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Sample records for technetium labeled red

  1. Detection of pulmonary hemorrhage with technetium-labeled red cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winzelberg, G.G.; Laman, D.; Sachs, M.; Miller, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Noninvasive techniques to aid in the diagnosis of massive pulmonary hemoptysis would be helpful in guiding more-invasive procedures such as bronchial artery angiography, which carries a risk of transverse myelitis. A patient was studied with technetium-labeled red cells and successfully detected a site of intermittent hemorrhage from the lung

  2. Sup(99m) Technetium - labeled red blood cells 'in vitro'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo Filho, M.; Souza Moura, I.N. de; Boasquevisque, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    A simple technique for the preparation of sup(99m) Tc labeled red blood cells using a comercial kit is described. To each 3ml of plain blood with anti-coagulant was added 1ml of solution of commercial kit with 6.8 μg of stannous chloride. This mixture was incubated in water bath, at 37 0 C, for 60 minutes. Then technetium-99m was added and the mixture was left for another ten minutes, in water bath, at 37 0 C. Under these conditions there was the best labeling of the red blood cells. Similar results were obtained with a solution of stannous chloride prepared freshly. The labeling is strong for 6.8 μg stannous chloride because the labeling was not removed by the several washes of the red blood cells or by the left in water bath. (Author) [pt

  3. Improved modification for in vitro labeling of red blood cells with Technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerson, B.; Ballinger, J.R.; Gulenchyn, K.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have tested a modification of Brookhaven method for in vitro labeling of red blood cells (RBCs) with technetium-99m by adding an initial centrifugation step and performing the labeling on packed RBCs. This results in reproducible, high labeling efficiencies (99.3% +/- 0.4%, n = 50) after 15 min of incubation. The use of packed RBCs also results in a higher concentration of labeled RBCs (smaller bolus for injection) and less radiation exposure to the technologist. This technique has proved useful for radionuclide angiography, venography, gastrointestinal bleeding studies, and red cell mass determinations. It is particularly advantageous for RBC labeling in patients receiving chemotherapy

  4. Clinical comparison of cardiac blood pool visualization with technetium-99m red blood cells labeled in vivo and with technetium-99m human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Freitas, J.E.; Swanson, D.; Rogers, W.L.; Clare, J.M.; Brown, M.L.; Pitt, B.

    1978-01-01

    Technetium-99m red blood cells (Tc-RBC) labeled by an in vivo technique were compared with two preparations of Tc-99m human serum albumin (HSA) for cardiac blood-pool imaging. Relative distribution of the tracers was analyzed on end-diastolic frames of gated blood-pool studies and on whole-body (head to mid-thigh) anterior pinhole images. The Tc-RBC demonstrated greater relative percentage localization in the cardiac blood pool, higher target-to-background ratios in the left ventricle, and less liver concentration. For cardiac blood-pool imaging, Tc-RBC labeled by the in vivo approach appears to be superior to the two Tc-HSA preparations studied

  5. Effects of neutron irradiation on red blood cell labeling with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, R.R.; Conklin, J.J.; Grissom, M.P.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of in vivo and in vitro neutron irradiation on red blood cell radiolabeling with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) were studied. Blood from three dogs was irradiated with neutrons (725 rads, free in air dose) followed by radiolabeling with Tc-99m. The three dogs were subsequently whole body, neutron irradiated (250 rads, midline dose); and blood samples were drawn for radiolabeling at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post-irradiation. Blood from three control dogs was also drawn and radiolabeled on each day for comparison. The results show that there were no significant differences between the radiolabeling capacities of in vivo or in vitro neutron irradiated and control RBCs

  6. Red blood cell labeling with technetium-99m. Effect of radiopaque contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkel, J.; Chervu, L.R.; Bernstein, R.G.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Radiographic contrast agents have been reported in the literature to interfere significantly with red blood cell (RBC) labeling in vivo by Tc-99m. Moreover, in the presence of contrast agents, red cells have been known to undergo significant morphologic changes. These observations led to the current RBC labeling study in patients (N = 25) undergoing procedures with the administration of contrast media. Before and after contrast administration, blood samples were drawn from each patient into vacutainer tubes containing heparin and RBC labeling was performed using 1-ml aliquots of these samples following the Brookhaven National Laboratory protocol. The differences in average percentage labeling yield with and without contrast media were not significant. In vivo labeling in hypertensive rats with administration of contrast media up to 600 mg likewise consistently gave high labeling yields at all concentrations. Purported alterations in cell labeling attributed to contrast agents are not reflected in these studies, and other pathophysiologic factors need to be identified to substantiate the previous reports. In vitro study offers a potentially useful and simple method to delineate effects of various agents on cell labeling

  7. Detection of acute gastrointestinal bleeding by means of technetium-99m in vivo labelled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolezal, J.; Vizd'a, J.; Bures, J.

    2002-01-01

    Prognosis of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding depends on the timely and accurate detection of the source of bleeding and sequential surgical or endoscopy therapy. Scintigraphy with red blood cells (RBCs) in vivo labelled by means of technetium-99m hastened detection of source of GI bleeding and improved management of the particular disease. Gastrointestinal endoscopy is the method of choice for the diagnostics of bleeding from upper tract and large bowel. For diagnostics of bleeding from the small bowel we can use scintigraphy with in vivo labelled autological red blood cells if pushenteroscopy, intra-operative enteroscopy or angiography are not available. 31 patients (13 men, 18 women, aged 20-91, mean 56 years) underwent this investigation from 1998 till 2001 at the Department of Nuclear Medicine. All patients had melaena or enterorrhagia associated with acute anaemia. Gastroscopy, colonoscopy, enteroclysis or X-ray angiography did not detect the source of bleeding. Twenty-one patients had positive scintigraphy with in vivo labelled RBCs - 9 patients were already positive on dynamic scintigraphy, and 12 patients were positive on static images. Scintigraphy with in vivo labelled RBCs was negative in 10 patients. GI bleeding stopped spontaneously in these 10 patients with negative scintigraphy. These patients did not undergo intra-operative enteroscopy or surgery. The final diagnosis of the 21 patients with positive scintigraphy was determined in 16 patients by push-enteroscopy (6 patients), intra-operative enteroscopy (6 patients) or by surgery (4 patients). Of these 16 patients the correct place of bleeding was determined by scintigraphy with labelled RBCs in 11 (69%) patients. Final diagnoses of our 16 patients with positive scintigraphy with autological labelled RBCs were: bleeding small bowel arteriovenous malformation (6 patients), uraemic enteritis with bleeding erosions in ileum and jejunum (2 patients), Osler-Rendu- Weber disease (1 patient), pseudocyst of

  8. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume

  9. Evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding by red blood cells labeled in vivo with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winzelberg, G.G.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Waltman, A.C.; Greenfield, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of abdominal imaging with RBCs labeled in vivo with Tc-99m, for the detection of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, 28 control subjects and ten patients with suspected bleeding underwent scintigraphy at 0 to 24 hr after tracer injection. Colonic activity was noted in one of the controls within 3 hr of injection, and in five of ten controls at 24 hr, all of whom had initial gastric activity. Of the ten patients with suspected GI bleeding, eight had documented active bleeding; seven of these had positive scintigrams. Nasogastric (NG) suction markedly decreased the presence of initial gastric activity in the patients with active bleeding. With this blood-pool radiopharmaceutical, frequent imaging of the abdomen over 24 hr can be done to test for active bleeding. Continuous NG suction is recommended to reduce accumulation of gastric activity. These results suggest that red blood cells labeled in vivo with Tc-99m provide a sensitive method of detecting active GI bleeding

  10. The measurement of limb blood flow using technetium-labelled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, A; Robinson, P.J.; Wiggins, P.A.; Leveson, S.H.; Salter, M.C.P.; Matthews, I.F.; Ware, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    A method for measuring blood flow below the knee during reactive hyperaemia induced by 3 min of arterial occlusion has been developed. Subjects are positioned with lower limbs within the field of view of a gamma camera and pneumatic cuffs are placed below the knees to isolate the blood and induce a hyperaemic response. The remaining blood pool is labelled with 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled red cells. Blood flows have been derived from the initial gradients of time-activity curves and from equilibrium blood sampling. The technique has been validated using a tissue-equivalent leg phantom and peristaltic pump. The method has been applied to a small group of patients with peripheral vascular disease and to normal controls. The mean value (+-SD) of limb perfusion for normal controls was found to be 16.4+-3.0 ml/100 ml/min and for patients with intermittent claudication was 5.1+-2.6 ml/100 ml/min. Flow measurements are found to correlate with clinical findings and with symptoms. Reproducibility (established by repeated measurements) is high. The method is well tolerated even by patients suffering from rest pain. (author)

  11. Measurement of limb blood flow using technetium-labelled red blood cells

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    Parkin, A; Robinson, P.J.; Wiggins, P.A.; Leveson, S.H.; Salter, M.C.P.; Matthews, I.F.; Ware, F.M.

    1986-05-01

    A method for measuring blood flow below the knee during reactive hyperaemia induced by 3 min of arterial occlusion has been developed. Subjects are positioned with lower limbs within the field of view of a gamma camera and pneumatic cuffs are placed below the knees to isolate the blood and induce a hyperaemic response. The remaining blood pool is labelled with /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-labelled red cells. Blood flows have been derived from the initial gradients of time-activity curves and from equilibrium blood sampling. The technique has been validated using a tissue-equivalent leg phantom and peristaltic pump. The method has been applied to a small group of patients with peripheral vascular disease and to normal controls. The mean value (+-SD) of limb perfusion for normal controls was found to be 16.4 +- 3.0 ml/100 ml/min and for patients with intermittent claudication was 5.1 +- 2.6 ml/100 ml/min. Flow measurements are found to correlate with clinical findings and with symptoms. Reproducibility (established by repeated measurements) is high. The method is well tolerated even by patients suffering from rest pain.

  12. Morphologic alterations on red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m: the effect of Mentha crispa L. (hortela) extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Filho, S.D.; Dire, G.L.; Lima, E.; Pereira, M.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2002-01-01

    The use of natural products, as medicinal plants, is very frequent in the world. Mentha crispa L. (M. crispa) is utilized in herbal medicine. Blood elements labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used in nuclear medicine procedures and this labeling process may be altered by drugs. We have investigated the possibility of M. crispa extract being capable to alter the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with M. crispa extract in various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100%). Stannous chloride solution and Tc-99m, as sodium pertechnetate, were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated. Samples of P and BC were also precipitated, centrifuged and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) in BC, IF-P and IF-BC was calculated. Histological evaluations of the red blood cells (RBC) were performed with blood samples treated with various concentrations of M. Crispa L. and the morphology of the RBC was observed under optical microscope. Important morphological alterations expressed by mean of the perimeter/area of the RBC treated with M. crispa: 6.25% (0.67 ± 0.02), 12.5% (0.77 ± 0.03), 25% (0.73 ± 0.04), 50% (0.76 ± 0.04), 100% (0.69 ± 0.08) and the control cells (0.67 ± 0.05). The %ATI decreased: (i) on BC from 97.3 ± 1.92 to 60.0 ± 2.44; (ii) on IF-P from 74.8 ± 3.78 to 9.99 ± 3.61; (iii) on IF-BC from 88.6 ± 5.41 to 58.4 ± 11.55. The perimeter/area of the RBC showed significant differences (P>0.01) when compared 6.25% and 12.5%, and when compared 6.25% and 50% of M. Crispa L. extract. These findings could also justify the decrease of the labeling of BC with 99mTc in presence of M. Crispa extract

  13. Contribution to the study of the red blood cells labelled with chromium-51 and technetium-99 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canine, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Although the bindings of Cr-51 and Tc-99 m were both in the β chain of hemoglobin molecule, the results obtained after previous incubations of the RBC with chromium and technetium, and the determinations of the efficiency of the labeling of RBC showed that the points of fixing of chromium and technetium with β chain of hemoglobin were probably different. The observations through the optic microscope allowed the verification that, at the concentration of 100 mg/ml of Cr-50, there were morphologic in the RBC. These modifications were not found after the other treatments. The comparison between scintigraphy obtained with Tc-99 m or Cr-51 RBC suggested that the technique which employs Tc-99 m can be more adequate than the one with Cr-51. (author)

  14. Demonstration of hematobilia using technetium-99m labeled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.M.; Lee, R.G.; Clouse, M.E.; Hill, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman, who presented with obstructive jaundice, was shown by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography to have a markedly dilated biliary system and stones within the common bile duct. The stones were removed percutaneously using the transduodenal approach, and an internal drainage catheter was placed. Following the procedure, the patient experienced gastrointestinal bleeding manifested by melanotic stools. Blood-tinged bile was withdrawn from the biliary drainage catheter, leading to the suspicion that the bleeding might be originating from the biliary tract. A Tc-99m red blood cell (Tc-99m RBC) scan was performed to try to designate the biliary tract as the site of bleeding, and to determine if there were any other bleeding sites present. The study demonstrated bleeding from the biliary tract, which was confirmed by angiography and endoscopy. The technique for the detection of gastrointestinal bleeding using Tc-99m RBCs is well described. This case suggests that when doing studies to localize occult bleeding, the liver should be included in the field-of-view to exclude bleeding from the liver

  15. Effect of an Arctium lappa (burdock) extract on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the morphology of the red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Rosane de Figueiredo; Rebello, Bernardo Machado; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha; Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Caldas, Luiz Querino de Araujo; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Arctium lappa (burdock) has been used to treat inflammatory processes. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) have been utilized in nuclear medicine. It was evaluated the influence of a burdock extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99m Tc and on the morphometry of red blood cells. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with burdock extract and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. Plasma and blood cells, soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) were determined. Morphology and morphometric (perimeter/area ratio) measurements of red blood cells (RBC) were performed. The incubation with burdock extract significantly (p 99m Tc obtained in this study. (author)

  16. Effects of fenoprofen on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m, the morphology of red blood cells and the plasmid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marcia de Oliveira; Rocha, Gabrielle de Souza; Lombardi, Simone dos Santos; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Pereira, Mario Jose; Geller, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of fenoprofen on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium- 99m, on the morphology of red blood cells and on the plasmid DNA. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with fenoprofen and the assay of labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) was performed. Blood cells, plasma, soluble and insoluble fractions of blood cells and plasma were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) was determined. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphology of the red blood cells (RBC) was evaluated. Plasmid (pBSK) was incubated with fenoprofen with stannous chloride, and agarose gel electrophoresis procedure was carried out to evaluate genotoxic and the protection of this drug against stannous chloride effect on DNA. In conclusion, under the conditions used in this work, our data suggest that fenoprofen would not affect the fixation of the 99m Tc on the blood constituents, alter the RBC membrane and present genotoxic and redox effects. (author)

  17. Influence of some drugs, used in coronary artery disease on in vitro labelling red blood cells with technetium 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poniatowicz-Frasunek, E.

    1997-01-01

    In some patients investigated by radionuclide ventriculography poor labeling efficiency of red blood cells with technetium 99m Tc is observed. Among possible mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon, the pharmacological treatment applied to the patients should be taken into consideration. The aim of the study was to define the effect of selected drugs used in CAD on technetium binding efficiency by erythrocytes in vitro. Blood samples were obtained from 40 normal individuals receiving no medication. The effect of the following drugs were examined: Aerosonit, Isoptin, Bemecor, Dopegyt, Enarenal, Binazin, Furosemid, Aspirin, Vitamin E and Propranolol. Only Enarenal and Vitamin E proved to have no effect on technetium binding efficiency. The most expressed reduction was observed in experiments with Aerosonit, Furosemid and Propranolol and the smallest changes were found in blood samples with Bemecor, Binazin and Aspirin. The results of the study suggest that pharmacological treatment may influence the quality of scintigraphic images obtained with radioisotope ventriculography. For that reason the medicines applied to the patients should be as much as possible reduced or withdrawn for at least several days before examination. (author)

  18. Assessment of the effect of Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. extract on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells

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    Kakali De

    Full Text Available Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. (BM, a traditional Ayurvedic medicine, used for centuries as a memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, sedative and antiepileptic agent. BM extract have been extensively investigated by several authors for their neuropharmacological effects. In nuclear medicine, red blood cells (RBC labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc have several clinical applications. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labeling of RBC with 99mTc. As Bacopa monnieri is extensively used in medicine, we evaluated its influence on the labeling of RBC and plasma proteins using technetium-99m (99mTc. This labeling procedure depends on a reducing agent and usually stannous chloride is used. Blood was incubated with BM extracts. Stannous chloride solution and 99mTc were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P and blood cells (BC were isolated. Samples of P or BC were also precipitated, centrifuged and insoluble fraction (IF and soluble fraction (SF were separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI in BC, IF-BC and IF-P were calculated. The %ATI significantly decreased on BC from 95.53±0.45 to 35.41±0.44, on IF-P from 80.20±1.16 to 7.40±0.69 and on IF-BC from 73.31±1.76 to 21.26±1.40. The morphology study of RBC revealed important morphological alterations due to treatment with BM extracts. We suggest that the BM extract effect could be explained by an inhibition of the stannous and pertechnetate ions or oxidation of the stannous ion or by damages induced in the plasma membrane.

  19. Effect of an Arctium lappa (burdock) extract on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the morphology of the red blood cells

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    Neves, Rosane de Figueiredo; Rebello, Bernardo Machado; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: nevesrosane@yahoo.com.br; Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Caldas, Luiz Querino de Araujo [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Medicas; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Pesquisa

    2007-09-15

    Arctium lappa (burdock) has been used to treat inflammatory processes. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) have been utilized in nuclear medicine. It was evaluated the influence of a burdock extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc and on the morphometry of red blood cells. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with burdock extract and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. Plasma and blood cells, soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) were determined. Morphology and morphometric (perimeter/area ratio) measurements of red blood cells (RBC) were performed. The incubation with burdock extract significantly (p<0.05) altered the %ATI on the blood compartments and the perimeter/area ratio of RBC, as well as, induced modifications on the shape of RBC. Alterations on membrane could justify the decrease of labeling of blood cells with {sup 99m}Tc obtained in this study. (author)

  20. Effects of different concentrations of Maytenus ilicifolia (Espinheira Santa) on labelling of red blood cells and blood proteins with Technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Joelma F.; Braga, Ana Cristina S.; Bezerra, Roberto Jose A.C.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    1999-01-01

    The use of natural products in all over the world has been increased in Brazil as well as in other countries. Maytenus ilicifolia is commonly used in popular medicine. The labeling of red blood cells (RBC) with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) have been for many studies in nuclear medicine. This labeling procedure depends on a reducing agent and stannous chloride is normally used. Here, we investigate if the extract of Maytenus ilicifolia is capable to alter the labeling of RBC and blood proteins with 99m Tc. Blood samples were incubated with Maytenus ilicifolia. Stannous chloride solution and Tc-99m were. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cells (C) were isolated. Samples of P or C were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid, centrifuged and IF and IF were separated. The percentage of radioactivity (% ATI) in C, IF-P and IF-C was calculated. The %ATI in decreased in C from 93.6±2.3 to 29.0±2.7, on FI-P from 77.6±1.2 to 7.5 ±1.0 and on FI-C from 80.0±3.4 to 12.6±4.8. Once in RBC labeling procedure with 99m Tc depends on the presence of stannous (+2), the substances of the natural product could increase the valence of stannous (+2) to stannic (+4). This fact would decrease the labeling of blood elements with 99m Tc. (author)

  1. Effects of chronic sucralose sweetener on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m, morphology of red blood cells and the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats

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    Rocha, Gabrielle de Souza; Pereira, Marcia de Oliveira; Frydman, Jacques Natan Grinapel [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Benarroz, Monica de Oliveira; Garcia-Pinto, Angelica Beatriz; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Pereira, Mario Jose [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia

    2008-12-15

    This work evaluates effects of the sweetener with sucralose on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium- 99m ({sup 99m}Tc), on the morphology of red blood cells (RBC) and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats. Animals were treated with sweetener for 8 days. Blood samples were withdrawn and the assay of labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Blood cells (BC) and plasma (P) were isolated. Aliquots of BC and P were also precipitated, soluble and insoluble fractions separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) determined. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphology of the RBC was evaluated under optical microscopy. In biodistribution experiments, sodium pertechnetate was administrated, organs and tissues isolated, radioactivity was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) determined. The data showed no significant alterations in %ATI, morphology of RBC and in %ATI/g in the studied organs. (author)

  2. Effects of chronic sucralose sweetener on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m, morphology of red blood cells and the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Gabrielle de Souza; Pereira, Marcia de Oliveira; Frydman, Jacques Natan Grinapel; Benarroz, Monica de Oliveira; Garcia-Pinto, Angelica Beatriz; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Pereira, Mario Jose

    2008-01-01

    This work evaluates effects of the sweetener with sucralose on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium- 99m ( 99m Tc), on the morphology of red blood cells (RBC) and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats. Animals were treated with sweetener for 8 days. Blood samples were withdrawn and the assay of labeling of blood constituents with 99m Tc was performed. Blood cells (BC) and plasma (P) were isolated. Aliquots of BC and P were also precipitated, soluble and insoluble fractions separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) determined. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphology of the RBC was evaluated under optical microscopy. In biodistribution experiments, sodium pertechnetate was administrated, organs and tissues isolated, radioactivity was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) determined. The data showed no significant alterations in %ATI, morphology of RBC and in %ATI/g in the studied organs. (author)

  3. Technetium-99m labeled radiodiagnostic agents and method of preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinski, V.J.; Wilczewski, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of preparing improved technetium-99m labeled radiodiagnostic agents by reducing technetium-99m with stannous tartrate is described. Such radiodiagnostic agents are useful in scintigraphic examinations of the bone and lung

  4. Effect of an Arctium lappa (burdock extract on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the morphology of the red blood cells

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    Rosane de Figueiredo Neves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctium lappa (burdock has been used to treat inflammatory processes. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc have been utilized in nuclear medicine. It was evaluated the influence of a burdock extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc and on the morphometry of red blood cells. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with burdock extract and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. Plasma and blood cells, soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI were determined. Morphology and morphometric (perimeter/area ratio measurements of red blood cells (RBC were performed. The incubation with burdock extract significantly (pArctium lappa (bardana tem sido utilizada na medicina popular para o tratamento de processos inflamatórios. Constituintes sangüíneos marcados com tecnécio-99m (99mTc são utilizados na medicina nuclear para obtenção de imagens. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a influência de um extrato de bardana na marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc e na morfologia de hemácias. Amostras de sangue de ratos Wistar foram incubadas com extrato de bardana e o processo de radiomarcação de constituintes sangüíneos foi realizado. Plasma e células sangüíneas, frações solúvel e insolúvel do plasma e das células sangüíneas foram separadas, a radioatividade em cada fração foi contada e as porcentagens de radioatividade (%ATI foram determinadas. A morfologia e a relação perímetro/área das hemácias foram avaliadas. A incubação de sangue com o extrato de bardana alterou significativamente (p<0.05 a %ATI a distribuição de radioatividade nos compartimentos plasmático e celular. A relação perímetro/área de hemácias, bem como a forma das hemácias também sofreram alterações Modificações na membrana poderiam justificar a diminuição da marcação das c

  5. Blood cell labeling with technetium-99m. II. Measurement of circulating blood volume by sup(99m)Tc-labeled red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T; Yoshida, H; Matsuda, S; Kimura, H; Miura, N [Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1978-02-01

    Using a labeling method with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate to red blood cells (RBC), circulating blood volume was measured in comparison with that from /sup 51/Cr-labeled RBC method. The technique is easier than already published methods, because CIS kit for sup(99m)Tc-RBC labeling (TCK-11) became to be available recently. Two mls of ACD-anticoagulated blood were withdrawn and 0.5 ml of reducing reagent prepared just before use was added to blood, waiting 5 minutes and discarding the serum after centrifugation, then adding 100 ..mu..Ci of sup(99m)Tc. After washing the labeled cells by isotonic saline, cells were re-suspended in 10 ml of saline and injected to the subject. Blood specimen was obtained 10, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after infusion and blood volume was calculated by the usual way. Circulating blood volume by sup(99m)Tc was well correlated with that by /sup 51/Cr (=0.98, p 0.01), however, the value calculated from sup(99m)Tc were 4.8 percent higher than those by /sup 51/Cr, which suggested the elution of sup(99m)Tc from labeled RBC. sup(99m)Tc method has the advantages that higher radioactivity can be obtained in small amount of blood, which is useful in the determination of blood volume in children or in small animals in the laboratory. The measurement of blood volume of the mouse was done by using sup(99m)Tc method. The results were 1.70 +- 0.06 ml (6.35 +- 0.18%/gm), which coincided with the values reported previously. Because of it's short half life and low radiation dosage to the patients, sup(99m)Tc method will be recommended in the field of pediatrics or in patients with polycythemia or congestive heart failure, who are requested the repeated measurement of blood volume.

  6. Labeling of creatinine with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurt Lambrecht, F. [Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications, Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Durkan, K. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Buca, Izmir (Turkey). Chemistry Technicianship Program, Izmir Vocational School; Soylu, A. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Narlidere, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty

    2004-07-01

    Creatinine is a clinically important index of renal glomerular filtration rate. Urine creatinine levels can be used as a screening test to evaluate kidney function or can be part of the creatinine clearance test. In case of kidney dysfunction or muscle disorders the creatinine concentration in serum/plasma may rise to a higher value than in healthy body. Technetium- 99m has been used in nuclear medicine and in biomedical research to label molecular and cellular structures employed as radiotracers. {sup 99m}Tc is utilized to label molecules and cells, used as radiopharmaceuticals, and also to label biological species. It presents many desirable characteristics. SnCl{sub 2} method is frequently used as a reducing agent in the {sup 99m}Tc- labeling process. Creatinine metabolism might be investigated by using labeled {sup 99m}Tc- creatinine in healthy or uremic rats. (orig.)

  7. Labelling of biological structures with technetium 99 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo Filho, M.

    1988-01-01

    The labelling of red blood cells (RBC) with technetium 99m ( 99m Tc) depends on several factors, as the stannous ion (Sn ++ ) concentration, the time and temperature of incubation, the anticoagulant utilized, the presence of plasma proteins (PP) and others. Although the blinding of 99m Tc with hemoglobin and PP are similar, they appear to have specific characteristics as demonstrated by precipitation with alcohol, acetone, trichloroacetic acid, hydrochloric acid and mercury chloride. The bacterial cultures labeled with Technetium- 99m , at optimal Sn ++ ion concentration, presents a large stability and their viability is not altered by this treatment. The electrophoretic mobility, the hydrophobicity, the cationized ferritin distribution and the adherence to human buccal epithelial cells are not modified either. The possibility of labelling with 99m Tc of planaria and cercariae of Schistossoma mansoni evaluative cycle increases the utilization of this radionuclide to an experimental level. The results described with the labelling of these biological structures with 99m Tc demonstrated that stable labeled and viable operations are obtained. (author)

  8. Effect of an extract of Artemisia vulgaris L. (Mugwort) on the in vitro labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, Danielle Amorim; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha; Amorim, Lucia de Fatima; Catanho, Maria Tereza Jansen de Almeida; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of an extract of the Artemisia vulgaris L. (mugwort) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc). Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with a mugwort extract and the radiolabeling of blood constituents was carried out. Plasma and blood cells were separated by centrifugation. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged to isolate soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Mugwort extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on the blood compartments and on the blood cells proteins (insoluble fraction). The analysis of the results indicates that the extract could have substances that could interfere on the transport of stannous through the erythrocyte membrane altering the labeling of blood cells with 99mTc. (author)

  9. Technetium tc 99m-labeled red blood cells in the preoperative diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma and other vascular orbital tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Ennio; Burroni, Luca; Pichierri, Patrizia; Loffredo, Antonio; Vattimo, Angelo G

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate technetium Tc 99m (99mTc) red blood cell scintigraphy as a diagnostic tool for orbital cavernous hemangioma and to differentiate between orbital masses on the basis of their vascularization. We performed 99mTc red blood cell scintigraphy on 23 patients (8 female and 15 male; mean age, 47 years) affected by an orbital mass previously revealed with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and suggesting cavernous hemangioma. In our diagnosis, we considered the orbital increase delayed uptake with the typical scintigraphic pattern known as perfusion blood pool mismatch. The patients underwent biopsy or surgical treatment with transconjunctival cryosurgical extraction when possible. Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) showed intense focal uptake in the orbit corresponding to radiologic findings in 11 patients who underwent surgical treatment and pathologic evaluation (9 cavernous hemangiomas, 1 hemangiopericytoma, and 1 lymphangioma). Clinical or histologic examination of the remaining 22 patients revealed the presence of 5 lymphoid pseudotumors, 2 lymphomas, 2 pleomorphic adenomas of the lacrimal gland, 1 astrocytoma, 1 ophthalmic vein thrombosis, and 1 orbital varix. The confirmation of the preoperative diagnosis by 99mTc red blood cell scintigraphy shows that this technique is a reliable tool for differentiating cavernous hemangiomas from other orbital masses (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 86%) when ultrasound, CT, and MRI are not diagnostic. Unfortunately, 99mTc red blood cell scintigraphy results were positive in 1 patient with hemangiopericytoma and 1 patient with lymphangioma, which showed increased uptake in the lesion on SPET images because of the vascular nature of these tumors. Therefore, in these cases, the SPET images have to be integrated with data regarding clinical preoperative evaluation and CT scans or MRI studies. On the basis of our study, a complete diagnostic picture, CT scans or MRI studies, and

  10. Bleeding rates necessary for detecting acute gastrointestinal bleeding with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells in an experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, D.A.; Datz, F.L.; Remley, K.; Christian, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Proponents of [/sup 99m/Tc]sulfur colloid for GI bleeding studies argue that, although labeled red blood cells are useful for intermittent bleeding, they are not capable of detecting low bleeding rates. Studies of dogs with experimental GI bleeding have indicated bleeding rates of 0.05 ml/min can be detected with [/sup 99m/Tc]sulfur colloid. Since similar data in the dog model were unavailable for /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells, we undertook this study. To simulate lower GI bleeding, catheters were inserted into the bowel lumen. Each dog's blood was labeled with /sup 99m/Tc using an in vitro technique. Venous blood was then withdrawn and re-infused into the lumen of the bowel using a Harvard pump. Fourteen dogs were studied, ten receiving a bleeding rate from 4.6-0.02 ml/min in the descending colon and four with proximal jejunal bleeds of 0.20-0.02 ml/min. Bleeding rates of 4.6-0.2 ml/min were detected within 10 min in the colon and bleeding rates as low as 0.04 ml/min were seen by 55 min. Slower bleeding rates were not detected. Similar findings were noted for proximal jejunal bleeds. Based on the time of appearance, a minimum volume of approximately 2-3 ml labeled blood was necessary to detect bleeding. We conclude that /sup 99m/Tc-labeled RBCs are sensitive for low bleeding rates in the dog model. The rates are comparable to those described for [/sup 99m/Tc]sulfur colloid in this experimental setting. The time of appearance of activity is related to the bleeding rate

  11. The radiopharmaceuticals labelled with technetium-99m and the radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenant, V.

    1998-01-01

    In less than fifty years, the place of nuclear medicine is become primordial. Among all the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine, the technetium-99m is the most used because of its physico-chemical properties and its great availability with the molybdenum-99m - technetium-99m generator. Since 1992, the radiopharmaceuticals, the packages, the generators are included in the pharmaceutic monopole. They are now under the reliability of the radio-pharmacist. This thesis has for object to introduce these different radiopharmaceuticals labelled with technetium-99m and to show the primordial place of the radio-pharmacist in a service of nuclear medicine. (N.C.)

  12. Evaluation of reflux oesophagitis with technetium-99m-labelled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sucralfate binds with denuded protein to form a stable complex to protect the damaged mucosa. By utilising this property, technetium-99m-labelled sucraJfate can be used to demonstrate ulceration in the upper gastro-intestinal tract. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate 99mTc-labelled sucralfate in the diagnosis of ...

  13. Technetium-99m labeled radiodiagnostic agents and method of preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A method of preparing improved technetium-99m labelled radiodiagnostic agents by reducing sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate with stannous tartrate is given. Human serum albumine (HSA) and 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-disodiumphosphonate (HEDSPA), which are useful in scintigraphic examinations of the lung and bone, were labelled in this way

  14. Effect of an extract of Artemisia vulgaris L. (Mugwort on the in vitro labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Amorim Terra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of an extract of the Artemisia vulgaris L. (mugwort on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with a mugwort extract and the radiolabeling of blood constituents was carried out. Plasma and blood cells were separated by centrifugation. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged to isolate soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI was calculated. Mugwort extract decreased significantly (pO objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da Artemisia vulgaris L.(artemisa na marcação dos constituintes sangüíneos com tecnécio-99m (99mTc. Amostras de sangue obtidas de ratos Wistar foram incubadas com um extrato de artemisa e o processo de radiomarcação dos constituintes sangüíneos foi realizado. Plasma e células sangüíneas foram isoladas por centrifugação. Alíquotas de plasma e células sangüíneas foram também precipitadas com ácido tricloroacético para isolamento de frações solúvel e insolúvel. A radiatividade em cada fração foi contada e as porcentagens de radioatividade (%ATI foram calculadas. O extrato de artemisa diminuiu significantemente (p<0,05 a %ATI nas células sanguíneas e nas proteínas celulares. A análise dos resultados indicou que o extrato de artemisa apresentaria substâncias que interferir no transporte de íons estanoso e/ou pertecnetato através da membrana do eritrócito alterando a marcação das células sangúineas com 99mTc.

  15. Influence of biflorin on the labelling of red blood cells, plasma protein, cell protein, and lymphocytes with technetium-99m: in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M. Aquino

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the results of an in vitro study involving the influence of biflorin (an o-quinone isolated from Capraria biflora L. that has potent antimicrobial activity on the Tc-99m labeling of red blood cells, plasma protein, cells protein, and lymphocytes. Blood was withdrawn from Wistar rats and incubated with various concentrations of biflorin, and solutions of stannous chloride and Tc-99m were added. Plasma (P and red blood cells (RBC were isolated, precipitated, and centrifuged, and soluble (SF and insoluble (IF fractions were isolated. The results show that the highest concentration (100% of biflorin is able to reduce the uptake of Tc-99m (%ATI on RBC and the fixation on IF-P. To study the influence of biflorin on 99mTc lymphocyte labeling, human blood was submitted to a technique with Ficoll-Hypac and centrifuged, and white cells were isolated. Lymphocytes (2.5 mL; 1.0 x 10(6 cells/mL were obtained and a 0.2 mL solution was incubated with biflorin (0.1 mL. Solutions of stannous chloride and 99mTc were added. Lymphocytes were separated and the %ATI bound in these cells was evaluated. A reduction in %ATI (from 97.85 ± 0.99 to 88.86 ± 5 was observed for RBC and for IF-P (73.24 ± 5.51 to 20.72 ± 6.95. In this case the results showed no decrease in %ATI for the lymphocytes with biflorin.

  16. Technetium labelled plasminogen activator - a potential reagent for thrombus detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsma-De Waal, J.H.; Boer, A.C. de; Cox, P.H.; Pillay, M.; Stassen, J.H.; Collen, D.

    1987-12-01

    The preparation of a technetium labelled plasminogen activator complex using a solid phase labelling technique is described. The labelled complex showed no significant loss of fibrinolytic activity in vitro and showed in vivo a rapid uptake in thrombi in an animal model and in human volunteer patients with known thrombi when injected into a vein draining to the thrombotic region. Systemic injection showed no uptake in the thrombi probably due to rapid sequestration of the complex by the liver.

  17. Drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals: effect on the labeling of red blood cells with technetium-99m and on the bioavailability of radiopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Gomes

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The evidence that natural and synthetic drugs can affect radiolabeling or bioavailability of radiopharmaceuticals in setting of nuclear medicine clinic is already known. However, this drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals (DIR is not completely understood. Several authors have described the effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m (99mTc and on the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. When the DIR is known, if desirable or undesirable, the natural consequence is a correct diagnosis. However, when it is unknown, it is undesirable and the consequences are the possibility of misdiagnosis and/or the repetition of the examination with an increase of radiation dose to the patient. The possible explanation to the appearance of DIR are (a radiopharmaceutical modification, (b alteration of the labeling efficiency of the radiopharmaceutical, (c modification of the target, (d modification of no target and/or the (e alteration of the binding of the radiopharmaceutical on the blood proteins. The effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc might be explained by (i a direct inhibition (chelating action of the stannous and pertechnetate ions, (ii damage induced in the plasma membrane, (iii competition of the cited ions for the same binding sites, (iv possible generation of reactive oxygen species that could oxidize the stannous ion and/or (v direct oxidation of the stannous ion. In conclusion, the development of biological models to study the DIR is highly relevant.A evidência de que drogas naturais ou sintéticas podem afetar a radiomarcação ou a biodisponibilidade de radiofármacos nos procedimentos de medicina nuclear já é bem conhecida. Entretanto, essa interação de droga com radiofármacos (IDR não está completamente compreendida. Vários autores têm descrito o efeito de drogas na marcação de elementos sanguíneos com tecnécio-99m (99mTce na biodistribuição de radiofármacos. Quando a

  18. Technetium-99m-labelled red blood cell imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic haemangiomas: the role of SPECT/CT with a hybrid camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillaci, Orazio; Danieli, Roberta; Manni, Carlo; Capoccetti, Francesca; Simonetti, Giovanni [Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    Delayed liver single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after {sup 99m}Tc red blood cell (RBC) labelling is helpful in detecting hepatic haemangiomas; however, diagnosis can be difficult when lesions are situated adjacent to structures like the inferior vena cava, the heart or hepatic vessels, where blood activity persists. The aims of this study were to evaluate the usefulness of RBC SPECT and transmission computed tomography (RBC SPECT/CT) performed simultaneously with a hybrid imaging system for correct characterisation of hepatic lesions in patients with suspected haemangioma, and to assess the additional value of fused images compared with SPECT alone. Twelve patients with 24 liver lesions were studied. The acquisitions of both anatomical (CT) and functional (SPECT) data were performed during a single session. SPECT images were first interpreted alone and then re-evaluated after adding the transmission anatomical maps. Image fusion was successful in all patients, with perfect correspondence between SPECT and CT data, allowing the precise anatomical localisation of sites of increased blood pool activity. SPECT/CT had a significant impact on results in four patients (33.3%) with four lesions defined as indeterminate on SPECT images, accurately characterising the hot spot foci located near vascular structures. In conclusion, RBC SPECT/CT imaging using this hybrid SPECT/CT system is feasible and useful in the identification or exclusion of suspected hepatic haemangiomas located near regions with high vascular activity. (orig.)

  19. Technetium 99-m labeled radio-diagnostic agents employing stannous tartrate and method of preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinski, V.J.; Wilczewski, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A method of preparing improved technetium-99m labeled radiodiagnostic agents by reducing technetium-99m with stannous tartrate. Such radiodiagnostic agents are useful in scintigraphic examinations of the bone and lung. 31 claims, no drawings

  20. Monoclonal anti-elastin antibody labelled with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcia B.N. de; Silva, Claudia R. da; Araujo, Adriano C. de; Bernardo Filho, Mario; Porto, Luis Cristovao M.S.; Gutfilen, Bianca; Souza, J.E.Q.; Frier, Malcolm

    1999-01-01

    Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) is widely employed in nuclear medicine due to its desirable physical, chemical and biological properties. Moreover, it is easily available and normally is inexpensive. A reducing agent is necessary to label cells and molecules with 99m Tc and stannous chloride (Sn C L 2 ) is usually employed. Elastin is the functional protein component of the elastic fiber and it is related with some diseases such as arteriosclerosis, pulmonary emphysema and others. The present study refers to the preparation of the 99m Tc labeled monoclonal anti-elastin antibody. The monoclonal antibody was incubated with an excess of 2-iminothiolane. The free thiol groups created, were capable of binding with the reduced technetium. Labeling was an exchange reaction with 99m Tc-glucoheptonate. The labeled preparation was left at 4 deg C for one hour. Then, it was passed through a Sephadex G50 column. Various fractions were collected and counted. A peak corresponding to the radiolabeled antibody was obtained. Stability studies of the labelled anti-elastin were performed at 0,3 6, 24 hours, at both 4 deg C or room temperature. The biodistribution pattern of the 99m Tc-anti-elastin was studied in healthy male Swiss mice. The immunoreactivity was also determined. An useful labeled-anti-elastin was obtained to future immunoscintigraphic investigations. (author)

  1. 99mTechnetium labelled Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, S.O.F.; Cardoso, V.N.; Resende, B.M.; Nunan, E.A.; Simal, C.J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of a culture of unlabeled Escherichia coli were incubated with different concentrations of stannous chloride for various time periods. 99m Tc (26.0 MBq) was added to each preparation and the results showed a labelling yield of 98% for E. coli. Since the bacterial viability of 99m Tc-E. coli and E. coli did not show any statistical differences, these results demonstrate that labelling of E. coli with 99m Tc does not modify the bacterial viability, and the radiolabelled bacteria may be a good model to study bacterial translocation

  2. Labelling of metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) with Technetium-99m radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maula Eka Sriyani; Dini Natanegara; Aang Hanafiah Ws

    2015-01-01

    Various neuroendocrine tumors and their metastases are able to localized and staged by Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG). MIBG is a molecule that has a chemical structure similarities with noradrenaline in the adrenal. The research on 131 I-MIBG has been successfully conducted in the tumor imaging. This research of preparing 99m Tc-MIBG that will be used as a diagnostic agent for adrenal tumors was carried out. MIBG labeling activities with technetium-99m radionuclide were carried out through labeling of MIBG with technetium-99m and radiochemical purity analysis. The labeling of MIBG was carried out using both direct and indirect methods with diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as a co-ligand. Determination of 99m Tc-MIBG labeling efficiency was performed using paper chromatography with Whatman 3MM/dried acetone and Whatman 31ET/acetonitrile 50%. The results of labeling efficiency using the indirect method with DTPA as a co-ligand was obtained 93.44 ± 1.93%, which the concentration of MIBG was 2 mg/0.5 mL H 2 O, concentration of co-ligand was 37,5 μg of SnCl 2 .2H 2 O and DTPA of 1,125 mg at pH 6.5 for 15 minutes incubation in the room temperature ( 25 °C). (author)

  3. The radiopharmaceuticals labelled with technetium-99m and the radiopharmacy; Les radiopharmaceutiques marques au technetium-99m et la radiopharmacie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodenant, V

    1998-10-01

    In less than fifty years, the place of nuclear medicine is become primordial. Among all the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine, the technetium-99m is the most used because of its physico-chemical properties and its great availability with the molybdenum-99m - technetium-99m generator. Since 1992, the radiopharmaceuticals, the packages, the generators are included in the pharmaceutic monopole. They are now under the reliability of the radio-pharmacist. This thesis has for object to introduce these different radiopharmaceuticals labelled with technetium-99m and to show the primordial place of the radio-pharmacist in a service of nuclear medicine. (N.C.)

  4. Technetium labeling of dextran incorporating cysteamine as a ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Kazuhisa; Hara, Kazumichi; Imamura, Takeshi; Fujioka, Toshihiro; Takata, Jiro; Karube, Yoshiharu

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Technetium-99m-labeled dextran is a useful imaging agent for procedures such as angiocardiography and lymphoscintigraphy. To improve the availability of 99m Tc-labeled dextran, we designed a cysteamine ligand system for dextran labeling. Methods: Cysteamine derivatized dextran was synthesized as follows. Dextran was oxidized with sodium periodate, coupled with cysteamine and reduced with sodium borohydride to provide the desired amine ligand. The cysteamine-dextran conjugate was then labeled with reduced 99m Tc. Whole-body scintigraphy and biodistribution were examined following injection of the 99m Tc-labeled cysteamine-conjugated dextran ( 99m Tc-cysteamine-dextran) in ICR mice. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed after intradermal injection of 99m Tc-cysteamine-dextran in SD rats. Results: The cysteamine-derived dextran was easily labeled with reduced 99m Tc in greater than 96% yield. 99m Tc-cysteamine-dextran has a higher chelation stability against diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) than the 99m Tc-dextran. Axillary lymph nodes were clearly visible after intradermal injection of 99m Tc-cysteamine-dextran in rats. Conclusion: These results suggest that 99m Tc-cysteamine-dextran is available for lymphoscintigraphy. This methodology could expand the usage of 99m Tc-labeled dextran, particularly for diagnostic purposes

  5. Influence of some drugs, used in coronary artery disease on in vitro labelling red blood cells with technetium {sup 99m}Tc; Wplyw wybranych lekow, stosowanych w chorobie niedokrwiennej serca na wiazanie technetu {sup 99m}Tc przez erytrocyty in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poniatowicz-Frasunek, E. [Katedra i Zaklad Medycyny Nuklearnej, Akademia Medyczna, Lublin (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    In some patients investigated by radionuclide ventriculography poor labeling efficiency of red blood cells with technetium {sup 99m}Tc is observed. Among possible mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon, the pharmacological treatment applied to the patients should be taken into consideration. The aim of the study was to define the effect of selected drugs used in CAD on technetium binding efficiency by erythrocytes in vitro. Blood samples were obtained from 40 normal individuals receiving no medication. The effect of the following drugs were examined: Aerosonit, Isoptin, Bemecor, Dopegyt, Enarenal, Binazin, Furosemid, Aspirin, Vitamin E and Propranolol. Only Enarenal and Vitamin E proved to have no effect on technetium binding efficiency. The most expressed reduction was observed in experiments with Aerosonit, Furosemid and Propranolol and the smallest changes were found in blood samples with Bemecor, Binazin and Aspirin. The results of the study suggest that pharmacological treatment may influence the quality of scintigraphic images obtained with radioisotope ventriculography. For that reason the medicines applied to the patients should be as much as possible reduced or withdrawn for at least several days before examination. (author) 23 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Quality control of technetium-labelled lung imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chervu, L.R.; Vallabhajosula, S.R.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been made of the labelling of macroaggregated albumin particles (MAA) with sup(99m)Tc using three commercial kits, and the results compared with those obtained with albumin microspheres. The tagging efficiency was measured by three different methods, and the chemistry and radiochemical nature of the sup(99m)Tc-MAA supernates or eluates were also investigated. The total body distribution of the sup(99m)Tc-MAA supernates was determined in mice after tail-vein injection. The results indicated that technetium-labelled MAA preparations may contain sup(99m)Tc-tagged albumin, similar to human serum albumin in solution. The nature of labelling pattern of MAA and the albumin microspheres indicated that the macroaggregates and microspheres were not completely or uniformly labelled during a one-step addition of pertechnetate. The lung aggregates had a large residual labelling capacity. Consideration is given to the significance of these results in lung perfusion studies. (U.K.)

  7. Technetium-99m HMPAO labeled leukocytes in inflammation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Kimiichi; Yoshikawa, Kyousan; Imazeki, Keiko; Minoshima, Satoshi; Arimizu, Noboru

    1991-01-01

    Technetium-99m-HMPAO (Tc-99m-HMPAO) labeled leukocyte imaging was carried out in 19 patients at 3-5 hr after reinjection. There were no side effects noted. Tc-99m leukocyte images showed gall bladder, colon, kidney, and urinary bladder activity in normal distribution as a result of excretion of the eluted Tc-99m complex. They yielded a sensitivity of 93%, a specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 95%. They were correctly positive in 14 out of 19 cases. But one false negative case was seen in a patient with pyonephrosis showing a lack of renal function with decreased renal blood flow. It was concluded that they have some advantages over In-111 leukocyte images, but we have to consider the fact that the ureteral obstruction or the lack of renal function with decreased renal blood flow may result in a false positive or a false negative case. (author)

  8. Technetium-99m labeled radiodiagnostic agents for liver and bone marrow scanning and method of preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinski, V.J.; Peacock, F.R.

    1977-01-01

    An improved technetium-99m labeled colloid and method of preparation comprising reducing technetium-99m with stannous oxalate and stabilizing with sodium phytate are described. This radiodiagnostic agent is useful in the scintigraphic examination of the reticuloendothelial system, particularly the liver. In addition, by autoclaving this product with saline, it becomes a superior bone marrow scanning agent

  9. Method of preparation of technetium-99m labelled radio-diagnostic agents and a stable non radio-active carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A method of preparing improved technetium-99m labeled radiodiagnostic agents is described by reducing technetium-99m with stannous tartrate. Such radiodiagnostic agents are useful in scintigraphic examinations of the bone and lung

  10. Biodistribution of 99m technetium labeled creatinine in healthy rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, O.; Soylu, A.; Kavukcu, S.; Lambrecht, F. Yurt; Durkan, K.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of creatinine, one of the toxic guanidine compounds, in various tissues has not been studied in detail by using radiolabeled creatinine. Our objective was to investigate the biodistribution of creatinine labeled with 99m technetium ( 99m Tc) by the stannous (II) chloride method in healthy male Wistar rats. Quality controls were carried out by radio thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and paper electrophoresis. The labeling yield was 85 ± 2% under optimum conditions (pH 7 and 100 μg stannous chloride). Rats (N 12) were injected intravenously with 99m Tc creatinine and their blood and visceral organs were evaluated for 99m Tc-creatinine uptake as percent of the injected dose per gram wet weight of each tissue (%ID/g). The lowest amount of uptake was detected in the brain and testis. When the rate of uptake was evaluated, only the kidney showed increasing rates of uptake of 99m Tc-creatinine throughout the study. Kidneys showed the highest amount of uptake throughout the study (P < 0.001 compared to all other organs), followed by liver, spleen and lung tissue. (author)

  11. Kit development for labelling erythrocytes or leukocytes with technetium-99m in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuebin; Han Quansheng; Wang Jingcheng; Mi Hongzhi

    1996-01-01

    This study developed a modified pre tinning method for labeling erythrocytes with technetium-99m in vitro using a kit which contains stannous chloride stabilized with geneticist acid (GA) in lyophilized form. This GA-kit a sterile closed system that does not require centrifugation,washing and separation of the RBCs. The kit is simple to use and labeling takes ∼ 30 min with a typical labeling efficiency of 97.3% ± 1.2% for 60 determinations. Imaging studies were performed in rabbit using GA-kit in vitro labeling procedure and PYP-kit in vivo labeling. It shows that the heart-to-background ratio with GA in vitro labeling were significantly higher than with in vivo labeling. Leukocytes labeling with technetium-99m using the same GA kit also was studied. The labeling efficiency was 20 ∼ 41%. Thus, the GA kit is versatile and cost-effective. (author). 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Obtention of scintillography images by low density lipoproteins labelled with technetium 99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.; Coelho, I.; Zanardo, E.; Pileggi, F.; Meneguethi, C.; Maranhao, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The low density lipoproteins carry the most part of the cholesterol in the blood plasma. These lipoproteins are labelled with technetium-99-m and have been used for obtaining images in nuclear medicine. The introduction of this technique is presented, aiming futures clinical uses. Scintillographic images are obtained 25 minutes and 24 hours after the injection of 3 m Ci of low density lipoproteins - technetium-99 m in rabbits. (C.G.C.)

  13. Blood cell labeling with technetium-99m, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Tatsumi; Akizuki, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tetsugoro; Yui, Tokuo; Miura, Nobuo

    1978-01-01

    Spleen scintigraphy was performed by the use of sup(99m)Tc-labeled red blood cells which were prepared with a kit (TCK-11 produced by CIS) and were damaged by heating for 15 min at 49.0 +- 0.5 0 C or damaged chemically by treating with bromomerculi hydroxy propane (BMHP) 1.5 mg/2 ml of blood. The images obtained by scanner and scintillation camera were both favorable, and the author decided that this method is applicable to clinical spleen scintigraphy. The spleen scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-labeled red blood cells has many merits such as it gives a less exposure dose to patients under the examination so that it makes capable of repeated examinations, it uses a less volume of blood for labeling, and the procedure is not so complicated compared with the usual methods of 51 Cr-heating or 203 Hg- (or 197 Hg-) MHP. Therefore, this method is preferable to the other usual methods. (Ueda, J.)

  14. An investigation of the effect of the quantity of stannous ion on the quality of technetium-99m labelled albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinghurst, M.W.; Rempel, S.; Westendorf, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    The importance of maintaining a low ratio of stannous ion to albumin molecules in order to obtain a high quality technetium-99m labelled albumin is demonstrated. It is further shown that the direct preparation of technetium-99m albumin by reduction of the technetium-99m pertechnetate with stannous ion inevitably leads to the contamination of the product with a certain amount of tin colloid which is also labelled with technetium-99m. It is demonstrated that this can be avoided by utilizing labelling techniques involving the initial formation of other technetium chelates which are less stable than the albumin complex under certain conditions, adding the albumin to that preparation, adjusting the conditions and thus allowing the albumin to become labelled with technetium-99m via an exchange with the original chelating agent. (author)

  15. Blood cell labeling with technetium-99m, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Tatsumi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Shin; Kimura, Hideo; Miura, Nobuo

    1978-01-01

    Using a labeling method with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate to red blood cells (RBC), circulating blood volume was measured in comparison with that from 51 Cr-labeled RBC method. The technique is easier than already published methods, because CIS kit for sup(99m)Tc-RBC labeling (TCK-11) became to be available recently. Two mls of ACD-anticoagulated blood were withdrawn and 0.5 ml of reducing reagent prepared just before use was added to blood, waiting 5 minutes and discarding the serum after centrifugation, then adding 100 μCi of sup(99m)Tc. After washing the labeled cells by isotonic saline, cells were re-suspended in 10 ml of saline and injected to the subject. Blood specimen was obtained 10, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after infusion and blood volume was calculated by the usual way. Circulating blood volume by sup(99m)Tc was well correlated with that by 51 Cr (=0.98, p 0.01), however, the value calculated from sup(99m)Tc were 4.8 percent higher than those by 51 Cr, which suggested the elution of sup(99m)Tc from labeled RBC. sup(99m)Tc method has the advantages that higher radioactivity can be obtained in small amount of blood, which is useful in the determination of blood volume in children or in small animals in the laboratory. The measurement of blood volume of the mouse was done by using sup(99m)Tc method. The results were 1.70 +- 0.06 ml (6.35 +- 0.18%/gm), which coincided with the values reported previously. Because of it's short half life and low radiation dosage to the patients, sup(99m)Tc method will be recommended in the field of pediatrics or in patients with polycythemia or congestive heart failure, who are requested the repeated measurement of blood volume. (auth.)

  16. Study of factors that interfere in the labelling process of erythrocytes and plasma proteins with Technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutfilen, Bianca

    1989-01-01

    The labelling of red blood cells (RBC) with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) depends on several factors, as the stannous ion (Sn++) concentration, time, temperature, the presence of plasma proteins (PP) and others. However the Sn++ concentration seems to be the most important factor; probably because the uptake of this reducing agent by RBC is limited. The excess of Sn++ in extracellular medium can determine the labelling of PP. the modifications of RBC at 50 deg C described in the literature, the possibility of labelling RBC with Tc-99m at this temperature and experimental results obtained made it possible to perform spleen selective scintigraphy through a simple technique with few manipulations. The effect of gentamicin, nifedipine and verapamil in the labelling of RBC and plasma proteins with Tc-99m was studied because of similarities between Ca++ and Sn++. The results show that, under some conditions, these drugs are capable to alter this Tc-99m incorporation. The modification of the ionic distribution determined by these drugs or the blockage of Sn++ and/or Tc-99m or the fact that they bind theirselves to plasma proteins, or the possibility of the labelling of these drugs, are factors that can interfere in the labelling process of red blood cells and plasma proteins with Tc-99m. (author)

  17. Contribution for labelling study of cellular and molecular structures of biomedical interest with technetium 99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebello, L.H.; Piotkwosky, M.C.; Pereira, J.A.A.; Boasquevisque, E.M.; Silva, J.R.M.; Reis, R.J.N.; Pires, E.T.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    1992-01-01

    The methodologies for labelling bacteria, planaria and cercaria from schistosomiasis evolution cycle and in oxamniquine with technetium 99 m, developed in the Biomedical Center of Rio de Janeiro University and in the Research Center of National Institute of Cancer are shown. (C.G.C.)

  18. Labeling of thymine with 99m technetium: a suggestion of a chemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutfilen, Bianca; Silva, Claudia Ribeiro da; Bernardo Filho, Mario; Ribeiro, Barbara Luzia Almeida; Mattos, Maura Ferreira

    1996-01-01

    Successful targeting of diagnose but also to stage cancer. It has been shown that certain tumor cells are permeable to low level of exogenous adenosine-diphosphate and adenosine-triphosphate nucleotides, that are incorporated into intracellular pools. We present the labeling of a nucleotide precursor, a base, thymine technetium-99m ( 99m Tc). (author)

  19. Labeling of thymine with {sup 99m} technetium: a suggestion of a chemical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutfilen, Bianca; Silva, Claudia Ribeiro da; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Ribeiro, Barbara Luzia Almeida [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica; Mattos, Maura Ferreira [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1996-03-01

    Successful targeting of diagnose but also to stage cancer. It has been shown that certain tumor cells are permeable to low level of exogenous adenosine-diphosphate and adenosine-triphosphate nucleotides, that are incorporated into intracellular pools. We present the labeling of a nucleotide precursor, a base, thymine technetium-99m ({sup 99m} Tc). (author)

  20. Neuronal Culture and labelling of receptors of rat brain by a radioactive molecule labelled with technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhoumi, C; Mejri, N.; Saidi, M.; Coulais, Y.; Dunia, D.; Masmoudi, O.; Amri, M.

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease of the brain which causes progressive and irreversible loss of mental function. It is characterized by a decrease of serotoninergic neurons that carry the 5HT1A receptors. In our study, we performed cultures of hippocampal and cortical neurons from brains of young rats. After the differentiation of these neurons, some wells of cell culture were incubated with 8 OH DPAT, a 5HT1A agonist of serotonin, which are located on the surface of neurons.The neurons were then incubated with a molecule labelled with technetium 99m Tc. These neurons are lysed and the radioactivity is read. The results show that for the culture of neurons in the hippocampus, we have levels of radioactivity of cells treated with agonist, below the level of radioactivity of cells treated with the radioactive molecule. Cortical neurons show the same level of radioactivity of cells treated with agonist and for cells treated only with the labelled molecule. Our results show a decrease in the fixation of the labelled molecule on serotoninergic neurons in the hippocampus compared to neurons in the cortex. This work will be continued in humans in order to achieve early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

  1. Efficient one-step direct labelling of recombinant antibodies with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberatore, M.; Neri, D.; Neri, G.; Pini, A.; Lurilli, A.P.; Ponzo, F.; Spampinato, G.; Padula, F.; Pala, A.; Colella, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    High-affinity bacterially expressed antibody fragments can nowadays be cloned from established hybridomas or, more conveniently, isolated directly from antibody libraries displayed on filamentous phage. Such antibodies can be tagged with C-terminal peptide tags containing one cysteine residue, which represents a convenient functionalisation site for a number of applications, including technetium-99m labelling. Here we describe a simple one-step method for 99m Tc labelling of cysteine-tagged recombinant antibodies with more than 50% radionuclide incorporation. The labelled antibodies displayed full retention of immuoreactivity and good stability. (orig.)

  2. Efficient one-step direct labelling of recombinant antibodies with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberatore, M. [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Sezione di Medicina Nucleare, Policlinico Umberto I, Universita di Roma `La Sapienza` (Italy); Neri, D. [Cambridge Centre for Protein Engineering - MRC Centre (United Kingdom); Neri, G. [Dipartimento di Biologia Molecolare, Universita di Siena (Italy); Pini, A. [Dipartimento di Biologia Molecolare, Universita di Siena (Italy); Lurilli, A.P. [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Sezione di Medicina Nucleare, Policlinico Umberto I, Universita di Roma `La Sapienza` (Italy); Ponzo, F. [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Sezione di Medicina Nucleare, Policlinico Umberto I, Universita di Roma `La Sapienza` (Italy); Spampinato, G. [Laboratorio di Biochimica degli Ormoni Sessuali, Il Instituto di Clinica Ostetrica e Ginecologica, Universita di Roma `La Sapienza` (Italy); Padula, F. [Laboratorio di Biochimica degli Ormoni Sessuali, Il Instituto di Clinica Ostetrica e Ginecologica, Universita di Roma `La Sapienza` (Italy); Pala, A. [Laboratorio di Biochimica degli Ormoni Sessuali, Il Instituto di Clinica Ostetrica e Ginecologica, Universita di Roma `La Sapienza` (Italy); Colella, A.C. [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Sezione di Medicina Nucleare, Policlinico Umberto I, Universita di Roma `La Sapienza` (Italy)

    1995-11-01

    High-affinity bacterially expressed antibody fragments can nowadays be cloned from established hybridomas or, more conveniently, isolated directly from antibody libraries displayed on filamentous phage. Such antibodies can be tagged with C-terminal peptide tags containing one cysteine residue, which represents a convenient functionalisation site for a number of applications, including technetium-99m labelling. Here we describe a simple one-step method for {sup 99m}Tc labelling of cysteine-tagged recombinant antibodies with more than 50% radionuclide incorporation. The labelled antibodies displayed full retention of immuoreactivity and good stability. (orig.)

  3. Uptake of technetium from seawater by red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Technetium accumulation from seawater by the abalone Haliotis rufescens was studied with 95 Tc. Concentration factors, uptake rates, steady state concentrations, and biological half-lives were determined experimentally for whole-body uptake. Whole-body concentration factors ranged from 135 to 205; biological half-life was 60 days. Changes in concentration factors were determined for six tissues during the uptake period. The highest activities were in the order of: digestive gland>gill>kidneys>heart>gonad>columnar muscle. Dead shells accumulated little activity compared to shells of living abalone. Gills and digestive system appear to be the routes of entry. Autoradiography shows that of the muscular tissues the outer edge of the foot and epipodium are the most active and the edible columnar muscle the least active. (author)

  4. Labeling cellular elements of blood with Technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewanjee, M.K.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to develop new technique of labeling platelets and white cells with Tc-99m radionuclide. The conditions of labeling canine platelets and white cells with the lipid-soluble Tc-99m HMPAO have been optimized. The function of labeled platelets were evaluated by the determination of platelet survival time and recovery and these values were compared with that of In-111 tropolone labeled platelets. We developed the bilateral femoral catheterization model for the evaluation of platelet-thrombosis on control and heparin-bonded catheters in dogs. We are evaluating platelet thrombosis in the hollow-fiber hemodialyzer with Tc-99m and In-111 labeled platelets. We have developed the flow-loop for in vitro studies and are using a pig model for quantitation of platelet-consumption during hemodialysis. We are currently evaluating the new technique of platelet and white cell-labeling with Tc-99m and testing them in animal models of thrombosis and infection (osteo-myelitis). We are also using the Tc-99m HMPAO labeled mixed white cells in the early diagnosis (3-hour post-injection) of acute and chronic infection in patients and comparing the results with that of IN-111 oxine labeled white cells.

  5. Labelling of olive oil with radioactive iodine and radioactive technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dayel, O.A.F.

    1988-03-01

    Investigates labelling of olive oil with 125 iodine and with the radioactive 99mTC. A radio analytical study for 99Mo-99mTC generator is also presented. Iodine monochloride and chlormine-T methods are used for labelling olive oil and oleic acid with radioactive iodine. Diethyl ether, benzene and n-heptane have been used as solvents, with diethyl ether giving best results using iodine monochloride method. Infrared spectroscopic studies show that labelling took place at the double bond. Use of milked 99mTc gave very low yield only. A fairly higher labelling yield was achieved when 20 mg of tin chloride has been added in acetone medium than diethyl ether medium. Thin layer chromatography and paper chromatography technique were used as quality control systems. The labelled oil can be used for diagnostic and study purposes. 140 Ref

  6. Technetium-labeled HM-PAO studies in patients with cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.W.; Sharp, P.F.; Gemmell, H.; Evans, N.T.; MacDonald, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    Technetium-labeled hexamethyl-propyleneamineoxime (HM-PAO) is a promising radiopharmaceutical for the demonstration of cerebral blood flow. Twenty-four patients who had experienced either acute stroke (AS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were studied by x-ray CT and SPECT using technetium-labeled HM-PAO total of 26 studies. HM-PAO has a cerebral distribution similar to that of iodoamphetamine, but labeling with technetium allows good SPECT imaging on demand in any nuclear medicine department. In ten of the 16 patients who had experienced AS, findings on HM-PAO and CT studies correlated well. In six patients reduced cortical perfusion was detected on HM-PAO imaging, but only small infarcts in the internal capsule were seen on CT. In four of the eight patients who had experienced TIA, neither study revealed any abnormality. In the remaining four, areas of cortical underperfusion were seen on HM-PAO imaging, whereas the CT examination was normal. The findings in this study suggest that HM-PAO imaging is a more sensitive method for demonstrating the extent of cerebral underperfusion in cases of cerebrovascular accident

  7. Technetium-99m labeling anti-amastigote polyclonal antibodies of Leishmania amazonensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.G.V.C.; Toledo, V.P.C.P.; Guimaraes, T.M.P.D.; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Simal, C.J.R.; Mota, L.G.; Diniz, S.O.F.; Cardoso, V.N.

    2002-01-01

    Anti-amastigote polyclonal antibody (IgG) was incubated with solutions of stannous chloride and sodium borohidride. After that, 3.7 MBq of technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) was added. A labeling yield of the antibody about 84% was obtained. After filtration of 99m Tc-IgG, the radiochemical purity increased from 84 to 95%. The labeling of IgG with 99m Tc did not modify the immunoreactivity of the antibody, since it was able to identify in vitro and in vivo the specific antigen of Leishmania amazonensis

  8. Labelling of Klebsiella pneumoniae with technetium-99m: a preliminary communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo Filho, M.; Pereira, J.A.A.; Boasquevisque, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    The labeling of Klebsiella pneumoniae with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) seems to depend on the stannous ion (Sn ++ ) concentration. Starting at 3μg/ml of this ion is the suspension fluid an uptake of Tc-99m close to 90% was observed. The labeling is apparently strong, since the eluation of Tc-99m, after incubation of the tagged culture, in a water-bath at 37 0 C for several hours, was very weak. The viability of the culture was unaltered after treatment with tin and Tc-99m. (Author) [pt

  9. Studies on quality control of technetium-99m labelling kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Rok; Park, Kyung Bae; Awh, Ok Doo

    1987-12-01

    Various experiments for the quality control of Tc-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals such as Tc-99m-phytate, Tc-99m-MDP, Tc-99m-Tin Colloid, Tc-99m-DISIDA, Tc-99m-DTPA,Tc-99m-DMSA, Tc-99m-Gulcoheptonate, TC-99m-Pyrophosphate, Tc-99m-HSA, and Tc-99m-HAM were carried out. Labelling yield and radiochemical purity of each of the instant labelling kit of KAERI made were determined by means of radiochromatography. Biodistribution in mice and whole body or specific organ imagings of rabbits were also carried out and discussed the relationship between the data of biodistributions and radiochemical purities. Labelling yeilds were above 98% for almost all of the labelling kits. The radio-pharmaceuticals were accumulated at each target organ with moderate specifities. In case of radiochemical purity of above 98%, the biodistribution and gamma imagings were also better. The kits of MDP and DISIDA were stable at least for four moths while the other kits at least eight months. (Author)

  10. IL-2 labeled with 99mTechnetium by an indirect method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocco, R.; Obenaus, Esteban; Rabiller, Graciela; Castiglia, Silvia G. de

    2003-01-01

    IL-2 and the other cytokines labeled with 99m Tc are an interesting option to early diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and monitoring with nuclear medicine images. The aim of this study was to obtain by indirect method IL-2 labeled with 99m Technetium using Benzoyl MAG3 chelating agent, for in vivo diagnosis of lymphocytic infiltration. IL-2 is a small, relatively fragile protein, and it is essential to retain its receptor binding capacity after labeling. Two different methods of labeling have been proven: Pre-conjugation labeling method: we used NHS- Hynic as a chelator agent and labeled this conjugated protein with 99m Tc using tricine as coligand. Albumin was used as a model for the conjugation and labeling steps. The albumin was labeled by this method with a good labeling efficiency but the IL-2 protein could not be labeled with this approach. Post- conjugation labeling method: we used the bifunctional chelating agent, benzoyl MAG3, this ligand is first labeled with 99m Tc and then is conjugated to the protein. The N 3 S Logan complex was incubated for 30 minutes and then measured by RP- HPLC. An active ester of the labeled Logan was formed and was incubated with Il-2 at room temperature and basic pH to promote the conjugation between the active ester and the protein. The labeling efficiency was determined by RP-HPLC using a C 18 column. The albumin protein was also labeled by this method and the radiochemical purity was measured by RP- HPLC using a GPC column and the labeling efficiency was 80%. The next objectives are to explore different strategies for purifying the 99m Tc-IL-2 and to evaluate the capacity of IL-2 to bind to its receptor after labeling. (author)

  11. Placentography with technetium-99m labelled RBC - an evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayachandran, C.A.; Benjamin, C.S.; Balakrishnan; Narasimhan

    1983-01-01

    During 1979-80, placentography was performed in 40 cases of pregnant women with third trimester bleeding. Random labelled RBC with sup(99m)Tc of activity 2-3 mci was used, depending upon the weight of the patient. In 98% of cases, the isotope finding was confirmed. (author)

  12. Chemical method of labelling proteins with the radionuclides of technetium at physiological condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    A novel rapid chemical method of labeling plasma proteins, other compounds and/or substances containing protein with radionuclides of technetium such as sup(95m)Tc, sup(99m)Tc or sup(99)Tc at physiologic pH 7.4 condition, producing a sterile non-pyrogenic radioactive tracer material suitable for biological and medical uses. These radiolabeled protein substances are not denatured by the labeling process but retain their natural physiological and immunological properties. This novel labeling technique provides a simple and rapid means of labeling plasma proteins such as human serum albumin, fibrinogen, antibodies, hormones and enzymes with sup(95m)Tc or sup(99m)Tc for scintigraphic imaging which may allow visualization of thrombi, emboli, myocardial infarcts, infectious lesions or tumors

  13. Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas by technetium and thallium double-labeling scintigraphy. Difficulties linked to associated thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valensi, P.; Attali, J.R.; Sebaoun, J.; Bedig, G.; Paycha, F.; Tellier, P.; Vulpillat, M.; Sarfati, E.; Dubost, C.

    1989-01-01

    Technetium and thallium double-labeling scintigraphy with image subtraction was carried out on 63 patients suspected of having primary hyperparathyroidism, with or without thyroid involvement. Forty-four patients had a normal thyroid image with technetium. The positive foci located by double-labeling in patients who were to undergo surgery always coincided with parathyroid adenoma. In the 16 cases where the initial diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism was not substantiated, the double-labeling test was normal. Thus for these 44 patients, scintigraphy sensitivity was 75% and specificity was 100%. Nineteen patients had an abnormal thyroid image with technetium. In 7 cases, image subtraction following double-labeling yielded uninterpretable data. In 12 other patients, the positive foci located outside the thyroid by double-labeling coincided with a parathyroid adenoma, whereas this was true for only one patient whose positive foci were located inside the thyroid; a parathyroid adenoma was not detected preoperatively in 4 patients. This double-labeling test is thus useful in locating parathyroid adenomas when technetium scintigraphy of the thyroid is normal; when it is abnormal, double-labeling is advantageous only in cases of extrathyroid foci [fr

  14. Labeling of Tannic Acid with Technetium-99m for Diagnosis of Stomach Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, I. T.; El-Tawoosy, M.; Talaat, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Tannic acid is a polyphenolic compound that could be labeled with technetium-99m. To produce about 90% yield of  99mTc-tannic acid in acidic media (pH), the conditions required were 150  g tin chloride, 30 min reaction time, and 200  g of the substrate. 99mTc-tannic was stable for 6 h. Oral biodistribution of 99mTc-tannic showed that it concentrated in the stomach ulcer to reach about 50% of the total injected dose at 1 h after orall administration. This concentration of 99mTc-tannic in s...

  15. An extract of a formula used in the traditional chinese medicine (Buzhong Yi Qi Wan) alters the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giani, Tania Santos; Paoli, Severo de; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio; Maiworm, Adalgisa Ieda; Santos Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Buzhong Yi Qi Wan (Buzhong) is a medicinal herb widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat the digestive and circulatory systems. Red blood cell and plasma proteins labeled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of an aqueous Buzhong extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99m Tc. Heparinized blood (Wistar rats) was incubated in vitro with different Buzhong extract concentrations and 99m Tc-labeling was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC) fractions were isolated. The radioactivity on blood constituents was determined and the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Buzhong extract at the highest concentrations used altered significantly (p 99 mTc. (author)

  16. Contribution of technetium 99m-labelled pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy in infectious spondylodiscitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdepont, M.-T.

    1976-01-01

    This work examines the contribution of technetium 99m(sup(99m)Tc)-labelled pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy in infectious spondylodiscitis and attempts to define its importance in the diagnosis of lesions and their subsequent supervision in patients under treatment. 5 to 15 millicuries of sup(99m)Tc-labelled pyrophosphates are injected intraveinously. Bone uptake is strong and durable; 1.3% of the injected activity is found in the blood by the fifth hour. The skeleton may be explored: - either one segment at a tome with a scintillation camera, - or all at once and more quickly with a whole-body device taking front and black exposures. Bone scintigraphy appears as a basic technique in the study of infectious spondylodiscitis. Moreover the use of increasingly efficient equipment, the quantification of results and perhaps the development of new tracers augur well for a technique which is already acknowledged to be of fundamental interest [fr

  17. Technetium-99m-labeled recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for the imaging of emboli in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Akihiro; Itoh, Kazuo; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Furudate, Masayori; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Abe, Hiroshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1993-07-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) effectively lyses activate thrombus by direct action. Recombinant t-PA (rt-PA) was labeled with technetium-99m ([sup 99m]Tc) to investigate the in vivo binding to fibrin clots in a feline cerebral embolism model created by insertion of an artificial fibrin clot within the carotid artery. [sup 99m]Tc-rt-PA administered intravenously provided clearer imaging of clots after priming with cold rt-PA, with uptake peaking 5-10 minutes after the injection. [sup 99m]Tc-labeled human serum albumin was not retained at clot sites. Systemically administered [sup 99m]Tc-rt-PA binds to fibrin clots within carotid arteries in our feline model. Our results suggest that the interaction of intrinsic plasminogen activator inhibitors with extrinsically administered rt-PA may regulate the demonstration of a clot, although the precise mechanism is unclear. (author).

  18. Labelling of leucocytes with colloidal technetium-99m-SnF2: an investigation of the labelling process by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puncher, M.R.B.; Blower, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Autoradiography of smears and frozen sections of labelled cell suspensions was used to study the distribution of radioactivity in and among blood cells labelled in either whole blood or leucocyte-rich plasma (LRP) with technetium-99m-SnF 2 colloid. The tracer proved selective for neutrophils: the labelling probability (relative to that for erythrocytes) for each cell type in LRP (mean of five samples) was: neutrophils, 9.4; lymphocytes, 3.7; monocytes, 3.0; eosinophils 1.4; erythrocytes, 1.0. When labelling was carried out in whole blood (five samples), 74.5%±8.3% of the cell-bound radioactivity was bound to erythrocytes, 13.6%±6.5% to neutrophils, and 11.9%±2.1% to lymphocytes, whereas in LRP (in which the leucocytes were only slightly outnumbered by erythrocytes), 76.5%±14.9% of radioactivity was neutrophil bound. Labelled cells in smear autoradiographs exhibited two distinct silver grain patterns, ''diffuse'', consistent with an intracellular radioactive particle (in neutrophils), and ''focal'', consistent with a cell surface-adhering particle in direct contact with the emulsion (in other leucocyte types and erythrocytes). The phagocytic inhibitor cytochalasin B neither reduced the proportion of labelled neutrophils nor altered the labelling pattern. Neutrophils were able to scavenge radioactivity from the surface of erythrocytes. It is concluded that neutrophils bind 99m Tc-SnF 2 intracellularly by phagocytosis, with high affinity; other cells become labelled at the cell surface reversibly and with lower affinity. This selectivity is high enough to permit predominantly leucocyte labelling in LRP but not in whole blood. (orig.)

  19. Lymphoma imaging with a new technetium-99m labelled antibody, LL2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, S.; Sharkey, R.M.; Goldenberg, D.M.; Lee, R.E.; Pinsky, C.M.; Hansen, H.J.; Burger, K.; Swayne, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    The lesion detection capability of a new technetium-99m labelled B-cell lymphoma monoclonal antibody (MoAb) imaging agent, LL2, was evaluated in 8 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 1 patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The MoAb kit consists of a 1-vial, 1-mg Fab' form of LL2 ready for instant labelling with technetium. The patients were injected with ∝925 MBq (25 mCi) of 99m Tc-LL2 Fab' (1 mg), and planar and single photon emission tomography (SPET) studies were performed at 3-4 h post injection and at 24 h. There was no evidence of thyroid or stomach activity up to 24 h. Uniform splenic uptake was seen in all patients. Two non-lymphoma patients were also administered with the same agent and demonstrated a similar splenic distribution; therefore, splenic targeting was not scored as tumour-specific. A total of 29 from 48 tumour sites were detected by scintigraphy, including tumours of various grades and histological types. Excluding 1 patient who had a large tumour burden of over 500 g, 29 of 33 lesions were detected. One patient was free of disease at the time of the study and had a negative scan. Another patient showed excellent targeting of gallium-negative sites in the liver and bone. The bone involvement was not known prior to the antibody study and was subsequently confirmed by a bone scan. Additional sites of MoAb localization could not be followed in this group, since most patients went on to radioimmunotherapy immediately following the 99m Tc-LL2 study. However, these initial results suggest that this new 99m Tc-labelled antibody imaging kit should be further investigated for its potential role in the staging and follow-up of lymphoma patients. (orig.)

  20. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, P.R.C.; Almeida, M.C.; Bernardo, R.M.; Bernardo, L.C.; Brito, L.C.; Garcia, E.A.C.; Fonseca, A.S.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2006-01-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (Pguava extract. PMID:16691636

  1. Technetium-99m somatostatin analogues: effect of labelling methods and peptide sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decristoforo, C.; Mather, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the preclinical evaluation of the somatostatin analogue RC160 labelled with technetium-99m using bifunctional chelators (BFCs) based on the hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) and N 3 S system is described and a comparison made with [Tyr 3 ]-octreotide (TOC). Conjugates of both peptides with HYNIC, and of RC160 with benzoyl-MAG 3 and an N 3 S-adipate derivative were prepared and radiolabelling performed at high specific activities using tricine, tricine/nicotinic acid and ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic adic (EDDA) as co-ligands for HYNIC conjugates. All conjugates and 99m Tc-labelled peptides showed preserved binding affinity for the somatostatin receptor (IC50, Kd 99m Tc-RC160 derivatives compared with 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Tyr 3 ]-octreotide (0.2%-3.5%ID/g vs 9.7%ID/g) and correlated well with the reduced internalisation rate for RC160 derivatives. Our results show that the selection of the labelling approach as well as the right choice of the peptide structure are crucial for labelling peptides with 99m Tc to achieve complexes with favourable biodistribution. Despite the relatively low tumour uptake compared with 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Tyr 3 ]-octreotide, 99m Tc-RC160 could play a role in imaging tumours that do not bind octreotide derivatives. (orig.)

  2. Acetylsalicylic acid and labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia e Psicobiologia; Frydman, Jacques Natan Grinapel; Rocha, Vanessa Camara da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2005-10-15

    Acetylsalicylic acid is the drug most used an anti-inflammatory agent and for secondary prevention of thrombotic phenomenon. Drugs can modify the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99m Tc). The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of in vitro or in vivo assays with acetylsalicylic acid on the labeling of the blood constituents with 99m Tc. In vitro assay was performed with samples of whole blood from Wistar rats incubated with acetylsalicylic acid (1.0 mg/ml) for one hour before the 99m Tc-labeling process. For in vivo assay, Wistar rats were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (1.5 mg/kg) during one hour, and the whole blood was withdrawn for the 99m Tc-labeling process. Saline was used in control groups. Data showed that the fixation of 99m Tc to the blood constituents was not significantly (p>0.05) modified in in vitro and in vivo assays with acetylsalicylic acid, at least not when the experiments were carried out with the doses normally used in human beings. (author)

  3. Technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging for detecting prosthetic joint infection in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng; Wang, Feng; Hou, Yanjie; Lu, Shanshan; Tian, Wei; Xu, Yan; Jin, Chengzhe; Wang, Liming

    2015-05-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection is essential to initiate early treatment and achieve a favorable outcome. In this study, we used a rabbit model to assess the feasibility of technetium-99m-labeled annexin V for detecting prosthetic joint infection. Right knee arthroplasty was performed on 24 New Zealand rabbits. After surgery, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was intra-articularly injected to create a model of prosthetic joint infection (the infected group, n = 12). Rabbits in the control group were injected with sterile saline (n = 12). Seven and 21 days after surgery, technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging was performed in 6 rabbits of each group. Images were acquired 1 and 4 hours after injection of technetium-99m-labeled annexin V (150 MBq). The operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios were calculated for quantitative analysis. Seven days after surgery, increased technetium-99m-labeled annexin V uptake was observed in all cases. However, at 21 days a notable decrease was found in the control group, but not in the infected group. The operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios of the infected group were 1.84 ± 0.29 in the early phase and 2.19 ± 0.34 in the delay phase, both of which were significantly higher than those of the control group (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02). The receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed that the operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios of the delay phase at 21 days was the best indicator, with an accuracy of 80%. In conclusion, technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging could effectively distinguish an infected prosthetic joint from an uninfected prosthetic joint in a rabbit model.

  4. Scintigraphic study of gastrointestinal transit and disintegration sites of mesalazine tablets labelled with technetium 99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciarretta, G.; Furno, A.; Mazzoni, M.; Ferrieri, A.; Malaguti, P. (Ospedale Maggiore, Bologna (Italy))

    1993-09-01

    Tablets of mesalazine covered with a pH-dependent coating, labelled by an original technique with technetium-99m, were administered to 12 patients, 9 with Crohn's disease, 3 of which recurrent, 1 with ulcerative colitis, and 2 with irritable bowel syndrome, with the aim of verifying in vivo the intestinal site of disintegration and how the contents spread throughout the intestine. In all cases the tablet was broken down in the distal ileum at extremely variable intervals, from 5 to 27 h, and the contents spread into the nearby loops and into the colon. The notable differences in the residence time of the whole tablet in the ileum can be explained by differences in adhesion the inflamed mucosa and by a lower pH in the part of the ileum affected by the disease. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Scintigraphic study of gastrointestinal transit and disintegration sites of mesalazine tablets labelled with technetium 99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciarretta, G.; Furno, A.; Mazzoni, M.; Ferrieri, A.; Malaguti, P.

    1993-01-01

    Tablets of mesalazine covered with a pH-dependent coating, labelled by an original technique with technetium-99m, were administered to 12 patients, 9 with Crohn's disease, 3 of which recurrent, 1 with ulcerative colitis, and 2 with irritable bowel syndrome, with the aim of verifying in vivo the intestinal site of disintegration and how the contents spread throughout the intestine. In all cases the tablet was broken down in the distal ileum at extremely variable intervals, from 5 to 27 h, and the contents spread into the nearby loops and into the colon. The notable differences in the residence time of the whole tablet in the ileum can be explained by differences in adhesion the inflamed mucosa and by a lower pH in the part of the ileum affected by the disease. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Synthesis and study of the biodistribution of a new molecule labeled by technetium 99M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben alaya, Monia

    2008-01-01

    Cytectrenes are stable complexes, neutral, low-weight molecular and lipophilic, that's allowing them to be able to cross the intact BBB. These piperidinic molecules are synthesized by atomic exchange between tricarbonyl technetium with the Fe-Cyclopentadienyl fragment. The labelling reaction is carried out classically in oil bath at a temperature of 150 C during one hour. The reaction can be optimized using microwave. The study of the biodistribution in rat of these complexes after there purification shows high cerebral uptake. Cytectrenes can be used as a potential cerebral radiotracers for the early diagnosis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Cytectrene are able to cross the BBB regarding there lipophilicity. These characteristic allow them to cross the membrane of the white cells and to be used us a potential agent for the diagnosis of infection. (Author). 44 refs

  7. Technetium-99m labelled antimicrobial peptides discriminate between bacterial infections and sterile inflammations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welling, M.M.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; Paulusma-Annema, A.; Nibbering, P.H.; Balter, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select technetium-99m labelled peptides that can discriminate between bacterial infections and sterile inflammations. For this purpose, we first assessed the binding of various 99m Tc-labelled natural or synthetic peptides, which are based on the sequence of the human antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin (UBI) or human lactoferrin (hLF), to bacteria and to leucocytes in vitro. In order to select peptides that preferentially bind to bacteria over host cells, radiolabelled peptides were injected into mice intraperitoneally infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and the amount of radioactivity associated with the bacteria and with the leucocytes was quantitated. The next phase focussed on discrimination between bacterial infections and sterile inflammatory processes using 99m Tc-labelled peptides in mice intramuscularly infected with various bacteria (e.g. multi-drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and in animals that had been injected with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of bacterial origin to create a sterile inflammatory process. Also, we studied the distribution of 99m Tc-labelled UBI 29-41 and UBI 18-35 in rabbits having an experimental thigh muscle infection with K. pneumoniae and in rabbits injected with LPS. Based on the results of our in vitro and in vivo binding assays, two peptides, i.e. UBI 29-41 and UBI 18-35, were selected as possible candidates for infection imaging. The radiolabelled peptides can detect infections with both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in mice as early as 5-30 min after injection, with a target-to-non-target (T/NT) ratio between 2 and 3; maximum T/NT ratios were seen within 1 h after injection. In rabbits, high T/NT ratios (>5) for 99m Tc-labelled UBI 29-41 were observed from 1 h after injection. No accumulation of the selected 99m Tc-labelled UBI-derived peptides was observed in thighs of mice and rabbits previously injected with LPS. Scintigraphic investigation into the biodistribution of

  8. Tumor scintigraphy by the method for subtracting the initial image with technetium-99m labeled antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karube, Yoshiharu; Katsuno, Kentaro; Ito, Sanae; Matsunaga, Kazuhisa; Takata, Jiro; Kuroki, Masahide; Murakami, Masaaki; Matsuoka, Yuji

    1999-01-01

    The method for subtracting the initial image from the localization image was evaluated for radioimmunoscintigraphy of tumors with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) labeled antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies were parental mouse and mouse-human chimeric antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), designated F11-39 and ChF11-39, respectively, both of which have been found to discriminate CEA in tumor tissues from the CEA-related antigens. After reduction of the intrinsic disulfide bonds, these antibodies were labeled with Tc-99m. In vivo studies were performed on athymic nude mice bearing the human CEA-producing gastric carcinoma xenografts. Though biodistribution results showed selective and progressive accumulation of Tc-99m labeled antibodies at the tumor site, high radioactivity in blood was inappropriate for scintigraphic visualization of the tumors within a few hours. We examined the subtraction of the initial Tc-99m image from the Tc-99m localization image after a few hours. Subtracted images of the same count reflected the in vivo behavior of the Tc-99m radioactivity. The subtracted scintigrams revealed excellent tumor images with no significant extrarenal background. Visualization of the tumor site was dependent on antigen-specific binding and nonspecific exudation. These results demonstrate that a method of subtraction of the initial image may serve as a potentially useful diagnostic method for an abnormal site for agents with a low pharmacokinetic value. (author)

  9. Technetium labeling of monoclonal antibodies with functionalized BATOs. 1. TcCl(DMG)3PITC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, K E; Wen, M D; Nowotnik, D P; Malley, M F; Gougoutas, J Z; Nunn, A D; Eckelman, W C

    1991-01-01

    BATO (boronic acid adduct of technetium dioximes) complexes, TcCl(dioxime)3BR, were prepared in which the boron substituent (R) was the protein-reactive m-phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC). The 99TcCl(dioxime)3PITC complexes [dioxime = dimethylglyoxime (DMG) or cyclohexanedione dioxime (CDO)] were prepared from 99Tc(dioxime)3(mu-OH)SnCl3 and characterized. The X-ray crystal structure of 99TcCl(DMG)3PITC was determined. The 99mTc complexes were prepared from 99mTcO4- in a process using a freeze-dried kit, either in a one-step procedure or via 99mTcCl(dioxime)3. Initial labeling studies with 99mTcCl(dioxime)3PITC were performed on glycine and polylysine and, subsequently, on mouse IgG and the B72.3 monoclonal antibody. Covalent attachment of 99mTcCl(DMG)3PITC to B72.3 was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. B72.3 labeled with 99mTcCl(DMG)3PITC displayed high binding to a TAG 72 affinity column and had a distribution in normal mice similar to that reported for iodine-labeled B72.3.

  10. Technetium-99m labeling and fibronectin binding ability of Corynebacterium diphtheriae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.M.S.; Nagao, P.E.; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Pereira, G.A.; Napoleao, F.; Andrade, A.F.B.; Hirata Junior, R.; Mattos-Guaraldi, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    The use of radionuclides has permitted advances in areas of clinical and scientific knowledge. Several molecules and cells have been labelled with Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc). The stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ) has a significant influence on the labeling and stability of 99m Tc radiotracers. The frequent risk of diphtheria epidemics has intensified interest in the virulence factors of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Although studies have looked at potential adhesins including haemagglutinins and exposed sugar residues, the molecular basis of mechanisms of adherence remains unclear. Adherence of pathogens to mammalian tissues may be mediated by fibronectin (FN) found in body fluids, matrix of connective tissues, and cell surfaces. In the present study we evaluated the binding ability to human plasma FN by 99m Tc labeled-C.diphtheriae. Due to adverse effects of stannous ions, microorganisms were submitted to survival and filamentation induction assays. Data showed a dose dependent susceptibility to SnCl 2 bactericidal effects. Cell filamentation was observed for concentrations of SnCl 2 > 110 μg/ml. Adherence levels of 99m Tc labelled 241strain to coverslips coated with 20 μg/ml FN were higher (P = 0.0037) than coated with bovine serum albumin. FN binding by the sucrose fermenting 241 C. diphtheriae strain (8.9% + 2.6) was significantly lower (P=0.0139) than Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I strain (34.1% ± 1.2). Therefore, bacterial 99m Tc labeling represents an additional tool that may contribute to the comprehension of C. diphtheriae interactions with host receptors such as FN that act as biological organizers by holding bacterial cells in position and guiding their migration. (author)

  11. On-site preparation of technetium-99m labeled human serum albumin for clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuhfeng; Chuang Meihua; Cham Thauming; Chung Meiing; Chiu Jainnshiun

    2007-01-01

    Technetium-99m labeled human serum albumin (Tc-99m HSA) is an important radiopharmaceutical for clinical applications, such as cardiac function tests or protein-losing gastroenteropathy assessment. However, because of transfusion-induced infectious diseases, the safety of serum products is a serious concern. In this context, serum products acquired from patients themselves are the most ideal tracer. However, the development of rapid separation and easy clinical labeling methods is not yet well established. Under such situation, products from the same ethnic group or country are now recommended by the World Health Organization as an alternative preparation. This article describes the on-site preparation of Tc-99m HSA from locally supplied serum products. Different formulations were prepared and the labeling efficiency and stability were examined. Radio-labeling efficiencies were more than 90% in all preparation protocols, except for one that omitted the stannous solution. The most cost-effective protocol contained HSA 0.1 mg, treated with stannous fluoride 0.2 mg, and mixed with Tc-99m pertechnetate 30 mCi. A biodistribution study was performed in rats using a gamma camera immediately after intravenous administration of radiolabeled HSA. Tissue/organ uptake was obtained by measuring the radioactivity in organs after sacrificing the rats at timed intervals. The biologic half-life was about 32 min, determined from sequential venous blood collections. These data indicate that our preparation of Tc-99m HSA is useful and potentially applicable clinically. In addition, this on-site preparation provides the possibility of labeling a patient's own serum for subsequent clinical application. (author)

  12. Work in progress. Gastrointestinal ulcerations: detection using a technetium-99m-labeled ulcer-avid agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, T.E.; Bridges, R.L.; Braunstein, P.; Jansholt, A.L.; Meshkinpour, H.

    1983-01-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled sucralfate, an ulcer-avid material, was shown in preliminary animal and human studies to be stable in vivo with good sensitivity. Eight experimentally produced discrete gastric ulcers in three rabbits were visualized using this material. Of seven human studies, four studies were true-positive and three were true-negative. It is suggested that Tc-99m-labeled sucralfate may prove to have significant clinical advantages for the evaluation of gastrointestinal ulcer disease and other diseases that are associated with loss of mucosal integrity. The method for labeling sucralfate with Tc-99m was developed by the authors

  13. Biodistribution of {sup 99m} technetium labeled creatinine in healthy rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, O. [Dokuz Eylul University, Narlidere, Izmir (Turkey). Medical Faculty. Dept. of Animal Research Center; Soylu, A.; Kavukcu, S. [Dokuz Eylul University, Narlidere, Izmir (Turkey). Medical Faculty. Dept. of Pediatrics; Lambrecht, F. Yurt; Durkan, K. [Ege University, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Institute of Nuclear Sciences. Dept. of Nuclear Applications]. E-mail: s.kavukcu@deu.edu.tr

    2007-06-15

    The distribution of creatinine, one of the toxic guanidine compounds, in various tissues has not been studied in detail by using radiolabeled creatinine. Our objective was to investigate the biodistribution of creatinine labeled with {sup 99m}technetium ({sup 99m} Tc) by the stannous (II) chloride method in healthy male Wistar rats. Quality controls were carried out by radio thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and paper electrophoresis. The labeling yield was 85 {+-} 2% under optimum conditions (pH 7 and 100 {mu}g stannous chloride). Rats (N 12) were injected intravenously with {sup 99m} Tc creatinine and their blood and visceral organs were evaluated for {sup 99m} Tc-creatinine uptake as percent of the injected dose per gram wet weight of each tissue (%ID/g). The lowest amount of uptake was detected in the brain and testis. When the rate of uptake was evaluated, only the kidney showed increasing rates of uptake of {sup 99m} Tc-creatinine throughout the study. Kidneys showed the highest amount of uptake throughout the study (P < 0.001 compared to all other organs), followed by liver, spleen and lung tissue. (author)

  14. Labelling of 5-ethyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid with Technetium-99m: biodistribution study in Swiss mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, Susana B.E.; Oliveira, Marcia B.N. de; Gutfilen, Bianca; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Alves, Andreia Coelho; Machado-Silva, Jose R.

    1996-01-01

    The 5-ethyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid (phenobarbital) is used as a sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsant drug. We decided to label it with technetium-99m. In order to determine the optimal conditions, different concentrations of this drug were incubated with various stannous chloride solutions. Then, 99m Tc was added and chromatography was performed using 0.9% NaCl solution, acetone and n-butyl alcohol as the mobile phase. Using a solution of 0.01 mg/ml stannous chloride and 1.0 mg/ml phenobarbital over 92% of the radioactivity bound to phenobarbital 99m Tc-phenobarbital. In the biodistribution study, 99m Tc-phenobarbital was administered in mice intraperitoneal. The main uptake of the labeled drug was in the liver, blood, kidneys, spleen and stomach. The phenobarbital is also used as anesthetic drug in animals. Earlier studies confirm that this drug can dislocate the adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni to mesenteric vein towards the liver and portal vein, so that we used infected animals, radioactivity was not found in isolated worms and we can conclude that the phenobarbital has an indirect action in relation to the displacement of the worms. (author)

  15. Technetium labeled WH701 for its potential use to image TNF-receptor-positive hepatocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jinsong; Wu Hua; Xiang Yan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: In this investigation, TNF analogs (WH701) was labeled with technetium (A number of TNF analogs had been selected and synthesized in our lab using random phage-display peptides library ) and pharmacokinetics and feasibility studies were performed for its potential use as diagnostic radiopharmaceutical. Methods WH701 was radiolabeled with 99m Tc then the complexes were characterized by thin layer chromatography. In vitro stability of the radiolabeled WH701 was examined simultaneity. Biodistribution and tumor uptake studies were also conducted to determine its in vivo characteristics. Results: The peptide analog WH701 permitted efficient incorporation of 99m Tc. The preparation of 99m Tc-WH701 was stable in vitro. Studies in vivo suggested that the biological activity of the peptide was not compromised. The agent was cleared rapidly from the blood and excreted mainly from kidney. The labeled peptide was shown in the nude mouse model to localize rapidly and specifically in site of tumor. Conclusions: The TNF analogue peptide WH701 can be radiolabeled with 99m Tc without loss of affinity, and the 99m Tc-WH701 shows radiochemical stability for an extended period of time in vitro. The high specific tumor uptake, rapid blood clearance, and predominantly renal excretion make 99m Tc-WH701 a promising candidate for tumor imaging. This agent is worthy of further investigation.

  16. Technetium labeled WH701 for its potential use to image TNF-receptor-positive hepatocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinsong, Xia; Hua, Wu; Yan, Xiang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2004-07-01

    Objective: In this investigation, TNF analogs (WH701) was labeled with technetium (A number of TNF analogs had been selected and synthesized in our lab using random phage-display peptides library ) and pharmacokinetics and feasibility studies were performed for its potential use as diagnostic radiopharmaceutical. Methods WH701 was radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc then the complexes were characterized by thin layer chromatography. In vitro stability of the radiolabeled WH701 was examined simultaneity. Biodistribution and tumor uptake studies were also conducted to determine its in vivo characteristics. Results: The peptide analog WH701 permitted efficient incorporation of {sup 99m}Tc. The preparation of {sup 99m}Tc-WH701 was stable in vitro. Studies in vivo suggested that the biological activity of the peptide was not compromised. The agent was cleared rapidly from the blood and excreted mainly from kidney. The labeled peptide was shown in the nude mouse model to localize rapidly and specifically in site of tumor. Conclusions: The TNF analogue peptide WH701 can be radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc without loss of affinity, and the {sup 99m}Tc-WH701 shows radiochemical stability for an extended period of time in vitro. The high specific tumor uptake, rapid blood clearance, and predominantly renal excretion make {sup 99m}Tc-WH701 a promising candidate for tumor imaging. This agent is worthy of further investigation.

  17. Factors affecting the labeling efficiency and stability of technetium-99m-labeled glucoheptonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbrzeznj, D.J.; Khan, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Factors influencing the labeling efficiency and in vitro stability of 99 mTc-labeled glucoheptonate (Tc-GH) were investigated. Using commercially available glucoheptonate kits (New England Nuclear), the following factors were studied: (1) amount of activity added to each kit vial, (2) different brands of 0.9% sodium chloride injection, (3) evaluation of eluates from three commercially available generators, (4) different chromatography systems, (5) storage of the preparation at room temperature and under refrigeration, and (6) labeling with eluates obtained at various times (6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours) since previous elution of the generator. Results showed that Tc-GH prepared using 100 mCi of sodium pertechnetate from a Mallinckrodt generator, low-dissolved-oxygen 0.9% sodium chloride injection to make up a constant 5-ml volume, and chromatography with methyl ethyl ketone/sodium chloride on an ITLC-SG system gave the best labeling efficiency over a 24-hour period. Storage temperature and time since previous elution had no effect on labeling efficiency or stability

  18. A modified method for the in vivo labeling of red blood cells with /sup 99m/Tc: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, R.J.; Froelich, J.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Leppo, J.; Strauss, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The rate of incorporation of /sup 99m/Tc into red blood cells pretinned in vivo was measured by collecting blood samples in stannous DTPA solution, which served as a competing ligand for /sup 99m/Tc. This collection technique permitted a measurement of high-affinity red-cell labeling efficiency at the instant of sampling. At 0.5 min after injection only 62% of technetium is tightly bound to the red cell; this rises to 94.5% at 10 min. Based on the graded labeling of the red cells, the in vivo labeling procedure was modified by isolating pertechnetate and red blood cells tinned in vivo in a syringe during the first 10 min of labeling. The pertechnetate is thus prevented from distributing to extravascular compartments, and 90% of the injected /sup 99m/Tc is firmly bound to red blood cells at the time of injection. In a series of 23 patients, seven were tested with the in vivo method and seven with the modified in vivo method, and nine patients were tested with each method on separate occasions. A decrease in gastric activity and improved image quality were found with the modified method compared with the standard method of in vivo red-cell labeling

  19. Evaluation of technetium-99m/rhenium labelled nucleoside analogues as potential radiotracers in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbouis, D.

    2007-01-01

    cell uptake in transfected cancer cells this technetium thymidine complex revealed a low internalisation of 0.03 ± 0.01%ID/(mg/mL). Under the same conditions the [ 3 H]thymidine exhibited an uptake of 1.50 ± 0.02%lD/(mg/mL). In order to gain potency and selectivity for HSV1-TK, the corresponding 5'-carboxamide 5-ethyl-2', 5'-dideoxyuridine was synthesized. The synthesis of the ligand was performed in seven steps from 2'-deoxyuridine. This ligand was then successfully labelled with the fac-M(CO) 3 -core (M = 99m Tc, Re). The rhenium complex was found to be a selective competitive inhibitor of HSV1-TK (K i = 4.56 ± 0.11 μM). Although the cellular uptake of the technetium 2'-deoxyurine complex (0.10 ± 0.01%ID/(mg/mL)) was better than its corresponding technetium thymidine complex, it is still very low compared to thymidine uptake. The second aspect of this work was to develop nucleoside derivatives labelled with technetium-99m/rhenium tricarbonyl core capable of acting as substrates for human cytosolic thymidine kinase (hTKl). hTKl is a target of choice to evaluate cell proliferation due to its overexpression in a variety of cancer cells. [ 18 F]Fluorothymidine [ 18 F]FLT), which acts as a hTKl substrate, has emerged as a very efficient PET tracer for the monitoring of cell proliferation. Our aim was to develop a SPET tracer with the same mode of action as [ 18 F]FLT. We prepared a set of technetium-99m/rhenium complexes of N3 thymidine derivatives with different overall charges (+1, 0 and -1) and variable spacer lengths. The complexes with different overall charges had the same spacer length between chelating system and thymidine moiety (two carbons spacer) while the complexes with different spacer lengths (2, 3, 5 and 10) were all neutral. These compounds were tested for their substrate activity with respect to recombinant hTKl. The phosphorylation rates of neutral and negative complexes were found to be similar, ranging between 15-16% with respect to thymidine

  20. Stabilization of marked hexametazima with technetium 99-metastables (99mTc) with chloride of cobalt hexahidratado, for the labelling of leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva Palencia, Rosa Maria

    1996-01-01

    Presently study you work with hexametilpropilen amino oxima (HM-PAO), radiopharmaceuticals of labelling leucocytes marking it with technetium 99 recently acquired of the second elution of a generator of molybdenum technetium adding chloride of cobalt hexahidratado in different concentrations, as stabilizing agent in order to settling down if it prolongs the useful life of this expensive radiopharmaceuticals for but of minutes. For it one carries out the determination from the purity radiochemical to the 5,60,120 and 180 minutes after the labelled and the labelling of leukocytes is made with quality control of the cells after the labelling compared against a control

  1. Technetium-99m labelled antimicrobial peptides discriminate between bacterial infections and sterile inflammations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welling, M.M.; Pauwels, E.K.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC) (Netherlands); Paulusma-Annema, A.; Nibbering, P.H. [Dept. of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Balter, H.S. [Centro Investigaciones Nucleares, Univ. of the Republic Uruguay, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to select technetium-99m labelled peptides that can discriminate between bacterial infections and sterile inflammations. For this purpose, we first assessed the binding of various {sup 99m}Tc-labelled natural or synthetic peptides, which are based on the sequence of the human antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin (UBI) or human lactoferrin (hLF), to bacteria and to leucocytes in vitro. In order to select peptides that preferentially bind to bacteria over host cells, radiolabelled peptides were injected into mice intraperitoneally infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and the amount of radioactivity associated with the bacteria and with the leucocytes was quantitated. The next phase focussed on discrimination between bacterial infections and sterile inflammatory processes using {sup 99m}Tc-labelled peptides in mice intramuscularly infected with various bacteria (e.g. multi-drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and in animals that had been injected with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of bacterial origin to create a sterile inflammatory process. Also, we studied the distribution of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled UBI 29-41 and UBI 18-35 in rabbits having an experimental thigh muscle infection with K. pneumoniae and in rabbits injected with LPS. Based on the results of our in vitro and in vivo binding assays, two peptides, i.e. UBI 29-41 and UBI 18-35, were selected as possible candidates for infection imaging. The radiolabelled peptides can detect infections with both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in mice as early as 5-30 min after injection, with a target-to-non-target (T/NT) ratio between 2 and 3; maximum T/NT ratios were seen within 1 h after injection. In rabbits, high T/NT ratios (>5) for {sup 99m}Tc-labelled UBI 29-41 were observed from 1 h after injection. No accumulation of the selected {sup 99m}Tc-labelled UBI-derived peptides was observed in thighs of mice and rabbits previously injected with LPS. Scintigraphic investigation

  2. An extract of a formula used in the traditional chinese medicine (Buzhong Yi Qi Wan) alters the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giani, Tania Santos; Paoli, Severo de; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: tgiani@gmail.com; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio; Maiworm, Adalgisa Ieda; Santos Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica

    2007-09-15

    Buzhong Yi Qi Wan (Buzhong) is a medicinal herb widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat the digestive and circulatory systems. Red blood cell and plasma proteins labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of an aqueous Buzhong extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc. Heparinized blood (Wistar rats) was incubated in vitro with different Buzhong extract concentrations and {sup 99m}Tc-labeling was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC) fractions were isolated. The radioactivity on blood constituents was determined and the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Buzhong extract at the highest concentrations used altered significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI in blood constituents. Substances present in the Buzhong extract could alter the cellular membrane and/or generation of free radicals that have oxidant properties modifying the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc. (author)

  3. Pharmacokinetics of labelled compounds with technetium-99m and samarium-153

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borda O, L.B.; Torres L, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish the different pharmacokinetics parameters of the main radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and samarium-153. These parameters could be subsequently used as reference to compare other products with the same use. Mathematical models and a computerized pharmacokinetic program were used to this purpose. A biodistribution study in quadruplicate and/or quintuplicate was conducted for each radiopharmaceutical, data was was obtained in injection dose percentages. The biodistribution study involved the injection of a predetermined dose of the radiopharmaceutical into animals (rats or mice), which were subsequently put away at different time intervals, removing the relevant organs. Activity in each organ was read by means of a well-type NaI scintillation counter, data obtained in activity counts was transformed into injection dose percentages. Based on these percentages, the mathematical model was constructed and the pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained using the computerized program Expo 2 v. 1, which is written in C language and works in windows. Analyzing the results obtained, we can conclude that the use of the Expo 2 v. 1 program for a bi compartmental analysis allowed us to obtain reliable pharmacokinetic parameters which describe what happens in the organism when the radiopharmaceutical passes from the central compartment to the peripheral one and vice versa

  4. Scintigraphic evaluation of chronic cholecystitis with cholelithiasis using technetium-99m-labelled pyridoxylidene isoleucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alp, E.; Bekdik, C.F.; Laleli, Y.; Ercan, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    Technetium-99m-labelled pyridoxylidene isoleucine was evaluated in normal subjects as a hepatobiliar scanning agent and in patients with chronic cholecystitis with cholelithiasis. In all the normals and patients the liver function tests (SGOT, SGPT, AP and serum bilirubin) were normal. Scintigraphic studies were performed at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 60 min after IV administration of the agent. In the normal group (seven subjects) liver was visualized at 5 min, the common bile duct and the gall bladder at 5-15 min and the bowel activity within 20 min. In the patient group (15 subjects) the liver and the common bile duct were visualized at the same time as in the normal group but the gall bladder was either visualized later or not at all. The results showed that chronic cholecystitis with cholelithiasis may be diagnosed with 87% accuracy using 99 Tcsup(m)-pyridoxylidene isoleucine cholescintigraphy. Scintigraphy with this agent has also superiority over roentgenologic examination in 20% of the cases. (author)

  5. Radioimmunoscintigraphy with technetium-99m labelled monoclonal antibody, 1A3, in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granowska, M.; Britton, K.E.; Mather, S.J.; Morris, G.; Ellison, D.; Soobramoney, S.; Talbot, I.C.; Northover, J.M.A.

    1993-01-01

    This study of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) was primarily undertaken to determine how the imaging results related to surgical findings. Technetium-99m radiolabelled 1A3, a monoclonal antibody against a columnar cell surface antigen, was used. No adverse effects or thyroid uptake was observed in 127 studies. The 85 primary colorectal cancers were all image positive. In the assessment of recurrent tumour in the abdomen or pelvis, the accuracy was 33/35 (94%), including true-positive findings in some whose serum carcinoembryonic antigen was normal. There was a positive predictive value for abdominal or pelvic recurrence of 92% and a negative predictive value of 100%, at a prevalence of 66%. In those patients whose liver was able to be evaluated, the accuracy was 72/79 (91%). There was a positive predictive value for liver metastases of 88% and a negative predictive value of 93%, at a prelavence of 32%. The simple procedure for labelling antibody with 99m Tc and its ready availability allow a completed report to be given within 24 h of the request. (orig.)

  6. Technetium in chemistry and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, E.; Nicolini, M.; Wagner, H.N.

    1983-01-01

    This volume explores the potential of technetium radiopharmaceuticals in clinical nuclear medicine. The authors examine the capabilities of synthetic inorganic chemists to synthesize technetium radiopharmaceuticals and the specific requirements of the nuclear medicine practitioner. Sections cover the chemistry of technetium, the production of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium, and the use of technetium radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine

  7. Technetium and technetium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijdo, W.L.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the results of a literature survey on technetium and technetium alloys. The literature has been searched through 1993. The survey was focused on technetium and (binary cubic) technetium alloys, but other important information on technetium has not been omitted from this survey. This report has been written with the aim to collect more information about phase systems which could be of importance in the transmutation process by neutrons of technetium. With the information presented in this report, it should be possible to select a suitable technetium alloy for further investigation regarding to the transmutation process. (orig.)

  8. Application of photoactivation in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. Pt. 3. Human serum albumin labelled with technetium (99mTc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, P.; Kleisner, I.; Konopkova, M.; Komarkova, I.

    1997-01-01

    Human serum albumin was photoactivated with UV light at 254 nm and labelled with technetium ( 99m Tc) by reducing pertechnetate ( 99m Tc) with stannous chloride. Radiochemical purity was determined by using paper chromatography, columns and electrophoresis. The biodistribution of labelled albumin in rats was assessed by activity counting in isolated organs 15 and 60 minutes after administration. Photoactivation increases the number of free SH groups, which affect favourably the labelling efficiency. Irradiated albumin exhibits a higher labelling efficiency (99%) than non-irradiated albumin (96%). The structural changes depend on the UV radiation dose, concentration of irradiated substances, and metal ion content (Sn 2+ ). The results obtained suggest that the elimination from blood of albumin whose structure has been altered by photoactivation can be accelerated, thereby creating favourable conditions for its application in the diagnosis of inflammatory diseases. (author)

  9. Comparison of technetium-99m sulfur colloid and technetium-99m albumin colloid labeled solid meals for gastric emptying studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillefer, R; Douesnard, J M; Beauchamp, G; Guimond, J

    1987-08-01

    A Tc-99m albumin colloid (Tc-AC) kit has been introduced as an alternative to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) for liver-spleen imaging. Since there is no need for boiling, the use of Tc-AC reduces preparation time and manipulation. Tc-SC is one of the most commonly used radiopharmaceuticals for the labeling of solid-phase markers in gastric emptying studies. In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the labeling efficiency and stability in hydrochloric acid and in human gastric juice of intracellularly labeled chicken liver and scrambled eggs labeled with Tc-SC and Tc-AC. Gastric emptying studies also were performed on 20 healthy volunteers with both Tc-SC and Tc-AC labeled scrambled egg sandwiches. There was no significant difference between Tc-SC and Tc-AC in the labeling efficiency of chicken liver (98% +/- 1% for Tc-SC, 96% +/- 2% for Tc-AC) and scrambled eggs (92% +/- 2% for Tc-SC, 91% +/- 3% for Tc-AC). However, both Tc-SC and Tc-AC labeled scrambled eggs showed a lower stability than chicken liver, particularly in human gastric juice. Gastric emptying curves from both meals in 20 normal subjects were also similar, with a mean half-emptying time of 85 +/- 13 minutes and 87 +/- 16 minutes for the meals containing Tc-SC and Tc-AC respectively. Tc-AC is a reliable alternative to Tc-SC as a radiotracer for solid-phase gastric emptying studies.

  10. Assessment of the accumulation of technetium-99m labelled leukocytes in the treatment of the infections of vascular prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupka, A.; Kaluza, G.; Skora, J.; Szyber, P.; Rynowiecka, M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this is to evaluate the accumulation of technetium-99m-labelled leukocytes after change of vascular, dacron and infected prosthetic graft in arterial homo grafts harvested from multiorgan-procurement - with own computer program. In this paper 11 cases of aorto-ilio-femoral graft infection treated by the replacement of infected prosthesis with fresh, bifurcated, arterial homografts is presented. In all patients clinical investigations revealed vascular prosthesis infection with the rupture of vascular anastomoses between the prosthesis' branch and wall of artery that resulted with hemorrhage. The Duplex- Doppler ultrasound and the scintigraphy with use of technetium-labeled leucocytes were used in the diagnostic trial of infection and of the healing process of the arterial homografts.The area of the accumulation of 99m Tc labelled leukocytes was evaluated with own computer programs. Positive clinical effect was obtained in all patients.The regression of infection after in situ replacement of the synthetic prosthesis with homograft was presented with the scintigraphic examination: in these patients the area of leukocytes accumulation decreased from 34±3 cm 2 to 9±2cm 2 . The use of scintigraphy with 99m Tc labelled leukocytes to evaluate the healing process of the arterial homografts in therapy of the prosthetic graft is a the accumulation of leucocytes is facilitation in the monitoring of regression of infection. (author)

  11. Measurement of lymphatic function with technetium-99m-labelled polyclonal immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, W.; Glass, D.M.; Bradley, D.; Peters, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    A reliable method for measuring lymph flow in physiological units would be valuable, especially in conditions in which it is uncertain whether lymph flow is increased or decreased. The requirements of a radiopharmaceutical for such measurement include stable radionuclide labelling and rapid access to lymphatic vessels following tissue injection but no access to blood vessels. A soluble macromolecule is likely to come closest to meeting these requirements. Technetium-99m- labelled human polyclonal immunoglobulin (HIG) was therefore investigated firstly in comparison with 99m Tc-labelled human serum albumin (HSA) in patients undergoing routine lymphoscintigraphy and secondly with respect to injection site in a group of volunteers with post-mastectomy oedema (PMO). Subcutaneous injection of 99m Tc-HIG into the web space of a distal extremity gave images in which lymphatic vessels were more clearly defined compared with images obtained after injection of 99m Tc-HSA. Lymph nodes were also more clearly defined, suggesting specific retention of HIG, possibly through Fc-mediated binding. Peripheral blood sampling showed a delayed arrival in blood of radioactivity after 99m Tc-HIG compared with 99m Tc-HSA, although ultimately, the blood recovery of 99m Tc-HIG was significantly higher (P 99m Tc-HSA. Clearance rates of radioactivity from the injection site were not sinificantly different, however, between the two agents. In patients with PMO, web space injection of 99m Tc-HIG gave excellent images of normal lymphatic vessels, of lymph nodes and of abnormal lymph drainage such as dermal backflow in swollen arms. In contrast, neither lymphatic vessels nor lymph nodes were visualised after injection into the skin of the dorsum of the distal forearm. Although there was no difference in clearance rates from the injection sites between normal and swollen arms with either agent in PMO, clearance was significantly faster following injection into the web space (0.11% per minute for

  12. Assessment of gastric motility using meal labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    During a 2 year period, 83 patients with gastric motility problems were evaluated using radionuclide imaging. The patients presented with epigastric distress, postprandial fullness, pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; signs and symptoms suggestive of either gastroparesis or gastric outlet obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal series or endoscopy, or both, demonstrated no mechanical obstruction. After oral administration of a 300 g meal labeled with 600 muCi of technetium-99m sulfur colloid, a gastric emptying study consisting of serial images and data acquisition was performed. Of the patients studied, 52 had had peptic ulcer surgery, 17 were suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux, 8 were diabetic and suspected of having visceral enteropathy, and 6 had a history of irritable bowel syndrome. The normal mean gastric half emptying time was 77 +/- 16 minutes. Of the patients who had had gastric surgery, 90.4 percent had abnormal emptying: 69.2 percent had delayed gastric emptying and 21.2 percent had rapid gastric emptying time; 9.6 percent had normal emptying time. Of the gastroesophageal reflux group, all but two had normal gastric emptying time; 65 percent demonstrated gastroesophageal reflux within 15 minutes. Two of the patients with irritable bowel syndrome had prolonged emptying; the rest had normal emptying. All diabetic patients with gastroparesis had prolonged gastric emptying time, and all responded favorably to metoclopramide. Of the patients who previously had peptic ulcer surgery and had prolonged emptying time, 72 percent also responded favorably to metoclopramide. We conclude that radionuclide gastric imaging is a useful diagnostic test for the measurement of gastric emptying in patients with a variety of gastrointestinal motility disorders and may be helpful in assessing medical therapy and selecting those who may be candidates for surgery

  13. Technetium 99m-labeled annexin v scintigraphy of platelet activation in vegetations of experimental endocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouzet, F.; Sarda-Mantel, L.; Le Guludec, D. [Nucl Med Serv, Grp Hosp Bichat Claude Bernard, AP-HP, Paris (France); Rouzet, F.; Sarda-Mantel, L.; LeGuludec, D. [Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, UMR S773, Paris (France); Rouzet, F.; Sarda-Mantel, L.; Le Guludec, D. [INSERM, U773, Paris (France); Hernandez, M.D.; Louedec, L.; Michel, J.B. [Univ Paris 07, CHU Xavier Bichat, INSERM, U698, Paris (France); Hervatin, F. [CEA, DSV, DRM, SHFJ, Orsay (France); Lefort, A.; Fantin, B. [Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, EA 3964, Paris (France); Duval, X. [Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, INSERM, CIC 007, Paris (France); Duval, X. [Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, AP-HP, Grp Hosp Bichat Claude Bernard, Ctr Invest Clin, Paris (France); Hernandez, M.D. [Univ Guadalajara, DeptPathol, Guadalajara 44430, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    Background: The pathophysiology of infective endocarditis involves a pathogen/host tissue interaction, leading to formation of infected thrombotic vegetations. Annexin V is a ligand of phosphatidyl-serines exposed by activated platelets and apoptotic cells. Because vegetations are platelet-fibrin clots in which platelet pro-aggregant activity is enhanced by bacterial colonization, we investigated the ability of annexin V labeled with technetium {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-ANX) to provide functional imaging of these vegetations in experimental models of infective endocarditis. This ability was assessed in rabbits and rats because of the different interest of these 2 species in preclinical analysis. Methods and Results: Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis was induced with the use of a catheter left indwelling through the aortic or tricuspid valve, and animals were injected with either a bacterial inoculum or saline. Scintigraphic investigations were performed 5 days later and showed a higher {sup 99m}Tc-ANX uptake by vegetations in infected versus non-infected animals (ratio,1.3 for in vivo acquisitions and 2 for autoradiography; P {<=} 0.0001 for all), whereas no significant uptake was present in controls. Right-sided endocarditis was associated with pulmonary uptake foci corresponding to emboli. Histological analysis of vegetations showed a specific uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-ANX at the interface between circulating blood and vegetation. In parallel, underlying myocardial tissue showed myocyte apoptosis and mucoid degeneration, without extracellular matrix degradation at this stage. Conclusions: {sup 99m}Tc-ANX is suitable for functional imaging of platelet-fibrin vegetations in endocarditis, as well as embolic events. {sup 99m}Tc-ANX uptake reflects mainly platelet activation in the luminal layer of vegetations. This uptake is enhanced by bacterial colonization. (authors)

  14. Technetium 99m-labeled annexin v scintigraphy of platelet activation in vegetations of experimental endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouzet, F.; Sarda-Mantel, L.; Le Guludec, D.; Rouzet, F.; Sarda-Mantel, L.; LeGuludec, D.; Rouzet, F.; Sarda-Mantel, L.; Le Guludec, D.; Hernandez, M.D.; Louedec, L.; Michel, J.B.; Hervatin, F.; Lefort, A.; Fantin, B.; Duval, X.; Duval, X.; Hernandez, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The pathophysiology of infective endocarditis involves a pathogen/host tissue interaction, leading to formation of infected thrombotic vegetations. Annexin V is a ligand of phosphatidyl-serines exposed by activated platelets and apoptotic cells. Because vegetations are platelet-fibrin clots in which platelet pro-aggregant activity is enhanced by bacterial colonization, we investigated the ability of annexin V labeled with technetium 99m Tc ( 99m Tc-ANX) to provide functional imaging of these vegetations in experimental models of infective endocarditis. This ability was assessed in rabbits and rats because of the different interest of these 2 species in preclinical analysis. Methods and Results: Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis was induced with the use of a catheter left indwelling through the aortic or tricuspid valve, and animals were injected with either a bacterial inoculum or saline. Scintigraphic investigations were performed 5 days later and showed a higher 99m Tc-ANX uptake by vegetations in infected versus non-infected animals (ratio,1.3 for in vivo acquisitions and 2 for autoradiography; P ≤ 0.0001 for all), whereas no significant uptake was present in controls. Right-sided endocarditis was associated with pulmonary uptake foci corresponding to emboli. Histological analysis of vegetations showed a specific uptake of 99m Tc-ANX at the interface between circulating blood and vegetation. In parallel, underlying myocardial tissue showed myocyte apoptosis and mucoid degeneration, without extracellular matrix degradation at this stage. Conclusions: 99m Tc-ANX is suitable for functional imaging of platelet-fibrin vegetations in endocarditis, as well as embolic events. 99m Tc-ANX uptake reflects mainly platelet activation in the luminal layer of vegetations. This uptake is enhanced by bacterial colonization. (authors)

  15. Internal dosimetry of technetium-99m-labelled radiopharmaceuticals used in clinical nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedler, H D [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Klinikum Steglitz

    1977-01-01

    For radiopharmaceuticals labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, which is the most common short-lived radionuclide used in nuclear medicine, the possible dose reduction in comparison to other radionuclides for equal administered activities is deduced from the formalism of absorbed dose calculation and compared to the actually achieved decrease of absorbed dose for the most important radiopharmaceuticals. Absorbed doses per ..mu..Ci of administered activity are tabulated for the gonads, red bone marrow, and critical organs of the adult human, the newborn, and the child of 1, 5, 10, and 15 years.

  16. Biokinetic behavior of technetium in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a re-assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J. (Oregon State Univ., Newport (USA). Marine Science Center)

    1982-10-01

    The biokinetic behavior of sup(95m)Tc in the red abalone, haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments with other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalones exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics in the abalone cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of sup(95m)Tc by abalones following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis luetkeana, approximately equal to 45% and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater.

  17. Biokinetic behavior of technetium in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a re-assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J.

    1982-10-01

    The biokinetic behavior of /sup 95m/Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments with other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labelled seawater, abalones exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics in the abalone cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of /sup 95m/Tc by abalones following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis luetkeana, is approximately 45% and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater.

  18. Biokinetic behavior of technetium in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a re-assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of sup(95m)Tc in the red abalone, haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments with other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalones exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics in the abalone cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of sup(95m)Tc by abalones following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis luetkeana, approximately equal to 45% and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater. (author)

  19. Labelling of red blood cells with 99m pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyth, A.; Raam, C.F.

    1979-07-01

    This paper describes a method for labelling red blood cells with 99mTc in vitro, using electrolytically generated stannous ions as the reducing agent for 99mTc-pertechnetate. A labelling of 95% was found. A method for the in vivo labelling of red blood cells is also reported. This involves an injection of a stanno-DTPA-complex followed 20 minutes later by a 99mTc-pertechnetate solution scintillation camera images show more background activity when the in vivo method of labelling is used

  20. Splenic scintigraphy using Tc-99m-labeled heat-denatured red blood cells in pediatric patients: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, C.P.; Papanicolaou, N.; Treves, S.; Hurwitz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1982-01-01

    Ten children underwent splenic imaging with heat-denatured red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m DRBC). The presenting problems included the heterotaxia syndrome, recurrent idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura following splenectomy, mass in the left posterior hemithorax, and blunt abdominal trauma. In nine patients, the presence or absence of splenic tissue was established. A splenic hematoma was identified in the tenth patient. All patients were initially scanned with Tc-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99m SC), and were selected for Tc-99m DRBC scintigraphy only after the results of the SC scans failed to establish the clinical problem beyond doubt. The availability of kits containing stannous ions, essential for efficient and stable labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m and requiring only a small volume of blood, make splenic scintigraphy in children a relatively simple and definitive diagnostic procedure, when identification of splenic tissue is of clinical importance

  1. Splenic scintigraphy using Tc-99m-labeled heat-denatured red blood cells in pediatric patients: concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, C.P.; Papanicolaou, N.; Treves, S.; Hurwitz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1982-03-01

    Ten children underwent splenic imaging with heat-denatured red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m DRBC). The presenting problems included the heterotaxia syndrome, recurrent idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura following splenectomy, mass in the left posterior hemithorax, and blunt abdominal trauma. In nine patients, the presence or absence of splenic tissue was established. A splenic hematoma was identified in the tenth patient. All patients were initially scanned with Tc-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99m SC), and were selected for Tc-99m DRBC scintigraphy only after the results of the SC scans failed to establish the clinical problem beyond doubt. The availability of kits containing stannous ions, essential for efficient and stable labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m and requiring only a small volume of blood, make splenic scintigraphy in children a relatively simple and definitive diagnostic procedure, when identification of splenic tissue is of clinical importance.

  2. Dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m after laparotomy and abdominal insufflation with different CO2 pressures on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitombo, Marcos Bettini; Faria, Clarice Abreu dos Santos Albuquerque de; Steinbruck, Klaus; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Bernardo Filho, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To asses the dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) from peritoneal cavity after different surgical procedures. Methods: Bacteria of the Escherichia coli species labeled with 99mTc were used in a concentration of 108 units of colony-makers for ml (UFC/ml) and 1 ml was inoculated through intra-peritoneal via. Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups: control, laparotomy, pneumoperitoneum with 10 mmHg and pneumoperitoneum with 20 mmHg of CO2. Procedures were performed 20 min after injection of the inoculum and lasted 30 min. Animals were sacrificed after six hours (Group 1) and 24 hours (Group 2). Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected for radioactivity counting. Results: After six hours, indirect detection of the bacteria in different organs was uniform in all groups. After 24 hours, a larger detection of technetium was observed in the livers of animals of the group insufflated with 20 mmHg of CO2, when compared with those of control group (p<0.01). The other groups did not present statistically significant variations. Conclusions: The use of a higher intra-abdominal pressure was associated with a higher bacterial dissemination to the liver. The application of lower intra-abdominal pressures may be associated with a lower dissemination of the infectious status during laparoscopic approach of peritonitis status. (author)

  3. Assessment of the effect of phytic acid on the labeling of blood cells and plasma proteins with Technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima-Filho, Guilherme L.; Freitas, Rosimeire S.; Moreno, Silvana R.F.; Boasquevisque, Edson M.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Lima, Glaydes M.T.; Catanho, Maria T.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Blood elements labeled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) have been used in various procedures in nuclear medicine. We have investigated if phytic acid (PHY) could alter the labeling of blood elements with 99m Tc. Blood was incubated with different concentrations of PHY. Stannous chloride and 99m Tc, as sodium pertechnetate, were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cell (BC) were isolated. Samples of P and BC were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged, and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) fractions were separated. The percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) in BC, IF-P and IF-BC were calculated. The %ATI decreased significantly (p 99m Tc with possible undesirable effects, it is relevant to verify the necessity to repeat the examination and to evaluate the increase of the radiation dose to the patient. (author)

  4. Study of the leaf extract of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis) in the blood elements labelling using Technetium-99m: possible consequences for the radiation dose modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, E.A.C.; Dire, G.; Mattos, D.M.M.; Gomes, M.L.; Freitas, R.S.; Bernardo Filho, M.; Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    2001-01-01

    The radiation dose that a patient receives is also associated with the number of expositions to radiation sources. The labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m can be reduced by vegetable extracts and it can determine the repetition of the exam. The labeling procedure depends on a reducing agent and stannous chloride is used. We have evaluated the influence of an extract of cauliflower (leaf) on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m the and the results showed that this extract was not capable to alter the labeling procedure, suggesting that the studied extract does not have redox activity sufficiently to oxidize the stannous ions. Moreover, although, other natural extracts might alter this labeling, increasing the radiation dose to the patient, this fact would not occur to the cauliflower. (author)

  5. Labeling of thymidine analog with an organometallic complex of technetium-99m for diagnostic of cancer: radiochemical and biological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Rodrigo Luis Silva Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Thymidine analogs have been labeled with different radioisotopes due to their potential in monitoring the uncontrollable cell proliferation. Considering that the radioisotopes technetium-99m still keep a privileged position as a marker due to its chemical and nuclear properties, this dissertation was constituted by the developed of a new technique of labeling of thymidine analog with 99m Tc, by means of the organometallic complex. The aims of this research were: synthesis of the organometallic complex technetium-99m-carbonyl, thymidine labeling with this precursor, evaluation of stability, and radiochemical e biological evaluation with healthy and tumor-bearing animals. The preparation of the organometallic precursor, using the CO gas, was easily achieved, as well as the labeling of thymidine with this precursor, resulting itself a radiochemical pureness of ≥ 97% and ≥ 94%, respectively. Chromatography systems with good levels of trustworthiness were used, ensuring the qualification and quantification of the radiochemical samples. The result of in vitro testing of lipophilicity disclosed that the radiolabeled complex is hydrophilic, with a partition coefficient (log P) of -1.48. The precursor complex and the radiolabeled have good radiochemical stability up to 6 h in room temperature. The cysteine and histidine challenge indicated losses between 8 and 1 1 % for concentrations until 300 mM. The biodistribution assay in healthy mice revealed rapid blood clearance and low uptake by general organs with renal and hepatobiliary excretion. The tumor concentration was low with values of 0.28 and 0.18 %ID/g for lung and breast cancer, respectively. The results imply more studies in other tumor models or the modification of the structure of the organic molecule that act like ligand. (author)

  6. Study of factors that interfere in the labelling process of erythrocytes and plasma proteins with Technetium-99m; Estudo de fatores que interferem no processo de marcacao de hemacias e proteinas plasmaticas com tecnecio-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutfilen, Bianca

    1990-12-31

    The labelling of red blood cells (RBC) with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) depends on several factors, as the stannous ion (Sn++) concentration, time, temperature, the presence of plasma proteins (PP) and others. However the Sn++ concentration seems to be the most important factor; probably because the uptake of this reducing agent by RBC is limited. The excess of Sn++ in extracellular medium can determine the labelling of PP. the modifications of RBC at 50 deg C described in the literature, the possibility of labelling RBC with Tc-99m at this temperature and experimental results obtained made it possible to perform spleen selective scintigraphy through a simple technique with few manipulations. The effect of gentamicin, nifedipine and verapamil in the labelling of RBC and plasma proteins with Tc-99m was studied because of similarities between Ca++ and Sn++. The results show that, under some conditions, these drugs are capable to alter this Tc-99m incorporation. The modification of the ionic distribution determined by these drugs or the blockage of Sn++ and/or Tc-99m or the fact that they bind theirselves to plasma proteins, or the possibility of the labelling of these drugs, are factors that can interfere in the labelling process of red blood cells and plasma proteins with Tc-99m. (author) 55 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Study of factors that interfere in the labelling process of erythrocytes and plasma proteins with Technetium-99m; Estudo de fatores que interferem no processo de marcacao de hemacias e proteinas plasmaticas com tecnecio-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutfilen, Bianca

    1989-12-31

    The labelling of red blood cells (RBC) with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) depends on several factors, as the stannous ion (Sn++) concentration, time, temperature, the presence of plasma proteins (PP) and others. However the Sn++ concentration seems to be the most important factor; probably because the uptake of this reducing agent by RBC is limited. The excess of Sn++ in extracellular medium can determine the labelling of PP. the modifications of RBC at 50 deg C described in the literature, the possibility of labelling RBC with Tc-99m at this temperature and experimental results obtained made it possible to perform spleen selective scintigraphy through a simple technique with few manipulations. The effect of gentamicin, nifedipine and verapamil in the labelling of RBC and plasma proteins with Tc-99m was studied because of similarities between Ca++ and Sn++. The results show that, under some conditions, these drugs are capable to alter this Tc-99m incorporation. The modification of the ionic distribution determined by these drugs or the blockage of Sn++ and/or Tc-99m or the fact that they bind theirselves to plasma proteins, or the possibility of the labelling of these drugs, are factors that can interfere in the labelling process of red blood cells and plasma proteins with Tc-99m. (author) 55 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. The labeling of kanamycin using radionuclide of technetium as an agent for early detection of infectious deseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widyasari, E.; Zainuddin, M.N.; Nuraeni, W.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases are still the leading cause of death in the world. Early detection and determination of the exact location of infection and accurate imaging through the use of nuclear techniques can facilitate treatment. Antibiotics radioactive labeled compound otherwise be able to be a solution to distinguish between infective and non-infective inflammatory. Kanamycin is an antibiotic used for the treatment of infections where other drugs such as penicillin and several other drugs that are less potent infection can not be used. This study aims to determine the optimum labeling conditions of 99m Tc-kanamycin in order to obtain high labeling efficiency. Kanamycin has successfully labeled with technetium-99m through indirect labeling method using pyrophosphate as a co-ligand. Labeling efficiency and determination of radiochemical purity of these compounds simultaneously determined by ascending paper chromatography using Whatman paper 3 as the stationary phase, and acetone as the mobile phase to separate the radiochemical impurities in the form of 99m Tc-pertechnetate; while impurities in the form of reduced 99m Tc-separated by using the stationary phase ITLC-SG and 0.5 N NaOH as mobile phase. The result showed that the optimal labeling conditions was obtained on the use of 6 mg kanamycin, 300 mg SnCl2, 1.5 mg of Na-pyrophosphate, and pH = 6. The incubation time of 0-30 min at room temperature, provide labeling efficiency of 96.54 ± 0.36%. The successful of kanamycin labeling with high efficiency makes 99m Tc-kanamycin potentially to be used as a radiopharmaceutical for the early detection of infectious diseases. (author)

  9. The effect of glucantime on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, Cecilia Maria Carvalho Xavier [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias. Dept. de Microbiologia e Parasitologia]. E-mail: cechol@ufrnet.br; Leite, Rodrigo Carvalho Holanda [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Curso Medico; Catanho, Maria Teresa Jansem; Souza, Grace Maria Lima [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: The labeling of red blood cells (C) with {sup 99m}Tc is employed in clinical nuclear medicine for a variety of diagnostic procedures. Drugs can alter this labeling method and modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceuticals. In this paper, the influence of glucan time on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was reported. Methods: Blood was withdrawn from rats and incubated with glucan time. Stannous chloride and {sup 99m}Tc were added. After centrifugation, plasma (P) and (C) were isolated. Samples of P and C were precipitated with TCA 5%, centrifuged and insoluble (IF) and soluble fractions (SF) separated. The percentages of total activity injected (%ATI) in C, IF-P and IF-C were calculated (p<0.05). Results: The %ATI on C decreased from control to following concentrations of glucan time (6.25%;12.5%;25%;50%;100%), respectively: 94.06{+-}1.29 (control) to 77.15{+-}2.79; to 76.68 {+-}1.88; to 75.15{+-}2.79; to 72.64{+-}4.40 and to 63.05{+-}3.84. On IF-C the %ATI decreased from control to all the concentrations of glucan time (3.125%;6.25%;12.5%;25%;50%; 100%), respectively: 93.34{+-}1.18 (control) to 78.81{+-}2.76; to 74.76{+-}4.82; to 74.02{+-}5.32; to 64.35{+-}4.82; to 62.81{+-}1.97 and to 54.55{+-}3.58. Conclusions: This effect was probably due to products present in this drug that may complex with ions (Sn{sup +2} and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) or have a direct or indirect effect on intracellular stannous ion concentration. (author)

  10. Technetium-99m-Labeled Autologous Serum Albumin: A Personal-Exclusive Source of Serum Component

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuh-Feng; Chen, Yi-Chun; Li, Dian-Kun; Chuang, Mei-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Technetium-99m human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) is an important radiopharmaceutical required in nuclear medicine studies. However, the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection remains a major safety concern. Autopreparation of serum component acquired from patient provides a “personal-exclusive” source for radiolabeling. This paper is to evaluate the practicality of on-site elusion and subsequent radiolabeling efficacy for serum albumin. Results showed that the autologous elute contained more...

  11. Labelling of leucocytes with colloidal technetium-99m-SnF{sub 2}: an investigation of the labelling process by autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puncher, M.R.B. [Biological Lab., Canterbury Univ. (United Kingdom); Blower, P.J. [Nuclear Medicine Dept., Kent and Canterbury Hospital, Canterbury (United Kingdom)

    1995-02-01

    Autoradiography of smears and frozen sections of labelled cell suspensions was used to study the distribution of radioactivity in and among blood cells labelled in either whole blood or leucocyte-rich plasma (LRP) with technetium-99m-SnF{sub 2} colloid. The tracer proved selective for neutrophils: the labelling probability (relative to that for erythrocytes) for each cell type in LRP (mean of five samples) was: neutrophils, 9.4; lymphocytes, 3.7; monocytes, 3.0; eosinophils 1.4; erythrocytes, 1.0. When labelling was carried out in whole blood (five samples), 74.5%{+-}8.3% of the cell-bound radioactivity was bound to erythrocytes, 13.6%{+-}6.5% to neutrophils, and 11.9%{+-}2.1% to lymphocytes, whereas in LRP (in which the leucocytes were only slightly outnumbered by erythrocytes), 76.5%{+-}14.9% of radioactivity was neutrophil bound. Labelled cells in smear autoradiographs exhibited two distinct silver grain patterns, ``diffuse``, consistent with an intracellular radioactive particle (in neutrophils), and ``focal``, consistent with a cell surface-adhering particle in direct contact with the emulsion (in other leucocyte types and erythrocytes). The phagocytic inhibitor cytochalasin B neither reduced the proportion of labelled neutrophils nor altered the labelling pattern. Neutrophils were able to scavenge radioactivity from the surface of erythrocytes. It is concluded that neutrophils bind {sup 99m}Tc-SnF{sub 2} intracellularly by phagocytosis, with high affinity; other cells become labelled at the cell surface reversibly and with lower affinity. This selectivity is high enough to permit predominantly leucocyte labelling in LRP but not in whole blood. (orig.)

  12. Detection of homing-in of stem cells labeled with technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime in infarcted myocardium after intracoronary injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Chetan D; Agarwal, Snehlata; Seth, Sandeep; Mohanty, Sujata; Aggarwal, Himesh; Gupta, Namit

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow stem cells having myogenic potential are promising candidates for various cell-based therapies for myocardial disease. We present here images showing homing of technetium-99m (Tc-99m) hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) labeled stem cells in the infarcted myocardium from a pilot study conducted to radio-label part of the stem cells in patients enrolled in a stem cell clinical trial for recent myocardial infarction

  13. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and cardiac pool scintigraphy with technetium-99m labelled human serum albumin of complicated anomalous heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Minoru; Watanabe, Takashi; Murase, Mitsuya; Shimizu, Ken; Abe, Toshio

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology has been used in the diagnosis of congenital heart disease, but these studies have not shown the dramatic increase that has occurred in their use in coronary heart disease. In this report, thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and cardiac pool scintigraphy with technetium-99m labelled human serum albumin of 13 patients with complicated congenital heart disease were compared with contrast angiography. The application of these scanning methods to visualization of the size and shape of ventricle and interventricular septum was very useful. At times these methods give us the more accurate information about cardiac shape, especially of complicated anomalous heart, than contrast angiography. Of course these methods will never replace cardiac catheterization and contrast angiography. But these studies are non-invasive. So it was concluded that these scanning methods had better be applied in patients with complicated cardiac anomaly before invasive contrast angiography. (author)

  14. 'In vivo' kinetics of sup(99m)-technetium labelled leucocytes in dogs and the effects of an abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linhart-Colas, N.; Meignan, M.; Bok, B.; Rotman, N.; Gougerot, M.

    1980-01-01

    A new labelling method of blood white cells using 'cold' pyrophasphate and sup(99m)-technetium pertechnetate was assessed in 6 normal dogs and 6 dogs with turpentine induced abscesses. In normal dogs, blood kinetic studies showed a two component exponential disappearance pattern of the radioactivity, the late half-life being from 4 to 20 hours. Direct organ counting and external computer assisted gamma camera counting showed an immediate accumulation in the lungs followed by a progressive decrease. There is a marked uptake into the liver and spleen. In bearing abscesses dogs, there is an obvious increase in local radioactivity, in spite of a decreased local blood supply, allowing scintigraphic demonstration of such foci in a limb. However, the abscess model is far from perfect and further studies are required before there is a routine use in man for the detection of abscesses

  15. Technetium-99m labelled hydrazinonicotinamido human non-specific polyclonal immunoglobulin G for detection of infectious foci: a comparison with two other technetium-labelled immunoglobulin preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claessens, R.A.M.J. [University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Boerman, O.C. [University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Koenders, E.B. [University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Oyen, W.J.G. [University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meer, J.W.M. van der [University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Corstens, F.H.M. [University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    1996-04-01

    In this study we compared the tissue distribution of three different {sup 99m}Tc-hIgG preparations in groups of five Wistar rats with a focal intramuscular infection with Staphylococcus aureus. We compared {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-hIgG with {sup 99m}Tc-hIgG labelled via the so-called Schwarz method (reduction of disulphide bonds) and with the {sup 99m}Tc-labelled commercially available Technescan-HIG. Unlike the HYNIC linker, in the two other labelling methods free sulph-hydryl groups are involved in the binding of {sup 99m}Tc. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the labelled preparations and of plasma samples revealed aggregate or polymer formation in all three agents; this was least pronounced in the product labelled by means of the Schwarz method. The tested preparations did not show signs of degradation in vitro. The difference in linker chemistry was reflected in the tissue distribution. Thus the biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-hIgG was significantly different from the distribution of the two other preparations: abscess (1.4%{+-}0.2%ID/g), muscle, liver, spleen, plasma, lung, bone marrow, and small intestine concentrations were higher at 24 h p.i.; kidney uptake (1.19%{+-}0.08%ID/g) was significantly lower. The abscess-to-plasma and the abscess-to-muscle ratios (0.5 and 11, respectively), however, were in the same range for the three preparations tested. Quantitative analysis of the scintigraphs revealed that the total body clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-hIgG was significantly slower than for the other agents. The abscess uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-hIgG as a percentage of the remaining body activity was significantly higher. Based on its high abscess uptake, its low uptake in the kidneys and the high percentage of its abscess uptake in relation to the remaining body activity, we conclude that {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-hIgG seems superior to the two other preparations tested for the detection of infections. (orig.). With 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Technetium-99m labelled fluconazole and antimicrobial peptides for imaging of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupetti, Antonella [Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), Leiden (Netherlands); Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, Biotecnologie Mediche, Univ. di Pisa (Italy); Welling, Mick M. [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Mazzi, Ulderico [Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Nibbering, Peter H. [Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), Leiden (Netherlands); Pauwels, Ernest K.J. [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC) (Netherlands)

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether technetium-99m labelled fluconazole can distinguish fungal from bacterial infections. Fluconazole was labelled with {sup 99m}Tc and radiochemical analysis showed less than 5% impurities. The labelling solution was injected into animals with experimental infections. For comparison, we used two peptides for infection detection, i.e. UBI 29-41 and hLF 1-11, and human IgG, all labelled with {sup 99m}Tc. Mice were infected with Candida albicans or injected with heat-killed C. albicans or lipopolysaccharides to induce sterile inflammation. Also, mice were infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Next, accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-fluconazole and {sup 99m}Tc-labelled peptides/IgG at affected sites was determined scintigraphically. {sup 99m}Tc-fluconazole detected C. albicans infections (T/NT ratio=3.6{+-}0.47) without visualising bacterial infections (T/NT ratio=1.3{+-}0.04) or sterile inflammatory processes (heat-killed C. albicans: T/NT ratio=1.3{+-}0.2; lipopolysaccharide: T/NT ratio=1.4{+-}0.1). C. albicans infections were already seen within the first hour after injection of {sup 99m}Tc-fluconazole (T/NT ratio=3.1{+-}0.2). A good correlation (R{sup 2}=0.864; P<0.05) between T/NT ratios for this tracer and the number of viable C. albicans was found. Although {sup 99m}Tc-UBI 29-41 and {sup 99m}Tc-hLF 1-11 were able to distinguish C. albicans infections from sterile inflammatory processes in mice, these {sup 99m}Tc-labelled peptides did not distinguish these fungal infections from bacterial infections. It is concluded that {sup 99m}Tc-fluconazole distinguishes infections with C. albicans from bacterial infections and sterile inflammations. (orig.)

  17. Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin and analogs: synthesis, characterization and in vivo evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amartey, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    Technetium-99m complexes of somatostatin and analogs were synthesized following the introduction of sulfhydryl groups with 2-iminothiolane (Traut's Reagent). In rats the complex was taken up by the liver, kidneys, adrenals, lungs and the pancreas. Analysis of urine samples of treated rats showed that the radiochemicals have reasonably good in vivo stability. This implies that the complexes may be potentially useful for biochemical characterization of somatostatin receptors and also in scintigraphic detection of somatostatin receptor positive tumors, especially for metastatic deposits in patients on somatostatin therapy. (Author)

  18. Preparation of lyophilized kit of HYNIC-[Tyr3]-Octreotate and labelling studies with 99m-Technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Ivani Bortoleti

    2008-01-01

    The development of radiolabeled molecules with high specificity for an organ ar tumor has been contributed to the precise diagnostic in nuclear medicine. Somatostatin labeled derivatives constitutes a particular example of labeled peptide applied in the localization of neuroendocrine tumors. Nowadays, the 111 In DTPA-octreotide is the radiopharmaceutical applied in diagnostic procedures for the visualization of tumors with high expression of somatostatin receptors. However, the 111-indium is a radionuclide that presents some limitations related to availability (cyclotron production), half-life (67 hours) and the emission of medium energy photons (171 keV e 245 keV), not favorable to the acquisition of images in SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography). The favorable physical properties of the 99m -technetium ( 99m Tc) make this radionuclide the more favorable to substitute the 111-indium on peptide labeling procedures. This work studied the preparation and labeling of a lyophilized kit of HYNIC-Tyr 3 -octreotate (HYNIC-octreotate) with 99m Tc, base on previously described procedures and using tricine and EDDA (ethylendiaminediacetic acid) as coligands. It was studied the labeling parameters (incubation time, temperature, volume and perthecnetate activity) and the stability of the lyophilized preparation. Additionally, it was studied the influence of the pre-freezing using liquid nitrogen in the stability of the lyophilized preparation, as well as the influence of manitol in the labeling yield and biological distribution of the complex. The stability studies showed that the lyophilization using liquid nitrogen pre-freezing resulted in a lyophilized preparation with stability over 4 month when stored under refrigeration. The stability of the lyophilized preparation obtained without liquid nitrogen pre-freezing was similar.The labeling studies determined the best labeling conditions, resulting in a radiochemical yield superior than 90%. The use of manitol in

  19. Technetium-99 labelling of DD-3B6/22 antifibrin monoclonal antibody fragmented Fab' for thrombus imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, F-T.; Boniface, G.R.; Lambrecht, R.M.; Rylatt, D.B.; Bundesen, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    The antifibrin DD-3B6/22 monoclonal antibody Fab' fragment, a murine immunoglobulin, IgG3, has been labelled with technetium-99m ( 99mTc ) via a transchelation reaction, to specific activity in excess of 30 mCi/mg protein. The radiolabelling of Fab' was dependent on time, temperature, pH, antibody concentrations and nature intermediary transchelation complex used. The resultant radioconjugate was stable in vitro and in vivo. Blood clearance of 99m Tc-Fab' in rat followed two compartment kinetics with the half time of the fast phase being 0.5 h. The main route of excretion was via the kidneys with little uptake indicated by other tissues. The results suggest that the inherent specificity of the antibody, small molecular size, rapid plasma clearance, high specific radioactivity, together with the physical properties of the 99m Tc label, combine to make this labelled monoclonal antibody (MoAb), potentially suitable as a radiopharmaceutical for the scintigraphic detection of thrombi in humans. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  20. An aqueous extract of Vitex agnus castus alters the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Maria Regina de Macedo; Ribeiro, Camila Godinho; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Neves, Rosane de Figueiredo; Catanho, Maria Teresa Jansem de Almeida; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The development of experimental assays to study properties of herbal medicine is worthwhile. Vitex agnus castus (VAC) is utilized in popular medicine and some actions have been attributed to its extract. Blood cells (BC) and plasma proteins are labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) and have been used in nuclear medicine, as in basic research. This procedure uses a reducing agent and stannous ion is utilized. There are reports that drugs can alter this labeling process. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of an aqueous extract of VAC on the labeling of blood constituents with Tc-99m. Blood was incubated with VAC, stannous chloride and Tc-99m, as sodium pertechnetate, and centrifuged. Samples of BC and plasma were separated, aliquots of BC and plasma were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid to obtain soluble and insoluble fractions and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was determined. The results show a statistical (p<0.05) alteration in the %ATI on blood compartments and on the insoluble fractions of plasma and BC. Probably, this extract would have chemical compounds with oxidant properties. (author)

  1. An aqueous extract of Vitex agnus castus alters the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Regina de Macedo; Ribeiro, Camila Godinho; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Neves, Rosane de Figueiredo; Catanho, Maria Teresa Jansem de Almeida [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: mariaregina.mr@terra.com.br; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2007-09-15

    The development of experimental assays to study properties of herbal medicine is worthwhile. Vitex agnus castus (VAC) is utilized in popular medicine and some actions have been attributed to its extract. Blood cells (BC) and plasma proteins are labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) and have been used in nuclear medicine, as in basic research. This procedure uses a reducing agent and stannous ion is utilized. There are reports that drugs can alter this labeling process. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of an aqueous extract of VAC on the labeling of blood constituents with Tc-99m. Blood was incubated with VAC, stannous chloride and Tc-99m, as sodium pertechnetate, and centrifuged. Samples of BC and plasma were separated, aliquots of BC and plasma were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid to obtain soluble and insoluble fractions and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was determined. The results show a statistical (p<0.05) alteration in the %ATI on blood compartments and on the insoluble fractions of plasma and BC. Probably, this extract would have chemical compounds with oxidant properties. (author)

  2. Methods for the quality control of macroaggregates and colloids labelled with technetium-99m. Part of a coordinated programme on radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifka, J.

    1975-09-01

    Comprehensive studies of the antimony sulphide and sulphur colloids labelled with sup(99m)Tc was performed by the authors. Similar studies dealing with human serum albumin macroaggregates labelled with sup(99m)Tc were also initiated. The labelling processes were studied to determine the possible chemical forms of technetium-99m not bound to the colloidal particles. It was found that pertechnetate-99m is not the only possible impurity in the case of the colloids. Technetium-99m may be present as an soluble tartrate complex in the case of antimony sulphide colloid or as a soluble chlorocomplex in the case of the sulphur colloid. Techniques for the control of these colloids were developed. A method for the determination of particle size of the sulphur colloid is also described

  3. On the technetium abundance determination in the atmospheres of red giants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipper, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    Technetium abundance in the atmospheres of S- and C-stars are estimated by comparing the synthetic and observed spectra for the TcI λ5924.47 region. It was found that reliable estimates are possible only for the pure S-stars and SC-stars. For the late carbon stars only the upper limit for the Tc abundance can be fiound. For TX Psc (C6.5) this was found to be lgε Tc =0.5

  4. Autoradiography and density gradient separation of technetium-99m-Exametazime (HMPAO) labelled leucocytes reveals selectivity for eosinophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puncher, M.R.B. [Biological Lab., Univ. of Kent, Canterbury (United Kingdom); Blower, P.J. [Nuclear Medicine Dept., Kent and Canterbury Hospital (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    Technetium-99m-Exametazime (HMPAO) is widely used for radiolabelling leucocytes for localization of infection. The subcellular distribution of radionuclide in the labelled cells and the distribution of radioactivity among the leucocyte population are incompletely understood. Frozen section autoradiography was used to determine quantitatively the distribution of {sup 99m}Tc in leucocytes labelled with {sup 99m}Tc-Exametazime. Sections of rapidly frozen suspensions of labelled leucocytes in plasma were autoradiographed on Ilford K2 emulsion and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Neutrophils, eosinophils and mononuclear cells were separated by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Cell nuclei were isolated by a rapid cell-breakage and fractionation method. In a typical experiment mean grain densities [grains/100 {mu}m{sup 2} (ESD)] over cells were: eosinophils 31.2 (18.4), neutrophils 3.5 (3.5), mononuclear cells 4.2 (5.1). Mean grain numbers per cell (ESD) were: eosinophils 13 (6.8), neutrophils 1.3 (1.3), mononuclear cells 1.1 (1.3). These findings were confirmed by separation of labelled leucocytes on discontinuous density gradients. In four separation experiments, the mean activity-per-cell ratio for eosinophils to neutrophils was 10.1 (4.8):1, and for eosinophils to mononuclear cells, 14.1 (6.7):1. The subcellular distribution of the label was investigated using image analysis of autoradiographs and cell fractionation. This revealed no selectivity for nuclear or extranuclear compartments. It may be concluded that {sup 99m}Tc-Exametazime has strong selectivity for eosinophils over other leucocytes but no selectivity for nuclear/cytoplasmic compartments. (orig.)

  5. Preclinical evaluation of technetium 99m-labeled P1827DS for infection imaging and comparison with technetium 99m IL-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Sabine; Rennen, Huub J.; Boerman, Otto C.; Baumann, Sabine; Cyr, John E.; Manchanda, Rajesh; Lister-James, John; Corstens, Frans C.; Dinkelborg, Ludger M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The technetium 99 m ( 99m Tc)-radiolabeled, leukocyte-avid peptide-glycoseaminoglycan complex, [ 99m Tc]P1827DS, has been synthesized as an improved infection/inflammation imaging agent to [ 99m Tc]P483H (LeukoTect, Diatide). In a phase I/II clinical trail, [ 99m Tc]P483H images were equivalent to those obtained with 111 In ex vivo labeled leukocytes. However, there was physiologic accumulation of radioactivity in the body that could hamper interpretation of the images. In this study, the potential of [ 99m Tc]P1827DS for infection imaging was assessed in comparison with [ 99m Tc]P483H and the well-described imaging agent [ 99m Tc] hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC)-interleukin 8 (IL-8). Methods: The binding of [ 99m Tc]P1827DS to human blood cell was studied in vitro. A rabbit Escherichia coli infection model was used to perform the biodistribution and imaging studies with [ 99m Tc]P1827DS, [ 99m Tc]P483H and [ 99m Tc]HYNIC-IL-8. Results: [ 99m Tc]P1827DS binds to leukocytes but not to erythrocytes. The leukocyte binding was not saturable up to an investigated concentration of 10 μM. The accumulation of [ 99m Tc]P1827/DS at the infection site strongly depends on the P1827/DS ratio and was optimal at a molar ratio of 10:1. [ 99m Tc]P1827DS shows improved biodistribution over [ 99m Tc]P483H with similar uptake at the infection site. Abscess uptake of [ 99m Tc]HYNIC-IL-8 was approximately three times higher than that of [ 99m Tc]P1827DS. [ 99m Tc]HYNIC-IL-8 showed high accumulation in the kidneys, whereas [ 99m Tc]P1827DS showed high lung uptake and slightly higher accumulation in the liver and spleen. Conclusion: [ 99m Tc]P1827DS is a potential new inflammation imaging agent, which clearly visualized the abscess in the rabbit E. coli infection model and showed improved biodistribution compared to [ 99m Tc]P483H. However, the infection uptake and biodistribution of [ 99m Tc]P1827DS is not superior to that of [ 99m Tc]HYNIC-IL-8 in this animal model

  6. Preclinical evaluation of technetium 99m-labeled P1827DS for infection imaging and comparison with technetium 99m IL-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Sabine [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, D-13342 Berlin (Germany); Rennen, Huub J.; Boerman, Otto C. [Radboud University, Nijmegen Medical Centre, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Baumann, Sabine; Cyr, John E.; Manchanda, Rajesh; Lister-James, John [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, D-13342 Berlin (Germany); Corstens, Frans C. [Radboud University, Nijmegen Medical Centre, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Dinkelborg, Ludger M. [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, D-13342 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: sabine.krause@bayerhealthcare.com

    2007-11-15

    Background: The technetium 99 m ({sup 99m}Tc)-radiolabeled, leukocyte-avid peptide-glycoseaminoglycan complex, [{sup 99m}Tc]P1827DS, has been synthesized as an improved infection/inflammation imaging agent to [{sup 99m}Tc]P483H (LeukoTect, Diatide). In a phase I/II clinical trail, [{sup 99m}Tc]P483H images were equivalent to those obtained with {sup 111}In ex vivo labeled leukocytes. However, there was physiologic accumulation of radioactivity in the body that could hamper interpretation of the images. In this study, the potential of [{sup 99m}Tc]P1827DS for infection imaging was assessed in comparison with [{sup 99m}Tc]P483H and the well-described imaging agent [{sup 99m}Tc] hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC)-interleukin 8 (IL-8). Methods: The binding of [{sup 99m}Tc]P1827DS to human blood cell was studied in vitro. A rabbit Escherichia coli infection model was used to perform the biodistribution and imaging studies with [{sup 99m}Tc]P1827DS, [{sup 99m}Tc]P483H and [{sup 99m}Tc]HYNIC-IL-8. Results: [{sup 99m}Tc]P1827DS binds to leukocytes but not to erythrocytes. The leukocyte binding was not saturable up to an investigated concentration of 10 {mu}M. The accumulation of [{sup 99m}Tc]P1827/DS at the infection site strongly depends on the P1827/DS ratio and was optimal at a molar ratio of 10:1. [{sup 99m}Tc]P1827DS shows improved biodistribution over [{sup 99m}Tc]P483H with similar uptake at the infection site. Abscess uptake of [{sup 99m}Tc]HYNIC-IL-8 was approximately three times higher than that of [{sup 99m}Tc]P1827DS. [{sup 99m}Tc]HYNIC-IL-8 showed high accumulation in the kidneys, whereas [{sup 99m}Tc]P1827DS showed high lung uptake and slightly higher accumulation in the liver and spleen. Conclusion: [{sup 99m}Tc]P1827DS is a potential new inflammation imaging agent, which clearly visualized the abscess in the rabbit E. coli infection model and showed improved biodistribution compared to [{sup 99m}Tc]P483H. However, the infection uptake and biodistribution of

  7. Complexes of technetium-99m with tetrapeptides, a new class of 99mTc-labelled agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanbilloen, Hubert P.; Bormans, Guy M.; Roo, Michel J. de; Verbruggen, Alfons M.

    1995-01-01

    is concluded that tetrapeptides are an interesting group of technetium complexing agents which can easily be labelled with 99m Tc at room temperature in alkaline medium. This class offers the possibility of a wide variety of derivatives, just by substituting one or more amino acids. This group of ligands thus opens a new research field of 99m Tc-complexes with potential usefulness in several areas

  8. Development of nano radiopharmaceutical based on Bevacizumab labelled with Technetium-99m for early diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Thais Ligiero

    2015-01-01

    The development of new radiopharmaceuticals is an essential activity to improve nuclear medicine, and essential for the early and effective diagnosis of oncological diseases. Among the various possibilities current research in the world, the radiopharmaceuticals to chemotherapeutic base may be the most effective in detecting tumors, particularly Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST), the Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma and neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors. However, difficulties in directing, as well as adhesion of the radiopharmaceutical in the desired location, are currently the main problems in the early detection and treatment of some of these tumors. Advances in the field of nanotechnology, particularly in recent years, indicate significant contribution to overcoming these obstacles, particularly in the implementation of molecular barriers as well as the functionalization of the nanoparticles, thereby improving targeting by the use of surface nucleotides, and the increased adhesion, which facilitates the release of the drug and therefore increases the chances of early diagnosis and more effective treatment. This study aimed to the production, characterization and evaluation of cytotoxicity, as well as in vivo biodistribution test Bevacizumab nanoparticles labeled with Technetium-99m radionuclide for detection of type GIST tumors. Bevacizumab was encapsulated in the form of nanoparticles by the emulsification method using double poly-acetic acid and polyvinyl alcohol polymers (PLA / PVA) at a concentration of 2% of the monoclonal antibody. The characterization of the nanoparticles was performed by the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cytotoxicity assessment was performed by XTT assay with various cell lines of solid tumor cells. The labeling with technetium-99m was done by the direct method, and its yield determined by paper chromatography using paper Whatmam 1 as the stationary phase and acetone as mobile phase. In the biodistribution study

  9. Click-to-Chelate: Development of Technetium and Rhenium-Tricarbonyl Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Mindt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Click-to-Chelate approach is a highly efficient strategy for the radiolabeling of molecules of medicinal interest with technetium and rhenium-tricarbonyl cores. Reaction of azide-functionalized molecules with alkyne prochelators by the Cu(I-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC; click reaction enables the simultaneous synthesis and conjugation of tridentate chelating systems for the stable complexation of the radiometals. In many cases, the functionalization of (biomolecules with the ligand system and radiolabeling can be achieved by convenient one-pot procedures. Since its first report in 2006, Click-to-Chelate has been applied to the development of numerous novel radiotracers with promising potential for translation into the clinic. This review summarizes the use of the Click-to-Chelate approach in radiopharmaceutical sciences and provides a perspective for future applications.

  10. Synthesis, radiochemistry and biological evaluation of a new somatostatin analogue (SDZ 219-387) labelled with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maina, T.; Stolz, B.; Albert, R.; Bruns, C.; Koch, P.; Maecke, H.

    1994-01-01

    A new derivative of octreotide SDZ 219-387 [PnAO-(D)Phe 1 -octreotide] was synthesized, which binds specifically and with high affinity to somatostatin receptors in vitro (pK i =9.79±0.16). This new somatostatin analogue chelates technetium-99m under mild labelling conditions in good yields. The resulting [ 99m Tc]SDZ 219-387 was stable up to 6 h after labelling and could be isolated in a pure radiochemical and chemical form by high-perfomance liquid chromatographic purification. The intravenous administration of purified [ 99m Tc]SDZ 219-387 revealed that the radioligand was rapidly cleared from circulation, and tumour uptake of 0.38% ID/g was observed at 1.5 h post injection. [ 99m Tc]SDZ 219-387 specifically interacted with somatostatin binding sites on the tumour. However, the radioligand is highly lipophilic and excreted mainly through the hepatobiliary system. As a consequence, [ 99m Tc]SDZ 219-387 exhibits increased background activity and therefore is not appropriate for the in vivo visualization of somatostatin receptor-positive tumours and/or their metastases in the abdomen. (orig.)

  11. Recruitment of 99m-technetium- or 111-indium-labelled polymorphonuclear leucocytes in experimentally induced pyogranulomas in lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilloteau, L.; Pepin, M.; Pardon, P.; Le Pape, A. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Nouzilly (France))

    1990-10-01

    The recruitment of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) during the development of experimental pyogranulomas induced by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was followed in nine male lambs by scintigraphic examination. Autologous blood PMNs were labelled with 99m-technetium or 111-indium and were re-injected intravenously into infected lambs. The functional properties of the labelled cells were monitored (1) in vitro by measuring their phagocytic and bactericidal activity against C. pseudotuberculosis and their chemotaxis under agarose, and (2) in vivo by following scintigraphically their capacity to accumulate in an inflammatory focus induced by intradermal injection of latex beads coated with Salmonella abortus equi lipopolysaccharide. Following inoculation of corynebacteria into the right ear of lambs, radioactive foci were observed to be localized in the right ear and in the draining lymph nodes during the 4 days following inoculation. Histopathological examination performed 32 h after inoculation confirmed the intense accumulation of PMNs at these sites. With the exception of one animal, which presented visible foci in the neck 14 days postinoculation, no radioactive foci were observed during the later phases of experimental infection, despite the presence of multiple pyogranulomas which were confirmed by bacteriological examination after necropsy of the lambs. Histopathological examination of these lesions revealed layers of fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and macrophages surrounding a necrotic centre. The results of these studies suggest that the contribution of PMNs during the chronic phase of inflammation is considerably reduced in comparison with the acute inflammatory phase of the infectious process.

  12. Recruitment of 99m-technetium- or 111-indium-labelled polymorphonuclear leucocytes in experimentally induced pyogranulomas in lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilloteau, L.; Pepin, M.; Pardon, P.; Le Pape, A.

    1990-01-01

    The recruitment of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) during the development of experimental pyogranulomas induced by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was followed in nine male lambs by scintigraphic examination. Autologous blood PMNs were labelled with 99m-technetium or 111-indium and were re-injected intravenously into infected lambs. The functional properties of the labelled cells were monitored (1) in vitro by measuring their phagocytic and bactericidal activity against C. pseudotuberculosis and their chemotaxis under agarose, and (2) in vivo by following scintigraphically their capacity to accumulate in an inflammatory focus induced by intradermal injection of latex beads coated with Salmonella abortus equi lipopolysaccharide. Following inoculation of corynebacteria into the right ear of lambs, radioactive foci were observed to be localized in the right ear and in the draining lymph nodes during the 4 days following inoculation. Histopathological examination performed 32 h after inoculation confirmed the intense accumulation of PMNs at these sites. With the exception of one animal, which presented visible foci in the neck 14 days postinoculation, no radioactive foci were observed during the later phases of experimental infection, despite the presence of multiple pyogranulomas which were confirmed by bacteriological examination after necropsy of the lambs. Histopathological examination of these lesions revealed layers of fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and macrophages surrounding a necrotic centre. The results of these studies suggest that the contribution of PMNs during the chronic phase of inflammation is considerably reduced in comparison with the acute inflammatory phase of the infectious process

  13. Biodistribution study of the anesthetic sodium phenobarbital labelled with technetium-99 in swiss mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, Susana Balmant Emerique; Machado Silva, Jose Roberto [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Patologia e Laboratorios; Gutfilen, Bianca; Oliveira, Marcia Betania; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Presgrave, Otavio Augusto Franca [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Nacional de de Controle de Qaulidade em Saude. Dept. de Farmacologia e Toxicologia

    1997-09-01

    Technetium-99 m ({sup 99m} Tc) is a radionuclide that has negligible environmental impact, is easily available, inexpensive and can be used as a radioactive tracer in biological experiences. In order to know the mode of action of sodium phenobarbital in moving adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from mesenteric veins to the liver, we labelled sodium phenobarbital (PBBT) with {sup 99m} Tc and a biodistribution study in infected and non-infected Swiss mice was performed. The PBBT was incubated with stannous chloride used as reducing agent and with {sup 99m} Tc, as sodium pertechnetate. The radioactivity labelling(%) was determined by paper ascending chromatography performed with acetone (solvent). The{sup 99m} Tc-PBBT was administered by intraperitoneal route to Swiss mice infected eight weeks before. The animals were perfused after different periods of time (0,1,2,3,4 hr) when blood, spleen, liver, portal vein, mesenteric veins, stomach, kidneys and adult worms were isolated. The radioactivity present in these samples was counted in a well counter and the percentage was determined. THe radioactivity was mainly taken up by the blood, kidney, liver and spleen. No radioactivity was found on the adult worms. We concluded that the worm shift was due to an action on the host of the sodium phenobarbital. (author) 24 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Biodistribution study of the anesthetic sodium phenobarbital labelled with technetium-99 in swiss mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, Susana Balmant Emerique; Machado Silva, Jose Roberto; Gutfilen, Bianca; Oliveira, Marcia Betania; Bernardo Filho, Mario; Presgrave, Otavio Augusto Franca

    1997-01-01

    Technetium-99 m ( 99m Tc) is a radionuclide that has negligible environmental impact, is easily available, inexpensive and can be used as a radioactive tracer in biological experiences. In order to know the mode of action of sodium phenobarbital in moving adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from mesenteric veins to the liver, we labelled sodium phenobarbital (PBBT) with 99m Tc and a biodistribution study in infected and non-infected Swiss mice was performed. The PBBT was incubated with stannous chloride used as reducing agent and with 99m Tc, as sodium pertechnetate. The radioactivity labelling(%) was determined by paper ascending chromatography performed with acetone (solvent). The 99m Tc-PBBT was administered by intraperitoneal route to Swiss mice infected eight weeks before. The animals were perfused after different periods of time (0,1,2,3,4 hr) when blood, spleen, liver, portal vein, mesenteric veins, stomach, kidneys and adult worms were isolated. The radioactivity present in these samples was counted in a well counter and the percentage was determined. THe radioactivity was mainly taken up by the blood, kidney, liver and spleen. No radioactivity was found on the adult worms. We concluded that the worm shift was due to an action on the host of the sodium phenobarbital. (author)

  15. Hemoglobin radiolabeling: in vitro and in vivo comparison of iodine labeling with iodogen and a new method for technetium labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, W.K.; Feitsma, R.I.J.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; Plas, J. van der; Agterberg, J.; Rigter, G.; Bakker, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The present investigation compares the suitability of two radiolabeling techniques for hemoglobin. 125 I labeling of hemoglobin with Iodogen as iodinating agent caused major changes in the chromatographic behaviour and an accelerated plasma clearance of the labeled hemoglobin in rats. A recently developed two-step procedure for 99m Tc labeling gave better results. The label had only minimal influence on the chromatographic behaviour of hemoglobin. In vivo, no free label occurred in the circulation and no transfer of the label to other plasma proteins took place. The plasma clearance of 99m Tc-labeled hemoglobin in rats was slowed. However, this could be explained entirely by diminishing glomerular filtration, probably by inhibition of the dissociation of the hemoglobin molecule into dimers. The plasma clearance of hemoglobin modified by intramolecular cross-linking, which prevents dissociation of the molecule into dimers and thus excretion by the kidney, was not influenced by the label. We conclude that the 99m Tc labeling procedure is suitable for in vivo distribution studies of hemoglobin when it is taken into account that the urinary excretion is underestimated. For cross-linked hemoglobin, which is more promising as plasma expander, no such restriction exists. (author)

  16. Site-specific conjugation and labelling of prostate antibody 7E11C5.3 (CYT-351) with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalteri, M.A.; Mather, S.J.; Belinka, B.A.; Coughlin, D.J.; Chengazi, V.U.; Britton, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Attachment of chelating agents to the sugar residues of antibodies for subsequent radiolabelling is an attractive approach since it may have less effect on the immunoreactivity than attachment through lysine residues, which are distributed throughout the antibody and may be present near the antigen binding site. We have attached a new hydrazide-linked chelator CYT-395 (Cytogen Corp., Princeton, N.J.) to the sugar residues of the anti-prostate monoclonal antibody 7E11C5.3 and optimised the conditions for labelling the conjugate with technetium-99m in order to compare the conjugate to 7E11C5.3 antibody labelled directly with technetium using a mercaptoethanol reduction technique. Labelling yields of 70%-90% were obtained at specific activities up to 2000 MBq/mg antibody. The stability of the technetium-labelled conjugate in plasma or to a challenge with 0.1 or 1.0 mM cysteine was similar to that of direct-labelled antibody. In nine patients with prostate cancer, the plasma clearance of the labelled conjugate followed a two-compartment model, with an average β-phase half-life of 31.4±3.9 h. The average urinary clearance at 24 h was 15.3±5.0% of the injected dose. In this group of patients there was no significant difference between the blood and urine clearance of the labelled conjugate, and the clearances of the direct-labelled antibody. (orig.). With 5 figs

  17. Direct labeling of doxorubicin with technetium-99m. Its optimization, characterization and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, F.A.; Bokhari, T.H.; Roohi, S.; Mushtaq, A.

    2012-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline antineoplastic and one of the most potent and widely used drugs in clinical oncology. It is used in the treatment of a wide variety of cancers. The aim of this study was the direct labeling of DOX with 99m Tc; its optimization, characterization and quality control of the radiolabeled DOX. Labeling efficiency was determined by paper chromatography. More than 92% labeling was obtained at pH 6-7, 10-12 μg stannous chloride and 200 μg of DOX. The stability of 99m Tc-DOX was studied up to 5 h. All the experiments were performed at room temperature (25 ± 2 deg C). The characterization of the labeling compound was performed by HPLC and electrophoresis. Electrophoresis indicates that labeled DOX has no charge and HPLC shows single specie of labeled compound. (author)

  18. Formamidine sulfinic acid as reducing agent in technetium-99m rhenium sulfide labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, M; Patricio, L [Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia e Technologia Industrial, Sacavem (Portugal). Dept. de Radioisotopes; Ferronha, H [Laboratorio Nacional de Investigacao Veterinaria, Lisboa (Portugal)

    1989-08-01

    Labelling kinetic studies, radiochemical characterization and particle size evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc rhenium sulfide colloid using formamidine sulfinic acid as reducing agent are described. Comparison with the same colloid which makes use of Sn-sodium pyrophosphate complex as reducing agent showed higher labelling yields, simplification of labelling procedure and a longer shelf life when formamidine sulfinic acid was used. (author) 15 refs.; 7 figs.

  19. Technetium-99m labeling of tityustoxin and venom from the scorpion Tityus serrulatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunan, E.A.; Cardoso, V.N.; Moraes-Santos, T.

    2002-01-01

    The tityustoxin, the most toxic fraction from scorpion Tityus serrulatus venom, has been used as a tool in several neurochemical and neuropharmacological studies. Biological activities of labeled and unlabeled tityustoxin and venom were compared. The samples were labeled in the presence of stannous chloride and sodium borohydride with a yield of 60-70% for the venom and 75-85% for tityustoxin and then chromatographed in Sephadex G-10. Biological activities of tityustoxin and venom were preserved after labeling

  20. The male reproductive system and the effect of an extract of a medicinal plant (Hypericum perforatum) on the labeling process of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum (hiperico) is a plant that has been used to treat diseases and also inhibits rat and human vas deferens contractility. In nuclear medicine, stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ) is used as a reducing agent to obtain radiopharmaceuticals labeling with technetium-99m. As the SnCl 2 seems to have adverse effects related with the reproductive performance of male rabbits as well as the human consumption of hiperico might affect sexual function. In the present work, consistent results show significant changes on the blood constituents labeled by technetium-99m obtained from young rats under the effect of an hiperico extract as opposed to blood samples equally treated taken from elderly rat. Supposedly, this extract could protect the male reproductive system against action of SnCl 2 at least in young rats. The findings described in this work allow introducing a simple assay to evaluate the action of products that could interfere with the male reproductive system. (author)

  1. A microautoradiographic method permitting the study of 99m-technetium labelled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas-Linhart, N.; Perianin, A.; Petiet, A.; Bretillon, A.; Bok, B.

    1985-01-01

    Cell migration studies are very important in inflammatory phenomena. Methods currently used are not quantitative and have been subject to much controversy. Homogeneity of sup(99m)Tc leukocyte labelling was verified by a microautoradiographic method (MAR), which was performed in our laboratory. This method was used in cell migration studies to verify if the migrating cells were indeed the labelled cells [fr

  2. Evaluation of technetium-99m/rhenium labelled nucleoside analogues as potential radiotracers in oncology[Dissertation 17173

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desbouis, D

    2007-07-01

    }M). This compound also exhibited a mixed inhibition of the hTK1 with K{sub ic} = 73 {+-} 20 {mu}M. When tested in vitro for cell uptake in transfected cancer cells this technetium thymidine complex revealed a low internalisation of 0.03 {+-} 0.01%ID/(mg/mL). Under the same conditions the [{sup 3}H]thymidine exhibited an uptake of 1.50 {+-} 0.02%lD/(mg/mL). In order to gain potency and selectivity for HSV1-TK, the corresponding 5'-carboxamide 5-ethyl-2', 5'-dideoxyuridine was synthesized. The synthesis of the ligand was performed in seven steps from 2'-deoxyuridine. This ligand was then successfully labelled with the fac-M(CO){sub 3}-core (M = {sup 99m}Tc, Re). The rhenium complex was found to be a selective competitive inhibitor of HSV1-TK (K{sub i} = 4.56 {+-} 0.11 {mu}M). Although the cellular uptake of the technetium 2'-deoxyurine complex (0.10 {+-} 0.01%ID/(mg/mL)) was better than its corresponding technetium thymidine complex, it is still very low compared to thymidine uptake. The second aspect of this work was to develop nucleoside derivatives labelled with technetium-99m/rhenium tricarbonyl core capable of acting as substrates for human cytosolic thymidine kinase (hTKl). hTKl is a target of choice to evaluate cell proliferation due to its overexpression in a variety of cancer cells. [{sup 18}F]Fluorothymidine [{sup 18}F]FLT), which acts as a hTKl substrate, has emerged as a very efficient PET tracer for the monitoring of cell proliferation. Our aim was to develop a SPET tracer with the same mode of action as [{sup 18}F]FLT. We prepared a set of technetium-99m/rhenium complexes of N3 thymidine derivatives with different overall charges (+1, 0 and -1) and variable spacer lengths. The complexes with different overall charges had the same spacer length between chelating system and thymidine moiety (two carbons spacer) while the complexes with different spacer lengths (2, 3, 5 and 10) were all neutral. These compounds were tested for their

  3. Contribution of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled leucocyte scintigraphy to the diagnosis of diabetic foot infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, A.; Moisan, A.; Garin, E.; Bourguet, P.; Hennion, F.; Poirier, J.Y.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted a prospective study in order to evaluate the contribution of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) labelled leucocyte scintigraphy to the diagnosis and follow-up of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot. The study was conducted between October 1992 and November 1996 and included 42 patients (30 men and 12 women; mean age 63 years) with diabetes mellitus (type 1, n = 22, type 2, n = 20) who had a total of 56 diabetic foot ulcers. The initial exploration included standard radiography, three-phase bone scintigraphy and 99m Tc-HMPAO labelled leucocyte scintigraphy (HMPAO-LS), performed within a 3-day interval. For the 56 ulceration sites, 26 cases of osteomyelitis were diagnosed: ten on the basis of radiographic and histological/bacteriological criteria after bone biopsy, 11 after radiographic follow-up and five on the basis of biopsy results alone. No osteomyelitis was present at 30 sites, there were seven cases of cellulitis. The sensitivity and specificity of 99m Tc-HMPAO-LS were 88.4% and 96.6% respectively (23 true-positives, 29 true-negatives, one false-positive, three false-negatives). The accuracy of radiography, 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate and HMPAO-LS was 69.6%, 62.5%, and 92.9%, respectively. Follow-up scintigraphy (n = 14) 4 months after initial diagnosis and 1 month after antibiotic withdrawal confirmed cure of osteomyelitis despite the absence of complete clinical regression of the ulcers. In conclusion, 99m Tc-HMPAO labelled leucocyte scintigraphy was found to be an excellent method for the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot. It can contribute to follow-up, particularly when clinical regression of perforating ulcers is incomplete and cure of osteomyelitis must be confirmed in order that antibiotic treatment may be discontinued. (orig.)

  4. Contribution of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled leucocyte scintigraphy to the diagnosis of diabetic foot infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devillers, A.; Moisan, A.; Garin, E.; Bourguet, P. [CRLCC Eugene Marquis, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rennes (France); Hennion, F.; Poirier, J.Y. [CHRU Pontchaillou, Service d`Endocrinologie, Rennes (France)

    1998-02-01

    We conducted a prospective study in order to evaluate the contribution of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) labelled leucocyte scintigraphy to the diagnosis and follow-up of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot. The study was conducted between October 1992 and November 1996 and included 42 patients (30 men and 12 women; mean age 63 years) with diabetes mellitus (type 1, n = 22, type 2, n = 20) who had a total of 56 diabetic foot ulcers. The initial exploration included standard radiography, three-phase bone scintigraphy and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled leucocyte scintigraphy (HMPAO-LS), performed within a 3-day interval. For the 56 ulceration sites, 26 cases of osteomyelitis were diagnosed: ten on the basis of radiographic and histological/bacteriological criteria after bone biopsy, 11 after radiographic follow-up and five on the basis of biopsy results alone. No osteomyelitis was present at 30 sites, there were seven cases of cellulitis. The sensitivity and specificity of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-LS were 88.4% and 96.6% respectively (23 true-positives, 29 true-negatives, one false-positive, three false-negatives). The accuracy of radiography, {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate and HMPAO-LS was 69.6%, 62.5%, and 92.9%, respectively. Follow-up scintigraphy (n = 14) 4 months after initial diagnosis and 1 month after antibiotic withdrawal confirmed cure of osteomyelitis despite the absence of complete clinical regression of the ulcers. In conclusion, {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled leucocyte scintigraphy was found to be an excellent method for the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot. It can contribute to follow-up, particularly when clinical regression of perforating ulcers is incomplete and cure of osteomyelitis must be confirmed in order that antibiotic treatment may be discontinued. (orig.) With 5 figs., 3 tabs., 28 refs.

  5. Preclinical evaluation of technetium 99m-labeled P1827DS for infection imaging and comparison with technetium 99m IL-8.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, S.; Rennen, H.J.J.M.; Boerman, O.C.; Baumann, S.; Cyr, J.E.; Manchanda, R.; Lister-James, J.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Dinkelborg, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The technetium 99 m (99mTc)-radiolabeled, leukocyte-avid peptide-glycoseaminoglycan complex, [99mTc]P1827DS, has been synthesized as an improved infection/inflammation imaging agent to [99mTc]P483H (LeukoTect, Diatide). In a phase I/II clinical trail, [99mTc]P483H images were equivalent

  6. Labelling of the platyhelminth dugesia tigrina with sup(99m) technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo Filho, M.; Pires, E.T.; Boasquevisque, E.M.; Hasson-Voloch, A.

    1989-01-01

    The study of the labelling of planaria with sup(99m)Tc shows that the incorporation of radioactivity in this platyhelminth increases with an increase in SnCl sub(2) concentration from 0.13 to 1.3 μM, reaching a plateau in the range of 1.3-130 μM them decreasing with 1300 μM. At concentrations of 1.3 and 13 μM SnCl sub(2), a stronger binding of sup(99m)Tc was obtained. The biological viability of the labelled planaria was not altered when the described methodology was used. The advantage of this new labelling technique is that it is possible to obtain a platyhjelminth preparation labelled with a radionuclide that is very cheap, is easily available and is a gamma emitter with a photon energy of 140 KeV. (author)

  7. Labelling of bleomycin with technetium-99m for diagnosis in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassute, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A study about the behavior of the labelling yield of an antineoplastic drug (bleomycin) with a short-leved radionuclide ( 99 sup(m) Tc), using An(II) as a reductor agent, is presented. Parameters like the pH in the labelling, influence of the reaction time and mass of tin on the labelling yield were analysed. To simplify the labelling,, a lyofilized kit of Sn(II)/BLM in evacuated vials was prepared. The quality control involving paper chromatography, sterility and 'in vivo' test was made. The 'in vivo' tests were made both in healthy rats and in those with tumorous tissues, under barbituric action. The biological distribution, the concentration time of the products in tumors, the excretion time and excretion via were studied by means of scintigraphy and scintiphotos. (Author) [pt

  8. Oxygen bubbling can improve the labelling of pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka; Suzuki, K.H.; Sakahara, Harumi; Yao Zhengsheng; Yokoyama, Akira; Konishi, Junji

    1995-01-01

    We performed studies in animals (mice) and humans to investigate the effect of such oxygen bubbling on the labelling efficiency of and on the renal uptake of 99m Tc. The method of labelling of 99m Tc (V) DMSA was that of Hirano. It was found that oxygen bubbling oxidized the contaminated 99m Tc (III) DMSA into 99m Tc (V) DMSA in vitro and decreased the uptake of radioactivity in the kidney in both amimals and humans. (orig.)

  9. An extract of a formula used in the traditional chinese medicine (Buzhong Yi Qi Wan alters the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Santos Giani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Buzhong Yi Qi Wan (Buzhong is a medicinal herb widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat the digestive and circulatory systems. Red blood cell and plasma proteins labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of an aqueous Buzhong extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc. Heparinized blood (Wistar rats was incubated in vitro with different Buzhong extract concentrations and 99mTc-labeling was performed. Plasma (P and blood cells (BC were separated and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC and insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC fractions were isolated. The radioactivity on blood constituents was determined and the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI was calculated. Buzhong extract at the highest concentrations used altered significantly (pBuzhong Yi Qi Wan (Buzhong é uma fórmula utilizada na Medicina Tradicional Chinesa para tratamento de distúrbios nos sistemas digestório e circulatório. Constituintes sangüíneos marcados com tecnécio-99m (99mTc são usados na medicina nuclear. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos do extrato de Buzhong na marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc. Amostras de sangue de ratos Wistar foram incubadas com diferentes concentrações do extrato de Buzhong e a marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc foi realizado. Plasma e células sangüíneas foram separados, frações solúveis e insolúveis do plasma e das células sangüíneas foram isoladas. A radioatividade nos constituintes sangüíneos foi contada e as porcentagens de radioatividade incorporada (%ATI, determinada. Extrato de Buzhong nas maiores concentrações utilizadas altera significativamente (p<0.05 a %ATI nos constituintes sangüíneos. Substâncias presentes no extrato de Buzhong poderiam alterar a membrana celular e/ou gerar radicais livres, que têm propriedades oxidantes, modificando a marcação dos constituintes sangüíneos com

  10. Technetium-99m labeling of antibodies to cardiac myosin Fab and to human fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaw, B.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Carvalho, A.; Locke, E.; Gold, H.K.; Haber, E.

    1982-01-01

    A method of labeling biologically active labile macromolecules, such as human fibrinogen (HF) and anticardiac-myosin Fab (AM-Fab), with Tc-99m at neutral pH was developed. This method uses dithionite reduction of pertechnetate and subsequent labeling to test the method with acid-labile macromolecules. Complexes of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid with macromolecules such as human fibrinogen (D-HF) and anticardiac-myosin Fab (D-AM-Fab) were labeled and utilized in in vitro and in vivo studies. In biodistribution studies, the Tc-99m D-HF had a two-component blood clearance (half-times 1 hr and 15 hr) and was 80-88% coagulable. The Tc-99m AM-Fab retained its immunoreactivity as tested by affinity chromatography; also during in vivo localization in experimental myocardial infarction. This labeling technique provides an easy and efficient approach to the Tc-99m labeling of other biologically active and acid-labile macromolecules

  11. Composition and method for detecting cancer with technetium labeled antibody fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchiel, S. W.; Crockford, D. R.; Rhodes, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    F(ab') 2 or Fab fragments of antibodies to: (a) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), hCG alpha subunit, hCG beta subunit, or an hCG-like material; or (b) other tumor specific or tumor associated molecules, to include carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), human melanoma associated antigens, human sarcoma associated antigens or other antigens, are radiolabeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m). When the F(ab') 2 or Fab fragments of antibody to such tumor associated antigens are injected intravenously into a patient, the radiolabeled composition accumulates at tumor sites. The accumulation of the cancer seeking radiopharmaceutical at tumor sites permits detection by external gamma scintigraphy. Thus, the composition is useful in the monitoring, localization and detection of cancer in the body. In an alternative composition, a double antibody approach to tumor localization using radiolabeled F(ab') 2 or Fab fragments is utilized. In this approach, a tumor specific antibody in the form of IgG, F(ab') 2 or Fab is first administered to a patient intravenously. Following a sufficient period of time, a second antibody in the form of F(ab') 2 or Fab is administered. The second antibody is radiolabeled with Tc-99m and has the property that it is reactive with the first antibody. This double antibody method has the advantage over a single antibody approach in that smaller tumors can be localized and detected and that the total amount of radioactive trace localized at the cancer site is increased

  12. Solid phase labelling of technetium-99m glutamic acid: Radiopharmacological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, E.; Kremer, C.; Leon, A.; Martinez, G.; Gaudiano, J.

    1989-01-01

    Amino acids labelled with 11 C and 13 N are used in localizing tumours, and in scintiscanning pancreas and myocardium. The behaviour of glutamic acid labelled with 99m Tc in healthy and tumour bearing animals is described. Under optimal conditions, a labelling efficiency of 26% is obtained, with a radiochemical purity of 96% and no detectable colloids. Zinc concentrations in the final preparation are well below those at which chemical toxicity becomes apparent. Previous studies suggest the structure as that of an oxotechnetium complex (TcO 2 (glu 2 )) 4- (pH 6). Biodistribution studies have been performed in normal mice. Paper electrophoresis shows that the complex is excreted unchanged via the kidneys. In animals with adenocarcinoma at various stages of differentiation, tumour to blood ratios of between 0.4 and 2.0 are observed. Blood clearance and renal excretion in human subjects are reported and uptake in human breast carcinoma is demonstrated. (author)

  13. Tissue distribution and tumour localization of 99m-technetium-labelled liposomes in cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, V J; Ryman, B E; Jewkes, R F; Jeyasingh, K; Tattersall, M N.H.; Newlands, E S; Kaye, S B

    1979-07-01

    The possible use of liposomes (Phospholipid vesicles) to direct cytotoxic drugs to tumours led to the investigation of the tissue localization of i.v. injected sup(99m) Tc-labelled liposomes in cancer patients. 20 mg or 300 mg doses of liposomal lipid (7:2:1 molar ratio of phosphatidylcholine: cholesterol: phosphatidic acid) were used in a study of 13 patients with advanced cancer and one with polycythaemia rubra vera (PRV). In all cases except the patient with PRV the major site of uptake of the label was the liver and spleen. In the patient with PRV the liver uptake was greatly reduced and the major site of uptake was found in regions corresponding to marrow. With the exception of one patient with a primary hepatoma, there was no significant tumour uptake of the label.

  14. Labeling of amino acid (L-Glutamine) with technetium-99m and biological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S. S.; Abass, S. A. E.; Karim, L. M.; Risan, R. H.; Abdulkarim, H. M.; Zia, M. A.; Manjy, A.N.; Hamed, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The study of labeling of some amino acid 9 9mT c has been carried before (1, 2). Some were found to be chemically valuable, while some others had no clinical value although, they provided US with knowledge on the mechanism of labeling and biodistribution. In this paper we experimented the possibility of labeling L-Glutamine with Tc 9 '9 m and studied its biological behavior the study revealed that the optimal pH for the formation of higher percentage of the complex is about (2.5-2.55). Biodistribution carried in balb/c mice showed that the complex accumulates in soft tissue of the abdomen. This fining may indicate good clinical value in diagnosis of soft tissue tumors of lesion. (Author)

  15. Quantitation of thrombogenicity of hemodialyzer with technetium-99m and indium-111 labeled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Kapadvanjwala, M.; Ruzius, K.; Serafini, A.N.; Zilleruelo, G.E.; Sfakianakis, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    The platelet thrombogenicity of a hemodialyzer was quantified with 99m Tc- and 111 In-labeled platelets. The platelets collected from blood of Beagle dogs, Yorkshire pigs and humans were labeled with 111 In-tropolone (detergent-free) and 99m Tc-HMPAO. Hemodialysis was performed with a hollow-fiber dialyzer (HFD) in a flow-loop, the temperature maintained at 37 o C, with flow-rates of 7, 150 and 270 mL/min; after dialysis, HFD radioactivity was measured with an ionization chamber and imaged with a γ-camera. The dynamic processes of thrombosis and embolization from the hemodialyzer resulted in large standard deviations around the mean values of the adherent thrombus. In spite of this, the quantitation of comparative thrombogenicity with 111 In-and 99m Tc-labeled platelets suggests that both radionuclides could be used for measurement of device-induced thrombogenicity and estimation of prosthesis-induced thrombogenicity. (author)

  16. Scintigraphic detection of acute experimental endocarditis with the technetium-99m labelled glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist DMP444

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyen, W.J.G.; Boerman, O.C.; Corstens, F.H.M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Brouwers, F.M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Barrett, J.A. [DuPont Pharmaceutical Company, Radiopharmaceutical Division, North Billerica, MA (United States); Verheugt, F.W.A. [Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ruiter, D.J. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meer, J.W.M. van der [Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2000-04-01

    Bacterial endocarditis is an important clinical problem that may result in persistent bacteraemia and irreversible cardiac damage. Since endocarditis is characterized by aggregation of activated platelets, fibrin and bacteria, we studied DMP444, a technetium-99m labelled high-affinity antagonist of the GP IIb/IIIa receptor that is expressed on activated platelets. In seven Beagle dogs (11-15 kg), the left ventricle was catheterized via the right carotid artery. One hour later, 5 x 10{sup 7} colony forming units of Staphylococcus aureus were injected intracardially. Half an hour later, the catheter was removed. Two extra dogs underwent a complete sham procedure. One day after the intervention, five infected and the two non-infected dogs were injected with 37 MBq/kg {sup 99m}Tc-DMP444 and two infected dogs with 37 MBq/kg {sup 99m}Tc-IgG (used as a non-specific control agent) and imaged up to 4 h after injection. Samples were obtained for tissue counting, microbiology and histology. From 1 to 2 h post injection onward, there was clear focal accumulation of DMP444 in the aortic valve region when endocarditis was present, and this accumulation increased with time. The non-infected and the {sup 99m}Tc-IgG injected dogs showed only persisting blood pool activity without any focal abnormality. At 4 h post injection, the in vivo valve-to-blood pool ratios were 1.87{+-}0.18 in endocarditis, 1.01{+-}0.05 in non-infected controls and 1.09{+-}0.02 in {sup 99m}Tc-IgG injected dogs (P<0.05). It is concluded that targeting activated platelets with the {sup 99m}Tc-labelled GP IIb/IIIa antagonist DMP444 allows a final diagnosis of experimental bacterial endocarditis within 4 h owing to high, specific and fast in vivo uptake. (orig.)

  17. Scintigraphic detection of acute experimental endocarditis with the technetium-99m labelled glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist DMP444

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyen, W.J.G.; Boerman, O.C.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Brouwers, F.M.; Barrett, J.A.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Ruiter, D.J.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial endocarditis is an important clinical problem that may result in persistent bacteraemia and irreversible cardiac damage. Since endocarditis is characterized by aggregation of activated platelets, fibrin and bacteria, we studied DMP444, a technetium-99m labelled high-affinity antagonist of the GP IIb/IIIa receptor that is expressed on activated platelets. In seven Beagle dogs (11-15 kg), the left ventricle was catheterized via the right carotid artery. One hour later, 5 x 10 7 colony forming units of Staphylococcus aureus were injected intracardially. Half an hour later, the catheter was removed. Two extra dogs underwent a complete sham procedure. One day after the intervention, five infected and the two non-infected dogs were injected with 37 MBq/kg 99m Tc-DMP444 and two infected dogs with 37 MBq/kg 99m Tc-IgG (used as a non-specific control agent) and imaged up to 4 h after injection. Samples were obtained for tissue counting, microbiology and histology. From 1 to 2 h post injection onward, there was clear focal accumulation of DMP444 in the aortic valve region when endocarditis was present, and this accumulation increased with time. The non-infected and the 99m Tc-IgG injected dogs showed only persisting blood pool activity without any focal abnormality. At 4 h post injection, the in vivo valve-to-blood pool ratios were 1.87±0.18 in endocarditis, 1.01±0.05 in non-infected controls and 1.09±0.02 in 99m Tc-IgG injected dogs (P 99m Tc-labelled GP IIb/IIIa antagonist DMP444 allows a final diagnosis of experimental bacterial endocarditis within 4 h owing to high, specific and fast in vivo uptake. (orig.)

  18. Technetium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-01-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

  19. Technetium-99m labelled bran: a new agent for measuring gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, S.; Grime, J.S.; Little, W.; Patten, M.; Gulliford, P.; Critchley, M.; Bennett, R.; Shields, R. (Royal Liverpool Hospital (UK))

    1983-05-01

    Bran was labelled with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, ingested as part of a normal meal and used to measure gastric emptying in 15 normal subjects and in 15 patients with ulcerative colitis. There was no significant difference between the gastric emptying curves of the normal subjects and the patients, suggesting that rapid gastric emptying does not contribute to diarrhoea in ulcerative colitis.

  20. Technetium-99m labelling of monoclonal antibodies for in vivo radioimmunodiagnostic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1988-01-01

    The strong chelating agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), either as the bicyclic or as the mixed anhydride, is most commonly used to link Tc-99m to proteinaceous compounds. A method for the batch production of DTPA-labelled antibody kits as well as a novel method of DTPA chelation of unpurified ascites fluid is given. Loss of immunoreactivity and in vivo stability occurs with this method. That DTPA conjugation is not the ideal method of labelling, is borne out by the fact that Hnatowich - a pioneer of DTPA-protein chelating - changed to an avidin-biotin labelling system. Modifications of the carbohydrate moiety have also been attempted. High molecular mass polymers with chelate-linkage to the antibodies can bind up to 150 di- or trivalent ions per mole without a loss in antigen-binding activity. Other than DTPA, several chelating agents such as bisthiosemicarbazones, metallothionein and diamide dimercaptide ligands may be used. The simple treatment of a proteinaceous substance with a disulpide-reducing agent, followed by exposure of the reduced protein to a suitable radionuclide, leads to a promising stable radiolabelled product. A Tc-99m-labelled antibody is, subject to FDA approval, scheduled for released by a Kodak-financed company in the near future

  1. Quantitation of thrombogenicity of hemodialyzer with technetium-99m and indium-111 labeled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Kapadvanjwala, Mansoor; Ruzius, Kees; Serafini, A.N.; Zilleruelo, G.E.; Sfakianakis, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    The platelet thromobogenicity of a hemodialyzer was quantified with 99m Tc- and 111 In-labeled platelets. The platelets collected from blood of Beagle dogs, Yorkshire pigs and human volunteers were labeled with 111 in-tropolone (detergent-free) and 99m Tc-HMPAO. Hemodialysis was performed with a hollow-fiber dialyzer (HFD) in a flow-loop, the temperature of which was maintained at 37 o C, with flow-rates of 7, 150 and 270 mL/min; after dialysis, the HFD radioactivity was measured with an ionization chamber and imaged with a γ-camera. The radioactivity of samples of hollow-fibers taken from the top, middle and bottom of the dialyzer was determined with a γ-counter. The mean values of hemodialyzer-adherent platelet radioactivity were calculated for both radionuclides. The canine platelets were found to be more thrombogenic than porcine and human platelets. The adhesivity of porcine platelets to the biomaterial (cellulose-acetate) of the dialyzer approximated that of human platelets. The 99m Tc label underestimated the thrombus formation (P 111 In- and 99m Tc-labeled platelets suggests that both radionuclides could be used for measurement of device-induced thrombogenicity and may provide an estimation of prosthesis-induced thrombogenicity of human platelets from animal studies. (Author)

  2. Labelling of some organic compounds with radioiodine and technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayoumy, A A M

    1994-07-01

    Amino acids have received significant attention in the evaluation of serotonergic and dopaminergic functions in the central nervous system. the wide distribution of {gamma}-cameras and SPECT create an increasing need for appropriated labelled radiopharmaceuticals . {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I are the most important radionuclides for this purpose. In order to avoid pharmacological and toxicological effects, the radiolabelled compounds must be often produced with high specific activity. In the first part of this thesis, the work is therefore focused on labelling methods with no carrier added radioiodine. The radioiodinated analogues of two amino acids were chosen as model compounds of research. L-m-tyrosine is potentially useful for the evaluation of dopamine metabolism in Parkinson's disease, while L -{alpha} -methyl tyrosine is a well known indicator of amino acid transport useful for tumor studies.

  3. Quantitation of thrombogenicity of hemodialyzer with technetium-99m and indium-111 labeled platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Kapadvanjwala, Mansoor; Ruzius, Kees; Serafini, A.N.; Zilleruelo, G.E.; Sfakianakis, G.N. (Miami Univ., FL (United States). School of Medicine Althin CD-Medical Inc., Miami Lakes, FL (United States))

    1993-07-01

    The platelet thromobogenicity of a hemodialyzer was quantified with [sup 99m]Tc- and [sup 111]In-labeled platelets. The platelets collected from blood of Beagle dogs, Yorkshire pigs and human volunteers were labeled with [sup 111]in-tropolone (detergent-free) and [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO. Hemodialysis was performed with a hollow-fiber dialyzer (HFD) in a flow-loop, the temperature of which was maintained at 37[sup o]C, with flow-rates of 7, 150 and 270 mL/min; after dialysis, the HFD radioactivity was measured with an ionization chamber and imaged with a [gamma]-camera. The radioactivity of samples of hollow-fibers taken from the top, middle and bottom of the dialyzer was determined with a [gamma]-counter. The mean values of hemodialyzer-adherent platelet radioactivity were calculated for both radionuclides. The canine platelets were found to be more thrombogenic than porcine and human platelets. The adhesivity of porcine platelets to the biomaterial (cellulose-acetate) of the dialyzer approximated that of human platelets. The [sup 99m]Tc label underestimated the thrombus formation (P < 0.01 ). The dynamic processes of thrombosis and embolization from the hemodialyzer resulted in the large standard deviations around the mean values of the adherent thrombus. In spite of this limitation of the dynamic pathology, the quantitation of comparative throbogenicity with [sup 111]In- and [sup 99m]Tc-labeled platelets suggests that both radionuclides could be used for measurement of device-induced thrombogenicity and may provide an estimation of prosthesis-induced thrombogenicity of human platelets from animal studies. (Author).

  4. Optimized localization of bacterial infections with technetium-99m labelled human immunoglobulin after protein charge selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welling, M.; Feitsma, H.I.J.; Calame, W.; Ensing, G.J.; Goedemans, W.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1994-01-01

    To improve the scintigraphic detection of bacterial infections a protein charge-purified fraction of polyclonal human immunoglobulin was applied as a radiopharmaceutical. This purification was achieved by attaching the immunoglobulin to an anion-exchanger column and by obtaining the column-bound fraction with buffer. The binding to bacteria in vitro and the target to non-target ratios of an experimental thigh infection with Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice were evaluated to compare the purified and the unpurified immunoglobulin. The percentage of binding to all gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria used in this study was significantly (P 99m Tc-labelled protein charge-purified polyclonal human immunoglobulin was administered intravenously. At all time intervals the target (infected thighs) to non-target (non-infected thighs) ratios for both infections were significantly higher (P 99m Tc-labelled protein charge-purified immunoglobulin localizes both a gram-positive and a gram-negative thigh infection more intensely and faster than 99m Tc-labelled unpurified immunoglobulin. (orig.)

  5. Molecular imaging of atherosclerotic plaques with technetium-99m-labelled antisense oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Guangming; Zhang Yongxue; Cao Wei; An Rui; Gao Zairong; Xu Wendai; Zhang Kaijun; Li Guiling; Li Shuren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to visualise experimental atherosclerotic lesions using radiolabelled antisense oligonucleotides (ASONs). Atherosclerosis was induced in New Zealand White rabbits fed 1% cholesterol for approximately 60 days. In vivo and ex vivo imaging was performed in atherosclerotic rabbits and normal control rabbits after i.v. injection of 92.5±18.5 MBq 99m Tc-labelled ASON or 99m Tc-labelled sense oligonucleotides. Immediately after the in vivo imaging, the animals were sacrificed and ex vivo imaging of the aortic specimens was performed. Biodistribution of radiolabelled c-mycASON was evaluated in vivo in atherosclerotic rabbits. Planar imaging revealed accumulation of 99m Tc-labelled c-mycASON in atherosclerotic lesions along the artery wall. Ex vivo imaging further demonstrated that the area of activity accumulation matched the area of atherosclerotic lesions. In contrast, no atherosclerotic lesions were found in the vessel wall and no positive imaging results were obtained in animals of the control group. This molecular imaging approach has potential for non-invasive imaging of atherosclerotic plaques at an early stage. (orig.)

  6. Technetium-99m labeled antisense oligonucleotide-noninvasive tumor imaging in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, G.M.; Zhang, Y.X.; An, R.; Gao, Z.R.; Cao, W.; Cao, G.X.; Hnatowich, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Single-stranded RNA and DNA oligonucleotides may be useful as radiopharmaceuticals for antisense and other in vivo applications if convenient methods for stably attaching radionuclides such as 99m Tc can be developed. The c-myc oncogene works in cooperation with other oncogenes in a variety of malignant tumors. The concentration of c-myc messenger RNA increases rapidly 30 to 50 fold during DNA synthesis, thus making it a suitable target for following the progression of malignancy by noninvasive imaging with radiolabeled antisense oligonucleotide probes. Methods: 1 Oligonucleotide Conjugation: A solution of single stranded amine-derivatized DNA (100-1000μg) was prepared at a concentration of 2 mg/ml in 0.25M sodium bicarbonate, 1 M sodium chloride, 1mM EDTA, pH8.5. 2 Oligonucleotide Labeling: A fresh 50mg/ml solution of sodium tartrate was prepared in sterile 0.5 M ammonium The ability of the labeled DNA to hybridize to its complement was analyzed by Sep-Pak column chromatography before and after the addition of the complementary DNA. 3 Biodistribution and Tumor Imaging Studies: A colony of KM mice (15-20g) were inoculated with 1x10 6 Ehrlich carcinoma tumor cells in the right thigh, and the tumors were allowed to grow for 6-7 days to a size of 1.0-1.5 cm in diameter. Biodistribution studies were performed in 32 KM mice after 50 μCi per mouse of 99m Tc-labeled oncogene probes were injected intravenously. A total of 8 mice were injected intravenously in the tail vein with 1-2 mCi of 99m Tc-labeled sense or antisense probes, immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and imaged periodically from 0.5hr to 24hr with a gamma camera. Results: Essentially complete conjugation was achieved by reverse-phase Sep-Pak C18 chromatography analysis. The labeled antisense DNA still remained the ability to hybridize with its complementary DNA. The highest accumulation of label was in the liver first, with the kidney and small bowel next. The injected activity localized in the lesion

  7. Successful application of technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy in the detection of ectopic adrenocorticotropin-producing bronchial carcinoid lung tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahi Babak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The diagnostic efficacy of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy labeling with 111 indium in the localization of tumors has been assessed in a limited number of patients with contradictory outcomes. Here, we describe the case of a patient with an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing bronchial carcinoid tumor diagnosed preoperatively using technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy. Case presentation A 29-year-old Asian man presented to our hospital with the typical clinical features of Cushing's syndrome, which he had had for a duration of 18 months. The results of a biochemical evaluation revealed he had adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome. The results of a spiral abdominal computed tomography scan showed he had bilateral adrenal hypertrophy. A magnetic resonance image of the patient's brain showed he had a normal hypophysis. Whole body technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy was performed to check for the presence of an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing tumor. The scan results showed a small focal increase in uptake in the lower lobe of our patient's right lung, just above his diaphragm. A spiral chest computed tomography scan also revealed a small non-specific lesion in the same region. A transthoracic biopsy was then performed. Pathological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor, of the adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing type. After surgical removal, the patient's symptoms resolved and significant clinical improvement was achieved. Conclusions This case report shows that technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy can effectively detect an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing bronchial carcinoid.

  8. An aqueous extract of Vitex agnus castus alters the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina de Macedo Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of experimental assays to study properties of herbal medicine is worthwhile. Vitex agnus castus (VAC is utilized in popular medicine and some actions have been attributed to its extract. Blood cells (BC and plasma proteins are labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m and have been used in nuclear medicine, as in basic research. This procedure uses a reducing agent and stannous ion is utilized. There are reports that drugs can alter this labeling process. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of an aqueous extract of VAC on the labeling of blood constituents with Tc-99m. Blood was incubated with VAC, stannous chloride and Tc-99m, as sodium pertechnetate, and centrifuged. Samples of BC and plasma were separated, aliquots of BC and plasma were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid to obtain soluble and insoluble fractions and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI was determined. The results show a statistical (pModelos experimentais são relevantes no estudo de propriedades de plantas medicinais. Vitex agnus castus (VAC é usado na medicina popular. Células sanguíneas (CS e proteínas plasmáticas são marcadas com tecnécio-99m (Tc-99m com aplicações na medicina nuclear e em pesquisa. Esse procedimento utiliza um agente redutor e o íon estanoso é usado. Drogas podem alterar esse processo de marcação. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a influência de um extrato aquoso de VAC na marcação de constituintes sanguíneos com Tc-99m. Sangue foi incubado com VAC, cloreto estanoso e Tc-99m, como pertecnetato de sódio e centrifugado. Amostras de CS e plasma foram separadas, alíquotas de CS e plasma foram também precipitadas com ácido tricloroacético para obtenção de frações solúvel (FS e insolúvel (FI e a percentagem de radioatividade (%ATI foi determinada. Os resultados mostraram uma alteração estatística (p<0.05 na %ATI dos compartimentos sanguíneos e nas FI do plasma e CS. Provavelmente, esse

  9. Technetium-99m HMPAO labelled-leukocytes and gallium-67 scintigraphies in a Munchhausen's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberini, J.L.; Devaux, J.Y.; Tenenbaum, F.; Richard, B.; Dell'Isola, D.

    2000-01-01

    We report an observation of investigations performed in a patient with several cervical abscesses in his previous history. Aim of scintigraphic examinations was to detect an evolutive infection and/or to identify a general disease like granulomatosis. Although there was no abnormality on the labelled-leucocytes scintigraphy, an infra-mandibular uptake was observed 10 days later on 67 Ga, without bone involvement. This 'discrepancy' between scintigraphic results and the clinical evolution allowed to confirm its management in nuclear medicine were discussed. (author)

  10. Can technetium-labelled millimicrospheres be used to measure Kupffer-cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, H.J.; Chamberlain, J.; Anderson, J.; Bowry, V.; Bell, P.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    It has been suggested that sodium pertechnetate sup(99m)Tc millimicrospheres can be used to measure Kupffercell function. We studied animals and humans to show whether the clearance and catabolism of sup(99m)Tc-labelled millimicrospheres can be used as a measure of Kupffer-cell function. Comparison with albumin 125 I-microaggregates clearance of human serum albumin failed to demonstrate that they can be used for this purpose. We suggest that their blood clearance is mainly an expression of liver blood flow. (orig.)

  11. 99m technetium-labelled acetanilidoimino-diacetate to diagnose the functioning of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molter, M.; Kloss, G.

    1979-01-01

    The proposed agent for liver function diagnosis has got a very low renal secretion. If is suited for scintigraphic representation of liver, gall-bladder and bile-ducts. To an aqueous solution of (2,3,4,5,6 penta-fluoracetanilido)-iminodiacetate and/or (4-n-pentylacetanilido)-iminodiacetate is admixed a tin (II) salt (pH between 4 and 9) and as a label 99m Tc pertechnetate in a physiological salt solution. Production and effect are described in detail. (RB) [de

  12. Results of quality control studies of technetium 99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals prepared from kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.R.; Rockwell, L.J.; Welsh, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of quality control studies of Tc 99m labelled normal serum albumin and macro-aggregated albumin radiopharmaceuticals prepared from commercially available kits. It includes all analyses performed since the inception of the program in 1976 until the end of 1977. The results presented herein were obtained through the application of various in vitro tests and animal (mouse) bio-distribution studies. It is hoped that a similar report will be published annually for the benefit of hospital nuclear medicine departments and kit manufacturers. (auth)

  13. Neutrophil labeling with [99mTc]-technetium stannous colloid is complement receptor 3-mediated and increases the neutrophil priming response to lipopolysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Hayley; Ramsay, Stuart C.; Barnes, Jodie; Maggs, Jacqueline; Cassidy, Nathan; Ketheesan, Natkunam

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: [ 99m Tc]-technetium stannous colloid (TcSnC)-labeled white cells are used to image inflammation. Neutrophil labeling with TcSnC is probably phagocytic, but the phagocytic receptor involved is not known. We hypothesised that complement receptor 3 (CR3) plays a key role. Phagocytic labeling could theoretically result in neutrophil activation or priming, affecting the behaviour of labeled cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis side scatter measurements can assess neutrophil activation and priming. Methods: We tested whether TcSnC neutrophil labeling is CR3-mediated by assessing if neutrophil uptake of TcSnC was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed at the CD11b component of CR3. We tested if TcSnC-labeled neutrophils show altered activation or priming status, comparing FACS side scatter in labeled and unlabeled neutrophils and examining the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a known priming agent. Results: Anti-CD11b mAb reduced neutrophil uptake of TcSnC in a dose-dependent fashion. Labeled neutrophils did not show significantly increased side scatter compared to controls. LPS significantly increased side scatter in control cells and labeled neutrophils. However, the increase was significantly greater in labeled neutrophils than unlabeled cells. Conclusions: Neutrophil labeling with TcSnC is related to the function of CR3, a receptor which plays a central role in phagocytosis. TcSnC labeling did not significantly activate or prime neutrophils. However, labeled neutrophils showed a greater priming response to LPS. This could result in labeled neutrophils demonstrating increased adhesion on activated endothelium at sites of infection

  14. Neutrophil labeling with [{sup 99m}Tc]-technetium stannous colloid is complement receptor 3-mediated and increases the neutrophil priming response to lipopolysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Hayley [School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Ramsay, Stuart C. [School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland (Australia) and Townsville Nuclear Medicine, Mater Hospital, Townsville, Queensland 4812 (Australia)]. E-mail: stuart.ramsey@jcu.edu.au; Barnes, Jodie [School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Maggs, Jacqueline [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Townsville Hospital, Townsville, Queensland 4814 (Australia); Cassidy, Nathan [Townsville Nuclear Medicine, Mater Hospital, Townsville, Queensland 4812 (Australia); Ketheesan, Natkunam [School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland (Australia)

    2006-04-15

    Introduction: [{sup 99m}Tc]-technetium stannous colloid (TcSnC)-labeled white cells are used to image inflammation. Neutrophil labeling with TcSnC is probably phagocytic, but the phagocytic receptor involved is not known. We hypothesised that complement receptor 3 (CR3) plays a key role. Phagocytic labeling could theoretically result in neutrophil activation or priming, affecting the behaviour of labeled cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis side scatter measurements can assess neutrophil activation and priming. Methods: We tested whether TcSnC neutrophil labeling is CR3-mediated by assessing if neutrophil uptake of TcSnC was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed at the CD11b component of CR3. We tested if TcSnC-labeled neutrophils show altered activation or priming status, comparing FACS side scatter in labeled and unlabeled neutrophils and examining the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a known priming agent. Results: Anti-CD11b mAb reduced neutrophil uptake of TcSnC in a dose-dependent fashion. Labeled neutrophils did not show significantly increased side scatter compared to controls. LPS significantly increased side scatter in control cells and labeled neutrophils. However, the increase was significantly greater in labeled neutrophils than unlabeled cells. Conclusions: Neutrophil labeling with TcSnC is related to the function of CR3, a receptor which plays a central role in phagocytosis. TcSnC labeling did not significantly activate or prime neutrophils. However, labeled neutrophils showed a greater priming response to LPS. This could result in labeled neutrophils demonstrating increased adhesion on activated endothelium at sites of infection.

  15. Labeling of ursodeoxycholic acid with technetium-99m for hepatobiliary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanad, M.H.; El-Tawoosy, M.

    2013-01-01

    An adopted method for the preparation of high radiochemical purity 99m Tc-ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was conducted with a high radiochemical yield up to 97.5 %. The reaction proceeds well using 2 mg UDCA, 50 μg tin chloride in solution of pH 8 at room temperature for 30 min. The radiochemical yield was up to 97.5 % as pure as 99m Tc-UDCA. Different chromatographic techniques (paper chromatography and electrophoresis) were used to evaluate the radiochemical yield and purity of the labeled product. Biodistribution studies were carried out in Albino Swiss mice at different time intervals after administration of 99m Tc-UDCA. The uptake of 99m Tc-UDCA in the liver gave the chance to diagnose it. The results indicate that the labeled compound cleared from the systematic circulation within 2 h after administration and majority of organs showed significant decrease in uptake of 99m Tc-UDCA. Finally, the liver uptake was high and the results indicate the possibility of using 99m Tc-UDCA for hepatobiliary imaging.

  16. Detection of gastroduodenal ulcers using technetium-99m-labeled sucralfate. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttemans, N.A.M.; Andre, P.P.; Jamsin, S.A.M.J.; Balikdjian, P.J.; Lustman, Francois

    1991-01-01

    Peptic ulcers are very common and are usually diagnosed by radio-graphy or endoscopy. Sucralfate is an effective medication for treatment of gastroduodenal ulcers, and 99m Tc labeled sucralfate has been found to adhere to ulcers. The reliability of confirming the diagnosis of gastroduodenal ulcers by means of sucralfate labeled with 99m Tc was examined, imaging one and two hours after oral administration. Fifty-four out of 64 patients were positive by scintigraphy with the author's method. Scintigraphy was positive in all patients who hemorrhaged during the procedure. The method was specific in 75% for the detection of peptic ulcers, and there were no false positive results. The procedure was well tolerated and non-invasive. It was performed at the bedside in critically ill patients and in follow-up for fragile patients. Results obtained in these patients were extremely encouraging. The advantages and inconveniences of gastric endoscopy, radiography, and scintigraphy are discussed and compared. (author). 24 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Technetium-99m labeled monoclonal antibodies in the detection of metastatic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, A.N.; Kotler, J.; Feun, L.; Dewanjee, M.; Robinson, D.; Salk, D.; Sfakianakis, G.; Abrams, P.; Savaraj, N.; Goodwin, D.

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-six stage II/III malignant melanoma patients with 321 measurable metastatic lesions were imaged using Fab fragments of an IgG murine monoclonal antibody labeled specifically with 10-30 mCi Tc-99m with a bi-functional chelating method (NeoRx, Seattle, WA). There were no side effects or adverse reactions. Immunoscintigraphy demonstrated 66.6% of lesions larger than 1 cm and 92.5% of lesions larger than 3 cm. Most frequently detected metastases were in lymph nodes, subcutaneous areas, and bone. Of lesions less than 1 cm, 23.6% were detected if superficial cutaneous lesions were excluded. The smallest detectable lesion was 4 mm. Twenty-one additional clinically unsuspected sites were visualized in 12 of the 26 patients studied. Of these, 56% were confirmed as metastasis by other tests. There were apparent nonspecific localizations owing to other causes, including fracture, varicosities, skin abscess and pneumonitis. Increased experience in image analysis facilitates correct interpretation of these localizations. This study demonstrates that imaging with Tc-99m labeled antibody fragments detects melanoma lesions in organs routinely surveyed and in other areas not routinely assessed by other imaging techniques. The procedure is readily performed and safe. The principal advantage of the test is its ability to survey the entire body and all organs with a single test. Its principal limitation, in common with other diagnostic imaging procedures, is its poor sensitivity for detecting lesions less than 1 cm

  18. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Moore, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Evaluation of adrenal cortical function by external imaging is currently accomplished by injection of radiolabelled analogs of cholesterol. Although the adrenals do utilized exogenous cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis, the cholesterol is delivered to the glands not as free cholesterol but through the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which are subsequently degraded within the adrenal cortical cells to provide cholesterol. Thus, we sought to assess the use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled LDL injected into rabbits to obtain external images of the adrenal glands. Adrenal images of all nine rabbits tested were obtained within 18 to 21 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-LDL. Seven of the rabbits were subjected to adrenal cortical suppression with dexamethasone and then all nine rabbits were imaged a second time. In the untreated animals, visualization of the adrenal glands was accompanied by normal serum cortisol concentrations and accumulation of radiolabel in the adrenals, whereas in the dexamethasone-treated animals, lack of visualization of the adrenal glands was correlated with low serum cortisols, and greatly decreased accumulation of the radionuclide in the adrenals. These findings demonstrate for the first time that LDL, when labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, can be used to evaluate adrenal cortical function by external imaging

  19. Effect of ischemia and postischemic dysfunction on myocardial uptake of technetium-99m-labeled methoxyisobutyl isonitrile and thallium-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinusas, A.J.; Watson, D.D.; Cannon, J.M. Jr.; Beller, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The myocardial uptake of a new technetium-99m-labeled myocardial perfusion agent, methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI), and thallium-201 was correlated with microsphere flow in an open chest canine model of low coronary flow and postischemic dysfunction. Eighteen dogs were given an injection of thallium-201 (0.5 mCi) and Tc-99m MIBI (5 mCi) either after 40 min of partial left anterior descending artery occlusion (Group I, 10 dogs) or during reperfusion after 15 min of left anterior descending artery occlusion (Group II, 8 dogs). Regional dysfunction was documented during injection in both groups by quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography. Regional blood flow was assessed by radiolabeled microspheres. The heart was excised 15 min after radionuclide injection and the left ventricle divided into 96 segments for gamma well counting. Among Group I dogs, central ischemic thallium-201 and Tc-99m MIBI activity (expressed as a percent of the activity in the corresponding nonischemic zone) was comparable, respectively, for endocardial (54 +/- 17% and 52 +/- 17%), mid-wall (71 +/- 20% and 69 +/- 17%) and epicardial (89 +/- 13% and 94 +/- 9%) segments and increased proportionally with flow. There was a good linear correlation among these endocardial segments between flow and both thallium-201 (r = 0.78) and Tc-99m MIBI (r = 0.85) activity. Among Group II dogs, central ischemic endocardial flow (59 +/- 14%) was comparable to thallium-201 (70 +/- 18%) and Tc-99m MIBI (74 +/- 12%) activity. Similarly, relative endocardial flow in the intermediate ischemic region (71 +/- 11%) was comparable to thallium-201 (77 +/- 11%) and Tc-99m MIBI (81 +/- 10%) activity. Thus, myocardial uptake of Tc-99m MIBI and thallium-201 is comparable under conditions of low coronary flow and postischemic dysfunction and closely parallels flow alterations

  20. Effects of positive expiratory pressure on pulmonary clearance of aerosolized technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Martins de Albuquerque

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of positive expiratory pressure (PEP on pulmonary epithelial membrane permeability in healthy subjects. Methods: We evaluated a cohort of 30 healthy subjects (15 males and 15 females with a mean age of 28.3 ± 5.4 years, a mean FEV1/FVC ratio of 0.89 ± 0.14, and a mean FEV1 of 98.5 ± 13.1% of predicted. Subjects underwent technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy in two stages: during spontaneous breathing; and while breathing through a PEP mask at one of three PEP levels-10 cmH2O (n = 10, 15 cmH2O (n = 10, and 20 cmH2O (n = 10. The 99mTc-DTPA was nebulized for 3 min, and its clearance was recorded by scintigraphy over a 30-min period during spontaneous breathing and over a 30-min period during breathing through a PEP mask. Results: The pulmonary clearance of 99mTc-DTPA was significantly shorter when PEP was applied-at 10 cmH2O (p = 0.044, 15 cmH2O (p = 0.044, and 20 cmH2O (p = 0.004-in comparison with that observed during spontaneous breathing. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that PEP, at the levels tested, is able to induce an increase in pulmonary epithelial membrane permeability and lung volume in healthy subjects.

  1. Detection of occult pericardial hemorrhage early after open-heart surgery using technetium-99m red blood cell radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, T.M.; Czer, L.S.; Gray, R.J.; Kass, R.M.; Raymond, M.J.; Garcia, E.V.; Chaux, A.; Matloff, J.M.; Berman, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pericardial or mediastinal hemorrhage requiring reoperation occurs in 2% to 5% of patients, usually early (0 to 48 hours), after open-heart surgery. This hemorrhage may be occult, and resulting cardiac tamponade may easily be misinterpreted as ventricular dysfunction, common early postoperatively. In such cases, appropriate and timely intervention may not occur. Of 50 patients evaluated by technetium-99m red blood cell gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) because of early postoperative cardiogenic shock of uncertain etiology, 17 had unique scintigraphic images suggestive of intrathoracic hemorrhage. Of these 17, 5 had a generalized halo of abnormal radioactivity surrounding small hyperdynamic right and left ventricles, 11 had localized regions of intense blood pool activity outside the cardiac chambers (two with compression of single chambers), and one demonstrated marked radionuclide activity in the right hemithorax (2000 ml of blood at reoperation). Twelve patients had exploratory reoperation for control of hemorrhage as a direct result of the scintigraphic findings, three were successfully treated with fresh frozen plasma and platelet infusions along with medical interventions to optimize cardiac performance, and two patients died in cardiogenic shock (presumed tamponade) without reoperation. In the 12 reoperated patients, all were confirmed to have active pericardial bleeding. Scintigraphic localization of abnormal blood pools within the pericardium corresponded to the sites at which active bleeding was witnessed at reoperation. The abnormal bleeding was etiologically related to the tamponade state, with marked improvement in hemodynamics after reoperation. Nine additional patients were reoperated for presumed tamponade after RNV revealed an exaggerated halo of photon deficiency surrounding the cardiac chambers

  2. New insights into the development of technetium-99m labelling kits based on monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, B. [Hoechst AG, Werk Kalle-Albert, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    Two-vial antibody kits for tumour scintigraphy, detection of inflammation and scintigraphy of the bone marrow are freeze-dried preparation ready for labelling with {sup 99m}Tc according to the instructions for use. Experiences about possible influences of antibody structure, in vitro analytical methods (TLC and HPLC), different types of eluate ({sup 99}Tc : {sup 99m}Tc ratios), sampling times, activity range, ratio between protein amount and activity as well as tin(II) amounts on radiochemical purity are described or discussed on an experimental basis. In a special case, {sup 99m}Tc Mab BW 250/183 suffered from an In vitro effect during quality control (only TLC) which gave false increased values for {sup 99m}Tc- pertechnetate. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  3. Technetium-99m labeled antisense probes uptake in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.X.; Qin, G.M.; An, R.; Cao, G.X.; Cao, W.; Gao, Z.R.

    2002-01-01

    In the arterial wall, smooth muscle cells (SMC) normally exist in a quiescent, differentiated state, representing the contractile phenotype. During the development of atherosclerosis SMC change towards the synthetic phenotype going along with proliferation, chemotactic response and increased monocyte binding. The Fas/Fas ligand/caspase death-signaling pathway, Bcl-2 protein family/mitochondria, the tumor suppressive gene p53, and the proto-oncogene c-myc may be activated in atherosclerotic lesions, and mediates vascular apoptosis during the development of atherosclerosis. The atherosclerotic plaques contained 3-4 fold more c-myc mRNA than those in the normal aortic arteries, while increased Bax and Bak coupled with lack/paucity of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL are associated with SMC apoptosis in advanced lesions. Methods: 1 Oligonucleotide Conjugation: A solution of single stranded amine-derivatized DNA (100-1000μg) was prepared at a concentration of 2 mg/ml in 0.25M sodium bicarbonate, 1 M sodium chloride, 1mM EDTA, pH8.5. Cell uptake studies: 99m Tc- MAG 3 -DNA radioactivity incorporation into porcine coronary smooth muscle cells in the log and plateau phases, respectively, was determined after different times of incubation at 37. The influence of extracellular 99m Tc- MAG 3 -DNA concentration on SMC uptake was also analyzed. [Results] Essentially complete conjugation was achieved by reverse-phase Sep-Pak C18 chromatography analysis. The MAG 3 -DNA was labeled with 99m Tc at room temperature and neutral pH, with a mean labeling efficiency of 80.11%(s.d=2.96%,n=4). The labeled antisense DNA still remained the ability to hybridize with its complementary DNA. After labeling, the stability of the DNA in saline or serum was retained as determined by reverse-phase Sep-Pak C18 chromatography analysis, except a shift at 30 min in serum incubation that suggesting a short time serum protein binding. 99m Tc-MAG 3 -c-myc uptake plateaued at 60 min and was directly proportional to the

  4. Noninvasive imaging of malignant tumors using laminin peptide fragments YIGSR labeled with Technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, G.M.; Zhang, Y.X.; Hu, J.; An, R.; Gao, Z.R.; Cao, G.X.; Hnatowich, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals that localize specifically at certain sites (such as peptides directed against receptors expressed on tumor cells or antibodies with high binding affinities for bacterial determinants) may be expected to display greater specificity of localization. Peptides, which diffuse rapidly into target lesions and clear rapidly elsewhere, may be expected to enjoy a pharmacokinetic advantage over those, such as antibodies, which accumulate and clear more slowly. The laminin peptide fragments YIGSR is known to bind to a 67-kDa laminin receptor. This receptor is understood to be expressed at higher than normal levels in malignant tumor cells, particularly those of breast and colon carcinomas. Methods 1 peptide conjugation and labeling A 2.5 mg/mL solution of YIGSR in 0.1 M N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer, pH8.0, and a fresh 10mg/mL solution of NHS-S-acetyl-MAG 3 in dimethylformamide dried over molecular sieve were prepared. 2 biodistribution and imaging studies A colony of KM mice (15-20g) were inoculated with 1x10 6 Ehrlich (breast) carcinoma tumor cells in the right thigh, and the tumors were allowed to grow for 6-7 days to a size of 1.0-1.5 cm in diameter. Biodistribution studies were performed in 40 KM mice after 50 μCi per mouse of 99m Tc-labeled YIGSR were injected intravenously. A total of 10 mice were injected intravenously in the tail vein with 1-2 mCi of 99m Tc-labeled YIGSR, immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and imaged periodically from 0.5 hr to 24 hr with a gamma camera. The identical imaging procedure was also performed in mice with sterile infection/inflammation lesions to evaluate the specificity. Results Essentially complete conjugation was achieved by reverse-phase Sep-Pak C18 chromatography analysis. The highest accumulation of label was in the kidney first, with the liver and small bowel next. The injected activity localized in the lesion as early as 15 min and reached a saturation value at 3

  5. A simple method to determine the blood volume of newborns with serum-albumin labeled with technetium-99m (HSA-sup(99m)Tc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.; Vaz, F.A.C.; Rockmann, R.L.; Barreto, T.M.; Eston, T.E. de; Carvalho, N.

    1973-01-01

    A method for determination of small volumes, with which it is determined blood volume of 11 newborns, is described. By injecting through the anterior fontannelle 1 ml a human serum albumin solution labelled with technetium-99m and withdrawing from the posterior fontanelle blood samples of 1.2 to 1.5 ml at 10, 20 and 30 minutes after the injection, the possibility of determining blood volume with only two of these samples without using a standard is shown. Non-significant whole body radiation (3.2 mrad/6h) is shown as well [pt

  6. Study of potential utility of new radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. The radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25 MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 min. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3 ± 0.15 MBq and 1.07 ± 0.6 MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  7. Experimental study of radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose for tumor diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Bragina, O.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.; Dergilev, A.

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. Radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B 1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 minutes. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D- glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3±0.15MBq and 1.07±0.6MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio- D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  8. Study of potential utility of new radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeltchan, R., E-mail: r.zelchan@yandex.ru; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il’ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with {sup 99m}Tc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with {sup 99m}Tc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. The radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 min. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3 ± 0.15 MBq and 1.07 ± 0.6 MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  9. 99mTechnetium labelled vasoactive intestinal peptide analogue for rapid localization of tumours in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.; Pallela, V.; Marcus, C.S.; Diggles, L.; Pham, H.L.; Ahdoot, R.; Kalinowski, E.A.; Saeed, S.; Minami, C.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, imaging tumours with receptor specific biomolecules has been the focus of increasing interest. VIP has a high affinity for specific receptors that are expressed in high density on a large number of malignant tumours. VIP was modified (TP 3654) without compromising its biological activity, and labelled with 99m Tc. Pharmacokinetics and feasibility studies were performed in three normal volunteers and 11 patients with a history of cancer. Imaging was performed for up to two h post-injection. Within 24 h after injection of 99m Tc-TP 3654 (10-15 mCi/5 μg), approximately 70% of the tracer cleared through the kidneys, and 20% through the liver. Blood clearance was rapid. No adverse reaction was noted in any subjects. All known tumours were clearly delineated within 20 min. Findings were compared with the results of 99m Tc-MIBI, CT, MRI, or histology. There was concordance in nine patients. In the other two, only the VIP scan was positive for tumours known to express VIP receptors. The early results of imaging tumours with 99m Tc-VIP are promising and warrant further studies. (author)

  10. Bacterial infection identification by an anti-peptidoglycan aptamer labeled with Technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro; Ferreira, Iêda Mendes [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barros, Andre Luis Branco de; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: A variety of radiopharmaceuticals is used to detect infection, but long-term clinical use has shown that the majority of them cannot distinguish between inflammation and infection. Nuclear medicine clinics are still awaiting the optimal scintigraphic imaging agents capable of discriminating between infection and inflammation, and between fungal and bacterial infections. Aptamers are oligonucleotides that display high affinity and specificity for their molecular targets and are emerging as promising molecules for radiopharmaceuticals development. Material and Methods: An aptamer for the peptidoglycan (main constituent of bacterial cell walls) termed Antibac1 was selected in a previous work. In the present study, this aptamer were labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and evaluated for bacterial infections identification by scintigraphy. All protocols were approved by the local Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (CETEA / UFMG), Protocol number 108/2014. Labeling with {sup 99m}Tc was performed by the direct method and the complex stability was evaluated in saline, plasma and presence of cysteine. The biodistribution and scintigraphic imaging studies with the {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac1 were carried out in two distinct experimental infection models: Swiss mice infected in the right thigh with Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans. {sup 99m}Tc radiolabeled library, consisting of oligonucleotides with random sequences, was used as a control in both experimental models. The direct radiolabeling allowed radiolabel yields above 90%. Results: A high complex stability was obtained in saline solution and plasma, but 51% of transchelation was verified after 24 h in the presence of cysteine. Scintigraphic images of S. aureus infected mice that received the {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac1 showed target to non-target ratios of 4.7 ± 0.90 and 4.6 ± 0.10 at 1.5 and 3.0 h, respectively. These values were statistically higher than

  11. Bacterial infection identification by an anti-peptidoglycan aptamer labeled with Technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro; Ferreira, Iêda Mendes; Barros, Andre Luis Branco de; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2017-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: A variety of radiopharmaceuticals is used to detect infection, but long-term clinical use has shown that the majority of them cannot distinguish between inflammation and infection. Nuclear medicine clinics are still awaiting the optimal scintigraphic imaging agents capable of discriminating between infection and inflammation, and between fungal and bacterial infections. Aptamers are oligonucleotides that display high affinity and specificity for their molecular targets and are emerging as promising molecules for radiopharmaceuticals development. Material and Methods: An aptamer for the peptidoglycan (main constituent of bacterial cell walls) termed Antibac1 was selected in a previous work. In the present study, this aptamer were labeled with 99m Tc and evaluated for bacterial infections identification by scintigraphy. All protocols were approved by the local Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (CETEA / UFMG), Protocol number 108/2014. Labeling with 99m Tc was performed by the direct method and the complex stability was evaluated in saline, plasma and presence of cysteine. The biodistribution and scintigraphic imaging studies with the 99m Tc-Antibac1 were carried out in two distinct experimental infection models: Swiss mice infected in the right thigh with Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans. 99m Tc radiolabeled library, consisting of oligonucleotides with random sequences, was used as a control in both experimental models. The direct radiolabeling allowed radiolabel yields above 90%. Results: A high complex stability was obtained in saline solution and plasma, but 51% of transchelation was verified after 24 h in the presence of cysteine. Scintigraphic images of S. aureus infected mice that received the 99m Tc-Antibac1 showed target to non-target ratios of 4.7 ± 0.90 and 4.6 ± 0.10 at 1.5 and 3.0 h, respectively. These values were statistically higher than found for the 99m Tc

  12. Selective intracoronary injection of technetium 99m-labelled microspheres (outcome of 83 examinations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delebarre, Philippe.

    1976-01-01

    Coronarography supplies little information on the functional repercussions of a coronary stenosis and the state of the downstream arteriole bed. To overcome these inadequacies and to clarify the indications of aorta-coronary bridging, human albumin particles (microspheres or macro-aggregates) are injected into the coronary trunks during coronarography. The advantage of microspheres over macro-aggregates is their perfectly calibrated diameter (15+-5 microns). In the authors experience, and ours based on 83 examinations, the method presents no particular danger and adds very little to the time taken by conventional coronarography. For the method to be considered reliable it must be proved that the heterogeneities of distribution always correspond to anomalies of the coronary circulation, which seems not always to be the case. Our experience tends to show that as long as a hypoactivity zone or a scintigraphic blank cannot be referred with certainty to an actual functional or anatomical anomaly of the myocardium circulation this examination cannot be used as an argument for or against aorta-coronary bridging nor to predict its development. Where the study of angina pectoris with healthy coronaries is concerned a greater number of observations would be necessary in order to estimate, in cases of normal coronarography, to what extent anomalies of the coronary micro-circulation are responsible. In any case the difficulty of eliminating artefacts is a major obstacle to the reliability of the method. Radioelements such as 43 K or 201 Tl injected intraveinously seem to offer, more simply and without the risk of artefacts, the information looked for on labelled microsphere scintigraphs [fr

  13. In vivo red blood cell compatibility testing using indium-113m tropolone-labeled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, G.J.; Gravelle, D.; Dietz, G.; Driedger, A.A.; King, M.; Cradduck, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    In vivo radionuclide crossmatch is a method for identifying compatible blood for transfusion when allo- or autoantibodies preclude the use of conventional crossmatching techniques. A technique for labeling small volumes of donor red blood cells with [/sup 113m/In]tropolone is reported. The use of /sup 113m/In minimizes the accumulation of background radioactivity and the radiation dose especially so when multiple crossmatches are performed. Labeling red cells with [/sup 113m/In]tropolone is faster and easier to perform than with other radionuclides. Consistently high labeling efficiencies are obtained and minimal /sup 113m/In activity elutes from the labeled red blood cells. A case study involving 22 crossmatches is presented to demonstrate the technique. The radiation dose equivalent from /sup 113m/In is significantly less than with other radionuclides that may be used to label red cells

  14. Uncaria tomentosa extract: evaluation of effects on the in vitro and in vivo labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ramos Farias Moreno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence (in vivo and in vitro of an Uncaria tomentosa extract (Cats claw on the labeling of red blood cells (RBCs and plasma and cellular proteins with technetium-99m (Tc-99m was evaluated. For the in vivo treatment, animals were treated with Cats claw. For the in vitro treatment, heparinized blood was incubated with Cats claw before the addition of stannous chloride (SnCl2 and Tc-99m. Samples of plasma (P and RBCs were separated and also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid. The soluble and insoluble fractions of P and RBCs were isolated. The analysis of the results of the in vivo study, indicates that there is no significant alteration on the uptake of Tc-99m by the blood constituents, but it significantly decrease (pO objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência (in vivo e in vitro de um extrato de Uncaria tomentosa (unha de gato na marcação de hemácias e proteínas plasmáticas e celulares com tecnécio-99m (Tc-99m. Para o estudo in vivo, animais foram tratados com um extrato de unha de gato. Para o estudo in vitro, sangue heparinizado foi incubado com o extrato de unha de gato antes da adição de cloreto estanoso (SnCl2 e Tc-99m. Amostras de plasma e células foram separadas e também precipitadas com ácido tricloracético. As frações solúveis e insolúveis foram isoladas. A análise dos resultados do estudo in vivo, indica que não houve alteração significante na captação de Tc-99m pelos constituintes sanguíneos, entretanto, no tratamento in vitro, ocorreu redução significante da marcação de constituintes sanguíneos. Esses efeitos poderiam ser justificados por quelação dos íons estanoso e pertecnetato e bloqueio dos sítios de ligação do Tc-99m.

  15. Cold hematoma visualized by technetium-99m labeled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beanblossom, M.

    1986-01-01

    A 64-yr-old male was admitted to the hospital with severe abdominal pain associated with vomiting. Upon examination, the patients Hgb was 7.8 with a WBC count of 13.3 band cells of 7 and a recticulocyte count of 3.4, no evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient's prior history revealed involvement in an automobile accident ∼ 10 days prior to this admission. At that time, he suffered multiple contusions and abrasions with a fracture to his left clavicle. Apparently there were no episodes of abdominal pain or vomiting prior to the onset of illness perceived on the day of admission. A liver/spleen scan was done. Four millicuries of /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid were intravenously injected using a bolus injection technique while obtaining multiple dynamic images. The flow study was unremarkable, demonstrating no abnormalities to the great vessels and good perfusion to both organs. Static images of the liver and spleen revealed a straightening or flatness to the lateral border of the spleen with a small diminished area of tracer sulfur colloid localization at the posterolateral aspect of that organ. This finding raised the suspicion that a small subcapsular hematoma had developed at the mid-posterolateral aspect of the spleen. Twenty-four hours after hospital admission, 4 units of packed RBCs were transfused into the patient. Although there was at this time still no evidence of abnormal bleeding, it was felt that because of the strong symptomatic correlation for internal bleeding, a radionuclide bleeding site study should be ordered and immediately performed

  16. Scintigraphic imaging with technetium-99M-labelled ceftizoxime is a reliable technique for the diagnosis of deep sternal wound infection in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo Henrique Nogueira; Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Tarabal, Bernardo; Takenaka, Isabella; Braga, Otavio; Vidigal, Paula Vieira Teixeira; Gelape, Claudio Leo; Araujo, Ivana Duval, E-mail: phnc@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: to evaluate whether scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled ceftizoxime ({sup 99m}Tc-CFT) can differentiate mediastinitis from aseptic inflammation associated with sternotomy. Methods: twenty female Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups: S (control) -partial upper median sternotomy with no treatment; SW (control) - sternotomy and treatment of sternal wounds with bone wax; SB - sternotomy and infection with Staphylococcus aureus; SWB - sternotomy with bone wax treatment and bacterial infection. Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-CFT was performed eight days after surgery and images were collected 210 and 360 min after infusion of the radiopharmaceutical. Results: no animals exhibited clinical signs of wound infection at the end of the experiment, although histological data verified acute inflammatory response in those experimentally infected with bacteria. Scintigraphic images revealed that tropism of {sup 99m}Tc-CFT to infected sternums was greater than to their non-infected counterparts. Mean counts of radioactivity in bacteria-infected sternal regions (SB and SWB) were significantly higher (p = 0.0007) than those of the respective controls (S and SW).Conclusion: scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled ceftizoxime is a method that can potentially detect infection post sternotomy and differentiate from aseptic inflammation in animals experimentally inoculated with S. aureus (author)

  17. The male reproductive system and the effect of an extract of a medicinal plant (Hypericum perforatum) on the labeling process of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: santos-filho@uerj.br; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Pesquisa

    2007-09-15

    Hypericum perforatum (hiperico) is a plant that has been used to treat diseases and also inhibits rat and human vas deferens contractility. In nuclear medicine, stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) is used as a reducing agent to obtain radiopharmaceuticals labeling with technetium-99m. As the SnCl{sub 2} seems to have adverse effects related with the reproductive performance of male rabbits as well as the human consumption of hiperico might affect sexual function. In the present work, consistent results show significant changes on the blood constituents labeled by technetium-99m obtained from young rats under the effect of an hiperico extract as opposed to blood samples equally treated taken from elderly rat. Supposedly, this extract could protect the male reproductive system against action of SnCl{sub 2} at least in young rats. The findings described in this work allow introducing a simple assay to evaluate the action of products that could interfere with the male reproductive system. (author)

  18. Consequences of the magnetic field, sonic and radiofrequency waves and intense pulsed light on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Patricia Froes; Costa, Iris do Ceu Clara; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha; Bonelli, Ludmila

    2007-01-01

    Sources of magnetic field, radiofrequency and audible sonic waves and pulsed light have been used in physiotherapy to treat different disorders. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents(Bl-Co) are labeled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) are used. This study evaluated the consequences of magnetic field, radiofrequency and audible sonic waves and intense pulsed light sources on the labeling of Bl-Co with 99m Tc. Blood from Wistar rats was exposed to the cited sources. The labeling of Bl-Co with 99m Tc was performed. Blood not exposed to the physical agents was used(controls). Data showed that the exposure to the different studied sources did not alter significantly (p>0.05) the labeling of Bl-Co. Although the results were obtained with animals, the data suggest that no alteration on examinations performed with Bl-Co labeled with 99m Tc after exposition to the cited agents. The biological consequences associated with these agents would be not capable to interfere with some properties of the Bl-Co. (author)

  19. Consequences of the magnetic field, sonic and radiofrequency waves and intense pulsed light on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Patricia Froes; Costa, Iris do Ceu Clara; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Ariel Ronzio, Oscar [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bonelli, Ludmila [Universidade Salgado de Oliveira, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2007-09-15

    Sources of magnetic field, radiofrequency and audible sonic waves and pulsed light have been used in physiotherapy to treat different disorders. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents(Bl-Co) are labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) are used. This study evaluated the consequences of magnetic field, radiofrequency and audible sonic waves and intense pulsed light sources on the labeling of Bl-Co with {sup 99m}Tc. Blood from Wistar rats was exposed to the cited sources. The labeling of Bl-Co with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Blood not exposed to the physical agents was used(controls). Data showed that the exposure to the different studied sources did not alter significantly (p>0.05) the labeling of Bl-Co. Although the results were obtained with animals, the data suggest that no alteration on examinations performed with Bl-Co labeled with {sup 99m}Tc after exposition to the cited agents. The biological consequences associated with these agents would be not capable to interfere with some properties of the Bl-Co. (author)

  20. Noncytotoxic orange and red/green derivatives of DsRed-Express2 for whole-cell labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glick Benjamin S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-cell labeling is a common application of fluorescent proteins (FPs, but many red and orange FPs exhibit cytotoxicity that limits their use as whole-cell labels. Recently, a tetrameric red FP called DsRed-Express2 was engineered for enhanced solubility and was shown to be noncytotoxic in bacterial and mammalian cells. Our goal was to create derivatives of this protein with different spectral properties. Results Building on previous studies of DsRed mutants, we created two DsRed-Express2 derivatives: E2-Orange, an orange FP, and E2-Red/Green, a dual-color FP with both red and green emission. We show that these new FPs retain the low cytotoxicity of DsRed-Express2. In addition, we show that these new FPs are useful as second or third colors for flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Conclusion E2-Orange and E2-Red/Green will facilitate the production of healthy, stably fluorescent cell lines and transgenic organisms for multi-color labeling studies.

  1. Prognostic value of technetium-99m-labeled single-photon emission computerized tomography in the follow-up of patients after their first myocardial revascularization surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Sales dos Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic value of Technetium-99m-labeled single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT in the follow-up of patients who had undergone their first myocardial revascularization. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study of 280 revascularized patients undergoing myocardial scintigraphy under stress (exercise or pharmacological stress with dipyridamole and at rest according to a 2-day protocol. A set of clinical, stress electrocardiographic and scintigraphic variables was assessed. Cardiac events were classified as "major" (death, infarction, unstable angina and "any" (major event or coronary angioplasty or new myocardial revascularization surgery. RESULTS: Thirty-six major events occurred as follows: 3 deaths, 11 infarctions, and 22 unstable anginas. In regard to any event, 22 angioplasties and 7 new surgeries occurred in addition to major events, resulting a total of 65 events. The sensitivity of scintigraphy in prognosticating a major event or any event was, respectively, 55% and 58%, showing a negative predictive value of 90% and 83%, respectively. Diabetes mellitus, inconclusive stress electrocardiography, and a scintigraphic visualization of left ventricular enlargement were significant variables for the occurrence of a major event. On multivariate analysis, abnormal myocardial scintigraphy was a predictor of any event. CONCLUSION: Myocardial perfusion tomography with Technetium-99m may be used to identify high-risk patients after their first myocardial revascularization surgery.

  2. Preliminary studies of EDDA-tricine-HYNIC-[Tyr3]octreotide labelled with Technetium-99m: radiopharmaceutical development for the diagnostic of neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melero, Laura T.U.H.; Muramoto, Emiko; Arauho, Elaine Bortoleti de

    2007-01-01

    The use of labelled molecules with high specificity for an organ or receptor in scintigraphy, generate good local images of these specific receptors that are expressed for the biomolecule in question, minimizing the exposition of other organs. Small labelled peptides have showed a big potential for tumors image and other diseases in nuclear medicine. The octreotide was the first somatostatin synthetic analog introduced in clinical use in the localization of tumours with superexpression of somatostatin receptors which is a hundred times over in tumors cells that in normal cells. It did many attempts to development of a somatostatin analog labelled with 99mTc utilizing a variety of chelant systems until development the HYNIC-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide, using tricine and EDDA as coligands, showing maintenance of in vivo affinity and promising of biodistribution in animals with induced tumours. This work involved the development of a 99mTc (technetium-99m) radiopharmaceutical based in a somatostatin peptide derivative (Tyr3-octreotide, TOC), with HYNIC chelating group, to be applied in the diagnostic of neuroendocrine tumors in nuclear medicine. Quality control methodologies to be applied in determination of the radiochemical purity of the labelled compound was also studied as well the biodistribution in normal Swiss mouse. The 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC was obtained in high radiochemical yield. Biodistribution studies suggests the potential of this radiopharmaceutical in the diagnostic of neuroendocrine tumours. (author)

  3. The effect of an extract from Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the survival of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostinho, Raquel Terra; Santos Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Missailidis, Sotiris

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of an aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) and on the survival of cultures of Escherichia coli treated with stannous chloride. Blood samples from Wistar rats were treated with reishi extract, radiolabeling procedure was performed, plasma (P), blood cells (BC) and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) fractions of P and BC were separated. The radioactivity was counted for the determination of the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI). Cultures of Escherichia coli AB1157 were treated with stannous chloride in the presence and absence of reishi extract. Blood samples and bacterial cultures treated with NaCl 0.9% were used as controls. Data indicated that reishi extract altered significantly (p 99 mTc and protecting bacterial cultures against oxidative damage induced by stannous chloride. (author)

  4. Role of morphine administration with 99m-technetium-labelled di-isopropyl iminodiacetic acid in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louridas, G.; Botha, J.R.; Esser, J.D.; Savitch, I.; Vas, M.; Levin, J.; Myburgh, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Patients presenting with a clinical diagnosis suggestive of acute cholecystitis had a 99m-technetium-labelled di-isopropyl iminodiacetic acid (DISIDA) scan. Two groups of patients were investigated. In group 1, 66 patients underwent cholescintigraphy and after 60 minutes morphine was given to all patients whose gallbladders had not filled. The accuracy rate of this procedure was 91%, sensitivity 83%, specificity 97%, positive predictive value 96,2% and negative predictive value 87,5%. In group 2, 97 patients had cholescintigraphy with morphine being administered at the beginning of the procedure. The accuracy rate of this investigation was 97,9%, sensitivity 100%, specificity 96,6%, positive predictive value 95% and negative predictive value 100%. We recommend the early use of morphine in all patients undergoing a DISIDA scan for acute cholecystitis

  5. Scintigraphy by sup 99m Tc-in vivo labeled red blood cells. Detection of gastrointestinal bleeding following duodenum-preserving resection of the head of the pancreas. Die Szintigraphie mit sup 99m Tc-in-vivo-markierten Erythrozyten. Nachweis einer intestinalen Blutung nach duodenumerhaltender Pankreaskopfresektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecht-Krauss, D. (Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Nuklearmedizin); Schnarkowski, P.; Friedrich, J.M. (Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik)

    1990-09-01

    Following resection of the head of the pancreas while preserving the duodenum a gastrointestinal haemorrhage was localised by red blood cells labeled in vivo with technetium-99m. The previously performed endoscopy and angiography were normal. The haemorrhage in the region of the pancreaticojejunal anastomosis was confirmed intraoperatively. If intermittent bleedings are suspected, scintigraphy should be performed as a routine measure besides endoscopy and angiography. (orig.).

  6. Technetium-99m-labeled deoxynivalenol from Fusarium mycotoxin alters organ toxicity in BALB/c mice by oral and intravenous route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Chattopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of deoxynivalenol, both intravenously and orally, was investigated in male and female BALB/c mice. Technetium-99m (99m Tc-labeled deoxynivalenol was administered to mice by tail vein injection and orally dosed. Distribution of labeled deoxynivalenol at 26 hours was monitored by gamma-scintigraphy. In the evaluated organs, the accumulation of radioactive deoxynivalenol was correlated with the amount of radioactivity. In addition, the toxicity of deoxynivalenol was measured by biochemical assays followed by histopathological findings. Kidney and hepatic marker enzymes were significantly increased in intravenously administered deoxynivalenol as compared to orally treated mice. Intravenously treated mice showed severe damage in liver and kidney when compared to those orally exposed. Biodistribution of 99mTc-labeled deoxynivalenol differed between oral and intravenous treatment. In intravenously exposed mice, deoxynivalenol was distributed primarily in the liver and kidney whereas in oral exposure, it was found in the stomach and intestines after 26 hours. Deoxynivalenol toxicity, associated with its biodistribution and organ toxicity, was greatest where it had accumulated. The results show that the toxicity of deoxynivalenol is associated with organ accumulation.

  7. Technetium-99m-labeled deoxynivalenol from Fusarium mycotoxin alters organ toxicity in BALB/c mice by oral and intravenous route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, P; Pandey, A; Goyary, D; Chaurasia, A; Singh, L; Veer, V. [Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, Defence Research Laboratory, Assam (India); Department of Life Sciences, Defense Research Development and Organization, New Delhi (India)

    2012-07-01

    The toxicity of deoxynivalenol, both intravenously and orally, was investigated in male and female BALB/c mice. Technetium-99m ({sup 99m} Tc)-labeled deoxynivalenol was administered to mice by tail vein injection and orally dosed. Distribution of labeled deoxynivalenol at 26 hours was monitored by gamma scintigraphy. In the evaluated organs, the accumulation of radioactive deoxynivalenol was correlated with the amount of radioactivity. In addition, the toxicity of deoxynivalenol was measured by biochemical assays followed by histopathological findings. Kidney and hepatic marker enzymes were significantly increased in intravenously administered deoxynivalenol as compared to orally treated mice. Intravenously treated mice showed severe damage in liver and kidney when compared to those orally exposed. Biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled deoxynivalenol differed between oral and intravenous treatment. In intravenously exposed mice, deoxynivalenol was distributed primarily in the liver and kidney whereas in oral exposure, it was found in the stomach and intestines after 26 hours. Deoxynivalenol toxicity, associated with its biodistribution and organ toxicity, was greatest where it had accumulated. The results show that the toxicity of deoxynivalenol is associated with organ accumulation. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the effect of an extract of sabugueiro (Sambucus australis) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Camila Godinho; Rebello, Bernardo Machado; Neves, Rosane de Figueiredo; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Catanho, Maria Teresa Jansem de Almeida

    2007-01-01

    Sambucus australis (sabugueiro) has been used to treat inflammatory and rheumatologic disorders. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) have been used in nuclear medicine to obtain diagnostic images. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a sabugueiro extract on the labeling of blood cells with 99mTc. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with sabugueiro extract and the radiolabeling assay of blood constituents was carried out. After centrifugation, samples of plasma and blood cells were separated. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged to isolate soluble and insoluble fractions. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of activity (%ATI) was determined. Incubation with sabugueiro extract altered significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI incorporated to the blood constituents. These results could be explained due the presence of chemical substances in the sabugueiro extract that present redox and/or chelating action altering the labeling of the blood constituents with 99mTc. (author)

  9. Technetium-99m-labeled deoxynivalenol from Fusarium mycotoxin alters organ toxicity in BALB/c mice by oral and intravenous route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, P; Pandey, A; Goyary, D; Chaurasia, A; Singh, L; Veer, V.

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of deoxynivalenol, both intravenously and orally, was investigated in male and female BALB/c mice. Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc)-labeled deoxynivalenol was administered to mice by tail vein injection and orally dosed. Distribution of labeled deoxynivalenol at 26 hours was monitored by gamma scintigraphy. In the evaluated organs, the accumulation of radioactive deoxynivalenol was correlated with the amount of radioactivity. In addition, the toxicity of deoxynivalenol was measured by biochemical assays followed by histopathological findings. Kidney and hepatic marker enzymes were significantly increased in intravenously administered deoxynivalenol as compared to orally treated mice. Intravenously treated mice showed severe damage in liver and kidney when compared to those orally exposed. Biodistribution of 99m Tc-labeled deoxynivalenol differed between oral and intravenous treatment. In intravenously exposed mice, deoxynivalenol was distributed primarily in the liver and kidney whereas in oral exposure, it was found in the stomach and intestines after 26 hours. Deoxynivalenol toxicity, associated with its biodistribution and organ toxicity, was greatest where it had accumulated. The results show that the toxicity of deoxynivalenol is associated with organ accumulation. (author)

  10. Synthesis and optical properties of pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid carrying a clicked Nile red label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattawut Yotapan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA or its analogues with an environment-sensitive fluorescent label are potentially useful as a probe for studying the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids. In this work, pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA was labeled at its backbone with Nile red, a solvatochromic benzophenoxazine dye, by means of click chemistry. The optical properties of the Nile red-labeled acpcPNA were investigated by UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy in the absence and in the presence of DNA. In contrast to the usual quenching observed in Nile red-labeled DNA, the hybridization with DNA resulted in blue shifting and an enhanced fluorescence regardless of the neighboring bases. More pronounced blue shifts and fluorescence enhancements were observed when the DNA target carried a base insertion in close proximity to the Nile red label. The results indicate that the Nile red label is located in a more hydrophobic environment in acpcPNA–DNA duplexes than in the single-stranded acpcPNA. The different fluorescence properties of the acpcPNA hybrids of complementary DNA and DNA carrying a base insertion are suggestive of different interactions between the Nile red label and the duplexes.

  11. Accelerators for forming cationic technetium complexes useful as radiodiagnostic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tweedle, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions for making cationic radiodiagnostic agents and, in particular, to accelerator compounds for labelling such cationic radiodiagnostic agents, kits for preparing such 99m Tc-labelled cationic radiodiagnostic agents with technetium, and methods for labelling such cationic radiodiagnostic agents with technetium

  12. Lyophilized kits of diamino dithiol compounds for labelling with 99m-technetium. Pharmacokinetics studies and distribution compartmental models of the related complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de

    1995-01-01

    The present work reflects the clinical interest for labelling diamino dithiol compounds with technetium-99m. Both chosen compounds, L,L-Ethylene dicysteine (L,L-EC) and L,L-Ethylene dicysteine diethyl esther (L,L-ECD) were obtained with relative good yield and characterized by IR and NMR. The study of labelling conditions with technetium-99m showed the influence of the type and mass of reducing agent as well as the pH on the formation of complexes with desired biological characteristics. Radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Lyophilised kits of L,L-EC and L,L-ECD for labelling with 99m Tc were obtained, with stability superior to 120 days, when stored under refrigeration, enabling the kits marketing. The ideal formulation of the kits as well as the use of liquid nitrogen in the freezing process, determined the lyophilization success. Distribution biological studies of the 99m Tc complexes were performed on mice by invasive method and on bigger animals by scintigraphic evaluation. Biological distribution studies of the complex 99m Tc-L,L-EC showed fast blood clearance, with the elimination of about 90% of the administered dose after 60 minutes, almost exclusively by the urinary system. The biological distribution results were adjusted to a three compartmental distribution model, as expected for a radiopharmaceutical designed to renal dynamic studies, with tubular elimination. The complex interaction with renal tubular receptors is related with structural characteristics of the compound, more specifically with the presence and location of polar groups. In comparison with 99m Tc-L,L-EC, biological studies of the complex 99m Tc -L,L-ECD showed different distribution aspects, despite some structural similarities. The presence of ethyl groups confers to the complex neutrality and lipophilicity. It cross the intact blood brain barrier and is retained in the brain for enough period

  13. An in vitro analysis of the effect of extracts of natural products (cauliflower and chayotte) on the labeling of lymphocytes with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dire, G.F.; Correia, E.A.; Machado de Mattos, D.M.; Queiroz, M.T.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Blood cells labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used in various procedures in nuclear medicine There are evidences that natural and synthetic drugs can affect the radiolabeling of blood cells with 99mTc. Once chayotte and cauliflower are used as food and also in folk medicine, we decided to evaluated the influence of crude extracts of these medicinal plants on the labeling of lymphocytes with 99mTc. Material and Methods: Blood withdrawn from Wistar rats was treated with histopac 1077, centrifuged and white cells were isolated and a preparation of lymphocytes was obtained. After that, 0.2mL this preparation of lymphocytes was incubated with 0.1 mL of the medicinal plant extracts recently prepared. A fresh solution of stannous chloride and 99mTc, as sodium pertechnetate, were added. After centrifugation the lymphocytes and the supernatant were separated and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) bound to the lymphocytes was determined. Results: The analysis of the results showed that there is not alterations in %ATI in lymphocytes treated with the cauliflower and chayotte extracts. Discussion: Although some authors have described that the chayotte and cauliflower extracts extracts are capable to induce lesions in isolated plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid, showing possible redox properties, these extracts are not capable to alter the labeling of lymphocytes with 99mTc. Conclusion: The studied natural products were not capable to induce sufficiently modifications in the medium and/or in the cells to alter the labeling of lymphocytes with 99mTc

  14. Noncovalent Labeling of Biomolecules with Red and Near- Infrared Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucjan Strekowski

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids can be labeled with a fluorescent marker to allow for their detection. Covalent labeling is achieved by the reaction of an appropriately functionalized dye marker with a reactive group on a biomolecule. The recent trend, however, is the use of noncovalent labeling that results from strong hydrophobic and/or ionic interactions between the marker and biomolecule of interest. The main advantage of noncovalent labeling is that it affects the functional activity of the biomolecule to a lesser extent. The applications of luminescent cyanine and squarylium dyes are reviewed.

  15. Biodistribution Study of the Anaesthetic Sodium Phenobarbital Labelled with Technetium-99m in Swiss Mice Infected with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Balmant Emerique Simões

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Technetium-99m (99mTc is a radionuclide that has negligible enviromnental impact, is easily available, inexpensive and can be used as a radioactive tracer in biological experiences. In order to know the mode of action of sodium phenobarbital in moving adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from mesenteric veins to the liver, we labelled sodium phenobarbital (PBBT with 99mTc and a biodistribution study in infected and non-infected Swiss mice was performed. The PBBT was incubated with stannous chloride used as reducing agent and with 99mTc, as sodium pertechnetate. The radioactivity labelling (% was determined by paper ascending chromatography perfomed with acetone (solvent. The 99mTc-PBBT was administered by intraperitoneal route to Swiss mice infected eight weeks before. The animals were perfused after diferent periods of time (0,1,2,3,4 hr when blood, spleen, liver, portal vein, mesenteric veins, stomach, kidneys and adult worms were isolated. The radioactivity present in these samples was counted in a well counter and the percentage was determined. The radioactivity was mainly taken up by the blood, kidney, liver and spleen. No radioactivity was found on the adult worms. We concluded that the worm shift was due to an action on the host of the sodium phenobarbital

  16. The effect of an extract from Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the survival of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostinho, Raquel Terra [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Santos Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Missailidis, Sotiris [The Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry and Analytical Sciences

    2008-12-15

    This study evaluated effects of an aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) and on the survival of cultures of Escherichia coli treated with stannous chloride. Blood samples from Wistar rats were treated with reishi extract, radiolabeling procedure was performed, plasma (P), blood cells (BC) and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) fractions of P and BC were separated. The radioactivity was counted for the determination of the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI). Cultures of Escherichia coli AB1157 were treated with stannous chloride in the presence and absence of reishi extract. Blood samples and bacterial cultures treated with NaCl 0.9% were used as controls. Data indicated that reishi extract altered significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI of P, BC, IF-P, SF-P, IF-BC and SF-BC, as well as increased the survival of bacterial cultures treated with stannous chloride. Our results suggest that reishi extract could present a redox/chelating action, altering the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc and protecting bacterial cultures against oxidative damage induced by stannous chloride. (author)

  17. Radiolabeled red blood cells: status, problems, and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclidic labels for red cells can be divided into two main categories - cohort or pulse labels, and random labels. The random labels are incorporated into circulating cells of all ages and the labeling process is usually carried out in vitro. The red cell labels in predominant use involve random labeling and employ technetium-99m, chromium-51, indium-111, and gallium-68, roughly in that order. The extent of usefulness depends on the properties of the label such as the half-life, decay mode, and in-vivo stability, etc. Labeled cells can be used for red cell survival measurements when the half-life of the radionuclide is sufficiently long. The major portion of this article deals with random labels.

  18. Radiolabeled red blood cells: status, problems, and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclidic labels for red cells can be divided into two main categories - cohort or pulse labels, and random labels. The random labels are incorporated into circulating cells of all ages and the labeling process is usually carried out in vitro. The red cell labels in predominant use involve random labeling and employ technetium-99m, chromium-51, indium-111, and gallium-68, roughly in that order. The extent of usefulness depends on the properties of the label such as the half-life, decay mode, and in-vivo stability, etc. Labeled cells can be used for red cell survival measurements when the half-life of the radionuclide is sufficiently long. The major portion of this article deals with random labels

  19. The male reproductive system and the effect of an extract of a medicinal plant (Hypericum perforatum on the labeling process of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião David Santos-Filho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypericum perforatum (hiperico is a plant that has been used to treat diseases and also inhibits rat and human vas deferens contractility. In nuclear medicine, stannous chloride (SnCl2 is used as a reducing agent to obtain radiopharmaceuticals labeling with technetium-99m. As the SnCl2 seems to have adverse effects related with the reproductive performance of male rabbits as well as the human consumption of hiperico might affect sexual function. In the present work, consistent results show significant changes on the blood constituents labeled by technetium-99m obtained from young rats under the effect of an hiperico extract as opposed to blood samples equally treated taken from elderly rat.. Supposedly, this extract could protect the male reproductive system against action of SnCl2 at least in young rats. The findings described in this work allow introducing a simple assay to evaluate the action of products that could interfere with the male reproductive system.Hypericum perforatum (hiperico tem sido utilizado para tratar diferentes distúrbios e também inibir a contractilidade do ducto deferente em ratos e em humanos. Na medicina nuclear, o cloreto estanoso (SnCl2 é usado como um agente redutor para obter radiofármacos marcados com tecnécio-99m. Como o SnCl2 parece acarretar efeitos indesejáveis relacionados com o desempenho reprodutivo de coelhos machos e o hiperico pode afetar a função sexual em humanos, o objetivo desse trabalho é apresentar resultados sobre o efeito de um extrato de hiperico na marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com o tecnécio-99m retirados de ratos jovens e idosos. O hiperico parece alterar a marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com tecnécio-99m isolados de sangue de animais jovens. Embora, esse resultado não seja observado em ratos idosos. Provavelmente, o extrato poderia apresentar uma ação protetora para o sistema reprodutivo contra a ação do SnCl2, pelo menos em ratos jovens. Os resultados

  20. Preparation and in vivo biological investigations on a novel radioligand for bone scanning: technetium-99m-labeled zoledronic acid derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jianguo; Qiu Ling; Cheng Wen; Luo Shineng; Ye Wanzhong

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: To enable imaging at an earlier time after injection, a radiopharmaceutical with higher affinity for bone, larger ratio of bone-to-soft tissue uptake and more rapid clearance from blood is required. The nature of diphosphonic acid is a key factor to determine the advantages of the radiopharmaceuticals. The purpose of this study is to optimize the linker chain between the imidazolyl and geminal diphosphonate group in the zoledronic acid (ZL) to develop novel single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) bone imaging agent. Methods: A novel ZL derivative, 1-hydroxy-3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propane-1,1-diyldiphosphonic acid (IPrDP), was successfully prepared and labeled with 99m Tc in a high labeling yield. Biodistribution of 99m Tc-IPrDP and 99m Tc-ZL in normal mice were studied and compared. SPECT bone scanning was performed on the rabbit and a series of dynamic and static images were recorded by Philips SKY Light emission computed tomography. Results: In the biodistribution studies, 99m Tc-IPrDP exhibits significant advantages on the bone resorption and the clearance from soft tissues compared with 99m Tc-ZL. Kinetics of blood clearance in mice showed that T 1/2α and T 1/2β of 99m Tc-IPrDP were 1.47 min and 46.47 min, while those of 99m Tc-ZL were 2.28 and 52.63 min respectively. Excellent images of the rabbit skeleton can be quickly obtained for 99m Tc-IPrDP, which was faster than 99m Tc-ZL and the clinically widely used bone imaging agent 99m Tc-MDP (technetium-99m labeled with methylenediphosphonate). Conclusions: 99m Tc-IPrDP possesses excellent characteristics for the potential application as a novel bone scanning agent.

  1. Technetium-99m as alternative to produce somatostatin-labeled derivatives: comparative biodistribution evaluation with 111In-DTPA-octreotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Ivani B.; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Ueda, Laura T.; Araujo, Elaine B. de; Muramoto, Emiko; Barboza, Marycel F. de; Mengatti, Jair; Silva, Constancia P.G. da

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic somatostatin (SST) analogues have been used in the preparation of receptor-specific radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapy of neuroendocrine (NE) tumors. 111 In-DTPA-Octreotide (OctreoScan®) has found useful for imaging a range of tumors, including NE cancer, carcinoide and lymphoma. Unfortunately, 111 In is a high-cost cyclotron produced radioisotope with gamma emission not so suitable for scintigraphic images and for dosimetry like 99m Tc. This work studied the labeling conditions with 99m Tc and biological distribution in Swiss mice of two SST analogs (HYNIC-Tyr 3 -Octreotide and HYNICTyr 3 - Octreotate) and compared the biodistribution pattern with 111 In-DTPA-Octreotide. 99 mTc-HYNIC-Tyr 3 - Octreotate ( 99m Tc-HYNIC-TATE) and 99m Tc-HYNIC-Tyr 3 -Octreotide ( 99m Tc-HYNIC-OCT) were produced by labeling conditions using tricine and EDDA as coligands. 111 In-DTPA-Octreotide ( 111 In-DTPA-OCT) was produced by labeling DTPA-Octreotide with 111 InCl 3 (Nordion). Radiochemical purity of labeled preparations was determined by ITLC-SG. Biological distribution studies were performed after injection of radiopharmaceuticals on Swiss mice. Labeling procedures resulted on high radiochemical yield for all three preparations and the labeled products presented high in vitro stability. Biological distribution studies evidenced similar general biodistribution of 99m Tc-labeled peptides when compared with indium-labeled peptide with fast blood clearance and elimination by urinary tract. Kidneys uptake of 99 mTc-HYNIC-TATE are similar to 111 In-DTPA-Octreotide, and both are significantly higher than 99 mTc-HYNIC-OCT. All labeled peptides presented similar uptake on liver, but the retention in time at intestines, particularly at large intestine, was more expressive for 111 In-labeled peptide. The %ID of 99m Tc-HYNIC-OCT and 99m Tc-HYNIC-TATE in organs with high density of SST receptors like pancreas and adrenals were significant and similar to obtained for 111

  2. Effect of Hypericum perforatum extract on in vitro labelling of blood elements with technetium-99m and on bioavailability of sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a hypericum extract (Hypericum perforatum) on the labeling of blood elements with technetium- 99m ( 99m Tc) and in the bioavailability of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats. Methods: Blood (heparinized) withdrawn from Wistar rats is incubated with a hypericum extract, with a stannous chloride and with 99m Tc, as sodium pertechnetate ( 99m TcO Na). Plasma (P) and cells (C) are isolated by centrifugation. Samples of P and C are also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA 5%) and soluble (FS-P; FS-C) and insoluble (FI-P; FI-C) fractions are separated. In the bioavailability analysis, the extract or NaCl 0.9% solution is administrated into Wistar rats (gavage) during 15 days. Sodium pertechnetate was administered and after 10 min, the animals are sacrificed, the organs were isolated, the radioactivity determined in a well counter, and the percentages of radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) in the organs are calculated. Results: The hypericum extract decreased significantly (P 99m Tc on the erythrocytes and plasma and cellular proteins. Moreover, it could produce metabolic alterations with influence in the uptake of the radiopharmaceutical 99m TcO 4 Na in bone, muscle, pancreas and thyroid. (author)

  3. Pharmacokinetics of labelled compounds with technetium-99m and samarium-153; Farmacocinetica de compuestos marcados con tecnecio-99m y samario-153

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borda O, L B; Torres L, M N

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish the different pharmacokinetics parameters of the main radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and samarium-153. These parameters could be subsequently used as reference to compare other products with the same use. Mathematical models and a computerized pharmacokinetic program were used to this purpose. A biodistribution study in quadruplicate and/or quintuplicate was conducted for each radiopharmaceutical, data was was obtained in injection dose percentages. The biodistribution study involved the injection of a predetermined dose of the radiopharmaceutical into animals (rats or mice), which were subsequently put away at different time intervals, removing the relevant organs. Activity in each organ was read by means of a well-type NaI scintillation counter, data obtained in activity counts was transformed into injection dose percentages. Based on these percentages, the mathematical model was constructed and the pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained using the computerized program Expo 2 v. 1, which is written in C language and works in windows. Analyzing the results obtained, we can conclude that the use of the Expo 2 v. 1 program for a bi compartmental analysis allowed us to obtain reliable pharmacokinetic parameters which describe what happens in the organism when the radiopharmaceutical passes from the central compartment to the peripheral one and vice versa.

  4. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of recurrent, metastatic, or occult colorectal cancer with technetium 99m-labeled totally human monoclonal antibody 88BV59: results of pivotal, phase III multicenter studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, A N; Klein, J L; Wolff, B G; Baum, R; Chetanneau, A; Pecking, A; Fischman, A J; Hoover, H C; Wynant, G E; Subramanian, R; Goroff, D K; Hanna, M G

    1998-05-01

    To assess the performance and potential clinical impact of a totally human monoclonal antibody, 88BV59 (HumaSPECT) (INTRACEL, Corp, Rockville, MD), in 202 assessable presurgical patients with recurrent, metastatic, or occult colorectal cancer. 88BV59, labeled with technetium Tc 99m (99mTc) (HumaSPECT-Tc), was injected intravenously, and planar and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) images were obtained 14 to 20 hours postinjection. Surgical and pathologic verification of tumor were used as the standard against which the performance of HumaSPECT-Tc imaging and computed tomography (CT) analysis were evaluated. All patients entered onto the recurrent disease study had at least one tumor site defined on CT. The sensitivity of HumaSPECT-Tc in those CT-positive patients was 87%. The specificity of HumaSPECT-Tc was 57% compared with 17% for CT and the difference was statistically significant (P HAHA) response (90 ng/mL) at 9 weeks postinfusion was observed. HumaSPECT-Tc can provide important and accurate information about the presence and location of disease in patients with a high clinical suspicion of metastatic or recurrent colorectal cancer and either positive (known disease) or negative (occult disease) CT scans.

  5. Biodistribution and biological characteristics of p-[(bis-carboxymethyl) aminomethyl carboxyamino] hippuric acid (Pahida) labelled with technetium-99m. Establishment of pharmacokinetics parameters through compartmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, E.B. de.

    1990-01-01

    Biologic distribution of p- [(bis-carboxymethylaminomethyl carboxyamino)] hippuric acid (PAHIDA) labeled with sup(99m)Tc in Wistar rats, showed a selective renal uptake among the other organs and tissues. The compound is predominantly eliminated by urinary tract, with small enterohepatic percent of excretion Chromatographic analysis of urine showed the product and possible metabolites. PAHIDA- sup(99m)Tc blood clearance is relatively rapid and a good percent is transported by plasmatic proteins. The percent binding to the erythrocytes is significant after one hour, this is due probably to hydrolysed technetium. The extrapolation of the plasmatic curve denoted the existence of three exponentials, suggesting a model with three compartments: central or intravascular and two peripherics or extravasculars - rapid and slow exchange (retention). Exponential's half life and the transfer constant (k) among the compartments were determined. The compound retention was reaffirmed by whole body determination. The decomposition of the curve in two exponentials allowed to assess the component's half-life. The compartmental model proposed in agreement with the experimental results, showed the complex retention that may be related the binding with the blood components, the possibility of renal metabolization or a structural impediment in the interaction with the tubular cells receptors. (author)

  6. The quality control of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals produced at the AAEC Research Establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, K.J.

    1983-08-01

    The methods of quality control used for technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals produced at the AAEC Research Establishment are described for both non-fission and fission derived sources of sodium pertechnetate, technetium-99m labelled radipopharmaceuticals, and reagent kits produced for technetium-99m labelling

  7. A study of technetium-labelled sulphide colloid uptake by regional lymph nodes draining a tumour-bearing area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boak, J.L.; Agwunobi, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    With appropriate controls, experimental groups of inbred C 3 H mice bearing a syngeneic mammary carcinoma challenge in their right rear footpads were injected in both rear footpads with 99 Tcsup(m)ASC. Mice were sacrificed 15 and 90 min after the labelled colloid injection. Popliteal and sacral lymph nodes were weighed and counted in a well scintillation counter. A marked inhibition of labelled colloid uptake was demonstrated in regional lymph nodes draining a tumour-bearing area. Rabbits bearing VX 2 carcinoma in a forelimb received 99 Tc sup(m)ASC into each front footpad. Depression of labelled colloid uptake by regional lymph nodes draining tumour was evident on gamma-camera scanning. (author)

  8. Construction of a novel chimera consisting of a chelator-containing Tat peptide conjugated to a morpholino antisense oligomer for technetium-99m labeling and accelerating cellular kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yumin [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States)]. E-mail: yumin.zhang@mpi.com; Tung, C.-H. [Center for Molecular Imaging Research, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); He Jiang [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States); Liu Ning [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States); Yanachkov, Ivan [GlSynthesis, Worcester, MA 01605 (United States); Liu Guozheng [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States); Rusckowski, Mary [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States); Vanderheyden, Jean-Luc [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States)

    2006-02-15

    The attempt to target the limited copies of messenger RNA (mRNA) in vivo with radiolabeled nucleobase oligomers as antisense probes is challenging. Selecting an antisense molecule with superior properties, enhancing the cellular kinetics, and improving the radiolabeling chemistry would be the reasonable approach to accomplish this goal. The present study reports a method to construct a chimera of phosphorodiamidate morpholino nucleobase oligomer (MORF) covalently conjugated to a peptide containing a cell membrane transduction Tat peptide and an N{sub 2}S{sub 2} chelator for technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) radiolabeling (N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Tat-MORF). The radiolabeling properties and cellular kinetics of {sup 99m}Tc-N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Tat-MORF were measured. As hypothesized, the preparation of {sup 99m}Tc-N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Tat-MORF could be achieved by an instant one-step method with labeling efficiency greater than 95%, and the {sup 99m}Tc-N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Tat-MORF showed distinct properties in cell culture from those of a control, the same MORF sequence without Tat but with mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG{sub 3}) as chelator for {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}-MORF). {sup 99m}Tc-N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Tat-MORF achieved maximum accumulation of about 35% within 2 h, while {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}-MORF showed lower and steadily increasing accumulations but of less than 1% in 24 h. These preliminary results demonstrated that the proposed chimera has properties for easy labeling, and {sup 99m}Tc-N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Tat-MORF prepared by this method possesses enhanced cellular kinetics and merits further investigation for in vivo mRNA targeting.

  9. Technetium-99m-Labeled Sulfadiazine: a Targeting Radiopharmaceutical for Scintigraphic Imaging of Infectious Foci Due To Escherichia coli in Mouse and Rabbit Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muhammad Tauqeer; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Rasheed, Rashid; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Usman, Muhammad; Hussain, Zaib

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial infection is one of the vital reasons of morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. It appears silently without bothering the geological borders and imposes a grave threat to humanity. Nuclear medicine technique has an important role in helping early diagnosis of deep-seated infections. The aim of this study was to develop a new radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-labeling sulfadiazine as an infection imaging agent. Radiolabeling of sulfadiazine with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) was carried out using stannous tartrate as a reducing agent in the presence of gentistic acid at pH = 5. The quality control tests revealed ~98% labeling efficiency. Paper chromatographic (PC) and instant thin-layer chromatographic (ITLC) techniques were used to analyze radiochemical yield. Biodistribution and infection specificity of the radiotracer were performed with Escherichia coli (E. coli) infection-induced rats. Scintigraphy and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) study was performed in E. coli-infected rabbits. Scintigraphy indicated E. coli infection targeting potential of 99m Tc-SDZ, while biodistribution study showed minimal uptake of 99m Tc-SDZ in non-targeted tissues. The uptake in the kidneys was found 2.56 ± 0.06, 2.09 ± 0.10, and 1.68 ± 0.09% at 30 min, 1 h, and 4 h, respectively. The infected muscle (target) to non-infected muscle (non-target) ratio (T/NT) was found 4.49 ± 0.04, 6.78 ± 0.07, and 5.59 ± 0.08 at 30 min, 1 h, and 4 h, respectively.

  10. Improving the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children with atypical clinical findings using the technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime-labelled white-blood-cell abdomen scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Dahchin; Shiau Yuchien; Wang Jhijoung; Ho Shungtai; Kao Chiahung

    2002-01-01

    Heading AbstractBackground. Diagnosing acute appendicitis in children with equivocal signs and symptoms may be difficult. The usual approach is hospital observation and frequent re-examination. However, many surgeons are reluctant to delay surgery because of the risk of perforation and a negative laparotomy.Objective. To assess and compare the value of the technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO)-labelled white-blood-cell (WBC) abdomen scan in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children with atypical clinical presentation.Patients and methods. Fifty children with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain and possible acute appendicitis, but atypical findings were included. After IV injection of 99m Tc-HMPAO-labelled WBCs, serial anterior abdomen scans were obtained using a gamma camera.Results. Thirty-three children underwent surgery, while 17 children were managed conservatively and were followed up for at least 1 month. Four children had false-positive results and one child had a false-negative scan result. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the scan to diagnose acute appendicitis in children with atypical findings was 96.7, 80.0, 90.0, 87.8 and 94.1%, respectively.Conclusions. The 99m Tc-HMPAO WBC abdomen scan is a potential tool for diagnosing acute appendicitis in children with atypical clinical findings. The high sensitivity and negative predictive value allows early discharge from the emergency department to avoid costly observation in hospital and potentially unnecessary surgery in those patients with negative scans. (orig.)

  11. Radionuclide imaging using Technetium-99m labelled Sucralfate and Potassium Sucrose Sulfate to detect gastric and duodenal ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, T.E.; Evans, D.G.; Hartman, M.T.; Hagan, P.; Fardi, M.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of the first 33 patients studied with Thechnetium-99m labelled Sucralfate for the detection of peptic ulcers and report preliminary results in 6 patients studied with a new analog of the original labelled compound: Potassium Sucrose Sulfate. Of 33 human studies utilizing 99m Tc-Sucralfate, 16 gave true-positive, 9 gave true-negative, 8 gave false-negative and 0 gave false-positive results. The sensitivity of the scan was 66%; the specificity was 100% for the detection of peptic ulcers

  12. Influence of a reducing agent used to prepare radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m on the adhesive properties of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.M.; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Hirata, R. Jr.; Moreira, L.O.; Mattos-Guaraldi, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: In this work we investigated the influence of stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ) used in nuclear medicine as a reducing agent to prepare radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m, on the survival and adhesive properties of two toxigenic C. diphtheriae of the sucrose fermenting (241strain) and non fermenting (CDC-E8392 strain) biotypes. Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains were submitted to survival and filamentation induction assays using different concentrations of SnCl 2 . The influence of SnCl 2 on the adhesive properties of C.diphtheriae were evaluated by bacterial autoaggregation, haemagglutination, adherence to glass surface and lectin-binding assays. Results: Differences in survival fractions suggested differences in susceptibility of microorganisms to bactericidal effect of stannous chloride. A percentage of 0.4% bacterial cells of no.241 strain and 0.04% of CDC-E8392 strain survived after 220 μl ml -1 SnCl 2 treatment. Results of both polystyrene and spontaneous autoaggregation tests showed an increase in the hydrophobic surface properties of C. diphtheriae strains. SnCl 2 induced spontaneous bacterial autoaggregation of sucrose fermenting 241 strain. SnCl 2 enhanced adherence to glass and totally inhibited the haemagglutinating activity of the non-sucrose fermenting strain CDC-E8392 strain (original titer=32). Decrease in haemagglutinatination was dependent on the concentration of SnCl 2 used. Lectin-binding assays demonstrated increase in the expression of cell surface receptors to lectin with affinity for molecules containing mannose residues after treatment with SnCl 2 . The presence of SnCl 2 induced differences in the expression of bacterial surface carbohydrates possibly related with differences in degrees of haemagglutination and adherence to glass of diphtheria bacilli. Conclusion: The presence of SnCl 2 may influence on the adhesive properties of bacterial pathogens. The occurrence of cell filamentation suggests a potential genotoxicity

  13. Labeling of new formulation of tin-sucralfate freeze-dried kit with technetium-99m and its biological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azzawi, H.M.A.K.; Abas, S.A.E.; Ahmed, S.S.; Omran, S.G.; Risen, R.H.; Al-Nuzal, S.M.D.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation deals with a simple preparation of new formulation of tin-sucralfate freeze-dried kit (F.D.K.), to be directly labeled with 99m Tc at optimal pH value of 7.0. The lyophilized form containing 100 mg sucralfate and 11.3 mg dihydrated stannous chloride. Other optimal pH values of the preparation were found to be from 4.0 to 11.0. The range of sucralfate amount studied (50-500 mg) not affected the radiochemical purity of the labeled complex. The radiochemical purity and the stability of the labeled preparation that assessed by filtration were more than 95%. 99m Tc sucralfate was radiochemical stable up to a specific activity of 1,000 mCi per gram which was more stable than earlier published value (700 mCi per gram) without any radiolytic decomposition. The biological behavior of 99m Tc-pertechnetate was evaluated in two groups of animals, the first group (neither fasted nor ulcerated) and the second group (fasted and ulcerated mice). The data of organ distribution of 99m Tc-sucralfate in ulcerated fasted mice showed that more than 99% of the administered dose was accumulated in the stomach (87.92%) and intestine (11.43%). The radioanalytical results together with the in vivo-biological behavior of the labeled preparation demonstrate it's stability, efficacy and usefulness in medical applications for the detection of gastrointestinal ulcers. (author)

  14. Results of quality control studies of technetium 99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals prepared from kits (1978-79)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.R.; Rockwell, L.J.; Welsh, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of quality control studies of Tc 99m-labelled normal albumin, macroaggregated albumin, and bone imaging radiopharmaceuticals prepared from commercially available kits. It includes all analyses performed from January 1978 to December 1979. The results presented were obtained through the application of various in vitro and animal (mouse) biodistribution studies

  15. Discussion on twenty-two hepatobiliary scintigraphs performed with technetium 99m-labelled N-(2,6 dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetic acid (or HIDA-99mTc) at the Val-de-Grace Army Instruction Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoste, Philippe.

    1978-12-01

    Intraveinously injected technetium 99m-labelled N-(2,6 dimethyl-phenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetic acid, or HIDA-99mTc, is taken up by the hepatocytes and secreted in the bile, a fraction being normally eliminated by the kidneys. Isotopic examination with HIDA-99mTc gives valuable information on the morphology of the liver during the first minutes of the test, thus revealing the presence of parenchyma disease. In all observed cases of secondary hepatic localisations in particular the HIDA-99mTc images overlie those obtained with technetium colloids. By the examination it is also possible: - to establish the existence or otherwise of a functional vesicle, - to follow the path of the radiotracer along the bile duct. In short, HIDA-99mTc hepatobiliary scintigraphy is particularly useful for the study of hepatocyte uptake and bile elimination since it allows a continuous quantitative study of the liver-bile function under given physiological conditions [fr

  16. Results of quality control studies of technetium 99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals prepared from kits (1980-81)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report summarized the results of quality control studies of Tc 99m labelled human serum albumin, macroaggregated albumin, bone imaging and reticuloendothelial system imaging radiopharmaceuticals prepared from commercially available kits. It includes all analyses performed from January 1980 to December 1981 by the radiopharmaceutical quality control section of the Radiation Protection Bureau. These results were obtained by the application of various in vitro and animal (mouse) biodistribution studies

  17. Immunospecific red cell binding of iodine 125-labeled immunoglobulin G erythrocyte autoantibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masouredis, S.P.; Branks, M.J.; Garratty, G.; Victoria, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The primary interaction of autoantibodies with red cells has been studied by using labeled autoantibodies. Immunoglobulin G red cell autoantibodies obtained from IgG antiglobulin-positive normal blood donors were labeled with radioactive iodine and compared with alloanti-D with respect to their properties and binding behavior. Iodine 125 -labeled IgG autoantibody migrated as a single homogeneous peak with the same relative mobility as human IgG on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric focusing pattern of labeled autoantibodies varied from donor to donor but was similar to that of alloanti-D, consisting of multiple IgG populations with isoelectric points in the neutral to alkaline range. 125 I-autoantibody bound to all human red cells of common Rh phenotypes. Evidence for immunospecific antibody binding of the labeled autoantibody was based on variation in equilibrium binding to nonhuman and human red cells of common and rare phenotypes, enhanced binding after red cell protease modification, antiglobulin reactivity of cell-bound IgG comparable to that of cell-bound anti-D, and saturation binding in autoantibody excess. Scatchard analysis of two 125 I-autoantibody preparations yielded site numbers of 41,500 and 53,300 with equilibrium constants of 3.7 and 2.1 X 10(8) L X mol-1. Dog, rabbit, rhesus monkey, and baboon red cells were antigen(s) negative by quantitative adsorption studies adsorbing less than 3% of the labeled autoantibody. Reduced ability of rare human D--red blood cells to adsorb the autoantibody and identification of donor autoantibodies that bind to Rh null red blood cells indicated that eluates contained multiple antibody populations of complex specificities in contrast to anti-D, which consists of a monospecific antibody population. Another difference is that less than 70% of the autoantibody IgG was adsorbed by maximum binding red blood cells as compared with greater than 85% for alloanti-D

  18. Value of radioimmunoscintigraphy with technetium-99m labelled anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (BW431/26) in the detection of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poshyachinda, M.; Chaiwatanarat, T.; Saesow, N.; Thitathan, S.; Voravud, N.

    1996-01-01

    This study was undertaken as part of a Coordinated Research Programme initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency to evaluate the usefulness of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) in the management of patients with colorectal cancer. Technetium-99m labelled BW431/26, a monoclonal antibody against cardinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was used. The study included 73 patients (31 females and 42 males). Sixty-eight patients were suspected of having recurrent colorectal adenocarcinoma while another five were suspected to have primary colorectal cancer. Images were acquired at 10 min and 4 and 24 h following the injection of radioantibody. The efficacy of RIS in tumour detection was evaluated by the findings at surgery, histological investigation and/or other diagnostic modalities and clinical follow-up. Four of five patients with suspected primary colorectal cancer gave true-positive results (three at primary sites, one at the site of a metastatic lesion) while one was flase-positive. The overall accuracy of RIS in the diagnosis of recurrent colorectal cancer was 87%. Its sensitivity in the detection of locoregional or abdominal recurrence and liver metastases was 97% and 89% respectively. RIS was more accurate than computed tomography (CT) scan in the detection of pelvic recurrence and liver metastases while CT scan was far superior to RIS in detecting lung metastases. RIS proved most useful in patents who had rising CEA levels on clinical follow-up but in whom other work-up, including CT scan, was negative. The advantages of RIS include the ability to detect tumour recurrence prior to other investigations and to identify tumour recurrence in areas such as the pelvis, where CT and magnetic resonance imaging have their greatest weaknesses in diagnosing recurrent disease. The imaging accuracy is significantly increased when combined CT and antibody imaging is performed. (orig.)

  19. Studies on focal alveolar bone healing with technetium (Tc)-99m labeled methylene diphosphonate and gold-collimated cadmium telluride probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, M.; Hosain, F.; Engelke, W.; Zeichner, S.J.; Ruttimann, U.E.; Webber, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The benefit of using a collimator for a miniaturized cadmium telluride probe was evaluated by monitoring the bone-healing processes for 13 weeks after the induction of small iatrogenic alveolar bone lesions in one side of the mandible in beagles. Technetium (Tc)-99m labeled methylene diphosphonate (200 to 300 MBq, 5.1 to 8.1 mCi, in a solution of 0.5 to 1 ml, intravenously) was used as a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical. The radioactivity over the bone lesion (L) and the contralateral normal site (C) in the mandible were measured between 1.5 and 2 hours after injection of the tracer, and the activity ratio L/C served as an index of relative bone uptake. A study of six dogs revealed that the healing response to a hemispheric bone defect of 2 mm diameter in the cortical bone could not be detected by an uncollimated probe, and in a repeated study in two dogs the use of a gold collimator (5 mm in diameter, 5 mm in length) did not increase the L/C ratio significantly. A second study in six dogs with 5 mm lesions showed that although systematic trends in the time courses of the L/C ratio obtained both with and without the collimator could be demonstrated, the L/C ratio of collimated versus uncollimated measurements was significantly (p less than 0.005) increased. In three of the latter six dogs, abscesses developed after 9 weeks, leading to a second increase (p less than 0.05) of the L/C ratio with collimation compared with the noninflammation group; without collimation no significant (p greater than 0.15) difference between the two groups could be demonstrated

  20. Effects of positive expiratory pressure on pulmonary clearance of aerosolized technetium-{sup 99m}-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid in healthy individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Isabella Martins de, E-mail: albuisa@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil). Departamento de Fisioterapia e Reabilitacao; Cardoso, Dannuey Machado; Paiva, Dulciane Nunes [Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Masiero, Paulo Ricardo; Menna-Barreto, Sergio Saldanha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre (Brazil); Resqueti, Vanessa Regiane; Fregonezi, Guilherme Augusto de Freitas [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) on pulmonary epithelial membrane permeability in healthy subjects. Methods: We evaluated a cohort of 30 healthy subjects (15 males and 15 females) with a mean age of 28.3 ± 5.4 years, a mean FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio of 0.89 ± 0.14, and a mean FEV{sub 1} of 98.5 ± 13.1% of predicted. Subjects underwent technetium-99m labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ({sup 99m}TcDTPA) radio aerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy in two stages: during spontaneous breathing; and while breathing through a PEP mask at one of three PEP levels—10 cmH{sub 2}O (n = 10), 15 cmH{sub 2}O (n = 10), and 20 cmH{sub 2}O (n = 10). The {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA was nebulized for 3 min, and its clearance was recorded by scintigraphy over a 30-min period during spontaneous breathing and over a 30-min period during breathing through a PEP mask. Results: The pulmonary clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA was significantly shorter when PEP was applied—at 10 cmH{sub 2}O (p = 0.044), 15 cmH{sub 2}O (p = 0.044), and 20 cmH{sub 2}O (p = 0.004) - in comparison with that observed during spontaneous breathing. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that PEP, at the levels tested, is able to induce an increase in pulmonary epithelial membrane permeability and lung volume in healthy subjects. (author)

  1. Evaluation by biodistribution of two anti-peptidoglycan aptamers labeled with Technetium-99m for in vivo bacterial infection identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Iêda M.; Lacerda, Camila M.S.; Santos, Sara R.; Andrade, Antero S.R. de; Fernandes, Simone O.; Barros, André B. de; Cardoso, Valbert N.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear medicine clinics are still awaiting optimal scintigraphic imaging agents capable of discriminating between infection and inflammation, and between fungal and bacterial infections. Aptamers are oligonucleotides that display high affinity and specificity for their molecular targets and are emerging as promising molecules for radiopharmaceuticals development. In the present study, two aptamers for peptidoglycan (termed Antibac1 and Antibac2) were labeled with 99m Tc and evaluated for bacterial infection identification by biodistribution. The direct labeling method with 99m Tc allowed radiolabel yields higher than 90% and the complexes were stable in saline, plasma and cysteine excess. The 99m Tc-Antibac1 in the group infected with S. aureus presented a target/non-target ratio (T/NT) of 2.81 ± 0.67, significantly higher than verified for the 99m Tc-library (control): 1.52 ± 0.07. A radiolabeled library of oligonucleotides with random sequences was used as a control for monitoring nonspecific uptake at the site of infection. In the model with C. albicans infection the T/NT ratio for 99m Tc-Antibac1 was 1.46 ± 0.11, similar that obtained for the 99m Tc-library in the same model: 1.52 ± 0.05. The 99m Tc-Antibac2 in the group infected with S. aureus showed a T/NT ratio of 2.61 ± 0.66, statistically higher than achieved for the 99m Tc-library: 1.52 ± 0.07. In the group infected with C. albicans this ratio for 99m Tc-Antibac2 was 1.75 ± 0.19, also statistically higher in relation to the 99m Tc-library: 1.52 ± 0.05. Both aptamers were effective in identifying bacterial infection foci, but only 99m Tc-Antibac1 showed no cross reactivity for fungal cells. (author)

  2. Acid-citrate-dextrose compared with heparin in the preparation of in vivo/in vitro technetium-99m red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, W.C.; Dees, S.M.; Freitas, J.E.; Dworkin, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Red blood cells labeled in vivo/in vitro with Tc-99m (Tc-99m RBC) were prepared in a series of 21 patients and two normal volunteers. In each subject both heparin and acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) solutions were used to label tandem blood samples. The immediate preinjection binding efficiency (BE) was then determined. In each of the 23 studies, the ACD preparation yielded superior BE. The average BE was 93.47% (+/- 3.78) with ACD and 87.23% (+/- 4.29) with heparin. With the ACD method the effect of carrier Tc-99 may be as great as a 24% reduction in BE observed when initial eluates from long-ingrowth-time generators were used. Improved image quality with minimal renal and urinary-bladder activity results with ACD labeling. It is concluded that the use of ACD results in superior RBC labeling with less nontarget activity relative to heparin and is preferred over heparin for preparing in vivo/in vitro Tc-99m RBC

  3. Synthesis and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of novel mono- and trivalent technetium-99m labeled ghrelin peptide complexes as potential diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koźmiński, Przemysław; Gniazdowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ghrelin is an endogenous hormone present in blood. It is released from the oxyntic cells (X/A-like cells) of the stomach and fundus and can exist in two forms: as an acylated and des-acylated ghrelin. Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHS-R). Overexpression of GHS-R1a receptor was identified in cells of different types of tumors (e.g. pituitary adenoma, neuroendocrine tumors of the thyroid, lung, breast, gonads, prostate, stomach, colorectal, endocrine and non-endocrine pancreatic tumors). This fact suggests that gamma radionuclide labeled ghrelin peptide may be considered as a potential diagnostic radiopharmaceutical. Methods: Ghrelin peptide labeled with mono- and trivalent technetium-99m complexes, 99m Tc-Lys-GHR, has been prepared on the n.c.a. scale. The physicochemical (stability, charge, shape, lipophilicity) and biological (receptor affinity, biodistribution) properties of the conjugates have been studied relevant to use the conjugates as receptor-based diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals. Results: The obtained conjugates [ 99m Tc(CO) 3 L N,O (CN-Lys-GHR)] + , 99m Tc(CO) 3 L S,O (CN-Lys-GHR) and 99m Tc(NS 3 )(CN-Lys-GHR) show different shape, charge, lipophilicity and two of them, 99m Tc(CO) 3 L S,O (CN-Lys-GHR) and 99m Tc(NS 3 )(CN-Lys-GHR), high stability in neutral aqueous solutions, even in the presence of excess concentration of histidine/cysteine competitive standard ligands or human serum. The in vitro binding affinity of 99m Tc-Lys-GHR conjugates with respect to growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a) present on DU-145 cells was in the range of IC 50 from 45 to 54 nM. The conjugate 99m Tc(CO) 3 L S,O (CN-Lys-GHR) exhibited excretion route by the liver and kidney in comparable degree, while the more lipophilic conjugate 99m Tc(NS 3 )(CN-Lys-GHR)—mainly by the liver. Conclusions: Basing on the results concerning physicochemical and biochemical properties, the

  4. Effect of adenine on bacterial translocation using technetium-99m labeled E. coli in an intestinal obstruction model in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugur Oflaz; Fatma Yurt Lambrecht; Osman Yilmaz; Cetin Pekcetin

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate effects of adenine on bacterial translocation (BT) using 99m Tc-labeled E. coli in an intestinal obstruction rat model. In the study twenty-one rats were used. The rats were divided into three groups according to different feeding patterns. The control group (CG) was fed with a standard chow diet for 7 days. Group A1 and group A2 were fed with adenine supplemented chow diet for 7 days. At the end of the feeding period, after all groups was submitted intestinal obstruction. 99m Tc-E. coli was injected into the rats' terminal ileum under anesthetic. The rats were sacrificed under aseptic conditions at 24th h after the surgery. The uptake of 99m Tc-E. coli was determined in organs such as the liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and ileum. Group A1 and group A2 results show that the uptake of 99m Tc-E. coli decreased in the blood and organs comparing to the CG. As a result, it was observed that adenine reduced the level of BT when compared with CG. The beneficial effect of adenine on BT in intestinal obstruction was observed. However, further studies are needed to more clearly assess how this benefit can be achieved. (author)

  5. Method of quantification of bone scintigraphy using technetium labelled stannous pyrophosphate. Results concerning 882 whole-body scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chedeville, Rene.

    1976-01-01

    Considerable progress was made in isotope bone imaging with strontium 85 after the principle of quantification was introduced by Rosenthall in 1965. In 1971, Subramanian and McAffee reported that excellent visualization could be obtained with polyphosphates labelled with sup(99m)Tc. In the present study, imaging was performed 4 hours after injection of sup(99m)Tc pyrophosphate. An Elscint dual head wole body scanner and a VDP 2 off-line calculator were used. Counts were collected over selected regions of interest, each measuring 4.5 x 3.5 cm, and over the whole body. After checking reproducibility by double counting (SD of the mean = 15%), two methods of quantification were studied, the counts being expressed as: the ratio of the number of counts in the bone segment to the number of counts in the knee, the ratio of the number of counts in the bone segment/the number of counts in the whole body. In these operations, the whole body count was multiplied by 2.10 -3 in order to have a ratio whole body count.2.10 -3 /knee = 1. The ratios calculated from the different bone diseases under study were then compared [fr

  6. Detection of a local staphylococcal infection in mice with technetium-99m-labeled polyclonal human immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calame, W.; Feitsma, H.I.; Ensing, G.J.; Goedemans, W.T.; Camps, J.A.; van Furth, R.; Pauwels, E.K.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate both the ability of 99mTc-labeled polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) to localize an infection and the modes of action involved in this process. Mice, infected with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 in a thigh muscle, received HIG intravenously. Scintigrams were made 1, 4, and 24 hr later; subsequently the mice were killed and the activity in several organs and thighs was determined. The radiopharmaceutical demonstrated a time-dependent accumulation at the site of infection. It was found that vascular permeability or Fc binding alone could not account for the mode of action of HIG. Neither the origin of Ig (human versus murine) nor the total amount of protein (0.01-1.0 mg Ig per mouse) affected the target-to-background (T/B) ratios. Ratios were not different for leukocytopenic animals. A correlation (p less than 0.001) was demonstrated between the number of bacteria at the site of infection and the T/B ratio. This was also found after antibiotic treatment (p less than 0.02)

  7. Evaluation of technetium-99M labeled RGD-containing peptide as potential tumor imaging agents in tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Silong; Zeng Jun; Zhang Lihua

    2004-01-01

    Integrins (especially α v β 3 ) play a important role in angiogenesis, growth and metastasis of a solid tumor. Targeting tumor with radiolabeled ligands of the α V β 3 integrin may provide information about the receptor status and enable specific therapeutic strategy. A tripeptidic sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) is often the primary site of recognition by integrins. The aim of this study examine 99m Tc-labeled elevenfold peptide (GRGDSRGDSCY, GY11) that target the α V β 3 integrin to determine if this agent target tumors for diagnostic imaging and/or targeted radiotherapy of cancer. Methods: GY11 was radiolabelled with 99 Tc m via cystine residue by means of stannous chloride. 99 Tc m -GY11 was injected through tail vein into nude mice bearing A375 human melanoma. Biodistribution was investigated at 1,2,4 and 6 hours after injection. Percentage injected dose/gram of tissue (%ID/g) and tumor/non-tumor ratios were calculated. Planar images were acquired with SPECT at 1,2,4,6hrs, respectively. Results: 99 Tc m -GY11 was rapidly cleared from blood and excreted predominantly from the kidney. Tumor uptake at 2h postinjection was 3.1%ID/g. The ratios of tumor/blood and tumor/muscle increased from 0.9-6.2, 4.3-13.5 from 1-6hrs postinjection, respectively. Planar images confirmed that tumor could be visualized at 4h after administration of 99 Tc m -GY11. Conclusion: The results suggest that 99 Tc m -GY11 is a promising compound for noninvasive determining the α V β 3 integrin status. 99 Tc m -GY11 SPECT may be useful to imaging α V β 3 -positive tumor and also guide proper utility of α V β 3 antagonist therapy and radionuclide therapy for cancer. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of anti-peptidoglycan aptamers labeled with Technetium-99m for in vivo bacterial infection identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Ieda Mendes

    2017-01-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that display high affinity and specificity for their molecular targets and are emerging as promising molecules for radiopharmaceuticals development. In a previous work, we selected two aptamers for peptidoglycan (the main constituent of bacterial cell walls) termed Antibac1 and Antibac2. In the present study, the characterization of these aptamers was completed, and the dissociation coefficients (K_d) were determined. The aptamers were further labeled with "9"9"mTc and evaluated for bacterial infection diagnosis by scintigraphy. The K_d obtained for Antibac1 was of 0.415 ± 0.047 μM and for Antibac2 of 1.261 ± 0.280 μM. The direct labeling method with "9"9"mTc allowed radiolabel yields higher than 90% and the radiolabel stability in saline, plasma and cysteine excess indicated that the process was suitable for labeling of both aptamers. The "9"9"mTc-aptamers are prone to bind to plasma proteins: 39.5% ± 2.9% (1 h) and 43.6% ± 1.2% (3 h) for "9"9"mTc-Antibac1; 37.6% ± 2.0% (1 h) and 40.9% ± 0% (3 h) for "9"9"mTc-Antibac2. The blood clearance half-life for "9"9"mTc-Antibac1 was of 41.26 min and for the "9"9"mTc-Antibac2 of 31.58 min. The "9"9"mTc-Antibac1 in the group infected with S. aureus presented a target/non-target ratio of 2.81 ± 0.67, significantly higher than verified for the "9"9"mTc-library (control): 1.52 ± 0.07. In the model with C. albicans infection the target/non-target ratio for "9"9"mTc-Antibac1 was 1.46 ± 0.11, similar that obtained for the "9"9"mTc-library in the same model: 1.52 ± 0.05. The "9"9"mTc-Antibac2 in the group infected with S. aureus showed a target/non-target ratio of 2.61 ± 0.66, statistically higher than achieved for the "9"9"mTc-library in the same infection model: 1.52 ± 0.07. In the group infected with C. albicans this ratio for "9"9"mTc-Antibac2 was 1.75 ± 0.19, it was significantly higher than verified for the "9"9"mTc-library: 1.52 ± 0.05. The scintigraphic images for all groups

  9. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo small-animal SPECT evaluation of novel technetium labeled bile acid analogues to study (altered) hepatic transporter function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyt, Sara; Vliegen, Maarten; Verreet, Bjorn; De Lombaerde, Stef; Braeckman, Kim; Vanhove, Christian; Huisman, Maarten Thomas; Dumolyn, Caroline; Kersemans, Ken; Hulpia, Fabian; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Mannens, Geert; De Vos, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hepatobiliary transport mechanisms are crucial for the excretion of substrate toxic compounds. Drugs can inhibit these transporters, which can lead to drug–drug interactions causing toxicity. Therefore, it is important to assess this early during the development of new drug candidates. The aim of the current study is the (radio)synthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a technetium labeled chenodeoxycholic and cholic acid analogue: [ 99m Tc]-DTPA-CDCA and [ 99m ]Tc-DTPA-CA, respectively, as biomarker for disturbed transporter functionality. Methods: [99mTc]-DTPA-CDCA([ 99m Tc]-3a) and [99mTc]-DTPA-CA ([ 99m Tc]-3b) were synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Uptake of both tracers was investigated in NTCP, OCT1, OATP1B1, OATP1B3 transfected cell lines. K m and V max values were determined and compared to [ 99m Tc]-mebrofenin ([ 99m Tc]-MEB). Efflux was investigated by means of CTRL, MRP2 and BSEP transfected inside-out vesicles. Metabolite analysis was performed using pooled human liver S9. Wild type (n = 3) and rifampicin treated (n = 3) mice were intravenously injected with 37 MBq of tracer. After dynamic small-animal SPECT and short CT acquisitions, time–activity curves of heart, liver, gallbladder and intestines were obtained. Results: We demonstrated that OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 are the involved uptake transporters of both compounds. Both tracers show a higher affinity compared to [ 99m Tc]-MEB, but are in a similar range as endogenous bile acids for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. [ 99m Tc]-3a shows higher affinities compared to [ 99m Tc]-3b. V max values were lower compared to [ 99m Tc]-MEB, but in the same range as endogenous bile acids. MRP2 was identified as efflux transporter. Less than 7% of both radiotracers was metabolized in the liver. In vitro results were confirmed by in vivo results. Uptake in the liver and efflux to gallbladder + intestines and urinary bladder of both tracers was observed. Transport was inhibited by rifampicin

  10. The effect of an extract from Ganoderma lucidum (reishi on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the survival of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Terra Agostinho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated effects of an aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc and on the survival of cultures of Escherichia coli treated with stannous chloride. Blood samples from Wistar rats were treated with reishi extract, radiolabeling procedure was performed, plasma (P, blood cells (BC and insoluble (IF and soluble (SF fractions of P and BC were separated. The radioactivity was counted for the determination of the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI. Cultures of Escherichia coli AB1157 were treated with stannous chloride in the presence and absence of reishi extract. Blood samples and bacterial cultures treated with NaCl 0.9% were used as controls. Data indicated that reishi extract altered significantly (pEste estudo avaliou efeitos de um extrato de Ganoderma lucidum (reishi na marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com tecnécio-99m (99mTc e na sobrevivência de culturas de Escherichia coli tratadas com cloreto estanoso. Amostras de sangue de ratos Wistar foram tratadas com extrato de reishi, o procedimento de radiomarcação foi realizado, plasma (P, células sangüíneas (CS e frações insolúvel (FI e solúvel (FS de P e CS foram separadas e a radioatividade foi contada para determinação das porcentagens de radioatividade (%ATI. Culturas de Escherichia coli AB1157 foram tratadas com cloreto estanoso na presença e ausência do extrato de reishi. Amostras de sangue e culturas bacterianas tratadas com NaCl 0.9% foram usadas como controles. Dados indicaram que o extrato de reishi alterou significativamente (p<0,05 a %ATI de P, CS, FI-P, FS-P, FI-CS e FS-CS, bem como, aumentou a sobrevivência de culturas bacterianas tratadas com cloreto estanoso. Nossos resultados sugerem que o extrato de reishi poderia apresentar ação redox/quelante alterando a marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc e protegendo culturas bacterianas contra lesões oxidativas induzidas

  11. Detection of gastritis by /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red-blood-cell scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilton, G.P.; Wahl, R.L.; Juni, J.E.; Froelich, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Gastritis is a common condition, with a variety of causes, that is diagnosed most often by barium upper gastrointestinal tract series or endoscopy. The authors report a case in which gastritis without active bleeding was apparent in scintiscans obtained during the evaluation of GI bleeding using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells (TcRBC). The scintigraphic findings that suggest gastritis are described

  12. Multifocal peritoneal splenosis in Tc-99m-labeled heat-denatured red blood cell scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Min Ki; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Choe, Won Sick [Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    A 44-year-old man with a past medical history of splenectomy came to hospital because of epigastric pain abdominopelvic computed tomography(CT) showed a soft tissue mass and multifocal variable-sized nodules as well as finding suggestive of cholecystitis. Subsequently, he underwent Tc-99m-labeled heat- denatured red blood cell(RBC) scintigraphy to evaluate the mass and nodules. The scintigraphy confirmed multifocal peritoneal splenosis in the abdominopelvic cavity.

  13. Dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m after laparotomy and abdominal insufflation with different CO2 pressures on rats; Disseminacao de bacterias marcadas com tecnecio-99m apos laparotomia e insuflacao com diferentes pressoes de CO2 em ratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitombo, Marcos Bettini; Faria, Clarice Abreu dos Santos Albuquerque de; Steinbruck, Klaus [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Medicina]. E-mail: mpitombo@urbi.com.br; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Bernardo Filho, Mario[Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes (IBRAG). Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: To asses the dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) from peritoneal cavity after different surgical procedures. Methods: Bacteria of the Escherichia coli species labeled with 99mTc were used in a concentration of 108 units of colony-makers for ml (UFC/ml) and 1 ml was inoculated through intra-peritoneal via. Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups: control, laparotomy, pneumoperitoneum with 10 mmHg and pneumoperitoneum with 20 mmHg of CO2. Procedures were performed 20 min after injection of the inoculum and lasted 30 min. Animals were sacrificed after six hours (Group 1) and 24 hours (Group 2). Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected for radioactivity counting. Results: After six hours, indirect detection of the bacteria in different organs was uniform in all groups. After 24 hours, a larger detection of technetium was observed in the livers of animals of the group insufflated with 20 mmHg of CO2, when compared with those of control group (p<0.01). The other groups did not present statistically significant variations. Conclusions: The use of a higher intra-abdominal pressure was associated with a higher bacterial dissemination to the liver. The application of lower intra-abdominal pressures may be associated with a lower dissemination of the infectious status during laparoscopic approach of peritonitis status. (author)

  14. Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells for the measurement of red cell mass in newborn infants: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderkamp, O.; Betke, K.; Fendel, H.; Klemm, J.; Lorenzen, K.; Riegel, K.P.

    1980-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo investigations were performed to examine the binding of Tc-99m to neonatal red blood cells (RBC). Labeling efficiency was about 90%, and unbound Tc-99m less than 3% after one washing, in premature and full-term newborns and in children. Thus presence of high percentages of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) did not influence the labeling of RBCs with Tc-99m. RBCs of 11 newborns were hemolysed and the distribution of Tc-99m on RBC components was analyzed. Although Hb F percentage averaged (60.0 +- 8.10)% (s.d.), only (11.9 +- 3.7)% of Tc-99m was bound by Hb F, whereas (45.0 +- 6.1)% was associated with Hb A. RBC membranes bound (13.7 +- 4.3)% and (29.3 +- 4.0)% were found unbound in hemolysates. These results indicate that Tc-99m preferentially binds to beta chains. In vivo equilibration of Tc-99m RBCs and of albumin labeled with Evans blue was investigated in five newborn infants. Tc-99m RBCs were stable in each case during the first hour after injection. Elution of Tc-99m from RBCs was (3.4 +- 1.5)% per h. Body-to-venous hematocrit ratio averaged 0.86 +- 0.03

  15. Method of stably radiolabeling antibodies with technetium and rhenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, C.H.; Reba, R.C.; Eckelman, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for labeling antibodies or antibody fragments with radionuclides of technetium or rhenium to obtain stable labeling, comprising: reacting a reduced radioisotope of technetium or rhenium with an antibody or antibody fragment, or a diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid conjugated antibody or antibody fragment, in the presence of free or carrier-bound diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The amount of DTPA is sufficient to substantially completely inhibit binding of the reduced technetium or rhenium to nonstable binding sites of the antibody or antibody fragment, or the DTPA-conjugated antibody or antibody fragment. The resultant stably labeled antibody or antibody fragment, or DTPA[conjugated antibody or antibody fragment is recovered

  16. Radiation exposure to surgical staff during hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with 99m Technetium labeled red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth; Straalman, Kristina; Schmidt, Grethe

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) is an effective method in the treatment of recurrent melanomas and soft tissue sarcomas. To avoid systemic toxicity, leakage from the limb perfusate into the systemic circulation is real-time monitored by administration of a radioactive agent...

  17. Mathematical analysis of 51Cr-labelled red cell survival curves in congenital haemolytic anaemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasfiki, A.G.; Antipas, S.E.; Dimitriou, P.A.; Gritzali, F.A.; Melissinos, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    The parameters of 51 Cr labelled red cell survival curves were calculated in 26 patients with homozygous β-thalassaemia, 8 with sickle-cell anaemia and 3 with s-β-thalassaemia, using a non-linear weighted least squares analysis computer program. In thalassaemic children the calculated parameters denote that the shorting of the mean cell life is due to early senescence alone, while there is some evidence that in thalassaemic adults additional extracellular destruction mechanisms participate as well. Red cell survival curves from patients with sickle-cell anaemia and s-β-thalassaemia resemble each other, while their parameters indicate an initial rapid loss of radioactivity, early senescence and the presence of extracellular red cell destruction factors. (orig.)

  18. Technetium in environmental waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolme-Lawes, D.J.; Robb, P.; Warwick, P.

    1983-01-01

    A method for the determination of technetium in a sample of environmental water is described. Technetium, in the TcO 4 - form, is extracted from the sample onto an anion-exchange resin from which it is removed subsequently by washing with 4 M sodium thiocyanate solution. The eluted technetium-thiocyanate complex is then subjected to solvent extraction, where the technetium is further concentrated into butan-2-one. The organic phase is evaporated onto a planchette and the β activity due to the technetium determined by an anticoincidence Geiger counter. Detection limits of 0.5 ng of technetium-99 have been obtained for the counter and sample volumes in excess of 500 cm 3 can be analysed readily. The sorption of several technetium compounds onto soil from a variety of water types has also been investigated. Preliminary results are presented and the importance of the chemical form of technetium used in such studies is discussed briefly. (author)

  19. Technetium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.A. de; Ferro F, G.

    2003-01-01

    The first radiopharmaceuticals of 99m Tc, also call of 'first generation' as colloids, aggregates and simple complexes were developed with relative easiness without it was necessary a wide understanding of its chemical structure. In the radiopharmaceuticals of 'second generation' were included those derived of the HIDA for hepatobiliary images, MAG3 and EC for images of tubular renal de purification, HMPAO and ECD for images of cerebral perfusion and MIBI and tetrofosmin for images of heart perfusion, that which implies a bigger demand in terms of the chemical knowledge. At the moment, we can affirm that the future of the radiopharmaceuticals of 99m Tc is based on the use of small and relevant biomolecules with high biological activity that allow the visualization in vivo of specific receiving sites and/or its expression in diverse pathologies. It is for it that with the 'third generation' is necessary a wide one knowledge of the chemistry of the technetium that allows the design and characterization of highly specific bio complexes. In this book, although focused mainly to the chemistry of the Tc, a brief revision is also presented on the main biologically active molecules that, coordinated the 99m Tc, present a high recognition In vivo for specific receivers. (Author)

  20. Nitrosyl complexes of technetium; Nitrosylkomplexe des Technetiums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, Janine

    2016-09-22

    The presented thesis describes syntheses and characterization of novel technetium nitrosyl compounds with various ligand systems. The main focus is the synthesis of low-valent technetium nitrosyl complexes with cyclopentadienyl ligands. [German] Gegenstand der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Synthese und Charakterisierung neuer Technetiumnitrosylverbindungen mit unterschiedlichen Ligandensystemen. Hauptaugenmerk wurde dabei auf die Darstellung niedervalenter Tc(NO)-Verbindungen mit Cyclopentadienyl-Liganden gelegt.

  1. Technetium complexation by macrocyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fan Yu.

    1983-01-01

    Research in nuclear medicine are directed towards the labelling of biological molecules, however, sup(99m)Tc does not show sufficient affinity for these molecules. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of macrocyclic compounds to bind strongly technetium in order to be used as complexation intermediate. The reducing agents used were a stannous complex and sodium dithionite. Cryptates and polyesters are not good complexing agents. They form two complexes: a 2:1 sandwich complex or 3:2 and a 1:1 complex. Cyclams are good complexing agents for technetium their complexations strength was determined by competition with pyrophosphate, gluconate and DTPA. Using the method of ligand exchange, the oxidation state of technetium in the Tc-cyclam complex was IV or V. They are 1:1 cationic complexes, the complex charge is +1. The biodistribution in rats of labelling solutions containing (cyclam 14 ane N 4 ) C 12 H 25 shows a good urinary excretion without intoxication risks [fr

  2. The use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled granulocytes with single-photon emission tomography imaging in the detection and follow-up of recurrence of infective endocarditis complicating transvenous endocardial pacemaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramackers, J.M.; Kotzki, P.O.; Couret, I.; Messner-Pellenc, P.; Davy, J.M.; Rossi, M.

    1995-01-01

    In this case report we present a patient with a recurrence of subacute bacterial infectious endocarditis (IE) complicating a transvenous endocardial pacemaker. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) labelled granulocytes were used for diagnosis and follow-up under medical treatment only, since surgical removal of the pacemaker lead was ruled out because of the general condition of the patient. Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging displayed the active lesion previously suspected on echography. At the end of antibiotic therapy, SPET indicated a favourable disease outcome whereas echocardiographic abnormalities remained nearly unchanged. The medical treatment had eradicated the IE, and the patient did well for more than 1 year thereafter. (orig.)

  3. The use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled granulocytes with single-photon emission tomography imaging in the detection and follow-up of recurrence of infective endocarditis complicating transvenous endocardial pacemaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramackers, J M [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU E. Herriot, Lyon (France); Kotzki, P O [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie et A. de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Couret, I [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie et A. de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Messner-Pellenc, P [Department of Cardiology, CHU Lapeyronie et A. Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Davy, J M [Department of Cardiology, CHU Lapeyronie et A. Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Rossi, M [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie et A. de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France)

    1995-11-01

    In this case report we present a patient with a recurrence of subacute bacterial infectious endocarditis (IE) complicating a transvenous endocardial pacemaker. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) labelled granulocytes were used for diagnosis and follow-up under medical treatment only, since surgical removal of the pacemaker lead was ruled out because of the general condition of the patient. Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging displayed the active lesion previously suspected on echography. At the end of antibiotic therapy, SPET indicated a favourable disease outcome whereas echocardiographic abnormalities remained nearly unchanged. The medical treatment had eradicated the IE, and the patient did well for more than 1 year thereafter. (orig.)

  4. Technetium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, B.; Spies, H.

    1981-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical, chemical and pharmacological investigations on the development and application of carrier-free sup(99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals are comprehensively reported. The radiopharmaceutical section deals with the elaboration of labelling methods. The influence of different factors on the kit production and the sup(99m)Tc radiopharmaceutical preparation is discussed. The relationship between the chemical structure and the biodistribution is in the centre of the radiopharmalogical section. (author)

  5. Hyperemic peripheral red marrow in a patient with sickle cell anemia demonstrated on Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiden, R.A.; Locko, R.C.; Stent, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    A 25-year-old gravid woman, homozygous for sickle cell anemia, with a history of recent deep venous thrombosis, was examined using Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography for recurrent thrombosis. Although negative for thrombus, the study presented an unusual incidental finding: the patient's peripheral bone marrow was hyperemic in a distribution consistent with peripheral red bone marrow expansion. Such a pattern has not been documented before using this technique. This report supports other literature that has demonstrated hyperemia of peripheral red bone marrow in other hemolytic anemias. This finding may ultimately define an additional role of scintigraphy in assessing the pathophysiologic status of the sickle cell patient

  6. Quantitative assessment of limb blood flow using Tc-99m labeled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Shougase, Takashi; Kawamura, Naoyuki; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Nakada, Kunihiro; Sakuma, Makoto; Furudate, Masayori

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of limb blood flow using a non-diffusible radioindicator, Tc-99m labeled red blood cells, was reported. This was an application of venous occlusion plethysmography using radionuclide which was originally proposed by M. Fukuoka et al. The peripheral blood flow (mean ± s.e.) of 30 legs in a normal control group was 1.87 ± 0.08 ml/100 ml/min. In heart diseases (46 legs), it was 1.49 ± 0.13 ml/100 ml/min. The limb blood flow between a control group and heart diseases was statistically significant (p < 0.01) in the t-test. The peripheral blood flow at rest between diseased legs and normal legs in occlusive arterial disorders was also statistically significant (p < 0.01) in a paired t-test. RAVOP was done after the completion of objective studies such as radionuclide angiography or ventriculography. Technique and calculation of a blood flow were very easy and simple. RAVOP study which was originally proposed by Fukuoka et al. was reappraised to be hopeful for quantitative measurement of limb blood flow as a non-invasive technique using Tc-99m labeled red blood cells. (author)

  7. The use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled white blood cells to detect subclinical inflammation of the heart after cardiopulmonary bypass in children with congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao Chiahung; Wang Yenliang; Wang Shyhjen; Hsieh Kaisheng

    1992-01-01

    Ten children (6 boys and 4 girls, aged 1-9 years old) underwent operations with a cardiopulmonary bypass, and the technetium-99m hexamehtylpropylene amine oxine ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) labelled white blood cell (WBC) heart scans were used to detect postoperative leukocyte infiltration in the hearts. The results showed that 80% (8/10) of the cases had subclinical inflammation in the hearts (grading of WBC scans ≥score 2), and a positive correlation (R=0.77) was noted between the severity of the inflammation (grading of the WBC scans) and the duration of the cardiopulmonary bypass in the operations. Another control group (9 boys and 2 girls, aged 2-13 years old) underwent operations without a cardiopulmonary bypass, and subclinical inflammation of hearts was demonstrated in only 1 case (9%) by the 99m Tc-HMPAO labelled WBC scans (grading of WBC scans 99m Tc-HMPAO labelled WBC heart scans may provide non-invasive and directly discernible evidence of subclinical inflammation in the heart due to a transient ischaemic state during a cardiopulmonary bypass, even if the clinical symptoms and signs of carditis are not apparent. (orig.)

  8. The use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled white blood cells to detect subclinical inflammation of the heart after cardiopulmonary bypass in children with congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao Chiahung; Wang Yenliang; Wang Shyhjen (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Hsieh Kaisheng (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan). Dept. of Pediatrics)

    1992-11-01

    Ten children (6 boys and 4 girls, aged 1-9 years old) underwent operations with a cardiopulmonary bypass, and the technetium-99m hexamehtylpropylene amine oxine ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) labelled white blood cell (WBC) heart scans were used to detect postoperative leukocyte infiltration in the hearts. The results showed that 80% (8/10) of the cases had subclinical inflammation in the hearts (grading of WBC scans {>=}score 2), and a positive correlation (R=0.77) was noted between the severity of the inflammation (grading of the WBC scans) and the duration of the cardiopulmonary bypass in the operations. Another control group (9 boys and 2 girls, aged 2-13 years old) underwent operations without a cardiopulmonary bypass, and subclinical inflammation of hearts was demonstrated in only 1 case (9%) by the {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled WBC scans (grading of WBC scans labelled WBC heart scans may provide non-invasive and directly discernible evidence of subclinical inflammation in the heart due to a transient ischaemic state during a cardiopulmonary bypass, even if the clinical symptoms and signs of carditis are not apparent. (orig.).

  9. An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay for estimating red cell survival of transfused red cells-validation using CR-51 labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, H.; Kickler, T.; Smith, B.; LaFrance, N.

    1984-01-01

    The survival time of transfused red cells antigenically distinct from the recipient's red cells was determined using an indirect enzyme linked antiglobulin test. These results were then compared to those determined by Cr-51 labeling. Three patients with hypoproliferative anemias and one patient (2 studies) with traumatic hemolytic anemia caused by a prosthetic heart valve were studied. Survival times were performed by transfusing a 5cc aliquot of Cr-51 labeled cells along with the remaining unit. One hour post transfusion, a blood sample was drawn and used as the 100% value. Subsequent samples drawn over a 2-3 week period were then compared to the initial sample to determine percent survival for both methods. The ELISA method for measuring red cell survival in antigenically distinct cells is in close agreement with the Cr-51 method. Although CR-51 labeling is the accepted method for red cell survival determination the ELISA method can be used when radioisotopes are unavailable or contraindicated or when the decision to estimate red cell survival is made after transfusion

  10. Technetium-99m labeling and fibronectin binding ability of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; Marcacao de Corynebacterium diphtheriae com Tecnecio-99m e avaliacao da capacidade de ligacao a fibronectina de plasma humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, S.M.S.; Nagao, P.E.; Bernardo-Filho, M. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes; Pereira, G.A.; Napoleao, F.; Andrade, A.F.B.; Hirata Junior, R.; Mattos-Guaraldi, A.L. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2004-04-15

    The use of radionuclides has permitted advances in areas of clinical and scientific knowledge. Several molecules and cells have been labelled with Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc). The stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) has a significant influence on the labeling and stability of {sup 99m}Tc radiotracers. The frequent risk of diphtheria epidemics has intensified interest in the virulence factors of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Although studies have looked at potential adhesins including haemagglutinins and exposed sugar residues, the molecular basis of mechanisms of adherence remains unclear. Adherence of pathogens to mammalian tissues may be mediated by fibronectin (FN) found in body fluids, matrix of connective tissues, and cell surfaces. In the present study we evaluated the binding ability to human plasma FN by {sup 99m}Tc labeled-C.diphtheriae. Due to adverse effects of stannous ions, microorganisms were submitted to survival and filamentation induction assays. Data showed a dose dependent susceptibility to SnCl{sub 2} bactericidal effects. Cell filamentation was observed for concentrations of SnCl{sub 2} > 110 {mu}g/ml. Adherence levels of {sup 99m}Tc labelled 241strain to coverslips coated with 20 {mu}g/ml FN were higher (P = 0.0037) than coated with bovine serum albumin. FN binding by the sucrose fermenting 241 C. diphtheriae strain (8.9% + 2.6) was significantly lower (P=0.0139) than Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I strain (34.1% {+-} 1.2). Therefore, bacterial {sup 99m}Tc labeling represents an additional tool that may contribute to the comprehension of C. diphtheriae interactions with host receptors such as FN that act as biological organizers by holding bacterial cells in position and guiding their migration. (author)

  11. Technetium-99m-labeled N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc HIDA): a new radiopharmaceutical for hepatobiliary imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.; Cooper, M.; Loberg, M.; Harvey, E.; Sikorski, S.

    1977-01-01

    An easily formulated, stable kit preparation of technetium-99m HIDA, suitable for use in humans, was developed and tested in mice and dogs. The tracer was cleared rapidly from the blood and excreted predominantly by the liver in both species. In dogs, the hepatobiliary clearance of Tc-99m HIDA was significantly greater than that of C-14 HIDA and Sn-113 HIDA. The LD 50 for HIDA in mice, 168 mg/kg, exceeded the average human dose by a factor of 1000 on a per-weight basis. Blood clearance curves for Tc-99m HIDA in 12 normal subjects were biexponential with half-times of 4.6 +- 1.0 min and 31.5 +- 7.0 min, and cumulative 90-min urine samples contained 14.2 +- 1.8% of the injected dose. Images in normal subjects and nonjaundiced patients showed rapid concentration of tracer by the liver and activity was present within the biliary system in 10 to 20 min. In jaundiced patients, the tracer blood clearance was delayed and urinary excretion increased, but intestinal activity, indicating biliary patency, was imaged in those patients without complete focal obstruction of the common duct. Technetium-99m HIDA is a nontoxic radiopharmaceutical useful for clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans

  12. Concentration of technetium by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakamura, R.; Nakahara, M.

    1990-01-01

    Accumulation and excretion of technetium by marine organisms were observed in radioisotope tracer experiments to determine concentration factors for estimating radiation dose to humans from radioactive pollution of marine environments. Marine fish, crustaceans, mollusks, echinoderms, and seaweeds were reared in sea water labeled with 95m Tc to observe uptake from sea water. The organisms were then transferred into unlabeled sea water for depuration experiments. Concentration factors were calculated from uptake and excretion rates. Also considered was the contribution of food-chain transfer of technetium, observed by administering labeled seaweeds to mollusks or echinoderms. Low accumulations were shown by fish, crustaceans, pelecypods and cephalopods, whereas high concentration factors were observed in gastropods and seaweeds. Species specificity or specific accumulation in special organs or tissues was not evident except in seaweed, where the difference was clearly species-associated. Relatively high rates of technetium retention were observed in the organisms administered labeled seaweed. The higher concentrations observed in gastropods, compared to those in pelecypods, were thought to result from different feed habits. The adaptability of some species as indicator organisms for monitoring 99 Tc in sea water was recognized, but the contribution of technetium to radiation dose was considered insignificant

  13. Propanolol, Ciclosporine, Adryamicine, nifedipine and the in vitro labelling of red blood cells with 99mtechnetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, V.N.; Diniz, S.O.F.; Roca, M.; Martin-Comin, J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the possible influence of Propanolol, Ciclosporine, Adryamicine and Nifedipine on the labelling in vitro of red blood cells. Materials And Methods: 20 ml of blood were withdrawn from 40 healthy volunteers that have not used drug seven days before of experiments. 2,0ml aliquots of each sample were incubated at 37 deg. C for 30 min with different concentrations of drugs to the two labelling method used. In the simple method 60ml of stannous chloride solution (10,2 m g/ml) were added and the samples centrifuged at 1000g for 5 min and plasma and blood cells were isolated. After that, 2,0ml of saline, 0,2 ml of EDTA (2,2%) and 7,4 MBq of 99m Tc were also added. To the hypochlorite method the blood samples were incubated with SnCl 2 (10,2m g/ml) for 5 min. After this period of time, 40ml of NaClO solution (1%) and all the reagents mentioned to simple method were added. The samples were centrifuged and labelling yield was calculated to both methods. Conclusions: The analysis of the results shows that using the two methods described there are no significant differences on the in vitro labelling of RBC with 99m Tc at the used concentrations of all of these studied drugs. We can speculate that the interferences observed in vivo may be due the presence of active metabolites or interactions among different drugs

  14. Spleen scanning with 99Tcsup(m)-labelled red blood cells after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, G.R.; Bird, C.; Prothero, D.L.; Brown, T.R.; Mackenzie, F.A.F.; Phillips, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to correlate the haematological changes which occur after splenectomy, with the presence or absence of residual splenic tissue, spleen scans using 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled red blood cells were performed in 36 patients who had had a splenectomy. Positive spleen scans were found in 44 per cent (8 out of 18) of patients who had undergone splenectomy for trauma and in 17 per cent (3 out of 18) of patients who had undergone elective splenectomy. No relationship was found between the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies, platelet counts, the levels of IgG, IgM and IgA and the scan result. It is concluded that these findings are due to the presence of splenunculi, whose incidence is more common than the 12 per cent usually quoted. (author)

  15. Radionuclide Basics: Technetium-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technetium-99 (chemical symbol Tc-99) is a silver-gray, radioactive metal. It occurs naturally in very small amounts in the earth's crust, but is primarily man-made. Technetium-99m is a short-lived form of Tc-99 that is used as a medical diagnostic tool.

  16. Development of nano radiopharmaceutical based on Bevacizumab labelled with Technetium-99m for early diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor; Desenvolvimento de nanorradiofarmaco a base de Bevacizumabe marcado com tecnecio-99m para diagnostico precoce do tumor estromal gastrointestinal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Thais Ligiero

    2015-06-01

    The development of new radiopharmaceuticals is an essential activity to improve nuclear medicine, and essential for the early and effective diagnosis of oncological diseases. Among the various possibilities current research in the world, the radiopharmaceuticals to chemotherapeutic base may be the most effective in detecting tumors, particularly Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST), the Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma and neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors. However, difficulties in directing, as well as adhesion of the radiopharmaceutical in the desired location, are currently the main problems in the early detection and treatment of some of these tumors. Advances in the field of nanotechnology, particularly in recent years, indicate significant contribution to overcoming these obstacles, particularly in the implementation of molecular barriers as well as the functionalization of the nanoparticles, thereby improving targeting by the use of surface nucleotides, and the increased adhesion, which facilitates the release of the drug and therefore increases the chances of early diagnosis and more effective treatment. This study aimed to the production, characterization and evaluation of cytotoxicity, as well as in vivo biodistribution test Bevacizumab nanoparticles labeled with Technetium-99m radionuclide for detection of type GIST tumors. Bevacizumab was encapsulated in the form of nanoparticles by the emulsification method using double poly-acetic acid and polyvinyl alcohol polymers (PLA / PVA) at a concentration of 2% of the monoclonal antibody. The characterization of the nanoparticles was performed by the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cytotoxicity assessment was performed by XTT assay with various cell lines of solid tumor cells. The labeling with technetium-99m was done by the direct method, and its yield determined by paper chromatography using paper Whatmam 1 as the stationary phase and acetone as mobile phase. In the biodistribution study

  17. Measurement and behaviour of technetium in fast reactor fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, C.; Kyffin, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    A method is described for the spectrophotometric measurement of technetium in plant solutions from the reprocessing of fast reactor fuel. The technetium is selectively extracted using tri-iso-octylamine. After back extraction, thiocyanate is added, in the presence of tetrabutyl-ammonium hydroxide, to form the red hexa-thiocyanato anionic complex in a chloroform medium. The concentration of the technetium is then calculated from the spectrophotometric measurement of this complex. This method was applied to bulk samples, collected during a PFR fuel reprocessing campaign, to identify the main routes followed by technetium through the reprocessing plant. In order to understand the probable behaviour of technetium in the process plant streams, an investigation into the influence of plutonium IV nitrate on the extraction of Tc (VII) into 20%v/v tributyl phosphate/odourless kerosene solution from nitric acid solutions, was initiated. The results of this investigation, along with the known distribution coefficient for the extraction of the uranyl/technetium complex U0 2 (N0 3 )(Tc0 4 ).2TBP and the redox chemistry of technetium, are used to predict the probable behaviour of technetium in the process plant streams. This predicted behaviour is compared with the experimental results and reasonable agreement is obtained between experiment and theory, considering the history of the samples analysed. (author)

  18. Evaluation of inflammatory processes in temporomandibular joint employing technetium-99m-labelled autologous leukocytes in an animal model; Avaliacao de processos inflamatorios na articulacao temporomandibular empregando leucocitos autologos marcados com tecnecio-99m em modelo animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasileiro, Claudia Borges [Centro Universitario Newton Paiva, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: claudiabb.prof@newtonpaiva.br; cbbrasileiro@bol.com.br; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Ruckert, Bianca [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2006-07-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at identifying temporomandibular joint inflammatory processes employing technetium-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO)-labeled autonomous leukocytes. Materials and methods: we have utilized an experimental model of arthritis induction in ten adult male New Zealand rabbits by means of ovalbumin intra-articular injection into each left temporomandibular joint. For control purposes, saline solution was injected. After leukocytes radiolabeling with 99mTc-HMPAO and injection into rabbits, scintigraphic images were obtained. Results: a higher 99mTc-HMPAO-leukocytes uptake was observed in left temporomandibular joint in comparison with the contralateral joint. Wilcoxon non-parametric test was applied for statistical analysis. There was a statistically significant difference between counts of radioactivity per minute in the inflamed joint and the contralateral one (p = 0.0073). Conclusion: the method employing 99mTc-HMPAO-labelled autologous leukocytes allows an early and accurate detection of inflammatory processes, contributing to the adoption of a therapeutic conduct for patients before structural alterations have occurred. (author)

  19. Technetium compounds and their field of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitseva, L.L.; Velichko, A.V.; Vinogradov, I.V.

    1988-02-01

    This chapter reviews the different applications of technetium and technetium compounds in catalysis, corrosion inhibition, superconductivity of technetium alloys, diagnostic techniques, radioisotope generators and radiopharmaceuticals. 649 refs [fr

  20. Labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m after oral administration of SnCl2. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, M.C.; Parab, P.B.; Samuel, A.M.; Ganatra, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    In vivo labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m was possible after prior oral administration of SnCl 2 , both in rats and human volunteers. Absorption of oral SnCl 2 was low but sufficient for more than 95% labeling efficiency. Prior i.v. administration of stannous chloride is known to induce in vivo labeling of red blood cells with pertechnetate. We have observed that such labeling is possible even after oral administration of stannous chloide. Nearly 95% of the circulating radioactivity and 93.7% of the administered radioactivity was in RBCs 30 min after i.v. injection of /sup 99m/TcO 4 - in rats that were fed 5 mg of stannous chloride (3.13 mg Sn 2+ ion) 2 hr before injection. Red blood cells from four human volunteers could bind pertechnetate, both in vitro and in vivo, after oral administration of 100 mg of SnCl 2 . We have obtained a blood-pool image of the human heart by labeling the RBCs in vivo by this method. We have also studied various parameters affecting the in vivo binding of RBCs with Tc-99m - such as the amount of orally administered SnCl 2 , the time of injection of radionuclide after oral SnCl 2 , and the optimum time for the imaging

  1. Chemistry of Technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    Since the late 1970's the coordination chemistry of technetium has been developed remarkably. The background of the development is obviously related to the use of technetium radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis in nuclear medicine. Much attention has also been denoted to the chemical behavior of environmental 99 Tc released from reprocessing plants. This review covers the several aspects of technetium chemistry, including production of radioisotopes, analytical chemistry and coordination chemistry. In the analytical chemistry, separation of technetium, emphasizing chromatography and solvent extraction, is described together with spectrophotometric determination of technetium. In the coordination chemistry of technetium, a characteristic feature of the chemistry of Tc(V) complexes is referred from the view point of the formation of a wide variety of highly stable complexes containing the Tc=O or Tc≡N bond. Kinetic studies of the preparation of Tc(III) complexes using hexakis (thiourea) technetium(III) ion as a starting material are summarized, together with the base hydrolysis reactions of Tc(III), Tc(IV) and Tc(V) complexes. (author)

  2. 18F-FDG-labeled red blood cell PET for blood-pool imaging: preclinical evaluation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsusaka, Yohji; Nakahara, Tadaki; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Iwabuchi, Yu; Nishime, Chiyoko; Kajimura, Mayumi; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) labeled with single-photon emitters have been clinically used for blood-pool imaging. Although some PET tracers have been introduced for blood-pool imaging, they have not yet been widely used. The present study investigated the feasibility of labeling RBCs with 18 F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) for blood-pool imaging with PET. RBCs isolated from venous blood of rats were washed with glucose-free phosphate-buffered saline and labeled with 18 F-FDG. To optimize labeling efficiency, the effects of glucose deprivation time and incubation (labeling) time with 18 F-FDG were investigated. Post-labeling stability was assessed by calculating the release fraction of radioactivity and identifying the chemical forms of 18 F in the released and intracellular components of 18 F-FDG-labeled RBCs incubated in plasma. Just after intravenous injection of the optimized autologous 18 F-FDG-labeled RBCs, dynamic PET scans were performed to evaluate in vivo imaging in normal rats and intraabdominal bleeding models (temporary and persistent bleeding). The optimal durations of glucose deprivation and incubation (labeling) with 18 F-FDG were 60 and 30 min, respectively. As low as 10% of 18 F was released as the form of 18 F-FDG from 18 F-FDG-labeled RBCs after a 60-min incubation. Dynamic PET images of normal rats showed strong persistence in the cardiovascular system for at least 120 min. In the intraabdominal bleeding models, 18 F-FDG-labeled RBC PET visualized the extravascular blood clearly and revealed the dynamic changes of the extravascular radioactivity in the temporary and persistent bleeding. RBCs can be effectively labeled with 18 F-FDG and used for blood-pool imaging with PET in rats.

  3. High pressure liquid chromatographic assay of technetium in solutions of sodium pertechnetate produced at the AAEC Research Establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, K.J.

    1985-12-01

    High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used for the assay of nanogram quantities of technetium and to determine technetium in decayed pharmaceutical products, derived from three methods of manufacture. These methods of manufacture give comparably low levels of technetium-99, at the time of collection of the solution. However, when the solutions are used to produce ready-to-inject technetium-99m, high levels of technetium-99 are present at the time of calibration, which is the day after the collection date. Where sensitive reagent kits are to be labelled, freshly collected solutions of technetium-99m should be used. The HPLC assay is a valuable technique for the quality control of technetium-based radiopharmaceuticals, and for investigation of methods of manufacture of technetium-99m. Experimental studies confirmed the findings of previous workers

  4. Thermal conductivity of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, K.; Serizawa, H.; Fukuda, K.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal diffusivity of technetium was measured on a disk sample of 5 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness by the laser flash method from room temperature to 1173 K, and the thermal conductivity was determined by the measured thermal diffusivity and density, and the reported specific heat capacity. The thermal diffusivity of technetium decreases with increasing temperature though it is almost constant above 600 K. The thermal conductivity of technetium shows a minimum around 400 K, above which the thermal conductivity increases with temperature. The electronic and phonon components of the thermal conductivity were evaluated approximately. The increase in the thermal conductivity of technetium with temperature is due to the increase in the electronic component. (orig.)

  5. Technetium-99m-human fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, D.W.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    Exogenous fibrinogen has been successfully labeled with /sup 99m/Tc using a modified electrolytic method. The exact labeling mechanism has not been determined. Experimental data suggest that the labeling process of /99m/Tc-fibrinogen is quite similar to that of /sup 99m/Tc-human serum albumin as reported earlier by Benjamin. Technetium-99m-fibrinogen is stable in human plasma or in 1 percent buffered human serum albumin. A binding efficiency of 76 percent has been achieved with approximately 25 percent clottable protein. The entire labeling procedure requires less than 1 hr of preparation time. This short labeling time in a closed system may allow development of a practical method for labeling autologous fibrinogen, thus eliminating the risk of hepatitis transmission. (U.S.)

  6. Electrochemistry of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.D.; Alabama Univ., Birmingham

    1982-01-01

    Recent work on the electrochemistry of technetium is reviewed, covering the period 1973-1980. Topics include polarographic studies of aqueous pertechnetate, coulometric studies of aqueous pertechnetate at mercury cathodes, and electrochemistry of pertechnetate at solid electrodes. A review is also given of electrochemistry of other technetium compounds, non-aqueous systems, chemical redox reactions, and substitution reactions. Consideration is also given to studies of electrochemistry at tracer concentrations, electrolytic syntheses, standard electrode potentials, and electroanalytical methods. (author)

  7. Clinical usage of indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy and technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate scintigraphy in patients with total hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Takashi; Uno, Kimiichi; Yuyama, Takuo; Seto, Kazuhiko; Arimizu, Noboru; Suguro, Tohru; Moriya, Hideshige; Uematsu, Sadao.

    1988-01-01

    Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) scintigraphy and In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy were done in 13 patients with total hip replacement in order to determine the presence of prosthetic infection. Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy was done in 11 patients (12 studies). In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was done in 13 patients (14 studies). Tc-99m MDP imaging showed diffuse accumulation of the radionuclide in all of the 3 infected lesions, but focal one in 5 of the 7 noninfected lesions with a specificity of 33.3 %, sensitivity of 100 %, overall accuracy of 50 %. In-111 labeled leukocyte normally accumulates in the spleen, the liver, and the bone marrow. Before insertion of a stemmed prosthesis, the local bone marrows were reamed out in all of our cases. Thus, no radioactive accumulation would be expected in the lesions with prosthesis unless infected. However, if the prosthesis is infected, increased uptake of In-111 would be seen as a result of the accumulation of leukocyte. In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging showed abnormal accumulation of In-111 in all of the 4 infected lesions and no accumulation in all of the 10 noninfected lesions with a specificity of 100 %, sensitivity of 100 %, overall accuracy of 100 %. We conclude that In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy might be useful in evaluating prosthetic infection in a patient with total hip replacement. (author)

  8. Clearance of technetium-99m-labeled DTPA in hyperthyroidism without clinical evidence of lung disease, and relation to pulmonary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guldiken, S.; Tugrul, A.; Altiay, G.; Hacimahmutoglu, S.; Durmus-Altun, G.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms of dyspnea and exercise intolerance have not been fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the clearance rate of technetium-99m diethyltriaminepentaaceticacid (Tc-99m DTPA) from lungs in hyperthyroid patients without clinical evidence of lung disease and to explore the interactions between their Tc-99m DTPA radioaerosol lung scintigraphy, spirometric measurements, and the levels of thyroid hormones. We studied 19 hyperthyroid patients and 16 sex- and age-matched controls. Thyroid hormone levels were assessed. Spirometric lung function tests, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and the clearance rate of Tc-99m DTPA were performed in all participants. Ratio of DLCO value to the alveolar ventilation (DLCO/VA) and the means of half-time (T 1/2 ) of Tc-99m DTPA clearance rate, which were used to evaluate alveolar-capillary membrane permeability, were calculated. There were no statistical differences between spirometric parameters (vital capacity (VC), force vital capacity (FVC), one second forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 )/FVC, mean forced expiratory flow during the middle of FVC (FEF 25-75)) of the two groups (p>0.05). Although the mean FEV 1 level was significantly lower in the hyperthyroid patients than the control subjects (p 1 was only less than 80 percent of the predicted value. No significant difference in the means of DLCO, DLCO/VA or T 1/2 values of Tc-99m DTPA clearance was observed between the two groups (p>0.05). In hyperthyroid patients, there was a positive relation between DLCO/VA, DLCO/VA% and T 1/2 values of Tc-99m DTPA clearance (p 1/2 values of Tc-99m DTPA clearance in hyperthyroid group (p>0.05). We conclude that increased thyroid hormones have no effect on permeability of alveolar-capillary membrane in hyperthyroid patients. (author)

  9. A new 99mTc-red blood cell labeling procedure for cardiac blood pool imaging: Clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelbaek, H.; Buelow, K.; Aldershvile, J.; Moegelyang, J.; Nielsen, S.L.; Copenhagen Univ.

    1989-01-01

    The first clinical results of a new 99m Tc-red blood cell labeling procedure avoiding cell centrifugation are presented. One ml heparinized blood samples were incubated with small amounts of a stannous kit. By titration studies, ideal quantities of sodium hypochlorite for oxidation of extracellular tin and of EDTA as stabilizer of the label were found. The Cl - concentration and pH of the labeled blood were acceptable, and EDTA increased labeling yield and stability determined in vitro by a few percent. The new procedure gave a slightly higher labeling yield than a current technique using centrifugation of cells. Labeling efficiency expressed as cell bound/total activity was 96.6%±1.3% in healthy subjects and 95.5%±2.2% in cardiac patients and remained high for 2 h after reinjection. The biological halflife of labeled cells following the new procedure was 11-12 h rendering it suitable for serial determinations of radionuclide cardiography. (orig.)

  10. Total-hip arthroplasty: Periprosthetic indium-111-labeled leukocyte activity and complementary technetium-99m-sulfur colloid imaging in suspected infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; Kim, C.K.; Swyer, A.J.; Capozzi, J.D.; Solomon, R.W.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte images of 92 cemented total-hip arthroplasties were correlated with final diagnoses. Prostheses were divided into four zones: head (including acetabulum), trochanter, shaft, and tip. The presence (or absence) and intensity of activity in each zone was noted, and compared to the corresponding contralateral zone. Though present in all 23 infected arthroplasties, periprosthetic activity was also present in 77% of uninfected arthroplasties, and was greater than the contralateral zone 51% of the time. When analyzed by zone, head zone activity was the best criterion for infection (87% sensitivity, 94% specificity, 92% accuracy). Fifty of the arthroplasties were studied with combined labeled leukocyte/sulfur colloid imaging. Using incongruence of images as the criterion for infection, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the study were 100%, 97%, and 98%, respectively. While variable periprosthetic activity makes labeled leukocyte imaging alone unreliable for diagnosing hip arthroplasty infection, the addition of sulfur colloid imaging results in a highly accurate diagnostic procedure

  11. Huge Varicose Inferior Mesenteric Vein: an Unanticipated 99mTc-labeled Red Blood Cell Scintigraphy Finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoseinzadeh, Samaneh; Shafiei, Babak; Salehian, Mohamadtaghi; Neshandar Asli, Isa; Ghodoosi, Iraj

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic varices (EcV) are enlarged portosystemic venous collaterals, which usually develop secondary to portal hypertension (PHT). Mesocaval collateral vessels are unusual pathways to decompress the portal system. Here we report the case of a huge varicose inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) that drained into peri rectal collateral veins, demonstrated by 99m Tc-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy performed for lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in a 14-year-old girl. This case illustrates the crucial role of 99m Tc-labeled RBC scintigraphy for the diagnosis of rare ectopic lower GI varices.

  12. Huge Varicose Inferior Mesenteric Vein: an Unanticipated {sup 99m}Tc-labeled Red Blood Cell Scintigraphy Finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoseinzadeh, Samaneh; Shafiei, Babak; Salehian, Mohamadtaghi; Neshandar Asli, Isa; Ghodoosi, Iraj [Shaheed Beheshti Medical University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Ectopic varices (EcV) are enlarged portosystemic venous collaterals, which usually develop secondary to portal hypertension (PHT). Mesocaval collateral vessels are unusual pathways to decompress the portal system. Here we report the case of a huge varicose inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) that drained into peri rectal collateral veins, demonstrated by {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy performed for lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in a 14-year-old girl. This case illustrates the crucial role of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled RBC scintigraphy for the diagnosis of rare ectopic lower GI varices.

  13. Use of chromium-50 as a label for red blood cells in studies with pregnant women and premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.; Drysdale, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    A technique is described in which non-radioactive chromium-50 is used as a label for red blood cells in patients for whom radioactive labels are not permissible. The chromium-50, adsorbed on to donor blood in vitro, is infused in the circulatory system and measured, following collection, using neutron activation analyses and a high resolution germanium (lithium) diode gamma-ray spectrometer. The application of this technique to the measurement of blood cell survival time in pregnant women suspected of having haemolytic anaemia and to the measurement of intracranial bleeding in premature infants is described. (author)

  14. Study of the viability of technetium-99m labeling of whole antimyosin antibody and its fragment: development of radiopharmaceutical for cardiac survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Guilherme Luiz de Castro

    2007-01-01

    In the acute myocardium infarction, the myocytes cell membrane loses its integrity, allowing the influx of extracellular macromolecules such as circulating antibody into the damaged cell. The use of the specific antibodies against cardiac myosin labeled with 99m Tc allows to determine the localization and extension of myocardial infarction. The purpose of this work was to study the viability of labeling of the antimyosin monoclonal antibody and its fragment F(ab')2 with 99m Tc. Because of the high cost of antimyosin antibody, others antibodies were used to optimize the methodology and the best condition was used for antimyosin antibody. The intact antibody was cleaved by pepsin to produce F(ab') 2 fragment. The F(ab') 2 and the intact antibody were reduced by treatment with Dithiothreitol (DTT) and 2-Mercaptoethanol (2-ME) and labeled with 99m Tc by direct method. Different concentrations of reductant, mixing conditions and incubation times were studied. In the standard condition, incubation at molar ratio 1:1000 (antibody:reducing agent) at room temperature for 30 minutes with continuous rotation (850 rpm), 13.28 - SH groups were formed per molecule. It was studied the influence of p H, of the concentration of stannous chloride (Sn 2+ ) and incubation time in the labeling condition. The better radiochemical yield (90.06 +- 1.53%) was obtained using 2.5 μg of Sn 2+ in p H 4.5 for 60 minutes. The labeling of the fragment F(ab') 2 did not present satisfactory results because of the low yield of the digestion. After purification by PD-10, the biodistribution study was performed and showed that the intact antimyosin antibody labeled with 99m Tc presented fast kinetic compatible with the biodistribution of an intact antibody labeled with 99m Tc. Scintigraphy image of the animal with myocardial infarction was obtained and compared with the image of a normal animal. The studies allow to conclude that the use of fragment F(ab') 2 are not viable, but the use of the labeled

  15. Synthesis and characterization of volatile technetium compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, Bradley C.; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Ken R.

    2013-01-01

    Technetium-99 is an important fission (T 1/2 = 2.13.105 y) product of the nuclear industry. Technetium in its highest oxidation state (VII) is highly mobile and can represent a threat to the environment. There are over 55 million gallons of high level mixed waste located at the Hanford site. Waste tanks at the Hanford site contain Tc that could potentially leak, and in the context of management of technetium, a glass waste form was proposed to counteract the issue. In the process of synthesizing melt glass between the temperatures of 600°C and 1100°C, volatile technetium compounds were observed in the reaction tube. These compounds displayed characteristic colors based upon the reaction environments of either breathing air or nitrogen gas. A breathing air atmosphere produces a red compound that adheres to the walls of the reaction tube. An atmosphere of nitrogen gas produces a white compound that was observed on the walls of the reaction tube. (author)

  16. Single-photon emission computed tomography enhanced Tc-99m-pertechnetate disodium-labelled red blood cell scintigraphy in the localization of small intestine bleeding: a single-centre twelve-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Jiri; Vizda, Jaroslav; Kopacova, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    To present our experience with the detection of bleeding in the small intestine by means of scintigraphy with in vivo-labelled red blood cells (RBCs) in the period of 1998-2009. A 12-year prospective study was accomplished with 40 patients (23 men, 17 women, aged 12-91, mean 56 years) who had lower gastrointestinal bleeding (obscure-overt bleeding) and underwent scintigraphy with in vivo-labelled RBCs by means of technetium 99m. The scintigraphy was usually performed after other diagnostic tests had failed to locate the bleeding. A total of 26 patients had a positive scintigraphy with in vivo-labelled RBCs and 14 patients had negative scintigraphy. The final diagnosis was confirmed in 20 of 26 patients with a positive scintigraphy by push enteroscopy (6/20), intraoperative enteroscopy (7/20), surgery (4/20), duodenoscopy (1/20), double-balloon enteroscopy (1/20) and X-ray angiography (1/20). The correct location of the bleeding site was identified by RBC scintigraphy in 15 of 20 (75%) patients with the confirmed source. The locations of the bleeding site identified by scintigraphy and enteroscopy (push, intraoperative) and surgical investigations were highly correlated in patients with a positive scintigraphy within the first 3 h. Eleven of the 20 correctly localized studies and none of the incorrectly localized studies were positive in the dynamic phase of imaging. In 5 patients (all erroneously localized), scintigraphy was positive only at a period longer than 18 h. RBC scintigraphy is an effective imaging modality in localizing lower gastrointestinal bleeding in patients for whom other diagnostic tests have failed to locate the bleeding. RBC scintigraphy can be successful in the detection of bleeding sites in the small intestine. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Inferior vena cava filter thrombus: A possible cause of an unanticipated finding of {sup 99m} Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hee Sung; Choi, Joon Hyouk; Kim, Young Suk [Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy, a sensitive and specific diagnostic test, is useful for patients suspected of suffering from active gastrointestinal bleeding. This study follows a case of a patient who was suspected of gastrointestinal bleeding after an inferior vena cava filter was inserted due to a deep vein thrombosis of the femoral vein. To evaluate an exact focus of bleeding, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy was executed. Herein, an unanticipated finding of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy probably due to a thrombus on the inferior vena cava filter is reported.

  18. Anti-Cra: family study and survival of chromium-labeled incompatible red cells in a Spanish-American patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.J.; Coonce, L.S.; South, S.F.; Troup, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    A 22-year-old Spanish-American woman with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis developed anti-Cra after transfusion during colectomy. No Cra negative family members were found among 13 relatives, including four siblings and both parents. Chromium-labeled red cell survival studies showed a T1/2 of 14 days with Cra positive cells. Two units of Cra positive blood were transfused uneventfully for bleeding after ileorectal anastomosis

  19. In vitro cell studies of technetium-99m labeled RGD-HYNIC peptide, a comparison of tricine and EDDA as co-ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zifen; He, Jiang; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J.

    2003-01-01

    The level of α V β 3 integrins on endothelial cells is elevated in angiogenesis. The high binding specificity to α V β 3 integrins of peptides containing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) residues suggests that the radiolabeled RGD peptides may be useful as tumor specific imaging agents. In this research, cyclised peptides containing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and Arg-Gly-Glu (RGE, as control) residues were conjugated with HYNIC and labeled with 99m Tc. Objective: The goal was to evaluate the influence of co-ligand, either tricine or ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDA) on protein and integrin binding and on cellular uptake in culture. Methods: The n-octanol/water partition coefficient, binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells, and cell lysate distributions of the radiolabeled peptides were evaluated. Results: The co-ligands had a significant effect on the labeling efficiency of the HYNIC conjugates and on certain properties of the 99m Tc complexes. The labeling efficiency with tricine was 10 fold higher and BSA binding was over 8 fold greater compared to EDDA. Both RGD labels showed higher (6 to 28 fold) binding to HUVE cells than that of the RGE labels, indicating binding specificity. After cell-lysis, only a small percentage of the total RGD label that accumulated in the cells was found bound to cellular proteins (9% of RGD/tricine and 5% of RGD/EDDA), implying that over 90% of the radiolabeled peptides were internalized for both radiolabeled RGDs. The number of the RGD molecules bound to proteins was estimated to be approximately three per cell, suggesting that only a small number of α V β 3 integrin proteins are expressed on the cells. Conclusions: Apart from the differences in radiolabeling, the only important effect of substituting EDDA for tricine as co-ligand on the HYNIC-peptides was the lower degree of serum protein binding. In spite of the lower serum protein binding potential, in vivo tumor accumulation of the RGD

  20. In vitro cell studies of technetium-99m labeled RGD-HYNIC peptide, a comparison of tricine and EDDA as co-ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zi-Fen; He, Jiang; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J

    2003-02-01

    The level of alpha(V)beta(3) integrins on endothelial cells is elevated in angiogenesis. The high binding specificity to alpha(V)beta(3) integrins of peptides containing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) residues suggests that the radiolabeled RGD peptides may be useful as tumor specific imaging agents. In this research, cyclised peptides containing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and Arg-Gly-Glu (RGE, as control) residues were conjugated with HYNIC and labeled with (99m)Tc. The goal was to evaluate the influence of co-ligand, either tricine or ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDA) on protein and integrin binding and on cellular uptake in culture. The n-octanol/water partition coefficient, binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells, and cell lysate distributions of the radiolabeled peptides were evaluated. The co-ligands had a significant effect on the labeling efficiency of the HYNIC conjugates and on certain properties of the (99m)Tc complexes. The labeling efficiency with tricine was 10 fold higher and BSA binding was over 8 fold greater compared to EDDA. Both RGD labels showed higher (6 to 28 fold) binding to HUVE cells than that of the RGE labels, indicating binding specificity. After cell-lysis, only a small percentage of the total RGD label that accumulated in the cells was found bound to cellular proteins (9% of RGD/tricine and 5% of RGD/EDDA), implying that over 90% of the radiolabeled peptides were internalized for both radiolabeled RGDs. The number of the RGD molecules bound to proteins was estimated to be approximately three per cell, suggesting that only a small number of alpha(V)beta(3) integrin proteins are expressed on the cells. Apart from the differences in radiolabeling, the only important effect of substituting EDDA for tricine as co-ligand on the HYNIC-peptides was the lower degree of serum protein binding. In spite of the lower serum protein binding potential, in vivo tumor accumulation of the RGD/EDDA may not be improved

  1. In vivo/in vitro labeling of red blood cells with sup(99m)Tc and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.; Langhammer, H.; Pabst, H.W.; Bauer, U.; Sauer, E.

    1981-01-01

    A reliable and stabile in vivo/in vitro labeling technique of red blood cells (RBC) is described. The patients are injected 20% of the content of an unlabeled kit used for bone scintigraphy (TechneScan PYP, Byk-Mallinckrodt). 15 minutes later 3 ml blood are sampled in a heparinized syringe. The blood is incubated together with 30-40 mCi (1-1.5 GBq) sup(99m)Tc for 10 minutes in a water bath at 35-37 0 C. After centrifugation at 500 g a dose of 15-25 mCi (0.6-1 GBq) sup(99m)Tc labeled RBC may be withdrawn in a volume of 1-1.5 ml. Mean labeling efficiency is 88%, without using the first eluat of a Tc-generator the yield is as high as 92%. Due to the small volume, the labeled RBC may be reinjected as bolus and first pass radionuclide angiocardiography can be performed. Using labeled RBC, scintigraphy of the intravasal space is possible up to 20 hours without deterioration in contrast or accumulation of radioactivity in the extravasal space or in other organs. Evaluation of heart function can be performed up to 10 hours. In addition, labeled RBC are useful in detecting unknown gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.) [de

  2. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of colorectal carcinoma using technetium-99m-labeled, totally human monoclonal antibody 88BV59H21-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulec, S A; Serafini, A N; Moffat, F L; Vargas-Cuba, R D; Sfakianakis, G N; Franceschi, D; Crichton, V Z; Subramanian, R; Klein, J L; De Jager, R L

    1995-12-01

    Radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) using human monoclonal antibodies offers the important clinical advantage of repeated imaging over murine monoclonal antibodies by eliminating the cross-species antibody response. This article reports a Phase I-II clinical trial with Tc-99m-labeled, totally human monoclonal antibody 88BV59H21-2 in patients with colorectal carcinoma. The study population consisted of 34 patients with colorectal cancer (20 men and 14 women; age range, 44-81 years). Patients were administered 5-10 mg antibody labeled with 21-41 mCi Tc-99m by the i.v. route and imaged at 3-10 and 16-24 h after infusion using planar and single-photon emission computed tomographic (CT) techniques. Pathological confirmation was obtained in 25 patients who underwent surgery. Human antihuman antibody (HAHA) titers were checked prior to and 1 and 3 months after the infusion. RIS with Tc-99m-labeled 88BV59H21-2 revealed a better detection rate in the abdomen-pelvis region compared with axial CT. The combined use of both modalities increased the sensitivity in both the liver and abdomen-pelvis regions. Ten patients developed mild adverse reactions (chills and fever). No HAHA response was detected in this series. Tc-99m-labeled human monoclonal antibody 88BV59H21-2 RIS shows promise as a useful diagnostic modality in patients with colorectal cancer. RIS alone or in combination with CT is more sensitive than CT in detecting tumor within the abdomen and pelvis. Repeated RIS studies may be possible, due to the lack of a HAHA response.

  3. Tc-99m Labeled Red Blood Cell by Ultra Tag RBC Kit in Patients Suspected of Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusuwan, Pawana; Leaungwutiwong, Suraphong; Tocharoenchai, Chiraporn; Chaiwatanarat, Tawatchai; Sirisatipoch, Sasitorn; Rajadara, Samart; Naktong, Thanyada; Thanyarak, Sucheera

    2001-06-01

    Twenty patients suspected of gastrointestinal bleeding who underwent Tc-99m labeled red blood cell (RBC) by ultraTag RBC kit at Division of Nuclear Medicine, Bumrungrad Hospital between January 2000 and December 2002 were studied. The histories of patients together with either endoscopic results or angiographic findings or pathological reports were used as gold standards. Two by Two decision matrix was used for data analysis and the sensitivity together with specificity were calculated. The results show that the sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m labeled RBC by ultraTag RBC kit are 87.5% and 91.7%, respectively. We conclude that Tc-99m labeled RBC by ultraTag RBC kit gives high percentages of sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, the image quality is improved because of the absence of free Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake in the stomach in all patients

  4. Final Report Technetium Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is required by the current contract to remove radioactive technetium FR-om stored caustic nuclear waste solutions. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has worked with typical envelopes of these wastes to optimize the removal process. To support the studies, SRTC developed a rapid on-line remote analyzer to monitor technetium and rhenium levels in solutions as well as track other metals in the solutions through the process operations. Rhenium was used as a non-radioactive substitute for technetium in process development studies. The remote monitor was based on inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICPES). Fiber optic cable and extended RF cabling removed the plasma source FR-om the spectrometer and instrument electronics

  5. Influence of different chelators (HYNIC, MAG3 and DTPA) on tumor cell accumulation and mouse biodistribution of technetium-99m labeled to antisense DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.M.; Liu, N.; Zhu, Z.-H.; Rusckowski, M.; Hnatowich, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    We have shown recently that cell accumulation in culture of antisense DNA is strongly influenced by the presence of a 99m Tc-MAG 3 group for radiolabeling. We have now compared the in vitro and mouse in vivo behavior of 99m Tc when radiolabeled to one antisense phosphorothioate DNA by three different methods. The 18-mer antisense DNA against the RIα subunit of PKA was conjugated via a primary amine on the 5'-end with the NHS esters of HYNIC and MAG 3 and by the cyclic anhydride of DTPA. Surface plasmon resonance measurements revealed that the association rate constant for hybridization was unchanged for all three chelators as compared with that of the native DNA. Size exclusion HPLC showed rapid and quantitative protein binding for all three chelators upon incubation of labeled DNAs in 37 C serum and cell culture medium. However, in each case, radiolabeled and intact oligonucleotide was still detectable after 24 h. Cellular uptake was tested in an RIα mRNA-positive cancer cell line. The order of cellular accumulation of 99m Tc was DTPA>HYNIC(tricine)>MAG 3 , with the differences increasing with time between 4 and 24 h. The rate of 99m Tc egress from cells was found to be MAG 3 >HYNIC>DTPA, which may explain the order of cellular accumulation. The biodistribution in normal mice was heavily influenced by the labeling method and followed a pattern similar to that seen previously by us for peptides labeled with the same chelators. In conclusion, although these studies concerned only one antisense DNA in one cell line, the results suggest that the success of antisense imaging may depend, in part, on the method of radiolabeling. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of radiolabeling of annexin A5 with technetium-99m: influence of the labeling methods on physico-chemical and biological properties of the compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josefina da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Annexin A5 (ANXA5) is an intracellular human protein of 36 kDa with high affinity for membrane-bound phosphatidylserine that is selectively exposed on the surface of cells undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosis is important in normal physiology and innumerous pathologic states. Clinical applications for ANXA5 imaging are being developed in oncology, organ transplantation and cardiovascular diseases. Many strategies to radiolabel the protein have been described, including direct labeling, derivatization through a bifunctional chelating agent (BFC), production of mutated protein or peptide analogs. Several 99 mTc-labeling techniques have been reported using different cores, including [Tc=O] +3 , [Tc]HYNIC, [Tc≡N]+2 and [Tc(CO 3 )] +1 . In this study, we evaluated the influence of 99 mTc cores on biological behavior and physico-chemical properties of radiolabeled annexin. Radiolabeling procedure using [Tc≡N] +2 core was a two-step procedure including the reaction of 99 mTcO4 - with SDH in the presence of SnCl 2 and PDTA to obtain the intermediate 99 mTcN-SDH, and successive addition of ANXA5. The results obtained were not satisfactory, despite the high efficiency in the production of the intermediate. The [Tc=O] +3 core was produced using the ethylene dicysteine (EC) as BFC. TSTU was employed in the derivatization to produce the corresponding hydroxysuccinimide ester. Different ANXA5:EC ratios were studied and all labeling conditions resulted in high radiochemical yield but with differences in lipophilicity, stability, biological distribution and affinity for apoptotic cells. The HYNIC-ANXA5 also produced the labeled protein with high radiochemical yield. The stability of the radiolabeled ANXA5 was evaluated after storing at room temperature, at 2 - 8 degree C and in human serum at 37 degree C. The analysis of these results showed that the 99 mTc-EC-ANXA5 (ratio 10-2) was the most stable compound in all the studied conditions. Partition coefficient assay resulted in

  7. A novel technetium-99m labeled monoclonal antibody (174H.64) for staging head and neck cancer by immuno-SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Adams, S.; Kiefer, J.; Niesen, A.; Knecht, R.; Howaldt, H.P.; Hertel, A.; Adamietz, I.A.; Sykes, T.; Boniface, G.R.; Noujaim, A.A.; Hoer, G.

    1993-01-01

    A novel murine monoclonal antibody (MAb 174H.64) was labeled with 99m Tc by a direct method. MAb 174H.64 detects a cytokeratin-associated antigen which is expressed by over 90% of all squamous cell carinomas. Panendoscopy, sonography and computerized tomography scan were performed in all cases as well as magnetic resonance imaging (in selected patients). Pre-operative immunoscintigraphy was performed in 21 patients with histologically proven primary carcinomas (18 with remaining primary tumors and 3 with lymph node recurrences). Scintigraphic images were obtained 4-6 h after injection of 1.1 GBq of the 99m Tc-labeled antibody (2 mg). Late images were acquired 18 to 24 h after injection. Single-Photon-Emission-Computed Tomography (SPECT) of the head and thorax was performed in all patients. The primary tumors were immunoscintigraphically visualized in all 18 patients with remaining primary tumor. Fifteen of 18 loco-regional lymph node metastases were visualized by immunoscintigraphy (the smallest lesions had a diameter of <1 cm), in one patient lymph node metastases were detected by immunoscan only. Two metastatically involved lymph nodes were identified by histology only (micrometastases). Distant metastases were present in 3 patients, of which two were identified by immunoscintigraphy. Immuno-SPECT according to this method was a sensitive and specific imaging modality for preoperative staging of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and detected lymph node metastases with higher accuracy than conventional clinical and imaging modalities. (orig.)

  8. Fundamental evaluation of in vivo labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m using stannous chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, T; Katayama, M; Ando, I; Ando, A [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Hisada, K

    1982-04-01

    Stannous chloride was evaluated as a stannous ion source for the in vivo labeling of red blood cells(RBC) with Tc-99m. In this study, the labeling of RBC with Tc-99m was performed by two successive intravenous administrations of stannous chloride and Tc-99m-pertechnetate, and the optimal dose of stannous chloride and the optimal time interval between the two injections were evaluated. The labeling efficiency for this procedure was also evaluated as a function of time after the pertechnetate injection. The results of our investigation revealed that the maximal in vivo RBC labeling (86%) can be obtained at 15 min after the pertechnetate injection with an i.v. dose of 12.7 ..mu..g/kg of stannous chloride followed 15 min later by an i.v. injection of Tc-99m-pertechnetate. In conclusion, stannous chloride was found to be an excellent stannous ion source for the in vivo labeling of RBC with Tc-99m.

  9. Technetium-99m-HMPAO labeled leukocyte single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) for assessing Crohn's disease extent and intestinal infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancone, L; Schillaci, O; Capoccetti, F; Bozzi, R M; Fina, D; Petruzziello, C; Geremia, A; Simonetti, G; Pallone, F

    2005-02-01

    Scintigraphy using radiolabeled leukocytes is a useful technique for assessing intestinal infiltration in Crohn's disease (CD). However, limits of planar images include overlapping activity in other organs and low specificity. To investigate the usefulness of (99m)Tc-HMPAO (hexametyl propylene amine oxime) labeled leukocyte single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) for assessing CD lesions, in comparison with planar images. Twenty-two inflammatory bowel disease patients (19 CD; 2 ulcerative colitis, UC; 1 ileal pouch) assessed by conventional endoscopy or radiology were enrolled. Leukocytes were labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO. SPECT images were acquired at 2 h and planar images at 30 min and 2 h. Bowel uptake was quantitated in nine regions (score 0-3). Both SPECT and planar images detected a negative scintigraphy (score 0) in the UC patient with no pouchitis and a positive scintigraphy (score 1-3) in the 21 patients showing active inflammation by conventional techniques. SPECT showed a higher global score than planar images (0.71 +/- 0.09 vs 0.30 +/- 0.05; p < 0.001), and in particular in the right iliac fossa (p= 0.003), right and left flank (p < 0.001; p= 0.02), hypogastrium (p= 0.002), and mesogastrium (p < 0.001). SPECT provided a better visualization and a higher uptake than planar images in patients with ileal and ileocolonic CD (6.45 +/- 0.82 vs 2.8 +/- 0.55, p < 0.001; 5.5 +/- 1.6 vs 2.6 +/- 0.7, p= 0.03), and with perianal CD (6.6 +/- 1.6 vs 3.4 +/- 1.2; p= 0.03). (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled leukocyte SPECT provides a more detailed visualization of CD lesions than planar images. This technique may better discriminate between intestinal and bone marrow uptake, thus being useful for assessing CD lesions within the pelvis, including perianal disease.

  10. Stabilized alcohol solution of reducing salt formulations for use in preparing radioisotope labelled scanning agents: liver scanning technetium-99m colloid and method of preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The preparation of a radiolabelled scanning agent for imaging reticuloendothelial organs, including the liver and spleen, is described. It consists of a sup(99m)Tc labelled colloid of a metal ion salt reductant, such as SnCl 2 , TiCl 3 , CrCl 2 or FeCl 2 , and an anhydrous non-oxidising organic solvent, such as diethyl ether, ethanol or another aliphatic alcohol. Examples are given of the effects of varying the pH, the metal ion salt reductant concentration, the eluate and solvent volumes and the temperature of the radiopharmaceutical on the tagging efficiency and organ distribution in mice and rabbits. (U.K.)

  11. Technetium-99m-Labeled Diethylcarbamazine Citrate (99mTc-DEC as a New Diagnostic Agent for Lymphatic Filariasis Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Oekar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis or more commonly known as elephantiasis disease has infected more than 120 million people in 80 countries; and more than 40 million of them are unable to work, in addition to disruption of aesthetic values. The problem faced by almost all people in combating this infectious disease is delayed diagnosis. The sufferers do not realize that they have been infected with this disease. A specific and accurate method of early detection is therefore needed. 99mTc-labeled Diethylcarbamazine-citrate (99mTc-DEC has been successfully prepared. However, as part of the discovery and development of new drugs, the fulfillment of pharmaceutical and safety requirements have to be evaluated. Physico-chemical aspects such as stability, purity levels, and other pharmaceutical requirements, as well as pharmacokinetic studies and route of administration, are important parameters to be studied. The stability test showed that after seven months of storage, a preparation in a dry kit retains an efficiency of labeling and a purity level of more than 90 % and its physico-chemical and biological characteristics remained steady. Biodistribution test in Wistar rat showed that the greatest accumulation occurred in the lymphatic system, especially in the popliteal glands and in lumbar and mesenteric lymph nodes. Imaging with a gamma camera after intradermal and intravenous injections to the experimental animals resulted in a positive image that showed 99mTc-DEC accumulation in the target organ. The results of this innovation are expected to contribute significantly to improving public health, particulary in early detection of filarial infections. In addition, this result is expected to be a concrete contribution to the program of "The Global Goal of Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis as a Public Health Problem by the Year 2020”.

  12. Aptamers anti-(1→3)-β-D-glucan labelled with Technetium-99m: biodistribution and imaging in experimental models of infection and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Camila Maria de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Acid nucleic aptamers are RNA or DNA oligonucleotides able of binding to a target molecule with high affinity and selectivity that are promising tools in nuclear medicine. Many aptamers have been used as targeting molecule of radiopharmaceuticals in preclinical studies. (1→3)-β-D-Glucans are the main structural cell wall components of fungi and some bacteria. In the present study was evaluated the capacity of two radiolabeled (1→3)-β-D-glucan aptamers (seq6 and seq30) to identity infectious foci caused by fungal or bacterial cells. Firstly, in vitro studies were carried out by labeling the aptamers with "3"2P to evaluate its binding capacity for (1→3)-β-D-glucan and peptidoglycan (main bacterial cell wall element) polysaccharides and for Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans cells. For the biodistribution and imaging studies aptamers were labeled with "9"9"mTc by the direct method and the complex stability in saline, plasma, and cysteine excess was evaluated. The biodistribution studies were accomplished in Swiss mice groups infected in the right thigh with Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans or with experimental inflammation induced by zymosan. A "9"9"mTc radiolabeled library consisting of oligonucleotides with random sequences was used as control. Seq6 and seq30 aptamers showed high binding capacity to (1→ 3)-β-D-glucan and S. aureus cells. For peptidoglycan and C. albicans cells a statistically significant binding capacity was not verified. The radiolabel yield after aptamers labeling with "9"9"mTc was higher than 90% and the complex stability in saline, plasma and cysteine excess was satisfactory. In the group of animals infected with S. aureus was verified a higher uptake of the "9"9"mTc radiolabeled aptamers in the infected thigh relative to the radiation measured in the left thigh muscle. The target/non-target ratio was 3.17 ± 0.22 for seg6 and 2.66 ± 0.10 for seg30. These ratios were statistically higher than the target

  13. Technetium-99m-labeled Arg-Gly-Asp-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone hybrid peptides for human melanoma imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jianquan; Guo Haixun [College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Miao Yubin, E-mail: ymiao@salud.unm.ed [College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Cancer Research and Treatment Center, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Department of Dermatology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine whether {sup 99m}Tc-labeled Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) hybrid peptide targeting both melanocortin-1 (MC1) and {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptors was superior in melanoma targeting to {sup 99m}Tc-labeled {alpha}-MSH or RGD peptide targeting only the MC1 or {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptor. Methods: RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH, RAD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH and RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSHscramble were designed to target both MC1 and {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptors, MC1 receptor only and {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptor only, respectively. The MC1 or {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptor binding affinities of three peptides were determined in M21 human melanoma cells. The melanoma targeting properties of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH, RAD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH and RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSHscramble were determined in M21 human melanoma-xenografted nude mice. Meanwhile, the melanoma uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH was blocked with various non-radiolabeled peptides in M21 melanoma xenografts. Results: RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH displayed 2.0 and 403 nM binding affinities to both MC1 and {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptors, whereas RAD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH or RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSHscramble lost their {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptor binding affinity by greater than 248-fold or MC1 receptor binding affinity by more than 100-fold, respectively. The melanoma uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH was 2.49 and 2.24 times (P < .05) the melanoma uptakes of {sup 99m}Tc-RAD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH and {sup 99m}Tc-RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSHscramble at 2 h post-injection, respectively. Either RGD or (Arg{sup 11})CCMSH peptide co-injection could block 42% and 57% of the tumor uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH, whereas the coinjection of RGD+(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH peptide mixture

  14. Evaluation by biodistribution of two anti-peptidoglycan aptamers labeled with Technetium-{sup 99m} for in vivo bacterial infection identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Iêda M.; Lacerda, Camila M.S.; Santos, Sara R.; Andrade, Antero S.R. de, E-mail: imendesf@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fernandes, Simone O.; Barros, André B. de; Cardoso, Valbert N., E-mail: valbertcardoso@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear medicine clinics are still awaiting optimal scintigraphic imaging agents capable of discriminating between infection and inflammation, and between fungal and bacterial infections. Aptamers are oligonucleotides that display high affinity and specificity for their molecular targets and are emerging as promising molecules for radiopharmaceuticals development. In the present study, two aptamers for peptidoglycan (termed Antibac1 and Antibac2) were labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and evaluated for bacterial infection identification by biodistribution. The direct labeling method with {sup 99m}Tc allowed radiolabel yields higher than 90% and the complexes were stable in saline, plasma and cysteine excess. The {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac1 in the group infected with S. aureus presented a target/non-target ratio (T/NT) of 2.81 ± 0.67, significantly higher than verified for the {sup 99m}Tc-library (control): 1.52 ± 0.07. A radiolabeled library of oligonucleotides with random sequences was used as a control for monitoring nonspecific uptake at the site of infection. In the model with C. albicans infection the T/NT ratio for {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac1 was 1.46 ± 0.11, similar that obtained for the {sup 99m}Tc-library in the same model: 1.52 ± 0.05. The {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac2 in the group infected with S. aureus showed a T/NT ratio of 2.61 ± 0.66, statistically higher than achieved for the {sup 99m}Tc-library: 1.52 ± 0.07. In the group infected with C. albicans this ratio for {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac2 was 1.75 ± 0.19, also statistically higher in relation to the {sup 99m}Tc-library: 1.52 ± 0.05. Both aptamers were effective in identifying bacterial infection foci, but only {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac1 showed no cross reactivity for fungal cells. (author)

  15. Uptake and distribution of technetium in several marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Gerber, G.B.; Garten, C.T. Jr.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Myttenaere, C.; Van Baelen, J.; Cogneau, M.; van der Ben, D.

    1983-01-01

    The uptake or chemical form of technetium in different marine algae (Acetabularia, Cystoseira, Fucus) has been examined and a simple model to explain the uptake of technetium in the unicellular alga, Acetabularia, has been conceptualized. At low concentrations in the external medium, Acetabularia can rapidly concentrate technetium. Concentration factors in excess of 400 can be attained after a time of about 3 weeks. At higher mass concentrations in the medium, uptake of technetium by Acetabularia becomes saturated resulting in a decreased concentration factor (approximately 10 after 4 weeks). Approximately 69% of the total radioactivity present in /sup 95m/Tc labelled Acetabularia is found in the cell cytosol. In Fucus vesiculosus, labelled with /sup 95m/Tc, a high percentage of technetium is present in soluble ionic forms while approximately 40% is bound, in this brown alga, in proteins and polysaccharides associated with cell walls. In the algal cytosol of Fucus vesiculosus, about 45% of the /sup 95m/Tc appears to be present as anionic TcO - 4 and the remainder is bound to small molecules. 8 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  16. Failure to label red blood cells adequately in daily practice using an in vivo method: methodological and clinical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambye, A.S.; Vandermeiren, R.; Vervaet, A.; Vandevivere, J.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency and possible causes of poor red blood cell (RBC) labelling when performing equilibrium gated blood pool (GBP) radionuclide angiography at rest with an in vivo method. The influence of the mode of administration on tagging efficiency was studied. The patients were subclassified into four groups according to the way both molecules involved in the tagging procedure were administered. When poor image quality was found, the labelling efficiency was quantified and the frequency of failed tagging in each group was calculated. A significant association was found between poor labelling and the use of a Teflon catheter or butterfly needle for the injection of the stannous agent. In another 737 patients a strict administration protocol was applied to analyse the frequency of poor tagging and its possible causes. Suboptimal image quality was present in 88 patients. Quantitatively confirmed poor tagging was present in 36 of the 88; the remaining 52 patients showed borderline normal labelling. Drug interference was studied by comparing the medications used by the 36 patients showing poor binding with those used by 44 control patients. A significant relationship was found between the use of heparin or chemotherapy and the tagging. A significant correlation was found between advanced age and poor labelling efficiency. Finally, in 36 patients with poor labelling, a second GBP test was performed. This allowed us to evaluate the accuracy of the obtained ejection fraction value when a suboptimal image set is used, and to assess the feasibility of using the new kit in daily practice. (orig.)

  17. (1→3)-β-D-glucan aptamers labeled with technetium-99m: Biodistribution and imaging in experimental models of bacterial and fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Lacerda, Camila Maria; Ferreira, Iêda Mendes; Dos Santos, Sara Roberta; de Barros, André Luís Branco; Fernandes, Simone Odília; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro

    2017-03-01

    Acid nucleic aptamers are RNA or DNA oligonucleotides capable of binding to a target molecule with high affinity and selectivity. These molecules are promising tools in nuclear medicine. Many aptamers have been used as targeting molecule of radiopharmaceuticals in preclinical studies. (1→3)-β-D-glucans are the main structural cell wall components of fungi and some bacteria. In the present study two radiolabeled (1→3)-β-D-glucan aptamers (seq6 and seq30) were evaluated to identity infectious foci caused by fungal or bacterial cells. Aptamer labeling with 99m Tc was performed by the direct method and biodistribution studies were accomplished in Swiss mice (n=6) infected in the right thigh muscle with Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans. A 99m Tc radiolabeled library consisting of oligonucleotides with random sequences was used as control. There was a higher uptake of 99m Tc radiolabeled aptamers in the infected thigh than in the left thigh muscle (non-infected) in the S. aureus infected animals. The target/non-target ratios were 3.17±0.22 for seq6 and 2.66±0.10 for seq30. These ratios were statistically higher than the value (1.54±0.05) found for the radiolabeled library (control). With regard to biodistribution, no statistical difference was verified between aptamers and control uptakes in the infection foci in the C. albicans infected animals. The target/non-target ratios were 1.53±0.03, 1.64±0.12 and 1.08±0.02 for radiolabeled library, seq6 and seq30, respectively. Scintigraphic imaging of infected foci using radiolabeled aptamers was possible only for S. aureus infected mice. Seq6 and seq30 aptamers proved to be inefficient for diagnosis of C. albicans infection. Nevertheless, their applicability for diagnosis of S. aureus and other bacterial infections by scintigraphy should be further explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan aptamers labeled with technetium-99 m: Biodistribution and imaging in experimental models of bacterial and fungal infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa Lacerda, Camila Maria de; Ferreira, Iêda Mendes; Santos, Sara Roberta dos; Barros, André Luís Branco de; Fernandes, Simone Odília

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Acid nucleic aptamers are RNA or DNA oligonucleotides capable of binding to a target molecule with high affinity and selectivity. These molecules are promising tools in nuclear medicine. Many aptamers have been used as targeting molecule of radiopharmaceuticals in preclinical studies. (1 → 3)-β-D-glucans are the main structural cell wall components of fungi and some bacteria. In the present study two radiolabeled (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan aptamers (seq6 and seq30) were evaluated to identity infectious foci caused by fungal or bacterial cells. Methods: Aptamer labeling with 99m Tc was performed by the direct method and biodistribution studies were accomplished in Swiss mice (n = 6) infected in the right thigh muscle with Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans. A 99m Tc radiolabeled library consisting of oligonucleotides with random sequences was used as control. Results: There was a higher uptake of 99m Tc radiolabeled aptamers in the infected thigh than in the left thigh muscle (non-infected) in the S. aureus infected animals. The target/non-target ratios were 3.17 ± 0.22 for seq6 and 2.66 ± 0.10 for seq30. These ratios were statistically higher than the value (1.54 ± 0.05) found for the radiolabeled library (control). With regard to biodistribution, no statistical difference was verified between aptamers and control uptakes in the infection foci in the C. albicans infected animals. The target/non-target ratios were 1.53 ± 0.03, 1.64 ± 0.12 and 1.08 ± 0.02 for radiolabeled library, seq6 and seq30, respectively. Scintigraphic imaging of infected foci using radiolabeled aptamers was possible only for S. aureus infected mice. Conclusions: Seq6 and seq30 aptamers proved to be inefficient for diagnosis of C. albicans infection. Nevertheless, their applicability for diagnosis of S. aureus and other bacterial infections by scintigraphy should be further explored.

  19. Preparation of 99''m technitium labelled erythrocytes coated with anti-rhesus-D immunoglobulin (anti-Rho-D IgG) for defective spleen diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanny Kartini, H.; Karnama, S.; Ahmad Muhtadi; Karna Awangga

    1999-01-01

    Preparation of 99m technetium-red blood cells coated with anti-rhesus-D IgG has been carried out and evaluated. Some factors such as the concentration of Sn(II) and incubation time which can influence the labelling yield are discussed. A labelling efficiency of greater than 90% (93.1 ±1.4% ) was obtained. Biological studies in normal human volunteers, showed that 99m Tc-red blood cell coated with anti-rhesus-D IgG accumulated in the spleen and may become a spleen imaging agent. (author)

  20. Clinical evaluation of a 51Cr-labeled red blood cell survival test for in vivo blood compatibility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, A.A.; Dharkar, D.D.; Wahner, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Modified red blood cell survival studies with use of 51Cr were performed in three groups of subjects. Group 1 consisted of normal subjects who were given labeled autologous blood, group 2 were subjects in need of blood transfusions and given labeled ABO and Rh crossmatch-compatible blood, and group 3 were patients in need of blood transfusion but in whom problems arose in finding compatible blood. The results of the studies suggest that for patients with blood compatibility problems, normal red blood cell survival values at 1 hour do not exclude the possibility of severe hemolysis 24 hours later. Thus, if a 1-hour test result is normal, the procedure should be extended routinely to 24 hours. Moreover, the test can be used to evaluate the clinical importance of antibodies. We showed that anti-Yka and anti-Lan were clinically significant, but high-titer, low-avidity antibodies, anti-Kna, anti-I, and anti-HI were clinically insignificant in the cases studied. This finding emphasizes the importance of an in vivo test for the final compatibility evaluation in complicated blood replacement problems

  1. Fluorido complexes of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariappan Balasekaran, Samundeeswari

    2013-01-01

    Fluorine chemistry has received considerable interest during recent years due to its significant role in the life sciences, especially for drug development. Despite the great nuclear medicinal importance of the radioactive metal technetium in radiopharmaceuticals, its coordination chemistry with the fluorido ligand is by far less explored than that of other ligands. Up to now, only a few technetium fluorides are known. This thesis contains the synthesis, spectroscopic and structural characterization of novel technetium fluorides in the oxidation states ''+1'', ''+2'', ''+4'' and ''+6''. In the oxidation state ''+6'', the fluoridotechnetates were synthesized either from nitridotechnetic(VI) acid or from pertechnetate by using reducing agent and have been isolated as cesium or tetraethylammonium salts. The compounds were characterized spectroscopically and structurally. In the intermediate oxidation state ''+4'', hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) was known for long time and studied spectroscopically. This thesis reports novel and improved syntheses and solved the critical issues of early publications such as the color, some spectroscopic properties and the structure of this key compound. Single crystal analyses of alkali metal, ammonium and tetramethylammonium salts of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) are presented. In aqueous alkaline solutions, the ammonium salt of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) undergoes hydrolysis and forms an oxido-bridged dimeric complex. It is the first step hydrolysis product of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) and was characterized by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Low-valent technetium fluorides with the metal in the oxidation states of ''+2'' or ''+1'' are almost unknown. A detailed description of the synthesis and characterization of pentafluoridonitrosyltechnetate(II) is presented. The complex was isolated as alkali metal salts, and spectroscopic as well as structural features of the complexes are presented. Different salts of the trans

  2. Influence of Momordica charantia L. on the red and white blood cells labeling with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Jose Odinilson de Caldas; Souza, Grace M. Lima de; Catanho, Maria T. Jansem de Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Momordica charantia L. is popularly known in Brazil as bitter melon and it's commonly used to treat several diseases as cancer, diabetes and to heal skin injuries. Many papers have been published showing the potential radio pharmacological activity of this plant due to its linkage with 99m Tc through some protein fractions of the extract. In this study, it was evaluated the influence of Momordica charantia L extract , labeling ( in vitro) of blood elements with sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ). In the labeling of red blood cells (in vitro), blood samples were obtained from Wistar rats and incubated with different concentrations of M. charantia, for control group was used NaCl 0.9% and added stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ) and 99m Tc. The plasma fractions (P) and the cells (C) were separated and, also, precipitated with trichloroacetic acid at 5%, obtaining the soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions. The radioactivity rate (%ATl) of each fraction was calculated. The same methodology was applied for white blood cells but these cells were separated in advance by centrifugation at 1800 rpm during 15 minutes. There weren't alterations in the labeling of red blood cells in the concentrations tested of the extract when compared with the rate of the control group neither in the insoluble fractions. However, on the white blood cells it was noticed an increase in 99m Tc uptake in the presence of M. charantia extract. So its possible to conclude, based on previous results obtained by our group, that the M. charantia L. could be used to evaluate inflammatory processes. (author)

  3. Difference between resistant and susceptible maize to systematic colonization as revealed by DsRed-labeled Fusarium verticillioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium verticillioides was labeled with DsRed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to examine differences in colonization and reactions of resistant and susceptible inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.. The extent of systemic colonization of F. verticillioides in roots from maize lines either resistant or susceptible to the fungus was studied by visualizing the red fluorescence produced by the fungus expressing DsRed. The difference in quantities of colony forming units (CFU in roots and basal stems, production of fumonisin B1, and pH of root were determined. Although F. verticillioides colonized both resistant and susceptible lines, differences were observed in the pattern and extent of fungal colonization in the two types of maize lines. The fungus colonized the susceptible lines producing mosaic patterns by filling the individual root cells with hyphae. Such a pattern of colonization was rarely observed in resistant lines, which were less colonized by the fungus than the susceptible lines in terms of CFUs. The production of mycotoxin fumonisin B1 in roots from different lines was closely correlated with the amount of F. verticillioides colonization, rather than the pH or amylopectin concentrations in the root. The findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of the defense mechanism in resistant maize lines to F. verticillioides.

  4. Anomalous properties of technetium clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, S.V.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of critical evaluation of literature data in the field of chemistry of technetium cluster compounds with ligands of a weak field a conclusion is made on specific, ''anomalous'' properties of technetium cluster complexes which consist in an increased ability of the given element to the formation of a series of binuclear and multinuclear clusters, similar in composition and structure and easily transforming in each other. The majority of technetium clusters unlike similar compounds of other elements are paramagnetic with one unpaired electron on ''metallic'' MO of loosening type. All theoretical conceptions known today on the electronic structure of technetium clusters are considered. It is pointed out, that the best results in the explanation of ''anomalous'' properties of technetium clusters can be obtained in the framework of nonempirical methods of self-consistent field taking into account configuration interactions. It is also shown, that certain properties of technetium clusters can be explained on the basis of qualitative model of Coulomb repulsion of metal atoms in clusters. The conclusion is made, that technetium position in the Periodic table, as well as recently detected technetium property to the decrease of effective charge on its atoms during M-M bond formation promote a high ability of the element to cluster formation both with weak field ligands and with strong field one

  5. Technetium discharges into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luykx, F.

    1986-01-01

    Technetium-99 is the most important technetium isotope released to the environment because of its long life and its relatively high fission yield. Its release to date, mainly as a result of nuclear fuel reprocessing, is estimated to be of the order of 1000 TBq. The quantity from nuclear weapons testing would only be some 10-15% of this value. (author)

  6. Detection of gastrointestinal blood loss with 99mTc-labeled, heat-treated red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Atkins, H.L.; Goldman, A.G.; Sacker, D.F.; Harold, W.H.; Fairchild, R.G.; Richards, P.; Brill, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    Studies in dogs showed that heat-treated 99mTc-labeled red blood cells (HT/RBC) afford a highly sensitive means of detecting gastrointetinal bleeding as low as 0.12 ml/min., which could not be seen with unheated 99mTc-RBC, 99mTc-sulfur colloid, or 99mTc-DTPA. In addition, as the right upper quadrant and epigastrium remained free of activity, only one fifth to one tenth of the dose of 99mTc was needed. The safety of HT/RBC in humans has been documented, and the experiments in dogs suggest that it may have advantages over other agents in detecting gastrointestinal bleeding

  7. Detection of gastrointestinal blood loss with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled, heat-treated red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Atkins, H.L.; Goldman, A.G.; Sacker, D.F.; Harold, W.H.; Fairchild, R.G.; Richards, P.; Brill, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    Studies in dogs showed that heat-treated /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells (HT/RBC) afford a highly sensitive means of detecting gastrointestinal bleeding as low as 0.12 ml/min, which could not be seen with unheated /sup 99m/Tc-RBC, /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid, or /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. In addition, as the right upper quadrant and epigastrium remained free of activity, only one fifth to one tenth of the dose of /sup 99m/Tc was needed. The safety of HT/RBC in humans has been documented, and the experiments in dogs suggest that it may have advantages over other agents in detecting gastrointestinal bleeding

  8. Fluorido complexes of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariappan Balasekaran, Samundeeswari

    2013-07-04

    Fluorine chemistry has received considerable interest during recent years due to its significant role in the life sciences, especially for drug development. Despite the great nuclear medicinal importance of the radioactive metal technetium in radiopharmaceuticals, its coordination chemistry with the fluorido ligand is by far less explored than that of other ligands. Up to now, only a few technetium fluorides are known. This thesis contains the synthesis, spectroscopic and structural characterization of novel technetium fluorides in the oxidation states ''+1'', ''+2'', ''+4'' and ''+6''. In the oxidation state ''+6'', the fluoridotechnetates were synthesized either from nitridotechnetic(VI) acid or from pertechnetate by using reducing agent and have been isolated as cesium or tetraethylammonium salts. The compounds were characterized spectroscopically and structurally. In the intermediate oxidation state ''+4'', hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) was known for long time and studied spectroscopically. This thesis reports novel and improved syntheses and solved the critical issues of early publications such as the color, some spectroscopic properties and the structure of this key compound. Single crystal analyses of alkali metal, ammonium and tetramethylammonium salts of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) are presented. In aqueous alkaline solutions, the ammonium salt of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) undergoes hydrolysis and forms an oxido-bridged dimeric complex. It is the first step hydrolysis product of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) and was characterized by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Low-valent technetium fluorides with the metal in the oxidation states of ''+2'' or ''+1'' are almost unknown. A detailed description of the synthesis and characterization of pentafluoridonitrosyltechnetate(II) is presented. The

  9. Determination of the volume of circulating blood by means of in vivo labelled red blood cells with 99mTc pertechnetate and use of a Bulgarian kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.; Shejretova, E.; Pencheva, V.; Udvareva, N.

    1988-01-01

    A method was proposed for determination of the circulating blood volume (CBV) by means of in vivo labelled red blood cells, which was compared to the routine method with 51 Cr-sodium chromate. To the patients concecutively was given 1 g of potassium perchlorate (for blocking of the organs, which actively absorbed the perchnetate ion) and 500 mkg of tin pyrophosphate (Bulgarian kit) with subsequent labelling of the red blood cells with 99m Tc-pertechnate (1,8 - 3,7 MBq). The volume of the red blood cells, and hence also CBV, was measured with the use of a modified by the authors formula, in which correction for the individual effectiveness of the cell labelling was done. In comparison with the standard method for in vitro labelling of the red blood cells with 51 Cr sodium chromate, the method proposed gave an insignificant difference of 4,16%, but when compared to the commercial tin pyrophosphate (of the firm Mallinckrot - Holland), the Bulgarian kit displayed equivalent qualities. It was concluded that the method has a high accuracy and was easy for execution, cause a low radiation burden of the patient and is suitable for application in nuclear cardiology and radionuclide angiography

  10. Cerebellar projections to the red nucleus and inferior olive originate from separate populations of neurons in the rat: A non-fluorescent double labeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Teune (Thea); J. van der Burg (Johannes); T.J.H. Ruigrok (Tom)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn the rat, the extent of collateralization of projections from the cerebellar nuclei to the red nucleus and inferior olive was investigated using a retrograde double labeling technique. The combination of tracers selected, cholera toxin-β-subunit and WGA-BSA-gold, not only enabled the

  11. Influence of iron deficiency in the radiopharmaceutical behavior of red blood cells labeled with 99mTc(99mTC-RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmanovici, G.; Salgueiro, M.J.; Pernas, L.; Collia, N.; Leonardi, N.; Zubillaga, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Red blood cells (RBCs) labeled with 99m Tc are commonly used in the evaluation of cardiac function, gastrointestinal tract bleeding, red blood cell volume or splenic sequestration. Generally stannous ion is used as reducing agent. A proposed mechanism is that once the stannous ion (Sn) and the pertechnetate ( 99m Tc) reach the interior of the RBC, the radionuclide is mainly house in the β-chain of hemoglobin. The aim of this study was to determine if hemoglobin content reduction, an indicator of iron deficiency anemia, could affect the efficiency of RBC labeling and the biological distribution of this radiopharmaceutical. We studied 30 rats fed for 3 weeks after weaning with diets with iron contents of 6.5 ppm (group A), 18 ppm (group B) and 100 ppm (control). For all groups, the labeling yields were always higher than 97%; the percentage of radioactivity was mostly founded in blood with almost negligible radioactivity the rest of the studied organs. We can conclude that the decrease in hemoglobin content, an indicator of iron deficiency anemia, does not interfere neither in the labeling nor in the biodistribution of red blood cells labeled with 99m Tc. (author)

  12. Technetium behavior and recovery in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinken, G.E.

    1995-12-01

    Technetium-99 in soils is of great concern because of its long half-life and because it can not be detected readily. This work reviews the behavior of technetium in various types of soils. A method for extracting technetium from soil was developed with the use of technetium-95m and 99m to determine recoveries at each step. Technetium chemistry is very complicated and problem areas in the behavior and recovery have been highlighted. Technetium is widely used in nuclear medicine and a review of its chemistry pertaining to radiopharmaceuticals is relevant and helpful in environmental studies. The technetium behavior in the patented citric acid method for the removal of toxic metals in contaminated soils was studied. An innovative method using solid phase extraction media for the concentration of technetium extracted from soils, with water and hydrogen peroxide, was developed. This technique may have a useful environmental application for this type of remediation of technetium from contaminated

  13. Technetium Behavior and Recovery in Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinken,G.E.

    1995-12-01

    Technetium-99 in soils is of great concern because of its long half-life and because it can not be detected readily. This work reviews the behavior of technetium in various types of soils. A method for extracting technetium from soil was developed with the use of technetium-95m and 99m to determine recoveries at each step. Technetium chemistry is very complicated and problem areas in the behavior and recovery have been highlighted. Technetium is widely used in nuclear medicine and a review of its chemistry pertaining to radiopharmaceuticals is relevant and helpful in environmental studies. The technetium behavior in the patented citric acid method for the removal of toxic metals in contaminated soils was studied. An innovative method using solid phase extraction media for the concentration of technetium extracted from soils, with water and hydrogen peroxide, was developed. This technique may have a useful environmental application for this type of remediation of technetium from contaminated soils.

  14. Substitution reactions of technetium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, T.

    1997-01-01

    Substitution reactions of a series of technetium complexes are considered in comparison with corresponding reactions of rhenium. Rhenium and technetium complexes are rather inert in substitution reactions, the latter are characterized by greater rate constants when they proceed according to dissociative mechanism. In rare cases when k Tc /k Re id little it is assumed that the reaction proceeds according to the associative mechanism. (author)

  15. Chemistry and structure of technetium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldas, J.; Boas, J.F.; Bonnyman, J.; Williams, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    The structures of tris(2-aminobenzenethiolato) technetium(VI) and dichlorobis(diethyldithiocarbamato) thionitrosyltechnetium(V) have been determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. The preparation and chemistry of thiocyanato complexes of technetium have been investigated

  16. Determination of the 24-hours survival of stored red cells beyond the legal duration (42 and 49 days). Value of a double labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messian, O.; Noel, L.; Saint-Paul, B.; Fabre, G.; Saint-Blancard, J.

    1985-01-01

    Red cell double labelling using chromium 51 and Tc 99m proved to be the good method for the measurement of 24-hour post-transfusion survival values of red cells stored at 4 0 C. Satisfactory results were obtained with the preservative solution PAGGSS (Phosphate Adenine Guanosine Glucose Sorbitol Saline) for 42 and 49 days, and with ADSOL (Adenine Dextrose Saline Mannital) for 42 days. But for 49 days ADSOL does not maintain 24-hour post-transfusion survival of the cells at an acceptable level, 70 per cent, for this length of time [fr

  17. 99 mTc-sulphur-colloid and heat-denatured 99mTc-labelled red cell scans demonstrating a giant intrapelvic spleen in a girl after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, P.F.; Tzen, K.Y.; Tsai, M.F.; Lin, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    A 17 x 12 x 5-cm giant intrapelvic mass in a 14-year-old girl is reported. This mass developed 6 years after a splenectomy for splenic torsion. The heat-denatured 99 m Tc-labelled red cell scan and 99 m Tc- sulphur-colloid scan confirmed the specific red cell sequestration function and reticuloendothelial activity in the giant intrapelvic spleen. The size and development of the giant intrapelvic spleen are unusual. The usefulness of functional images to diagnosis the nature of the intrapelvic mass is well demonstrated. (orig.)

  18. Technetium-99m-labeled N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc HIDA): a new radiopharmaceutical for hepatobiliary imaging studies. [/sup 14/C, /sup 113/Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J.; Cooper, M.; Loberg, M.; Harvey, E.; Sikorski, S.

    1977-10-01

    An easily formulated, stable kit preparation of technetium-99m HIDA, suitable for use in humans, was developed and tested in mice and dogs. The tracer was cleared rapidly from the blood and excreted predominantly by the liver in both species. In dogs, the hepatobiliary clearance of Tc-99m HIDA was significantly greater than that of C-14 HIDA and Sn-113 HIDA. The LD/sub 50/ for HIDA in mice, 168 mg/kg, exceeded the average human dose by a factor of 1000 on a per-weight basis. Blood clearance curves for Tc-99m HIDA in 12 normal subjects were biexponential with half-times of 4.6 +- 1.0 min and 31.5 +- 7.0 min, and cumulative 90-min urine samples contained 14.2 +- 1.8% of the injected dose. Images in normal subjects and nonjaundiced patients showed rapid concentration of tracer by the liver and activity was present within the biliary system in 10 to 20 min. In jaundiced patients, the tracer blood clearance was delayed and urinary excretion increased, but intestinal activity, indicating biliary patency, was imaged in those patients without complete focal obstruction of the common duct. Technetium-99m HIDA is a nontoxic radiopharmaceutical useful for clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.

  19. Reds are more important than greens: how UK supermarket shoppers use the different information on a traffic light nutrition label in a choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Peter; Matthews, Anne; Eyles, Helen; Kaur, Asha; Hodgkins, Charo; Raats, Monique M; Rayner, Mike

    2015-12-12

    Colour coded front-of-pack nutrition labelling ('traffic light labelling') has been recommended for use in the UK since 2006. The voluntary scheme is used by all the major retailers and some manufacturers. It is not clear how consumers use these labels to make a single decision about the relative healthiness of foods. Our research questions were: Which of the four nutrients on UK traffic light labels (total fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt) has the most influence on decisions? Do green lights or red lights have a greater influence? Are there age and gender differences in how people use the colour and nutrient information? We recruited participants from a UK supermarket chain membership list to conduct an online choice experiment in May 2014. We analysed data using multilevel logisitic models with food choices (n = 3321) nested in individuals (n = 187) as the unit of analysis. A food with more reds was 11.4 (95% confidence intervals: 10.3, 12.5) times less likely to be chosen as healthy, whereas a food with more greens was 6.1 (5.6, 6.6) times more likely to be chosen as healthy. Foods with better colours on saturated fat and salt were 7.3 (6.7, 8.0) and 7.1 (6.5, 7.8) times more likely to be chosen as healthy - significantly greater than for total fat (odds ratio 4.8 (4.4, 5.3)) and sugar (5.2 (4.7, 5.6)). Results were broadly similar for different genders and age groups. We found that participants were more concerned with avoiding reds than choosing greens, and that saturated fat and salt had a greater influence on decisions regarding healthiness than total fat and sugar. This could influence decisions about food reformulation and guidance on using nutrition labelling.

  20. Lyophilized kits of diamino dithiol compounds for labelling with {sup 99m}-technetium. Pharmacokinetics studies and distribution compartmental models of the related complexes; Conjuntos de reativos liofilizados de compostos diaminoditiolicos para marcacao com tecnecio-99m. Estudo farmacocinetico e elaboracao de modelos compartimentalizados dos respectivos complexos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de

    1995-07-01

    The present work reflects the clinical interest for labelling diamino dithiol compounds with technetium-99m. Both chosen compounds, L,L-Ethylene dicysteine (L,L-EC) and L,L-Ethylene dicysteine diethyl esther (L,L-ECD) were obtained with relative good yield and characterized by IR and NMR. The study of labelling conditions with technetium-99m showed the influence of the type and mass of reducing agent as well as the pH on the formation of complexes with desired biological characteristics. Radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Lyophilised kits of L,L-EC and L,L-ECD for labelling with {sup 99m}Tc were obtained, with stability superior to 120 days, when stored under refrigeration, enabling the kits marketing. The ideal formulation of the kits as well as the use of liquid nitrogen in the freezing process, determined the lyophilization success. Distribution biological studies of the {sup 99m}Tc complexes were performed on mice by invasive method and on bigger animals by scintigraphic evaluation. Biological distribution studies of the complex {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC showed fast blood clearance, with the elimination of about 90% of the administered dose after 60 minutes, almost exclusively by the urinary system. The biological distribution results were adjusted to a three compartmental distribution model, as expected for a radiopharmaceutical designed to renal dynamic studies, with tubular elimination. The complex interaction with renal tubular receptors is related with structural characteristics of the compound, more specifically with the presence and location of polar groups. In comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC, biological studies of the complex {sup 99m}Tc -L,L-ECD showed different distribution aspects, despite some structural similarities. The presence of ethyl groups confers to the complex neutrality and lipophilicity. It cross the intact blood brain barrier and is retained in the brain

  1. Rapid and label-free separation of Burkitt's lymphoma cells from red blood cells by optically-induced electrokinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Liang

    Full Text Available Early stage detection of lymphoma cells is invaluable for providing reliable prognosis to patients. However, the purity of lymphoma cells in extracted samples from human patients' marrow is typically low. To address this issue, we report here our work on using optically-induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP force to rapidly purify Raji cells' (a type of Burkitt's lymphoma cell sample from red blood cells (RBCs with a label-free process. This method utilizes dynamically moving virtual electrodes to induce negative ODEP force of varying magnitudes on the Raji cells and RBCs in an optically-induced electrokinetics (OEK chip. Polarization models for the two types of cells that reflect their discriminate electrical properties were established. Then, the cells' differential velocities caused by a specific ODEP force field were obtained by a finite element simulation model, thereby established the theoretical basis that the two types of cells could be separated using an ODEP force field. To ensure that the ODEP force dominated the separation process, a comparison of the ODEP force with other significant electrokinetics forces was conducted using numerical results. Furthermore, the performance of the ODEP-based approach for separating Raji cells from RBCs was experimentally investigated. The results showed that these two types of cells, with different concentration ratios, could be separated rapidly using externally-applied electrical field at a driven frequency of 50 kHz at 20 Vpp. In addition, we have found that in order to facilitate ODEP-based cell separation, Raji cells' adhesion to the OEK chip's substrate should be minimized. This paper also presents our experimental results of finding the appropriate bovine serum albumin concentration in an isotonic solution to reduce cell adhesion, while maintaining suitable medium conductivity for electrokinetics-based cell separation. In short, we have demonstrated that OEK technology could be a promising tool for

  2. Technetium-aspirin molecule complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shahawy, A.S.; Mahfouz, R.M.; Aly, A.A.M.; El-Zohry, M.

    1993-01-01

    Technetium-aspirin and technetium-aspirin-like molecule complexes were prepared. The structure of N-acetylanthranilic acid (NAA) has been decided through CNDO calculations. The ionization potential and electron affinity of the NAA molecule as well as the charge densities were calculated. The electronic absorption spectra of Tc(V)-Asp and Tc(V)-ATS complexes have two characteristic absorption bands at 450 and 600 nm, but the Tc(V)-NAA spectrum has one characteristic band at 450 nm. As a comparative study, Mo-ATS complex was prepared and its electronic absorption spectrum is comparable with the Tc-ATS complex spectrum. (author)

  3. Environmental behavior of technetium-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, M.D.S.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a review of the literature on technetium-99. The chemical and physical properties of some technetium compounds are considered, and a discussion of possible source terms is included. Literature on the environmental behavior of technetium is presented, including its behavior in the bodies of animals and humans. The primary sources of Tc-99 in the environment are fallout from atomic detonations and releases from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The environmental behavior of technetium-99 has been studied predominantly with respect to movement in soil and accumulation in plants. There is a surprising scarcity of data on behavior of Tc-99 in the atmosphere and in aquatic systems. Additional work needs to be conducted in these two areas to determine behavior and to acquire baseline concentration data. Much of the soil work has produced contradictory results. In-depth studies of holdup mechanisms for Tc-99 in both geological repositories and soil need to be conducted. Since plants represent a potential bioaccumulation of Tc-99, plant uptake studies of Tc-99 under field conditions also need to be done

  4. Oscillator strengths for neutral technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garstang, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Oscillator strengths have been calculated for most of the spectral lines of TcI which are of interest in the study of stars of spectral type S. Oscillator strengths have been computed for the corresponding transitions in MnI as a partial check of the technetium calculations

  5. Technetium migration in natural clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luebke, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The present work was performed within the joint research project ''Retention of repository relevant radionuclides in argillaceous rocks and saline systems'' (contract no.: 02E10981), funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi). The aim was to obtain first insights into the interaction of the long-lived fission product technetium and natural clay with regard to a repository for high-level nuclear waste. For this purpose Opalinus Clay from Mont Terri (northern Switzerland) was used as a reference material. The nuclide technetium-99 will contribute to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel for more than thousand years due to its long half-live. In case of a leakage of the storage vessels, the geochemistry of technetium is determined by its oxidation state, at which only the oxidation states +IV and +VII are relevant. Because of the high solubility and low affinity to sorption on surfaces of minerals, Tc(VII) is considered to be very mobile and thus the most hazardous species. The focuses of this study therefore are diffusion experiments with this mobile species and investigations of the effect of ferrous iron on the mobility and speciation of technetium.rnThe interaction of technetium and Opalinus Clay was studied in sorption and diffusion experiments varying several parameters (pH value, addition of reducing agents, effect of oxygen, diffusion pathways). In the course of this study spatially resolved investigations of the speciation have been performed on Opalinus Clay thin sections and bore cores for the first time. In addition to the speciation, further information regarding elemental distributions and crystalline phases near technetium enrichments were obtained. Supplementary investigations of powder samples allowed determining the molecular structure of technetium on the clay surface.rnBoth the combination of sorption experiments with spectroscopic investigations and the diffusion experiment exhibit a reduction of Tc

  6. Adsorption of technetium-99m tetrofosmin and technetium-99m furifosmin on plastic syringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosch, R.; Granegger, S.; Sinzinger, H.

    1998-01-01

    Some groups have reported that adsorption of radiopharmaceuticals on disposable plastic syringes can reach levels of almost 50%. This high loss of radioactivity stimulated us to carry out similar studies. Our measurements were done in combination with patient studies. Therefore, we used 2-ml syringes, all of the same brand. The radioactivity in the syringe was measured immediately before and after injection. a total of 500-600 MBq technetium-99m labelled tetrofosmin or technetium-99m furifosmin was administered to 48 patients using four different injection techniques (n = 6 for each technique with each tracer): with needles, 1 min blood incubation at 22 C, 10 or 30 min after preparation of the tracer; with butterflies, 1 min blood incubation at 22 C, 10 or 30 min after preparation of the tracer. Neither in syringes nor in needles or butterflies did more than 7% of the initial radioactivity remain. The entire residual activity in syringe plus needle or syringe plus butterfly together never exceeded the 9% limit. Furthermore, in a pilot study we measured the remaining radioactivity in the vial; here, too, we found no more than 14% of total radioactivity. These findings indicate that total retention of radioactivity during elution and application of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin and 99m Tc-furifosmin with material used in our setting does not approach relevant amounts. (orig.)

  7. Adsorption of technetium-99m tetrofosmin and technetium-99m furifosmin on plastic syringes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartosch, R.; Granegger, S.; Sinzinger, H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Vienna (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    Some groups have reported that adsorption of radiopharmaceuticals on disposable plastic syringes can reach levels of almost 50%. This high loss of radioactivity stimulated us to carry out similar studies. Our measurements were done in combination with patient studies. Therefore, we used 2-ml syringes, all of the same brand. The radioactivity in the syringe was measured immediately before and after injection. a total of 500-600 MBq technetium-99m labelled tetrofosmin or technetium-99m furifosmin was administered to 48 patients using four different injection techniques (n = 6 for each technique with each tracer): with needles, 1 min blood incubation at 22 C, 10 or 30 min after preparation of the tracer; with butterflies, 1 min blood incubation at 22 C, 10 or 30 min after preparation of the tracer. Neither in syringes nor in needles or butterflies did more than 7% of the initial radioactivity remain. The entire residual activity in syringe plus needle or syringe plus butterfly together never exceeded the 9% limit. Furthermore, in a pilot study we measured the remaining radioactivity in the vial; here, too, we found no more than 14% of total radioactivity. These findings indicate that total retention of radioactivity during elution and application of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin with material used in our setting does not approach relevant amounts. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  8. Technetium accumulation, fate, and behavior in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Wildung, R.E.; Garland, T.R.

    1978-01-01

    Technetium, a product of the nuclear fuel cycle, is highly soluble in water and mobile in soils as the pertechnetate ion (TcO - 4 ). Soluble ions in soil have the potential for competing with nutrient ions for membrane carrier sites involved in ion uptake by plants. A study was, therefore, undertaken to determine the availability, toxicity, and mechanism of pertechnetate uptake by soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams). Technetium was effectively accumulated by plants at soil concentrations of 0.01 to 0.1 μg/g and in nutrient culture at levels as low as 0.02 pg/ml. Plants grown on soils containing technetium at levels below 0.1 μg/g effectively removed up to 90% of the technetium from soil. Minimal mobilization of technetium from vegetative tissues to the seed occurred during senescence. Chemical analyses indicated that the xylem-mobile form of technetium was TcO 4 - . The uptake rate of technetium by intact plants was multiphasic over the concentration range of 0.01 to 10μM; this suggests active uptake and a specificity for technetium in the root absorption process. Because of the efficiency of technetium accumulation and the probability of its chemical toxicity, competition kinetic studies were undertaken to identify possible nutrient analogs. Nutrients effective in reducing technetium uptake included the Mn 2+ , SO 4 2- , H 2 PO 4 - , and MoO 4 2- ions

  9. Sample preparation and characterization of technetium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Serizawa, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Kousaku; Itoh, Mitsuo

    1997-10-01

    Technetium-99 is a long-lived fission product with a half-life of about 2.1 x 10 5 years, which decays by β-emission. For the transmutation of 99 Tc, research on solid technetium was started. Technetium metal powder purchased was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, γ-ray spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and -mass spectrometry. The lattice parameters obtained were agreed with the reported values. The metallic impurity was about 15 ppm, where aluminum and iron contributed mainly. No impurity nuclide with γ-emission was found. Using the technetium metal powder, button-, rod-, and disk-shaped samples of technetium metal were prepared by arc-melting technique. Thermal diffusivity of technetium metal was measured on a disk sample from room temperature to 1173 K by laser flash method. The thermal diffusivity decreased with increasing temperature though it was almost constant above 600 K. (author)

  10. Behaviour of technetium in marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Kirchmann, R.; Van Baelen, J.; Hurtger, C.; Cogneau, M.; Van der Ben, D.; Verthe, C.; Bouquegneau, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Uptake and distribution of technetium were studied in several green (Acetabularia acetabulum, Boergesenia forbesii, Ulva lactuca) and brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, Fucus spiralis and Fucus vesiculosus) marine algae. Technetium was supplied to the algae as Tc-95m-pertechnetate. Under laboratory conditions, the algae were capable of accumulating technetium, with the exception, however, of Boergesenia, which showed concentration factors (C.F.) comprised between 0.28 and 0.71. The concentration of technetium-99 in Fucus spiralis, collected along the Belgian coast, was measured by a radiochemical procedure. The intracellular distribution of technetium was studied by differential centrifugation in Acetabularia and by the puncturing technique in Boergesenia. The chemical forms of technetium penetrated into the cells were investigated by selective chemical extractions, molecular sieving and thin layer chromatography

  11. Behaviour of technetium in marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Kirchmann, R.; Baelen, J. van; Hurtgen, C.; Cogneau, M.; Ben, D. van der; Verthe, C.; Bouquegneau, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Uptake and distribution of technetium were studied in several green (Acetabularia acetabulum, Boergesenia forbesii, Ulva lactuca) and brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, Fucus spiralis and Fucus vesiculosus) marine algae. Technetium was supplied to the algae as Tc-95-pertechnetate. Under laboratory conditions, the algae were capable of accumulating technetium, with the exception, however, of Boergesenia, which showed concentration factors (C.F.) comprised between 0.28 and 0.71. The concentration of technetium-99 in Fucus spiralis, collected along the Belgian coast, was measured by a radiochemical procedure. The intracellular distribution of technetium was studied by differential centrifugation in Acetabularia and by the puncturing technique in Boergesenia. The chemical forms of technetium penetrated into the cells were investigated by selective chemical extractions, molecular sieving and thin layer chromatography. (author)

  12. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  13. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...

  14. Method of producing radioactive technetium-99M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karageozian, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    A chromatographic process of producing high purity and high yield radioactive Technetium-99m. A solution containing Molybdenum-99m and Technetium-99m is placed on a chromatographic column and eluted with a neutral solvent system comprising an organic solvent and from about 0.1 to less than about 10% of water or from about 1 to less than about 70% of a solvent selected from the group consisting of aliphatic alcohols having 1 to 6 carbon atoms. The eluted solvent system containing the Technetium-99m is then removed leaving the Technetium-99m as a dry, particulate residue

  15. Sorption of radionuclide technetium on minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Min; Fan Xianhua; Wei Liansheng; Zhang Yingjie; Jiao Haiyang

    2004-01-01

    The study on adsorption behavior of technetium on antimonial minerals is performed in batch experiments and the influence of adsorption time, mineral granularity, solid-liquid ratio, initial concentration, pH value and reducing ion. On technetium adsorption are considered according to adsorption ratios of hepta valent and quadrivalent technetium on stibnite and antimony ocher, the results show that reduction of technetium from heptavelence to quadrivalence could improve adsorption ratios, which provide reference data for selecting buffer-backfill materials in high level rad waste deep geological diplosal. (author)

  16. The retention mechanism of technetium-99m-HM-PAO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neirinckx, R D; Burke, J F; Harrison, R C

    1988-01-01

    Preparations of d,l- and meso-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) labeled with technetium-99m were added to rat brain homogenates diluted with phosphate buffer (1:10). The conversion of d,l-HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms took place with an initial rate constant of 0.12 min-1. Incubation of the b......Preparations of d,l- and meso-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) labeled with technetium-99m were added to rat brain homogenates diluted with phosphate buffer (1:10). The conversion of d,l-HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms took place with an initial rate constant of 0.12 min-1. Incubation....... This correspondence of values supports the notion that GSH may be important for the in vivo conversion of 99mTc-labeled HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms and may be the mechanism of trapping in brain and other cells. A kinetic model for the trapping of d,l- and meso-HM-PAO in tissue is developed that is based on data...

  17. Biogeochemical studies of technetium in marine and estuarine ecosystems. Progress report, 1 July 1979-30 June 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in research dealing with the biogeochemical behavior of technetium in marine and estuarine ecosystems. Studies were planned to elaborate the biokinetic behavior of Tc as TcO 4 - in selected marine and estuarine organisms and to determine the affinity of TcO 4 - for different marine sediments under oxygenated conditions. It is concluded that concentration factors for TcO 4 - in bivalve molluscs (oysters and mussels) do not exceed 2 when calculated for whole animals and when uptake is directly from water. Direct uptake from water by limpets (archeogastropod) are very much lower than have been reported for red abalone (archeogastropod). Whole body concentration factors for TcO 4 - in the plaice, Pleuronectes platessa, where uptake is directly from labeled seawater, do not exceed 10 at equilibrium. Both the lobster, Homarus gammaris and the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor appear to concentrate Tc efficiently from water labelled intially with TcO 4 - . Both plaice and rays (Raja clavata) fed /sup 95m/Tc labeled Nereis show an initial rapid loss of the isotope for approximately five days. Thereafter, loss is much reduced. Shrimp (Palaemon elegans), Cragnon sp.) and Crab (Cancer pagurus) show concentration factors similar to plaice (C.F. is less than 10). Isopods, however, have concentration factors of only 3 following four weeks exposure to labeled seawater. Uptake of TcO 4 - by phytoplankton is extremely low, which precludes experiments in which TcO 4 - labeled phytoplankton can be fed to either bivalve molluscs or microzooplankton. Sediment distribution coefficients for TcO 4 - are essentially zero and are independent of sediment type in well oxygenated seawater. Experiments to date have shown that it is not possible to make generalizations concerning the bioavailability of TcO 4 - to marine organisms

  18. Technetium removal from aqueous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, P.A.; Jones, C.P.; Junkison, A.R.; Turner, A.D.; Kavanagh, P.R.

    1992-03-01

    The research discussed in this report has compared several ''state of the art'' techniques for the removal of traces of the radionuclide, technetium, from aqueous wastes. The techniques investigated were: electrochemical reduction to an insoluble oxide, electrochemical ion exchange, seeded ultrafiltration and chemical reduction followed by filtration. Each technique was examined using a simulant based upon the waste generated by the Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant (EARP) at Sellafield. The technique selected for further investigation was direct electrochemical reduction which offers an ideal route for the removal of technetium from the stream (DFs 10-100) and can be operated continuously with a low power consumption 25 kW for the waste generated by EARP. Cell designs for scale up have been suggested to treat the 1000m 3 of waste produced every day. Future work is proposed to investigate the simultaneous removal of other key radionuclides, such as ruthenium, plutonium and cobalt as well as scale up of the resulting process and to investigate the effect of these other radionuclides on the efficiency of the electrochemical reduction technique for the removal of technetium. Total development and full scale plant costs are estimated to be of the order of 5 pounds - 10M, with a time scale of 5 -8 years to realisation. (author)

  19. Technetium and rhenium complexes with modified fatty acid ligands 4. Evaluation of two new classes of 99mTc-labelled fatty acids as potential tracers for myocardial metabolism imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintz, A.; Kropp, J.; Deussen, A.; Jung, C.M.; Spies, H.

    2002-01-01

    99m Tc-labelled fatty acids were synthesized according to the '3+1' mixed-ligand approach and investigated as potential tracers for myocardial SPECT diagnostics on the model of the isolated guinea pig heart. The results indicate a low but specific myocardial uptake of the 99m Tc fatty acid derivatives subject to chain length and structure. (orig.)

  20. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume

  1. Recovery of technetium from nuclear fuel wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, W.W.

    1975-01-01

    Technetium is removed from aqueous, acidic waste solutions. The acidic waste solution is mixed with a flocculant, e.g., an alkaline earth metal hydroxide or oxide, to precipitate certain fission products. Technetium remains in solution and in the resulting supernatant alkaline aqueous phase. The supernatant alkaline aqueous phase is made acidic and electrolyzed in an electrolytic cell under controlled cathodic potential conditions to deposit technetium on the cathode. Elemental technetium is removed from the cathode. Technetium is separated from other plated fission product metals by extraction from an alkaline solution with an organic extractant, such as pyridine, having affinity for technetium. Technetium is separated from the organic extractant by steam distillation and the resulting aqueous phase treated with ammoniacal reagent to precipitate technetium as ammonium pertechnetate. The precipitate may be acidified to form an aqueous acidic solution of fission product metal values and the solution electrolyzed in an electrolytic cell under controlled cathodic potential conditions and at a potential sufficiently negative to plate out from the solution those fission product metals desired. The metal deposit is stripped from the cathode and stored until its radioactivity has diminished. (U.S.)

  2. Process for producing radioactive technetium 99 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karageozian, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Active aluminium oxide containing Molybdenum 99 and technetium 99 m is treated with a neutral solvent consisting of water, methylethylketone and ethanol. Technetium 99 m remains on the chromatographic material after drying, in the form of a dry powder. Other aliphatic alcohols can also be utilised. (DG) [de

  3. Chemistry of technetium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, K.M.

    1980-08-01

    Technetium release to the environment may occur during separation and recovery of spent nuclear fuels, or in disposal of aqueous waste from nuclear facilities, hospitals, or other users. The chemistry and sources of technetium are reviewed as a basis for prediction of its behavior in the environment

  4. Effects of Momordica charantia on osmotic fragility and label red blood cells and plasmatic protein with 99m-Tc in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnata, Simey S.L.P.; Correia, Marilia B.L.; Brandao, Jose Odinilson C.; Souza, Grace M.L.; Catanho, Maria Teresa J.A.; Terra, Daniele A.; Amorim, Lucia F.

    2005-01-01

    The use of natural products in the treatment physiopathology awaken the interest in the inquiry of the action mechanisms. The Momordica charantia, Melao de Sao Caetano, is used in the Caribbean and Orient for the diseases as stomatitis, cancer and diabetes. This work aims to verify the effect of the Momordica charantia's aqueous extract leaves on osmotic fragility and on labeling red blood cells (RBC) and plasmatic proteins with 99m Tc in vitro. To evaluate the osmotic fragility, samples of heparinized blood (500 mL) was incubed for 1 hour with brut extract (500 mL) in different concentrations (0; 10; 50 and 100% v/v); after centrifugation, the RCB were submitted the incubation (1 hour) with a gradient of NaCl (0;0,1;0,25;0,4;0,7 and 0.9%), the OD of supernatant was determined. With regards to label red blood cells and plasmatic proteins with 99m Tc in vitro was carried out by incubating of anticoagulant whole blood (500 mL) for 1 hour with brut extract (500 mL) in different concentrations (0; 10; 50 and 100% v/v). A stannous chloride solution of 1,2 μg/mL was added the incubation for 60 minutes. After this the 99m Tc (3,7 MBq) was added and the incubation was continued for another 10 minutes. Those were centrifuged, precipitated with trichloroacetic acid 5% and mensured in a counter. The results shows that with regard to osmotic fragility, only the extract in the concentration of 100% provoked hemolysis. The Momordica charantia's extract is an agent who modify the fixation of 99m Tc in red blood cells. The results show with regard to osmotic fragility, only the extract in the quantity 100% provoked hemolysis. It is concluded that the Momordica charantia's extract is an agent who unchains the cellular fragility and 99m Tc fixation, showing a reduction effect. (author)

  5. Measuring Post-transfusion Recovery and Survival of Red Blood Cells: Strengths and Weaknesses of Chromium-51 Labeling and Alternative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Roussel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of transfused red blood cells (RBCs that remain in circulation is an important surrogate marker of transfusion efficacy and contributes to predict the potential benefit of a transfusion process. Over the last 50 years, most of the transfusion recovery data were generated by chromium-51 (51Cr-labeling studies and were predominantly performed to validate new storage systems and new processes to prepare RBC concentrates. As a consequence, our understanding of transfusion efficacy is strongly dependent on the strengths and weaknesses of 51Cr labeling in particular. Other methods such as antigen mismatch or biotin-based labeling can bring relevant information, for example, on the long-term survival of transfused RBC. These radioactivity-free methods can be used in patients including from vulnerable groups. We provide an overview of the methods used to measure transfusion recovery in humans, compare their strengths and weaknesses, and discuss their potential limitations. Also, based on our understanding of the spleen-specific filtration of damaged RBC and historical transfusion recovery data, we propose that RBC deformability and morphology are storage lesion markers that could become useful predictors of transfusion recovery. Transfusion recovery can and should be accurately explored by more than one method. Technical optimization and clarification of concepts is still needed in this important field of transfusion and physiology.

  6. Technetium-99m labeling of N-[N-(3-diphenylphosphino propionyl)glycyl]cysteine (PN2S-OH) and its methyl ester derivative (PN2S-OMe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visentin, Roberta; Giron, Maria Cecilia; Bello, Michele; Mazzi, Ulderico

    2004-01-01

    N-[N-(3-diphenylphosphinopropionyl)glycyl]cysteine and its methyl ester derivative were labeled with 99m Tc at neutral pH, leading to a single species in high yield (>95%) in 30 min. RP-HPLC comparison with the analogue Re V -oxo complexes identified the labeled compounds as the anti isomers of pentacoordinated 99m TcO[PN 2 S]-OH and 99m TcO[PN 2 S]-OMe complexes. The compounds are stable from pH 7 to pH 9 when 99m TcO[PN 2 S]-OH interconverts to related syn isomer, while 99m TcO[PN 2 S]-OMe undergoes both saponification and interconversion. They exhibit high stability in human plasma and in vivo (mice), and a biodistribution characterized by hepatobiliary excretion

  7. Study of sorption of technetium on pyrrhotine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Dong; Fan Xianhua; Su Xiguang; Zeng Jishu

    2001-01-01

    The sorption behaviors of technetium on pyrrhotine are studied with batch experiment and dilute sulfuric acid is used to dissolve the technetium adsorbed on pyrrhotine. Sorption and desorption experiment are performed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions (inert gas box). The results show that a significant sorption of technetium on pyrrhotine is found under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and the sorption on the mineral is supposed to be due to the reduction of TcO 4 - to insoluble TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. Desorption process of the sorbed technetium into dilute sulfuric acid is found to be different under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. On addition of H 2 O 2 to the leach solution a sudden increase of the technetium concentration is observed

  8. Technetium and rhenium complexes with modified fatty acid ligands 4. Evaluation of two new classes of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled fatty acids as potential tracers for myocardial metabolism imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, A.; Kropp, J.; Deussen, A. [TU Dresden, Medizinische Fakultaet Carl Gustav Carus (Germany); Jung, C.M.; Spies, H.

    2002-01-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-labelled fatty acids were synthesized according to the '3+1' mixed-ligand approach and investigated as potential tracers for myocardial SPECT diagnostics on the model of the isolated guinea pig heart. The results indicate a low but specific myocardial uptake of the {sup 99m}Tc fatty acid derivatives subject to chain length and structure. (orig.)

  9. Fluoridonitrosyl complexes of technetium(I) and technetium(II). Synthesis, characterization, reactions, and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasekaran, Samundeeswari Mariappan; Spandl, Johann; Hagenbach, Adelheid; Köhler, Klaus; Drees, Markus; Abram, Ulrich

    2014-05-19

    A mixture of [Tc(NO)F5](2-) and [Tc(NO)(NH3)4F](+) is formed during the reaction of pertechnetate with acetohydroxamic acid (Haha) in aqueous HF. The blue pentafluoridonitrosyltechnetate(II) has been isolated in crystalline form as potassium and rubidium salts, while the orange-red ammine complex crystallizes as bifluoride or PF6(-) salts. Reactions of [Tc(NO)F5](2-) salts with HCl give the corresponding [Tc(NO)Cl4/5](-/2-) complexes, while reflux in neat pyridine (py) results in the formation of the technetium(I) cation [Tc(NO)(py)4F](+), which can be crystallized as hexafluoridophosphate. The same compound can be synthesized directly from pertechnetate, Haha, HF, and py or by a ligand-exchange procedure starting from [Tc(NO)(NH3)4F](HF2). The technetium(I) cation [Tc(NO)(NH3)4F](+) can be oxidized electrochemically or by the reaction with Ce(SO4)2 to give the corresponding Tc(II) compound [Tc(NO)(NH3)4F](2+). The fluorido ligand in [Tc(NO)(NH3)4F](+) can be replaced by CF3COO(-), leaving the "[Tc(NO)(NH3)4](2+) core" untouched. The experimental results are confirmed by density functional theory calculations on [Tc(NO)F5](2-), [Tc(NO)(py)4F](+), [Tc(NO)(NH3)4F](+), and [Tc(NO)(NH3)4F](2+).

  10. EPR investigations on technetium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, U.; Munze, R.; Kirmse, R.; Stach, J.

    1986-01-01

    Stimulated by the widespread use of the isotope /sup 99m/Tc in the field of nuclear medicine, there has been a substantial growth of interest in the chemistry of this man-made element. A particular need emerges for analytical methods allowing solution investigations of coordination compounds of technetium with low substance use. Considering these facts, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (EPR) appears to be a very suitable method because only very small amounts of the compounds are needed (lower than 1 mg). The resulting spectra give information regarding the valence state, symmetry and bonding properties of the compounds under study

  11. Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eager, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters

  12. Extensive hemangiomatosis diagnosed by scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled red blood cells in a patient with lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, D.S.F.; Ichiki, W.A.; Borges, A.C.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Vecchia, J.F.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Costa, P.L.A.; Hironaka, F.; Cerri, G.G.; Buchpiguel, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The gastrointestinal bleeding may be caused by vascular tumors and other lesions like inflammatory disorders, intestinal obstruction or vascular malformation. The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome are hemangiomatosis diseases that may involve the gastrointestinal tract and cause recurrent hemorrhage. The signs and symptoms usually appear at childhood. Case report: male patient, 31 years old, presenting three days of gastrointestinal bleeding and an hemorrhage shock (Hb=3,9). Previous reports of small volume bleeding since childhood and schistossomosis. Dilated veins, hemorrhoid and port wine stain lesions were detected at physical examination in perineal region, penis and scrotum. Inferior limbs were symmetric at inspection. The upper endoscopy showed esophageal varices with no signs of active bleeding. The scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labeled red blood cells showed active hemorrhage at recto-sigmoid topography during the first hour of study. Extensive and heterogeneous uptake was seen in gluteus, posterior right thigh and scrotum at the second and fifth hours of study. Then the hypothesis of vascular tumor was considered. The magnetic resonance (MR) of pelvis demonstrated extensive hemangiomatosis at the regions described by the scintigraphy. The clinical and imaging findings suggested the diagnosis of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Discussion: The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare disease characterized by congenital vascular and lymphatic malformations (port wine stain lesions, congenital varices) and bone growth and soft tissue disorder. Dilated veins may involve abdominal and pelvic structures, with rectal bleeding and haematuria occurring on average of 20%. The clinical investigation must approach the type, the extent and the severity of the malformation, since the morbidity and the mortality depends on the visceral involvement. The Doppler ultrasound, scanometry of lower extremities, MR, angiography and

  13. Extensive hemangiomatosis diagnosed by scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled red blood cells in a patient with lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.S.F.; Ichiki, W.A.; Borges, A.C.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Vecchia, J.F.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Costa, P.L.A.; Hironaka, F.; Cerri, G.G.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia. Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: The gastrointestinal bleeding may be caused by vascular tumors and other lesions like inflammatory disorders, intestinal obstruction or vascular malformation. The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome are hemangiomatosis diseases that may involve the gastrointestinal tract and cause recurrent hemorrhage. The signs and symptoms usually appear at childhood. Case report: male patient, 31 years old, presenting three days of gastrointestinal bleeding and an hemorrhage shock (Hb=3,9). Previous reports of small volume bleeding since childhood and schistossomosis. Dilated veins, hemorrhoid and port wine stain lesions were detected at physical examination in perineal region, penis and scrotum. Inferior limbs were symmetric at inspection. The upper endoscopy showed esophageal varices with no signs of active bleeding. The scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cells showed active hemorrhage at recto-sigmoid topography during the first hour of study. Extensive and heterogeneous uptake was seen in gluteus, posterior right thigh and scrotum at the second and fifth hours of study. Then the hypothesis of vascular tumor was considered. The magnetic resonance (MR) of pelvis demonstrated extensive hemangiomatosis at the regions described by the scintigraphy. The clinical and imaging findings suggested the diagnosis of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Discussion: The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare disease characterized by congenital vascular and lymphatic malformations (port wine stain lesions, congenital varices) and bone growth and soft tissue disorder. Dilated veins may involve abdominal and pelvic structures, with rectal bleeding and haematuria occurring on average of 20%. The clinical investigation must approach the type, the extent and the severity of the malformation, since the morbidity and the mortality depends on the visceral involvement. The Doppler ultrasound, scanometry of lower extremities, MR, angiography and

  14. Dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m after laparotomy and abdominal insufflation with different CO2 pressures on rats Disseminação de bactérias marcadas com tecnécio-99m após laparotomia e insuflação com diferentes pressões de CO2 em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Bettini Pitombo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To asses the dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc from peritoneal cavity after different surgical procedures. METHODS: Bacteria of the Escherichia coli species labeled with 99mTc were used in a concentration of 10(8 units of colony-makers for ml (UFC/ml and 1ml was inoculated through intra-peritoneal via. Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups: control, laparotomy, pneumoperitoneum with 10mmHg and pneumoperitoneum with 20mmHg of CO2. Procedures were performed 20 min after injection of the inoculum and lasted 30 min. Animals were sacrificed after six hours (Group 1 and 24 hours (Group 2. Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected for radioactivity counting. RESULTS: After six hours, indirect detection of the bacteria in different organs was uniform in all groups. After 24 hours, a larger detection of technetium was observed in the livers of animals of the group insufflated with 20mmHg of CO2, when compared with those of control group (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a disseminação de bactérias marcadas com tecnécio-99m (99mTc a partir da cavidade peritoneal após diferentes procedimentos cirúrgicos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas bactérias da espécie Escherichia coli marcadas com 99mTc em uma concentração de10(8 unidades formadoras de colônia por ml (UFC/ml sendo inoculado 1ml por via intra-peritoneal. Quarenta e oito ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos: controle, laparotomia, pneumoperitôneo com 10 mmHg e pneumoperitôneo com 20 mmHg de CO2. Os procedimentos foram realizados 20 minutos após a injeção do inóculo e duraram 30 minutos. Os animais foram sacrificados após seis horas (grupo 1 e 24 horas (grupo 2. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue, fígado e baço para contagem radioativa. RESULTADOS: Após seis horas, a detecção indireta das bactérias nos diferentes órgãos foi uniforme em todos os grupos. Após 24 horas, observou-se uma maior detecção de tecnécio nos fígados dos animais do

  15. 99mTc-N4-[Tyr3]Octreotate Versus 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Tyr3]Octreotide: an intrapatient comparison of two novel Technetium-99m labeled tracers for somatostatin receptor scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Michael; Decristoforo, Clemens; Maina, Theodosia; Nock, Berthold; vonGuggenberg, Elisabeth; Cordopatis, Paul; Moncayo, Roy

    2004-02-01

    Tetraamine-[Tyr3]octreotate (Demotate) is a somatostatin (SST) analogue that can be easily labeled with 99mTc at high specific activities and showed promising preclinical properties for SST receptor scintigraphy. This study reports on the first intra-patient comparison of 99mTc-Demotate and another 99mTc-labeled SST analogue, 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC (HYNIC-TOC). Five patients with carcinoid tumors (n = 2) and endocrine pancreatic tumors (n = 3) were investigated with both radiopharmaceuticals. 99mTc-Demotate rapidly visualized somatostatin receptor positive tumors as early as 15 minutes post-injection (p.i.) with maximum tumor uptake and tumor/organ ratios already 1 hour p.i. Organs of predominant physiological uptake were the spleen and the kidneys with no intestinal excretion detectable up to 24 hours. 99mTc-Demotate exhibited faster pharmacokinetic properties compared to HYNIC-TOC. Tumor/organ ratios at equivalent time points were higher or comparable for 99mTc-Demotate in three patients with a matching scan result. Equivocal findings were observed in two patients, i.e. comparable uptake behavior in larger lesions with differences in smaller ones. 99mTc-Demotate is a promising agent for somatostatin receptor scintigraphy providing images of excellent quality as early as 1 hour after injection.

  16. Technetium-99m ceftizoxime kit preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Siqueira, Cristiano Ferrari; Nelson, David Lee; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare a kit of 99 m Tc-ceftizoxime ( 99m Tc-CFT), with stability and biological activity preserved, able to identify a septic focus (E. coli) in the experimental infection model in rats. The preparation of the CFT kit involved the use of lyophilized solutions containing the antibiotic ceftizoxime and the sodium dithionite reducing agent (6.0 mg/m L). After lyophilization, the kit was reconstituted with 1.0 mL of sodium 99m Tc pertechnetate solution (Na 99m Tc O 4- ) with an activity of 370 MBq. The solution was boiled for 10 min and filtered through a cellulose ester filter. The labeling efficiency was on the order of 92%, remaining stable for six hours and the kit remained stable for two months. The biological activity of the 99m Tc-CFT was evaluated by diffusion in agar impregnated with E.coli and S. aureus. Seven Wistar rats, weighing from 200 to 250 g, were used for the development of the septic focus. After 24 hours from the induction of the infectious site (E.coli), the animals were anesthetized and 0.1 mL of 99m Tc-CFT (37 MBq) was injected into the tail veins of the animals. The images were obtained with a gamma camera one, two and six hours after injection and the regions of interest (ROIs) were calculated. The diameters of the inhibition halos for 99 m Tc-CFT were 27.16 ± 0.23 and 27.17 ± 0.20 for S.aureus and E.coli, respectively, while those for the unlabeled CFT were 30.4 ± 0.33 and 29.43 ± 0.26, respectively. The results for the biodistribution of 99m Tc-CFT in infected animals furnished a ratio of 1.97 ± 0.31, 2.10 ± 0.42 and 2.01 ± 0.42 for cpm-target/cpm-no target for the one, two and six-hour periods, respectively. The images showed a clear uptake of labeled antibiotic ( 99m Tc-CFT) by the infectious site during the experiment. The results attest to the viability of producing a kit with 99m technetium-labeled ceftizoxime for the investigation of infectious processes. (author)

  17. Technetium-99m ceftizoxime kit preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Siqueira, Cristiano Ferrari; Nelson, David Lee; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento [Minas Gerais Univ. Federal, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia]. E-mail: simone@farmacia.ufmg.br; Martin-Comin, Josep [Bellvitge Univ., Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-10-15

    The aim of this work was to prepare a kit of {sup 99}m Tc-ceftizoxime ({sup 99m} Tc-CFT), with stability and biological activity preserved, able to identify a septic focus (E. coli) in the experimental infection model in rats. The preparation of the CFT kit involved the use of lyophilized solutions containing the antibiotic ceftizoxime and the sodium dithionite reducing agent (6.0 mg/m L). After lyophilization, the kit was reconstituted with 1.0 mL of sodium {sup 99m} Tc pertechnetate solution (Na {sup 99m} Tc O{sub 4-}) with an activity of 370 MBq. The solution was boiled for 10 min and filtered through a cellulose ester filter. The labeling efficiency was on the order of 92%, remaining stable for six hours and the kit remained stable for two months. The biological activity of the {sup 99m} Tc-CFT was evaluated by diffusion in agar impregnated with E.coli and S. aureus. Seven Wistar rats, weighing from 200 to 250 g, were used for the development of the septic focus. After 24 hours from the induction of the infectious site (E.coli), the animals were anesthetized and 0.1 mL of {sup 99m} Tc-CFT (37 MBq) was injected into the tail veins of the animals. The images were obtained with a gamma camera one, two and six hours after injection and the regions of interest (ROIs) were calculated. The diameters of the inhibition halos for {sup 99}m Tc-CFT were 27.16 {+-} 0.23 and 27.17 {+-} 0.20 for S.aureus and E.coli, respectively, while those for the unlabeled CFT were 30.4 {+-} 0.33 and 29.43 {+-} 0.26, respectively. The results for the biodistribution of {sup 99m} Tc-CFT in infected animals furnished a ratio of 1.97 {+-} 0.31, 2.10 {+-} 0.42 and 2.01 {+-} 0.42 for cpm-target/cpm-no target for the one, two and six-hour periods, respectively. The images showed a clear uptake of labeled antibiotic ({sup 99m} Tc-CFT) by the infectious site during the experiment. The results attest to the viability of producing a kit with {sup 99m} technetium-labeled ceftizoxime for the

  18. Effects of Momordica charantia on osmotic fragility and label red blood cells and plasmatic protein with 99m-Tc in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnata, Simey S.L.P. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail: sfmagnata@terra.com.br; Correia, Marilia B.L.; Brandao, Jose Odinilson C.; Souza, Grace M.L.; Catanho, Maria Teresa J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Terra, Daniele A.; Amorim, Lucia F. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia

    2005-07-01

    The use of natural products in the treatment physiopathology awaken the interest in the inquiry of the action mechanisms. The Momordica charantia, Melao de Sao Caetano, is used in the Caribbean and Orient for the diseases as stomatitis, cancer and diabetes. This work aims to verify the effect of the Momordica charantia's aqueous extract leaves on osmotic fragility and on labeling red blood cells (RBC) and plasmatic proteins with {sup 99m}Tc in vitro. To evaluate the osmotic fragility, samples of heparinized blood (500 mL) was incubed for 1 hour with brut extract (500 mL) in different concentrations (0; 10; 50 and 100% v/v); after centrifugation, the RCB were submitted the incubation (1 hour) with a gradient of NaCl (0;0,1;0,25;0,4;0,7 and 0.9%), the OD of supernatant was determined. With regards to label red blood cells and plasmatic proteins with {sup 99m}Tc in vitro was carried out by incubating of anticoagulant whole blood (500 mL) for 1 hour with brut extract (500 mL) in different concentrations (0; 10; 50 and 100% v/v). A stannous chloride solution of 1,2 {mu}g/mL was added the incubation for 60 minutes. After this the {sup 99m}Tc (3,7 MBq) was added and the incubation was continued for another 10 minutes. Those were centrifuged, precipitated with trichloroacetic acid 5% and mensured in a counter. The results shows that with regard to osmotic fragility, only the extract in the concentration of 100% provoked hemolysis. The Momordica charantia's extract is an agent who modify the fixation of {sup 99m}Tc in red blood cells. The results show with regard to osmotic fragility, only the extract in the quantity 100% provoked hemolysis. It is concluded that the Momordica charantia's extract is an agent who unchains the cellular fragility and {sup 99m}Tc fixation, showing a reduction effect. (author)

  19. Sorption of radioactive technetium on pyrrhotine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, D.; Fan, X.H.; Su, X.G.; Zeng, J.S.; Dong, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The sorption behavior of technetium on pyrrhotine was studied with batch experiments and diluted sulfuric acid (less than 2.88 mol/l) was used to dissolve the technetium adsorbed on pyrrhotine. A significant sorption of technetium on pyrrhotine was observed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and the sorption on the mineral was supposed to be due to the reduction of TcO 4 - to insoluble TcO 2 x nH 2 O. Sorbed technetium on the mineral could be desorbed by diluted sulfuric acid. The maximum desorption ratio under aerobic conditions was much higher than that of under anaerobic conditions, meanwhile, the desorption rates under anaerobic conditions were higher than that of under aerobic conditions in the initial stage of the experiments. (author)

  20. Technetium behaviour under deep geological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumata, M.; Vandergraaf, T.T.

    1993-01-01

    The migration behaviour of technetium under deep geological conditions was investigated by performing column tests using groundwater and altered granitic rock sampled from a fracture zone in a granitic pluton at a depth of about 250 m. The experiment was performed under a pressure of about 0.7 MPa in a controlled atmosphere glove box at the 240 m level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) near Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada. The technetium was strongly sorbed on the dark mafic minerals in the column. With the exception of a very small unretarded fraction that was eluted with the tritiated water, no further breakthrough of technetium was observed. This strong sorption of technetium on the mineral surface was caused by reduction of Tc(VII), probably to Tc(IV) even though the groundwater was only mildly reducing. (author) 5 figs., 4 tabs., 15 refs

  1. Radiation decomposition of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinghurst, M.W.; Rempel, S.; Westendorf, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    Technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals are shown to be subject to autoradiation-induced decomposition, which results in increasing abundance of pertechnetate in the preparation. This autodecomposition is catalyzed by the presence of oxygen, although the removal of oxygen does not prevent its occurrence. The initial appearance of pertechnetate in the radiopharmaceutical is shown to be a function of the amount of radioactivity, the quantity of stannous ion used, and the ratio of /sup 99m/Tc to total technetium in the preparation

  2. Evaluation of anti-peptidoglycan aptamers labeled with Technetium-99m for in vivo bacterial infection identification; Avaliacao de aptameros anti-peptidoglicano marcados com Tecnecio-99m para identificacao in vivo de infecoes bacterianas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ieda Mendes

    2017-07-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that display high affinity and specificity for their molecular targets and are emerging as promising molecules for radiopharmaceuticals development. In a previous work, we selected two aptamers for peptidoglycan (the main constituent of bacterial cell walls) termed Antibac1 and Antibac2. In the present study, the characterization of these aptamers was completed, and the dissociation coefficients (K{sub d}) were determined. The aptamers were further labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and evaluated for bacterial infection diagnosis by scintigraphy. The K{sub d} obtained for Antibac1 was of 0.415 ± 0.047 μM and for Antibac2 of 1.261 ± 0.280 μM. The direct labeling method with {sup 99m}Tc allowed radiolabel yields higher than 90% and the radiolabel stability in saline, plasma and cysteine excess indicated that the process was suitable for labeling of both aptamers. The {sup 99m}Tc-aptamers are prone to bind to plasma proteins: 39.5% ± 2.9% (1 h) and 43.6% ± 1.2% (3 h) for {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac1; 37.6% ± 2.0% (1 h) and 40.9% ± 0% (3 h) for {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac2. The blood clearance half-life for {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac1 was of 41.26 min and for the {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac2 of 31.58 min. The {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac1 in the group infected with S. aureus presented a target/non-target ratio of 2.81 ± 0.67, significantly higher than verified for the {sup 99m}Tc-library (control): 1.52 ± 0.07. In the model with C. albicans infection the target/non-target ratio for {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac1 was 1.46 ± 0.11, similar that obtained for the {sup 99m}Tc-library in the same model: 1.52 ± 0.05. The {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac2 in the group infected with S. aureus showed a target/non-target ratio of 2.61 ± 0.66, statistically higher than achieved for the {sup 99m}Tc-library in the same infection model: 1.52 ± 0.07. In the group infected with C. albicans this ratio for {sup 99m}Tc-Antibac2 was 1.75 ± 0.19, it was significantly higher than verified for the {sup 99m}Tc-library: 1

  3. Determination of technetium by total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez, J.I.; Greaves, E.D.; Nemeth, P.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a technique using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) for determination of Technetium produced by elution of chromatography generators with physiological saline solutions. The analysis with the 18.41 keV K α line of Technetium was accomplished with monochromatized K α radiation from a silver anode x-ray tube operated at 45 keV and 20 mA. This radiation at 22.104 keV is efficiently coupled to the 21.054 keV absorption edge of Tc. It is also of advantage in the direct analysis of organic and saline properties of the Tc-bearing samples. Quantification was accomplished by internal standard addition of Ga and using an interpolated value of the sensitivity for Tc between Molybdenum and Rhenium. Data processing was carried out with the QXAS-AXIL software package. System sensitivity was found adequate for direct Tc determination of eluted saline solutions. The interest and advantages of the use of the technique as an auxiliary in the synthesis and characterization of Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnosis in nuclear medicine are discussed. Detection limits in the matrices analyzed are reported. (author)

  4. 99m Technetium pyrophosphate myocardium scintigraphy. First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, Paul.

    1976-01-01

    99m technetium pyrophosphate myocardium scintigraphy is a very recent examination technique. This work gives the results obtained on 61 patients. As a vector of the isotope, pyrophosphate has the advantage over polyphosphate of a fast bone uptake there it should be stressed that a 90 minute pause is necessary between the intraveinous injection of the isotope and the photographic recording so that the reading is not troubled by the labelled intracardiac blood pool image, an image quality criterion being the estimation of a good costal fixation which in fact appears sooner or later according to the subject. The role of pyrophosphate, chelator of calcium in fixation of the isotope on the myocardium, could be explained by the fast appearance of 'dense bodies', made up of calcium hydroxyapathice crystals, in the mitochondria of myocardium cells having undergone an irreversible necrotic process. The choice of 99 m technetium is based on its ease of use: 6 hour half-life, high-energy pure gamma emission at 140 keV. The fixed image studied under two incidences, front and left anterior oblique, is obtained from mobile images given by the scintillation camera used in connection with a data processing system. Several facts are underlined, explaining the disadvantages, advantages and indications of the method [fr

  5. Biomedical tracers: technetium-99 m complexing sulfur polydentate ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendennoune, A.

    1994-01-01

    Cyclic and acyclic tetra sulfur ligands have been synthesized and some of them have been labelled with technetium-99m. These works have two different aims: 1- Development of methods permitting to obtain easily potential technetium complexing sulfur polydentate chelates. 2- Research of positive and neutral complexes of this metal likely to replace thalium-201 in the coronary flow estimation and [TcO-HMPAO] sup 0 complex in the cerebral scintigraphy, respectively. In this work, first, different ways for obtaining dithioetherdithiols and cyclic tetrathioethers containing functional groups have been carried out, then complexation of the core of nitrutechnetium (TcN) sup 2+ at tracers scale, by dithioetherdithiols, using exchange reaction with [sup 9 sup 9 sup m TcNCl sub 4 ] sup - ion complex or sup 99 sup m TcN Cl sub 2 [P(CH sub 2 CH sub 2 CN) sub 3 ] sub 2 has been studied. Finally, biological distribution in swiss mouse of these technetiated complexes has been studied. 135 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs. (F.M.)

  6. Determination of technetium-99 in environmental and radioactive waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferencova, M.; Peter Tkac, P.

    2007-01-01

    Technetium is known for its high mobility in a soil-water system in non-reducing aerobic condition and also high bio-availability for plants, because the most stable form of technetium in natural surface environment is pertechnetate which is highly soluble. The chemical form of technetium changes with environmental conditions. Concentration of technetium in the environment is very low, therefore many separation steps are needed for technetium determination. It has been developed a method for the routine determination of technetium-99 from environmental matrices and radioactive wastes using technetium-99m as an internal yield monitor. Technetium-99 is extracted from the soil samples with nitric acid. Many contaminants are co-precipitated with ferric hydroxide and technetium in the supernatant is pre-concentrated and further purified using anion exchange chromatography. Final separation of technetium was achieved by extraction with tetraphenylarsonium chloride in chloroform from sulphuric acid or pure water. The chemical yield is determined through the measurement of technetium-99m by scintillation counting system and the technetium-99 activity is measured using proportional counter after decay of the technetium-99m activity. Typical recoveries for this method are in the order 50-60 % (authors)

  7. Label-free nanoscale characterization of red blood cell structure and dynamics using single-shot transport of intensity equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poola, Praveen Kumar; John, Renu

    2017-10-01

    We report the results of characterization of red blood cell (RBC) structure and its dynamics with nanometric sensitivity using transport of intensity equation microscopy (TIEM). Conventional transport of intensity technique requires three intensity images and hence is not suitable for studying real-time dynamics of live biological samples. However, assuming the sample to be homogeneous, phase retrieval using transport of intensity equation has been demonstrated with single defocused measurement with x-rays. We adopt this technique for quantitative phase light microscopy of homogenous cells like RBCs. The main merits of this technique are its simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and ease of implementation on a conventional microscope. The phase information can be easily merged with regular bright-field and fluorescence images to provide multidimensional (three-dimensional spatial and temporal) information without any extra complexity in the setup. The phase measurement from the TIEM has been characterized using polymeric microbeads and the noise stability of the system has been analyzed. We explore the structure and real-time dynamics of RBCs and the subdomain membrane fluctuations using this technique.

  8. Sucralose sweetener in vivo effects on blood constituents radiolabeling, red blood cell morphology and radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, G.S.; Pereira, M.O.; Benarroz, M.O.; Frydman, J.N.G.; Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.J.; Fonseca, A.S.; Medeiros, A.C.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of sucralose sweetener on blood constituents labelled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) on red blood cell (RBC) morphology, sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with 99m Tc ( 99m Tc-DTPA) biodistribution in rats were evaluated. Radiolabeling on blood constituents from Wistar rats was undertaken for determining the activity percentage (%ATI) on blood constituents. RBC morphology was also evaluated. Na 99m TcO 4 and 99m Tc-DTPA biodistribution was used to determine %ATI/g in organs. There was no alteration on RBC blood constituents and morphology %ATI. Sucralose sweetener was capable of altering %ATI/g of the radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. These findings are associated to the sucralose sweetener in specific organs.

  9. Sucralose sweetener in vivo effects on blood constituents radiolabeling, red blood cell morphology and radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, G.S.; Pereira, M.O. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010180 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Benarroz, M.O.; Frydman, J.N.G.; Rocha, V.C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pereira, M.J. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Fisiologia, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Biomedico, Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Rua Frei Caneca, 94, Rio de Janeiro 20211040 (Brazil); Medeiros, A.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010180 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Bernardo-Filho, M. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Coordenadoria de Pesquisa Basica, Praca Cruz Vermelha, 23, 20230130 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Effects of sucralose sweetener on blood constituents labelled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) on red blood cell (RBC) morphology, sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) biodistribution in rats were evaluated. Radiolabeling on blood constituents from Wistar rats was undertaken for determining the activity percentage (%ATI) on blood constituents. RBC morphology was also evaluated. Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA biodistribution was used to determine %ATI/g in organs. There was no alteration on RBC blood constituents and morphology %ATI. Sucralose sweetener was capable of altering %ATI/g of the radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. These findings are associated to the sucralose sweetener in specific organs.

  10. Localization of the acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in vivo-in vitro labeling of red blood cells with sup(99m)Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, E.; Mothe, G.; Wyse, E.

    1984-01-01

    For the detection and localization of acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in vivo-in vitro labeling of red blood cells with sup(99m)Tc and sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid has been sugested. The procedure for labeling RBC with sup(99m)Tc consisted in injecting IV 1 mg of ClSn; 20 minutes after injection of tin 10 cc of blood were withdrawn in a syringe containing 20 mCi of sup(99m)Tc; this was incubated for 10 minutes and then injected IV. Scintigraphy of the abdominal cavity was done in supine position and performed with a large field gamma camera with a parallel hole-low energy colimator. Computer adquisition of images was started 5 minutes after RBC injection and made at the rate of one enery 5 minutes for 45 minutes. 14 patients were studied divided in: a) control: 6 patients. b) with active gastrointestinal hemorrhage: 4 patients had positive scintigraphy. The hemorrhage was documented with superior mesenteric arteriography, endoscopy and/or necropsy. The sensitivity was 100%. In 4 out of 14 patients scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc RBC compared with simultaneous sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid demonstrated that all patients with positive sup(99m)Tc RBC had also positive sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid scintigraphy. c) without active gastrointestinal hemorrhage: all of them had negative scintigraphy (specificity 100%). Abdominal scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc RBC or sulfur colloid are both sensitive for detection and localization of lower gastrointestinal bleeding and the negative study suggests the absence of active hemorrhage. It is suggested that the sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid scintigraphy should be the initial procedure to study these patients and abdominal arteriography should be performed only in patients with positive abdominal scintigraphy. (M.E.L.) [es

  11. Linkable thiocarbamoylbenzamidines as ligands for bioconjugation of Rhenium and Technetium; Kopplungsfaehige Thiocarbamoylbenzamidine als Liganden zur Biokonjugation von Rhenium und Technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Gomez, Juan Daniel

    2015-04-27

    Bioconjugation reactions with Rhenium and Technetium are of high importance for the development of novel radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine. In this thesis the possibilities for bioconjugation using linkable Thiocarmbamoylbenzamidines as ligands for the complexation of Rhenium and Technetium were examined.

  12. Technetium in the geologic environment - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torstenfelt, B.; Allard, B.; Andersson, K.; Olofsson, U.

    1981-07-01

    The authors present a literature survey of technetium, discussing, in particular, the oxidation states, the chemistry of technetium in connection with spent nuclear fuel storage, the sorption of technetium in rock, clay, soil and sea bottom sediments. (G.T.H.)

  13. evaluation of some technetium-99m fluoroquinolones complexes as imaging agents for bacterial inflammatory lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Kawy, O.A.A.

    2007-01-01

    in this study, the labeling method of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin with technetium-99m and their biological evaluation in man-induced inflammation models were described . in -vitro microbiological evaluation of both complexes was also performed in order to investigate the effect of labeling on the activity and spectrum of both antibiotics. all the gathered biological data support the usefulness of 99m Tc-fluoroquinolones as infection imaging agents that could discriminate between infections and sterile inflammations. the freeze-dried form of levofloxacin kits was prepared and found to meet all the radiochemical and biological tests

  14. Technetium compounds; Compuestos de tecnecio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.A. de [Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga 15, 14000 Tlalpan D.F. (Mexico); Ferro F, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The first radiopharmaceuticals of {sup 99m} Tc, also call of 'first generation' as colloids, aggregates and simple complexes were developed with relative easiness without it was necessary a wide understanding of its chemical structure. In the radiopharmaceuticals of 'second generation' were included those derived of the HIDA for hepatobiliary images, MAG3 and EC for images of tubular renal de purification, HMPAO and ECD for images of cerebral perfusion and MIBI and tetrofosmin for images of heart perfusion, that which implies a bigger demand in terms of the chemical knowledge. At the moment, we can affirm that the future of the radiopharmaceuticals of {sup 99m} Tc is based on the use of small and relevant biomolecules with high biological activity that allow the visualization in vivo of specific receiving sites and/or its expression in diverse pathologies. It is for it that with the 'third generation' is necessary a wide one knowledge of the chemistry of the technetium that allows the design and characterization of highly specific bio complexes. In this book, although focused mainly to the chemistry of the Tc, a brief revision is also presented on the main biologically active molecules that, coordinated the {sup 99m} Tc, present a high recognition In vivo for specific receivers. (Author)

  15. Technetium Immobilization Forms Literature Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-05-01

    Of the many radionuclides and contaminants in the tank wastes stored at the Hanford site, technetium-99 (99Tc) is one of the most challenging to effectively immobilize in a waste form for ultimate disposal. Within the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the Tc will partition between both the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions of the tank waste. The HLW fraction will be converted to a glass waste form in the HLW vitrification facility and the LAW fraction will be converted to another glass waste form in the LAW vitrification facility. In both vitrification facilities, the Tc is incorporated into the glass waste form but a significant fraction of the Tc volatilizes at the high glass-melting temperatures and is captured in the off-gas treatment systems at both facilities. The aqueous off-gas condensate solution containing the volatilized Tc is recycled and is added to the LAW glass melter feed. This recycle process is effective in increasing the loading of Tc in the LAW glass but it also disproportionally increases the sulfur and halides in the LAW melter feed which increases both the amount of LAW glass and either the duration of the LAW vitrification mission or the required supplemental LAW treatment capacity.

  16. Ligand-free, protein-bound technetium-99m iron-dextran enhancement of technetium pyrophosphate uptake in tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pojer, P.M.; Jakovljevic, A.C.; Wise, K.N.

    1985-01-01

    The biodistribution of technetium-99m was studied in T-cell lymphoma and selected organs of iron-dextran treated and control mice given technetium-99m pyrophosphate. The results showed that high serum iron levels increased tumour uptake of technetium pyrophosphate. This supports the hypothesis that technetium, in common with other metal-based tumour seeking radiopharmaceuticals, is transported to tumours as a ligand-free protein-bound cation. (U.K.)

  17. Comparative evaluation of red cell-labelling parameters of three lipid-soluble 111-In-chelates: Effect of lipid solubility on membrane incorporation and stability constant on transchelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.A.; Dewanjee, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    A rabbit red cell model was used to determined the cell labeling properties of three lipid-soluble 111 In-complexes: 111 In-oxine, 111 In-acetylacetone, and 111 In-tropolone. Partition coefficients (olive oil/buffer) were measured to determine the lipid solubility and were 3.54, 7.93, and 18.18 for 111 In-oxine, 111 In-acetylacetone, and 111 In-tropolone respectively. The effect of the concentration of these three chelating agents on labeling efficiencies was studied. The factors influencing the labeling efficiencies of these complexes such as cell density, time of incubation, influence of temperature, pH, effect of plasma proteins, and citrate ion concentration in the cell-labeling medium were studied. Labeling yields as high as 95.15 +- 4.15% were achieved with 111 In-tropolone after a 10-min incubation at 37 0 C. The optimum pH for cell labeling was 6.5 Excess critrate ion (> 3.02 mg/ml) and small amounts of plasma proteins (> 10 μl/ml) decreased the labeling efficiencies in all three cases. Distribution of these 111 In-complexes in membrane, membrane frgments, and hemoglobin was studied after hemolysis. In spite of the higher lipid solubility of 111 In-tropolone, the transchelation capacity appears to be similar to that of 111 In-oxine. 111 In-acetylacetone had the highest transchelation capacity. (orig.)

  18. {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-sulphur-colloid and heat-denatured {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-labelled red cell scans demonstrating a giant intrapelvic spleen in a girl after splenectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, P.F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Tauyuan, Taiwan (Taiwan); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (Taiwan); Tzen, K.Y.; Tsai, M.F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Tauyuan, Taiwan (Taiwan); Lin, J.N. [Dept. of Paediatric Surgery, Chang Gung Childrens Hospital and Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Tauyuan, Taiwan (Taiwan)

    2001-04-01

    A 17 x 12 x 5-cm giant intrapelvic mass in a 14-year-old girl is reported. This mass developed 6 years after a splenectomy for splenic torsion. The heat-denatured {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-labelled red cell scan and {sup 99} {sup m}Tc- sulphur-colloid scan confirmed the specific red cell sequestration function and reticuloendothelial activity in the giant intrapelvic spleen. The size and development of the giant intrapelvic spleen are unusual. The usefulness of functional images to diagnosis the nature of the intrapelvic mass is well demonstrated. (orig.)

  19. The molybdenum-technetium solar neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, N.C.; Wolfsberg, K.; Rokop, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors are attempting to measure the time-averaged 8 B solar-neutrino flux over 10 Myr by measuring 98 Tc produced through the 98 Mo( nu ,e - ) reaction in a deeply buried molybdenum deposit. This will test the prediction of periodic mixing of the Sun's core over long time intervals. To separate technetium from 10,000-ton quantities of Henderson ore, the authors have taken advantage of the commercial processing of molybdenite. Technetium, volatilized during roasting of molybdenite to MoO 3 , was scrubbed from the gas stream and collected on anion exchange columns. After sample reduction and chemical separation and purification they measured technetium, as TcO 4 - , using negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Measurement of 99 Tc in spiked and 98 Tc in unspiked fractions from one sample gives an apparent solar neutrino production rate of 95.8 SNU. However, roaster memory probably invalidates this result

  20. Highvalent and organometallic technetium and rhenium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlke, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic methods in nuclear medicine allow a detailed description of morphological organ structures and their function. The beta emitting isotope Tc-99 has optimal physical properties (140 keV gamma rays, half-life 6 h) and is therefore used for radiopharmaceuticals. The thesis is concerned with the search for new technetium complexes and their reproducible production. The (TcO3) core is of main interest. The second part of the thesis deals with organometallic technetium and rhenium complexes with carbonyl ligands and N-heterocyclic carbenes that show stability in aerobic aqueous solutions.

  1. Determination of technetium-99 from complex matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lixiong Wang; Lei Tang; Tongzai Yang; Yanqiu Yang; Liang Yang

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an approach that can be used for efficient separation and determination of 99 Tc (as pertechnetate) after contamination of the environment by nuclear materials. The samples were decomposed by fusion in a mixture of potassium hydroxide and potassium nitrate. After fusion, technetium remains as the pertechnetate anion (TcO 4 - ). The technetium was isolated from the sample by technique combining solvent extraction, anion exchange, then, again, solvent extraction. After separation, 99 Tc was measured by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry with 97 Tc as spike. This method yielded nanogram detection limits for 99 Tc. (author)

  2. Research on the uptake of technetium-labelled dimercaptosuccinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, J.L.; Dumery, J.P.; Meignan, M.; Wirquin, E.; Escaig, F.; Galle, P.

    1976-01-01

    Owing to the relatively strong urinary excretion of DMSA (20 to 25% of the injected dose in 24 hours) its renal uptake values are only truly significant in the absence of a urine retention syndrome which is detected by a previous study with sup(99m)Tc DTPA. In other cases the uptake measurement can be used to judge the functional value of each kidney separately and to estimate loss of functional capacity and compensative hypertrophies. For all the diseases explored the results obtained agree well with those of other functional explorations (creatinine clearance, separate urinary urea concentration). Moreover DMSA gives results similar to those obtained with mercury chloride. Neither its intrarenal metabolism nor its exact intracellular uptake site are yet known. A fuller knowledge of these points should improve the interpretation of the results [fr

  3. The impact of technetium-99m-radiopharmaceuticals' design on their biological behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, D.Lj.; Djokic, D.Dj. . E-mail address of corresponding author: drinaj@vin.bg.ac.yu; Jankovic, D.)

    2005-01-01

    The coordination has a great and not always predictable impact on the in-vivo behaviour of the small molecule into which the technetium-bearing chelate units is integrated. The different valence state of technetium in the complexes with some ligands changes the properties of these complexes, such as physico-chemical parameters and biological behaviour. The change of their biological behaviour has a great impact on quality of imaging study and on radiation dose to the patient. The results of the labelling of DPD and EHIDA with 99mTc(I) and their biological behaviour, in comparison with the same one for 99mTc(III)-DPD and 99mTc(III)-EHIDA complexes, confirmed that different oxidation state of 99mTc make possible forming variety of complexes with quite a different and unexpected biological behaviour. (author)

  4. Contributions to the coordination chemistry of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, B.

    1989-08-01

    New types of technetium complexes were synthesized and analyzed by IR-, 1 H- and 99 Tc nmr as well as EPR spectra. They were tested for their potential catalytic activity in special organic reactions and their relevance to catalytic reactions, for example as intermediate compounds, is discussed in depth. 317 refs., 20 figs. (BBR) [de

  5. Electrochemical preparation of technetium hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    This work describes the liquid chromatographic and electrochemical analysis of electrogenerated technetium hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP) complexes, and studies the effectiveness of the resulting bone imaging agents. Anion exchange High Performance Liquid Chromatography is used to separate components, and γ emission is used as the detection mode. The reaction mixtures were prepared at a series of reduction potentials and pH values, at both carrier added and no carrier added technetium levels. The results indicate that all three parameters affect the final complex composition to varying degrees. By optimizing the conditions, a preparation was made which results in a high percentage of a Tc-HEDP complex thought to be a very good home imager. This component was isolated chromatographically and injected into female Sprague-Dawley rats. Comparisons were run on the uptake for seven tissue types at two incubation times. Mercury and Reticulated Vitreous Carbon were used as the working electrode materials, and it is shown how reduced technetium will significantly alter the electrode characteristics, where a conditioned electrode will produce different complexes from those produced at fresh electrode material. By employing coulometric analysis as the preparation was reduced, an n value of 4 was calculated for a particular complex. This procedure involved tracking the radioactive technetium species carefully to account for all electrons used in the system. Finally, an electrochemical detection method for HEDP was explored, utilizing the property of mercury complexation. Anodic sweep Differential Pulse Polarography gives an analytical signal for HEDP at +0.250 V vs Ag/AgCl

  6. An introduction to technetium-99m generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrashkin, S.

    1984-02-01

    The role played by technetium-99m generators in diagnostic medicine, their physical and chemical fundamentals and their main technical characteristics are discussed. This report is intended as a general introduction to a group of reports which summarize the work done on the development and production of the generators, and research on the chemical and physical aspects of the generator systems

  7. The origins of Technetium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoppa, P.

    1986-01-01

    The origins of Technetium in the environment are briefly illustrated, taking into account its main sources represented by same plants of nuclear fuel cycle and by fallout fallowing nuclear explosion in atmosphere. An evaluation is also made of the TC-99 quantitees deriving from the production of nuclear power present in radioactive wastes before their final disposal

  8. Specifications and Quality of Technetium99m Produced diopharmaceuticals According to Good Manufacturing Practice Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abudaia, Jamal; Ben Othman, Monji H.; Maatoug, Maatoug A.; Maatoug, M. Omar

    2003-01-01

    A Technological revolution has occurred in the last two decades of this century in field of Cold Kits preparations processed by Lyophilization technique (A drying process while frozen) which are labeled afterwards with Technetium-99m radionuclide. Such materials are intended to be used as Radiopharmaceutical probes in nuclear medicine for the diagnosis of dynamic and static conditions of organs, and therefore; uncovering of diseases and syndromes targeting humans. Preferability and the advantages of such kits labeled with Technetium-99m radionuclide over other types of radiopharmaceuticals is attributed to the unique physical properties of the radionuclide including its short half life of 6.02 hours, low photon energy of 140 keV, lacking of alpha and beta particles which are usually exposing patients to have additional exposed doses. Moreover, simplicity in obtaining such radionuclide in form portable generators containing the mother radionuclide Molybdenum - 99 (i.e. solvent extraction generators or adsorption column chromatographic generators) for-on-the- spot-labeling, and the ability of formulating the cold kits as chemical complexes located at different organs of human body. Those lyophilized kits intended for radiopharmaceutical preparations labeled with Technetium - 99m radionuclide must stand for quality assurance standards and assessments for the sake of safety, efficiency, apyrogenecity, radiochemical purity, in- vivo stability and suitability for the endeavor planed for. Therefore, in order to control and optimize those considerations, implementations of the so-called GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE composed of regulations and constitutional laws related to the process of preparation and final produced preparation must take place.(author)

  9. Technetium-99m labeled 1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-4-(2-mercapto-2-methyl-4-azapentyl)-4- (2-mercapto-2-methylp ropylamino)-piperidine and iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine for studying cardiac adrenergic function: a comparison of the uptake characteristics in vascular smooth muscle cells and neonatal cardiac myocytes, and an investigation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samnick, Samuel; Scheuer, Claudia; Muenks, Sven; El-Gibaly, Amr M.; Menger, Michael D.; Kirsch, Carl-Martin

    2004-01-01

    In developing technetium-99m-based radioligands for in vivo studies of cardiac adrenergic neurons, we compared the uptake characteristics of the 99m Tc-labeled 1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-4-(2-mercapto-2-methyl-4-azapentyl)-4- (2-mercapto-2-methylpropylamino)-piperidine ( 99m Tc-FBPBAT) with those of the clinically established meta-[ 123 I]iodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-MIBG) in rat vascular smooth muscle cells and neonatal cardiac myocytes. Furthermore, the cardiac and extracardiac uptake of both radiopharmaceuticals was assessed in intact rats and in rats pretreated with various α- and β-adrenoceptor drugs, and adrenergic reuptake blocking agents. The uptake of 99m Tc-FBPBAT and 123 I-MIBG into vascular smooth muscle cells and neonatal cardiac myocytes was rapid; more than 85% of the radioactivity accumulation into the cells occurring within the first 3 minutes. Radioactivity uptake after a 60-minute incubation at 37 degree sign C (pH 7.4) varied from 15% to 65% of the total loaded activity per million cells. In all cases, 99m Tc-FBPBAT showed the higher uptake, relative to 123 I-MIBG, at any given cell concentration. The cellular uptake of 99m Tc-FBPBAT was lower at 4 degree sign C and 20 degree sign C than at 37 degree sign C. In contrast, the 123 I-MIBG uptake was only slightly temperature dependent. Inhibition experiments confirmed that the cellular uptake of 123 I-MIBG is mediated by the uptake-I carrier, whereas α 1 - and β 1 -adrenoceptors were predominantly involved in the uptake of 99m Tc-FBPBAT into the cardiovascular tissues. Biodistribution studies in rats showed that 99m Tc-FBPBAT accumulated in myocardium after intravenous injection. Radioactivity in rat heart amounted to 2.32% and 1.91% of the injected dose per gram at 15 and 60 minutes postinjection, compared with 3.10% and 2.21% injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) in the experiment with 123 I-MIBG, respectively. Prazosin, urapidil, and metoprolol were as effective as treatment with other adrenergic

  10. Technetium-99m labeled 1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-4-(2-mercapto-2-methyl-4-azapentyl)-4- (2-mercapto-2-methylp ropylamino)-piperidine and iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine for studying cardiac adrenergic function: a comparison of the uptake characteristics in vascular smooth muscle cells and neonatal cardiac myocytes, and an investigation in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samnick, Samuel E-mail: rassam@uniklinik-saarland.de; Scheuer, Claudia; Muenks, Sven; El-Gibaly, Amr M.; Menger, Michael D.; Kirsch, Carl-Martin

    2004-05-01

    In developing technetium-99m-based radioligands for in vivo studies of cardiac adrenergic neurons, we compared the uptake characteristics of the {sup 99m}Tc-labeled 1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-4-(2-mercapto-2-methyl-4-azapentyl)-4- (2-mercapto-2-methylpropylamino)-piperidine ({sup 99m}Tc-FBPBAT) with those of the clinically established meta-[{sup 123}I]iodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) in rat vascular smooth muscle cells and neonatal cardiac myocytes. Furthermore, the cardiac and extracardiac uptake of both radiopharmaceuticals was assessed in intact rats and in rats pretreated with various {alpha}- and {beta}-adrenoceptor drugs, and adrenergic reuptake blocking agents. The uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-FBPBAT and {sup 123}I-MIBG into vascular smooth muscle cells and neonatal cardiac myocytes was rapid; more than 85% of the radioactivity accumulation into the cells occurring within the first 3 minutes. Radioactivity uptake after a 60-minute incubation at 37 degree sign C (pH 7.4) varied from 15% to 65% of the total loaded activity per million cells. In all cases, {sup 99m}Tc-FBPBAT showed the higher uptake, relative to {sup 123}I-MIBG, at any given cell concentration. The cellular uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-FBPBAT was lower at 4 degree sign C and 20 degree sign C than at 37 degree sign C. In contrast, the {sup 123}I-MIBG uptake was only slightly temperature dependent. Inhibition experiments confirmed that the cellular uptake of {sup 123}I-MIBG is mediated by the uptake-I carrier, whereas {alpha}{sub 1}- and {beta}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors were predominantly involved in the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-FBPBAT into the cardiovascular tissues. Biodistribution studies in rats showed that {sup 99m}Tc-FBPBAT accumulated in myocardium after intravenous injection. Radioactivity in rat heart amounted to 2.32% and 1.91% of the injected dose per gram at 15 and 60 minutes postinjection, compared with 3.10% and 2.21% injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) in the experiment with {sup 123}I

  11. Technetium sorption by stibnite from natural water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretroukhine, V.; Sergeant, C.; Deves, G.; Poulain, S.; Vesvres, M.H.; Thomas, B.; Simonoff, M.

    2006-01-01

    The sorption of technetium by powdered and polished mineral stibnite Sb 2 S 3 has been investigated in simulated and natural underground waters from the Meuse/Haute-Marne region (France). The sorption by powdered stibnite has been found to be complete under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions in batch experiments. The sorption rate is higher in the absence of oxygen than under aerobic condition. Increasing the temperature from 30 C to 60 C results in a rise of the sorption rate by 9.1 and 27 times under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The observed differences in sorption kinetics in the presence and in absence of oxygen are explained by the interaction of oxygen with sulfide ion in aerobic conditions and by the reduction of technetium(VII) by iron(II) and by other impurities present in natural water and in the mineral, and by the subsequent sorption of Tc(IV) on stibnite under anaerobic conditions. The sorption on a polished mineral surface resulted in the formation of a technetium film, probably Tc 2 S 7 , with a thickness of 1-3 μg Tc/cm 2 pH 3-6 and 4-12 μg Tc/cm 2 at 9-12. The simultaneous formation of stibnite colloids with adsorbed technetium occurs at pH 9-12. The study of the technetium film on the mineral by proton induced X-ray emission analysis showed it to be at least one order of magnitude thinner on the SiO 2 impurities than on the main Sb 2 S 3 component and the iron impurities. (orig.)

  12. Preparation of L-asparagine complex with technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persano, S.C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation of technetium chelated to L-asparagine is aimed at for obtention of potentially useful radiopharmaceutical in nuclear medicine. The reduction of pertechnetate anion ( 99 TcO - 4 and sup(99m) TcO - 4 ) using hydrazine as a reducing agent is studied with use of polarographic spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. Spectrophotometric determination shows that the aqueous solution of amonium sup(-99m) Tc pertechnetate absorbs at 244, 248 and 290 nm. After reduction the species absorbs at 330 and near 495-530 nm. Polarographic measurements with 0,1 N NaOH electrolyte show a half-wave potential E sub(1/2 = -0,82 V for technetium +VII. After the addition of increasing amounts of hydrazine into a solution containing Tc+VII, the half wave potential shifts to more positives values, indicating the reduction of Tc+VII. Chromatographic determinations are in good agreement with polarographic analysis, emphatizing reduction of Tc+IV by hydrazine. The reduced 99 Tc shows ability of being incorporated into L-asparagine forming a cristalline compound with melting point 118.6 0 C. Infrared absorption spectrometry shows that amino and carboxyl groups are bound to the metal in this complex. The yield of sup(99m) Tc incorporation into L-asparagine at 60 0 C in 30 minutes is up to 95%. The labeled complex can be presented as a radiopharmaceutical product. Tissue distribution performed in groups of normal and bearing lymphoma Walker 256 Wistar rats (50-60) shows that the radiopharmaceutical concentrates seletively in the tumor and is fastly excreted by the kidney and it doesn't have significant affinity for any organ, being so adequate for the formation of tumoral images. (Authors) [pt

  13. Clinical applications of cells labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Blood cells labelled with radionuclides are reviewed and main applications are described. Red blood cell labelling by both random and specific principle. A table with most important clinical uses, 99mTc labelling of RBC are described pre tinning and in vivo reduction of Tc, in vitro labelling and administration of labelled RBC and in vivo modified technique. Labelled leucocytes with several 99mTc-complex radiopharmaceuticals by in vitro technique and specific monoclonal s for white cells(neutrofiles). Labelled platelets for clinical use and research by in vitro technique and in vivo labelling

  14. Research program to investigate the fundamental chemistry of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuh, David K.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Burns, Carol J.

    2003-12-19

    The objective of this research is to increase the knowledge of the fundamental technetium chemistry that is necessary to address challenges to the safe, long-term remediation of high-level waste posed by this element. These challenges may be divided into two categories: unexpected behavior of technetium in high-level waste tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites and the behavior of technetium in waste forms.

  15. Research program to investigate the fundamental chemistry of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuh, David K.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Burns, Carol J.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this research is to increase the knowledge of the fundamental technetium chemistry that is necessary to address challenges to the safe, long-term remediation of high-level waste posed by this element. These challenges may be divided into two categories: unexpected behavior of technetium in high-level waste tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites and the behavior of technetium in waste forms

  16. X-ray electron investigation of technetium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, V.N.; Kryuchkov, S.V.; Kuzina, A.F.; Kulakov, V.M.; Pirozhkov, S.V.; Spitsyn, V.I.; Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii)

    1982-01-01

    Investigation results of a number of technetium compounds using the method of X-ray electron spectroscopy have been presented for the first time. Calculation of effective charge for compounds without Tc-Tc bond and cluster complexes with strong Tc-Tc bond is made. Strong interdependence of effective charge and properties of technetium clusters is shown. Binding energies for certain cluster complexes of technetium with halides are given

  17. Supplemental Report: Application of Emission Spectroscopy to Monitoring Technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides supplemental information to an earlier report BNF-98-003-0199, ''Evaluation of Emission Spectroscopy for the On-Line Analysis of Technetium''. In this report data is included from real Hanford samples as well as for solutions spiked with technetium. This supplemental work confirms the ability of ICP-ES to monitor technetium as it breaks through an ion exchange process

  18. Assessment of effects of a Cordia salicifolia extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on the morphology of red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydman, Jacques Natan Grinapel; Rocha, Vanessa Camara; Benarroz, Monica Oliveira; Rocha, Gabrielle Souza; Pereira, Márcia Oliveira; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2008-12-01

    Effects of a Cordia salicifolia (porangaba) extract on the labeling of blood cells (BCs) with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) and on the morphology of red BCs were evaluated. Labeling of cellular and molecular structures with (99m)Tc depends on a reducing agent. Some physical characteristics, as visible absorbance spectrum, electric conductivity, and refractive index of this porangaba extract, were also determined. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with porangaba extract or with 0.9% NaCl (control). Labeling of blood constituents with (99m)Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and BCs, both soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions, were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted, and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, and stained, and the morphology of the red BCs was evaluated. Data showed an absorbance peak at 480 nm and electric conductibility and refractive index concentration-dependent. Porangaba extract decreased significantly (P < .05) the BC, IF-P, and IF-BC %ATI, and no modifications were verified on the shape of red BCs. Analysis of the results reveals that some physical parameters could be useful to aid in characterizing the extract studied. Moreover, it is possible that chemical compounds of this extract could have chelating/redox actions or be capable of binding to plasma and/or cellular proteins.

  19. Some aspects of the assay of technetium in environmental waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, P.

    1983-09-01

    Technetium, as 99 Tc, was rapidly concentrated from large sample volumes (> 500 cm 3 ) by use of an anion exchange column after removal of ruthenium isotopes by precipitation. The bulk of the technetium can be removed from the resin by elution with sodium thiocyanate followed by further concentration by extraction with butan-2-one. Evaporation of solvent onto a planchette followed by measurement of emitted beta radiation can determine technetium levels. Method is capable of removing between 10 -15 and 10 -6 g of technetium from 500 cm 3 of water. (author)

  20. Sources and behavior of technetium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, E.H.; Scoppa, P.

    1987-01-01

    Technetium is a man-made element produced in increasing amounts during the last decades. The chemical and physical properties of some technetium compounds are considered, and a discussion of possible source terms is included. Literature on the environmental behavior of technetium is reviewed to evaluate its transfer and equilibrium distribution in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Considerable effort has been expended in the last years in order to understand the biogeochemical processes responsible for the long-term behavior of technetium in the environment and its transfer through food chains as well as to identify critical pathways of the long-lived radioisotope Tc-99 from the environment to man. (Auth.)

  1. Preparation of crotalus venom radiolabeled with technetium99m as a tool for biodistribution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujatti, Priscilla Brunelli; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos; Simal, Carlos Jorge Rodrigues

    2005-01-01

    Technetium- 99m ( 99m Tc) has been the radionuclide of choice for nuclear medicine procedures and experimental research. Because of its optimal nuclear properties, 99m Tc is suitable for high efficiency detection with the advantage of reduced radiological waste. Crotalus venom (CV) has been shown to reduce tumors in clinical studies and tissue distribution studies are very important for clinical use. The goal of this work was to obtain CV labeled with 99m Tc which preserves its biological activity. After labeling, biological activity was assessed by hemolytic activity evaluation. Labeled and crude venom caused indirect hemolysis provided that the incubation medium contained an exogenous source of lecithin. High yield radiolabeled-CV was obtained and biological activity was preserved. The results suggest that 99m Tc-CV can be a useful tool for biodistribution studies. (author)

  2. Sorption behaviour of radioactive technetium in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Deying

    1996-01-01

    The sorption behaviour of technetium in different soils has been studied by batch experiments under aerobic conditions. The soil samples have been taken to study the characteristics and to derive the pH-Eh values. In addition, the activated carbon and reduced iron powder have been selected as additives to the JAERI sand according to the former research work, so that the technetium sorption behaviour in the artificial soils can be studied under similar conditions. The experimental results show that all these soil samples except for the gluey soil have a very small distribution coefficient for Tc, while the artificial soils have a very large distribution coefficient for Tc. Besides, for artificial soils, the distribution coefficient (R d ) values will become larger and larger when more additive is added and more contact time is allowed. The physico-chemical fixation processes and possible sorption modes have been discussed as well

  3. Geochemistry of natural technetium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.B.; Cappis, J.H.; Perrin, R.E.; Rokop, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Technetium and plutonium in unprocessed nuclear reactor wastes are major concerns with regard to their containment in the geologic environment. Both nuclides have long half-lives; therefore, they will exist long after engineered barriers can be considered reliable. Consequently, strategies for the containment of these two elements depend on their retention in the geologic barrier until they have decayed to innocuous levels. Because these are the rarest elements in nature, there have been few direct observations of their geochemical behavior; predictions concerning their fate in the repository are based on properties that can be observed in the laboratory. The authors are attempting to complement the laboratory work by studying the geochemistry of natural plutonium and technetium. Ratios of anthropogenic to naturally occurring isotopes are discussed

  4. Technetium-99 m generator safety simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Koo; Kim, Chong Yeal

    2008-01-01

    Technetium ( 99m Tc) is one of the most widely used radioactive isotopes for diagnosis in the world. In general, 99m Tc is produced inside the so called technetium generator where 99Mo decays to 99m Tc. And the generator is usually made out of lead to shield relatively high energy radiation from 99m Tc and 99 Mo. In this paper, a GEANT4 simulation is carried out to test the safety of the 99m Tc generators, taking domestic and Japanese products with radioactivity of 18.50 GBq (500 mCi) for example. According to the domestic regulation on radiation safety, the dose at 10 cm and 100 cm away from the surface of radiation shielder should not exceed 2 mSv∙h -1 and 0.02 mSv∙h -1 , respectively. The simulated dose turned out about only 10% of the limit, satisfying the domestic regulation

  5. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benarroz, M.O.; Fonseca, A.S.; Rocha, G.S.; Frydman, J.N.G.; Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.O.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m( 99m Tc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with 99m Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p 99m Tc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon

  6. State of the science of blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Blood cell labeling can be considered a science in as far as it is based on precise knowledge and can be readily reproduced. This benchmark criterion is applied to all current cell labeling modalities and their relative merits and deficiencies are discussed. Mechanisms are given where they are known as well as labeling yields, label stability, and cell functionality. The focus is on the methodology and its suitability to the clinical setting rather than on clinical applications per se. Clinical results are cited only as proof of efficacy of the various methods. The emphasis is on technetium as the cell label, although comparisons are made between technetium and indium, and all blood cells are covered. 52 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Benzimidazolyl methyliminodiacetic acids: new bifunctional chelators of technetium for hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, F.C.; Wilson, J.G.; Maddalena, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Dimethyl- and chloro- substituted benzimidazolyl methyliminodiacetic acids have been synthesized and evaluated as new bifunctional chelators of /sup 99m/Tc. Stannous chelates of these compounds were prepared as freeze-dried kits and labeled with /sup 99m/Tc. The radiopharmaceuticals thus prepared were rapidly excreted by the hepatobiliary system of rats and rabbits with little urinary excretion. The chloro- compound had a higher biliary and lesser urinary excretion than the dimethyl- however both technetium complexes provided good scintigraphic images of the hepatobiliary system in animals. The compounds behaved similarly to the /sup 99m/Tc-lidocaine iminodiacetic acid [HIDA] complexes with respect to their biliary elimination

  8. Technical considerations in gastric ulcer localization using technetium-99m sucralfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, S.G.; Wcislo, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    After the completion and evaluation of 17 patients studies using technetium-99m-labeled sucralfate for the detection of ulcerated areas, the authors felt that the technical aspects of the studies should be evaluated. The factors for evaluation are: the time the patient is kept fasting; the time the patient is being imaged and rotated for various anatomic views; the technologist time and camera time that are involved in one study; and the cost factor of the testing procedure. Based on the findings of their small sample of patients, the sensitivity of the test is uncertain

  9. Technical considerations in gastric ulcer localization using technetium-99m sucralfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, S.G.; Wcislo, W.J.

    1985-09-01

    After the completion and evaluation of 17 patients studies using technetium-99m-labeled sucralfate for the detection of ulcerated areas, the authors felt that the technical aspects of the studies should be evaluated. The factors for evaluation are: the time the patient is kept fasting; the time the patient is being imaged and rotated for various anatomic views; the technologist time and camera time that are involved in one study; and the cost factor of the testing procedure. Based on the findings of their small sample of patients, the sensitivity of the test is uncertain.

  10. Study of ammonia synthesis using technetium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Mikhajlenko, I.E.; Pokrovskaya, O.V.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made on catalytic properties of technetium in ammonia synthesis reaction. The preparation of technetium catalysts on ν-Al 2 O 3 , BaTiO 3 , BaO-ν-Al 2 O 3 substrates is described. The investigation of catalytic activity of catalysts was carried out at a pressure of 1 atm. in vertical reactor with volume rate of 15000 h - 1 in the temperature range of 350-425 deg. The amount of catalyst was 0.5-1 g, the volume- 0.5 ml, the size of granules- 2-3 mm. Rate constants of ammonia synthesis reaction were calculated. Seeming activation energies of the process have meanings wihtin the limits of 40-50 kcal/mol. It was shown that with increase in concentration of Tc on BaTiO 3 the catalytic activity rises in comparison with pure Tc. The reduction of catalytic activity with increase of metal content on Al 2 O 3 begins in the limits of 3.5-6.7% Tc/ν-Al 2 O 3 . The catalyst of 5.3% Tc/4.1% Ba/ν -Al 2 O 3 compound has the maximum activity. Technetium catalysts possess the stable catalytic activity and don't requre its reduction during several months

  11. Novel technique to measure total IgM and IgG in vitro haemolysin production by mouse spleen cells, using /sup 51/Cr-labelled sheep red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liske, R [Hoffmann-La Roche (F.) and Co., Basel (Switzerland)

    1980-06-12

    A quantitative method for measuring in vitro production of IgM and IgG haemolysis is described. Immune mouse spleen cells, /sup 51/Cr-labelled sheep red blood cells, guinea pig complement and -where applicable- rabbit anti-mouse gammaglobulin serum are incubated in the fluid phase at 37/sup 0/C, and the degree of chromium release measured in the supernatent. The assay gives reproducible results which compare well with the numbers of plaque-forming cells obtained in the conventional plaque-forming assay.

  12. Technetium-99m ceftizoxime kit preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Odília Fernandes Diniz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to prepare a kit of 99mTc-ceftizoxime (99mTc-CFT, with stability and biological activity preserved, able to identify a septic focus (E. coli in the experimental infection model in rats. The preparation of the CFT kit involved the use of lyophilized solutions containing the antibiotic ceftizoxime and the sodium dithionite reducing agent (6.0 mg/mL. After lyophilization, the kit was reconstituted with 1.0 mL of sodium 99mTc-pertechnetate solution (Na99mTcO4- with an activity of 370 MBq. The solution was boiled for 10 min and filtered through a cellulose ester filter. The labeling efficiency was on the order of 92%, remaining stable for six hours and the kit remained stable for two months. The biological activity of the 99mTc-CFT was evaluated by diffusion in agar impregnated with E.coli and S. aureus. Seven Wistar rats, weighing from 200 to 250 g, were used for the development of the septic focus. After 24 hours from the induction of the infectious site (E.coli, the animals were anesthetized and 0.1 mL of 99mTc-CFT (37 MBq was injected into the tail veins of the animals. The images were obtained with a gamma camera one, two and six hours after injection and the regions of interest (ROIs were calculated. The diameters of the inhibition halos for 99mTc-CFT were 27.16 ± 0.23 and 27.17 ± 0.20 for S.aureus and E.coli, respectively, while those for the unlabeled CFT were 30.4 ± 0.33 and 29.43 ± 0.26, respectively. The results for the biodistribution of 99mTc-CFT in infected animals furnished a ratio of 1.97 ± 0.31, 2.10 ± 0.42 and 2.01 ± 0.42 for cpm-target/cpm-no target for the one, two and six-hour periods, respectively. The images showed a clear uptake of labeled antibiotic (99mTc-CFT by the infectious site during the experiment. The results attest to the viability of producing a kit with 99m technetium-labeled ceftizoxime for the investigation of infectious processes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi preparar um kit de Tc

  13. 99mTc labeling of carbon nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Ying; Li Qingnuan; Li Wenxin; Li Yufeng; Zhang Xiaoyong

    2008-01-01

    The effects of experimental conditions on preparation of 99m Tc-labeled carbon nanotubes and nanocarbon blacks by SnCl 2 were investigated. At given conditions the labeling yields were over 90%. In a culture medium, the radiochemical purity of the labeling compounds kept (86 ± 4)% within 2.5 h. The 99m Tc-labeled MWNTs and NCBs obtained in this work meet satisfactory experimental demands for study of cellular uptake and toxicity. The experiments showed that labeling process was based on physical adsorption of low valent technetium resulted from reduction reaction on the surface of the carbon nanomaterials. (authors)

  14. labelling and quality control of some 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals of expected biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, A.B.I.

    2009-01-01

    this thesis addresses the labelling and quality control of some 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals which could be used for infection imaging. this study focuses on the labelling of sarafloxation, gatifloxation and cefepine with technetium-99m and biological evaluation of these labeled complexes and biodistribution in both normal and inflamed mice. the thesis is organized into two chapters: chapter I :labelling of some antibiotics chapter II :biological evaluation.

  15. Transfer of technetium from soil to paddy and upland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kei; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    1995-01-01

    Soil-plant transfer factors (concentration ratio between the plant and soil) of technetium in paddy and upland rice plants were obtained from laboratory experiments. The transfer factor is one of the most important parameters for environmental radiation dose assessment. Technetium tracer ( 95m TcO 4 - ) was added to the soil prior to rice cultivation. The transfer factor of technetium for the hulled grains (brown rice) of paddy rice (≤0.0002) was much lower than for that of upland rice (0.021). The transfer factors for both types of hulled grains were much lower than in the leaves. The technetium decontamination rate from hulled grains by polishing was 34%, the percentage of the weight decrease being 12%. The concentration of technetium in the soil solution collected from the paddy rice soil (flooded conditions) decreased rapidly with time due to its adsorption on the soil. In the upland rice soil (non-flooded) solution, the decrease in the technetium concentration was fairly slow. The low transfer factors for the paddy rice plants could be explained by the immobilization of technetium in the flooded soil. The oxidation-reduction potentials (Eh) in the flooded soil decreased rapidly with time. We conclude that technetium tracer added as TcO 4 - to flooded soil is readily transformed to an insoluble form (e.g.TcO 2 ) under the reducing conditions provided by flooding. (author)

  16. Search for technetium in natural tin metallurgical residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, C.W.

    1996-07-01

    Possible instability of baryons inside the nuclei might result in accumulation of rare isotopes in natural ores. In this respect, isotopes of technetium have certain advantages that can be useful in the search for technetium in nonradioactive ores by chemical methods. In this paper, we review the history of technetium research and discuss a new approach to the search for natural technetium associated with tin ores which appears to offer a rare possibility of discovering a smelting operation by-product such as flue dust, in which the volatile technetium heptoxide (Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7}), like rhenium heptoxide (Re{sub 2}O{sub 7}), would be expected to concentrate. Our concept of a search for technetium in these materials would be based on the assumption that traces of rhenium could occur in the ore and could be traced most easily by neutron activation of small samples. Such a procedure would confirm that an enrichment from the ore to the flue dust actually occurs with the rhenium and therefore should occur with technetium. Furthermore, this occurrence should identify the best location to search for technetium.

  17. What is wrong with radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of tumours with labelled monoclonal antibodies or with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.K.; Cipriani, C.; Manni, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    Chromatographically pure and stable anionic species of high charge density cations show higher uptake and give better melanoma images than monoclonal antibodies labeled with the same radionulcides. sup(99m)Tc-labeled antimelanoma antibody filtered for the removal of heavy colloids, hydroxides and oxides of 99m-technetium shows lower uptake in the liver and spleen. (Author)

  18. A method for the determination of technetium in environmental waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, P.; Warwick, P.; Malcolme-Lawes, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described which can be used to determine technetium-99 levels in a range of water types. Ruthenium isotopes which may interfere in the analysis are removed from the sample by precipitation before concentration of pertechnetate onto an ion-exchange column. Other nuclides can be removed from the column using NaOH before elution of the technetium using NaSCN. The technetium in the NaSNC eluent can then be extracted into butan-2-one which can be evaporated onto a planchette. Technetium-99m is used as a yield tracer and after this has decayed away to negligible levels. The amount of technetium on the planchette can be determined by measuring the rate of beta radiation emission from the final concentrate. (author)

  19. Corrosion and antifouling characteristics of technetium 99 in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Strekalov, P.V.; Balakhovskij, O.A.; Mikhajlovskij, Yu.N.

    1982-01-01

    The results are presented of studying the corrosive and antifouling properties of metallic technetium-99 in the Barents Sea and the Sea of Japan. Foil of 99 Tc glued on acrylic plastic served as a sample. High corrosion resistance and antifouling properties exhibited by 99 Tc in seawater point to favorable prospects of further studies aimed at development of new methods for protection against corrosion and fouling of metallic structures and parts with the use of technetium. The antifouling properties of technetium would evidently be used most efficiently when coating materials of high corrosion resistance to seawater (titanium, stainless steels, special alloys, etc.) with layers of technetium. The use of technetium for coating low-alloyed or carbon steels employed in seawater is yet problematic

  20. Technetium migration in natural clays; Migration von Technetium in natuerlichem Tongestein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, Maria

    2015-10-01

    The present work was performed within the joint research project ''Retention of repository relevant radionuclides in argillaceous rocks and saline systems'' (contract no.: 02E10981), funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi). The aim was to obtain first insights into the interaction of the long-lived fission product technetium and natural clay with regard to a repository for high-level nuclear waste. For this purpose Opalinus Clay from Mont Terri (northern Switzerland) was used as a reference material. The nuclide technetium-99 will contribute to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel for more than thousand years due to its long half-live. In case of a leakage of the storage vessels, the geochemistry of technetium is determined by its oxidation state, at which only the oxidation states +IV and +VII are relevant. Because of the high solubility and low affinity to sorption on surfaces of minerals, Tc(VII) is considered to be very mobile and thus the most hazardous species. The focuses of this study therefore are diffusion experiments with this mobile species and investigations of the effect of ferrous iron on the mobility and speciation of technetium.rnThe interaction of technetium and Opalinus Clay was studied in sorption and diffusion experiments varying several parameters (pH value, addition of reducing agents, effect of oxygen, diffusion pathways). In the course of this study spatially resolved investigations of the speciation have been performed on Opalinus Clay thin sections and bore cores for the first time. In addition to the speciation, further information regarding elemental distributions and crystalline phases near technetium enrichments were obtained. Supplementary investigations of powder samples allowed determining the molecular structure of technetium on the clay surface.rnBoth the combination of sorption experiments with spectroscopic investigations and the diffusion experiment exhibit a reduction of Tc

  1. A brief history of cell labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The term cell labelling is usually used in the context of labelled leukocytes for imaging inflammation and labelled platelets for imaging thrombosis. Erythrocyte labelling for in vitro measurements of red cell life span, in vivo measurements of splenic red cell pooling, radionuclide ventriculography and imaging sites of bleeding has developed rather separately and has a different history. Labelled platelets and leukocytes were originally developed for cell kinetic studies. Since the current-day applications of labelled platelets and leukocytes depend on a clear understanding of cell kinetics, these classical studies are important and relevant to the history of cell labelling

  2. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Shuh, David K.; Edelstein,Norman M.

    2003-11-24

    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to immobilize high-level nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs due to the high solubility and mobility of pertechnetate, TcO4-, the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively immobilize 99Tc if they contain additives that reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. Leaching of 99Tc from reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much slower than for CWFs containing TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be a concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were placed in containers that permitted O2 diffusion. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as aTc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and is likely Tc2S7. The TcSx initially present in the grout samples was steadily oxidized over 4 years. In the second series of samples, all of the TcO4- was not initially reduced, and the grout samples were placed in airtight containers. In these samples, the remaining TcO4- continued to be reduced as the samples aged, presumably due to the presence of reducing blast furnace slag. When samples in the second series were exposed to atmosphere, the

  3. Behavior of technetium in paddy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, K.; Muramatsu, Y.; Ban-Nai, T.

    1997-01-01

    In order to understand the chemical form of soluble technetium in paddy soil and its availability to a rice plant, soil incubation and uptake experiments have been carried out using 95m Tc as a tracer. The chemical form of the soluble Tc was observed by gel chromatography and found not to be pertechnetate, but rather to be associated with soluble organic matter. An uptake experiment with rice seedlings using nutrient solution showed that this Tc-organic matter complex was less available than pertechnetate. (author)

  4. Technetium-99m pertechnetate - a tracer for radiolabelling antibody for inflammation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaharuddin Mohd; Wan Hamirul Bahrin Wan Kamal; Shahrin A Hamid; Ang Woan Tze; Rosnani Hashim

    1999-01-01

    The polyclonal antibody, Human Immunoglobulin G (HlgG) was reduced by using 2-mercaptoethanol with molar ratio of 1000:1 (i.e. mercaptoethanol:antibody). The reduction of the antibody, was carried out for 30 minutes at room temperature. The reduced antibody was purified by using Sephadex G-25 fine column. The antibody kit for the detection of inflammation was prepared aseptically in Class 1 Laminar Flow cabinet. The kit passed the sterility test. Upon reconstitution of the antibody kit with sodium pertechnetate-99m ( 99m Tc) solution, the labelling efficiency obtained was more than 95%. This preparation was stable up to 24-hour stored at room temperature. Gamma camera scans showed the accumulation of technetium-99m labelled antibody ( 99m Tc-HIgG) at the turpentine-induced inflammation of female Sprague-Dawley rats. This indicated the possibility of using 99m Tc-HIgG for inflammation detection. (author)

  5. Control of technetium at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraceno, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Technetium-99 entered the gaseous diffusion complex as a volatile impurity in recycled uranium that was fed to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Subsequently, it entered the Oak Ridge and Portsmouth cascades as an impurity in Paducah product feed. Most of the technetium was adsorbed on cascade equipment in increasingly high concentrations as it moved up the cascade. Since the low energy beta radiation produced by technetium cannot penetrate cascade equipment, it presents no significant hazard to workers as long as it remains inside of equipment. However, when equipment that contains high concentrations of technetium is opened for maintenance or change-out, precautions are taken to ensure worker safety. Traps containing activated alumina are used at the plant vent streams to limit radioactive emissions as far as possible. Annual vent stream emissions have been well below DOE limits. To allow continued compliance, other potential trapping agents have been tested. Several that limit emissions more effectively than activated alumina have been found. Other traps containing magnesium fluoride are used in the upper cascade to reduce the technetium concentration. Waste solutions from decontamination can also contain technetium. These solutions must either be stored for controlled discharge or treated to remove the technetium. To allow the latter, an ion exchange facility is being installed for operation by the end of FY-1982. Liquid discharges at Portsmouth have usually been less than 5% of the DOE imposed limits

  6. Research program to investigate the fundamental chemistry of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, David A.; Buechele, Andrew C.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Muller, Isabelle S.; Shuh, David K.; Pegg, Ian L.

    2007-10-12

    The objective of this research is to increase the knowledge of the fundamental technetium chemistry necessary to address challenges to the safe, long-term disposal of high-level nuclear waste posed by this element. The primary issues examined during the course of this project were the behavior of technetium and its surrogate rhenium during waste vitrification and glass corrosion. Since the redox behavior of technetium can play a large role in determining its volatility, one goal of this research was to better understand the behavior of technetium in glass as a function of the redox potential of the glass melt. In addition, the behavior of rhenium was examined, since rhenium is commonly used as a surrogate for technetium in waste vitrification studies. A number of glasses similar to Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glasses were prepared under controlled atmospheres. The redox state of the glass was determined from the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio in the cooled glass, and the speciation of technetium and rhenium was determined by x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. The behavior of rhenium and technetium during glass alteration was also examined using the vapor hydration test (VHT).

  7. Technetium-99 in the Irish marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.; Fegan, M.; Pollard, D.; Long, S.; Hayden, E.; Ryan, T.P

    2001-07-01

    Technetium-99 activity concentrations in seawater and biota from Irish coastal waters are presented. Time series measurements of {sup 99}Tc in seawater and Fucus vesiculosus from the western Irish Sea show that activity concentrations have increased in line with the increase in discharges of {sup 99}Tc from Sellafield. The peak in activity concentrations in both seawater and Fucus vesiculosus occurred in 1997 approximately two years after the peak in {sup 99}Tc discharges. The highest activity concentration recorded in Fucus vesiculosus showed a 29-fold increase over the mean concentration for the period 1988-1993. Technetium-99 activity concentrations were measured in fish, lobsters, prawns, mussels and oysters landed at major fishing ports on the east and northeast coasts of Ireland between 1996 and 1998. Concentration factors for {sup 99}Tc in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and certain species of fish, crustaceans and molluscs from the Irish Sea were estimated. In general, these concentration factors were higher than those in the literature which were derived from laboratory studies, but agreed well with values which were based on field studies. The mean committed effective doses to Irish typical and heavy seafood consumers due to {sup 99}Tc in the period 1996-1998 were 0.061 and 0.24 {mu}Sv, respectively.

  8. Research Program to Investigate the Fundamental Chemistry of Technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelstein, Norman M.; Burns, Carol J.; Shuh, David D.; Lukens, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Technetium (99Tc, half-life = 2.13x105 years, b-emitter) is one of the radionuclides of major concern for nuclear waste disposal. This concern is due to the long half-life of 99Tc, the ease with which pertechnetate, TcO4 -, migrates in the geosphere, and the corresponding regulatory considerations. The problem of mobility of pertechnetate in the environment is compounded by the fact that pertechnetate is the thermodynamically stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. These two factors present challenges for the safe, long term immobilization of technetium in waste forms. Because of the stability of pertechnetate, technetium has been assumed to exist as pertechnetate in the aqueous phase of nuclear waste tanks. However, recent studies indicate that a significant fraction of the technetium is in a different chemical form. This program addresses the fundamental solution chemistry of technetium in the waste tank environment, and in a second part, the stability of technetium in various waste forms. The chemistry of this element will be studied in aqueous solutions at high pH, with various added salts such as nitrate, nitrite, and organic complexants, and as a function of radiation dose, to determine whether radiolysis effects can reduce TcO4 -. A separate facet of this research is the search for chemical forms of technetium that may be thermodynamically and/or kinetically stable and may be incorporated in various waste forms for long term storage. This phase of the program will address the problem of the possible oxidation of lower valent technetium species in various waste form matrices and the subsequent leaching of the highly soluble TcO4 -

  9. The regulation of technetium-99 discharges at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayall, A.

    2002-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent Magnox fuel at BNFL Sellafield produces a liquid waste concentrate containing technetium-99 and other, more radiotoxic, radionuclides such as plutonium and americium. The concentrate is known as medium active concentrate (MAC). Prior to 1981, MAC was discharged to sea untreated after several years' storage, during which short-lived radionuclides underwent radioactive decay. In the early 1980s, discharges of MAC were suspended and it was retained in storage tanks, pending the construction of a plant to remove the radionuclides of greatest radiological concern (these did not include technetium- 99). The Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant started operation in 1994 and began to clear the backlog of stored waste MAC, as well as current arisings from Magnox reprocessing. As a consequence technetium-99 was once more discharged to sea. Subsequently, concentrations of this radionuclide in the marine environment increased. In particular, there was a significant increase in the concentration of technetium-99 in lobster in the Irish Sea. An increase in technetium-99 has also been detected at locations far distant from Sellafield, e.g. in Scandinavian coastal waters, albeit at very low concentrations. This dispersal of technetium- 99 throughout the Irish Sea and further afield has therefore caused concern, although the radiological impact is low. This paper examines the nature and source of the technetium-99 in sea discharges at Sellafield and the levels of past and current discharges as well as their impact. It goes on to describe the Environment Agency's recent proposals on the future regulation of technetium-99 discharges and how these should lead to substantial reductions in not only technetium-99 discharges, but also of other radionuclides such as caesium-137 and strontium-90. (author)

  10. Ion exchange removal of technetium from salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    Ion exchange methods for removing technetium from waste salt solutions have been investigated by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). These experiments have shown: Commercially available anion exchange resins show high selectivity and capacity for technetium. In column runs, 150 column volumes of salt solution were passed through an ion exchange column before 50% 99 Tc breakthrough was reached. The technetium can be eluted from the resin with nitric acid. Reducing resins (containing borohydride) work well in simple hydroxide solutions, but not in simulated salt solutions. A mercarbide resin showed a very high selectivity for Tc, but did not work well in column operation

  11. 99mTC-dextran-antibody conjugates. Labelling procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, M.; Westlin, J.E.; Nilsson, S.; Holmberg, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    Dextran forms stable chelates with 99m Tc, a radionuclide with ideal properties for planar scintigraphic and tomographic imaging. This study investigates some of the factors of importance to the formation of 99m Tc-dextran. The complex was used for the technetium labelling of a monoclonal antibody. Two radiolabelling methods were studied: Direct dextran labelling with the reductant dissolved in HCl and labelling via a weak 'transfer' chelator (tartaric acid) with the reductant dissolved in ethanol. Different conditions during the labelling reaction were studied. Finally, dextran was coupled to a monoclonal anticytokeratin antibody and the conjugate was subsequently radiolabelled with 99m Tc. Gel filtration (GFR) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were compared as methods for estimation of the labelling efficiency. When using 10-500 μM of ligand, 5-100 μM SnC1 2 with 10-500 MBq of technetium at pH7 incubated for 10-15 min, the radiolabelling seemed optimal (70-75% labelling efficiency). It was found that 100 μM tartaric acid used as a weak intermediate chelator with SnCl 2 dissolved in ethanol improved the reproducibility of the labelling. The labelling efficiency was not affected by either the presence of oxygen or the addition of an oxygen scavenger during the labelling incubation. In general, TLC showed higher labelling efficiencies than GFR, indicating inadequate separation of the different moieties. (orig.)

  12. Technetium-99m carboxymethylcellulose: A newly developed fibre marker for gastric emptying studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schade, J.H.; Hoving, J.; Brouweres, J.R.B.J.; Riedstra-van Gent, H.G.; Zijlstra, J.; Dijkstra, J.P.H.

    1991-01-01

    We report a study of technetium-99m-labelled carboxymethyl-cellulose ( 99m Tc-CMC) as a newly developed non-digestible marker of the solid phase of gastric contents. The radiosynthesis is simple and shows a high labelling efficiency. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated stability of the marker in the gastrointestinal tract during the process of gastric emptying. The gastric half-emptying time in ten healthy volunteers of both sexes was 105±17 min (mean±SD). This rate of gastric emptying is similar to that of non-digestible solid-phase markers such as in vivo labelled 99m Tc-chicken liver or radio-iodinated cellulose. In comparison with digestible solid-phase markers such as 99m Tc-labelled pancake or 99m Tc-cooked egg, gastric emptying of 99m Tc-CMC occurred more slowly, confirming the expected behaviour of a non-digestible solid-phase marker. We conclude that 99m Tc-CMC has the advantage of a simple and rapid labelling procedure and may be useful for clinical studies of gastric emptying. (orig.)

  13. Cytotoxic lymphocytes in Hashimoto thyroiditis: an in vitro assay system using 51Cr-labelled chicken red blood cells coated with thyroglobulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Elizabeth A.; Penhale, W. J.; Barnes, E. W.; Irvine, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    An in vitro method is described to detect lymphocytes in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis that are cytotoxic to thyroglobulin-coated chicken red blood cells. Using this technique, the cytotoxic index of lymphocytes from patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis was 25·46±3·81 (SEM), which is significantly different from that obtained with lymphocytes from control subjects, 6·28±0·80. PMID:4740396

  14. Comparative studies of antibody anti-CD20 labeled with 188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Carla Roberta de Barros Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is an unique and important modality in oncology and the development of new tumor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals for both diagnosis and therapy is an area of interest for researchers. Rituximab (RTX) is a quimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) (IgG 1) that specifically binds to CD20 antigen with high affinity and has been successfully used for the treatment of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) of cell B. The CD20 antigen is expressed over more than 90% of cell B NHL. Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) and rhenium-188 ( 188 Re) are an attractive radionuclide pair for clinical use due to their favorable decay properties for diagnosis ( 99m Tc: T 1/2 = 6 h, γ radiation = 140 keV) and therapy ( 188 Re: T 1/2 = 17 h, maximum β energy = 2.12 MeV) and to their availability in the form of 99 Mo/ 99 mTc and 188 W/ 188 Re generators. The radionuclides can be conjugated to mAb using similar chemical procedures. The aim of this work was to study the labeling of anti-CD20 mAb (RTX) with 188 Re using two techniques: the direct labeling method [ 188 Re(V)] and the labeling method via the carbonyl nucleus [ 188 Re(I)]. Besides the quality control, the radiolabeled mAb was submitted to in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo biological studies. For the direct labeling, RTX was reducing by incubation with 2-mercaptoethanol for generating sulphydryl groups (-SH) and further labeled with 188 Re(V), in a study of several parameters in order to reach an optimized formulation. The labeling via the carbonyl nucleus both 99 mTc and 188 Re were employed through 2 different procedures: (1) labeling of intact RTX with 99 mTc(I) and (2) reduced RTX (RTX red ) labeled with 99 mTc(I)/ 188 Re(I). Also a parameter study was performed to obtain an optimized formulation. The quality control method for evaluating the radiochemical purity showed a good labeling yield (93%) for the direct method. The labeling method via carbonyl group, the results showed that the - SH groups of RTX red are a possible way of labeling

  15. Advances in technetium chemistry towards 99mTc receptor imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, B.; Spies, H.

    1997-01-01

    The development of the chemistry of technetium and its non-radioactive surrogate rhenium has been prompted by the trends and needs of nuclear medicine, which predominantly uses 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals for a broad range of diagnostics. Technetium-99m is the ideal radioisotope for tomographic single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) imaging due to its nuclear properties (6.2 h, E γ 140 keV) and ready availability through generator systems. Transition metals offer many opportunities for designing molecules by modifying the environment around the core, allowing certain biological properties to be imposed upon the molecule. Whereas research in the past was mainly concerned with biological properties that allow relatively unspecific functional imaging, as in brain or myocardium perfusion studies, nuclear medicine is now requiring more and more biochemical information on low capacity, high specificity targets. Many research groups have become involved in the search for new technetium-based compounds, called the third generation of 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals, that employ the principles of modern pharmacology to achieve biochemical specificity. There has been considerable interest in imaging CNS and other receptors with 99m Tc receptor-binding ligands. Such a 99m Tc CNS receptor-imaging agent is currently not yet in use because of the significant hurdles to be overcome in attaining this ambitious goal. However, some Tc and Re complexes of remarkable affinity in vitro, and the first high-affinity 99m Tc probes able to label the dopamine transporter in the brain by SPECT imaging prove the feasibility of this approach. (Author)

  16. Synthesis, libelling and bio-distribution of cerebral radiopharmaceuticals with Technetium 99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek Saied, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of brain pathologies especially neurodegenerative diseases still increasing due to longer life expectancy and the age pyramid evolution that shows an increase in the proportion of the old persons. So, we count currently more than 30 million persons affected by a neuro-degenerative disease. It is estimated that this number will reach 100 million at 2050. Generally, these diseases are not fatal, but the intellectual handicap and/or the progressive physical deterioration which causes some of them (Alzheimer, Parkinson), may lead to the death. Despite the screening efforts, it remains difficult to establish an early and differential diagnosis. It is proposed that research provides new solutions for diagnostic to reduce the risk of mortality associated with these diseases and improve patient comfort. The first part of this presentation is dedicated to some definitions of the radiopharmaceuticals, the chemistry of technetium and rhenium and the strategies of labeling with Technetium. We propose first to give an overview concerning the target vectors and criteria for crossing of the hemato-encephalic barrier. In the second part we will present our results concerning the synthesis and the physico-chemical characterization of some ferrocenic ligands, radio-complex of the technetium-99 and their "rhenisted" analogues. We will expose some bio-distributions as well as the biochemical studies of certain cytectrenic molecules which showed a very interesting affinity for 5HT1A serotonergic receptors such as Tc-MP associated to the molecule of piperazine (2 - methoxyphenyl) as a vector of choice. This molecule allows an exceptional kinetic of extraction around (2.47 pou cent DI / g) in 5min pi. (Author)

  17. Review of technetium behavior in relation to nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquette, J.; Reid, J.A.K.; Rosinger, E.L.J.

    1992-05-01

    This report contains available information which determine possible methods of the transfer of technetium element from waste disposal facilities to the biosphere. It also includes possible effects upon human beings and environment. 65 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  18. Preparation and quality control of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuels, D.L.

    1978-11-01

    Appropriate procedures for the production and quality control of technetium-99m based radiopharmaceuticals in hospital radiopharmacy consistent with the recently published Australian Code of Good Manufacturing Practice are discussed

  19. Physical chemical quality control of the molybdenum technetium generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, E.; Cruz, J.; Isaac, M.; Gamboa, R.; D'Alessandro, K.; Desdin, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    Comparative operational procedure imported molybdenum technetium generators have been made. Procedures for determination of chemical, radiochemical and radionuclidic purities that may be applied in Hospital's laboratories and in the quality control of generators production are developed

  20. Under used technetium-99m generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, A.

    2001-01-01

    Health care reform truly has become a global issue and it will undoubtedly have a dramatic impact on the future of nuclear medicine business in particular. A bigger concern within the nuclear medicine community is its competitiveness with other modalities and cost effectiveness.Technetium-99m and its generators are playing key role for the majority of diagnostic scans performed in the world today. Availability of ''9''9''mTc can be increased if it is separated from ''9''9Mo after much shorter growth times. After proper planning with the extra ''9''9''mTc, a significant number of scans can be performed or we would be able to order approximately 30% low activity ''9''9Tc generators to fulfill our requirements

  1. Anionic sorbents for arsenic and technetium species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, Daniel A.; Moore, Robert Charles; Bontchev, Ranko Panayotov; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Zhao, Hongting; Salas, Fred Manuel; Holt, Kathleen Caroline

    2003-01-01

    Two sorbents, zirconium coated zeolite and magnesium hydroxide, were tested for their effectiveness in removing arsenic from Albuquerque municipal water. Results for the zirconium coated zeolite indicate that phosphate present in the water interfered with the sorption of arsenic. Additionally, there was a large quantity of iron and copper present in the water, corrosion products from the piping system, which may have interfered with the uptake of arsenic by the sorbent. Magnesium hydroxide has also been proven to be a strong sorbent for arsenic as well as other metals. Carbonate, present in water, has been shown to interfere with the sorption of arsenic by reacting with the magnesium hydroxide to form magnesium carbonate. The reaction mechanism was investigated by FT-IR and shows that hydrogen bonding between an oxygen on the arsenic species and a hydrogen on the Mg(OH)2 is most likely the mechanism of sorption. This was also confirmed by RAMAN spectroscopy and XRD. Technetium exists in multiple oxidation states (IV and VII) and is easily oxidized from the relatively insoluble Tc(IV) form to the highly water soluble and mobile Tc(VII) form. The two oxidation states exhibit different sorption characteristics. Tc(VII) does not sorb to most materials whereas Tc(IV) will strongly sorb to many materials. Therefore, it was determined that it is necessary to first reduce the Tc (using SnCl2) before sorption to stabilize Tc in the environment. Additionally, the effect of carbonate and phosphate on the sorption of technetium by hydroxyapatite was studied and indicated that both have a significant effect on reducing Tc sorption

  2. The performance of gel technetium-99m generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yishu

    2004-01-01

    Technetium-99m, as one of the important radionuclides in nuclear medical science, has been widely used for diseases diagnosis in both developed and developing countries for many years. Technetium-99m can be obtained from both fission-type and gel-type Tc-99m generator. Fission-type generator was prepared by Molybdenum-99 separated from fission products of uranium-235 and gel-type was prepared by irradiating nature MoO 3 in reactor, and a series of chemical and physical processes. This paper briefly describes the manufacturing technical process of gel-type Technetium-99 generator, including the preparation of target containing nature MoO 3 , the target irradiation in reactor, gel preparation, gel filtration and drying, dried gel cracking, generator loading and activity calibration of generator. The performances of gel-type Technetium-99m generator, such as elution efficiency, elution profile, the pH, Mo breakthrough, Zirconium content, radiochemical purity, radionuclidic purity, sterility and pyrogencity of eluate, are also expatiated in detail. Comparing with fission-type Technetium-99m generator, the defects of gel-type Technetium-99m generator are enumerated and their overcoming solutions are recommended in this paper. (author)

  3. Study of the synthesis of ammonia over technetium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spetsyn, V.I.; Mikhailenko, I.E.; Pokrovskaya, O.V.

    1982-01-01

    The catalytic properties of technetium in the synthesis of ammonia have been studied in the present work. Technetium catalysts according to specific yield surpass all know catalysts for the synthesis of ammonia. The enhanced catalytic activity of technetium compared to manganese and rhenium is apparently explained by the presence of the radioactivity of 99 Tc. The processes of adsorption, orientation of the adsorbed molecules, and their binding energies can differ during radiation action. Irradiation of the carrier, occurring through #betta#-emission of 99 Tc, with doses of 4-8 x 10 3 rad/day, increased the number of defects in the crystal structure where stabilization of technetium atoms was possible. The existence of charged centers can cause an increase in the dissociative chemisorption of nitrogen, which is the limiting stage of the process. Technetium catalysts possess a stable catalytic activity and do not require its restoration for several months. Results suggest that the use of technetium as a catalyst for the synthesis of ammonia has real advantages and potential possibilities

  4. Periarticular uptake of /sup 99m/technetium diphosphonate in psoriatics. Correlation with cutaneous activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namey, T.C.; Rosenthall, L.

    1976-01-01

    The periarticular uptake of /sup 99m/technetium-labeled diphosphonate (/sup 99m/TcDP) was compared in 12 patients hospitalized for psoriasis and in 12 hospitalized for other dermatoses not associated with arthropathy. The 12 patients with psoriasis had recent onset disease of less than 5 years duration; neither group had historical or clinical evidence of arthritis. All psoriatics had markedly abnormal scans with symmetrically increased periarticular uptake about the imaged joints. None of the controls had similar findings. In 4 patients scanned with /sup 99m/technetium-pertechnetate within 24 hours of their /sup 99m/TcDP scan, no evidence of inflammatory synovitis was found. Three of these patients were serially imaged with /sup 99m/TcDP at intervals of 2 weeks to 3 months after their initial study, when obvious clinical improvement in their psoriasis was apparent. Improvement in the radionuclide joint images was demonstrated in some of the patients, but none reverted to normal during the study period. In light of recent evidence for the preferential binding of /sup 99m/TcDP to immature collagen, it is suggested that psoriasis may represent a generalized, but uncharacterized, collagen disorder present in bone as well as skin, linking the cutaneous disease with the potential for arthropathy

  5. Effect of expression of P-glycoprotein on technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile single photon emission computed tomography of brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Yasushi; Matsumura, Akira; Nose, Tadao [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2002-08-01

    The expression of P-glycoprotein was investigated imunohistochemically in 26 brain tumor tissues and compared with the findings of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile single photon emission computed tomography ({sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT) to clarify the effect of P-glycoprotein on the diagnostic accuracy. P-glycoprotein labeling index of both tumor cells and vascular endothelial cells showed no clear relationship with the findings of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT imaging. Expression of P-glycoprotein has no effect on the diagnostic accuracy of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT. (author)

  6. Noninvasive detection of rejection of transplanted hearts with indium-111-labeled lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisen, H.J.; Eisenberg, S.B.; Saffitz, J.E.; Bolman, R.M. III; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether cardiac transplant rejection can be detected noninvasively with indium-111 ( 111 In)-labeled lymphocytes, we studied 11 dogs with thoracic heterotopic cardiac transplants without immunosuppression and five dogs with transplants treated with cyclosporine (10 mg/kg/day) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day). All were evaluated sequentially with gamma scintigraphy after administration of 150 to 350 muCi of autologous 111 In-lymphocytes. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells (1 to 3 mCi) were used for correction of radioactivity in the blood pool attributable to circulating labeled lymphocytes. Lymphocyte infiltration was quantified as the ratio of indium in the myocardium of the transplant or native heart compared with that in blood (indium excess, IE). Results were correlated with mechanical and electrical activity of allografts and with histologic findings in sequential biopsy specimens. In untreated dogs (n = 11), IE was 15.5 +/- 7.0 (SD) in transplanted hearts undergoing rejection and 0.4 +/- 1.1 in native hearts on the day before animals were killed. In dogs treated with cyclosporine and prednisone (n = 5), IE was minimal in allografts during the course of immunosuppression (0.8 +/- 0.4) and increased to 22.9 +/- 11.1 after immunosuppression was stopped. Scintigraphic criteria of rejection (IE greater than 2 SD above that in native hearts) correlated with results of biopsies indicative of rejection and appeared before electrophysiologic or mechanical manifestations of dysfunction. Thus infiltration of labeled lymphocytes in allografts, indicative of rejection, is detectable noninvasively by gamma scintigraphy and provides a sensitive approach potentially applicable to clinical monitoring for early detection of rejection and guidance for titration of immunosuppressive measures

  7. Assessment of Technetium in the Savannah River Site Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.; Evans, A.G.

    1993-07-01

    Assessment of Technetium in the Savannah River Site Environment is the last in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of SRS operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium cesium, iodine, uranium plutonium, strontium, and carbon. Technetium transport and metabolism have been studied by the nuclear industry because it is a fission product of uranium, and by the medical community because 99m Tc commonly is used as a diagnostic imaging agent in nuclear medicine. Technetium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. The only isotope with environmental significance is 99 Tc. Because of the small activities of 99 Tc relative to other fission products, such as 90 Sr and 137 Cs, no measurements were made of releases to either the atmosphere or surface waters. Dose calculations were made in this document using conservative estimates of atmospheric releases and from a few measurements of 99 Tc concentrations in the Savannah River. Technetium in groundwater has been found principally in the vicinity of the separation areas seepage basins. Technetium is soluble in water and follows groundwater flow with little retardation. While most groundwater samples are negative or show little technetium a few samples have levels slightly above the limits set by the EPA for drinking water. The overall radiological impact of SRS 99 Tc releases on the offsite maximally exposed individual during 38 years of operations can be characterized by maximum individual doses of 0.1 mrem (atmospheric) and 0.8 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 13,680 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same time period. Technet