The PC method was simple and inexpensive. Plastinated specimens were more flexible, durable, and lifelike than those preserved by the PC method. In addition, many body parts, such as muscles, nerves, bones, ligaments, and central nervous system specimens, were preserved by PN. Both methods were found to be useful tools for postmortem studies of tissues and GIT organs.

  1. Technical note: Dynamic MRI in a complicated giant posterior urethral diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundum, Prasad R; Gupta, Arun K; Thottom, Prasad V; Jana, Manisha

    2010-01-01

    Congenital posterior urethral diverticulum is an uncommon anomaly, sometimes complicated by infection or calculi formation. A conventional voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) is the most commonly used diagnostic modality. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not been frequently described in this entity. We describe a case of posterior urethral diverticulum complicated with secondary calculi, where the patient was evaluated using dynamic MRI and conventional VCUG

  2. Hybrid Microscopic-Endoscopic Surgery for Craniopharyngioma in Neurosurgical Suite: Technical Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Otani, Yoshihiro; Ishida, Joji; Fujii, Kentaro; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Ono, Shigeki; Date, Isao

    2016-01-01

    The best chance of curing craniopharyngioma is achieved by microsurgical total resection; however, its location adjacent to critical structures hinders complete resection without neurologic deterioration. Unrecognized residual tumor within microscopic blind spots might result in tumor recurrences. To improve outcomes, new techniques are necessary to visualize tissue within these blind spots. We examined the success of hybrid microscopic-endoscopic neurosurgery for craniopharyngioma in a neurosurgical suite. Four children with craniopharyngiomas underwent microscopic resection. When the neurosurgeon was confident that most of the visible tumor was removed but was suspicious of residual tumor within the blind spot, he or she used an integrated endoscope-holder system to inspect and remove any residual tumor. Two ceiling monitors were mounted side by side in front of the surgeon to display both microscopic and endoscopic views and to view both monitors simultaneously. Surgery was performed in all patients via the frontobasal interhemispheric approach. Residual tumors were observed in the sella (2 patients), on the ventral surface of the chiasm and optic nerve (1 patient), and in the third ventricle (1 patient) and were resected to achieve total resection. Postoperatively, visual function was improved in 2 patients and none exhibited deterioration related to the surgery. Simultaneous microscopic and endoscopic observation with the use of dual monitors in a neurosurgical suite was ergonomically optimal for the surgeon to perform microsurgical procedures and to avoid traumatizing surrounding vessels or neural tissues. Hybrid microscopic-endoscopic neurosurgery may contribute to safe, less-invasive, and maximal resection to achieve better prognosis in children with craniopharyngioma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Technical Note: Characterization of custom 3D printed multimodality imaging phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, Matthew F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 350 Serra Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Lee, Brian J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, 440 Escondido Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Levin, Craig S., E-mail: cslevin@stanford.edu [Departments of Radiology, Physics, Bioengineering and Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Dr., Stanford, California 94305-5128 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Imaging phantoms are important tools for researchers and technicians, but they can be costly and difficult to customize. Three dimensional (3D) printing is a widely available rapid prototyping technique that enables the fabrication of objects with 3D computer generated geometries. It is ideal for quickly producing customized, low cost, multimodal, reusable imaging phantoms. This work validates the use of 3D printed phantoms by comparing CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial “Micro Deluxe” phantom. This report also presents results from a customized 3D printed PET/MRI phantom, and a customized high resolution imaging phantom with sub-mm features. Methods: CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial Micro Deluxe (Data Spectrum Corporation, USA) phantom with 1.2, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0, and 4.8 mm diameter hot rods were acquired. The measured PET and CT rod sizes, activities, and attenuation coefficients were compared. A PET/MRI scan of a custom 3D printed phantom with hot and cold rods was performed, with photon attenuation and normalization measurements performed with a separate 3D printed normalization phantom. X-ray transmission scans of a customized two level high resolution 3D printed phantom with sub-mm features were also performed. Results: Results show very good agreement between commercial and 3D printed micro deluxe phantoms with less than 3% difference in CT measured rod diameter, less than 5% difference in PET measured rod diameter, and a maximum of 6.2% difference in average rod activity from a 10 min, 333 kBq/ml (9 μCi/ml) Siemens Inveon (Siemens Healthcare, Germany) PET scan. In all cases, these differences were within the measurement uncertainties of our setups. PET/MRI scans successfully identified 3D printed hot and cold rods on PET and MRI modalities. X-ray projection images of a 3D printed high resolution phantom identified features as small as 350 μm wide. Conclusions: This work shows that 3D printed phantoms can be functionally equivalent to commercially available phantoms. They are a viable option for quickly distributing and fabricating low cost, customized phantoms.

  4. Technical Note: Correcting for signal attenuation from noisy proxy data in climate reconstructions

    KAUST Repository

    Ammann, C. M.

    2010-04-20

    Regression-based climate reconstructions scale one or more noisy proxy records against a (generally) short instrumental data series. Based on that relationship, the indirect information is then used to estimate that particular measure of climate back in time. A well-calibrated proxy record(s), if stationary in its relationship to the target, should faithfully preserve the mean amplitude of the climatic variable. However, it is well established in the statistical literature that traditional regression parameter estimation can lead to substantial amplitude attenuation if the predictors carry significant amounts of noise. This issue is known as "Measurement Error" (Fuller, 1987; Carroll et al., 2006). Climate proxies derived from tree-rings, ice cores, lake sediments, etc., are inherently noisy and thus all regression-based reconstructions could suffer from this problem. Some recent applications attempt to ward off amplitude attenuation, but implementations are often complex (Lee et al., 2008) or require additional information, e.g. from climate models (Hegerl et al., 2006, 2007). Here we explain the cause of the problem and propose an easy, generally applicable, data-driven strategy to effectively correct for attenuation (Fuller, 1987; Carroll et al., 2006), even at annual resolution. The impact is illustrated in the context of a Northern Hemisphere mean temperature reconstruction. An inescapable trade-off for achieving an unbiased reconstruction is an increase in variance, but for many climate applications the change in mean is a core interest.

  5. Technical note: Use of accelerometers to describe gait patterns in dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passillé, A. M. de; Jensen, Margit Bak; Chapinal, N.

    2010-01-01

    Developments in accelerometer technology offer new opportunities for automatic monitoring of animal behavior. Until now, commercially available accelerometers have been used to measure walking in adult cows but have failed to identify walking in calves. We described the pattern of acceleration...... associated with various gaits in calves and tested whether measures of acceleration could be used to count steps and distinguish among gait types. A triaxial accelerometer (sampling at 33 readings/s with maximum measurement at +/-3.2 g) was attached to 1 hind leg of 7 dairy calves, and each calf was walked...

  6. Technical note: Time-resolved immunofluorometric assay for growth hormone in ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, P.; Adamsen, J.; Lund, Regina Teresa

    2003-01-01

    for 4 h at 25degreesC. Plates were then washed six times, incubated for 5 to 10 min with 250 muL of enhancement solution, and fluorescence read with a time-resolved fluorometer. The sensitivity of the assay was 0.1 ng/mL, and the working range was 0.2 to 200 ng/mL. Recovery of quantitative amounts...

  7. Technical Note: Long-term memory effect in the atmospheric CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Varotsos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The monthly mean values of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration derived from in-situ air samples collected at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, USA during 1958–2004 (the longest continuous record available in the world are analyzed by employing the detrended fluctuation analysis to detect scaling behavior in this time series. The main result is that the fluctuations of carbon dioxide concentrations exhibit long-range power-law correlations (long memory with lag times ranging from four months to eleven years, which correspond to 1/f noise. This result indicates that random perturbations in the carbon dioxide concentrations give rise to noise, characterized by a frequency spectrum following a power-law with exponent that approaches to one; the latter shows that the correlation times grow strongly. This feature is pointing out that a correctly rescaled subset of the original time series of the carbon dioxide concentrations resembles the original time series. Finally, the power-law relationship derived from the real measurements of the carbon dioxide concentrations could also serve as a tool to improve the confidence of the atmospheric chemistry-transport and global climate models.

  8. Technical note on local adaptations to soil erosion and low soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored the local adaptations to soil erosion and low soil water status in the semi arid Tharaka area in Kenya. Personal interviews and non-participant observations were used to solicit information from 137 small-scale farmers. A workshop was held in each of the three village clusters at the beginning and at the ...

  9. Technical note: comparing von Luschan skin color tiles and modern spectrophotometry for measuring human skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatoniowski, Anna K; Quillen, Ellen E; Shriver, Mark D; Jablonski, Nina G

    2013-06-01

    Prior to the introduction of reflectance spectrophotometry into anthropological field research during the 1950s, human skin color was most commonly classified by visual skin color matching using the von Luschan tiles, a set of 36 standardized, opaque glass tiles arranged in a chromatic scale. Our goal was to establish a conversion formula between the tile-based color matching method and modern reflectance spectrophotometry to make historical and contemporary data comparable. Skin pigmentation measurements were taken on the forehead, inner upper arms, and backs of the hands using both the tiles and a spectrophotometer on 246 participants showing a broad range of skin pigmentation. From these data, a second-order polynomial conversion formula was derived by jackknife analysis to estimate melanin index (M-index) based on tile values. This conversion formula provides a means for comparing modern data to von Luschan tile measurements recorded in historical reports. This is particularly important for populations now extinct, extirpated, or admixed for which tile-based measures of skin pigmentation are the only data available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Technical note: Improving the AWAT filter with interpolation schemes for advanced processing of high resolution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Andre; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd

    2016-06-01

    Weighing lysimeters with appropriate data filtering yield the most precise and unbiased information for precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET). A recently introduced filter scheme for such data is the AWAT (Adaptive Window and Adaptive Threshold) filter (Peters et al., 2014). The filter applies an adaptive threshold to separate significant from insignificant mass changes, guaranteeing that P and ET are not overestimated, and uses a step interpolation between the significant mass changes. In this contribution we show that the step interpolation scheme, which reflects the resolution of the measuring system, can lead to unrealistic prediction of P and ET, especially if they are required in high temporal resolution. We introduce linear and spline interpolation schemes to overcome these problems. To guarantee that medium to strong precipitation events abruptly following low or zero fluxes are not smoothed in an unfavourable way, a simple heuristic selection criterion is used, which attributes such precipitations to the step interpolation. The three interpolation schemes (step, linear and spline) are tested and compared using a data set from a grass-reference lysimeter with 1 min resolution, ranging from 1 January to 5 August 2014. The selected output resolutions for P and ET prediction are 1 day, 1 h and 10 min. As expected, the step scheme yielded reasonable flux rates only for a resolution of 1 day, whereas the other two schemes are well able to yield reasonable results for any resolution. The spline scheme returned slightly better results than the linear scheme concerning the differences between filtered values and raw data. Moreover, this scheme allows continuous differentiability of filtered data so that any output resolution for the fluxes is sound. Since computational burden is not problematic for any of the interpolation schemes, we suggest always using the spline scheme.

  11. Technical Note: On the Use of Nudging for Aerosol-Climate Model Intercomparison Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Wan, Hui; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Kooperman, G. J.; Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Neubauer, David; Lohmann, U.

    2014-08-26

    Nudging is an assimilation technique widely used in the development and evaluation of climate models. Con- straining the simulated wind and temperature fields using global weather reanalysis facilitates more straightforward comparison between simulation and observation, and reduces uncertainties associated with natural variabilities of the large-scale circulation. On the other hand, the artificial forcing introduced by nudging can be strong enough to change the basic characteristics of the model climate. In the paper we show that for the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, due to the systematic temperature bias in the standard model and the relatively strong sensitivity of homogeneous ice nucleation to aerosol concentration, nudging towards reanalysis results in substantial reductions in the ice cloud amount and the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on longwave cloud forcing. In order to reduce discrepancies between the nudged and unconstrained simulations and meanwhile take the advantages of nudging, two alternative experimentation methods are evaluated. The first one constrains only the horizontal winds. The second method nudges both winds and temperature, but replaces the long-term climatology of the reanalysis by that of the model. Results show that both methods lead to substantially improved agreement with the free-running model in terms of the top-of-atmosphere radiation budget and cloud ice amount. The wind-only nudging is more convenient to apply, and provides higher correlations of the wind fields, geopotential height and specific humidity between simulation and reanalysis. This suggests that nudging the horizontal winds but not temperature is a good strategy, especially for studies that involve both warm and cold clouds.

  12. {sup 23}Na-MRI of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme after intraoperative radiotherapy: technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haneder, Stefan; Buesing, Karen A.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Ong, Melissa M. [Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Giordano, Frank A.; Wenz, Frederik [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Konstandin, Simon; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg University, Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Brehmer, Stefanie; Schmiedek, Peter [Heidelberg University, Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    We report the first case of an intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in a patient with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) who was followed up with a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method - {sup 23}Na-MRI - in comparison to a standard contrast-enhanced {sup 1}H-MRI and {sup 18}F-FET-PET. A 56-year-old female patient with diagnosed GBM in July 2012 underwent tumor resection, radiochemotherapy, and three cycles of chemotherapy. After a relapse, 6 months after the initial diagnosis, an IORT was recommended which was performed in March 2013 using the INTRABEAM system (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Germany) with a 3-cm applicator and a surface dose of 20 Gy. Early post-operative contrast-enhanced and 1-month follow-up {sup 1}H-MRI and a {sup 18}F-FET-PET were performed. In addition, an IRB-approved {sup 23}Na-MRI was performed on a 3.0-T MR scanner (MAGNETOM TimTrio, Siemens Healthcare, Germany). After re-surgery and IORT in March 2013, only a faint contrast enhancement but considerable surrounding edema was visible at the medio-posterior resection margins. In April 2013, new and progressive contrast enhancement, edema, {sup 23}Na content, and increased uptake in the {sup 18}F-FET-PET were visible, indicating tumor recurrence. Increased sodium content within the area of contrast enhancement was found in the {sup 23}Na-MRI, but also exceeding this area, very similar to the increased uptake depicted in the {sup 18}F-FET-PET. The clearly delineable zone of edema in both examinations exhibits a lower {sup 23}Na content compared to areas with suspected proliferating tumor tissue. {sup 23}Na-MRI provided similar information in the suspicious area compared to {sup 18}F-FET-PET, exceeding conventional {sup 1}H-MRI. Still, {sup 23}Na-MRI remains an investigational technique, which is worth to be further evaluated. (orig.)

  13. 23Na-MRI of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme after intraoperative radiotherapy: technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haneder, Stefan; Buesing, Karen A.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Ong, Melissa M.; Giordano, Frank A.; Wenz, Frederik; Konstandin, Simon; Schad, Lothar R.; Brehmer, Stefanie; Schmiedek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of an intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in a patient with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) who was followed up with a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method - 23 Na-MRI - in comparison to a standard contrast-enhanced 1 H-MRI and 18 F-FET-PET. A 56-year-old female patient with diagnosed GBM in July 2012 underwent tumor resection, radiochemotherapy, and three cycles of chemotherapy. After a relapse, 6 months after the initial diagnosis, an IORT was recommended which was performed in March 2013 using the INTRABEAM system (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Germany) with a 3-cm applicator and a surface dose of 20 Gy. Early post-operative contrast-enhanced and 1-month follow-up 1 H-MRI and a 18 F-FET-PET were performed. In addition, an IRB-approved 23 Na-MRI was performed on a 3.0-T MR scanner (MAGNETOM TimTrio, Siemens Healthcare, Germany). After re-surgery and IORT in March 2013, only a faint contrast enhancement but considerable surrounding edema was visible at the medio-posterior resection margins. In April 2013, new and progressive contrast enhancement, edema, 23 Na content, and increased uptake in the 18 F-FET-PET were visible, indicating tumor recurrence. Increased sodium content within the area of contrast enhancement was found in the 23 Na-MRI, but also exceeding this area, very similar to the increased uptake depicted in the 18 F-FET-PET. The clearly delineable zone of edema in both examinations exhibits a lower 23 Na content compared to areas with suspected proliferating tumor tissue. 23 Na-MRI provided similar information in the suspicious area compared to 18 F-FET-PET, exceeding conventional 1 H-MRI. Still, 23 Na-MRI remains an investigational technique, which is worth to be further evaluated. (orig.)

  14. Technical Note: Asteroid Detection Demonstration from SkySat-3 - B612 Data Using Synthetic Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, C.; Shao, M.; Lai, S.; Boerner, P.; Dyer, J.; Lu, E.; Reitsema, H.; Buie, M.

    2018-01-01

    We report results from analyzing the data taken by the sCMOS cameras on board of SkySat3 using the synthetic tracking technique. The analysis demonstrates the expected sensitivity improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the faint asteroids from properly stacking up the short exposure images in post-processing.

  15. Technical note: A new method for the determination of water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to develop and test a novel screening method for determining water quality. We hypothesised that L-ascorbic acid would be a good indicator of water quality, due to its sensitivity to pollutants. We investigated the absorption spectra of L‑ascorbic acid dissolved at different concentrations in water from ...

  16. Technical Note: Daily variation in intake of a salt-limited supplement by grazing steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to develop and test an automated supplement intake measurement system (SmartFeed, SF) in grazing trials. The SF was developed by C-lock Inc., (Rapid City, SD), and was designed using a stainless steel feed bin with load cells and an radio frequency identification ...

  17. Technical Note: Stored grain volume measurement using a low density point cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mass of stored grain is often determined from volume measurements by crop insurers, government auditors, and stored grain managers conducting inventories. Recent increases in bin size have accentuated the difficulty of accounting for irregularities and variations in surface conditions in calcula...

  18. Technical Note: Field-observed angles of repose for stored grain in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulk grain angle of repose (AoR) is a key parameter for inventorying grain, predicting flow characteristics, and designing bins and grain handling systems. The AoR is defined for two cases, piling (dynamic) or emptying (static), and usually varies with grain type. The objective of this study was to ...

  19. Metachronous bilateral subtrochanteric fracture of femur in an osteopetrotic bone: A case report with technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Jain, Vijay Kumar; Lal, Hitesh; Arya, Rajinder Kumar; Sinha, Skand

    2012-12-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited skeletal disorder characterized by increased density. The increased fragility of such dense bone results in a greater incidence of fractures, especially around hip and proximal femur. The surgical treatment of such fractures is difficult due to hard but brittle structure of bone. Herein we report a case of bilateral subtrochanteric fracture in an osteopetrotic patient. It was fixed using a dynamic hip screw with plate.

  20. Graft downsizing during ex vivo lung perfusion: case report and technical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosotti, M; Rosso, L; Mendogni, P; Tosi, D; Palleschi, A; Righi, I; Froio, S; Valenza, F; Santambrogio, L

    2014-09-01

    Among patients with respiratory insufficiency awaiting lung transplantation, small adult patients have a lower opportunity of receiving size-matched pulmonary grafts, because of the shortage of donors, particularly those of small size. Reducing the size of an oversized graft is one of the methods to increase the donor pool; similarly, ex vivo lung perfusion is an emerging technique aimed toward the same purpose. We describe how we combined the 2 techniques (lobar transplantation plus contralateral nonanatomic graft reduction during ex vivo lung perfusion) to overcome graft shortage in a clinical case. For the 1st time, this case report demonstrates that surgical manipulation during ex vivo lung perfusion does not affect the functional improvement in a lung previously judged to be not suitable for transplantation. The 6-month follow-up results are similar to those of standard bilateral lung transplantation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.