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Sample records for tech-prep associate degree

  1. How To Implement a Tech Prep Program Based on the Rhode Island Model. Tech Prep Associate Degree Program. Technical Programs. Business/Office Administration Programs. Allied Health/Dental Health Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community Coll. of Rhode Island, Warwick.

    This implementation guide contains information based on experiences that occurred during the development and implementation of the Rhode Island Tech Prep Model. It is intended to assist educators in addressing challenges and obstacles faced by the program early in the planning process. It begins with a rationale for tech prep. Rhode Island…

  2. Tech Prep and the Rural Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses implementation of tech prep in rural areas and notes that relatively little research has been done on behalf of small town schools. Teachers' comments regarding tech prep implementation provide additional insight into the situation. (JOW)

  3. The Boeing Company's Tech Prep Story: A Community College Bridge to the School-to-Work Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Carver; Parnell, Dale

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the Boeing Tech Prep Program, an associate degree program combining high school and community college vocational and academic curricula. Describes the three phases of the program's development: the provision of seed grants to schools, the development of an associate degree program, and the institution of an internship program. (MAB)

  4. The Boeing Company's Tech Prep Story: A Community College Bridge to the School-to-Work Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Carver; Parnell, Dale

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the Boeing Tech Prep Program, an associate degree program combining high school and community college vocational and academic curricula. Describes the three phases of the program's development: the provision of seed grants to schools, the development of an associate degree program, and the institution of an internship program. (MAB)

  5. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  6. Planning a Tech Prep Program in Hospitality. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago City Colleges, IL. Chicago City-Wide Coll.

    A project conducted to establish tech prep articulation training agreements between City Colleges of Chicago and several public secondary schools is described in this report. Project activities were as follows: (1) developed a handbook to define the tech prep experience and guide committee members on how tech prep can be a valuable asset to…

  7. Restructuring Student Experiences Using Tech Prep Mapping To Integrate Vocational and Academic Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozzoli, Don

    The growing emphasis on accountability and the demand for better prepared students is pressing institutions of higher education to examine restructuring. Student experiences represent an important arena for school restructuring, and a useful approach to changing student experiences is the Tech Prep Mapping (TPM) process. The TPM process requires…

  8. Lecture to inquiry: The transformation of a tech prep biology teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Deborah Harris

    As teachers implement the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) many have to reform the instructional methods they have used throughout their careers. This case study examines the transformation of Laurie, a 20-year teacher, during her first year of change from a "traditional" textbook/lecture style of teaching to a facilitator of an inquiry-based classroom. Implementing change requires not only pedagogical expertise, but also the belief that the modifications can be made and that the outcomes are significant. Using Bandura's social cognitive theory as a framework, changes in Laurie's self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and motivation are followed throughout the transition. During her first year of change, Laurie used worksheets, small group activities, and guided inquiry activities, all strategies in which she had high self-efficacy and experienced positive student outcomes. She rarely used class forums, authentic assessment, and formative assessment. Factors that influenced her change were experiential professional development opportunities that allowed her to practice inquiry-based techniques, a change in her teaching environment from college prep chemistry to tech prep biology, autonomy regarding classroom decisions, and reflective decision making as she learned through experience. Using a standards-based biology textbook increased her self-efficacy toward using inquiry-based practices. The textbook format of embedding text in activities rather than adding activities to the text resulted in an increase of the number and frequency of activities done. Facilitating the textbook's Guided Inquiries and Extended Inquiries helped Laurie gain experience with inquiry-based methods. She also realized that when building from the students' concrete experiences, her students were able to attain higher-level thinking skills. The study revealed six factors contributing to Laurie's change process: (a) experiential professional development, (b) motivation for change

  9. Role Preparation of Associate Degree Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Lillian G.

    The role of associate degree nursing (ADN) programs has changed dramatically in their 30 years of existence. The number of ADN graduates increased from 260 in 1954 to 36,434 in 1980, and 47.8% of all nursing graduates in 1980 came from ADN programs, as compared to 0.9% in 1954. These graduates have the best record of employment five years after…

  10. Fuzzy Association Degree with Delayed Time in Temporal Data Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘惟一; 郭陵芝; 宋宁

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an expression of the semantic proximity. Based on the temporal data model, a method of the temporal approximation is given. Using these concepts, this paper provides an evaluated method of fuzzy and dynamic association degree with delayed time and a superposition method of association degrees. Particularly, by means of the fuzzy and dynamic association degree, the connection between the weather data of two regions can be discovered.

  11. The Origins and Rise of Associate Degree Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Patricia T.

    This book offers an analytical history of the associate degree nursing (ADN) program and the role of associate degree nurses in the U.S. health care system. It covers the period from just after World War II to the middle of the 1980s. The support of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation and the Federal Government for ADN education is highlighted. Chapter…

  12. Issues in Associate Degree Nursing. Bridge to Success. Education and Service: A Partnership for Associate Degree Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    This publication is a compilation of highlights from papers presented at the Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) project's regional conferences during 1983-84. Papers address pertinent issues in ADN education and practice. "AD Education: Are the Parameters Real?" (Julia Perkins) examines the parameters of associate degree nursing education from a…

  13. Selected Bibliography on Associate Degree Programs in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National League for Nursing, New York, NY. Dept. of Associate Degree Programs.

    This annotated bibliography consists of 99 entries, primarily journal articles, most of which were published after 1966. Organization is under the following headings: (1) Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Programs--What They Are, (2) Planning for ADN Program, (3) Move to Educational Institutions, (4) Administration, (5) Faculty, (6) Teaching Methods,…

  14. Associate in science degree education programs: organization, structure, and curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, William F

    2005-09-01

    After years of discussion, debate, and study, the respiratory care curriculum has evolved to a minimum of an associate degree for entry into practice. Although programs are at liberty to offer the entry-level or advanced level associate degree, most are at the advanced level. The most popular site for sponsorship of the associate degree in respiratory care is the community college. The basis for community college sponsorship seems to be its comprehensive curriculum, which focuses on a strong academic foundation in writing, communication, and the basic sciences as well as supporting a career-directed focus in respiratory care. Issues facing the community college are tied to literacy, outcomes, assessment, placement,cooperation with the community, partnerships with industry, and articulation arrangements with granting institutions granting baccalaureate degrees. Community colleges must produce a literate graduate capable of thriving in an information-saturated society. Assessment and placement will intensify as the laissez-faire attitudes toward attendance and allowing students to select courses without any accountability and evaluation of outcome become less acceptable. Students will be required to demonstrate steady progress toward established outcomes. Maintaining relations and cooperation with the local community and the health care industry will continue to be a prominent role for the community college. The challenge facing associate degree education in respiratory care at the community college level is the ability to continue to meet the needs of an expanding professional scope of practice and to provide a strong liberal arts or general education core curriculum. The needs for a more demanding and expanding respiratory care curriculum and for a rich general education core curriculum have led to increased interest in baccalaureate and graduate degree education. The value of associate degree education at the community college level is well established. It is

  15. Ohio Agricultural Business and Production Systems. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Kershaw, Isaac; Mokma, Arnie

    This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in agricultural business and production systems. Following an introduction, the Ohio College Tech Prep standards and program, and relevant definitions are described. Next are the technical competency profiles for these…

  16. Ohio Financial Services and Risk Management. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in financial services and risk management. Ohio College Tech Prep Program standards are described, and a key to profile codes is provided. Sample occupations in this career area, such as financial accountant, loan…

  17. E-Commerce Marketing State Competency Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Tech Prep Curriculum Services.

    This profile provides the curricular framework for Ohio Tech Prep programs in e-commerce marketing beginning in high school and continuing through the end of the associate degree. It includes a comprehensive set of e-commerce marketing competencies that reflect job opportunities and skills required for e-commerce marketing professionals today and…

  18. Ohio Business Management. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in business management. Ohio College Tech Prep Program standards are described, and a key to profile codes is provided. Sample occupations in this career area, such as management trainee, product manager, and advertising…

  19. Nursing education progression: associate degree nursing faculty perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Dale; Zomorodi, Meg; Wagner, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to examine the attitudes, influences, and practices of associate degree nursing (ADN) faculty in relation to advising students about nursing education progression. The results indicated that ADN faculty have a sense of moral and personal role responsibility to encourage students to continue their education. Deficits in faculty knowledge of program details and multiple demands on their time are factors that influence advising practices.

  20. Curriculum analysis of home health content in associate degree and baccalaureate degree nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, M R

    1989-03-01

    A statewide study was done with five associate degree (ADN) and five baccalaureate degree (BSN) nursing programs in Georgia to examine the similarities and differences in curriculum based on a nationally used model. From this overall study, select content related to community/home health care was evaluated in the sample programs. Professional standards for community and home health care nursing practice, as well as other published literature on the topic, provided a basis to determine competence to practice. Data were collected through a taped telephone interview to all program chairpersons (N = 10) and mailed questionnaires to faculty involved with all required courses (N = 110). Content analyses of responses allowed for evaluation of frequency of these learning activities between ADN and BSN programs and among BSN programs in the areas of family, teaching, interdisciplinary collaboration, physical assessment, and leadership. Overall, the results indicated lack of conclusive data to support a distinct difference in these educational components between the ADN and BSN sample or among BSN programs. The study was intended to service as a basis for home health care curriculum development in the future.

  1. What's a Degree Got to Do with It? The Civic Engagement of Associate's and Bachelor's Degree Holders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mallory Angeli

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the civic engagement of adults holding an associate's degree compared to those holding a bachelor's degree. Most prior research has focused on individuals who hold 4-year degrees; the present study, however, sought to understand differences between holders of 2-year degrees and 4-year degrees. Descriptive statistics…

  2. An Evaluation of Service Learning for Associate Degree Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Valerie M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes of the service-learning requirement in the Associate of Science in Nursing (ASN) curriculum at the local college. The problem addressed in this study was that the local ASN program lacked formal evaluation of the service-learning requirement. Guided by Kolb's model of experiential learning, a…

  3. Latino Associate Degree Completion: Effects of Financial Aid over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jacob P. K.; Zerquera, Desiree; Inge, Brittany; Berry, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Lack of financial resources to pay for postsecondary education--perceived and actual--has been cited as a barrier to student access and persistence, particularly for Latino students. This study investigates the following question: "To what extent does financial aid affect the educational attainment of Latinos enrolled in Associate's degree…

  4. Medication Administration: Measuring Associate Degree Nursing Student Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    The American Nurse Association's (ANA) provisions outline the commitment expected of nurses to protect the community from harm. Medication administration coincides with patient safety as a compelling obligation in nursing practice. The study's purpose was to examine retention of medication safety knowledge among first year nursing students, after…

  5. Survey on the Transferability of Associate's Degree to Four-Year Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubi, David C.

    In January 1994, the Arizona State Board of Directors for Community Colleges (ASBDCC) conducted a survey of state four-year systems nationwide to determine the existence of standards regarding the transferability of associate degrees and associate degree students' academic standing at receiving four-year institutions. Questionnaires were mailed to…

  6. Theta Function Identities Associated with Ramanujan's Modular Equations of Degree 15

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rupam Barman; Nayandeep Deka Baruah

    2010-06-01

    We present alternative proofs of some of Ramanujan’s theta function identities associated with the modular equations of composite degree 15. Along the way we also find some new theta-function identities. We also give simple proofs of his modular equations of degree 15.

  7. The Value of Education in a Licensed Profession: The Choice of Associate or Baccalaureate Degrees in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetz, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the relative value to Register Nurses of associate degree, baccalaureate degree, and nursing diploma. Finds that while lifetime return for baccalaureate degree is less than the associate degree, 30 percent of new nurses choose to obtain baccalaureate degrees because of personal characteristics and increased likelihood of obtaining career…

  8. Perception of collaborative learning in associate degree students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Shek, Moses M W

    2013-01-01

    Although collaborative learning has been widely researched in Western contexts, no study has been carried out to understand how associate degree students look at collaborative learning in Hong Kong. In this study, perceptions of and attitudes to collaborative learning among associate degree students were studied. A total of 44 associate degree students completed an online questionnaire including measures of perceived benefits and attitudes to collaborative learning, and social-emotional competence. Results showed that there were no significant differences between male and female students on perceived benefits of and attitudes towards collaborative learning. Social-emotional competence was related to perceived benefits of and attitudes to collaborative learning. Attitudes were also related to perceived benefits of collaborative learning. This paper is the first known study looking at the relationships among perceived benefits and attitudes to collaborative learning and social-emotional competence in Chinese associate degree students in different Chinese contexts.

  9. Generic Exponential Sums Associated with Polynomials of Degree 3 in Two Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Ze NIU

    2012-01-01

    The generic Newton polygon of L-functions associated with the exponential sums of polynomials of degree 3 in two variables is studied by Dwork's analytic methods.Wan's conjecture is shown to be true for this case.

  10. Identification of lactic acid bacteria from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere between 0 degrees C and 25 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Vancanneyt, M.; Vilalta, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate spoilage and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0, 5, 8, 15 and 25degreesC. Methods and Results: Bacterial isolates (102) from spoilage associations of cooked and brined...... to chemical changes in spoiled products. Carnobacterium divergens , a non-motile Carnobacterium sp. nov. and Lactobacillus curvatus were the LAB species observed in spoilage associations of products stored at 0degreesC, 5degreesC and 8degreesC. Conclusions: Enterococcus spp. and Carnobacterium spp. were...

  11. Nursing Student Retention in Associate Degree Nursing Programs Utilizing a Retention Specialist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, Ronna A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine specific variables associated with nursing student retention in Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Programs. Jeffreys (2004) Nursing Undergraduate Retention and Success (NURS) conceptual model provided the framework for this descriptive correlational study. One hundred sixty eight pre-licensure associate degree…

  12. Identification of entry-level competencies for associate degree radiographers as perceived by primary role definers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorpe, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify those competencies needed by Associate Degree Radiographers when they assume employment as entry-level practitioners. A second purpose of the study was to rank order the identified competencies within the role delineations recognized by the Essentials and Guidelines of an Accredited Educational Program for the Radiographer. These role delineations include: radiation protection, exercise discretion and judgment, emergency and life saving techniques, patient care and interpersonal communication, and role as professional member. A third purpose of the study was to examine the degree of consensus on role definition of entry-level competencies needed by Associate Degree Radiographers as perceived by primary role definers (such as employers, employees, and educators), and by other selected variables: age, sex, length of experience in radiologic technology, level of formal education, and place of employment. A major finding of this study was that respondents did not differ significantly in their ranking of entry-level competencies needed by Associate Degree Radiographers when the responses were analyzed according to position, age, sex, length of experience, level of education, or place of employment. Another important finding was that respondents considered all of the 63 competencies as important and needed by Associate Degree Radiographers upon initial employment.A major conclusion and recommendation of this study, in view of the high agreement on the rank ordering of competencies, was that these competencies should be included in a competency-based education model. It was further recommended that a three-way system of communication between employers, employees, and educators be considered in order to pool resources and to increase understanding of each position group's contribution and influence on entry-level Associate Degree Radiographers.

  13. Degree Associated Edge Reconstruction Number of Graphs with Regular Pruned Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anusha Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An ecard of a graph $G$ is a subgraph formed by deleting an edge. A da-ecard specifies the degree of the deleted edge along with the ecard. The degree associated edge reconstruction number of a graph $G,~dern(G,$ is the minimum number of da-ecards that uniquely determines $G.$  The adversary degree associated edge reconstruction number of a graph $G, adern(G,$ is the minimum number $k$ such that every collection of $k$ da-ecards of $G$ uniquely determines $G.$ The maximal subgraph without end vertices of a graph $G$ which is not a tree is the pruned graph of $G.$ It is shown that $dern$ of complete multipartite graphs and some connected graphs with regular pruned graph is $1$ or $2.$ We also determine $dern$ and $adern$ of corona product of standard graphs.

  14. Identification of lactic acid bacteria from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere between 0 degrees C and 25 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Vancanneyt, M.; Vilalta, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate spoilage and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0, 5, 8, 15 and 25degreesC. Methods and Results: Bacterial isolates (102) from spoilage associations of cooked and brined...... MAP shrimps were characterized by phenotypic tests and identified as lactic acid bacteria (78 isolates), other Gram-positive bacteria (13 isolates) and Gram-negative bacteria (11 isolates). A selection of 48 LAB isolates were further characterized and identified by phenotypic tests and SDS...... to chemical changes in spoiled products. Carnobacterium divergens , a non-motile Carnobacterium sp. nov. and Lactobacillus curvatus were the LAB species observed in spoilage associations of products stored at 0degreesC, 5degreesC and 8degreesC. Conclusions: Enterococcus spp. and Carnobacterium spp. were...

  15. Current Issues Related to Associate Degree Nursing: Their Impact on Directors, Faculty, and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavenar, Mary G.

    Perceptions of students, faculty members, and associate degree nursing (ADN) program directors/coordinators concerning seven issues affecting ADN programs were obtained in 1982. The issues, which were identified through a review of the literature, were: entry into practice, professional and technical nurses, developing competency statements,…

  16. Associate Degree Nursing Program Guide. Final Report from February 19, 1985 to August 31, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminole Community Coll., Sanford, FL.

    This program guide is intended to help Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) instructors in Florida develop and/or update ADN programs. The first part is the final report of the project that developed the guide. Section I of the guide provides a description of the occupation, student admission criteria, retention and withdrawal standards, and program…

  17. The Associate Degree Nursing Program at Rio Hondo College: A Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Joseph

    During 1975-76, an evaluation of the Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) program at Rio Hondo College was undertaken which involved: (1) surveying all nursing graduates in the classes of 1973, 1974, and 1975, and all fourth semester students currently enrolled in the program; (2) surveying or interviewing all instructional staff for the ADN program;…

  18. Predictors of NCLEX-RN Success of Associate Degree Graduates: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Bonny J.

    2013-01-01

    The outcome of Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) students not passing the initial National Council of Licensure Examination for Registered Nursing (NCLEX-RN) can adversely affect schools of nursing. This failure also adversely affects the national nursing shortage. The declining national pass rates on the NCLEX-RN for ADN graduates and the increasing…

  19. The Past, the Present, and the Future of Associate Degree Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlton, Donna

    A review of the history of associate degree nursing (ADN) education is presented, along with a discussion of contemporary problems faced by ADN educators. The paper first notes the practical, hospital-based nature of early nursing education programs; reviews early studies calling for school-based programs to prepare nurses for different levels of…

  20. Institutional Goal Priorities in Texas: A Look at an Associate Degree Nursing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, John E.

    A study examined the perceptions of four key constituent groups from the Southeast College Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) program regarding institutional goal priorities. (Southeast College manages the ADN program for the Houston Community College System.) The study involved 23 ADN faculty, 13 college administrators, 128 ADN students, and 5 ADN…

  1. Longitudinal Associations between Adolescent Perceived Degree and Style of Parental Prohibition and Internalization and Defiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Van Petegem, Stijn; Duriez, Bart

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between perceived degree and style of parental prohibition and adolescents' internalization of and oppositional defiance against parental rules in the friendship and moral domain. Relations were investigated in 2 longitudinal adolescent samples (total N = 532). Results indicated that perceived style but not…

  2. Predictors for Associate Degree Nursing Students' First Attempt on NCLEX-RN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Nursing program administrators need to identify significant predictors for associate degree nursing (ADN) students to determine characteristics of those who will most likely pass the NCLEX-RN® on the first attempt. The purpose of the quantitative study with a correlation prediction design was to determine if a relationship existed between the…

  3. An Approach to the Teaching of Psychiatric Nursing in Diploma and Associate Degree Programs: Workshop Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National League for Nursing, New York, NY. Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing Advisory Service.

    This workshop was the third and final phase of a project to determine what goals, methods, content, and learning experiences in psychiatric-mental health nursing should be included in diploma and associate degree education for nursing in light of present day trends in psychiatric care. The project indicates that the hospital is no longer the focal…

  4. Auto-Tutorial Anatomy and Physiology for Associate Degree Nursing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Marlena Kay Baldrige

    A prototype for the development of an auto-tutorial course in anatomy and physiology for adult learners in Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) was implemented in the fall semester, 1980, at Waukesha County Technical Institute in Pewaukee, Wisconsin. The format of the two-semester course consists of two hours of scheduled lecture time and three hours of…

  5. Valuable Learning or "Spinning Their Wheels"? Understanding Excess Credits Earned by Community College Associate Degree Completers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidenberg, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Excess credits earned by college students, over and above those required to complete their programs of study, have become increasingly a subject of interest and concern. There has been almost no research on the extent of these credits. This study focuses on all of the associate degree programs within one state's community college system…

  6. Predicting Success Using HESI A2 Entrance Tests in an Associate Degree Nursing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodman, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A challenge presented to nurse educators is retention of nursing students. This has led nursing faculty to review admission requirements and question how well entrance tests predict success in Associate Degree Nursing Programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the HESI Admission Assessment Exam (HESI A2) and…

  7. Transition from Associate's Degree in Nursing to Bachelor's of Science in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allar, Deborah T.

    2014-01-01

    Areas throughout the United States lack baccalaureate-prepared registered nurses to meet the health care needs of individuals, forcing health care providers to rely on associate degree nurses (ADN). In an effort to increase the numbers of Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) students, technical colleges and state and private universities have…

  8. Professionalism of Associate Degree Nurses: The Role of Self-Actualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Susan Jane

    2003-01-01

    Usable data from 304 of 1,495 associate degree nursing graduates showed that self-actualization was positively and significantly related to professional attitudes, values, and behaviors. Length and intensity of work experience were only slightly related. The need to reevaluate the induction model of professional socialization was suggested.…

  9. Undergraduate Performance of Advanced Level and Associate Degree Students: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Rose, Kieran Winnifred

    2013-01-01

    In the English-speaking Caribbean, the Advanced level qualification is the traditional and preferred route to accessing an education at the University of the West Indies (UWI). However, applicants with nontraditional qualifications--such as the associate degree qualification, teacher certificate, diploma, and mature student status (meaning one who…

  10. Larger ejaculate volumes are associated with a lower degree of polyandry across bushcricket taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahed, Karim

    2006-09-22

    In numerous insects, including bushcrickets (Tettigoniidae), males are known to transfer substances in the ejaculate that inhibit the receptivity of females to further matings, but it has not yet been established whether these substances reduce the lifetime degree of polyandry of the female. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that larger ejaculate volumes should be associated with a lower degree of polyandry across tettigoniid taxa, controlling for male body mass and phylogeny. Data on ejaculate mass, sperm number, nuptial gift mass and male mass were taken primarily from the literature. The degree of polyandry for 14 species of European bushcrickets was estimated by counting the number of spermatodoses within the spermathecae of field-caught females towards the end of their adult lifespans. Data for four further species were obtained from the literature. Data were analysed by using both species regression and independent contrasts to control for phylogeny. Multiple regression analysis revealed that, as predicted, there was a significant negative association between the degree of polyandry and ejaculate mass, relative to male body mass, across bushcricket taxa. Nuptial gift size and sperm number, however, did not contribute further to interspecific variation in the degree of polyandry. A positive relationship was found, across bushcricket taxa, between relative nuptial gift size and relative ejaculate mass, indicating that larger nuptial gifts allow the male to overcome female resistance to accepting large ejaculates. This appears to be the first comparative evidence that males can manipulate the lifetime degree of polyandry of their mates through the transfer of large ejaculates.

  11. Risk factors associated with forth-degree laceration during vaginal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zafarghandi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: To identify the risk factors of fourth-degree laceration during vaginal delivery. Methods: This is a retrospective, case control study. We reviewed 131802 records of vaginal deliveries within 14 years period from 1990 to 2004 in two obstetric center. Cases were 93 vaginal deliveries with fourth-degree laceration and 7 cases were delivered at home, control subjects were 200 vaginal deliveries without third- or fourth-degree lacerations and were identified with the use of random selection. We studied the effects of: maternal age, nationality, parity, gestational age, hour of delivery, birth attendants, episiotomy use and duration of second stage of labor, use of oxytocin, use of forceps or vaccum, Infant birth weight, presentation and postion of fetus, previous severe perineal injury, maternal medical illness and place of delivery. Results: We found 93 cases (%0.07 of documented fourth-degree laceration in 131802 deliveries Conclusion: This study identified several factors associated with fourth-degree laceration. Median episiotomy should be avoided. Nulliparity, fetal macrosomia and OP position are significant risk factors that require caution by birth attendants during delivery

  12. Tech-Prep: The School-to-Work Connection in Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel, David; Gray, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that community colleges should focus more on academics than on technical skills when preparing students to enter the criminal justice system. Asserts that the technical skills needed by workers in law enforcement can be acquired in the police academy, while crucial critical thinking and writing skills are better taught in the college…

  13. High Schools that Work and Tech Prep: Improving Student Performance in Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Jim

    2000-01-01

    Test results for 244 agricultural education students in High Schools that Work (HSTW) sites in North Carolina indicated that, compared to all students at HSTW sites and to college-prep students, they failed to meet HSTW goals in math, reading, and science but were making progress. Their math and science performance was higher than other vocational…

  14. Using the Clark Simulation Evaluation Rubric with associate degree and baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Laura T

    2010-01-01

    As simulation becomes a common teaching strategy in nursing education, faculty struggle with methods for measuring student performance in summative, or evaluative, scenarios. While skills checklists have been shown to be a valid way to quantify performance on many of the technical components of a patient care scenario, nurse educators have also begun to utilize simulation grading rubrics to capture more contextual and critical thinking components. The article describes a pilot study using the Clark Simulation Evaluation Rubric with undergraduate nursing students of different levels from two types of programs. Sixty-nine associate degree and 109 baccalaureate degree students were evaluated and scored in simulation performance using the rubric. The rubric was found to be a practical tool that could potentially be used with or without skills checklists. Future work will involve refining use of the rubric and establishing interrater reliability among faculty who routinely evaluate students using this rubric.

  15. Olfactory Specific Satiety depends on degree of association between odour and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Lorenzo D

    2016-03-01

    The pleasantness of a food odour decreases when that food is eaten to satiety or even smelled for a brief period (Olfactory Specific Satiety, OSS), which suggests that odours signal food variety and encourage approach behaviour toward novel foods. In the study here, we aimed to extend this theory to understand the consequence of manipulating the food consumed and its degree of association to the evaluated odour. We also wished to clarify if these effects related to individual sensitivity to the target odour. In the study here, participants (n = 94) rated the pleasantness of a food odour (isoamyl acetate) and then consumed confectionary that had either Low or High association to that odour or a No food control. This was followed by final pleasantness ratings for the odour and a threshold sensitivity test. Results revealed that in line with OSS, pleasantness decreased in the High association group only. This effect was not dependent on any differences in sensitivity to the target odour. These findings are consistent with OSS, and that this effect likely depends on activation of brain areas related to odour hedonics rather than the degree to which the odour is detected.

  16. Binge eating prevalence according to obesity degrees and associated factors in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulla Guimarães Melo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective Investigate binge eating (BE prevalence in women according to the obesity degree and assess the associated factors. Methods Cross-sectional study with female adults presenting body mass index (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2. The analyzed variables were: sociodemographics, health status, obesity history, lifestyle, eating behavior and obesity degree. In order to analyse BE it was used the Binge Eating Scale (BES, which is considered positive when BES ≥ 18 points. Prevalence and prevalence ratios (PR were calculated with confidence intervals (CI of 95%. Multivariate analysis was carried out using Poisson regression. Results BE prevalence was 53.2%, and the prevalence in super superobese women (BMI ≥ 60 kg/m2 was 75%. After multivariate analysis, associations were observed between the age group 40-49 years old (PR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.2-3.4 and the “snacking habit” (PR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.2-2.9. Conclusion The prevalence of BE in severe obese women was high. Association with the “snacking habit” can be a BE marker that should be monitored in the severely obese individuals that fit this profile.

  17. Smoking behaviour of student nurses enrolled in diploma, associate degree and undergraduate nursing programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, J C; Zimmerman, G; Hopp, J; Lee, J

    1987-01-01

    Because the literature shows that cigarette smoking is a major causative factor in the occurrence of chronic illness, lung cancer is becoming more common in women than breast cancer, nurses smoke more than any other group of health care providers and studies have not examined differences of smoking among the associate degree, undergraduate and diploma levels of nursing, this study was designed to examine selected health behaviours and their relationship to cigarette use among Alabama senior student nurses, and to determine smoking prevalence by level of educational preparation. A sample of senior associate degree, undergraduate and diploma student nurses in Alabama responded to an 87-item questionnaire which was personally administered by the investigator in a classroom setting. Twenty-two of the 87 items were used to compile the demographics, prevalences and health behaviours reported here. The remaining items were used to develop a sequence of information required to test Ajzen and Fishbein's Theory of Reasoned Action and are beyond the scope of this article. Though there was no significant difference of smoking prevalence among educational levels, there was a trend for increased smoking from undergraduate to diploma level with prevalences of: total sample, 26.2%; diploma, 30%; associate degree, 26%; and undergraduate, 24%. Health behaviours which were significantly different between smoking and non-smoking student nurses were breakfast frequency and coffee consumption. Having a regular exercise routine was not significant. Males smoked significantly more than females. More older nurses (over 40 years) smoked than younger nurses. The findings reported here are useful to the development of health education strategies designed to reduce and prevent cigarette use among student nurses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Bone-anchored hearing aids are effective and associated with a high degree of satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardell, Ida Sofie Kristina; Andresen, Kathrine; Faber, Christian Emil;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate patients' satisfaction with bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA). METHODS: This study was retrospective and based on a postal questionnaire. The study sample consisted of patients undergoing surgery at Odense University Hospital in the 1992......-2013-period. The questionnaire was a combination of Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life questions from the Hearing Aid Research Lab at the University of Memphis and questions used in a previous Danish study. We also used data from each patient's medical records. All information was collected...... in one-on-one conversations. CONCLUSION: BAHA is helpful in one-on-one conversations in quiet surroundings. Sound quality in group situations seems to be the main problem associated with BAHA. However, this study showed that BAHA is an effective hearing aid that is associated with a high degree...

  19. Treatment Responsiveness in CIDP Patients with Diabetes Is Associated with Higher Degrees of Demyelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Abraham

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP is one of several chronic treatable acquired demyelinating neuropathies.To explore the association between the degree of demyelination in CIDP, and treatment responsiveness.A retrospective chart review of CIDP subjects assessed between 1997 and 2013 was performed to compare treatment responsiveness using different sets of criteria.99 CIDP patients were included, 34 with diabetes mellitus (DM. Treatment responsiveness was higher in CIDP-DM fulfilling 1 or more EFNS/PNS criteria, (63% vs. 31%, p = 0.03, and in CIDP+DM fulfilling 2 or more criteria (89% vs. 36%, p = 0.01. Nonetheless, treatment responsiveness in CIDP+DM had the highest odds ratio (3.73, p = 0.01. Similar results were also shown in simplified uniform study criteria, with 10% cut off values for CIDP-DM, compared to 30% for CIDP+DM.In CIDP+DM, higher degrees of demyelination are associated with treatment responsiveness, implying the need to adjust current criteria in these patients.

  20. Phytoremediation capacity of aquatic plants is associated with the degree of phytochelatin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Anamaria; Gulyás, Zsolt; Szalai, Gabriella; Kocsy, Gábor; Majdik, Cornelia

    2015-12-15

    Phytochelatins (PCs) play important role in phytoremediation as heavy metal binding peptides. In the present study, the association between heavy metal removal capacity and phytochelatin synthesis was compared through the examination of three aquatic plants: Elodea canadensis, Salvinia natans and Lemna minor. In case of a Cd treatment, or a Cd treatment combined with Cu and Zn, the highest removal capacity was observed in L. minor. At the same time, E. canadensis showed the lowest removal capacity except for Zn. The heavy metal-induced (Cu+Zn+Cd) oxidative stress generated the highest ascorbate level in L. minor. Cd in itself or combined with the other two metals induced a 10-15-fold increase in the amount of ɣ-glutamylcysteine in L. minor while no or smaller changes were observed in the other two species. Correspondingly, the total PC content was 6-8-fold greater in L. minor. In addition, PCs with higher degree of polymerization were only observed in L. minor (PC4, PC6 and PC7) while PC2 and PC3 occurred in E. canadensis and S. natans only. The correlation analysis indicated that the higher phytoremediation capacity of L. minor was associated with the synthesis of PCs and their higher degree of polymerization.

  1. PCSK6 VNTR Polymorphism Is Associated with Degree of Handedness but Not Direction of Handedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Arning

    Full Text Available Although the left and right human cerebral hemispheres differ both functionally and anatomically, the mechanisms that underlie the establishment of these hemispheric specializations, as well as their physiological and behavioral implications, remain largely unknown. Since cerebral asymmetry is strongly correlated with handedness, and handedness is assumed to be influenced by a number of genetic and environmental factors, we performed an association study of LRRTM1 rs6733871 and a number of polymorphisms in PCSK6 and different aspects of handedness assessed with the Edinburgh handedness inventory in a sample of unrelated healthy adults (n = 1113. An intronic 33bp variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism in PCSK6 (rs10523972 shows a significant association (significance threshold: p<0.0025, adjusted for multiple comparisons with a handedness category comparison (P = 0.0005 and degree of handedness (P = 0.001. These results provide further evidence for the role of PCSK6 as candidate for involvement in the biological mechanisms that underlie the establishment of normal brain lateralization and thus handedness and support the assumption that the degree of handedness, instead the direction, may be the more appropriate indicator of cerebral organization.

  2. Integrative Review of Admission Factors Related to Associate Degree Nursing Program Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jeanette M

    2017-02-01

    High attrition in associate degree nursing (ADN) programs contributes to the nursing shortage and causes hardship for students, families, faculty, colleges, and taxpayers. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to identify admission criteria related to ADN program success to inform evidence-based admission policies and reduce attrition. Integrative review methodology, suggested by Whittemore and Knafl, was used. A systematic search of existing professional literature was conducted using five databases and key word searches. The final sample included 26 documents that were analyzed and synthesized with the matrix method. Five categories of admission criteria and factors related to success in ADN programs were revealed from the analysis of findings: academic aptitude, demographic factors, psychological hardiness, specialty skills and experience, and socioeconomic support. ADN programs with a goal of decreasing attrition may want to implement admission selection guidelines that consider applicant criteria and attributes across all five dimensions. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(2):85-93.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Academic predictors of success on the NCLEX-RN examination for associate degree nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengacher, C A; Keller, R

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between selected admission variables (entrance GPA, ACT subtests scores in English and mathematics, composite ACT scores), age, perception of role strain, achievement in clinical and nursing courses, achievement on NLN examinations, exit GPA, and performance on NCLEX-RN examination. Data were attained from records of 146 associate degree graduates who were admitted to a specially-designed associate degree program in nursing and on those graduates who wrote the NCLEX-RN examination in July 1987 and July 1988. Pearson product moment correlations and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to identify the relationship between the predictor variables (admission criteria, age, perception of role strain, achievement in clinical and nursing courses), achievement on NLN examinations, exit GPA, and the criterion variable (scores on the NCLEX-RN examination). The best predictor for performance on the NCLEX-RN of the selected admission variables, age, perception of role strain, and exit GPA, were exit GPA (R = .71) and ACT composite scores (R = .75). The ACT math, ACT English scores, entrance GPA, age, and perception of role strain, had no predictive value. The best predictor for performance on the NCLEX-RN of nursing theory course and clinical course grades were the two theory courses in the second year of the program NUR 2712 (R = .77) and NUR 2713 (R = .79). NUR 2711 and 2711L, NUR 2712L, 2713L, and 2813 had no predictive value for success on the NCLEX-RN.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Cauda equina redundant nerve roots are associated to the degree of spinal stenosis and to spondylolisthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Garbin Savarese

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the association of redundant nerve roots of cauda equina (RNRCE with the degree of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS and with spondylolisthesis. Method After Institutional Board approval, 171 consecutive patients were retrospectively enrolled, 105 LSS patients and 66 patients without stenosis. The dural sac cross-sectional area (CSA was measured on T2w axial MRI at the level of L2-3, L3-4 and L4-5 intervertebral discs. Two blinded radiologists classified cases as exhibiting or not RNRCE in MRI. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was assessed. Results RNRCE were associated with LSS. RRNCE was more frequent when maximum stenosis<55 mm2. Substantial intra- observer agreement and moderate inter-observer agreement were obtained in the classification of RNRCE. Spondylolisthesis was identified in 27 patients and represented increased risk for RRNCE. Conclusion LSS is a risk factor for RNRCE, especially for dural sac CSA<55 mm2. LSS and spondylolisthesis are independent risk factors for RNRCE.

  5. Serum TNF-α, IL-8, VEGF Levels in Helicobacter pylori Infection and Their Association with Degree of Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gontar A Siregar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to investigate the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-8, VEGF in Helicobacter pylori infection, and their association with the degrees of gastritis histopathology. Methods: a cross-sectional study was done on 80 consecutive gastritis patients admitted to endoscopy units at Adam Malik General Hospital and Permata Bunda Hospital, Medan, Indonesia from July-December 2014. The Rapid Urease test was used for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. The severity of chronic inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia were assessed. Serum samples were obtained to determine circulating TNF-α, IL-8, and VEGF. Univariate and bivariate analysis (chi square, fisher’s exact, and mann-whitney test were done using SPSS version-22. Results: there were 41.25% of 80 patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. Serum TNF-α and VEGF levels in the infected group were significantly higher compared to H. pylori negative, but there were no significant differences between serum levels of IL-8 in H. pylori positive and negative. There were significant associations between serum level of TNF-α and IL-8 with degree of chronic inflammation, and also between serum level of IL-8 and degree of neutrophil infiltration. There were significant associations between serum level of VEGF and degree of atrophy, and also between serum level of VEGF and degree of intestinal metaplasia. Conclusion: High levels of TNF-α were associated with severe degree of chronic inflammation, high levels of IL-8 associated with severe degree of chronic inflammation and neutrophil infiltration, and high levels of VEGF associated with severe degree of premalignant gastric lesion. Key words: cytokine, neoangiogenesis, Helicobacter pylori, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia.

  6. The third data release of the Kilo-Degree Survey and associated data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jelte T. A.; Kleijn, Gijs A. Verdoes; Erben, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Kuijken, Konrad; Sikkema, Gert; Brescia, Massimo; Bilicki, Maciej; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Amaro, Valeria; Begeman, Kor G.; Boxhoorn, Danny R.; Buddelmeijer, Hugo; Cavuoti, Stefano; Getman, Fedor; Grado, Aniello; Helmich, Ewout; Huang, Zhuoyi; Irisarri, Nancy; La Barbera, Francesco; Longo, Giuseppe; McFarland, John P.; Nakajima, Reiko; Paolillo, Maurizio; Puddu, Emanuella; Radovich, Mario; Rifatto, Agatino; Tortora, Crescenzo; Valentijn, Edwin A.; Vellucci, Civita; Vriend, Willem-Jan; Amon, Alexandra; Blake, Chris; Choi, Ami; Conti, Ian Fenech; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Herbonnet, Ricardo; Heymans, Catherine; Hoekstra, Henk; Klaes, Dominik; Merten, Julian; Miller, Lance; Schneider, Peter; Viola, Massimo

    2017-08-01

    Context. The Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) is an ongoing optical wide-field imaging survey with the OmegaCAM camera at the VLT Survey Telescope. It aims to image 1500 square degrees in four filters (ugri). The core science driver is mapping the large-scale matter distribution in the Universe, using weak lensing shear and photometric redshift measurements. Further science cases include galaxy evolution, Milky Way structure, detection of high-redshift clusters, and finding rare sources such as strong lenses and quasars. Aims: Here we present the third public data release and several associated data products, adding further area, homogenized photometric calibration, photometric redshifts and weak lensing shear measurements to the first two releases. Methods: A dedicated pipeline embedded in the Astro-WISE information system is used for the production of the main release. Modifications with respect to earlier releases are described in detail. Photometric redshifts have been derived using both Bayesian template fitting, and machine-learning techniques. For the weak lensing measurements, optimized procedures based on the THELI data reduction and lensfit shear measurement packages are used. Results: In this third data release an additional 292 new survey tiles (≈300 deg2) stacked ugri images are made available, accompanied by weight maps, masks, and source lists. The multi-band catalogue, including homogenized photometry and photometric redshifts, covers the combined DR1, DR2 and DR3 footprint of 440 survey tiles (44 deg2). Limiting magnitudes are typically 24.3, 25.1, 24.9, 23.8 (5σ in a 2'' aperture) in ugri, respectively, and the typical r-band PSF size is less than 0.7''. The photometric homogenization scheme ensures accurate colours and an absolute calibration stable to ≈2% for gri and ≈3% in u. Separately released for the combined area of all KiDS releases to date are a weak lensing shear catalogue and photometric redshifts based on two different machine

  7. The third data release of the Kilo-Degree Survey and associated data products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong , de Jelte; Verdoes Kleijn, G. A.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Kuijken, K.; Sikkema, G.; Brescia, M.; Bilicki, M.; Napolitano, N. R.; Amaro, V.; Begeman, K. G.; Boxhoorn, D. R.; Buddelmeijer, H.; Cavuoti, S.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Helmich, E.; Huang, Z.; Irisarri, N.; La Barbera, F.; Longo, G.; McFarland, J. P.; Nakajima, R.; Paolillo, M.; Puddu, E.; Radovich, M.; Rifatto, A.; Tortora, C.; Valentijn, E. A.; Vellucci, C.; Vriend, W-J.; Amon, A.; Blake, C.; Choi, A.; Fenech Conti, I.; Herbonnet, R.; Heymans, C.; Hoekstra, Hendrik; Klaes, D.; Merten, J.; Miller, L.; Schneider, P.; Viola, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) is an ongoing optical wide-field imaging survey with the OmegaCAM camera at the VLT Survey Telescope. It aims to image 1500 square degrees in four filters (ugri). The core science driver is mapping the large-scale matter distribution in the Universe, using weak lensing

  8. The third data release of the Kilo-Degree Survey and associated data products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong , de Jelte; Verdoes Kleijn, G. A.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Kuijken, K.; Sikkema, G.; Brescia, M.; Bilicki, M.; Napolitano, N. R.; Amaro, V.; Begeman, K. G.; Boxhoorn, D. R.; Buddelmeijer, H.; Cavuoti, S.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Helmich, E.; Huang, Z.; Irisarri, N.; La Barbera, F.; Longo, G.; McFarland, J. P.; Nakajima, R.; Paolillo, M.; Puddu, E.; Radovich, M.; Rifatto, A.; Tortora, C.; Valentijn, E. A.; Vellucci, C.; Vriend, W-J.; Amon, A.; Blake, C.; Choi, A.; Fenech Conti, I.; Herbonnet, R.; Heymans, C.; Hoekstra, Hendrik; Klaes, D.; Merten, J.; Miller, L.; Schneider, P.; Viola, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) is an ongoing optical wide-field imaging survey with the OmegaCAM camera at the VLT Survey Telescope. It aims to image 1500 square degrees in four filters (ugri). The core science driver is mapping the large-scale matter distribution in the Universe, using weak lensing

  9. Community Outreach in Associate Degree Nursing Programs: AACC/Metropolitan Life Foundation Project, 1995-1996. AACC Project Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lynn

    In January 1995, five community colleges were selected to participate in a year-long project to implement new teaching methods in associate degree nursing programs to better meet community needs. Supported by the American Association for Community Colleges, with seed money from the Metropolitan Life Foundation, all of the projects also had…

  10. Generational diversity in associate degree nursing students: Teaching styles and preferences in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitko, Jennifer V.

    2011-12-01

    Nursing educators face the challenge of meeting the needs of a multi-generational classroom. The reality of having members from the Veteran and Baby Boomer generations in a classroom with Generation X and Y students provides an immediate need for faculty to examine students' teaching method preferences as well as their own use of teaching methods. Most importantly, faculty must facilitate an effective multi-generational learning environment. Research has shown that the generation to which a person belongs is likely to affect the ways in which he/she learns (Hammill, 2005). Characterized by its own attitudes, behaviors, beliefs, and motivational needs, each generation also has distinct educational expectations. It is imperative, therefore, that nurse educators be aware of these differences and develop skills through which to communicate with the different generations, thereby reducing teaching/learning problems in the classroom. This is a quantitative, descriptive study that compared the teaching methods preferred by different generations of associate degree nursing students with the teaching methods that the instructors actually use. The research study included 289 participants; 244 nursing student participants and 45 nursing faculty participants from four nursing departments in colleges in Pennsylvania. Overall, the results of the study found many statistically significant findings. The results of the ANOVA test revealed eight statistically significant findings among Generation Y, Generation X and Baby boomers. The preferred teaching methods included: lecture, self-directed learning, web-based course with no class meetings, important for faculty to know my name, classroom structure, know why I am learning what I am learning, learning for the sake of learning and grade is all that matters. Lecture was found to be the most frequently used teaching method by faculty as well as the most preferred teaching methods by students. Overall, the support for a variety of

  11. The student perspective on RN-Plus-10 legislation: a survey of associate degree and diploma nursing program students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneval, Rhonda E; Teeter, Marilyn M

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of associate degree and diploma nursing students in Pennsylvania designed to elicit their future educational goals and opinions regarding proposed educational advancement legislation. Results indicated the majority of respondents (86.3 percent) planned to pursue the bachelor's degree in nursing; most (94.8 percent) hoped to be enrolled in a BSN program within four years of graduation. The majority (78.9 percent) indicated that even if they were mandated to complete the bachelor's degree in nursing within 10 years, they would still enroll in their current associate degree or diploma program. Asked if 10 years is a reasonable amount of time to complete the BSN, 79.4 percent agreed it is. If money were not an obstacle, 95.8 percent of participants indicated they would pursue a BSN or higher. The results of this survey suggest that the vast majority of associate degree and diploma nursing students value and hope to pursue higher education in nursing.

  12. Teaching and Understanding the Concept of Critical Thinking Skills within Michigan Accredited Associate Degree Dental Hygiene Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beistle, Kimberly S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores dental hygiene faculty's perceptions regarding the issues surrounding the concept of critical thinking skills integration within Michigan accredited associate degree dental hygiene programs. The primary research goals are to determine faculty understanding of the concept of critical thinking, identify personal and departmental…

  13. Teaching and Understanding the Concept of Critical Thinking Skills within Michigan Accredited Associate Degree Dental Hygiene Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beistle, Kimberly S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores dental hygiene faculty's perceptions regarding the issues surrounding the concept of critical thinking skills integration within Michigan accredited associate degree dental hygiene programs. The primary research goals are to determine faculty understanding of the concept of critical thinking, identify personal and departmental…

  14. Predicting Success for Nontraditional Students in an Afternoon and Evening/Weekend Associate Degree in Nursing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Hernani Luison, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Mount St. Mary's College has offered a nontraditional Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN) Program since 1992. The program has an afternoon and evening/weekend format. There has been one previous research study published in 2005 that described the student population that Mount St. Mary's College serves. This present study will examine the…

  15. Teaching and Understanding the Concept of Critical Thinking Skills within Michigan Accredited Associate Degree Dental Hygiene Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beistle, Kimberly S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores dental hygiene faculty's perceptions regarding the issues surrounding the concept of critical thinking skills integration within Michigan accredited associate degree dental hygiene programs. The primary research goals are to determine faculty understanding of the concept of critical thinking, identify personal and…

  16. 2008 Key Student Outcomes Indicators for BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Programs: Survey Results by Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Student Outcomes (DACSO) Survey (formerly the BC College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey) collects and disseminates information about former students' post-secondary experiences and their subsequent labour market and further education experiences. The survey is administered annually to former…

  17. Research and Development for a Course in Ethics in Nursing Practice for Community College Associate Degree Nursing Students. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Jeanette

    A project was undertaken to research and acquire the instructional sources needed for a course in ethics for community college associate degree nursing students and to develop such a course. Addressed in the individual units of the course were the following topics: bioethics and ethical decision making, basic ethical concepts and principles,…

  18. An Exploration of the Transition to the Full-Time Faculty Role among Associate Degree Nurse Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the nursing and faculty shortages, recommendations have been made to increase the number of highly educated nurses who are qualified to teach. A lack of nursing faculty has been reported at all levels of education. Because the majority of nurses enter into practice with an associate degree, the professoriate at the associate…

  19. Relationship between Fidelity and Dose of Human Patient Simulation, Critical Thinking Skills, and Knowledge in an Associate Degree Nursing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Rosella I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between human patient simulation (HPS), critical thinking skills, and knowledge acquisition after HPS was integrated across the curriculum of an associate degree nursing program to determine if differences existed in critical thinking and knowledge of students based on the fidelity of HPS used and amount of…

  20. The Effects of Moderate- and High-Fidelity Patient Simulator Use on Critical Thinking in Associate Degree Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieck, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of moderate- and high-fidelity patient simulator use on the critical thinking skills of associate degree nursing students. This quantitative study used a quasi-experimental design and the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) to evaluate the critical thinking skills of third semester nursing…

  1. Predicting Success for Nontraditional Students in an Afternoon and Evening/Weekend Associate Degree in Nursing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Hernani Luison, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Mount St. Mary's College has offered a nontraditional Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN) Program since 1992. The program has an afternoon and evening/weekend format. There has been one previous research study published in 2005 that described the student population that Mount St. Mary's College serves. This present study will examine the…

  2. 2008 Key Student Outcomes Indicators for BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Programs: Survey Results by Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Student Outcomes (DACSO) Survey (formerly the BC College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey) collects and disseminates information about former students' post-secondary experiences and their subsequent labour market and further education experiences. The survey is administered annually to former…

  3. Additional degrees of freedom associated with position measurements in non-commutative quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rohwer, CM

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we shall demonstrate that a measurement of position alone in non-commutative space cannot yield complete information about the quantum state of a particle. Indeed, the formalism used entails a description that is non-local in that it requires all orders of positional derivatives through the star product that is used ubiquitously to map operator multiplication onto function multiplication in non-commutative systems. It will be shown that there exist several equivalent local descriptions, which are arrived at via the introduction of additional degrees of freedom. Consequently non-commutative quantum mechanical position measurements necessarily confront us with some additional structure which is necessary to specify quantum states completely. The remainder of the thesis, will involve investigations into the physical interpretation of these additional degrees of freedom. For one particular local formulation, the corresponding classical theory will be used to demonstrate that the concept of extended...

  4. Stimulus encoding selectivity at high degrees of paired-associate learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, E A; Savage, J D

    1973-12-01

    Sixty-two Ss learned six CCC trigram-digit pairs by the study-test method; 21 Ss continued the PA acquisition trials to a learning criterion of one errorless trial, while 41 Ss were carded to 300% overlearning or 24 trials, whichever came first. The Ss were then shown individual letters of the trigrams, with position cues provided, and were tested for their ability to provide the digit and produce the additional letters. Digit recall was much better to initial letters than to those in the second or third positions of the trigrams; with oveflearning, digit recall improved to the initial letters but not to letters in second and third positions. Production of additional letters of the trigrams was not appreciably related to either cue position or degree of PA learning. There was some evidence ofincreased selectivity with higher degrees of PA learning.

  5. Transforming the Terminal Associates of Applied Science into a Four-Year Degree: A Win-Win Situation for Students, Community Colleges, Universities, and Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, David L.; Pagliari, Leslie R.

    2013-01-01

    Associates of Applied Science (AAS) degrees were once considered terminal degrees and were developed for people seeking technical skills to join the workforce. This paper discusses the transformation from a transferable degree into technical four-year baccalaureate degree. It also discusses survey results of students currently in a degree…

  6. Environmental stress level evaluation approach based on physical model and interval grey association degree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Guanqian; Qiu Jing; Liu Guanjun; Lv Kehong

    2013-01-01

    Associating environmental stresses (ESs) with built-in test (BIT) output is an important means to help diagnose intermittent faults (IFs).Aiming at low efficiency in association of traditional time stress measurement device (TSMD),an association model is built.Thereafter,a novel approach is given to evaluate the integrated environmental stress (IES) level.Firstly,the selection principle and approach of main environmental stresses (MESs) and key characteristic parameters (KCPs) are presented based on fault mode,mechanism,and ESs analysis (FMMEA).Secondly,reference stress events (RSEs) are constructed by dividing IES into three stress levels according to its impact on faults; and then the association model between integrated environmental stress event (IESE) and BIT output is built.Thirdly,an interval grey association approach to evaluate IES level is proposed due to the interval number of IES value.Consequently,the association output can be obtained as well.Finally,a case study is presented to demonstrate the proposed approach.Results show the proposed model and approach are effective and feasible.This approach can be used to guide ESs measure,record,and association.It is well suited for on-line assistant diagnosis of faults,especially IFs.

  7. Associations between degrees of task delegation and job satisfaction of general practitioners and their staff: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Helle; Søndergaard, Jens; Munch, Maria

    2017-01-01

    to rethink the working structure without compromising the quality of care. However, there is a substantial variation in the degree to which general practitioners delegate tasks to their staff, and it is not known how these various degrees of task delegation influence the job satisfaction of general...... obstructive pulmonary disease in general practice and a part concerning the general job satisfaction and motivation to work. Results We found a significant association between perceived “maximal degree” of task delegation in management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the staff......’s overall job satisfaction. The odds ratio of the staff’s satisfaction with the working environment displayed a tendency that there is also an association with “maximal degree” of task delegation. In the analysis of the general practitioners, the odds ratios of the results indicate that there is a tendency...

  8. The Degree of Autonomic Modulation Is Associated With the Severity of Microvascular Complications in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, Jesper; Cichosz, Simon Lebech; Jakobsen, Poul Erik;

    2015-01-01

    to outpatient clinics at 4 Danish hospitals. The degree of autonomic modulations was quantified by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) during passive spectral analysis and active tests (valsalva ratio [VT], response to standing [RT], and deep breathing [E:I]). To describe possible associations between...... severity of microvascular complications and measures of autonomic modulation, multivariate analysis was performed. RESULTS: After adjusting for diabetes duration, sex, age, pulse pressure, heart rate, and smoking, autonomic dysfunction remained significantly correlated with severity of retinopathy...

  9. Cognitive alexithymia is associated with the degree of risk for psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorien van der Velde

    Full Text Available Alexithymia is a personality construct denoting emotion processing problems. It has been suggested to encompass two dimensions: a cognitive and affective dimension. The cognitive dimension is characterized by difficulties in identifying, verbalizing and analyzing emotions, while the affective dimension reflects the level of emotional arousal and imagination. Alexithymia has been previously proposed as a risk factor for developing psychosis. More specifically, the two alexithymia dimensions might be differentially related to the vulnerability for psychosis. Therefore, we examined the two dimensions of alexithymia, measured with the BVAQ in 94 siblings of patients with schizophrenia, 52 subjects at ultra-high risk (UHR for developing psychosis, 38 patients with schizophrenia and 109 healthy controls. The results revealed that siblings and patients had higher levels of cognitive alexithymia compared to controls. In addition, subjects at UHR for psychosis had even higher levels of cognitive alexithymia compared to the siblings. The levels of affective alexithymia in siblings and patients were equal to controls. However, UHR individuals had significantly lower levels of affective alexithymia (i.e. higher levels of emotional arousal and fantasizing compared to controls. Alexithymia was further related to subclinical levels of negative and depressive symptoms. These findings indicate that alexithymia varies parametrically with the degree of risk for psychosis. More specifically, a type-II alexithymia pattern, with high levels of cognitive alexithymia and normal or low levels of affective alexithymia, might be a vulnerability factor for psychosis.

  10. Cognitive alexithymia is associated with the degree of risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Swart, Marte; van Rijn, Sophie; van der Meer, Lisette; Wunderink, Lex; Wiersma, Durk; Krabbendam, Lydia; Bruggeman, Richard; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    Alexithymia is a personality construct denoting emotion processing problems. It has been suggested to encompass two dimensions: a cognitive and affective dimension. The cognitive dimension is characterized by difficulties in identifying, verbalizing and analyzing emotions, while the affective dimension reflects the level of emotional arousal and imagination. Alexithymia has been previously proposed as a risk factor for developing psychosis. More specifically, the two alexithymia dimensions might be differentially related to the vulnerability for psychosis. Therefore, we examined the two dimensions of alexithymia, measured with the BVAQ in 94 siblings of patients with schizophrenia, 52 subjects at ultra-high risk (UHR) for developing psychosis, 38 patients with schizophrenia and 109 healthy controls. The results revealed that siblings and patients had higher levels of cognitive alexithymia compared to controls. In addition, subjects at UHR for psychosis had even higher levels of cognitive alexithymia compared to the siblings. The levels of affective alexithymia in siblings and patients were equal to controls. However, UHR individuals had significantly lower levels of affective alexithymia (i.e. higher levels of emotional arousal and fantasizing) compared to controls. Alexithymia was further related to subclinical levels of negative and depressive symptoms. These findings indicate that alexithymia varies parametrically with the degree of risk for psychosis. More specifically, a type-II alexithymia pattern, with high levels of cognitive alexithymia and normal or low levels of affective alexithymia, might be a vulnerability factor for psychosis.

  11. Association of extensive myelinated nerve fibers and high degree myopia: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvan Yalcın

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral extensive myelination of the peripapillary nerve fibers may be associated with anisometropic myopia, strabismus, and reduced vision. Myelination of optic nerve fibers terminate at lamina cribrosa. Yet in some patients, myelination progresses into the peripapillary retinal nerve fibers and may affect the visual acuity. In this report, we described 4 patients. All patients presented extensive peripapillary myelinated nerve fibers associated with myopic anisometropia. After routine ophthalmic and orthoptic examinations, all patients underwent treatment for amblyopia through correction with spectacles, contact lenses, and the occlusion of the good eye. Corrected visual acuity improved in 1 patient, but 3 patients had no increase in visual acuity despite treatment with full cycloplegic refraction and appropriate patching. Probably because of structural abnormalies of the macula, visual results are often disappointing with appropriate correction of the refractive error and occlusion.

  12. Anhedonia is associated with blunted reward sensitivity in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-hua; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Wang, Ling-zhi; Zhu, Yu-hua; Huang, Jia; Neumann, David L.; Shum, David H. K.; Cheung, Eric F.C.; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Anhedonia is a cardinal feature of major depression and is hypothesized to be driven by low motivation, in particular blunted reward sensitivity. It has been suggested to be a marker that represents a genetic predisposition to this disorder. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heightened risk in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with major depression. We previously demonstrated abnormal reward biases in acutely depressed patients. The present study aimed to examine the development of reward bias in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression. Methods Forty-seven first-degree relatives of patients with major depression (26 females, age 18-52) and 60 healthy controls with no family history of depression (34 females, age 21-48) were recruited. A probabilistically rewarded difficult visual discrimination task, in which participants were instructed about the contingencies, was used to assess blunted reward sensitivity. A response bias towards the more frequently rewarded stimulus (termed “reward bias”) was the primary outcome variable in this study. Participants also completed self-reported measures of anhedonia and depressive symptoms. Results Compared with the control group, relatives of patients with major depression with sub-clinical depressive symptoms displayed a blunted reward bias. Relatives without symptoms displayed largely intact motivational processing on both self-report and experimental measures. The degree of anhedonia was associated with attenuated reward bias in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression, especially in those with sub-clinical symptoms. Limitations The study did not include a depressed patient group, which restricted our ability to interpret the observed group differences. Conclusions Blunted reward sensitivity may be largely manifested in a subgroup of relatives with high levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:26590511

  13. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater at low temperatures (0-5 degrees C) and bacterial communities associated with degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd G; Bonaunet, Kristin

    2006-02-01

    In this study biodegradation of hydrocarbons in thin oil films was investigated in seawater at low temperatures, 0 and 5 degrees C. Heterotrophic (HM) or oil-degrading (ODM) microorganisms enriched at the two temperatures showed 16S rRNA sequence similarities to several bacteria of Arctic or Antarctic origin. Biodegradation experiments were conducted with a crude mineral oil immobilized as thin films on hydrophobic Fluortex adsorbents in nutrient-enriched or sterile seawater. Chemical and respirometric analysis of hydrocarbon depletion showed that naphthalene and other small aromatic hydrocarbons (HCs) were primarily biodegraded after dissolution to the water phase, while biodegradation of larger polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and C(10)-C(36) n-alkanes, including n-hexadecane, was associated primarily with the oil films. Biodegradation of PAH and n-alkanes was significant at both 0 and 5 degrees C, but was decreased for several compounds at the lower temperature. n-Hexadecane biodegradation at the two temperatures was comparable at the end of the experiments, but was delayed at 0 degree C. Investigations of bacterial communities in seawater and on adsorbents by PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments and DGGE analysis indicated that predominant bacteria in the seawater gradually adhered to the oil-coated adsorbents during biodegradation at both temperatures. Sequence analysis of most DGGE bands aligned to members of the phyla Proteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria) or Bacteroidetes. Most sequences from experiments at 0 degree C revealed affiliations to members of Arctic or Antarctic consortia, while no such homology was detected for sequences from degradation experiment run at 5 degrees C. In conclusion, marine microbial communities from cold seawater have potentials for oil film HC degradation at temperatures bacteria may play an important role during oil HC biodegradation in seawater close to freezing point.

  14. Association between third mandibular molar impaction and degree of root development in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Søren Rødsgaard; Andreasen, Jens O; Gerds, Thomas Alexander

    2013-01-01

    3 inf were erupted. The more mature a tooth was at age 15, the higher was the probability of eruption (odds ratio: 3.89, P development stage was statistically significantly associated with the probability of eruption (odds ratio: 10.50, P ¿=¿ .041). Conclusions......Abstract Objective: To compare the root development and the growth rate of the mandibular third molar (M3 inf) in individuals where the M3 inf erupted vs individuals exhibiting M3 inf impaction. Materials and Methods: Serial standardized intraoral radiographs (Eggen technique) were taken annually...... of the mandibular third molar region from 132 subjects (71 male and 61 female) from 15 to 20 years of age. Based on the films, 264 lower third molars were classified into an eruption and an impaction group. Root development was recorded according to a quantitative method described by Haavikko (1970...

  15. Molecular Identification Of Sicilian (deltabeta) Degrees-thalassemia Associated With Beta-thalassemia And Hemoglobin S In Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of two unrelated Brazilian families with an association of the Sicilian form of (deltabeta) degrees -thalassemia with hemoglobin S and beta-thalassemia. Direct sequencing of the beta-globin gene showed only the hemoglobin S mutation in patient 1 and the beta-thalassemia IVS1-110 in patient 2. The other allele was deleted in both patients and PCR of DNA samples of the breakpoint region of both patients showed a band of approximately 1,150 ...

  16. Smoking is not associated with autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus patients, unaffected first-degree relatives, nor healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K A; Terrell, D R; Guthridge, J M; Kamen, D L; Gilkeson, G S; Karp, D R; Ishimori, M L; Weisman, M H; Holers, V M; Harley, J B; Norris, J M; James, J A

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine whether smoking is associated with autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, unaffected first-degree relatives (FDR) of individuals with SLE--a group at increased risk of developing SLE--or unaffected, unrelated controls. Detailed demographic, environmental, clinical, and therapeutic information was collected by questionnaire on 1242 SLE patients, 981 FDRs, and 946 controls in the Lupus Family Registry and Repository; a blood sample was obtained. All sera were tested for multiple lupus autoantibodies by immunofluorescence and luminex bead-based assays. Generalized estimating equations, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity and accounting for correlation within families, were used to assess smoking status with the dichotomous outcome variables of positivity for SLE status, positivity of ANA by immunofluorescence (≥1:120), positivity for ≥1 autoantibody by the luminex assay, and positivity for each of the 11 autoantibodies. Current smoking was associated with being positive for ≥1 autoantibody (excluding ANA) (adjusted OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.04-2.24) in our subjects with SLE. No association was observed in unaffected FDRs or healthy controls. Former smoking was associated with anti-Ro/SS-A60 in our unaffected FDRs. There was an increased association with anti-nRNP A seropositivity, as well as a decreased association with anti-nRNP 68 positivity, in current smokers in SLE subjects. No clear association between smoking status and individual autoantibodies was detected in SLE patients, unaffected FDRs, nor healthy controls within this collection. The association of smoking with SLE may therefore manifest its risk through mechanisms outside of autoantibody production, at least for the specificities tested.

  17. Incidence, degree, and development of graft hypertrophy 24 months after matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation: association with clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Jay R; Smith, Anne; Fallon, Michael; Butler, Rodney; Nairn, Robert; Breidahl, William; Wood, David J

    2015-09-01

    Graft hypertrophy is a common occurrence after periosteal, collagen-covered and matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence, development, and degree of graft hypertrophy at 24 months after MACI. The hypothesis was that graft hypertrophy would not be associated with clinical outcome at 24 months. Case series, Level of evidence, 4. This study was undertaken in 180 consecutive patients (113 male, 67 female) after MACI in the knee. All patients were assessed clinically using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery. The incidence of hypertrophy relevant to anatomic graft site was investigated, as was the progressive change in hypertrophic studies postoperatively. The degree of tissue overgrowth in hypertrophic cases was investigated, as was its association with patient clinical outcome at 24 months after surgery. Of the 180 patients, 50 demonstrated a hypertrophic graft at 1 or more postoperative time points. This included 9 grafts (5.0%) at 3 months and 32 grafts (18.7%) at 12 months. At 24 months, 47 grafts (26.1%)-43 (32.1%) tibiofemoral and 4 (8.7%) patellofemoral-were hypertrophic. Patients with hypertrophic grafts at 24 months (n = 47) were younger (P = .051), they had a lower body mass index (BMI; P = .069), and significantly fewer of them had patellofemoral grafts (P = .007) compared with patients who had grafts with full (100%) tissue infill (n = 61). There were no significant differences in any of the KOOS subscales between patients with graft hypertrophy or full (100%) tissue infill at 24 months after surgery, while the severity of graft hypertrophy was not associated with KOOS subscales at 24 months. Hypertrophic grafts after MACI were common and continued to develop through to 24 months after surgery. Hypertrophic growth was associated with being younger and having a lower BMI, was

  18. Do Associate Degree Registered Nurses Fare Differently in the Nurse Labor Market Compared to Baccalaureate-Prepared RNs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, David I; Buerhaus, Peter I; Staiger, Douglas O

    2015-01-01

    Roughly 40% of the nearly 3 million registered nurses (RNs) in the United States have an associate's degree (ADN) as their highest level of nursing education. Yet even before the recent Institute of Medicine report on The Future of Nursing, employers of RNs have increasingly preferred baccalaureate-prepared RNs (BSNs), at least anecdotally. Data from the American Community Survey (2003-2013) were analyzed with respect to employment setting, earnings, and employment outcomes of ADN and BSN-prepared RNs. The data reveal a divergence in employment setting: the percentage of ADN-prepared RNs employed in hospitals dropped from 65% to 60% while the percentage of BSN-prepared RNs employed in hospitals grew from 67% to 72% over this period. Many ADNs who would have otherwise been employed in hospitals seem to have shifted to long-term care settings.

  19. Platelet expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1 is associated with the degree of valvular aortic stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wurster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Platelet surface expression of stromal-cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 is increased during platelet activation and constitutes an important factor in hematopoetic progenitor cell trafficking at sites of vascular injury and ischemia. Enhanced platelet SDF-1 expression has been reported previously in patients suffering from acute coronary syndrome (ACS. We hypothesized that expression of platelet associated SDF-1 may also be influenced by calcified valvular aortic stenosis (AS. METHODS: We consecutively evaluated 941 patients, who were admitted to the emergency department with dyspnea and chest pain. Platelet surface expression of SDF-1 was determined by flow cytometry, AS was assessed using echocardiography and hemodynamic assessment by heart catheterization. A 1∶1 propensity score matching was implemented to match 218 cases with 109 pairs adjusting for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and medication including ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, statins, aspirin, clopidogrel, GPIIb/IIIa antagonists, and vitamin K antagonists. RESULTS: Patients with valvular AS showed enhanced platelet SDF-1 expression compared to patients without AS (non-valvular disease, NV independent of ACS and stable coronary artery disease (SAP [mean fluorescence intensity (MFI for ACS (AS vs. NV: 75±40.4 vs. 39.5±23.3; P = 0.002; for SAP (AS vs. NV: 54.9±44.6 vs. 24.3±11.2; P = 0.008]. Moreover, the degree of AS significantly correlated with SDF-1 platelet surface expression (r = 0.462; P = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: Valvular AS is associated with enhanced platelet-SDF-1 expression; moreover the degree of valvular AS correlates with SDF-1 platelet surface expression. These findings may have clinical implications in the future.

  20. Dental students' and lecturers' perception of the degree of difficulty of caries detection associated learning topics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Juan Sebastian; Braga, Mariana Minatel; Shitsuka, Caleb; Wen, Chao Lung; Haddad, Ana Estela

    2015-01-01

    It aimed to explore the degree of difficulty of caries-detection-associated-topics perceived by dental students and lecturers as pedagogical step in the development of learning objects for e-learning. A convenience sample comprising ninety-eight subjects from different academic levels (undergraduate/graduate students and pediatric dentistry lecturers) participated. Two spreadsheets (isolated/relative) were created considering key topics in the caries detection process. The isolated evaluation intended to explore each topic in an isolated way, while the relative intended to classify, comparatively, the participants' perceived difficulty per topic. Afterwards, data were analyzed. All values on spreadsheets were combined obtaining the subject's final perception. Associations between the subjects' degree of the perceived difficulty and academic level were estimated. ANOVA was used to determine differences regarding the perception among evaluated topics in distinct groups. Caries histopathology and detection of proximal carious lesions were the topics perceived as the most difficult in the process of caries detection by both students and lecturers. Differentiation between an extrinsic pigmentation and a brown-spot (caries lesion) as well as differential diagnosis between caries and enamel developmental defects or non-carious lesions were considered as more difficult by undergraduates in comparison to graduates/lecturers (regression-coefficient=14.54; Standard Error=3.34; PTopics as histopathology and detection of proximal caries lesions were identified as the most difficult despite the academic level. However, some topics are differently perceived according to the group. These results are useful for developing pedagogical material, based on the students real learning needs/expectations.

  1. Valuable Learning or "Spinning Their Wheels"? Understanding Excess Credits Earned by Community College Associate Degree Completers. CCRC Working Paper No. 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidenberg, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Substantial numbers of students who earn an associate degree from a community college accumulate more college credits than are required. This is an important phenomenon for at least two related reasons. First, it raises the issue of efficiency: Are students getting their degrees in the most expeditious manner, both in terms of time out of the…

  2. Health-related quality of life deficits associated with varying degrees of disease severity in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumdar Sumit R

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a chronic medical condition accompanied by a considerable health-related quality of life (HRQL burden. The purpose of this analysis was to use generic measures of HRQL to describe HRQL deficits associated with varying degrees of severity of type 2 diabetes. Methods The RAND-12 physical and mental health composites (PHC and MHC, respectively and Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 were self-completed by 372 subjects enrolled in a prospective, controlled study of an intervention to improve care for individuals with type 2 diabetes in rural communities. Analysis of covariance was used to assess differences in HRQL according to disease severity and control of blood glucose. Disease severity was defined in terms of treatment intensity, emergency room visits and absenteeism from work specifically attributable to diabetes. To control for potential confounding, the analysis was adjusted for important sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Results The PHC and MHC were significantly lower for individuals treated with insulin as compared to diet alone (PHC: 41.01 vs 45.11, MHC: 43.23 vs 47.00, p Conclusions We concluded that generic measures of HRQL captured deficits associated with more severe disease in type 2 diabetes.

  3. Physiological and pathological left ventricular hypertrophy of comparable degree is associated with characteristic differences of in vivo hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Attila; Németh, Balázs Tamás; Mátyás, Csaba; Hidi, László; Lux, Árpád; Ruppert, Mihály; Kellermayer, Dalma; Sayour, Alex Ali; Szabó, Lilla; Török, Marianna; Meltzer, Anna; Gellér, László; Merkely, Béla; Radovits, Tamás

    2016-03-01

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is a physiological or pathological response of LV myocardium to increased cardiac load. We aimed at investigating and comparing hemodynamic alterations in well-established rat models of physiological hypertrophy (PhyH) and pathological hypertrophy (PaH) by using LV pressure-volume (P-V) analysis. PhyH and PaH were induced in rats by swim training and by abdominal aortic banding, respectively. Morphology of the heart was investigated by echocardiography. Characterization of cardiac function was completed by LV P-V analysis. In addition, histological and molecular biological measurements were performed. Echocardiography revealed myocardial hypertrophy of similar degree in both models, which was confirmed by post-mortem heart weight data. In aortic-banded rats we detected subendocardial fibrosis. Reactivation of fetal gene program could be observed only in the PaH model. PhyH was associated with increased stroke volume, whereas unaltered stroke volume was detected in PaH along with markedly elevated end-systolic pressure values. Sensitive indexes of LV contractility were increased in both models, in parallel with the degree of hypertrophy. Active relaxation was ameliorated in athlete's heart, whereas it showed marked impairment in PaH. Mechanical efficiency and ventriculo-arterial coupling were improved in PhyH, whereas they remained unchanged in PaH. Myocardial gene expression of mitochondrial regulators showed marked differences between PaH and PhyH. We provided the first comparative hemodynamic characterization of PhyH and PaH in relevant rodent models. Increased LV contractility could be observed in both types of LV hypertrophy; characteristic distinction was detected in diastolic function (active relaxation) and mechanoenergetics (mechanical efficiency), which might be explained by mitochondrial differences.

  4. Skin autofluorescence, a non-invasive marker for AGE accumulation, is associated with the degree of atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn A M den Dekker

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs may be involved in the development of atherosclerosis, beyond diabetes and renal disease. Skin autofluorescence (AF is a non-invasive marker for AGEs. We examined whether skin AF is increased in (subclinical atherosclerosis and associated with the degree of atherosclerosis independent of diabetes and renal function. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 223 patients referred for primary (n = 163 or secondary (n = 60 prevention between 2006 and 2012 was performed. Skin AF was measured using the AGE-Reader. Ultrasonography was used to assess plaques in carotid and femoral arteries and computed tomography for the calculation of the coronary artery calcium score (CACS; in primary prevention only. Primary prevention patients were divided into a group with subclinical atherosclerosis defined as >1 plaque or CACS>100 (n = 67; age 53 year [interquartile range 48-56]; 49% male and without (controls; 96; 43 [38-51]; 55%. Secondary prevention were patients with peripheral arterial disease (60; 64 [58-70]; 73%. RESULTS: Skin AF was higher in subclinical and clinical atherosclerosis compared with controls (skin AF 2.11 [interquartile range 1.83-2.46] and 2.71 [2.15-3.27] vs. 1.87 [1.68-2.12] respectively; P = 0.005 and <0.001. In a multivariate analysis, the association of skin AF with the atherosclerosis categories was independent of age, sex, diabetes, presence of the metabolic syndrome, Framingham Risk Score, and renal function. Skin AF correlated with most cardiovascular risk factors, Framingham risk score, and IMT and CACS. CONCLUSIONS: Skin AF is increased in documented subclinical and clinical atherosclerosis, independent of known risk factors such as diabetes and renal disease. These data suggest that AGEs may be associated with the burden of atherosclerosis and warrant a prospective study to investigate its clinical usability as a risk assessment tool for primary prevention.

  5. Staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies: degree of sensitization and association with severity of asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabras, José; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Lupi, Omar; Bica, Blanca Elena Rios Gomes; Papi, José Angelo de Souza; França, Alfeu Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the presence of staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies and degree of IgE-mediated sensitization, as well as whether or not those are associated with the severity of asthma in adult patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients with asthma under treatment at a tertiary care university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Consecutive patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of asthma based on the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria: mild asthma (MA), comprising patients with mild intermittent or persistent asthma; and moderate or severe asthma (MSA). We determined the serum levels of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies, comparing the results and performing a statistical analysis. Results: The study included 142 patients: 72 in the MA group (median age = 46 years; 59 females) and 70 in the MSA group (median age = 56 years; 60 females). In the sample as a whole, 62 patients (43.7%) presented positive results for staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies: staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), in 29 (20.4%); SEB, in 35 (24.6%); SEC, in 33 (23.2%); and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), in 45 (31.7%). The mean serum levels of IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were 0.96 U/L, 1.09 U/L, 1.21 U/L, and 1.18 U/L, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the qualitative or quantitative results. Conclusions: Serum IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were detected in 43.7% of the patients in our sample. However, neither the qualitative nor quantitative results showed a statistically significant association with the clinical severity of asthma. PMID:27812635

  6. Patent Foramen Ovale: Association between the Degree of Shunt by Contrast Transesophageal Echocardiography and the Risk of Future Ischemic Neurologic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, David A.; Godard, Joel; Godard, Joel; Corretti, mary C.; Kittner, Steven J.; Sample, Cindy; Price, Thomas R.; Plotnick, Gary D.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated whether there is an association between the degree of interatrial shunting across a patent foramen ovale, as determined by saline contrast transesophageal echocardiography, and the risk of subsequent systemic embolic events, including stroke. Thirty-four patients found to have patent foramen ovale during transesophageal echocardiography were divided into two groups on the basis of the maximum number of microbubbles in the left heart in any single frame after intravenous saline contrast injection: group 1 (n = 16) with a "large" degree of shunt (220 microbubbles) and group 2 (n = 18) with a "small" degree of shunt (23 but patent foramen ovale, as determined by contrast transesophageal echocardiography, are at a significantly higher risk for subsequent adverse neurologic events compared with patients with a small degree of shunt.

  7. Amount of Pneumocystis carinii and degree of acute lung inflammation in HIV-associated P carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Nielsen, T L; Junge, Jette

    1993-01-01

    Correlations between semiquantitative amounts of Pneumocystis carinii (PC), the degree of inflammation, and the severity of pneumonia were analyzed in 58 patients with PC pneumonia (PCP). Material from both transbronchial biopsies (TBBs; n = 39) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF; n = 57...

  8. Tennessee's Regents Online Degree Program--A Success Story: An Interview with Dr. Robbie Melton, Associate Vice Chancellor for RODP

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMoulin, Donald F.

    2005-01-01

    As one of the nation's top virtual university systems, the Tennessee Board of Regents' Online Degree Programs (RODP) has a great story to tell. And at Tennessee Tech University, Kevin Liska and students in the Business-Media Center specialize in telling great stories through technology. Together, the two groups will soon release marketing…

  9. Relationship of Academic Variables to National Council for Licensure Examination for Registered Nurse Performance of Graduates in a Selected Associate Degree Nursing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naron, Rosarica G.; Widlak, Frederic

    This report addresses the unstable and unsatisfactory performance of Chicago, Illinois' Olive-Harvey College's (OHC) associate degree nursing (ADN) graduates on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). An ex post facto correlation study was designed to determine the worthiness of pre-nursing admission course…

  10. Relationshp between Academic Variables and Personality Type to Progression in an Associate Degree Nursing Program and Achievement on NCLEX-RN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ione Norma

    This retrospective study was done to identify academic and personality variables that predict student progression through an associate degree nursing program and achievement on the National Council Licensing Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). The study searched for evidence of a decline in academic ability in the students over the 7…

  11. Association of biopsychosocial factors with degree of slump in sitting posture and self-report of back pain in adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Peter B; Smith, Anne J; Beales, Darren J; Straker, Leon M

    2011-04-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding relationships among sitting posture, factors that influence sitting posture, and back pain. This conflicting evidence may partially be due to the presence of multiple and overlapping factors associated with both sitting posture and back pain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of slump in sitting was associated with sex and other physical, lifestyle, or psychosocial factors. Additionally, the relationship between the report of back pain made worse by sitting and the degree of slump in sitting and other physical, lifestyle, or psychosocial factors was investigated. This was a cross-sectional study. Adolescents (n=1,596) completed questionnaires to determine lifestyle and psychosocial profiles and the experience of back pain. Sagittal sitting posture, body mass index (BMI), and back muscle endurance (BME) were recorded. Standing posture subgroup categorization was determined. Multivariate analysis revealed that the most significant factor associated with the degree of slump in sitting was male sex, followed by non-neutral standing postures, lower perceived self-efficacy, lower BME, greater television use, and higher BMI. Multivariable analysis indicated poorer Child Behaviour Checklist scores were the strongest correlate of report of back pain made worse by sitting, whereas degree of slump in sitting, female sex, and BME were more weakly related. Causality cannot be determined from this cross-sectional study, and 60% of sitting posture variation was not explained by the measured variables. Slump in sitting was associated with physical correlates, as well as sex, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors, highlighting the complex, multidimensional nature of usual sitting posture in adolescents. Additionally, this study demonstrated that a greater degree of slump in sitting was only weakly associated with adolescent back pain made worse by sitting after adjustment for other physical and psychosocial factors.

  12. Staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies: degree of sensitization and association with severity of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabras, José; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Lupi, Omar; Bica, Blanca Elena Rios Gomes; Papi, José Angelo de Souza; França, Alfeu Tavares

    2016-01-01

    To determine the presence of staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies and degree of IgE-mediated sensitization, as well as whether or not those are associated with the severity of asthma in adult patients. This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients with asthma under treatment at a tertiary care university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Consecutive patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of asthma based on the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria: mild asthma (MA), comprising patients with mild intermittent or persistent asthma; and moderate or severe asthma (MSA). We determined the serum levels of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies, comparing the results and performing a statistical analysis. The study included 142 patients: 72 in the MA group (median age = 46 years; 59 females) and 70 in the MSA group (median age = 56 years; 60 females). In the sample as a whole, 62 patients (43.7%) presented positive results for staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies: staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), in 29 (20.4%); SEB, in 35 (24.6%); SEC, in 33 (23.2%); and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), in 45 (31.7%). The mean serum levels of IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were 0.96 U/L, 1.09 U/L, 1.21 U/L, and 1.18 U/L, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the qualitative or quantitative results. Serum IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were detected in 43.7% of the patients in our sample. However, neither the qualitative nor quantitative results showed a statistically significant association with the clinical severity of asthma. Determinar a presença de anticorpos IgE específicos para superantígenos estafilocócicos e o grau de sensibilização mediada por esses, assim como se esses estão associados à gravidade da asma em pacientes adultos. Estudo transversal incluindo asmáticos adultos em acompanhamento ambulatorial em

  13. Association between the degree of mosaicism and the severity of syndrome in Turner mosaics and Klinefelter mosaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, R; Marimuthu, K M

    1983-12-01

    This study, based on the investigations carried on 82 cases of Turners of which 50 of them were mosaics and 85 cases of Klinefelters of which 70 of them were mosaics, is an attempt to explain the vast range of clinical variations observed in cytogenetically established Turner mosaics (45,X/46,XX) and Klinefelter mosaics (47,XXY/46,XY) in the light of the degree of mosaicism present in them. It was observed that the severity of the syndrome in Turner mosaics and Klinefelter mosaics increased with the relative increase in the abnormal cell line population.

  14. Degree of abnormality is associated with rate of change in measures of beta-amyloid, glucose metabolism and cognition in an autopsy-verified Alzheimer's disease case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almkvist, Ove; Kadir, Ahmadul; Nordberg, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    The degree of abnormality and rate of change in cognitive functions, positron emission tomography Pittsburg compound B (PET PIB), and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) measures were studied for 8 years in an autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient, who died 61 years old (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score 7). At first encounter with medical care, the patient was very mildly demented (MMSE score 27). She had four cognitive assessments and two examinations with PET PIB and FDG in 23 bilateral brain regions. The onset of cognitive decline was retrospectively estimated to have started in the early forties. The degree of impairment was inversely related to the rate of decline. A similar relationship was seen between the rate of change and the level of abnormality in both PIB and FDG. To conclude, rate of change in cognition, PIB, and FDG was associated with the degree of abnormality.

  15. Boundary conditions for fluids with internal orientational degrees of freedom: apparent velocity slip associated with the molecular alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Sebastian; Ilg, Patrick; Hess, Siegfried

    2007-06-01

    Boundary effects are investigated for fluids with internal orientational degrees of freedom such as molecular liquids, thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals, and polymeric fluids. The orientational degrees of freedom are described by the second rank alignment tensor which is related to the birefringence. We use a standard model to describe the orientational dynamics in the presence of flow, the momentum balance equations, and a constitutive law for the pressure tensor to describe our system. In the spirit of irreversible thermodynamics, boundary conditions are formulated for the mechanical slip velocity and the flux of the alignment. They are set up such that the entropy production at the wall inferred from the entropy flux is positive definite. Even in the absence of a true mechanical slip, the coupling between orientation and flow leads to flow profiles with an apparent slip. This has consequences for the macroscopically measurable effective velocity. In analytical investigations, we consider the simplified case of an isotropic fluid in the Newtonian and stationary flow regime. For special geometries such as plane and cylindrical Couette flow, plane Poiseuille flow, and a flow down an inclined plane, we demonstrate explicitly how the boundary conditions lead to an apparent slip. Furthermore, we discuss the dependence of the effective viscosity and of the effective slip length on the model parameters.

  16. ASSOCIATING LONG-TERM {gamma}-RAY VARIABILITY WITH THE SUPERORBITAL PERIOD OF LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J. M. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bonamente, E.; Cecchi, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' M. Merlin' ' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Caliandro, G. A. [Institute of Space Sciences (IEEE-CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain); Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Caraveo, P. A. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cavazzuti, E. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Chekhtman, A., E-mail: andrea.caliandro@ieec.uab.es, E-mail: hadasch@ieec.uab.es, E-mail: dtorres@ieec.uab.es [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); and others

    2013-08-20

    Gamma-ray binaries are stellar systems for which the spectral energy distribution (discounting the thermal stellar emission) peaks at high energies. Detected from radio to TeV gamma rays, the {gamma}-ray binary LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 is highly variable across all frequencies. One aspect of this system's variability is the modulation of its emission with the timescale set by the {approx}26.4960 day orbital period. Here we show that, during the time of our observations, the {gamma}-ray emission of LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 also presents a sinusoidal variability consistent with the previously known superorbital period of 1667 days. This modulation is more prominently seen at orbital phases around apastron, whereas it does not introduce a visible change close to periastron. It is also found in the appearance and disappearance of variability at the orbital period in the power spectrum of the data. This behavior could be explained by a quasi-cyclical evolution of the equatorial outflow of the Be companion star, whose features influence the conditions for generating gamma rays. These findings open the possibility to use {gamma}-ray observations to study the outflows of massive stars in eccentric binary systems.

  17. When Graduate Degrees Prostitute the Educational Process: Degrees Gone Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumadue, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate degrees prostitute the educational process when they are sold to consumers by unaccredited degree/diploma mills as being equivalent to legitimate, bona-fide degrees awarded by accredited graduate schools. This article carefully analyzes the serious problems of bogus degrees and their association with the religious higher education…

  18. Recreational music-making: an integrative group intervention for reducing burnout and improving mood states in first year associate degree nursing students: insights and economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittman, Barry B; Snyder, Cherie; Bruhn, Karl T; Liebfreid, Fran; Stevens, Christine K; Westengard, James; Umbach, Paul O

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of providing exemplary undergraduate nursing education cannot be underestimated in an era when burnout and negative mood states predictably lead to alarming rates of academic as well as career attrition. While the multi-dimensional nature of this complex issue has been extensively elucidated, few rational strategies exist to reverse a disheartening trend recognizable early in the educational process that subsequently threatens to undermine the future viability of quality healthcare. This controlled prospective crossover study examined the impact of a 6-session Recreational Music-making (RMM) protocol on burnout and mood dimensions as well as Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in first year associate level nursing students. A total of 75 first year associate degree nursing students from Allegany College of Maryland (ACM) participated in a 6-session RMM protocol focusing on group support and stress reduction utilizing a specific group drumming protocol. Burnout and mood dimensions were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Profile of Mood States respectively. Statistically significant reductions of multiple burnout and mood dimensions as well as TMD scores were noted. Potential annual cost savings for the typical associate degree nursing program (16,800 dollars) and acute care hospital (322,000 dollars) were projected by an independent economic analysis firm. A cost-effective 6-session RMM protocol reduces burnout and mood dimensions as well as TMD in associate degree nursing students.

  19. Does Degree of Gyrification Underlie the Phenotypic and Genetic Associations between Cortical Surface Area and Cognitive Ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Anna R.; Hagler, Donald J.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Neale, Michael C.; Eyler, Lisa T.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Franz, Carol E.; Jak, Amy; Lyons, Michael J.; Rinker, Daniel A.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Dale, Anders M.; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    The phenotypic and genetic relationship between global cortical size and general cognitive ability (GCA) appears to be driven by surface area (SA) and not cortical thickness (CT). Gyrification (cortical folding) is an important property of the cortex that helps to increase SA within a finite space, and may also improve connectivity by reducing distance between regions. Hence, gyrification may be what underlies the SA-GCA relationship. In previous phenotypic studies, a 3-dimensional gyrification index (3DGI) has been positively associated with cognitive ability and negatively associated with mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, and psychiatric disorders affecting cognition. However, the differential genetic associations of 3DGI and SA with GCA are still unclear. We examined the heritability of 3DGI, and the phenotypic, genetic, and environmental associations of 3DGI with SA and GCA in a large sample of adult male twins (N = 512). Nearly 85% of the variance in 3DGI was due to genes, and 3DGI had a strong phenotypic and genetic association with SA. Both 3DGI and total SA had positive phenotypic correlations with GCA. However, the SA-GCA correlation remained significant after controlling for 3DGI, but not the other way around. There was also significant genetic covariance between SA and GCA, but not between 3DGI and GCA. Thus, despite the phenotypic and genetic associations between 3DGI and SA, our results do not support the hypothesis that gyrification underlies the association between SA and GCA. PMID:25433211

  20. Association of the Nonalcoholic Hepatic Steatosis and Its Degrees With the Values of Liver Enzymes and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mario Augusto Ferreira; Cruz, Josilda Ferreira; Macena, Larissa Baracho; de Santana, Demetrius Silva; Oliveira, Cristiane Costa da Cunha; Lima, Sonia Oliveira; Franca, Alex Vianey Callado

    2015-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is among the most common chronic diseases of the modern world with a wide variety of factors including genetic, environmental and metabolic. The aim of this study was to verify the association between the degrees of hepatic steatosis at the abdominal ultrasound and the values of aminotransferases (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transferase (ALT)), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Methods A prospective, descriptive survey study, using a quantitative analytical examination, was conducted from July 2013 to July 2014. In the statistical analysis, values were expressed as median, first and third quartiles. We used the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test to compare the medians between the degrees of steatosis, adopted a statistical significance of 5% (P ≤ 0.05) and used the statistical program SPSS 22.0. Results We diagnosed 233/800 (29.1%) patients with hepatic steatosis on routine ultrasound, and 65.7% were female. Regarding degrees, 119 had grade 1 (51.0%), 94 grade 2 (40.4%) and 20 grade 3 (8.6%). The median age of the patients with grade 1, 2 or 3 did not vary significantly (P > 0.05). The median body mass index (BMI), although clinically important because of its elevation, did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). ALT levels increased as the degree of hepatic steatosis has advanced as well as the levels of AST, GGT and HOMA-IR. AST values showed a greater association with the severity of fatty liver (P = 0.0001) than the ALT (P = 0.001). Conclusions ALT, AST, GGT and HOMA-IR are associated to the degrees of hepatic steatosis on ultrasound and can help in the selection of patients for the liver histological evaluation. PMID:27785306

  1. Population dynamics of the rock shell Reishia clavigera associated with different degrees of organotin contamination in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kevin K Y; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2017-02-18

    Application of organotins in antifouling systems on ship hulls has been globally prohibited by the International Maritime Organization since September 2008. It is, therefore, anticipated that there is a recovery of imposex-affected gastropod populations worldwide. We studied the population dynamics of the rock shell Reishia clavigera in six locations around Hong Kong's coastal waters, covering different degrees of organotin contamination for 25months (2011-2013). Abundance and density of R. clavigera were higher in clean sites, while they tended to grow faster in polluted sites. Over time, we observed recruitments in clean sites while recruitments in polluted sites were limited. The results suggested that the lack of apparent recovery of the local R. clavigera populations was probably due to the prevalence of organotin contamination, especially triphenyltin, in this region. This study, therefore, calls for mitigation and long-term monitoring of organotin contamination in marine environments of Hong Kong and South China.

  2. Comparing the frequency of physical examination techniques performed by associate and baccalaureate degree prepared nurses in clinical practice: does education make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddens, Jean

    2006-03-01

    Rapid changes in health care have underscored the need for reform in health professions education, including nursing education. One of many problems cited in the nursing and other health sciences education literature is overcrowded curricula; therefore, an evaluation of content is necessary. The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences exist in the frequency that physical examination techniques are performed by associate and baccalaureate degree prepared nurses. Participants completed a survey on performance of various physical examination techniques. A Mann-Whitney test showed no differences between the two groups in terms of frequency of techniques performed. A small negative correlation was found between frequency and years of experience with the nutrition assessment category. A comparison of physical examination content covered in baccalaureate and associate degree nursing programs is needed to further understand these findings.

  3. Spatial and temporal association of outbreaks of H5N1 influenza virus infection in wild birds with the 0 degrees C isotherm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie A Reperant

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild bird movements and aggregations following spells of cold weather may have resulted in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5N1 in Europe during the winter of 2005-2006. Waterbirds are constrained in winter to areas where bodies of water remain unfrozen in order to feed. On the one hand, waterbirds may choose to winter as close as possible to their breeding grounds in order to conserve energy for subsequent reproduction, and may be displaced by cold fronts. On the other hand, waterbirds may choose to winter in regions where adverse weather conditions are rare, and may be slowed by cold fronts upon their journey back to the breeding grounds, which typically starts before the end of winter. Waterbirds will thus tend to aggregate along cold fronts close to the 0 degrees C isotherm during winter, creating conditions that favour HPAIV H5N1 transmission and spread. We determined that the occurrence of outbreaks of HPAIV H5N1 infection in waterbirds in Europe during the winter of 2005-2006 was associated with temperatures close to 0 degrees C. The analysis suggests a significant spatial and temporal association of outbreaks caused by HPAIV H5N1 in wild birds with maximum surface air temperatures of 0 degrees C-2 degrees C on the day of the outbreaks and the two preceding days. At locations where waterbird census data have been collected since 1990, maximum mallard counts occurred when average and maximum surface air temperatures were 0 degrees C and 3 degrees C, respectively. Overall, the abundance of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos and common pochards (Aythya ferina was highest when surface air temperatures were lower than the mean temperatures of the region investigated. The analysis implies that waterbird movements associated with cold weather, and congregation of waterbirds along the 0 degrees C isotherm likely contributed to the spread and geographical distribution of outbreaks of HPAIV H5N1 infection in wild birds in

  4. A Soliton Hierarchy Associated with a Spectral Problem of 2nd Degree in a Spectral Parameter and Its Bi-Hamiltonian Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqin Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Associated with so~(3,R, a new matrix spectral problem of 2nd degree in a spectral parameter is proposed and its corresponding soliton hierarchy is generated within the zero curvature formulation. Bi-Hamiltonian structures of the presented soliton hierarchy are furnished by using the trace identity, and thus, all presented equations possess infinitely commuting many symmetries and conservation laws, which implies their Liouville integrability.

  5. Myeloperoxidase Is Associated with Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in Overweight Subjects with First-Degree Relatives with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Anel Gómez García; Mireya Rivera Rodríguez; Carlos Gómez Alonso; Daysi Yazmin Rodríguez Ochoa; Cleto Alvarez Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Background Family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of risk factors for that in future a subject can develop diabetes. Insulin resistance (IR) is important in the pathogenesis of T2DM. There is evidence that oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology and/or progression of diabetes. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) participates in developing of inflammation. The objective was to investigate if MPO is associated with IR and inflammation in individuals with first-degree relati...

  6. Skin autofluorescence, a non-invasive marker for AGE accumulation, is associated with the degree of atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dekker, Martijn A. M.; Zwiers, Marjan; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; de Vos, Lisanne C.; Smit, Andries J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Lefrandt, Johan; Mulder, Douwe J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) may be involved in the development of atherosclerosis, beyond diabetes and renal disease. Skin autofluorescence (AF) is a non-invasive marker for AGEs. We examined whether skin AF is increased in (subclinical) atherosclerosis and associated with th

  7. Comorbid Problems in ADHD: Degree of Association, Shared Endophenotypes, and Formation of Distinct Subtypes. Implications for a Future "DSM"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Altink, Marieke E.; Fliers, Ellen A.; Martin, Neilson C.; Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to assess which comorbid problems (oppositional defiant behaviors, anxiety, autistic traits, motor coordination problems, and reading problems) were most associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); to determine whether these comorbid problems shared executive and motor problems on an endophenotype level with ADHD; and…

  8. Previous statin use is not associated with an increased prevalence or degree of gradient-echo lesions in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jason S; Policeni, Bruno A; Smoker, Wendy R K; Dobre, Mircea C; Zhang, Ying; Leira, Enrique C; Davis, Patricia H; Chen, Sherman; Olalde, Heena; Adams, Harold P

    2011-02-01

    Microhemorrhages on gradient-echo T2*-weighted MRI sequences are often found in patients with cerebrovascular disease and are related to intracerebral hemorrhage. Because statin therapy is associated with increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage, we investigated whether statin use was also associated with microhemorrhages in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. We performed a retrospective analysis on prospectively collected data from a stroke registry containing patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. The primary and secondary outcome variables were the prevalence and degree of microhemorrhages as detected on gradient-echo MRI sequences and categorized as mild (1-2), moderate (3-10), or severe (>10). The location of the microhemorrhages was noted and rated by 2 neuroradiologists. Previous use of statins and other covariates were assessed as potential predictors. Three hundred forty-nine patients were admitted from June 2008 to July 2009, and 300 of which were analyzed. Microhemorrhages were detected in 70 subjects (23%); 35 had only lobar lesions, 16 had only deep lesions, and 19 had both lobar and deep lesions. On univariate and multivariate analysis, statin therapy was not associated with the prevalence (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.36-1.51; P=0.40) or degree of microhemorrhages modeled for lesser severity (OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 0.61-8.75; P=0.22). Previous statin therapy was not associated with the prevalence or degree of microhemorrhages in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. The association between statins and intracerebral hemorrhage does not appear to be mediated through microhemorrhages.

  9. INTERACTIVE SEMINARS IN BIOCHEMISTRY DISCIPLINE FOR UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE IN BIOMEDICINE: BENEFITS AND PROBLEMS OF CARBOHYDRATES ASSOCIATED WITH MODERN LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G.G. Pessoa et al

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present project is part of the course in biochemistry for biomedical undergraduate students of the Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE, which comprises theoretical and practical classes and interactive seminars prepared by students on studied topics to supplement learning. The aim of this research was to encourage students to innovate their search for knowledge, presenting an interactive strategy to demonstrate the importance of carbohydrates, as well as other energy fuels, for undergraduates students attending classes of biochemistry at the first semester at the university, in order to clarify the importance of maintaining a healthy way of life. The methodology used was a field research, documented in videos in which the opinions of a few people were registered in different places, such as in a fast-food restaurant, on the importance of carbohydrates. Records acquired were associated with a slide presentation on the subject, based on scientific books and articles, which were presented to the students of the discipline. It was also developed a dynamic to illustrate the consumption of carbohydrates in daily life and in different situations. After the project exhibition, a review of the research was conducted to the audience to express innovations or additions to their pre-existing concepts, on consumption of carbohydrates. The results of our work were very promising and the main goal of the project was achieved, since 88.2% of the respondents said there was an improvement in their knowledge, both theoretical and practical, on the subject, while only 11.8% reported no improvement at all. In conclusion, there was a greater involvement of students during the presentation of the subject and a higher participation during the group dynamic on the consumption of carbohydrates.

  10. Examining the effects of problem-based learning and NCLEX-RN scores on the critical thinking skills of associate degree nursing students in a Southeastern Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Evadna M

    2008-01-01

    Teaching methodologies used to promote critical thinking should be investigated to enhance the delivery of safe and effective care and to improve student success on the NCLEX-RN Exam. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a problem-based learning methodology on the critical thinking skills of associate degree nursing students in a 12-week NCLEX-Review Course. An experimental pre-post treatment comparative design was utilized to determine the effects of the two teaching methods on the critical thinking skills of fourth semester students enrolled in a NCLEX-Review Course.

  11. Association of Methotrexate with Native and PEGylated PAMAM-G4 Dendrimers: Effect of the PEGylation Degree on the Drug-Loading Capacity and Preferential Binding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Luis F; Jiménez, Verónica A; Alderete, Joel B

    2017-01-12

    PEGylated PAMAM dendrimers (PEG-PAMAM) have been extensively studied as versatile vehicles for drug delivery. Nevertheless, little information has been reported regarding the effect of the PEGylation degree on the drug-loading properties of these systems, aimed at maximizing their performance as drug carrier nanocarrriers. In this work, fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed to examine the association of methotrexate (MTX) with native and diversely PEGylated PAMAM-G4 dendrimers, using 2 kDa PEG chains with substitution degrees from 25 to 100% and 100:1 drug:dendrimer ratios to mimic experimental conditions of drug excess in saturated solution. MD results regarding complex stoichiometries and preferential binding sites were compared to experimental data retrieved from aqueous solubility profiles and 2D-NOESY experiments showing an outstanding level of agreement. The maximum theoretical drug loading capacity was achieved by the system with 34% PEGylation (42:1) through the simultaneous complexation of MTX within internal PAMAM-G4 branches and external PEG chains. On the other hand, higher PEGylation degrees were found to be detrimental for drug complexation due to PEG chains crowding on the dendrimer surface. These results provide valuable information to design more efficient PAMAM-based drug nanocarriers and explain the positive effect that partial PEGylation exerts on the drug-loading capacity of PAMAM-G4 over native and fully PEGylated systems.

  12. Ohio Legal Office Managment. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document, which lists core business and legal office management competencies identified by representatives from education and business and industry throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary associate degree…

  13. Fast sleep spindle reduction in schizophrenia and healthy first-degree relatives: association with impaired cognitive function and potential intermediate phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Claudia; Schlipf, Manuel; Spietzack, Simone; Rausch, Franziska; Eisenacher, Sarah; Englisch, Susanne; Reinhard, Iris; Haller, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Deuschle, Michael; Tost, Heike; Zink, Mathias; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Schredl, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Several studies in patients with schizophrenia reported a marked reduction in sleep spindle activity. To investigate whether the reduction may be linked to genetic risk of the illness, we analysed sleep spindle activity in healthy volunteers, patients with schizophrenia and first-degree relatives, who share an enriched set of schizophrenia susceptibility genes. We further investigated the correlation of spindle activity with cognitive function in first-degree relatives and whether spindle abnormalities affect both fast (12-15 Hz) and slow (9-12 Hz) sleep spindles. We investigated fast and slow sleep spindle activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep in a total of 47 subjects comprising 17 patients with schizophrenia, 13 healthy first-degree relatives and 17 healthy volunteers. Groups were balanced for age, gender, years of education and estimated verbal IQ. A subsample of relatives received additional testing for memory performance. Compared to healthy volunteers, fast spindle density was reduced in patients with schizophrenia and healthy first-degree relatives following a pattern consistent with an assumed genetic load for schizophrenia. The deficit in spindle density was specific to fast spindles and was associated with decreased memory performance. Our findings indicate familial occurrence of this phenotype and thus support the hypothesis that deficient spindle activity relates to genetic liability for schizophrenia. Furthermore, spindle reductions predict impaired cognitive function and are specific to fast spindles. This physiological marker should be further investigated as an intermediate phenotype of schizophrenia. It could also constitute a target for drug development, especially with regard to cognitive dysfunction.

  14. An Increased Ratio of Glycated Albumin to HbA1c Is Associated with the Degree of Liver Fibrosis in Hepatitis B Virus-Positive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirayuki Enomoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In hepatitis B virus- (HBV- positive patients, the relationship between the metabolic variables and histological degree of liver fibrosis has been poorly investigated. Methods. A total of 176 HBV-positive patients were assessed in whom the ratios of glycated albumin-to-glycated hemoglobin (GA/HbA1c were calculated in order to investigate the relationship with the degree of liver fibrosis. Results. The GA/HbA1c ratio increased in association with the severity of fibrosis (METAVIR scores: F0-1: 2.61 ± 0.24, F2: 2.65 ± 0.24, F3: 2.74 ± 0.38, and F4: 2.91 ± 0.63. The GA/HbA1c ratios were inversely correlated with four variables of liver function: the prothrombin time (PT percentage (P<0.0001, platelet count (P<0.0001, albumin value (P<0.0001, and cholinesterase value (P<0.0001. The GA/HbA1c ratio was positively correlated with two well-known markers of liver fibrosis, FIB-4 (P<0.0001 and the AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI (P<0.0001. Furthermore, the GA/HbA1c showed better correlations with two variables of liver function (PT percentage and cholinesterase value than did FIB-4 and with all four variables than did the APRI. Conclusion. The GA/HbA1c ratio is associated with the degree of liver fibrosis in HBV-positive patients.

  15. Family history of cancer other than breast or ovarian cancer in first-degree relatives is associated with poor breast cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun-Long; Chen, Chuang; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Li, Juan-Juan; Sun, Sheng-Rong

    2017-04-01

    Whether a first-degree family history of others cancers (FHOC) than breast or ovarian cancer (BOC) is associated with breast cancer prognosis remains unknown. Thus, the aim of the present study was to clarify this issue. Women who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer at the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from 2010 to 2013 were included in the study. The demographic and clinicopathological characteristics of these patients were extracted. FHOC was considered positive for any patient who had a relative who had been diagnosed with cancer other than BOC. Disease-free survival (DFS) was calculated based on the date of diagnosis. DFS was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 434 breast cancer patients were included in this study. Among these patients, 61 (14.06%) had a positive FHOC in first-degree relatives. Patients with a positive FHOC tended to have HER2-positive breast cancer (p = 0.03). In the survival analysis, FHOC was associated with poor DFS in both univariate (HR = 2.21 (1.28-3.83), 95% CI: 1.28-3.83, p breast cancer patients with FHOC, especially in patients with luminal A subtype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Association analysis between endothelial function related factors and coronary artery stenosis degree in coronary heart disease patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanmin; Zhang, Zhifang; Du, Ruiqin; Hu, Xiaoqiang; Yan, Yan; Gao, Qing; Fan, Yanting

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1), vascular endothelial cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), monocytes chemotactic protein (MCP-1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and coronary artery stenoses degree in coronary heart disease (CHD) within type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. A total of 92 subjects were treated with coronary angiography (CAG), including 62 subjects with CHD. The individuals were divided into three groups, group A (32 patients with CHD and T2DM), group B (30 patients with CHD but no T2DM) and group C (30 patients with no CHD and T2DM). All patients were treated with a Gensini coronary angiography check. The correlations between sICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1 and vWF in peripheral blood and coronary artery stenosis degree were analyzed. The average score of coronary artery stenosis degree was 30.75 +/-12.67 in group A, which was significantly higher than group B (11.20 +/-7.51) and group C (2.40 +/- 1.23) (p coronary artery stenosis and the mean level of sICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, vWF in group A (p 0.05). Association analysis shown that the level of sICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1 and vWF elevated in CHD with T2DM patients. Vascular endothelial dysfunction could be caused to the coronary artery stenosis pathophysiological process. Results from this study suggested that sICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1 and vWF may contribute to the occurrence and development of vascular lesions in T2DM. These endothelial function related factors could be acceptable as a prediction and testing index of vascular complications in T2DM.

  17. Archaeal and Bacterial Communities Associated with the Surface Mucus of Caribbean Corals Differ in Their Degree of Host Specificity and Community Turnover Over Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, Pedro R; Roll, Katharina; Bergauer, Kristin; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the distribution of archaeal versus bacterial communities associated with the surface mucus layer of corals have rarely taken place. It has therefore remained enigmatic whether mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities exhibit a similar specificity towards coral hosts and whether they vary in the same fashion over spatial gradients and between reef locations. We used microbial community profiling (terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, T-RFLP) and clone library sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to compare the diversity and community structure of dominant archaeal and bacterial communities associating with the mucus of three common reef-building coral species (Porites astreoides, Siderastrea siderea and Orbicella annularis) over different spatial scales on a Caribbean fringing reef. Sampling locations included three reef sites, three reef patches within each site and two depths. Reference sediment samples and ambient water were also taken for each of the 18 sampling locations resulting in a total of 239 samples. While only 41% of the bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) characterized by T-RFLP were shared between mucus and the ambient water or sediment, for archaeal OTUs this percentage was 2-fold higher (78%). About half of the mucus-associated OTUs (44% and 58% of bacterial and archaeal OTUs, respectively) were shared between the three coral species. Our multivariate statistical analysis (ANOSIM, PERMANOVA and CCA) showed that while the bacterial community composition was determined by habitat (mucus, sediment or seawater), host coral species, location and spatial distance, the archaeal community composition was solely determined by the habitat. This study highlights that mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities differ in their degree of community turnover over reefs and in their host-specificity.

  18. [Factors associated with the degree of participation in physical activities among students of a public university in the south of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2011-10-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze the factors associated with the degree of participation in physical activities (DPPA) among students of a public university in the south of Brazil. The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology Questionnaire was used for the evaluation of DPPA. DPPA was classified as adequate and inadequate. Nutritional status was evaluated based on BMI, classified as normal ( 25 kg/m²). The following socio-demographic variables were analyzed: gender, age group, work, maternal educational level, class period, and marital status. Poisson regression was used to examine the association between DPPA and independent variables, considering p < 0.05. The sample, which was representative of the institution, consisted of 738 students (59.2% males). The prevalence of inadequate physical activity participation was 30.8%. Adjusted analysis showed that female (PR=2.79; 95%CI: 2.10-3.68) and overweight students (PR=1.53; 95%CI: 1.04-2.23) presented a higher risk of inadequate physical activity participation. These findings might be useful for the implementation of health promotion programs in universities, which should pay special attention to female and overweight students in their freshman year.

  19. Colonic ornithine decarboxylase in inflammatory bowel disease: ileorectal activity gradient, guanosine triphosphate stimulation, and association with epithelial regeneration but not the degree of inflammation and clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgayer, Hubert; Roisch, Ulla; Zehnter, Elmar; Ziegenhagen, Dieter J; Dienes, Hans P; Kruis, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The role of colonic mucosal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains controversial. This study assessed mucosal ODC activity in IBD patients segment by segment with regard to patient characteristics, disease activity/duration, medication, degree of mucosal inflammation, and presence/absence of epithelial regeneration and guanosine triphosphate (GTP) stimulation. Mucosal ODC activity was determined in biopsy specimens from the terminal ileum, cecum/ascending, transverse, and descending colon, and the sigmoid/rectum of 35 patients with IBD (18 with Crohn's disease, 17 with ulcerative colitis) and 29 controls, using the amount of 14CO2 liberated from (carboxyl-14C)ornithine hydrochloride. GTP-stimulatable activity was expressed as the ratio of ODC activity in the presence and absence of GTP (70 micromol/L). Mucosal inflammation was assessed endoscopically/microscopically with previously described criteria. Presence/absence of mucosal regeneration also was determined by predefined criteria. Mucosal ODC-activity did not significantly differ in IBD patients and controls. There was a 4.4-fold activity gradient from the ileum to the rectum. Mucosal ODC activity was significantly higher in areas with epithelial regeneration compared to those without regeneration, and was stimulated by GTP by a factor of 1.42 in Crohn's disease and 1.19 in ulcerative colitis patients compared to controls (p < 0.004). On the other hand, there was no significant association/relationship of mucosal ODC activity with disease activity/duration and the endoscopic/histologic degree of mucosal inflammation. The observation of unchanged mucosal ODC activity in patients with IBD and the absence of a significant relationship with clinical and endoscopic/histologic disease characteristics speaks against a major role of ODC in IBD as a major disease marker. The role of the ileorectal gradient, the enhanced activity in areas with epithelial regeneration, and the GTP

  20. Myeloperoxidase Is Associated with Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in Overweight Subjects with First-Degree Relatives with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anel Gómez García

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFamily history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is one of risk factors for that in future a subject can develop diabetes. Insulin resistance (IR is important in the pathogenesis of T2DM. There is evidence that oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology and/or progression of diabetes. Myeloperoxidase (MPO participates in developing of inflammation. The objective was to investigate if MPO is associated with IR and inflammation in individuals with first-degree relatives of T2DM.MethodsCross-sectional study in 84 overweight individuals with family history of T2DM divided in two groups according to IR, group with IR (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA] ≥2.5; n=43 and control group (CG; HOMA <2.5; n=41. Complete clinical history and a venous blood sample were collected for measuring glucose and lipids profile, insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, MPO, glutathione reductase (GRd, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase.ResultsMPO, TNF-α, and IL-6 were higher in patients with IR than in CG (MPO: 308.35 [190.85 to 445.42] vs. 177.35 [104.50 to 279.85], P=0.0001; TNF-α: 13.46 [10.58 to 18.88] vs. 9.39 [7.53 to 11.25], P=0.0001; IL-6: 32.93 [24.93 to 38.27] vs. 15.60 [12.93 to 26.27]; P=0.0001, respectively. MPO was associated with IR (rho de Spearman=0.362, P=0.001. In the analysis of lineal regression, MPO predicts IR (β, 0.263; t, 2.520; P=0.014. In the univariate analysis, MPO had an odds ratio of 9.880 for risk of IR (95% confidence interval, 2.647 to 36.879.ConclusionMPO had relation with IR and inflammation parameters in overweight subjects with first-degree relatives of T2DM. We need studies on a casual relationship and molecular mechanisms among the increased serum MPO levels, inflammation markers, and IR.

  1. Molecular markers associated with the immature fiber (im) gene affecting the degree of fiber cell wall thickening in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Moon, Hong S; Delhom, Christopher D; Zeng, Linghe; Fang, David D

    2013-01-01

    Cotton fiber fineness and maturity measured indirectly as micronaire (MIC) are important properties of determining fiber grades in the textile market. To understand the genetic control and molecular mechanisms of fiber fineness and maturity, we studied two near isogenic lines, Gossypium hirsutum, Texas Marker-1 wild type (TM-1) and immature fiber (im) mutant showing a significant difference in MIC values. The fibers from im mutant plants were finer and less mature with lower MIC values than those from the recurrent parent, TM-1. A comprehensive fiber property analysis of TM-1 and im mutant showed that the lower MIC of fibers in im mutant was due to the lower degree of fiber cell wall thickening as compared to the TM-1 fibers. Using an F(2) population comprising 366 progenies derived from a cross between TM-1 and im mutant, we confirmed that the immature fiber phenotype present in a mutant plant was controlled by one single recessive gene im. Furthermore, we identified 13 simple sequence repeat markers that were closely linked to the im gene located on chromosome 3. Molecular markers associated with the im gene will lay the foundation to further investigate genetic information required for improving cotton fiber fineness and maturity.

  2. The Effect of Degree of Saturation of Sand on Detonation Phenomena Associated with Shallow-Buried and Ground-Laid Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grujicic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new materials model for sand has been developed in order to include the effects of the degree of saturation and the deformation rate on the constitutive response of this material. The model is an extension of the original compaction materials model for sand in which these effects were neglected. The new materials model for sand is next used, within a non-linear-dynamics transient computational analysis, to study various phenomena associated with the explosion of shallow-buried and ground-laid mines. The computational results are compared with the corresponding experimental results obtained through the use of an instrumented horizontal mine-impulse pendulum, pressure transducers buried in sand and a post-detonation metrological study of the sand craters. The results obtained suggest that the modified compaction model for sand captures the essential features of the dynamic behavior of sand and accounts reasonably well for a variety of the experimental findings related to the detonation of shallow-buried or ground-laid mines.

  3. Hormonal profile in children with isolated hypospadias associates better with comprehensive score of local anatomical factors as compared to meatal location or degree of chordee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmi K Ratan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate if hormonal profile of children with isolated hypospadias (IH associates better with comprehensive local anatomical factor score (LAFS than with clinically adjudged urethral meatus location or severity of chordee/k.j. Material and Methods: Ninety-nine children with IH were enrolled, as per inclusion criteria. Meatal location was recorded at first clinical examination in OPD; while LAFS was computed per-operatively using indigenously devised scale, except for neonates. Hypospadiacs were first classified into three standard meatal based groups and subsequently into LAFS based two groups (≤19, >19. For all participants, pre HCG and post HCG (96 hour post- injection estimation of serum gonadotropins, DHEA-S, estrogen (E, progesterone (P, testosterone (T and Dihydrotestosterone (DHT was done. Statistical tests were applied to assess significance of hormonal levels with respect to meatal location, chordee and LAFS. Results: Only FSH levels differed significantly among meatal based groups; while among LAFS groups, multiple hormonal differences were noted; with poor LAFS associated significantly with higher FSH, LH and lower E, T/DHT. Children with severe degree of chordee had poorer T output and a significantly lower LAFS as compared to those with moderate/mild chordee. Conclusion: Serotoli cell dysfunction, indirectly indicated by high FSH was found among midpenile hypospadiacs and those with poorer LAFS. Since groups based on LAFS revealed multiple intergroup hormonal differences than what was seen for meatal/chordee based groups; LAFS should be considered a better guide for prognostication and for deciding about hormonal supplementation. Lower androgenic output was particularly noted in children with severe chordee.

  4. The degree of processing of foods which are most widely consumed by the French elderly population is associated with satiety and glycemic potentials and nutrient profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Méjean, Caroline; Labouré, Hélène; Andreeva, Valentina A; Feron, Gilles

    2017-02-22

    Food processing impacts both food structure and nutritional density. The effect of food structure on satiety and glycemic potentials is well recognized. However, the association between processing, satiety and glycemic potentials and nutrient profiles has not been much studied, especially in the diets of the elderly. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring relations between the level of food processing, consumption and nutrient profiles and satiety and glycemic potentials among 6686 French elderly people (≥65 years). Dietary assessment was realized through a web-based 24 h dietary record tool. Among a total of 2688 foods, 280 generic foods were aggregated based on a consumption threshold of at least 5% by the population. The satiety potential was calculated using the Fullness Factor equation, and the glycemic potential using the glycemic index and the glucose glycemic equivalent. Foods and dishes were ranked according to an adapted international NOVA classification as raw/minimally-processed (G1), processed (G2) and ultra-processed (G3). ANOVA and correlation analyses showed that the more food is processed, the lower its satiety potential and nutrient density and the higher its glycemic impact, especially when comparing G1 and G3. Besides, the foods consumed in the greatest quantity daily tend to be the most satiating, and ultra-processed foods were among the less frequently consumed both in terms of percentage and daily quantity (around two-fold difference between minimally- and ultra-processed foods). In conclusion, because it is partly related to health food potential, the degree of processing, especially for ultra-processed products, should be taken into consideration more when evaluating consumption profiles of different populations.

  5. The External Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  6. The Relationship among Health Education Systems, Inc. Progression and Exit Examination Scores, Day or Evening Enrollment, Final Grade Point Average and NCLEX-RN® Success in Associate Degree Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwell-Sanders, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Graduates of associate degree (AD) nursing programs form the largest segment of first-time National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN®) test takers, yet also experience the highest rate of NCLEX-RN® failures. NCLEX-RN® failure delays entry into the profession, adding an emotional and financial toll to the unsuccessful…

  7. Spontaneous mammary carcinomas in female dogs: association between the immunohistochemical degree of aggressiveness of tumors, intensity of DNA damage and residues of pyrethroids.

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão, Yara de Oliveira; Colodel, Marcia Moleta [UNESP; Silva, Glenda Nicioli da; Vexenat, Stephane Cássia; Ferreira, Isabelle; Silva, Yamê Fabres Robaina Sancler da; Bulla, Camilo; Rocha, Noeme Sousa [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis and biological behavior of breast cancer of female dog represent one of the biggest challenges facing the Veterinarian in recent years. Due to its exponential growth and the degree of aggressiveness, the exact cause of this tu- mor is probably multifactorial and it is believed that may suffer influence from environmental factors. Among the sus- pected environmental contaminants are the pyrethroids. Aiming to investigate the participation of pyrethroids in tu- morigenesis in female d...

  8. Kinematic alterations of the lower limbs and pelvis during an ascending stairs task are associated with the degree of knee osteoarthritis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Glaucia Helena; Selistre, Luiz Fernando Approbato; Petrella, Marina; Mattiello, Stela Márcia

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) generally demonstrate great difficulty in ascending stairs. The strategies and compensations used by these individuals in stair activities have not been fully established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint kinematics of the pelvis, hip, knee and ankle throughout the gait cycle, in the sagittal and frontal planes, in individuals with mild and moderate knee OA, during an ascending stairs task. Thirty-one individuals with knee OA and 19 controls were subjected to clinical and radiographic analysis, divided into three groups: control, mild knee OA, and moderate knee OA. Participants answered a self-reported questionnaire, carried out performance-based tests, and their kinematic data were recorded during an ascending stairs task using an eight-camera Qualisys 3D-Motion analysis system. The individuals with moderate degrees of knee OA demonstrated kinematic alterations in the pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle in the sagittal plane. The individuals with mild degrees of knee OA demonstrated kinematic alterations of the hip in the frontal plane, and kinematic alterations of the ankle in the sagittal plane. The ascending stairs task allowed verification of meaningful information regarding gait strategies used by individuals with mild and moderate knee OA. The strategies of these two groups of individuals are different for this task, although more pronounced in individuals with moderate knee OA. The findings should be taken into account in the development of rehabilitation programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Social cognition in patients with schizophrenia, their unaffected first degree relatives and healthy controls. Comparison between groups and analysis of associated clinical and sociodemographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Sosa, Juana Teresa; Gil Santiago, Hiurma; Trujillo Cubas, Angel; Winter Navarro, Marta; León Pérez, Petra; Guerra Cazorla, Luz Marina; Martín Jiménez, José María

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the social cognition in patients with schizophrenia, healthy first-degree relatives and controls, by studying the relationship between social cognition and nonsocial cognition, psychopathology, and other clinical and sociodemographic variables. The total sample was comprised of patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia (N = 29), healthy first-degree relatives (N = 21) and controls (N = 28). All groups were assessed with an ad hoc questionnaire and a Social Cognition Scale, which assessed the domains: emotional processing, social perception and attributional style in a Spanish population. The patient group was also assessed with the Scale for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Mini-mental state examination. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS version 15.0. Patients scored significantly worse in all domains of social cognition assessed, compared with controls, and mastery attributional style, compared with relatives. The type of psychopathology correlated negatively and statistically significantly with different domains of social cognition: negative symptoms with emotional processing and attributional style, and positive symptoms with social perception. Basic cognition scores correlated positively and statistically significantly with the domains social perception and attributional style. Social cognition has become an interesting object of study, especially in how it relates to non-social cognition, psychopathology and global functioning of patients, bringing new elements to be considered in the early detection, comprehensive treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation of patients. Its conceptualization as trait variable, the consideration of the existence of a continuum between patients and relatives are plausible hypotheses that require further research. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. The Top Theological Degree Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first…

  11. Anticollagen type II antibodies are associated with an acute onset rheumatoid arthritis phenotype and prognosticate lower degree of inflammation during 5 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivel, Vivek Anand; Mullazehi, Mohammed; Padyukov, Leonid; Westerlind, Helga; Klareskog, Lars; Alfredsson, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Rönnelid, Johan

    2017-09-01

    Antifibrillar collagen type II (anti-CII) antibody-positive patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have early but not late signs of increased inflammation and joint erosions. We wanted to replicate this in a large RA cohort, and to relate to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1* alleles. Anti-CII and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP)2 were measured at baseline in 773 patients with RA from the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation in Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA) study with clinical follow-up data from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register (SRQ) registry, and 1476 with HLA-DRB1* information. Comparisons were done concerning C reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), tender joint count (TJC), swollen joint count (SJC), Disease Activity Score encompassing 28 joints based on ESR (DAS28), DAS28CRP, pain-Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), global-VAS and Health Assessment Questionnaire Score (HAQ) at eight occasions during 5 years, and association with HLA-DRB1* alleles. Anti-CII associated with elevated CRP, ESR, SJC, DAS28 and DAS28CRP at diagnosis and up to 6 months, whereas anti-CCP2 associated with SJC and DAS28 from 6 months to 5 years, but not earlier. The anti-CII-associated phenotype was strong, and predominated in anti-CII/anti-CCP2 double-positive patients. Anti-CII was associated with improvements in CRP, ESR, SJC, TJC and DAS28, whereas anti-CCP2 was associated with deteriorations in SJC and DAS28 over time. Anti-CII-positive patients achieved European League Against Rheumatism good or moderate response more often than negative patients. Anti-CII was positively associated with HLA-DRB1*01 and HLA-DRB1*03, with significant interaction, and double-positive individuals had >14 times higher mean anti-CII levels than HLA double negatives. Whereas smoking was associated with elevated anti-CCP2 levels, smokers had lower anti-CII levels. Anti-CII seropositive RA represents a distinct phenotype, in many respects representing the converse

  12. A lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation in women with lower folate status may explain the MTHFR C677T polymorphism associated higher risk of CIN in the US post folic acid fortification era.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguna Badiga

    Full Text Available Studies in populations unexposed to folic acid (FA fortification have demonstrated that MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with increased risk of higher grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+. However, it is unknown whether exposure to higher folate as a result of the FA fortification program has altered the association between MTHFR C677T and risk of CIN, or the mechanisms involved with such alterations. The current study investigated the following in a FA fortified population: 1 The association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and risk of CIN 2+; 2 The modifying effects of plasma folate concentrations on this association; and 3 The modifying effects of plasma folate on the association between the polymorphism and degree of methylation of long interspersed nucleotide elements (L1s, in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC DNA, a documented biomarker of CIN risk.The study included 457 US women diagnosed with either CIN 2+ (cases or ≤ CIN 1 (non-cases. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to test the associations after adjusting for relevant risk factors for CIN.The 677CT/TT MTHFR genotypes were not associated with the risk of CIN 2+. Women with CT/TT genotype with lower folate, however, were more likely to be diagnosed with CIN 2+ compared to women with CT/TT genotype with higher folate (OR = 2.41, P = 0.030. Women with CT/TT genotype with lower folate were less likely to have a higher degree of PBMC L1 methylation compared to women with CT/TT genotype with higher folate (OR = 0.28, P = 0.017.This study provides the first evidence that the MTHFR 677CT/TT genotype-associated lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation increases the risk of CIN 2+ in women in the US post-FA fortification era. Thus, even in the post-FA fortification era, not all women have adequate folate status to overcome MTHFR 677CT/TT genotype-associated lower degree of L1 methylation.

  13. Vertical distribution of bacterial community is associated with the degree of soil organic matter decomposition in the active layer of moist acidic tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Min; Lee, Min Jin; Jung, Ji Young; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Kim, Mincheol; Ro, Hee-Myong; Chun, Jongsik; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2016-11-01

    The increasing temperature in Arctic tundra deepens the active layer, which is the upper layer of permafrost soil that experiences repeated thawing and freezing. The increasing of soil temperature and the deepening of active layer seem to affect soil microbial communities. Therefore, information on soil microbial communities at various soil depths is essential to understand their potential responses to climate change in the active layer soil. We investigated the community structure of soil bacteria in the active layer from moist acidic tundra in Council, Alaska. We also interpreted their relationship with some relevant soil physicochemical characteristics along soil depth with a fine scale (5 cm depth interval). The bacterial community structure was found to change along soil depth. The relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and candidate phylum WPS-2 rapidly decreased with soil depth, while those of Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, and candidate AD3 rapidly increased. A structural shift was also found in the soil bacterial communities around 20 cm depth, where two organic (upper Oi and lower Oa) horizons are subdivided. The quality and the decomposition degree of organic matter might have influenced the bacterial community structure. Besides the organic matter quality, the vertical distribution of bacterial communities was also found to be related to soil pH and total phosphorus content. This study showed the vertical change of bacterial community in the active layer with a fine scale resolution and the possible influence of the quality of soil organic matter on shaping bacterial community structure.

  14. Branched Chain Amino Acids Are Associated with Insulin Resistance Independent of Leptin and Adiponectin in Subjects with Varying Degrees of Glucose Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connelly, Margery A.; Wolak-Dinsmore, Justyna; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Background: Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development. Adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin influence insulin resistance and reflect adipocyte dysfunction. We examined the

  15. Impact of methods used to express levels of circulating fatty acids on the degree and direction of associations with blood lipids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Susan; Ruczinski, Ingo; Ivester, Priscilla; Lee, Tammy C; Morgan, Timothy M; Nicklas, Barbara J; Mathias, Rasika A; Chilton, Floyd H

    2016-01-28

    Numerous studies have examined relationships between disease biomarkers (such as blood lipids) and levels of circulating or cellular fatty acids. In such association studies, fatty acids have typically been expressed as the percentage of a particular fatty acid relative to the total fatty acids in a sample. Using two human cohorts, this study examined relationships between blood lipids (TAG, and LDL, HDL or total cholesterol) and circulating fatty acids expressed either as a percentage of total or as concentration in serum. The direction of the correlation between stearic acid, linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and DHA and circulating TAG reversed when fatty acids were expressed as concentrations v. a percentage of total. Similar reversals were observed for these fatty acids when examining their associations with the ratio of total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol. This reversal pattern was replicated in serum samples from both human cohorts. The correlations between blood lipids and fatty acids expressed as a percentage of total could be mathematically modelled from the concentration data. These data reveal that the different methods of expressing fatty acids lead to dissimilar correlations between blood lipids and certain fatty acids. This study raises important questions about how such reversals in association patterns impact the interpretation of numerous association studies evaluating fatty acids and their relationships with disease biomarkers or risk.

  16. Branched Chain Amino Acids Are Associated with Insulin Resistance Independent of Leptin and Adiponectin in Subjects with Varying Degrees of Glucose Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connelly, Margery A.; Wolak-Dinsmore, Justyna; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development. Adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin influence insulin resistance and reflect adipocyte dysfunction. We examined the exten

  17. Plant-associated odor perception and processing in two parasitoid species with different degrees of host specificity: Implications for host location strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prithwiraj; Morawo, Tolulope; Fadamiro, Henry

    2017-08-01

    Microplitis croceipes and Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are parasitoids of lepidopteran larvae with different degrees of host specificity. Both parasitoid species rely on host-related plant volatiles as odor cues to locate their herbivore hosts. To better understand mechanisms of odor processing in parasitoids, we tested responses of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the antennal sensilla placodea of female parasitoids to select plant volatiles and mixtures. The compounds tested include two green leaf volatiles (i.e., cis-3-hexenol and hexanal) and three herbivore-induced plant volatiles (i.e., cis-3-hexenyl butyrate, cis-3-hexenyl acetate and linalool). Single-sensillum recording showed that the test compounds elicited activity in large and small amplitude neurons housed in the short sensilla placodea of both parasitoid species. In general, C. marginiventris showed greater OSN responses to a low dose while M. croceipes showed greater responses to a high dose of test compounds. Binary mixtures of cis-3-hexenol and linalool inhibited OSN activity in M. croceipes, but not in C. marginiventris. These differences may have implications for odor discrimination in the two parasitoid species. In addition, anterograde neurobiotin stainings were performed to map glomerular projections of OSNs in the antennal lobe of the parasitoids. In M. croceipes, a mixture of cis-3-hexenol and linalool inhibited activity of the glomerulus activated by cis-3-hexenol alone. In C. marginiventris, a mixture of cis-3-hexenol and cis-3-hexenyl acetate showed intense labeling in their respective glomeruli, possibly suggesting a synergistic interaction. These differences in detection and coding of single compounds and mixtures may impact host location strategies in the two parasitoid species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of Late Gadolinium Enhancement and Degree of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Assessed on Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Ventricular Tachycardia in Children With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Joseph A; Noel, Cory V; Denfield, Susan W; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Jeewa, Aamir; Dreyer, William J; Maskatia, Shiraz A

    2016-04-15

    There are limited data on the clinical significance of left ventricular (LV) mass and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in pediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). We reviewed cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) studies of children with HC to investigate the associations between the extent and distribution of LGE and LV mass with ventricular tachycardia (VT) in children with HC. A blinded observer reviewed CMR studies for the presence and distribution of LV hypertrophy and LGE using a 17-segment model. The primary outcome was VT. LGE was present 17 of 33 subjects (52%). VT was present on outpatient Holter monitor or exercise stress test in 7 patients, of which 5 patients (71%) had LGE. Each additional segment of LGE was associated with an increase in the odds of VT (odds ratio [OR] 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.9) and fewer than 5 segments with LGE had 93% specificity for the presence or absence of VT (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.5). VT was more common in patients with LGE in the apical septal (p = 0.03), basal inferoseptal (p <0.01), and basal inferior (p = 0.04) segments, whereas LGE in more commonly involved segments (midanteroseptal and midinferoseptal) was not associated with VT (p = 0.13, 0.26). Patients with VT had greater LV mass index (76.4 ± 40.4 g/m(2.7) vs 50.9 ± 24.3 g/m(2.7); p = 0.03). Each centimeter of increased maximum LV thickness was associated with increased likelihood of VT (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 6.8). In conclusion, in pediatric HC, CMR to evaluate the extent and pattern of LGE, LV mass index, and maximum LV thickness may help to identify children with HC at risk of VT.

  19. Laser hazard analysis for LASIRIS Model MAG-501L-670M-1000-45[degree]-K diode laser associated with high resolution pulsed scanner.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-11-01

    A laser hazard analysis and safety assessment was performed for the LASIRISTM Model MAG-501L-670M-1000-45o-K diode laser associated with the High Resolution Pulse Scanner based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The laser was evaluated for both indoor and outdoor use.

  20. Inverse Degree and Connectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-ling; TIAN Ying-zhi

    2013-01-01

    Let G be a connected graph with vertex set V(G),order n =丨V(G)丨,minimum degree δ(G) and connectivity κ(G).The graph G is called maximally connected if κ(G) =δ(G).Define the inverse degree of G with no isolated vertices as R(G) =Σv∈V(G)1/d(v),where d(v) denotes the degree of the vertex v.We show that G is maximally connected if R(G) < 1 + 2/δ + n-2δ+1/(n-1)(n-3).

  1. Nonlinear Absorption Spectroscopy of Porphyrin J-aggregates in Aqueous Solution: Evidence for Control of Degree of Association by Light-Induced Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Masayuki; Nakata, Kazuaki; Suzuki, Masaya; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Tokunaga, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    Spectroscopic evidence was obtained for molecular aggregation states to be controlled by the irradiation of light, which is off-resonant below the peak absorption energies of both monomers and well-grown J-aggregates. In low (undersaturated)-concentration aqueous solutions of porphyrin molecules (tetraphenyl porphyrin tetrasulfonic acid; TPPS) where the monomer absorbance dominates, irradiation with a 532 nm laser induces a decrease in the monomer absorbance and an increase in the aggregate absorbance. The increase in the absorbance of J-aggregates occurs in a broad spectral range associated with the increase in the number of not only variously sized oligomer aggregates but also aggregates structurally different from well-grown stable J-aggregates. In high-concentration solutions where the J-aggregate absorbance dominates, a blue shift of the absorption peak of J-aggregates is induced at the same 532 nm irradiation, corresponding to a decrease in the aggregation number or in the association energy. By contrast, for spin-coated polymer films of monomers and J-aggregates where molecules are immobile, these features are not observed. It is remarkable that the gradient force potential is smaller by more than seven orders of magnitude than the kinetic energy of the thermal motion of the molecule at room temperature, but the absorption change in solution indicating the increase in the number of aggregates is as large as ΔA ˜ 10-3 in magnitude.

  2. Degree by Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtis, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Discusses a student's experience with a research project on the synthesis and reactions of an organo-platinum complex with an organo-Group IV linkage, including the advantages and disadvantages of such a degree by thesis course. (CC)

  3. Investigating the degree of "stigma" associated with nuclear energy technologies: A cross-cultural examination of the case of fusion power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlick-Jones, Tom; Prades, Ana; Espluga, Josep

    2012-07-01

    The extent to which nuclear energy technologies are, in some sense, "stigmatised" by historical environmental and military associations is of particular interest in contemporary debates about sustainable energy policy. Recent claims in the literature suggest that despite such stigmatisation, lay views on such technologies may be shifting towards a "reluctant acceptance," in the light of concerns about issues like anthropogenic climate change. In this paper, we report on research into learning and reasoning processes concerned with a largely unknown nuclear energy technology; namely fusion power. We focus on the role of the nuclear label, or "brand," in informing how lay citizens make sense of the nature of this technology. Our findings derive from a comparative analysis of data generated in Spain and Britain, using the same methodology.

  4. Antiretrovirals, Methamphetamine, and HIV-1 Envelope Protein gp120 Compromise Neuronal Energy Homeostasis in Association with Various Degrees of Synaptic and Neuritic Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana B; Varano, Giuseppe P; de Rozieres, Cyrus M; Maung, Ricky; Catalan, Irene C; Dowling, Cari C; Sejbuk, Natalia E; Hoefer, Melanie M; Kaul, Marcus

    2015-10-19

    HIV-1 infection frequently causes HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Evidence is accumulating that components of cART can themselves be neurotoxic upon long-term exposure. In addition, abuse of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine, seems to aggravate HAND and compromise antiretroviral therapy. However, the combined effect of virus and recreational and therapeutic drugs on the brain is poorly understood. Therefore, we exposed mixed neuronal-glial cerebrocortical cells to antiretrovirals (ARVs) (zidovudine [AZT], nevirapine [NVP], saquinavir [SQV], and 118-D-24) of four different pharmacological categories and to methamphetamine and, in some experiments, the HIV-1 gp120 protein for 24 h and 7 days. Subsequently, we assessed neuronal injury by fluorescence microscopy, using specific markers for neuronal dendrites and presynaptic terminals. We also analyzed the disturbance of neuronal ATP levels and assessed the involvement of autophagy by using immunofluorescence and Western blotting. ARVs caused alterations of neurites and presynaptic terminals primarily during the 7-day incubation and depending on the specific compounds and their combinations with and without methamphetamine. Similarly, the loss of neuronal ATP was context specific for each of the drugs or combinations thereof, with and without methamphetamine or viral gp120. Loss of ATP was associated with activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and autophagy, which, however, failed to restore normal levels of neuronal ATP. In contrast, boosting autophagy with rapamycin prevented the long-term drop of ATP during exposure to cART in combination with methamphetamine or gp120. Our findings indicate that the overall positive effect of cART on HIV infection is accompanied by detectable neurotoxicity, which in turn may be aggravated by methamphetamine.

  5. Bloodstream infection caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in cancer patients: high mortality associated with delayed treatment rather than with the degree of neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, M P; de Oliveira Garcia, D; Garcia, C P; Campagnari Bueno, M F; Camargo, C H; Kono Magri, A S G; Francisco, G R; Reghini, R; Vieira, M F; Ibrahim, K Y; Rossi, F; Hajjar, L; Levin, A S; Hoff, P M; Pierrotti, L C; Abdala, E

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to describe severe infections with extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex (XDR-ABC), as well as to investigate risk factors for mortality, in cancer patients. It was a retrospective study including all patients diagnosed with XDR-ABC bacteraemia during hospitalization in the intensive care unit of a cancer hospital between July 2009 and July 2013. Surveillance cultures were collected weekly during the study period, and clonality was analysed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We analysed underlying diseases, oncology therapy, neutrophil counts, infection site and management of infection, in terms of their correlation with 30-day mortality. During the study period, 92 patients with XDR-ABC bacteraemia were identified, of whom 35 (38.0%) were patients with haematological malignancy. We identified XDR-ABC strains with four different profile patterns, 91.3% of patients harbouring the predominant PFGE type. Of the 92 patients with XDR-ABC bacteraemia, 66 (71.7%) had central line-associated bloodstream infections; infection occurred during neutropenia in 22 (23.9%); and 58 (63.0%) died before receiving the appropriate therapy. All patients were treated with polymyxin, which was used in combination therapy in 30 of them (32.4%). The 30-day mortality rate was 83.7%. Multivariate analysis revealed that septic shock at diagnosis of XDR-ABC infection was a risk factor for 30-day mortality; protective factors were receiving appropriate therapy and invasive device removal within the first 48 h. Among cancer patients, ineffective management of such infection increases the risk of death, more so than do features such as neutropenia and infection at the tumour site.

  6. Online size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography light scattering and differential refractometry methods to determine degree of polymer conjugation to proteins and protein-protein or protein-ligand association states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, B S; Kerwin, B A; Chang, B S; Philo, J S

    2001-12-15

    Characterizing the solution structure of protein-polymer conjugates and protein-ligand interactions is important in fields such as biotechnology and biochemistry. Size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography with online classical light scattering (LS), refractive index (RI), and UV detection offers a powerful tool in such characterization. Novel methods are presented utilizing LS, RI, and UV signals to rapidly determine the degree of conjugation and the molecular mass of the protein conjugate. Baseline resolution of the chromatographic peaks is not required; peaks need only be sufficiently separated to represent relatively pure fractions. An improved technique for determining the polypeptide-only mass of protein conjugates is also described. These techniques are applied to determining the degree of erythropoietin glycosylation, the degree of polyethylene glycol conjugation to RNase A and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and the solution association states of these molecules. Calibration methods for the RI, UV, and LS detectors will also be addressed, as well as online methods to determine protein extinction coefficients and dn/dc values both unconjugated and conjugated protein molecules. (c)2001 Elsevier Science.

  7. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    De Marco, N

    2013-01-01

    Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.

  8. Physics to a degree

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, EG

    2014-01-01

    Physics to a Degree provides an extensive collection of problems suitable for self-study or tutorial and group work at the level of an undergraduate physics course. This novel set of exercises draws together the core elements of an undergraduate physics degree and provides students with the problem solving skills needed for general physics' examinations and for real-life situations encountered by the professional physicist. Topics include force, momentum, gravitation, Bernoulli's Theorem, magnetic fields, blackbody radiation, relativistic travel, mechanics near the speed of light, radioactive

  9. Degree of Competition of Consumer Loan Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Kubota; Yoshiro Tsutsui

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the degree of competition of consumer loan industry in Japan utilizing responses to a questionnaire survey conducted by Japan Consumer Finance Association. Estimating the cost function, we found that the industry is characterized by large scale economies. Estimation of Lerner index, H-statistics, degree of noncompetition, and degree of collusion reveals that consumer loan market is highly monopolistic. Consumer loan companies answered to a question tha...

  10. One Degree of Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jean

    2012-01-01

    A 2011 survey of young adults conducted by Public Agenda found that a cluster of obstacles have prevented many of them from competing college. The author describes the opportunity, college awareness, and funding gaps that put a postsecondary degree out of the reach of so many young people. For example, just 3 in 10 non-college-completers are aware…

  11. Academic Dishonesty among Associate Degree Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study identified socio-demographic and situational conditions that affected 336 nursing students' engagement in academic dishonesty, their attitudes regarding various forms of academic dishonesty, and the prevalence of academic dishonesty they witnessed and engaged in. Over half of the participants reported cheating in the…

  12. Academic Dishonesty among Associate Degree Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study identified socio-demographic and situational conditions that affected 336 nursing students' engagement in academic dishonesty, their attitudes regarding various forms of academic dishonesty, and the prevalence of academic dishonesty they witnessed and engaged in. Over half of the participants reported cheating in the…

  13. Association between risk factors, basal viral load, virus genotype and the degree of liver fibrosis with the response to the therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Vuk R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hepatitis C is an important sociomedical problem worldwide due to frequent progression to chronic disease, occurrence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Standard pegylated interferon alfa 2a plus ribavirin therapy results in resolution of infection only in 50% of patients. The aim of this study was to determine the association of various factors with response to the therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Age and sex of patients, inoculation risk factors, histopathological changes in the liver, viral load and HCV genotype were analyzed. Methods. The study included a group of 121 patients with chronic HCV infection. The treatment was carried out 24 weeks for virus genotype 2 and 3, and 48 weeks for genotype 1 and 4. The degree of histopathological changes in the liver was determined by hematoxylin and eosin staining, whereas polimerase chain reaction was used for HCV genotyping. Results. In the group of non-responding patients genotype 1 was represented with 100%, while in the other groups, although predominantly present, its percentage was lower. Unresponsiveness to therapy and relapse of disease were associated with higher viral load and advanced fibrosis. Intravenous use of psychoactive substances, as a risk factor, was present in a high percentage in the group of patients with sustained response, while blood transfusion and dialysis were leading risk factors in the group of relapse responders and non-responders. Conclusion. The results of our study showed that the treatment outcome of chronic HCV infection was associated with baseline HCV ribonucleic acid, HCV genotype, route of infection and the degree of histopathological changes in the liver. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41010

  14. BH3-only protein Bim is associated with the degree of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis and is localized to the mitochondria of inflammatory cells in the gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Yuko; Matsuda, Katsuya; Isomoto, Hajime; Matsushima, Kayoko; Kido, Yoko; Urabe, Shigetoshi; Yamaghchi, Naoyuki; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Tsugawa, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Moss, Joel; Nakao, Kazuhiko; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    BH3-only protein, Bim, is a pro-apoptotic protein that mediates mitochondria-dependent cell death. However, the role of Bim in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the cellular localization of Bim and its possible role in H. pylori-induced gastritis. The study was conducted on biopsy specimens obtained from 80 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (H. pylori-negative: n=30, positive: n=50). Association between Bim mRNA expression and severity of gastritis was evaluated and the localization of Bim was examined by immunofluorescence. Bim mRNA expression was positively correlated with the degree of gastritis, as defined by the Sydney system. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed increased Bim expression in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa compared with uninfected mucosa in both humans and mice. Bim localized in myeloperoxidase- and CD138-positive cells of H. pylori-infected lamina propria and submucosa of the gastric tract, indicating that this protein is predominantly expressed in neutrophils and plasma cells. In contrast, Bim did not localize in CD20-, CD3-, or CD68-positive cells. Bim was expressed in the mitochondria, where it was partially co-localized with activated Bax and cleaved-PARP. In conclusion, Bim is expressed in neutrophils and plasma cells in H. pylori-associated gastritis, where it may participate in the termination of inflammatory response by causing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in specific leucocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Trends in all-cause five-year mortality after head and neck cancers diagnosed over a period of 33 years. Focus on estimated degree of association with human papillomavirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Munk, Christian; Nielsen, Thor S S

    2016-01-01

    associated with HPV, i.e. the base of the tongue and the tonsils, where a 28% decrease per five years (e.g. HRbase of tongue/tonsils=0.72; 95% CI 0.64-0.81) was observed. When examining sex- and age-specific time trends, the decrease in mortality was most pronounced among male patients and patients below 60......-based cohort study of all 20 925 individuals diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) in Denmark 1978-2010, we investigate secular trends in all-cause five-year mortality after HNSCC according to the anticipated degree of association with HPV using a Cox proportional hazards model....... Furthermore, we examine whether any trend over time differed according to sex, stage, and age at diagnosis. RESULTS: All-cause five-year mortality after HNSCC has decreased over time. The greatest decrease was seen in the last decade (2000-2010) among patients with HNSCC at sites estimated to be strongly...

  16. 旅行社基于灰色关联度及熵权分析的聚类研究%The Travel Agency Clustering Research Based on Grey Associated Degree and Entropy Weight Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑詠霆

    2012-01-01

    提出以旅行社顾客满意度为依据的聚类方法.确定旅行社样本及评价指标体系,对满意度数据进行标准化处理,计算各指标熵权并归一确定权重,计算各旅行社样本的关联系数、关联度.由此,以离差平方和最小为聚类标准,对样本逐一聚类,得出一个动态聚类过程并用图表示.对确定的分类数,则得出确定分类.举出实例,得出分类为4类时,分为{x1,x3,x5,x6,x7,x8}{x2}{x4}{x9,x10}的结果.%The paper advances the clustering method based on the customers' degree of satisfaction from travel agency. The paper decides the samples of the travel agency and the system of assessment, and provides standard process of the satisfaction data. The paper calculates the indexes' entropy weight and determines the weight by unification, and also calculates the samples' associated ratio and degree. Therefore, by clustering standard from the sum of squared residuals minimum, the paper clusters the samples one by one,and concludes a dynamic clustering process illustrated by graph. For the determined number of categories, the paper arrives at determined assortments. The paper arrives at the result of four categories by illustration: {x1 ,x3, x5 ,x6 ,x7 ,xg } {x2 } {x4 } {x9 ,x10).

  17. 人际关系对大专护生实习效果影响的质性研究%Effect of interpersonal relationship on clinical practice outcome of associate degree nursing students: A qualitative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐然; 沈军

    2014-01-01

    目的 构建适用于大专护生的人际关系内涵的诠释理论.方法 采用扎根理论研究法对10名大专生进行深度访谈,经过三级编码和反复比较,确定大专生临床实习中的人际关系内涵.结果 本研究形成的人际关系内涵,核心概念为“获得归属感”,主要受到带教老师、护士长、患者及家属、本科实习生、医生的影响.结论 根据该诠释理论,可构建和谐的临床实习人际关系,提高实习效果.%Objective To construct interpretation theory which is suitable to explain the connotation of interpersonal relationship among associate degree nursing students.Methods The data were collected through deep interviews.The content of interpersonal relationship was affirmed by three-level coding and comparing repeatedly.Results The core concept was "gaining a feeling of belonging" and it could be affected by 5 generic concepts including clinical teachers,head nurses,baccalaureate degree nursing students,patients and doctors.Conclusions Harmonious interpersonal relationship can be built according to the theory of interpretation and practice outcomes can be improved.

  18. Trends in all-cause five-year mortality after head and neck cancers diagnosed over a period of 33 years. Focus on estimated degree of association with human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, Malene F; Munk, Christian; Nielsen, Thor S S; von Buchwald, Christian; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K

    Factors influencing survival after head and neck cancer (HNC) include among others stage, age, and sex. More recently, human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity has been described as a favorable prognostic factor in relation to some HNCs. In this nationwide register-based cohort study of all 20 925 individuals diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) in Denmark 1978-2010, we investigate secular trends in all-cause five-year mortality after HNSCC according to the anticipated degree of association with HPV using a Cox proportional hazards model. Furthermore, we examine whether any trend over time differed according to sex, stage, and age at diagnosis. All-cause five-year mortality after HNSCC has decreased over time. The greatest decrease was seen in the last decade (2000-2010) among patients with HNSCC at sites estimated to be strongly associated with HPV, i.e. the base of the tongue and the tonsils, where a 28% decrease per five years (e.g. HRbase of tongue/tonsils=0.72; 95% CI 0.64-0.81) was observed. When examining sex- and age-specific time trends, the decrease in mortality was most pronounced among male patients and patients below 60 years at diagnosis. In contrast, no clear pattern was observed when examining five-year all-cause mortality trends according to stage. All-cause five-year mortality after HNSCC has decreased significantly in Denmark from 1978 to 2010, especially for HNSCCs at sites anticipated to be strongly associated with HPV, possibly due to an increasing proportion of HPV-positive HNSCCs.

  19. The practice performance and clinical learning environment among associated degree nursing students%高职护理专业学生实习成绩与临床学习环境的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金银; 程云

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the practice performance among associated degree nursing students and their perceptions of clinical learning environment. Methods The associated degree nursing students from 36 hospitals in Zhejiang province were recruited and investigated by using Clinical Learning Environment Inventory. Their practice performance was recorded based on the practice records. Results The total score of clinical learning environment was (173.07±16.02),and the factor scores were ranked as task location (26.68 ±3.98),interpersonal relation (26.01±4.60), student participation (25.64 ±4.44),work atmosphere and team culture (25.54±4.42) ,innovation (25.41±4.60),and individuation (24.50±5.36).The students' practice performance covered from 60.00 to 99.25 points. The scores showed skewness distribution,and the coefficient of skewness was -2.22. The students' practice performance was significantly higher in upper first-class hospitals than that in middle first-class or upper second-class hospitals. No relationship was found between the practice performance and their perceptions of clinical learning environment. Conclusion The score of practice performance among associated degree nursing students is relatively high,which is not correlated with their perceptions of clinical learning environment. It is suggested to apply formative assessment and third party evaluation system,pay close attention to the training of students' individuation and innovation,and strengthen particular management and thereby to improve the effectiveness of clinical practice.%目的 了解高职护理专业学生实习成绩情况,以及其对临床学习环境的评价.方法 采用便利抽样方法,选择在浙江省36家二级甲等以上教学医院实习的高职护理学生为调查对象,应用临床学习环境(氛围)评价量表、学生成绩登记表对其进行调查.结果 学生对临床学习环境评价总分为(173.07±16.02)分,各维度评分

  20. Degree-degree dependencies in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstad, van der Remco; Litvak, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar degre

  1. Degree-Degree Dependencies in Random Graphs with Heavy-Tailed Degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hofstad, Remco; Litvak, Nelli

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar

  2. Quantitative modeling of degree-degree correlation in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Niño, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the modeling of degree-degree correlation in complex networks. Thus, a simple function, \\Delta(k', k), describing specific degree-to- degree correlations is considered. The function is well suited to graphically depict assortative and disassortative variations within networks. To quantify degree correlation variations, the joint probability distribution between nodes with arbitrary degrees, P(k', k), is used. Introduction of the end-degree probability function as a basic variable allows using group theory to derive mathematical models for P(k', k). In this form, an expression, representing a family of seven models, is constructed with the needed normalization conditions. Applied to \\Delta(k', k), this expression predicts a nonuniform distribution of degree correlation in networks, organized in two assortative and two disassortative zones. This structure is actually observed in a set of four modeled, technological, social, and biological networks. A regression study performed...

  3. The analysis of the foreign teaching materials of nursing pharmacology for the associate degree students%国外专科层次护理药理学教材的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沁

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzed the characteristics of the foreign teaching materials of nursing pharmacology for the associate degree students, which included emphasizing the nurse's role and showing the clientcentered philosophy; defining the study objectives and testing the study results; stressing the practical uses of the study contents in the nursing work; highlighting the client health education; concerning the biopsychosociocultural factors affecting the drug administration. The quality of the domestic teaching materials could be improved by learning these characteristics.%本文通过对国外专科层次护理药理学教材的分析,得出国外版教材的特点,具体如下:强调护士的作用,体现以病人为中心的理念;明确学习目标,检测学习效果;注重学习内容在护理工作中的实用性;强调对患者健康教育的内容;关注生物、心理、社会文化、精神因素对用药的影响.通过借鉴国外教材的编写特点,可提高我国高职高专药理学教材的编写质量.

  4. Characterisation of UK diets according to degree of food processing and associations with socio-demographics and obesity: cross-sectional analysis of UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-12-18

    Food processing alters food from its natural state for safety, convenience, taste or palatability. Previous research suggests that industrially processed foods, and diets high in these products, tend to be less healthful. However, most previous work is based on household, rather than individual-level, data. Little has been reported on the relationship between processed food consumption and markers of health; or on socio-demographic correlates of processed food consumption. Our objective was to describe: the nutritional content of foods classified according to degree of processing; the nutritional content of diets with different relative intakes of processed foods; the socio-demographic characteristics of individuals with different relative intakes of processed foods; and the association between intake of processed foods and body weight. Secondary analysis of data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-12), a large national cross-sectional study of diet. Dietary information was collected using four-day, unweighed, food-diaries. Foods were classified as: unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF; foods with no processing or mostly physical processes applied to single whole foods), processed ingredients (PI; extracted and purified components of single whole foods), or ultra-processed food products (UPF; products produced from industrial combining of MPF and PI). Two thousand one hundred seventy four adults were included. MPF and diets high in these foods, had the most healthful nutritional profile. UPF did not necessarily have the least healthful nutritional profile, but diets high in these foods did. Women, and older adults consumed more energy from MPF, and less from UPF. Those living in lower occupation social class households consumed less energy from MPF, but no more from UPF. Only higher intake of PI was consistently, inversely, associated with body weight. This is the first study to explore correlates of processed food consumption, using individual

  5. Rethinking the Bachelor Degree Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Anne Elisabeth; Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The text contains reflections on the background for rethinking the bachelor degree course at the Aarhus School of Architecture.......The text contains reflections on the background for rethinking the bachelor degree course at the Aarhus School of Architecture....

  6. Why do different people choose different university degrees? Motivation and the choice of degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skatova, Anya; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2014-01-01

    Different people choose undergraduate degrees to study at university for different reasons. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify individual differences in motivation that drive undergraduate degree choice. We identified that people choose university degrees for four reasons: career concerns (Career), intrinsic interest in the subject (Interest), an opportunity to help others (Helping) and because they are looking for an easy option to get into higher education (Loafing). We investigated whether these motivations apply to the choice of undergraduate degree in two samples: (1) undergraduate (N = 989) and (2) prospective (N = 896) students. We developed the Motivations Influencing Course Choice (MICC) questionnaire to measure these motivations. Scales of Helping, Career, Loafing, and Interest showed good psychometric properties, showed validity with respect to general life goals and personality traits, and predicted actual and prospective degree choices. We demonstrated that medical degrees were chosen due to a mixture of Helping and Career, while engineering degrees were associated with Career and low Interest in the degree. The choice of arts and humanities degrees was driven by Interest and low concern about future career, accompanied with high Loafing. We also demonstrated gender differences: females were high in Helping (both samples) and Interest (only in the undergraduate sample) motivation, while males scored higher in Career (only in the undergraduate sample) and Loafing (both samples). The findings can feed into both theoretical accounts of proximal motivation as well as provide help to improve degree programmes at universities and support better career advice. PMID:25431561

  7. Why do different people choose different university degrees? Motivation and the choice of degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya eSkatova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Different people choose which undergraduate degree to study at the university for different reasons. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify individual differences in motivation that drive the undergraduate degree choice. We identified that people choose university degrees for four reasons: career concerns (Career, intrinsic interest (Interest in the subject, an opportunity to help others (Helping and because they are looking for an easy option into higher education (Loafing. We investigated whether these motivation apply to the choice of undergraduate degree in two samples: (1 undergraduate (N = 989 and (2 prospective (N = 896 students. We developed the Motivations Influencing Course Choice (MICC questionnaire to measure these motivations. Scales of Helping, Career, Loafing and Interest showed good psychometric properties, showed validity with respect to general life goals and personality traits, and predicted actual and prospective degree choices. We demonstrated that medical degrees were chosen due to a mixture of Helping and Career, while engineering degrees were associated with Career and low interest in the degree. The choice of art and humanities degrees was driven by Interest and low concern about future career, accompanied with high Loafing. We also demonstrated gender differences: females were high in Helping (both samples and Interest (only in undergraduate sample motivation, while males scored higher in Career (only in undergraduate sample and Loafing (both samples. The findings can feed into both theoretical accounts of proximal motivation as well as help to improve degree programmes at universities and provide better career advice.

  8. Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

  9. Degree-degree correlations in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; van der Hofstad, Remco

    2012-01-01

    We investigate degree-degree correlations for scale-free graph sequences. The main conclusion of this paper is that the assortativity coefficient is not the appropriate way to describe degree-dependences in scale-free random graphs. Indeed, we study the infinite volume limit of the assortativity

  10. Degree-degree correlations in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; van der Hofstad, Remco

    2012-01-01

    We investigate degree-degree correlations for scale-free graph sequences. The main conclusion of this paper is that the assortativity coefficient is not the appropriate way to describe degree-dependences in scale-free random graphs. Indeed, we study the infinite volume limit of the assortativity coe

  11. Graduate Physics Degrees: Largest Departments and Degree Distribution. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    In the 2011-12 academic year there were 751 degree-granting physics departments in the U.S. Of these, 195 offered a PhD and 62 departments offered a master's as the highest physics degree. The remaining 494 departments offered a bachelor's as their highest physics degree. There were six universities that had two doctoral-granting physics…

  12. The Applied Baccalaureate Degree: The Right Time and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, Collin M.; Bragg, Debra D.; Townsend, Barbara K.

    2010-01-01

    The applied baccalaureate degree, which integrates once-terminal applied associate degrees and course work into a four-year degree, is a relatively new phenomenon in higher education. This article presents findings from the first of two phases of research conducted--utilizing Kingdon's (1995) Multiple Streams framework--exploring the status of…

  13. Teaching Third-Degree Price Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, David K.; McIver, Ron P.

    2006-01-01

    Third-degree price discrimination is taught in almost every intermediate microeconomics class. The theory, geometry, and the algebra behind the concept are simple, and the phenomenon is commonly associated with the sale of many of the goods and services used frequently by students. Classroom discussion is usually vibrant as students can relate…

  14. The Top American Indian Degree Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" publishes lists of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at the Indiana University Bloomington. This year, Diverse staff…

  15. Degree Depreciation: A Fait Accompli for the Liberal Arts Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplass, James A.

    1976-01-01

    The liberal arts degree will continue to lack the credibility needed to compete with professional school degrees in the job market unless a return is made to rigourous standards, subjective tests, term papers, comprehensive exams, improvement in instructional methods, and more stringent curriculum requirements for foreign language, composition,…

  16. Research Degrees as Professional Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnacle, Robyn; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing trend within higher education and, more specifically, in higher degrees by research, to treat a professional skills set as a desirable graduate outcome. The increasing value that is being placed on a professional skills set in large part reflects growing interest around the world in the role of research degrees in labour…

  17. The mappings of degree 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The maps of the form f( x = ∑ i=1 n a i ⋅x⋅ b i , called 1-degree maps, are introduced and investigated. For noncommutative algebras and modules over them 1-degree maps give an analogy of linear maps and differentials. Under some conditions on the algebra 𝒜 , contractibility of the group of 1-degree isomorphisms is proved for the module l 2 ( 𝒜 . It is shown that these conditions are fulfilled for the algebra of linear maps of a finite-dimensional linear space. The notion of 1-degree map gives a possibility to define a nonlinear Fredholm map of l 2 ( 𝒜 and a Fredholm manifold modelled by l 2 ( 𝒜 . 1-degree maps are also applied to some problems of Markov chains.

  18. Degrees of generators of phylogenetic semigroups on graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Buczyńska, Weronika; Kubjas, Kaie; Michalek, Mateusz

    2011-01-01

    We study the phylogenetic semigroups associated to trivalent graphs introduced by Buczy\\'nska and related to works of Wi\\'sniewski, Sturmfels, Xu, Manon, Jeffrey, Weitsmann. Our main theorem bounds the degree of the generators of a semigroup associated with a graph with first Betti number g by g + 1. Furthermore, this bound is effective for many graphs. In particular, the caterpillar graph with g loops has generators of degree g + 1 for even g and of degree g for odd g.

  19. HadISST (1-degree)/HadISST (1-degree)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature component (1-degree). See Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C. K., Alexander, L. V., Rowell,...

  20. Degree-degree correlations in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van der Pim; Litvak, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson's correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and out-degr

  1. Degree-degree dependencies in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van der Pim; Litvak, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson’s correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and out-degr

  2. Classification of infrastructure networks by neighborhood degree distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Giustolisi, O; Ridolfi, L

    2016-01-01

    A common way of classifying network connectivity is the association of the nodal degree distribution to specific probability distribution models. During the last decades, researchers classified many networks using the Poisson or Pareto distributions. Urban infrastructures, like transportation (railways, roads, etc.) and distribution (gas, water, energy, etc.) systems, are peculiar networks strongly constrained by spatial characteristics of the environment where they are constructed. Consequently, the nodal degree of such networks spans very small ranges not allowing a reliable classification using the nodal degree distribution. In order to overcome this problem, we here (i) define the neighborhood degree, equal to the sum of the nodal degrees of the nearest topological neighbors, the adjacent nodes and (ii) propose to use neighborhood degree to classify infrastructure networks. Such neighborhood degree spans a wider range of degrees than the standard one allowing inferring the probabilistic model in a more re...

  3. Killing Horizons Kill Horizon Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, L.; Grumiller, D.

    Frequently, it is argued that the microstates responsible for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy should arise from some physical degrees of freedom located near or on the black hole horizon. In this essay, we elucidate that instead entropy may emerge from the conversion of physical degrees of freedom, attached to a generic boundary, into unobservable gauge degrees of freedom attached to the horizon. By constructing the reduced phase space, it can be demonstrated that such a transmutation indeed takes place for a large class of black holes, including Schwarzschild.

  4. Killing horizons kill horizon degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Bergamin, L

    2006-01-01

    Frequently it is argued that the microstates responsible for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy should arise from some physical degrees of freedom located near or on the black hole horizon. In this Essay we elucidate that instead entropy may emerge from the conversion of physical degrees of freedom, attached to a generic boundary, into unobservable gauge degrees of freedom attached to the horizon. By constructing the reduced phase space it can be demonstrated that such a transmutation indeed takes place for a large class of black holes, including Schwarzschild.

  5. An Analysis of Institutional Characteristics That Contribute to Extended Time to Doctoral Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasier, Helen Schurke

    2013-01-01

    Many factors--individual, departmental and institutional--have been associated with longer time to degree and progress toward degree completion. Lengthy time to degree affects the availability of resources, advising, persistence, and degree completion. This research identified institutional characteristics that impacted extended time to degree,…

  6. On degree-degree correlations in multilayer networks

    CERN Document Server

    de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Moreno, Yamir; Rodrigues, Francisco A

    2015-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the concept of assortativity based on the tensorial representation of multilayer networks, covering the definitions given in terms of Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Our approach can also be applied to weighted networks and provides information about correlations considering pairs of layers. By analyzing the multilayer representation of the airport transportation network, we show that contrasting results are obtained when the layers are analyzed independently or as an interconnected system. Finally, we study the impact of the level of assortativity and heterogeneity between layers on the spreading of diseases. Our results highlight the need of studying degree-degree correlations on multilayer systems, instead of on aggregated networks.

  7. On degree-degree correlations in multilayer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Cozzo, Emanuele; Moreno, Yamir; Rodrigues, Francisco A.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a generalization of the concept of assortativity based on the tensorial representation of multilayer networks, covering the definitions given in terms of Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Our approach can also be applied to weighted networks and provides information about correlations considering pairs of layers. By analyzing the multilayer representation of the airport transportation network, we show that contrasting results are obtained when the layers are analyzed independently or as an interconnected system. Finally, we study the impact of the level of assortativity and heterogeneity between layers on the spreading of diseases. Our results highlight the need of studying degree-degree correlations on multilayer systems, instead of on aggregated networks.

  8. Life after a Humanities Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masola, Athambile

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  9. Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree)

    OpenAIRE

    Tiseira Izaguirre, Andrés Omar; Blanco Rodríguez, David; Carreres Talens, Marcos; Fajardo Peña, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Apuntes de la asignatura Tecnología Aeroespacial Tiseira Izaguirre, AO.; Blanco Rodríguez, D.; Carreres Talens, M.; Fajardo Peña, P. (2013). Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree). Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/35263.

  10. Real Analytic Machines and Degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Gärtner, Tobias; 10.4204/EPTCS.24.12

    2010-01-01

    We study and compare in two degree-theoretic ways (iterated Halting oracles analogous to Kleene's arithmetical hierarchy and the Borel hierarchy of descriptive set theory) the capabilities and limitations of three models of analytic computation: BSS machines (aka real-RAM) and strongly/weakly analytic machines as introduced by Hotz et. al. (1995).

  11. Lessons from VET Providers Delivering Degrees: Case Studies. Support Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Victor J.; Bowman, Kaye

    2015-01-01

    The recent growth in the number of registered vocational education and training (VET) providers delivering associate degrees and bachelor degrees in their own right has been well publicized. However, little is known about why these VET providers have made this transition, what support is being provided to their staff and students, and how the…

  12. Steroid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance are both associated with a progressive decline of incretin effect in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, D H; Aaboe, K; Henriksen, J E;

    2012-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the separate impact of insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) on the incretin effect. METHODS: Twenty-one healthy glucose-tolerant first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes underwent a 75 g OGTT, an isoglycaemic i.......v. glucose test and a mixed meal to evaluate the incretin effect before and after treatment with dexamethasone to increase insulin resistance. Beta cell glucose sensitivity, beta cell index and fasting proinsulin were measured as indices of beta cell function. RESULTS: After dexamethasone, ten individuals...... had increased insulin resistance but normal glucose tolerance (NGT), while 11 individuals with an equal increase in insulin resistance developed IGT. In the NGT and IGT groups, the incretin effects were 71¿±¿3.2% and 67¿±¿4.6% (p¿=¿0.4) before treatment, but decreased significantly in both groups...

  13. Effects of sediment-associated extractable metals, degree of sediment grain sorting, and dissolved organic carbon upon cryptosporidium parvum removal and transport within riverbank filtration sediments, Sonoma County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metge, D.W.; Harvey, R.W.; Aiken, G.R.; Anders, R.; Lincoln, G.; Jasperse, J.; Hill, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Oocysts of the protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum are of particular concern for riverbank filtration (RBF) operations because of their persistence, ubiquity, and resistance to chlorine disinfection. At the Russian River RBF site (Sonoma County, CA), transport of C. parvum oocysts and oocyst-sized (3 ??m) carboxylate-modified microspheres through poorly sorted (sorting indices, ??1, up to 3.0) and geochemically heterogeneous sediments collected between 2 and 25 m below land surface (bls) were assessed. Removal was highly sensitive to variations in both the quantity of extractable metals (mainly Fe and Al) and degree of grain sorting. In flow-through columns, there was a log-linear relationship (r2 = 0.82 at p < 0.002) between collision efficiency (??, the probability that colloidal collisions with grain surfaces would result in attachment) and extractable metals, and a linear relationship (r2 = 0.99 at p < 0.002) between ?? and ??1. Collectively, variability in extractable metals and grain sorting accounted for ???83% of the variability in ?? (at p < 0.0002) along the depth profiles. Amendments of 2.2 mg L-1 of Russian River dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduced ?? for oocysts by 4-5 fold. The highly reactive hydrophobic organic acid (HPOA) fraction was particularly effective in re-entraining sediment-attached microspheres. However, the transport-enhancing effects of the riverine DOC did not appear to penetrate very deeply into the underlying sediments, judging from high ?? values (???1.0) observed for oocysts being advected through unamended sediments collected at ???2 m bls. This study suggests that in evaluating the efficacy of RBF operations to remove oocysts, it may be necessary to consider not only the geochemical nature and size distribution of the sediment grains, but also the degrees of sediment sorting and the concentration, reactivity, and penetration of the source water DOC. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Six degree of freedom sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.

  15. Degree 3 Networks Topological Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup;

    2009-01-01

    Topological routing is a table free alternative to traditional routing methods. It is specially well suited for organized network interconnection schemes. Topological routing algorithms correspond to the type O(1), constant complexity, being very attractive for large scale networks. It has been...... proposed for many topologies and this work compares the algorithms for three degree three topologies using a more analytical approach than previous studies....

  16. Honorary Degree Congregation in Cambridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One day in mid-June 2006 when I was on a visit to the Countryside Restoration Trust at Barton near Cambridge, Mr. Christopher Stevenson, the director of Program of Events for Newcomers & Academic Visitors, gave me a letter enclosing a notice and a ticket I booked nearly two months earlier. He told me that I was very lucky because a strictly limited number of tickets had been allocated to academic visitors. It was a ticket to admit me to the Honorary Degree Congregation and to the reception afterwards on Tuesday 27 June.

  17. Association between the degree of physical impairment from leprosy and dependence in activities of daily living among the elderly in a health unit in the State of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson da Costa Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In addition to the common alterations and diseases inherent in the aging process, elderly persons with a history of leprosy are particularly vulnerable to dependence because of disease-related impairments. Objective determine whether physical impairment from leprosy is associated with dependence among the elderly. Methods An analytical cross-sectional study of elderly individuals with a history of leprosy and no signs of cognitive impairment was conducted using a database from a former leprosy colony-hospital. The patients were evaluated for dependence in the basic activities of daily living (BADL and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, respectively and subjected to standard leprosy physical disability grading. Subsequently, descriptive and univariate analyses were conducted, the latter using Pearson's chi-squared test. Results A total of 186 elderly persons were included in the study. Of these individuals, 53.8% were women, 49.5% were older than 75 years of age, 93% had four or less years of formal education, 24.2% lived in an institution for the long-term care of the elderly (ILTC, and 18.3% had lower limb amputations. Among those evaluated, 79.8% had visible physical impairments from leprosy (grade 2, 83.3% were independent in BADL, and 10.2% were independent in IADL. There was a higher impairment grade among those patients who were IADL dependent (p=0.038. Conclusion s: The leprosy physical impairment grade is associated with dependence for IADL, creating the need for greater social support and systematic monitoring by a multidisciplinary team. The results highlight the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of leprosy to prevent physical impairment and dependence in later years.

  18. A Proposal of the European Association for the Study of Obesity to Improve the ICD-11 Diagnostic Criteria for Obesity Based on the Three Dimensions Etiology, Degree of Adiposity and Health Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hebebrand

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic criteria for complex medical conditions caused by a multitude of both genetic and environmental factors should be descriptive and avoid any attribution of causality. Furthermore, the wording used to describe a disorder should be evidence-based and avoid stigmatization of the affected individuals. Both terminology and categorizations should be readily comprehensible for healthcare professionals and guide clinical decision making. Uncertainties with respect to diagnostic issues and their implications may be addressed to direct future clinical research. In this context, the European Association of the Study of Obesity (EASO considers it an important endeavor to review the current ICD-11 Beta Draft for the definition of overweight and obesity and to propose a substantial revision. We aim to provide an overview of the key issues that we deem relevant for the discussion of the diagnostic criteria. We first discuss the current ICD-10 criteria and those proposed in the ICD 11 Beta Draft. We conclude with our own proposal for diagnostic criteria, which we believe will improve the assessment of patients with obesity in a clinically meaningful way.

  19. Joint Degree Program: the Perspective of Employers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Bilevičienė

    2013-08-01

    answers can be analyzed as qualitative research results, results can be only achieved by performing an overview of experts’opinions. Practical implications — evaluation of respondents’ choices shows that more than half of employers that surveyed the joint degree program do not see an advantage. However, their indication of the shortcomings is related more to physical circumstances and developments, while highlighting the advantages associated with the program content and trained student competencies. In addition, a majority of respondents confirm that the labour market is in need of students who graduated from the joint programs. The opinion survey carried out must be taken in formulating education policy and university policy. Originality/Value — though joint degree and double degree is kind of new trend in high education, the social implications and importance have not yet been widely investigated, the strong and weak sides were not validated by scientific research methods. This article extends to students opinion research with new data giving insights to employers opinions on the same question and even looks for the points were those opinions are the same and on which aspects it implements EU and Bologna process goals. Research type: research paper and viewpoint.

  20. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Guang Yue

    2015-01-01

    The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD) algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC) algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC) algorithm.

  1. Extended degree functions and monomial modules

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The arithmetic degree, the smallest extended degree, and the homological degree are invariants that have been proposed as alternatives of the degree of a module if this module is not Cohen-Macaulay. We compare these degree functions and study their behavior when passing to the generic initial or the lexicographic submodule. This leads to various bounds and to counterexamples to a conjecture of Gunston and Vasconcelos, respectively. Particular attention is given to the class of sequentially Co...

  2. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Yue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC algorithm.

  3. FRACTIONAL DIFFUSION EQUATIONS WITH INTERNAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis Vázquez

    2003-01-01

    We present a generalization of the linear one-dimensional diffusion equation by combining the fractional derivatives and the internal degrees of freedom. The solutions are constructed from those of the scalar fractional diffusion equation. We analyze the interpolation between the standard diffusion and wave equations defined by the fractional derivatives. Our main result is that we can define a diffusion process depending on the internal degrees of freedom associated to the system.

  4. Association between MELD score combined with degree of fatty liver in donor liver and short-term outcome after liver transplantation in recipients with benign end-stage liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Jianyong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the association of Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score with complications and early survival rate after liver transplantation for benign end-stage liver disease, and to analyze the criteria to select donor livers with fatty liver for patients with different MELD scores. MethodsA total of 145 recipients of orthotopic liver transplantation with benign end-stage liver disease in Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command from January 2008 to December 2013 were analyzed retrospectively, and frozen fatty liver biopsy was performed for donor livers in 47 patients before transplantation. The patients were divided into the following three groups according to MELD score: group A with 28 patients (MELD score ≥30, mean MELD score 35.7±5.5; group B with 35 patients (20≤ MELD score <30, mean MELD score 22.5±2.3; group C with 82 patients (MELD score <20, mean MELD score 11.0±3.7. The preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative biochemical parameters, postoperative complications, and survival rate were compared between these groups. The 47 patients receiving frozen biopsy were divided into the following two groups according to MELD score: group a with 9 patients (MELD score ≥30; group b with 38 patients (MELD score <30. The 1-year survival rates of the recipients of donor livers with mild, moderate, and severe fatty liver were compared between the two groups. Comparison of continuous data between the two groups was made by t test or ANOVA and comparison of categorical date was made by chi-square test or Fisher’s exact. ResultsThe 1-month survival rate after transplantation showed no significant difference between groups A, B, and C (71.4%, 87.8%, and 86.6%, respectively; P>0.05; group A had significantly lower 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year survival rates than groups B and C (64.3%/64.3%/64.3% vs 88.6%/886%/88.6% and 87.8%/86.6%/86.6%, all P<0.05. Group A had a significantly higher incidence

  5. General N-th Degree Stochastic Dominance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺明

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines N-th degree stochastic dominance which isused to compare the risk factor of risky assets after summarizing the definitions of first degree stochastic dominance and second degree stochastic dominance. The paper defines general N-th degree stochastic dominance, presents a sufficient and necessary condition which is the equivalent theorem of general N-th degree stochastic dominance. The feasible utility form is constructed to explain the economic meaning of N-th degree stochastic dominance in the field of financial economics. The equivalent condition is described by the probability distribution functions of risky assets, which are not related to utility functions (preference relations).

  6. The Complex Case of Positioning the Foundation Degree: Making Sense of a Degree That Is Not a Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadembo, Ernest

    2008-01-01

    The Foundation degree was launched in 2001 and has enjoyed growth but remains a controversial qualification. Foundation Degree Forward, the body charged by the UK government with providing a "national network or expertise to support the development and validation of high-quality Foundation degrees" is championing the marketing of the…

  7. Networks with superfat-tailed degree distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Timár, Gábor; Mendes, José Fernando F

    2016-01-01

    A majority of studied models for scale-free networks have degree distributions with exponents greater than $2$. Real networks, however, can demonstrate essentially more heavy-tailed degree distributions. We explore two models of scale-free equilibrium networks that have the degree distribution exponent $\\gamma = 1$, $P(q) \\sim q^{-\\gamma}$. Such "superfat-tailed" degree distributions can be identified in empirical data only if the mean degree of a network is sufficiently high. Our models exploit a rewiring mechanism. They are local in the sense that no knowledge of the network structure, apart from the immediate neighbourhood of the vertices, is required. These models generate uncorrelated networks in the infinite size limit, where they are solved explicitly. We investigate finite size effects by the use of simulations. We find that both models exhibit disassortative degree-degree correlations for finite network sizes. In addition, we observe a markedly degree-dependent clustering in the finite networks. We i...

  8. Degree of myopia in relation to intelligence and educational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, T W; Fuchs, J; Goldschmidt, E

    1988-12-10

    Intelligence test scores and educational levels were compared for 5943 myopic and 9891 non-myopic 18-year-old men being drafted for military service in Denmark. The former were grouped by degree of myopia, in the range -0.25 diopters (D) to -7.75 D, according to the power of correcting lenses required. Myopes of all degrees had significantly higher test scores and educational levels than non-myopes. However, the relation of these two variables to degree of myopia was not linear; for both variables there were no significant differences among myopia groups in the range -2.0 to -7.75 D. Whereas factors associated with intelligence and education seem to be important in triggering the onset of myopia, they seem to be much less important in determining the degree to which myopia progresses.

  9. 360-degree retinectomy for severe ocular rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Mao-nian; JIANG Cai-hui

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of 360-degree retinectomy for severe ocular rupture and evaluate the related factors associated with prognosis.Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 28 consecutive patients, 18 men and 10 women, with severe ocular rupture admitted to the Chinese PLA General Hospital between January 1999 and January 2002. The patients' ages ranged from 16 to 58 years, mean 29.5years. All operations were performed by the first author.All patients underwent standard 3-port pars plana vitrectomy with scleral encircling buckle,endophotocoagulation, and tamponaded with silicone oil.Lensectomy were performed on 15 eyes. 360-degree retinotomy and retinectomy were performed at anterior equator on 16 eyes, and posterior equator on 12 eyes.Results: During operation, all patients were confirmed to have vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment, in which hemorrhagic ciliary body detachment was found in 9 eyes, suprachoroidal hemorrhage in 12 eyes,retinal twisting like flower stalk in 11 eyes, and retinal incarceration in 17 eyes. Postoperative follow-up was conducted in 26 cases, ranged from 6 months to 46 months.Retinal reattachment achieved in 20 eyes (76. 9%), in which three patients' retina was reattached after revitrectomy. The silicone oil was removed at the fourth month in 8 eyes postoperatively. Corrected visual acuity of 0.02 or more was in 14 eyes (70. 0%) among the 20patients with reattached retina. Visual acuity of 0.05 or more was in 7 eyes ( 35.0 % ), and 0.1 or more was in 3eyes. The best visual acuity was 0.3 in 1 eye.Conclusions: Retinectomy may improve the prognosis of severe ocular rupture and save the visual function of some patients.

  10. Degrees Conferred by Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy, 1987-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Richard P.; Sherman, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Data and statistics, gathered by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, on the degrees conferred by U.S. pharmacy schools are presented. Data on entry level degrees, post-baccalaureate PharmD, graduate degrees, gender, and ethnic minorities are analyzed. (Author/MLW)

  11. Training, Degrees, and Credentials in the Hiring of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'donnell, Patrick S.; Dunlap, Linda L.

    2014-01-01

    A national sample of 246 Directors of Pupil Personnel Services and Directors of Special Education were surveyed to assess the importance they place on training, degrees, and credentials in the hiring of school psychologists. High, but varying, levels of importance were found for the content knowledge and skill areas in the National Association of…

  12. Predicting Bachelor's Degree Attainment for Developmental Math Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Hansel; Butner, Bonita; Anderson, Connie Wilson; Siwatu, Kamau Oginga

    2009-01-01

    This study used the National Educational Longitudinal Study: 88 /2000 (NELS 88: /2000) dataset to explore characteristics associated with college degree attainment. The study was informed by Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior. The sample size was 6,832 postsecondary students. The findings revealed that developmental math students were less…

  13. The Top 50 Communication, Journalism and Related Degrees Conferred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" publishes lists of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's, and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This article presents a…

  14. The Top 100 Communication, Journalism, and Related Degrees Conferred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" publishes lists of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This article presents a listing of the…

  15. Determination of Even Degree of Animal Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongRen-xue; YangYun-qing

    1999-01-01

    The even degree of animal population is generlay measured by the coefficient of variation of major economic characters.Facing the coefficient of variation,a statistic with complex properties,we achieved indirectly the determination of confidence interval for even degree of an animal population by analysing the reciprocal of the statistic.The sample size which is suitable to the determination of the even degree of an animal population was probed into within the extent of permissive estimation error.

  16. Determination of Even Degree of Animal Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The even degree of animal population is generlay measured by the coefficient of variation of major eco- nomic characters. Facing the coefficient of variation,a statistic with complex properties,we achieved indirectly the determination of confidence interval for even degree of an animal population by analysing the reciprocal of the statistic. The sample size which is suitable to the determination of the even degree of an animal population was probed into within the extent of permissive estimation error.

  17. Degree-layer theory of network topology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Bin; Zhe, He

    2014-01-01

    The network topology can be described by the number of nodes and the interconnections among them. The degree of a node in a network is the number of connections it has to other nodes and the degree distribution is the probability distribution of these degrees over the whole network. Therefore, the degree is very important structural parameter of network topology. However, given the number of nodes and the degree of each node in a network, the topology of the network cannot be determined. Therefore, we propose the degree-layer theory of network topology to describe deeply the network topology. First, we propose the concept of degree-tree with the breadth-first search tree. The degrees of all nodes are layered and have a hierarchical structure. Second,the degree-layer theory is described in detail. Two new concepts are defined in the theory. An index is proposed to quantitatively distinguish the two network topologies. It also can quantitatively measure the stability of network topology built by a model mechani...

  18. Cooperation in an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma on networks with degree-degree correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Stephen; Treloar, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    We study the effects of degree-degree correlations on the success of cooperation in an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma played on a random network. When degree-degree correlations are not present, the standardized variance of the network's degree distribution has been shown to be an accurate analytical measure of network heterogeneity that can be used to predict the success of cooperation. In this paper, we use a local-mechanism interpretation of standardized variance to give a generalization to graphs with degree-degree correlations. Two distinct mechanisms are shown to influence cooperation levels on these types of networks. The first is an intrinsic measurement of base-line heterogeneity coming from the network's degree distribution. The second is the increase in heterogeneity coming from the degree-degree correlations present in the network. A strong linear relationship is found between these two parameters and the average cooperation level in an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma on a network.

  19. New High in Engineering Degree Production. Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Several of the state's key industry sectors depend heavily on employees with advanced scientific, analytic and technical knowledge. Among the fields closely related to these sectors, engineering degrees have posted the largest gain. This paper presents details on the following facts: (1) 2009 represented a record high for engineering degrees; (2)…

  20. Competency-Based Business Degree. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In January 2015, thirteen Washington community colleges launched an online, competency-based business transfer degree--the first in the state's community and technical college system. This issue brief provides answers to commonly asked questions about the new competency-based degree.

  1. Master's Degree Studies: Expectations versus Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, higher education in South Africa has been affected drastically by transformation. An issue that has specifically been influenced is master's degrees. A significant increase in the demand for access to course work master's degrees has been experienced, while universities themselves have been confronted with a new…

  2. Experiencing Higher Degree Research Supervision as Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Christine; Stoodley, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This article describes higher degree research supervisors' experiences of supervision as teaching. While research education is considered central to the higher degree research experience, comparatively little is known to date of the teaching lenses adopted by supervisors as they go about their supervision. We worked with 35 supervisors engaged in…

  3. The Topological Degree in Ordered Banach Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adrian DUMA; Ileana DUMA

    2008-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the applications of classical topological degrees to nonlinear problems involving various classes of operators acting between ordered Banach spaces. In this frame-work, the Leray-Schauder, Browder-Petryshyn, and Amann-Weiss degree theories are considered, and several existence results are obtained. The non-Archimedean case is also discussed.

  4. Powers of the degree of coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Zhangrong; Korotkova, Olga; Mao, Yonghua

    2015-04-01

    We establish conditions under which a legitimate degree of coherence of a statistically stationary beam-like field raised to a power results in a novel legitimate degree of coherence. The general results and examples relate to scalar beams having uniform and non-uniform correlations.

  5. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Deborah H.; And Others

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the number of bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded in academic year 1981-82 from 72 United States institutions offering degree programs in nuclear engineering or nuclear options within other engineering fields. Presented as well are historical data for the last decade…

  6. Infinite-degree-corrected stochastic block model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    In stochastic block models, which are among the most prominent statistical models for cluster analysis of complex networks, clusters are defined as groups of nodes with statistically similar link probabilities within and between groups. A recent extension by Karrer and Newman [Karrer and Newman......, Phys. Rev. E 83, 016107 (2011)] incorporates a node degree correction to model degree heterogeneity within each group. Although this demonstrably leads to better performance on several networks, it is not obvious whether modeling node degree is always appropriate or necessary. We formulate the degree...... corrected stochastic block model as a nonparametric Bayesian model, incorporating a parameter to control the amount of degree correction that can then be inferred from data. Additionally, our formulation yields principled ways of inferring the number of groups as well as predicting missing links...

  7. On Second Order Degree of Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriela ARAUJO-PARDO; Camino BALBUENA; Mika OLSEN; Pilar VALENCIA

    2012-01-01

    Given a vertex v of a graph G the second order degree of v denoted as d2 (v) is defined as the number of vertices at distance 2 from v.In this paper we address the following question:What are the sufficient conditions for a graph to have a vertex v such that d2(v) ≥ d(v),where d(v) denotes the degree of v? Among other results,every graph of minimum degree exactly 2,except four graphs,is shown to have a vertex of second order degree as large as its own degree.Moreover,every K-4-free graph or every maximal planar graph is shown to have a vertex v such that d2(v) ≥ d(v).Other sufficient conditions on graphs for guaranteeing this property are also proved.

  8. The Boeing Company's Manufacturing Technology Student Internship. Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Thomas R.

    The Boeing Company contracted with the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory to evaluate its student internship program, part of a "school-to-work" effort modeled after the nationally recognized Tech Prep initiative. The company's involvement in the Tech Prep Program has been implemented in three phases: (1) the initial phase helped…

  9. Teacher Development Program for ATP 2000. Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, Dean; And Others

    Agri Tech Prep 2000 (ATP 2000) is a 4-year tech prep program linking high school and postsecondary curricula designed to prepare New York students for careers in agriculture or acceptance into a college program in agriculture. Because teacher development was designated an integral project component for fiscal year 1991-1992, a weeklong teacher…

  10. Electrical Maintenance Technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 30 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of electrical maintenance technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific…

  11. Perceived Benefits of an Undergraduate Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Norton

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Canadian university students tend to endorse employment-related reasons for attending university ahead of other reasons such as personal satisfaction or intellectual growth. In the present study, first- and fourth-year students from a mid-sized Canadian university reported on the benefits they expected to receive from their degree and rated their relative importance. These open-ended responses suggested that both groups of students placed a greater emphasis on benefits related to career preparation and economic advancement than those associated with learning and self-improvement. However, when asked to evaluate the importance of a comprehensive list of degree-related benefits both groups of students endorsed the value of many of them, including those related to learning and self-improvement. Our results suggest the importance of methodology in gathering data about this issue, and we consider them in light of current concerns with helping students to understand the full value of their degree. Les étudiants des universités canadiennes ont tendance à accepter les raisons qui se rapportent à l’emploi pour justifier les études universitaires avant d’autres raisons telles que la satisfaction personnelle ou la croissance intellectuelle. Dans la présente étude, des étudiants de première année et de quatrième année d’une université canadienne de taille moyenne ont indiqué les avantages qu’ils s’attendaient à obtenir avec leur diplôme et les ont classés par ordre d’importance. Ces réponses ouvertes suggèrent que les deux groupes d’étudiants ont attribué une plus grande importance aux avantages liés à la préparation de leur carrière et à l’avancement économique qu’à ceux liés à l’apprentissage et à l’amélioration personnelle. Toutefois, quand on leur a demandé d’évaluer l’importance d’une liste complète d’avantages liés à l’obtention d’un diplôme, les deux groupes d’étudiants ont

  12. Rough similarity degree and rough close degree in rough fuzzy sets and the applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jian; Xu Xiaojing; Shi Kaiquan

    2008-01-01

    Based on rough similarity degree of rough sets and close degree of fuzzy sets,the definitions of rough similarity degree and rough close degree of rough fuzzy sets are given,which can be used to measure the similar degree between two rough fuzzy sets.The properties and theorems are listed.Using the two new measures,the method of clustering in the rough fuzzy system can be obtained.After clustering,the new fuzzy sample can be recognized by the principle of maximal similarity degree.

  13. Law-Based Degree Programs in Business and Their Departments: What's in a Name? (A Comprehensive Study of Undergraduate Law-Based Degrees in AACSB-Accredited Universities)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol J.; Crain, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines undergraduate law-based degree programs in the 404 U.S. universities with undergraduate degrees in business that had Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accreditation in 2005. University Web sites were used to identify and compare law-based undergraduate programs inside business to law-related programs…

  14. The Transcendence Degree over a Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Kemper, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    For a finitely generated algebra over a field, the transcendence degree is known to be equal to the Krull dimension. The aim of this paper is to generalize this result to algebras over rings. A new definition of the transcendence degree of an algebra A over a ring R is given by calling elements of A algebraically dependent if they satisfy an algebraic equation over R whose trailing coefficient, with respect to some monomial ordering, is 1. The main result is that for a finitely generated algebra over a Noetherian Jacobson ring, the transcendence degree is equal to the Krull dimension.

  15. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  16. Degrees of Truthfulness in Accepted Scientific Claims

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmed Hassan Mabrouk

    2008-01-01

    ...";">: Sciences adopt different methodologies in deriving claims and establishing theories. As a result, two accepted claims or theories belonging to two different sciences may not necessarily carry the same degree of truthfulness...

  17. Degrees of Curves in Abelian Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Debarre, O

    1992-01-01

    The degree of a curve $C$ in a polarized abelian variety $(X,\\lambda)$ is the integer $d=C\\cdot\\lambda$. When $C$ generates $X$, we find a lower bound on $d$ which depends on $n$ and the degree of the polarization $\\lambda$. The smallest possible degree is $d=n$ and is obtained only for a smooth curve in its Jacobian with its principal polarization (Ran, Collino). The cases $d=n+1$ and $d=n+2$ are studied. Moreover, when $X$ is simple, it is shown, using results of Smyth on the trace of totally positive algebraic integers, that if $d\\le 1.7719\\, n$, then $C$ is smooth and $X$ is isomorphic to its Jacobian. We also get an upper bound on the geometric genus of $C$ in terms of its degree.

  18. The Doctor of Physical Therapy Degree: A New Curriculum for a New Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Mary Jane K.; Stelzner, Denise; Rodriguez, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    By 2020, all graduates of accredited physical therapy programs will receive the Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) degree. Bachelor degrees in physical therapy are no longer granted, and over 83% (N = 176 accredited programs) of the entry-level physical therapy education programs already grant the DPT degree. The purpose of this article is to…

  19. Twelfth degree spline with application to quadrature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, P O; Hamasalh, F K

    2016-01-01

    In this paper existence and uniqueness of twelfth degree spline is proved with application to quadrature. This formula is in the class of splines of degree 12 and continuity order [Formula: see text] that matches the derivatives up to order 6 at the knots of a uniform partition. Some mistakes in the literature are pointed out and corrected. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the applicability and efficiency of the new method.

  20. [Hemodynamic changes in myopia of different degrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamikonian, V R; Shmeleva-Demir, O A; Kharlap, S I; Andzhelova, D V; Kazarian, E E; Makashova, N V; Galoian, N S; Mazurova, Iu V; Tatevosian, A A; Karapetian, A T

    2013-01-01

    A total of 78 patients (143 eyes) with low, medium and high degree myopia were assessed. Apart from standard ophthalmological tests, flowmetry and duplex ultrasound of ocular vessels were performed in all cases to evaluate volumetric and velocity parameters of ocular blood flow in relation to the length of anterior-posterior axis and the degree of myopia. It is found that both parameters of regional blood flow progressively decrease as the anterior-posterior axis increases.

  1. Quantification of modulation degree for VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Wu, Hong Gyun; Kim, Jin Ho; Ye, Sung Joon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Carkson, Joel [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Dept. of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this study is to quantify the degree of modulation by presenting a modulation index (MI) for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) based on the speed and acceleration analysis of modulating-parameters such as multi-leaf collimator (MLC) movements, gantry rotation and dose-rate, comprehensively, as well as by performing texture analysis on fluence maps. The MIt showed good performance for the evaluation of the modulation-degree of VMAT plans showing highest correlations to the plan deliverability.

  2. Interplay of degree correlations and cluster synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, Sarika; Kumar, Anil; Zaikin, Alexey; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-12-01

    We study the evolution of coupled chaotic dynamics on networks and investigate the role of degree-degree correlation in the networks' cluster synchronizability. We find that an increase in the disassortativity can lead to an increase or a decrease in the cluster synchronizability depending on the degree distribution and average connectivity of the network. Networks with heterogeneous degree distribution exhibit significant changes in cluster synchronizability as well as in the phenomena behind cluster synchronization as compared to those of homogeneous networks. Interestingly, cluster synchronizability of a network may be very different from global synchronizability due to the presence of the driven phenomenon behind the cluster formation. Furthermore, we show how degeneracy at the zero eigenvalues provides an understanding of the occurrence of the driven phenomenon behind the synchronization in disassortative networks. The results demonstrate the importance of degree-degree correlations in determining cluster synchronization behavior of complex networks and hence have potential applications in understanding and predicting dynamical behavior of complex systems ranging from brain to social systems.

  3. Decoherence of rotational degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, F.

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism of decoherence for a mesoscopic quantum system with rotational degrees of freedom is studied. From a simple model of elastic scattering, we show that the nondiagonal density-matrix elements of the system exponentially decay. The decay rate depends on the difference of scattering amplitudes for different rotational configurations, leading to the gradual loss of quantum coherence between the pointer states in the orientational space. For a dielectric ellipsoid immersed in a photon-gas environment (assuming no absorption), the decay rate is found to be proportional to the seventh power of the temperature. For an ellipsoidal object interacting with massive particles, the decay rate is proportional to the 5/2 power of the temperature. Both are different from the case of translational decoherence induced by the same environment scattering. For photon scattering, the coherence time in the rotational degrees of freedom is shown to be much shorter than that in the translational degrees of freedom.

  4. Market Orientation and Degree of Novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Bodlaj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the relationship between a responsive and aproactive market orientation and the degree of novelty. Data obtainedvia an Internet survey were analysed using structural equation modelling.An analysis of 325 Slovenian firms reveals that only a proactivemarket orientation is positively related to the degree of novelty. Whilethere is no evidence of statistically significant differences in the examinedrelationships given the firm size and environmental characteristics,separate analyses in each group indicate that a proactive market orientationmay be more important for small firms and firms operatingamidst a higher level of technological turbulence. This study suggeststhat a distinction between a responsive and a proactive market orientationis important for a better understanding of the effect of a marketorientation on the degree of novelty.

  5. Node degree distribution in spanning trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozrikidis, C.

    2016-03-01

    A method is presented for computing the number of spanning trees involving one link or a specified group of links, and excluding another link or a specified group of links, in a network described by a simple graph in terms of derivatives of the spanning-tree generating function defined with respect to the eigenvalues of the Kirchhoff (weighted Laplacian) matrix. The method is applied to deduce the node degree distribution in a complete or randomized set of spanning trees of an arbitrary network. An important feature of the proposed method is that the explicit construction of spanning trees is not required. It is shown that the node degree distribution in the spanning trees of the complete network is described by the binomial distribution. Numerical results are presented for the node degree distribution in square, triangular, and honeycomb lattices.

  6. Developing 360 degree feedback system for KINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, In Soo; Cheon, B. M.; Kim, T. H.; Ryu, J. H. [Chungman National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    This project aims to investigate the feasibility of a 360 degree feedback systems for KINS and to design guiding rules and structures in implementing that systems. Literature survey, environmental analysis and questionnaire survey were made to ensure that 360 degree feedback is the right tool to improve performance in KINS. That review leads to conclusion that more readiness and careful feasibility review are needed before implementation of 360 degree feedback in KINS. Further the project suggests some guiding rules that can be helpful for successful implementation of that system in KINS. Those include : start with development, experiment with one department, tie it to a clear organization's goal, train everyone involve, make sure to try that system in an atmosphere of trust.

  7. The Low-Degree Shape of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M. E.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Hauck, S. A., II; Solomon, S. C.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Phillips, R. J.; Margot, J. L.; Johnson, C. L.; Ernst, C. M.; Oberst, J.

    2015-12-01

    The shape of Mercury, particularly when combined with its geoid, provides clues to the planet's internal structure, thermal evolution, and rotational history. Twenty-five million elevation measurements of the northern hemisphere, acquired by the Mercury Laser Altimeter on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging spacecraft, were combined with 378 occultation measurements of radio-frequency signals from the spacecraft in the planet's southern hemisphere to reveal the low-degree shape of Mercury. We solved for the spherical-harmonic coefficients through degree and order 128 and found that Mercury's mean radius is 2439.36±0.02 km. The offset between the planet's centers of mass and figure is negligible (40±40 m) along the polar axis and modest (140±50 m) in the equatorial plane. Mercury's spherical-harmonic shape spectrum is dominated by degree 2, and the planet's first-order shape is that of a triaxial ellipsoid with semimajor axes a, b, and c. The polar radius, c, is 1.65 km less than (a+b)/2, and the equatorial difference, a-b, is 1.25 km. The long axis is rotated 15° west of Mercury's dynamically defined principal axis. Mercury's geoid is similarly dominated by degree 2 and well described by a triaxial ellipsoid. The degree-2 geoid and shape are highly correlated, but the power spectral density of the geoid at degree 2 is only 1% of its shape counterpart, implying substantial compensation of elevation variations on a global scale and that Mercury is not in hydrostatic equilibrium.

  8. High-Degree Neurons Feed Cortical Computations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Timme

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that functional connectivity among cortical neurons is highly varied, with a small percentage of neurons having many more connections than others. Also, recent theoretical developments now make it possible to quantify how neurons modify information from the connections they receive. Therefore, it is now possible to investigate how information modification, or computation, depends on the number of connections a neuron receives (in-degree or sends out (out-degree. To do this, we recorded the simultaneous spiking activity of hundreds of neurons in cortico-hippocampal slice cultures using a high-density 512-electrode array. This preparation and recording method combination produced large numbers of neurons recorded at temporal and spatial resolutions that are not currently available in any in vivo recording system. We utilized transfer entropy (a well-established method for detecting linear and nonlinear interactions in time series and the partial information decomposition (a powerful, recently developed tool for dissecting multivariate information processing into distinct parts to quantify computation between neurons where information flows converged. We found that computations did not occur equally in all neurons throughout the networks. Surprisingly, neurons that computed large amounts of information tended to receive connections from high out-degree neurons. However, the in-degree of a neuron was not related to the amount of information it computed. To gain insight into these findings, we developed a simple feedforward network model. We found that a degree-modified Hebbian wiring rule best reproduced the pattern of computation and degree correlation results seen in the real data. Interestingly, this rule also maximized signal propagation in the presence of network-wide correlations, suggesting a mechanism by which cortex could deal with common random background input. These are the first results to show that the extent to

  9. 360-degree feedback for medical trainees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Ellen; Holm, Kirsten; Sørensen, Jette Led

    2015-01-01

    In 360-degree feedback medical colleagues and collaborators give a trainee feedback by answering a questionnaire on behaviour of the trainee. The questionnaire may contain questions answered on a scale or/and they may contain open questions. The result from 360-degree feedback is used for formative...... feedback and assessment. In order to secure reliability 8-15 respondents are needed. It is a matter of discussion whether the respondents should be chosen by the trainee or by a third part, and if respondents should be anonymous. The process includes a feedback session with a trained supervisor....

  10. Brain Endogenous Feedback and Degrees of Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia; Pereira Jr., Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    positive and negative feedback loops. Variable levels of consciousness are proposed to depend on the degree of resonance between these networks. The resonance can occur in the absence of salient external stimulation and, even when such stimulation occurs, the response of the coupled networks is always......We present a hypothesis to explain how the brain operates to generate different degrees of consciousness. We relate our model to recent evidence from brain morphology and physiology, indicating that the central nervous system contains two parallel networks (neuronal and astroglial) establishing...

  11. A network with tunable clustering, degree correlation and degree distribution, and an epidemic thereon

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Frank; Sirl, David

    2012-01-01

    A random network model which allows for tunable, quite general forms of clustering, degree correlation and degree distribution is defined. The model is an extension of the configuration model, in which stubs (half-edges) are paired to form a network. Clustering is obtained by forming small completely connected subgroups, and positive (negative) degree correlation is obtained by connecting a fraction of the stubs with stubs of similar (dissimilar) degree. An SIR (Susceptible -> Infective -> Recovered) epidemic model is defined on this network. Asymptotic properties of both the network and the epidemic, as the population size tends to infinity, are derived: the degree distribution, degree correlation and clustering coefficient, as well as a reproduction number $R_*$, the probability of a major outbreak and the relative size of such an outbreak. The theory is illustrated by Monte Carlo simulations and numerical examples. The main findings are that clustering tends to decrease the spread of disease, the effect of...

  12. Comparison of 360 degrees and 180 degrees data collection in SPECT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knesaurek, K

    1987-11-01

    The problem of using 360 degrees or 180 degrees data sampling techniques in transaxial SPECT imaging is still to be solved. A theoretical point source study for an ideal response detector has shown, for objects which are close enough to the origin of the reconstructed area, that there are significant differences between sections obtained by different sampling methods. A computer simulation study of line sources in a homogeneous attenuated medium has confirmed the results of clinical studies in which significant image distortion has been observed in 180 degrees sections but not in 360 degrees reconstructed images.

  13. Degree Compass: The Preferred Choice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Leah S.; Sanders, Anthony R.; Stewart, J. Gary

    2013-01-01

    While engaged in academic reading, a college provost converged on an idea to use a preferential approach to students' selection of college courses, similar to the recommendation ideas based on Netflix and Amazon. The result of this idea came to be known as Degree Compass and was implemented on the campus of Austin Peay State University in 2011.…

  14. Third-Degree Price Discrimination Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Youngsun

    2006-01-01

    The author derives the probability that price discrimination improves social welfare, using a simple model of third-degree price discrimination assuming two independent linear demands. The probability that price discrimination raises social welfare increases as the preferences or incomes of consumer groups become more heterogeneous. He derives the…

  15. Technical Degrees and Higher Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordern, Jim

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the proposals for the introduction of "technical degrees" in English higher education institutions advanced by the Labour Party's Liam Byrne in a document entitled "Robbins Rebooted" which was published in August 2014 by the Social Market Foundation. The context and rationale for the proposed technical…

  16. Perceived Benefits of an Undergraduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Cole; Martini, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Canadian university students tend to endorse employment-related reasons for attending university ahead of other reasons such as personal satisfaction or intellectual growth. In the present study, first- and fourth-year students from a mid-sized Canadian university reported on the benefits they expected to receive from their degree and rated their…

  17. Purchases of Degrees from Diploma Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.

    In response to a request from the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, the General Accounting Office (GAO) investigated issues concerning the proliferation of "diploma mills," which sell bogus academic degrees based on "life experience" or substandard or negligible work.…

  18. Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter;

    2011-01-01

      We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...

  19. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2014-01-01

    graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...

  20. Degrees of Change--Resistance or Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Considers issues involved in the change process within organizational culture. Highlights include adopting an appropriate management style; evaluation of performance; aspects of change; implications of change for people management; degrees of change; resistance to change; and an example of planning and implementing a new information technology…

  1. On degree phrases and result clauses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkhoek, Paulien Dea

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two parts, one on degree phrases and one on result clauses. Sentence (1) below exemplifies a result clause construction: (1) Zij had zo mooi gezongen dat het publiek er stil van was she has so beautifully sang that the audience there silent of was ‘She had sung so beaut

  2. A six degrees of freedom mems manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is

  3. Active Methodology in the Audiovisual Communication Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez-Lopez, J. L.; Royo, T. Magal; Laborda, Jesus Garcia; Dunai, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the adaptation methods of the active methodologies of the new European higher education area in the new Audiovisual Communication degree under the perspective of subjects related to the area of the interactive communication in Europe. The proposed active methodologies have been experimentally implemented into the new academic…

  4. Case Study: Creation of a Degree Program in Computer Security. White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Barbara; Wright, Marie

    This paper reports on research into the field of computer security, and undergraduate degrees offered in that field. Research described in the paper reveals only one computer security program at the associate's degree level in the entire country. That program, at Texas State Technical College in Waco, is a 71-credit-hour program leading to an…

  5. Analysis of High Degree Nodes in a Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Akhtar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Online Social Network platforms(e.g. Facebook, LinkedIn, Flickr, Instant Messenger etc provide a deeper comprehension of social networks and hence render the basis for social network analysis. The huge amount of data from these sites has given a boost to the researchers who examine a network from different perspectives through various SNA methods. The development of network analysis tools have further helped to extract actionable patterns which are useful for business, consumers, and users. This study is a part of the growing body of research on Social Network Analysis and make use of a Facebook network to analyze the attributes of high degree nodes (users having greater number of friends and to uncover the hidden relationships of that network. Results show that there is little association among high degree nodes

  6. Physics Bachelor's Degrees: Results from the 2010 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2012-01-01

    The Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics conducts an annual census of all degree-granting physics departments in the United States and Puerto Rico. The survey had a 95% response rate from the 751 departments that granted physics bachelor's degrees in the class of 2010. Results show that the number of physics bachelor's…

  7. Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees: Results from the 2012 Survey of Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Interest in astronomy degrees in the U.S. remains strong, with astronomy enrollments at or near all-time highs for the 2012-13 academic year. The total number of students taking an introductory astronomy course at a degree-granting physics or astronomy department is approaching 200,000. Enrollments in introductory astronomy courses have been…

  8. Lessons Learned: Creating an Online Business Degree from a Successful On-Campus Business Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, William P.; Muraoka, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The horse has left the barn. Distance education is here to stay and the number of degree programs offered online is growing rapidly. California State University Channel Islands (CI) admitted its first students in 2002, and the undergraduate and graduate degrees in business were among its first program offerings. From its inception, the…

  9. On the relationship between degree of hand-preference and degree of language lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, Metten; Ophoff, Roel A; Boks, Marco P; Fleer, Willemien; de Visser, Kees C L; Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E; Aukes, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Language lateralization and hand-preference show inter-individual variation in the degree of lateralization to the left- or right, but their relation is not fully understood. Disentangling this relation could aid elucidating the mechanisms underlying these traits. The relation between degree of lang

  10. Degree sequences of k-multi-hypertournaments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pirzada S

    2009-01-01

    Let n and k (n ≥ k > 1) be two non-negative integers. A k-multi-hypertournament on n vertices is a pair (V, A), where V is a set of vertices with |V|= n, and A is a set of k-tuples of vertices, called arcs, such that for any k-subset S of V, A contains at least one (at most k!) of the k! k-tuples whose entries belong to S. The necessary and sufficient conditions for a non-decreasing sequence of non-negative integers to be the out-degree sequence (in-degree sequence) of some k-multi-hypertournament are given.

  11. An Approach of Degree Constraint MST Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Pal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is approaching a new technique of creating Minimal Spanning Trees based on degree constraints of a simple symmetric and connected graph G. Here we recommend a new algorithm based on the average degree sequence factor of the nodes in the graph. The time complexity of the problem is less than O(N log|E| compared to the other existing time complexity algorithms is O(|E| log|E|+C of Kruskal, which is optimum. The goal is to design an algorithm that is simple, graceful, resourceful, easy to understand, and applicable in various fields starting from constraint based network design, mobile computing to other field of science and engineering.

  12. Degree correlations in signed social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotti, Valerio; Bianconi, Ginestra; Capocci, Andrea; Colaiori, Francesca; Panzarasa, Pietro

    2015-03-01

    We investigate degree correlations in two online social networks where users are connected through different types of links. We find that, while subnetworks in which links have a positive connotation, such as endorsement and trust, are characterized by assortative mixing by degree, networks in which links have a negative connotation, such as disapproval and distrust, are characterized by disassortative patterns. We introduce a class of simple theoretical models to analyze the interplay between network topology and the superimposed structure based on the sign of links. Results uncover the conditions that underpin the emergence of the patterns observed in the data, namely the assortativity of positive subnetworks and the disassortativity of negative ones. We discuss the implications of our study for the analysis of signed complex networks.

  13. Degree correlations in signed social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ciotti, Valerio; Capocci, Andrea; Colaiori, Francesca; Panzarasa, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    We investigate degree correlations in two online social networks where users are connected through different types of links. We find that, while subnetworks in which links have a positive connotation, such as endorsement and trust, are characterized by assortative mixing by degree, networks in which links have a negative connotation, such as disapproval and distrust, are characterized by disassortative patterns. We introduce a class of simple theoretical models to analyze the interplay between network topology and the superimposed structure based on the sign of links. Results uncover the conditions that underpin the emergence of the patterns observed in the data, namely the assortativity of positive subnetworks and the disassortativity of negative ones. We discuss the implications of our study for the analysis of signed complex networks.

  14. Vigilance Degree Computing Based on EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhong Zhan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In daily life, lots of work need people maintain higher attention or vigilance. In the early study of vigilance, blink frequency, the impedance of skin, body temperature and blood pressure and other physiological signals was used to estimate the vigilance. EEG signal can more directly reflect the brain's activity than other physiological signals, and EEG signal have a higher time resolution. In this paper, ERP component and different frequencies of EEG were used to analyze the alert state, according to this study, in the ERP components, N170 can be a good representation of the degree of fatigue of the subject; Through the 10 subjects EEG frequency distribution analysis, and according to the formula defined in this paper, the vigilance degree of this ten subjects was calculated.  

  15. Degrees of freedom in discrete geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ariwahjoedi, Seramika; Rovelli, Carlo; Zen, Freddy P

    2016-01-01

    Following recent developments in discrete gravity, we study geometrical variables (angles and forms) of simplices in the discrete geometry point of view. Some of our relatively new results include: new ways of writing a set of simplices using vectorial (differential form) and coordinate-free pictures, and a consistent procedure to couple particles of space, together with a method to calculate the degrees of freedom of the system of 'quanta' of space in the classical framework.

  16. Minimum degree and density of binary sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Müttel, J.; Rautenbach, D.

    2010-01-01

    For d,k∈N with k ≤ 2d, let g(d,k) denote the infimum density of binary sequences (x)∈{0,1} which satisfy the minimum degree condition σ(x+) ≥ k for all i∈Z with xi=1. We reduce the problem of computing g(d,k) to a combinatorial problem related to the generalized k-girth of a graph G which...

  17. Membrane Triangles with Drilling Degrees of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fajman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An accurate triangular plane element with drilling degrees of freedom is shown in this paper. This element can be successfully used for solving linear and nonlinear problems. The main advantage of this element is that the stiffness matrix is obtained from pure deformations – elongations of the edges. This aproach is very suitable for nonlinear analysis, where the unbalanced forces can be obtained directly from elongations of edges. 

  18. Evaluation of Fifth Degree Elliptic Singular Moduli

    CERN Document Server

    Bagis, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    Our main result in this article is a formula for the extraction of the solution of the fifth degree modular polynomial equation i.e. the value of $k_{25^nr_0}$, when we know only two consecutive values $k_{r_0}$ and $k_{r_0/25}$. By this way we reduce the problem of solving the depressed equation if we known two consecutive values of the Elliptic singular moduli $k_r$.

  19. Doctoral Degrees Granted in Foreign Languages in the United States: 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benseler, David P.; Moore, Suzanne S.

    2000-01-01

    Provides data from the Modern Language Association's survey of doctoral degrees granted in foreign languages, literatures, cultures, linguistics, and foreign language education in the United States. (Author/VWL)

  20. Variation in meroplankton along 78 degrees E Meridian

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, T.; Peter, K.J.

    degrees S, 5 degrees S-15 degrees S and 15 degrees S-23 degrees S). Fish eggs showed variations within the zones, having a maximum of 1 to 5 in Zone B. While greater variations of 1 to 4 were shown in Zone B by the bivalve larvae, it was less in other...

  1. Rank of loop, constraint degree of path, coupling degree of graph and their application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tingli; LUO Yufeng; ZHANG Ce; YAO Fanghua

    2005-01-01

    Some new concepts (rank of a loop, degree of freedom of a graph, path unit and ordered path arrangement, constraint degree of path, coupling degree of a graph, basic graph, etc. ), formulas, and algorithms, are proposed in this paper. Based on these concepts, a new systematic theory and practical method for the design of topological structure, kinematics and dynamics of mechanical systems is established. Some conjectures and problems needed to be researched are also put forward. The concepts, formulae and algorithms presented in this paper will find wide potential applications.

  2. Giant component in random multipartite graphs with given degree sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gamarnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of the existence of a giant component in a random multipartite graph. We consider a random multipartite graph with p parts generated according to a given degree sequence ndi(n, n≥1 which denotes the number of vertices in part i of the multipartite graph with degree given by the vector d in an n-node graph. We assume that the empirical distribution of the degree sequence converges to a limiting probability distribution. Under certain mild regularity assumptions, we characterize the conditions under which, with high probability, there exists a component of linear size. The characterization involves checking whether the Perron-Frobenius norm of the matrix of means of a certain associated edge-biased distribution is greater than unity. We also specify the size of the giant component when it exists. We use the exploration process of Reed Molloy and Reed (1995 to analyze the size of components in the random graph. The main challenges arise due to the multidimensionality of the random processes involved which prevents us from directly applying the techniques from the standard unipartite case. In this paper we use techniques from the theory of multidimensional Galton-Watson processes along with Lyapunov function technique to overcome the challenges.

  3. HIGH DEGREE SPONDYLOLISTHESIS IN ADULTS: MONOSEGMENTAL REDUCTION AND FIXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Chiovato Abdala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate a method to reduce high degree spondylolisthesis in adults with monosegmental fixing preserving the adjacent level and the improvement of sagittal balance.Methods:A prospective study, with 12 adult patients with high degree spondylolisthesis (III and IV in adults who underwent surgery by the same team. We included 7 women and 5 men with a mean age of 37 years and lombosciatalgy that had no improvement with conservative treatment. The surgical technique used was total or partial reduction by Spondylolisthesis Reduction Instrument (SRI system, with instrumentation only in the affected level, thus sparing the adjacent level, associated with 360ofusion.Results:The L5-S1 level was involved in nine patients, L4-L5 in two, and VT-S1 in one patient. The isthmic type predominated in nine patients, followed by dysplastic type in two, and one iatrogenic spondylolisthesis. These patients were assessed by the Oswestry scale, which showed a preoperative average of 59% and postoperative average of 12.4% (P<0.05. A significant improvement in the average slip angle from 54.66% to 9.5% (35% to 0% was found. No major complications such as infection, neurological damage or material breaks were observed.Conclusion:The reduction of high degree listhesis instrumenting only the affected level produces good results, with good control of pain and functional improvement of patients. However, a larger follow-up is required to better evaluation.

  4. Effective degrees of freedom in QCD thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turko L.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An effective model reproducing the equation of state of hadronic matter as obtained in recent lattice QCD simulations and from hadron resonance gas data is presented. The hadronic phase is described by means of an extended Mott-Hagedorn resonance gas while the QGP phase is described by the extended PNJL model. The dissociation of hadrons is obtained by including the state dependent hadron resonance width. The model gives a quantitative estimate for partial fractions of hadronic and partonic degrees of freedom above Tc.

  5. Developing Your 360-Degree Leadership Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nupur; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien; Bhargava, Puneet

    2017-09-01

    Radiologists serve in leadership roles throughout their career, making leadership education an integral part of their development. A maxim of leadership style is summarized by 360-Degree Leadership, which highlights the ability of a leader to lead from any position within the organization while relying on core characteristics to build confidence from within their team. The qualities of leadership discussed can be learned and applied by radiologists at any level. These traits can form a foundation for the leader when faced with unfavorable events, which themselves allow the leader an opportunity to build trust. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Geologic map of the Dillon 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Idaho and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, E.T.; Lopez, D.A.; O'Neill, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The digital ARC/INFO databases included in this website provide a GIS database for the geologic map of the Dillon 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangle of southwest Montana and east-central Idaho. The geologic map was originally published as U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1803-H. This website directory contains ARC/INFO format files that can be used to query or display the geology of USGS Map I-1803-H with GIS software.

  7. Minimum degree condition forcing complete graph immersion

    CERN Document Server

    DeVos, Matt; Fox, Jacob; McDonald, Jessica; Mohar, Bojan; Scheide, Diego

    2011-01-01

    An immersion of a graph $H$ into a graph $G$ is a one-to-one mapping $f:V(H) \\to V(G)$ and a collection of edge-disjoint paths in $G$, one for each edge of $H$, such that the path $P_{uv}$ corresponding to edge $uv$ has endpoints $f(u)$ and $f(v)$. The immersion is strong if the paths $P_{uv}$ are internally disjoint from $f(V(H))$. It is proved that for every positive integer $t$, every simple graph of minimum degree at least $200t$ contains a strong immersion of the complete graph $K_t$. For dense graphs one can say even more. If the graph has order $n$ and has $2cn^2$ edges, then there is a strong immersion of the complete graph on at least $c^2 n$ vertices in $G$ in which each path $P_{uv}$ is of length 2. As an application of these results, we resolve a problem raised by Paul Seymour by proving that the line graph of every simple graph with average degree $d$ has a clique minor of order at least $cd^{3/2}$, where $c>0$ is an absolute constant. For small values of $t$, $1\\le t\\le 7$, every simple graph of...

  8. Degree of satisfaction among hearing aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing loss (HL is defined as the complete or partial loss of hearing ability. Aims: To characterize (1 the degree of satisfaction among adult and elderly hearing aid (HA users who were treated by a public hearing health service and (2 the relationship between satisfaction and the variables of gender, age, degree of HL, and type of HA. Method: The clinical and experimental study included the administration of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL questionnaire to 110 patients who had used HAs for more than 3 months and were 18 years of age or older. Results: Test patients were sex-balanced (48% were women and had a mean age of 67 years. A relatively high incidence of sensorineural moderate HL was detected in the study patients (66% and device B was the most commonly used HA type (48%. No significant differences were evident between HA satisfaction and sex. The importance placed on services/costs and personal image varied between age groups. Correlation was evident at all levels between user satisfaction and amplification. Decreased satisfaction was observed in individuals with severe and/or profound HL. The type of HA used yielded statistically significant differences in the positive effects referring. Conclusion: No correlations were evident between the different factors proposed. HA users exhibited high levels of satisfaction in all SADL areas.

  9. STUDY REGARDING THE CUSTOMERS SATISFACTION DEGREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palade Alexandru Constantin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is to establish the satisfaction degree of the heavy commercial vehicles market customers. This scientifical endeavour is justified by the major importance given by the producers and distributors of such vehicles to the beneficiaries’ satisfaction, a hich importance factor in the product development, customer relations inprovement and market share growth. After the 2008-2009 financial crisis, when the Romanian heavy commercial vehicles market collapsed, the growth trend was linear and moderat, but the market structure changed significantly. Having on one hand high technological costs, generated by the European legislation on pllution reduction and road safety and, on the other hand, the beneficiaries’ price pressure, the top producers from the deveoped countries focused on the optimization of the cutomers’ satisfaction degree and the development of their loyalty towards the brand. In order to achieve this, there has been developed a selective qualitative research, in the form of a questionnaire, among the most important customers of MHS Truck & Bus SRL – the importer of MAN trucks in Romania. The questions were directed towards obtaining informations regarding the customers’ product perception, identifying the main acquisition motivations and finding the main issues in successfully implementing the main politics of the relational maketing. The obtained results generally showed a good satisfaction result, the main complaints regarding subjects indirectly linked to the distribution, like service performance or road assistance.

  10. On free ring extensions of degree n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Szeto

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Nagahara and Kishimoto [1] studied free ring extensions B(x of degree n for some integer n over a ring B with 1, where xn=b, cx=xρ(c for all c and some b in B(ρ=automophism of  B, and {1,x…,xn−1} is a basis. Parimala and Sridharan [2], and the author investigated a class of free ring extensions called generalized quaternion algebras in which b=−1 and ρ is of order 2. The purpose of the present paper is to generalize a characterization of a generalized quaternion algebra to a free ring extension of degree n in terms of the Azumaya algebra. Also, it is shown that a one-to-one correspondence between the set of invariant ideals of B under ρ and the set of ideals of B(x leads to a relation of the Galois extension B over an invariant subring under ρ to the center of B.

  11. 80 Degrees of Seperation: Landscape in Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Rolley

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two writers in the early 1900s, Katherine Mansfield in New Zealand and Willa Cather in the United States tallgrass prairie, chronicled both the cultural and physical nuances of their frontiers. Their stories are set in rich textural backdrops, made vivid with their descriptions of natural environments. These descriptions provide the context for this paper's exploration. The dense and evocative imagery of these two writers provides a point of departure for a comparison of the two landscapes. The agricultural settlement patterns and natural systems of the New Zealand bush and farmland and those of the United States tallgrass prairie invite comparison. Mansfield's and Cather's narratives provide the guide for this study, capturing the subtle differences and underlying similarities of the textures and patterns of these two landscapes, while emphasising the differences in colour and scale. The degrees of separation are not as distinct as the 80 degrees of latitude that lie between them. Instead there is a myriad of subtle, rather than singular, differentiations. This visual analysis is not intended to address the significant cultural differences of these two places. Rather, it is a study of visual distinctions and similarities guided by the environmental qualities identified by a native author from each locale: Mansfield (New Zealand bush and farmland, and Cather (United States tallgrass prairie. Guided by their words, my own investigation of place is a graphic exploration of the physical environment: the line, form, pattern, texture, colour, light and spatial qualities of each landscape.

  12. 360 DEGREE SUBANNULAR TYMPANOPLASTY: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: To study the efficacy of underlay tympanoplasty by elevating the annulus by 360 degrees. SUBJECTS AND METHODS : Two hundred patients with chronic otitis media , tubotympanic disease , inactive stage who underwent tympanoplasty by the above technique between the years 2009 to 2013 were selected for the study as and when they were admitted. All the patients were followed up for 6 months fol lowing surgery. Any complications like secondary infection , wound dehiscence , granulations , were looked for and treated appropriately. Status of the neotympanum was evaluated at the end of 3 months. Any anterior blunting , medialisation or lateralisation of the graft was noted. Any residual perforation was considered as failure. Hearing was evaluated in all patients with an intact neotympanum. RESULTS : Our study showed an overall success rate of 96% as far as graft uptake was concerned. Hearing improvement w as seen in 93% of our patients. 6 patients had complete air bone gap closure , 49 had AB gap of 10db or less , 131 had AB gap of 11 - 20db. 14 patients had no improvement in hearing. Overall hearing improvement was seen in 93% of our patients. CONCLUSION : In c onclusion 360 degree sub - annular tympanoplasty is a efficient technique of tympanoplasty with very good results.

  13. Familial clustering of myocardial infarction in first-degree relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mia; Andersson, Charlotte; Gerds, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    case with MI at an age years was associated with an RR of 3.30 (2.92–3.72) while a case >50 years was associated with a risk of 1.83 (1.73–1.93). For maternal cases below and above 50 years of age the risks were 3.23 (2.56–4.10) and 2.31 (2.11–2.52), respectively. Conclusion First-degree relatives...... of a patient with myocardial infarction themselves have a substantial higher risk of myocardial infarction. The risk is particularly elevated when the MI case is the mother or a sibling, and when the MI case has the infarction before the age of 50 years....

  14. Mesodynamics with implicit degrees for freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Keng-Hua; Germann, Timothy C; Strachan, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Mesoscale phenomena -- involving a level of description between the finest atomistic scale and the macroscopic continuum -- can be studied by a variation on the usual atomistic-level molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique. In mesodynamics, the mass points, rather than being atoms, are mesoscopic in size, for instance representing the centers of mass of polycrystalline grains or molecules. In order to reproduce many of the overall features of fully atomistic MD, which is inherently more expensive, the equations of motion in mesodynamics must be derivable from an interaction potential that is faithful to the compressive equation of state, as well as to tensile de-cohesion that occurs along the boundaries of the mesoscale units. Moreover, mesodynamics diffrers from Newton's equations of motion in that dissipation -- the exchange of energy between mesoparticles and their internal degrees of freedom (DoFs) -- must be described, and so should the transfer of energy between the internal modes of neighboring me...

  15. Research on image scrambling degree evaluation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Sen; Liao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jinyu; Liu, Yijun; Wang, Xiao

    2005-12-01

    This paper discussed the evaluation problem of image scrambling degree (ISD). Inspired by the evaluation method of image texture characteristics, three new metrics for assessing objectively the ISD were proposed. The first method utilized the performance of energy concentration of Walsh transformation (WT), which took into account the properties that a good ISD measurement method should be contented. The second method used angular second moment (ASM) of image gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The third method combined the entropy of GLCM with image texture characteristic. Experimental results show that the proposed metrics are effective to assess the ISD, which correlates well with subjective assessment. Considering the computational complexity, the first evaluation method based on WT is remarkably superior to the method based on ASM and GLCM in terms of the time cost.

  16. The Degree Distribution of the Random Multigraphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai Lian CHEN; Fu Ji ZHANG; Hao LI

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,as a generalization of the binomial random graph model,we define the model of multigraphs as follows:let (Q)(n; {pk}) be the probability space of all the labelled loopless multigraphs with vertex set V ={v1,v2,...,vn },in which the distribution of tvi,vj,the number of the edges between any two vertices vi and vj isP{tvi,vj =k} =pk, k =0,1,2,...and they are independent of each other.Denote by Xd =Xd(G),Yd =Yd(G),Zd =Zd(G) and Zcd =Zed(G) the number of vertices of G with degree d,at least d,at most d and between c and d.In this paper,we discuss the distribution of Xd,Yd,Zd and Zcd in the probability space (Q)(n; {pk}).

  17. Happiness, Psychology, and Degrees of Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavazza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The recent emphasis on a realist ontology that cannot be overshadowed by subjectivist or relativist perspectives seems to have a number of consequences for psychology as well. My attempt here is to analyse the relationship between happiness as a state of the individual and the states of the external world and the brain events related to (or, in some hypotheses, causally responsible for) its occurrence. It can be maintained that different degrees of realism are suitable to describe the states of happiness and this fact might have relevant psychological implications, namely for the so-called positive psychology. This is especially true now that there are methods available to induce subjective states of happiness unrelated to the external conditions usually taken to be linked to such states. PMID:27536261

  18. Happiness, Psychology, and Degrees of Realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavazza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The recent emphasis on a realist ontology that cannot be overshadowed by subjectivist or relativist perspectives seems to have a number of consequences for psychology as well. My attempt here is to analyse the relationship between happiness as a state of the individual and the states of the external world and the brain events related to (or, in some hypotheses, causally responsible for) its occurrence. It can be maintained that different degrees of realism are suitable to describe the states of happiness and this fact might have relevant psychological implications, namely for the so-called positive psychology. This is especially true now that there are methods available to induce subjective states of happiness unrelated to the external conditions usually taken to be linked to such states.

  19. Vocational Counseling and Training for Medical Degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Mercedes Vicente Sánchez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deciding on a university degree is undoubtedly a difficult choice. This situation brings about fear of failing and disappointing yourself and others, which is a common feeling among high school students, becoming a source of anxiety and stress. This demonstrates the need for an appropriate vocational and professional guidance. In Cuba, this subject is gaining importance, since a greater number of youngsters have the opportunity to choose from more professions; thus, deciding on one or the other is a problem of great practical and social impact. Vocational guidance and training in the Cuban educational context aims to reaffirm the inclination of youth towards medical studies, where they fully develop their potential, on the basis of consolidating values and feelings, and a high social, moral and unconditional commitment to the practice of the profession. This paper presents various issues that currently affect vocational guidance and the role of each of the major participants in the process itself.

  20. On degree bounds for separating invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Kohls, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Let a group $G$ act on a finite dimensional vector space $V$ over an algebraically closed field $K$ of characteristic $p$. Then $\\beta_{\\sep}(G)$ is the minimal number such that, for any $V$, the invariants of degree less or equal than this number have the same separating properties as the whole invariant ring $K[V]^{G}$. Derksen and Kemper have shown $\\beta_{\\sep}(G)\\le |G|$. We show $\\beta_{\\sep}(G)=|G|$ for $p$-groups and cyclic groups, and $\\beta_{\\sep}(G)=\\infty$ for infinite unipotent groups. We also show $\\beta_{\\sep}(G)\\le \\beta_{\\sep}(G/N)\\beta_{\\sep}(N)$ for a normal divisor $N$ of finite index.

  1. Hidden degrees of freedom in aperiodic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toudic, Bertrand; Garcia, Pilar; Odin, Christophe; Rabiller, Philippe; Ecolivet, Claude; Collet, Eric; Bourges, Philippe; McIntyre, Garry J; Hollingsworth, Mark D; Breczewski, Tomasz

    2008-01-04

    Numerous crystalline materials, including those of bioorganic origin, comprise incommensurate sublattices whose mutual arrangement is described in a superspace framework exceeding three dimensions. We report direct observation by neutron diffraction of superspace symmetry breaking in a solid-solid phase transition of an incommensurate host-guest system: the channel inclusion compound of nonadecane/urea. Strikingly, this phase transition generates a unit cell doubling that concerns only the modulation of one substructure by the other-an internal variable available only in superspace. This unanticipated pathway for degrees of freedom to rearrange leads to a second phase transition, which again is controlled by the higher dimensionality of superspace. These results reveal nature's capacity to explore the increased number of phases allowed in aperiodic crystals.

  2. The 360 Degree Fulldome Production "Clockwork Ocean"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschek, B.; Heinsohn, R.; Opitz, D.; Fischer, T.; Baschek, T.

    2016-02-01

    The investigation of submesoscale eddies and fronts is one of the leading oceanographic topics at the Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016. In order to observe these small and short-lived phenomena, planes equipped with high-resolution cameras and fast vessels were deployed during the Submesoscale Experiments (SubEx) leading to some of the first high-resolution observations of these eddies. In a future experiment, a zeppelin will be used the first time in marine sciences. The relevance of submesoscale processes for the oceans and the work of the eddy hunters is described in the fascinating 9-minute long 360 degree fulldome production Clockwork Ocean. The fully animated movie is introduced in this presentation taking the observer from the bioluminescence in the deep ocean to a view of our blue planet from space. The immersive media is used to combine fascination for a yet unknown environment with scientific education of a broad audience. Detailed background information is available at the parallax website www.clockwork-ocean.com. The Film is also available for Virtual Reality glasses and smartphones to reach a broader distribution. A unique Mobile Dome with an area of 70 m² and seats for 40 people is used for science education at events, festivals, for politicians and school classes. The spectators are also invited to participate in the experiments by presenting 360 degree footage of the measurements. The premiere of Clockwork Ocean was in July 2015 in Hamburg, Germany and will be worldwide available in English and German as of fall 2015. Clockwork Ocean is a film of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht produced by Daniel Opitz and Ralph Heinsohn.

  3. Multiple degree of freedom impact oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontier, C. [Laboratoire Mecanique S., S. et M., Ecole Centrale, 75 -Paris (France)

    1996-07-01

    The forced vibration of dynamic systems with motion stops is relevant to many practical engineering problems. Several applications were identified in the field of mechanical engineering: structures having clearances, bolted junctions, or rods inside guiding grids. Such mechanical systems, when subjected to harmonic excitation, may not necessarily behave in a periodic way, and the loss of stability of their periodic motion is often a precursor for much more complex nonlinear behaviour. Many numerical, analytical and experimental studies have been carried out on the dynamics of these impacting systems. In particular, the behaviour of single degree of freedom (d.o.f.) impact oscillators has been extensively studied. Phenomena like attractor coexistence, subharmonic bifurcation, and chaos were identified in many earlier papers. The classical pattern of flip bifurcation cascade was observed numerically by Shaw and Holmes, and the Feigenbaum scenario of transition to chaos was confirmed. Others also proved that such systems can undergo ``grazing bifurcation`` and that they could lead to chaotic behaviour. Peterka and Vacik even provided bounds of chaotic responses with the help of an analogue computer. Experiments were also carried out on models, like impact pendulums, whose dynamics can be approximately fitted by a single d.o.f. impact oscillator. Other authors conducted investigations into the existence and stability of periodic solutions. Most of these studies were dedicated to the single impact periodic responses of single d.o.f. impact oscillators. The purpose of this paper is to expand the scope of these analytic investigations. This expansion will take two directions, considering first an arbitrarily large number of degrees of freedom in the oscillating structure, and secondly an arbitrary finite number of impacts per period. Thus, the methods presented here could be applied in the study of any finite impact periodic motions of any dynamic impacting system.

  4. Outcomes of torsional microcoaxial phacoemulsification performed by 12-degree and 22-degree bent tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvacioglu, Firat; Yeter, Celal; Tunc, Zeki; Sencan, Sadik

    2013-08-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of Ozil Intelligent Phaco torsional microcoaxial phacoemulsification surgeries performed with 12-degree and 22-degree bent tips using the Infiniti Vision System. Maltepe University School of Medicine Department of Ophthalmology, Istanbul, Turkey. Comparative case series. Eyes were assigned to 2.2 mm microcoaxial phacoemulsification using the torsional mode with a 22-degree bent tip (Group 1) or a 12-degree bent tip (Group 2). The primary outcome measures were ultrasound time (UST), cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), longitudinal and torsional ultrasound (US) amplitudes, mean surgical time, mean volume of balanced salt solution used, and surgical complications. Both groups included 45 eyes. The mean UST, CDE, longitudinal US amplitude, and torsional US amplitude were 65 seconds ± 27.23 (SD), 11.53 ± 6.99, 0.22 ± 0.26, and 42.86 ± 15.64, respectively, in Group 1 and 84 ± 45.04 seconds, 16.68 ± 10.66, 0.48 ± 0.68, and 46.27 ± 14.74, respectively, in Group 2. The mean UST, CDE, and longitudinal amplitudes were significantly lower in Group 1 (P=.003, P=.008, and P=.022, respectively). The mean volume of balanced salt solution was 73.33 ± 28.58 cc in Group 1 and 82.08 ± 26.21 cc in Group 2 (P=.134). Torsional phacoemulsification performed with 22-degree bent tips provided more effective lens removal than 12-degree bent tips, with a lower UST and CDE. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Canonical Horizontal Visibility Graphs are uniquely determined by their degree sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Bartolo

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal visibility graphs (HVGs) are graphs constructed in correspondence with number sequences that have been introduced and explored recently in the context of graph-theoretical time series analysis. In most of the cases simple measures based on the degree sequence (or functionals of these such as entropies over degree and joint degree distributions) appear to be highly informative features for automatic classification and provide nontrivial information on the associated dynam- ical process, working even better than more sophisticated topological metrics. It is thus an open question why these seemingly simple measures capture so much information. Here we prove that, under suitable conditions, there exist a bijection between the adjacency matrix of an HVG and its degree sequence, and we give an explicit construction of such bijection. As a consequence, under these conditions HVGs are unigraphs and the degree sequence fully encapsulates all the information of these graphs, thereby giving a plausible reason...

  6. Portion of Enhanced 360-degree Gallery Pan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This is a sub-section of the 'geometrically improved, color enhanced' version of the 360-degree panorama heretofore known as the 'Gallery Pan', the first contiguous, uniform panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of Sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama.The IMP is a stereo imaging system that, in its fully deployed configuration, stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. In this geometrically improved version of the panorama, distortion due to a 2.5 degree tilt in the IMP camera mast has been removed, effectively flattening the horizon.The IMP has color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye'. Its red, green, and blue filters were used to take this image. The color was digitally balanced according to the color transmittance capability of a high-resolution TV at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and is dependent on that device. In this color enhanced version of the panorama, detail in surface features are brought out via changes to saturation and intensity, holding the original hue constant. A threshold was applied to avoid changes to the sky.At left is a Lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. Misregistration in the antenna and other Lander features is due to parallax in the extreme foreground. Another Lander petal is at the right, showing the fully deployed forward ramp.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar

  7. New Degree for a New Career? Career Development of Finnish Polytechnic Master's Degree Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Sakari; Galli, Loretta

    2012-01-01

    This article explores Finnish polytechnic master's degree graduates' career development about one year after graduation. Twenty interviewed graduates were first classified on the basis of their initial educational motives yielding a typology of goal-oriented, learning-oriented and drifters. After this, their career development was analysed. As a…

  8. Making Sense of the Combined Degree Experience: The Example of Criminology Double Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimshurst, Kerry; Manning, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Little research has been undertaken on student experiences of combined degrees. The few studies report that a considerable number of students experienced difficulty with the contrasting epistemic/disciplinary demands of the component programmes. A mixed-methods approach was employed to explore the experiences of graduates from four double degrees…

  9. Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees: Results from the 2007 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics conducts an annual census from October through February of all 75 departments that offer degrees in astronomy in the United States. For the class of 2007, the authors received responses from 73 (97%) of these departments. Estimates were derived and included in the totals for…

  10. Marketing Issues for Non-Degree United Kingdom Higher Education: The Case of Foundation Degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Discusses educational marketing in terms of branding and consumer trust. Argues that the labeling and marketing of Britain's new foundation degrees, employment-related higher education qualifications, is detrimental to their success. Suggests a need for more clarity and veracity in the claim for parity of esteem for vocational qualifications.…

  11. Increasingly Global: Combining an International Business Degree with a Post-Degree Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel; Terry, Andy; Vibhakar, Ashvin

    2006-01-01

    In the increasingly complex and competitive global marketplace, many students seek to gain multiple skills and credentials that can aid them in their career goals. One such career strategy weds a general overarching comprehensive degree with a specific and targeted skill set. This paper provides a viable curriculum path for students who seek…

  12. Nuclear Engineering Enrollment and Degree Survey: Enrollments - Fall 1972; Degrees Granted - July 1965-June 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewning, June S.

    The Atomic Energy Commission's survey of nuclear engineering degrees granted during the 1971-72 academic year shows a continuing increase in bachelor's recipients, a slight increase in the number of master's, but a continuing decline in new Ph.D.'s. If the present rate of decline persists, by 1974 the number of new Ph.D.'s in the field will be…

  13. Pathways to the Doctorate Degree: A Phenomenological Study of African American Women in Doctorate Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Luciana Janee'

    2010-01-01

    Increasing the number of advanced degree recipients is more than an educational issue; it is also a key social issue. "A college-educated population results in pivotal benefits to society" (The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2004, p. 1). Although African Americans have made steady and notable progress in doctorate degree…

  14. A JVLA 10~degree^2 deep survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, Matt J; Bruggen, Marcus; Ferrari, Chiara; Heywood, Ian; Hardcastle, Martin; Murphy, Eric; Taylor, Russ; Smirnov, Oleg; Simpson, Chris; Smolcic, Vernesa; Stil, Jeroen; van der Heyden, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged)One of the fundamental challenges for astrophysics in the 21st century is finding a way to untangle the physical processes that govern galaxy formation and evolution. Given the importance and scope of this problem, the multi-wavelength astronomical community has used the past decade to build up a wealth of information over specific extragalactic deep fields to address key questions in galaxy formation and evolution. These fields generally cover at least 10square degrees to facilitate the investigation of the rarest, typically most massive, galaxies and AGN. Furthermore, such areal coverage allows the environments to be fully accounted for, thereby linking the single halo to the two-halo terms in the halo occupation distribution. Surveys at radio wavelengths have begun to lag behind those at other wavelengths, especially in this medium-deep survey tier. However, the survey speed offered by the JVLA means that we can now reach a point where we can begin to obtain commensurate data at radio wavelengths...

  15. Constraining the roughness degree of slip heterogeneity

    KAUST Repository

    Causse, Mathieu

    2010-05-07

    This article investigates different approaches for assessing the degree of roughness of the slip distribution of future earthquakes. First, we analyze a database of slip images extracted from a suite of 152 finite-source rupture models from 80 events (Mw = 4.1–8.9). This results in an empirical model defining the distribution of the slip spectrum corner wave numbers (kc) as a function of moment magnitude. To reduce the “epistemic” uncertainty, we select a single slip model per event and screen out poorly resolved models. The number of remaining models (30) is thus rather small. In addition, the robustness of the empirical model rests on a reliable estimation of kc by kinematic inversion methods. We address this issue by performing tests on synthetic data with a frequency domain inversion method. These tests reveal that due to smoothing constraints used to stabilize the inversion process, kc tends to be underestimated. We then develop an alternative approach: (1) we establish a proportionality relationship between kc and the peak ground acceleration (PGA), using a k−2 kinematic source model, and (2) we analyze the PGA distribution, which is believed to be better constrained than slip images. These two methods reveal that kc follows a lognormal distribution, with similar standard deviations for both methods.

  16. Outcomes of torsional microcoaxial phacoemulsification using tips with 30-degree and 45-degree aperture angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvacioglu, Firat; Sencan, Sadik; Yeter, Celal; Tunc, Zeki; Uyar, O Murat

    2014-03-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of Ozil Intelligent Phaco torsional microcoaxial phacoemulsification surgeries performed using 30-degree and 45-degree aperture angled tips. Maltepe University School of Medicine Department of Ophthalmology, Istanbul, Turkey. Comparative case series. Eyes were assigned to 2.2 mm microcoaxial phacoemulsification using the torsional mode with a 45-degree (Group 1) or 30-degree (Group 2) aperture angled tip. A quick-chop surgical technique was used. The primary outcome measures were ultrasound time (UST), cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), longitudinal and torsional ultrasound (US) amplitudes, mean surgical time, mean balanced salt solution volume used, and mean central corneal thickness (CCT) changes. The mean UST, CDE, and longitudinal and torsional US amplitudes were 58.21 seconds ± 33.81 (SD), 7.74 ± 6.23, 0.45 ± 0.30, and 26.30 ± 12.60 in Group 1 and 63.83 ± 23.42 seconds, 12.36 ± 6.75, 0.23 ± 0.26, and 44.65 ± 14.38 in Group 2, respectively. The mean CDE and torsional amplitudes were significantly lower in Group 1 (P=.002 and P=.001, respectively). The mean balanced salt solution volume was 73.30 ± 19.87 cc in Group 1 and 74.30 ± 19.44 cc in Group 2 (P=.821). The mean CCT change was 52.40 ± 38.08 μm and 99.35 ± 47.14 μm, respectively (Ptip provided more effective lens removal with a lower CDE and less CCT change than a 30-degree aperture angled tip. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interdiffusion and Reaction between Zr and Al Alloys from 425 degrees to 625 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Dickson; L. Zhou; A. Ewh; M. Fu; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; Y. H. Sohn; A. Paz y Puente

    2014-06-01

    Zirconium has recently garnered attention for use as a diffusion barrier between U–Mo nuclear fuels and Al cladding alloys. Interdiffusion and reactions between Zr and Al, Al-2 wt.% Si, Al-5 wt.% Si or AA6061 were investigated using solid-to-solid diffusion couples annealed in the temperature range of 425 degrees to 625 degrees C. In the binary Al and Zr system, the Al3Zr and Al2Zr phases were identified, and the activation energy for the growth of the Al3Zr phase was determined to be 347 kJ/mol. Negligible diffusional interactions were observed for diffusion couples between Zr vs. Al-2 wt.% Si, Al-5 wt.% Si and AA6061 annealed at or below 475 degrees C. In diffusion couples with the binary Al–Si alloys at 560 degrees C, a significant variation in the development of the phase constituents was observed including the thick t1 (Al5SiZr2) with Si content up to 12 at.%, and thin layers of (Si,Al)2Zr, (Al,Si)3Zr, Al3SiZr2 and Al2Zr phases. The use of AA6061 as a terminal alloy resulted in the development of both T1 (Al5SiZr2) and (Al,Si)3Zr phases with a very thin layer of (Al,Si)2Zr. At 560 degrees C, with increasing Si content in the Al–Si alloy, an increase in the overall rate of diffusional interaction was observed; however, the diffusional interaction of Zr in contact with multicomponent AA6061 with 0.4–0.8 wt.% Si was most rapid.

  18. The class of Eisenbud--Khimshiashvili--Levine is the local A1-Brouwer degree

    OpenAIRE

    Kass, Jesse Leo; Wickelgren, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Given a polynomial function with an isolated zero at the origin, we prove that the local A1-Brouwer degree equals the Eisenbud-Khimshiashvili-Levine class. This answers a question posed by David Eisenbud in 1978. We give an application to counting nodes together with associated arithmetic information by enriching Milnor's equality between the local degree of the gradient and the number of nodes into which a hypersurface singularity degenerates to an equality in the Grothendieck-Witt group.

  19. Increased expression of survivin in gastric cancer patients and in first degree relatives

    OpenAIRE

    J. Yu; Leung, W K; Ebert, M P A; Ng, E K W; Go, M Y Y; Wang, H.B.; Chung, S C S; Malfertheiner, P; Sung, J. J. Y.

    2002-01-01

    Survivin was recently described as an apoptosis inhibitor. Its pathogenic role in gastric cancer is largely unknown. Expression of survivin in gastric cancer and non-cancer first-degree relatives, and its association with apoptosis and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression was investigated. Fifty gastric cancer, 30 non-cancer first-degree relatives, 20 normal controls and five gastric cancer cell lines were studied. Survivin and cyclo-oxygenase-2 were evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chai...

  20. Geologic significance of new isostatic gravity and aeromagnetic maps of the Winnemucca 1[degree] by 2[degree] quadrangle, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, H.W.; Sikora, R.F. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Robbins, S.L. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Since Wagini's 1986 Bouguer and isostatic gravity compilations of the Winnemucca 1[degree] by 2[degree] quadrangle, R. Sikora has provided an 1991 update that includes 133 new stations obtained in the Sonoma Range, Boulder Valley, and the Battle Mountain areas. Since that 1991 update, 371 additional stations have been obtained by S. Robbins in the Pine and Crescent Valley areas to look for possible gravity signatures of petroleum and gold deposits. All these data have been reduced and incorporated into a new isostatic gravity map of the quadrangle. This new compilation shows that the largest residual low of 32 mGal occurs over petroleum-bearing Pine Valley, although nearly-as-large gravity lows (27--31 mGal) occur over Buena Vista, Pleasant, Reese River, and Grass Valleys. A new aeromagnetic compilation of the Winnemucca quadrangle is continued downward to 300 m above terrain and shows a number of magnetic highs associated with igneous rocks, both intrusive and extrusive. A nearly continuous north-northwest trending magnetic high of about 400 nT, known as the northern Nevada rift, cuts across the quadrangle about 10 km east of Battle Mountain and is associated at some locations with Miocene basaltic and andesitic extrusive rocks. Three Miocene epithermal gold deposits are associated with this magnetic high at Mule Canyon, Fire Creek, and Bluckhorn. A smaller but broader magnetic high of about 200 nT at 300 m above terrain is located over the Tuscarora Mountains about 15 km northwest of Carlin. The maximum horizontal gradient of the pseudogravity transformation of the total magnetic field coincides with a series of ten productive gold mines known as the Carlin trend.

  1. Measurement of high-degree solar oscillation frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, K. T.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Harvey, J. W.; Hill, F.

    1995-01-01

    We present m-averaged solar p- and f-mode oscillation frequencies over the frequency range nu greater than 1.8 and less than 5.0 mHz and the spherical harmonic degree range l greater than or equal to 100 and less than or equal to 1200 from full-disk, 1000 x 1024 pixel, Ca II intensity images collected 1993 June 22-25 with a temporal cadence of 60 s. We itemize the sources and magnitudes of statistical and systematic uncertainties and of small frequency corrections, and we show that our frequencies represent an improvement in accuracy and coverage over previous measurements. Our frequencies agree at the 2 micro Hz level with Mount Wilson frequencies determined for l less than or equal to 600 from full-disk images, and we find systematic offsets of 10-20 micro Hz with respect to frequencies measured from Big Bear and La Palma observations. We give evidence that these latter offsets are indicative of spatial scaling uncertainties associated with the analysis of partial-disk images. In comparison with theory, our p-mode frequencies agree within 10 micro Hz of frequencies predicted by the Los Alamos model but are as much as 100 micro Hz smaller than frequencies predicted by the Denmark and Yale models at degrees near 1000. We also find systematic differences between our n = 0 frequencies and the frequencies closely agreed upon by all three models.

  2. Conserved charges, surface degrees of freedom, and black hole entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Seraj, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the Hamiltonian and covariant phase space description of gravitational theories. The phase space represents the allowed field configurations and is accompanied by a closed nondegenerate 2 form- the symplectic form. We will show that local/gauge symmetries of the action fall into two different categories in the phase space formulation. Those corresponding to constraints in the phase space, and those associated with nontrivial conserved charges. We argue that while the former is related to redundant gauge degrees of freedom, the latter leads to physically distinct states of the system, known as surface degrees of freedom and can induce a lower dimensional dynamics on the system. These ideas are then implemented to build the phase space of specific gravitational systems: 1) asymptotically AdS3 spacetimes, and 2) near horizon geometries of extremal black holes (NHEG) in arbitrary dimension. In the AdS3 phase space, we show that Brown-Henneaux asymptotic symmetries can be extended inside t...

  3. DDOTI: the deca-degree optical transient imager

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Alan M; Troja, Eleonora; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G; Butler, Nathaniel R; Kutyrev, Alexander S; Gehrels, Neil A; Ángeles, Fernando; Basa, Stéphane; Blanc, Pierre-Eric; Boër, Michel; de Diego, Jose A; Farah, Alejandro S; Figueroa, Liliana; Chew, Yilen Gómez Maqueo; Klotz, Alain; Quirós, Fernando; Reyes-Ruíz, Maurico; Ruíz-Diáz-Soto, Jaime; Thierry, Pierre; Tinoco, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    DDOTI will be a wide-field robotic imager consisting of six 28-cm telescopes with prime focus CCDs mounted on a common equatorial mount. Each telescope will have a field of view of 12 square degrees, will have 2 arcsec pixels, and will reach a 10-sigma limiting magnitude in 60 seconds of r = 18.7 in dark time and r = 18.0 in bright time. The set of six will provide an instantaneous field of view of about 72 square degrees. DDOTI uses commercial components almost entirely. The first DDOTI will be installed at the Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional in Sierra San Pedro Mart\\'ir, Baja California, M\\'exico in early 2017. The main science goals of DDOTI are the localization of the optical transients associated with GRBs detected by the GBM instrument on the Fermi satellite and with gravitational-wave transients. DDOTI will also be used for studies of AGN and YSO variability and to determine the occurrence of hot Jupiters. The principal advantage of DDOTI compared to other similar projects is cost: a single DDOTI i...

  4. Sodium corrosion of alloy 718 at 649 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, M.G.

    1984-09-01

    The effects of exposure of Alloy 718 to flowing sodium at 649{degree}C have been studied for times ranging from 4000 h to 20,000 h. Data are reported for metal loss, chemical composition changes, depth of intergranular attack and microhardness changes. Relationships have been developed to describe the dependence of corrosion rate on temperature and sample location (the downstream effect), and the variation of intergranular attack depth with exposure time. The surface topography of exposed samples was observed to vary with sample location, a fact which was attributed to changes in the dissolution potentials for the constituent elements. The corrosive attack was found to be non-uniform and subsurface porosity, associated with the intergranular attack, was detected after the longer exposure periods. Ferritic phase formation was noted both on the surface and internally. The microhardness data indicated that the material started to over-age at or just before 4000 h at 649{degree}C. 11 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Improving Scientific Writing in Undergraduate Geosciences Degrees Through Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, E. A.; Collins, G. S.; Craig, L.

    2016-12-01

    In the British educational system, students specialise early. Often geoscience undergraduates have not taken a class that requires extended writing since they were sixteen years old. This can make it difficult for students to develop the written skills necessary for a geoscience degree, which often has assessments in the form of essays and reports. To improve both the writing and editing skills of our undergraduates we have introduced a peer review system, in which seniors review the work of first year students. At Imperial College London we set written coursework in every year of the degree. Communication is taught and assessed in many courses. There are two major modules with substantial written components that bookend the undergraduate degree at Imperial; the freshmen all write an assessed essay, while all seniors take 'Science Communication', a course that aims to prepare them for a range of possible careers. In the 2015-16 academic year we linked these courses by introducing a modified form of peer marking and instruction. Seniors had to complete reviews of draft first year essays for credit in Science Communication. These reviews are completed for the department 'journal' and introduce the first and fourth years to the nature of peer review. Seniors learn how to critically, but kindly, evaluate the work of other students, and are also prepared for potentially submitting their senior theses to journals. Reviews were managed by volunteer seniors, who acted as associate editors. They allocated anonymous reviewers and wrote decision letters, which were sent to the freshmen before their final assessed essay submission. Ultimately the fourth year reviews were formally assessed and graded by members of staff, as were the revised and resubmitted first year essays. Feedback for both courses has improved since the introduction of student reviews of essays. The markers of the freshman essay have also commented on the improvement in the standard of the writing and a

  6. 360-degree panorama in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama was taken in stereo by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses (red left lens, blue right lens) are necessary to help identify surface detail. All three petals, the perimeter of the deflated airbags, deployed rover Sojourner, forward and backward ramps and prominent surface features are visible, including the double Twin Peaks at the horizon. Sojourner would later investigate the rock Barnacle Bill just to its left in this image, and the larger rock Yogi at its forward right.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. Stereoscopic imaging brings exceptional clarity and depth to many of the features in this image, particularly the ridge beyond the far left petal and the large rock Yogi. The curvature and misalignment of several section are due to image parallax.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  7. Using fuzzy data mining to diagnose patients' degrees of melancholia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yo-Ping; Kuo, Wen-Lin

    2011-06-01

    The common treatments of melancholia are psychotherapy and taking medicines. The psychotherapy treatment which this study focuses on is limited by time and location. It is easier for psychiatrists to grasp information from clinical manifestation but it is difficult for psychiatrists to collect information from patients' daily conversations or emotion. To design a system which psychiatrists enable to capture patients' daily symptoms will show great help in the treatment. This study proposes to use fuzzy data mining algorithm to find association rules among keywords segmented from patients' daily voice/text messages to assist psychiatrists extract useful information before outpatient service. Patients of melancholia can use devices such as mobile phones or computers to record their own emotion anytime and anywhere and then uploading the recorded files to the back-end server for further analysis. The analytical results can be used for psychiatrists to diagnose patients' degrees of melancholia. Experimental results will be given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  8. The strong Novikov conjecture for low degree cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Schick, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We show that for each discrete group G, the rational assembly map K_*(BG) \\otimes Q \\to K_*(C*_{max} G) \\otimes \\Q is injective on classes dual to the subring generated by cohomology classes of degree at most 2 (identifying rational K-homology and homology via the Chern character). Our result implies homotopy invariance of higher signatures associated to these cohomology classes. This consequence was first established by Connes-Gromov-Moscovici and Mathai. Our approach is based on the construction of flat twisting bundles out of sequences of almost flat bundles as first described in our previous work. In contrast to the argument of Mathai, our approach is independent of (and indeed gives a new proof of) the result of Hilsum-Skandalis on the homotopy invariance of the index of the signature operator twisted with bundles of small curvature.

  9. Degree and connectivity of the Internet's scale-free topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lian-Ming; Deng Xiao-Heng; Yu Jian-Ping; Wu Xiang-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically studies the degree and connectivity of the Internet's scale-free topology at an autonomous system (AS)level. The basic features of scale-free networks influence the normalization constant of degree distribution p(k). It develops a new mathematic model for describing the power-law relationships of Internet topology. From this model we theoretically obtain formulas to calculate the average degree, the ratios of the kmin-degree (minimum degree)nodes and the km.-degree (maximum degree)nodes, and the fraction of the degrees (or links)in the hands of the richer (top best-connected)nodes. It finds that the average degree is larger for a smaller power-law exponent λ and a larger minimum or maximum degree. The ratio of the kmin-degree nodes is larger for larger a and smaller kmin or kmax. The ratio of the kmax-degree ones is larger for smaller λ and kn,ax or larger kmin. The richer nodes hold most of the total degrees of Internet AS-level topology. In addition, it is revealed that the increased rate of the average degree or the ratio of the kmin-degree nodes has power-law decay with the increase of kmin. The ratio of the km.-degree nodes has a power-law decay with the increase of k, and the fraction of the degrees in the hands of the richer 27% nodes is about 73% (the'73/27 rule'). Finally, empirically calculations are made, based on the empirical data extracted from the Border Gateway Protocol, of the average degree, ratio and fraction using this method and other methods, and find that this method is rigorous and effective for Internet AS-level topology.

  10. Dynamical Degrees, Arithmetic Degrees, and Canonical Heights for Dominant Rational Self-Maps of Projective Space

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2011-01-01

    Let F : P^N --> P^N be a dominant rational map. The dynamical degree of F is the quantity d_F = lim (deg F^n)^(1/n). When F is defined over a number field, we define the arithmetic degree of an algebraic point P to be a_F(P) = limsup h(F^n(P))^(1/n) and the canonical height of P to be h_F(P) = limsup h(F^n(P))/n^k d_F^n for an appropriately chosen integer k = k_F. In this article we prove some elementary relations and make some deep conjectures relating d_F, a_F(P), and h_F(P). We prove our conjectures for semisimple monomial maps.

  11. Rationale and design of the participant, investigator, observer, and data-analyst-blinded randomized AGENDA trial on associations between gene-polymorphisms, endophenotypes for depression and antidepressive intervention: the effect of escitalopram versus placebo on the combined dexamethasone, -corticotrophine releasing hormone test and other potential endophenotypes in healthy first-degree relatives of persons with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Klose, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endophenotypes are heritable markers, which are more prevalent in patients and their healthy relatives than in the general population. Recent studies point at disturbed regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis as a possible endophenotype for depression. We hypothes......BACKGROUND: Endophenotypes are heritable markers, which are more prevalent in patients and their healthy relatives than in the general population. Recent studies point at disturbed regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis as a possible endophenotype for depression. We...... hypothesize that potential endophenotypes for depression may be affected by selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants in healthy first-degree relatives of depressed patients. The primary outcome measure is the change in plasma cortisol in the dexamethasone-corticotrophin releasing hormone test...... from baseline to the end of intervention. METHODS: The AGENDA trial is designed as a participant, investigator, observer, and data-analyst-blinded randomized trial. Participants are 80 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression. Participants are randomized to escitalopram 10 mg per day...

  12. Nuclear Engineering: Enrollments and Degrees. Enrollments-Fall 1973, Degrees Granted-July 1965-June 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. Office of Industrial Relations.

    This document presents statistical data concerning enrollments for fall 1973 and degrees granted 1965-June 1973 in nuclear engineering. Highlights of this survey of educational institutions indicated: (1) Ph.D.'s decreased to 126 from 149 in 1971-72 and from 181 in 1969-70. (2) MS's increased to 442 from 428 in 1971-72. (3) BS's increased to 551…

  13. The Sequencing of a College Degree during the Transition to Adulthood: Implications for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miech, Richard Allen; Shanahan, Michael J; Boardman, Jason; Bauldry, Shawn

    2015-06-01

    In this study we consider the health implications of the sequencing of a college degree vis-à-vis familial roles during the transition to adulthood. We hypothesize that people who earned a college degree before assuming familial roles will have better health than people who earned a college degree afterwards. To test this hypothesis, we focus on obesity and use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results show that marriage before completion of college was associated with a 50% higher probability of becoming obese when compared with marriage after completion of college. Parenthood before college completion was associated with a greater than twofold increase in the probability of becoming obese when compared to parenthood afterwards for black men. These findings suggest that the well-established association of education with health depends on its place in a sequence of roles.

  14. Assessing Degree of Susceptibility to Landslide Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, M. F.; Cordoba, G. A.; Delgado, H.; Stefanescu, R.

    2013-05-01

    The modeling of hazardous mass flows, both dry and water saturated, is currently an area of active research and several stable models have now emerged that have differing degrees of physical and mathematical fidelity. Models based on the early work of Savage and Hutter (1989) assume that very large dense granular flows could be modeled as incompressible continua governed by a Coulomb failure criterion. Based on this concept, Patra et al. (2005) developed a code for dry avalanches, which proposes a thin layer mathematical model similar to shallow-water equations. This concept was implemented in the widely-used TITAN2D program, which integrates the shock-capturing Godunov solution methodology for the equation system. We propose a method to assess the susceptibility of specific locations susceptible to landslides following heavy tephra fall using the TIATN2D code. Successful application requires that the range of several uncertainties must be framed in the selection of model input data: 1) initial conditions, like volume and location of origin of the landslide, 2) bed and internal friction parameters and 3) digital elevation model (DEM) uncertainties. Among the possible ways of coping with these uncertainties, we chose to use Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). This statistical technique reduces a computationally intractable problem to such an extent that is it possible to apply it, even with current personal computers. LHS requires that there is only one sample in each row and each column of the sampling matrix, where each row (multi-dimensional) corresponds to each uncertainty. LHS requires less than 10% of the sample runs needed by Monte Carlo approaches to achieve a stable solution. In our application LHS output provides model sampling for 4 input parameters: initial random volumes, UTM location (x and y), and bed friction. We developed a simple Octave script to link the output of LHS with TITAN2D. In this way, TITAN2D can run several times with successively different

  15. Degrees of Truthfulness in Accepted Scientific Claims.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan Mabrouk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-MY X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: Sciences adopt different methodologies in deriving claims and establishing theories. As a result, two accepted claims or theories belonging to two different sciences may not necessarily carry the same degree of truthfulness. Examining the different methodologies of deriving claims in the sciences of ʿaqīdah (Islamic Creed, fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence and physics, the study shows that ʿaqīdah provides a holistic understanding of the universe. Physics falls short of interpreting physical phenomena unless these phenomena are looked at through the ʿaqīdah holistic view. Left to itself, error may creep into laws of physics due to the methodology of conducting the physical experiments, misinterpreting the experimental results, or accepting invalid assumptions. As for fiqh, it is found that apart from apparent errors, fiqh views cannot be falsified. It is, therefore, useful to consider ʿaqīdah as a master science which would permit all other sciences to live in harmony.

  16. Degree distance and Gutman index of corona product of graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sheeba Agnes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the degree distance and the Gutman index of the corona product of two graphs are determined. Using the results obtained, the exact degree distance and Gutman index of certain classes of graphs are computed.

  17. Testing the functional equations of a high-degree Euler product

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, David W; Schmidt, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    We study the L-functions associated to Siegel modular forms (equivalently, automorphic representations of ${\\rm GSp}(4,\\mathbb{A}_{\\mathbb{Q}})$) both theoretically and numerically. For the L-functions of degrees 10, 14, and 16 we perform representation theoretic calculations to cast the Langlands L-function in classical terms. We develop a precise notion of what it means to test a conjectured functional equation for an L-function, and we apply this to the degree 10 adjoint L-function associated to a Siegel modular form.

  18. Expectations of Adult Graduate Students in an Online Degree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deggs, David; Grover, Kenda; Kacirek, Kit

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the expectations of adult graduate students enrolled in an online degree program at a research university in the mid-South United States. Students who were pursuing their master of education degree were invited to participate in an e-Focus group regarding their expectations of the degree program. Focus groups…

  19. Building Bridges: Higher Degree Student Retention and Counselling Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the discussion on increasing retention rates in higher degree students. It presents evidence from the literature on the value of increasing counselling and mentoring care for higher degree research students. The creation of, and rationale for, a designated higher degree student counsellor-mentor role is described.…

  20. Comparability of Degrees and Diplomas in International Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Rene Jean; Tunkin, Gregory

    University exchanges, as well as the high degree of mobility that is a feature of certain professions, demand a system of international equivalences of degrees. This study deals with degrees in international law, and includes under this term: (1) public international law, defined as the body of rules that apply to states and others subject to…

  1. Facilitating Timely Completion of a College Degree with Optimization Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechter, Avi

    2009-01-01

    Students who pursue a bachelor's degree in four-year colleges and universities often take longer than four years to complete their degrees. The reasons for prolonging the time to degree seem to fall into three broad categories: part-time enrollment, deficiencies in academic readiness, and inadequate course planning. This paper focuses on the…

  2. Rationale and design of the participant, investigator, observer, and data-analyst-blinded randomized AGENDA trial on associations between gene-polymorphisms, endophenotypes for depression and antidepressive intervention: the effect of escitalopram versus placebo on the combined dexamethasone-corticotrophine releasing hormone test and other potential endophenotypes in healthy first-degree relatives of persons with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulson Olaf

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endophenotypes are heritable markers, which are more prevalent in patients and their healthy relatives than in the general population. Recent studies point at disturbed regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis as a possible endophenotype for depression. We hypothesize that potential endophenotypes for depression may be affected by selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants in healthy first-degree relatives of depressed patients. The primary outcome measure is the change in plasma cortisol in the dexamethasone-corticotrophin releasing hormone test from baseline to the end of intervention. Methods The AGENDA trial is designed as a participant, investigator, observer, and data-analyst-blinded randomized trial. Participants are 80 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression. Participants are randomized to escitalopram 10 mg per day versus placebo for four weeks. Randomization is stratified by gender and age. The primary outcome measure is the change in plasma cortisol in the dexamethasone-corticotrophin releasing hormone test at entry before intervention to after four weeks of intervention. With the inclusion of 80 participants, a 60% power is obtained to detect a clinically relevant difference in the primary outcome between the intervention and the placebo group. Secondary outcome measures are changes from baseline to four weeks in scores of: 1 cognition and 2 neuroticism. Tertiary outcomes measures are changes from baseline to four weeks in scores of: 1 depression and anxiety symptoms; 2 subjective evaluations of depressive symptoms, perceived stress, quality of life, aggression, sleep, and pain; and 3 salivary cortisol at eight different timepoints during an ordinary day. Assessments are undertaken by assessors blinded to the randomization group. Trial registration Local Ethics Committee: H-KF 307413 Danish Medicines Agency: 2612-3162. EudraCT: 2006-001750-28. Danish Data Agency

  3. Scholarships for scientific initiation encourage post-graduation degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriela S; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Mendes, Matheus S; Ogliari, Fabrício A; Demarco, Flávio F; Correa, Marcos B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with the decision to attend an academic post-graduation program by dental students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012, last-year undergraduate students from Dental Schools of Southern Brazil. A closed questionnaire was applied including questions grouped in three different blocks: pre-graduate, undergraduate period and future perspectives. The outcome was the decision to pursuit an academic post-graduation degree. Associations were tested using chi-squared test and chi-squared test for linear trends when appropriate. Multivariate Poisson regression was also performed. The sample was composed by 671 students (response rate of 69.9%, n=467). In relation to future perspectives, 68% of the interviewed students intended to attend a post-graduation program, but only 17.5% would choose a program with academic and research post-graduation program (Master and PhD programs). In the final model, students from public universities (PR 2.08, 95%CI 1.41-3.08) and students that received scientific initiation scholarship (PR 1.93 95%CI 1.14-3.27) presented a twice greater prevalence to seek academic post-graduate programs. Students with higher family incomes showed a lower prevalence to seek these programs (PR 0.50, 95%IC 0.28-0.90). Scholarships seem to encourage undergraduate students to pursue stricto sensu post-graduation.

  4. Correlation Degree and Correlation Coefficient of Multi- Output Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Gui-zhi; ZHAO Ya-qun

    2005-01-01

    We present definitions of the correlation degree and correlation coefficient of multi-output functions. Two relationships about the correlation degree of multi-output functions are proved. One is between the correlation degree and independency,the other is between the correlation degree and balance. Especially the paper discusses the correlation degree of affine multioutput functions. We demonstrate properties of the correlation coefficient of multi-output functions. One is the value range of the correlation coefficient, one is the relationship between the correlation coefficient and independency, and another is the sufficient and necessary condition that two multi-output functions are equivalent to each other.

  5. Law and Ethics: Problematising the Role of the Foundation Degree and Paralegal Education in English Post-Compulsory Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingleby, Ewan; Gibby, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on research on a foundation degree programme in paralegal education in England. The content explores the pedagogical benefits of this academic programme with its work-related focus. The research has been completed with academic tutors and students who are associated with a foundation degree programme in paralegal education in…

  6. Assessment of the degree of satisfaction among living kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, B; Mascarenhas, C; Cardoso, G; Sá, J; Casal, M

    2011-01-01

    Organ donation during life is an act of great altruism, with unique family, social, economic, and psychological impacts. The group of anesthesiologists involved in this program sought to assess the degree of satisfaction among kidney donors between 2007 and 2008 and, in particular, with the anesthetic approach. A telephone survey of kidney donors in 2007 and 2008 complemented a retrospective evaluation of the records of the Acute Pain Unit. Among 32 kidney donors, 2 were excluded as impossible to contact. Their mean age was 44.33 years including 60% women. The degree of relationship was fathers (43.3%), siblings (50%) or spouses (6.7%). Donors who underwent outpatient anesthesia were satisfied (40%) or very satisfied (60%) with the information received, all willing to repeat the experience of kidney donation. The positive aspects were: good reception (83.4%), help to a family member (30%), good information (13.3%), and confidence in the team (6.6%). No downside was mentioned by 50% of donors. Postoperative analgesia was performed using an epidural catheter (93.3%) or patient-controlled analgesia with morphine (6.7%) associated with intravenous paracetamol in all cases. With regard to analgesia using an epidural catheter, the mean total dose of morphine was 7.7 mg and 27.4 mg for 0.2% ropivacaine over an average of 3.32 days. Pain was assessed in the first 24 hours postoperatively using a scale ranging from 0 (no pain) to 4 (unbearable pain): 30% reported 0; 60% 1; and 10% 2. The complaints were pruritus (40%), nausea/vomiting (16.7%), constipation (6.7%) and/or urinary retention (3.3%). No donor showed an altered state of consciousness, motor block, or paresthesias. Living kidney donors showed a high degree of overall satisfaction. The anesthesia consultation was extremely helpful with a positive impact on kidney donation. An epidural catheter for analgesia after surgery proved to be effective and appropriate for this type of procedure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  7. Measuring Direct Teaching Costs: Does an Undergraduate Business Degree Cost More to Produce than a Nonbusiness Degree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Michael M.; Karagiannidis, Iordanis

    2016-01-01

    Many universities have implemented tuition differentials for certain undergraduate degree programs, citing higher degree costs or higher demand. However, most college accounting systems are unsuited for measuring cost differentials by degree program. This research outlines a method that can convert commonly available financial data to a more…

  8. Measuring Direct Teaching Costs: Does an Undergraduate Business Degree Cost More to Produce than a Nonbusiness Degree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Michael M.; Karagiannidis, Iordanis

    2016-01-01

    Many universities have implemented tuition differentials for certain undergraduate degree programs, citing higher degree costs or higher demand. However, most college accounting systems are unsuited for measuring cost differentials by degree program. This research outlines a method that can convert commonly available financial data to a more…

  9. Exact sampling of graphs with prescribed degree correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Bassler, Kevin E; Erdős, Péter L; Miklós, István; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Many real-world networks exhibit correlations between the node degrees. For instance, in social networks nodes tend to connect to nodes of similar degree. Conversely, in biological and technological networks, high-degree nodes tend to be linked with low-degree nodes. Degree correlations also affect the dynamics of processes supported by a network structure, such as the spread of opinions or epidemics. The proper modelling of these systems, i.e., without uncontrolled biases, requires the sampling of networks with a specified set of constraints. We present a solution to the sampling problem when the constraints imposed are the degree correlations. In particular, we develop an efficient and exact method to construct and sample graphs with a specified joint-degree matrix, which is a matrix providing the number of edges between all the sets of nodes of a given degree, for all degrees, thus completely specifying all pairwise degree correlations, and additionally, the degree sequence itself. Our algorithm always pro...

  10. Linear analysis of degree correlations in complex networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JU XIANG; TAO HU; YAN ZHANG; KE HU; YAN-NI TANG; YUAN-YUAN GAO; KE DENG

    2016-12-01

    Many real-world networks such as the protein–protein interaction networks and metabolic networks often display nontrivial correlations between degrees of vertices connected by edges. Here, we analyse the statistical methods used usually to describe the degree correlation in the networks, and analytically give linear relation in the degree correlation. It provides a simple and interesting perspective on the analysis of the degree correlation in networks, which is usefully complementary to the existing methods for degree correlation in networks. Especially, the slope in the linear relation corresponds exactly to the degree correlation coefficient in networks, meaning that it can not only characterize the level of degree correlation in networks, but also reflects the speed that the average nearest neighbours’ degree varies with the vertex degree. Finally, we applied our results to several real-world networks, validating the conclusions of the linear analysis of degree correlation. We hope that the work in this paper can be helpful for further understanding the degree correlation in complex networks.

  11. Control groups in paediatric epilepsy research: do first-degree cousins show familial effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Melissa; Morrison, Blaise; Jones, Jana E; Jackson, Daren C; Almane, Dace; Seidenberg, Michael; Zhao, Qianqian; Rathouz, Paul J; Hermann, Bruce P

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether first-degree cousins of children with idiopathic focal and genetic generalized epilepsies show any association across measures of cognition, behaviour, and brain structure. The presence/absence of associations addresses the question of whether and to what extent first-degree cousins may serve as unbiased controls in research addressing the cognitive, psychiatric, and neuroimaging features of paediatric epilepsies. Participants were children (aged 8-18) with epilepsy who had at least one first-degree cousin control enrolled in the study (n=37) and all enrolled cousin controls (n=100). Participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and brain imaging (cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar volumes), and parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Data (based on 42 outcome measures) from cousin controls were regressed on the corresponding epilepsy cognitive, behavioural, and imaging measures in a linear mixed model and case/control correlations were examined. Of the 42 uncorrected correlations involving cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging measures, only two were significant (p0.25). Similar results held for the cognition/behaviour and brain imaging measures separately. Given the lack of association between cases and first-degree cousin performances on measures of cognition, behaviour, and neuroimaging, the results suggest a non-significant genetic influence on control group performance. First-degree cousins appear to be unbiased controls for cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging research in paediatric epilepsy.

  12. Sandpile Dynamics Driven by Degree on Scale-Free Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yan-Ping; ZHANG Duan-Ming; PAN Gui-Jun; HE Min-Hua

    2007-01-01

    @@ We introduce a sandpile model driven by degree on scale-free networks, where the perturbation is triggered at nodes with the same degree. We numerically investigate the avalanche behaviour of sandpile driven by different degrees on scale-free networks. It is observed that the avalanche area has the same behaviour with avalanche size. When the sandpile is driven at nodes with the minimal degree, the avalanches of our model behave similarly to those of the original Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) model on scale-free networks. As the degree of driven nodes increases from the minimal value to the maximal value, the avalanche distribution gradually changes from a clean power law, then a mixture of Poissonian and power laws, finally to a Poisson-like distribution. The average avalanche area is found to increase with the degree of driven nodes so that perturbation triggered on higher-degree nodes will result in broader spreading of avalanche propagation.

  13. Comparison of 45-degree Kelman and 45-degree balanced phaco tip designs in torsional microcoaxial phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircan, Süleyman; Ataş, Mustafa; Göktaş, Emre; Başkan, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    To compare the intraoperative performance and postoperative outcome after microcoaxial torsional phacoemulsification using either a Kelman or balanced phaco tip. Cataracts were treated using 2.2 mm microcoaxial torsional phacoemulsification using either a 45-degree mini-flared Kelman(®) or a 45-degree Intrepid(®) Balanced phaco tip. Intraoperative measurements included total ultrasound (US) time, cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), torsional US time, and balanced salt solution (BSS) use. The central endothelial cell density (ECD) and central corneal thickness (CCT) were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively 1, 7, and 30d after surgery using noncontact specular microscopy. The 116 enrolled eyes (116 patients) were divided equally between the Kelman and balanced tip groups. Intraoperative measurements showed significantly less total US time, torsional US time, CDE, and BSS use in the balanced group than in Kelman group (Ptip provided more effective lens removal with less total US time, torsional time, CDE, and BSS use, as well as similar changes in ECD with a Kelman tip in all cataract grades. This special designed phaco tip for torsional phacoemulsification provides an alternative phaco tip for many surgeons' preference with straight phaco tip.

  14. [The importance of master's degree and doctorate degree in general surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Javé, Eduardo Esteban; Mendoza-Barrera, Germán Eduardo; Valderrama-Treviño, Alan Isaac; Alcántara-Medina, Stefany; Macías-Huerta, Nain Abraham; Tapia-Jurado, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The Doctor of Philosophy is the highest academic degree that can be obtained in universities. Graduate Education Program in Medicine in Mexico is divided into 2 major categories: Medical Specialty and Master studies/Doctor of Philosophy. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the importance of master's degrees and Doctor of Philosophy in general surgery. A literature search in PubMed and Medline among others, from 1970 to 2015 with subsequent analysis of the literature reviews found. The physicians who conducted doctoral studies stand out as leaders in research, teaching and academic activities. Dual training with a doctorate medical specialty is a significant predictor for active participation in research projects within the best educational institutions. It is important to study a PhD in the education of doctors specialising in surgery, who show more training in teaching, research and development of academic activities. Currently, although there is a little proportion of students who do not finish the doctoral program, the ones who do are expected to play an important role in the future of medical scientific staff. It has been shown that most doctors with Doctor of Philosophy have wide range of career options. The importance of doctoral studies in the formation of general surgery is due to various reasons; the main one being comprehensively training physician scientists who can develop in clinical, teaching and research. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. An Unexplained 10 Degree - 40 Degree Shift in the Location of Some Diverse Neutral Atom Data at 1 AU

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, M; Simpson, D; Roberts, A; Szabo, A P; Fuselier, S; Wurz, P; Lee, M A; Tsurutani, B T; Collier, Michael R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Simpson, David; Roberts, Aaron; Szabo, Adam; Fuselier, Stephen; Wurz, Peter; Lee, Martin A.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    2003-01-01

    Four different data sets pertaining to the neutral atom environment at 1 AU are presented and discussed. These data sets include neutral solar wind and interstellar neutral atom data from IMAGE/LENA, energetic hydrogen atom data from SOHO/HSTOF and plasma wave data from the magnetometer on ISEE-3. Surprisingly, these data sets are centered between 262 degrees and 292 degrees ecliptic longitude, about 10 degrees - 40 degrees from the upstream interstellar neutral flow direction at 254 degrees resulting from the motion of the Sun relative to the local interstellar cloud. Some possible explanations for this offset, none of which is completely satisfactory, are discussed.

  16. Comparison of two-stage thermophilic (68 degrees C/55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion with one-stage thermophilic (55 degrees C) digestion of cattle manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Westermann, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A two-stage 68degreesC/55degreesC anaerobic degradation process for treatment of cattle manure was studied. In batch experiments, an increase of the specific methane yield, ranging from 24% to 56%, was obtained when cattle manure and its fractions (fibers and liquid) were pretreated at 68degrees......C for periods of 36, 108, and 168 h, and subsequently digested at 55degreesC. In a lab-scale experiment, the performance of a two-stage reactor system, consisting of a digester operating at 68degreesC with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 days, connected to a 55degreesC reactor with 12-day HRT......, was compared with a conventional single-stage reactor running at 55degreesC with 15-days HRT. When an organic loading of 3 g volatile solids (VS) per liter per day was applied, the two-stage setup had a 6% to 8% higher specific methane yield and a 9% more effective VS-removal than the conventional single...

  17. A possible contributor to the higher degree of girls reporting psychological symptoms compared with boys in grade nine?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gådin, Katja Gillander; Hammarström, Anne

    2005-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to analyse whether psychosocial factors at school were associated with a high degree of psychological symptoms among boys and girls in grade nine, with a special focus on sexual harassment...

  18. Fracture toughness testing of V-4Cr-4Ti at 25{degrees}C and -196{degrees}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.X.; Kurtz, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Measurements of the fracture toughness of the production-scale heat (832665) of V-4Cr-4Ti have been performed at 25{degrees}C and {minus}196{degrees}C using compact tension (CT) specimens. Test specimens were vacuum annealed at either 1000{degrees}C for 1 hour (HT1) or 1050{degrees}C for two hours (HT2). Specimens given the HT1 treatment were annealed after final machining, whereas the HT2 specimens received the 1050{degrees}C anneal at Teledyne Wah Chang prior to final machining. Following machining HT2 specimens were then vacuum annealed at 180{degrees}C for two hours to remove hydrogen. Specimens treated using HT1 had a partially recrystallized microstructure and those treated using HT2 had a fully recrystallized microstructure. The fracture toughness at 25{degrees}C was determined by J-integral tests and at {minus}196{degrees}C by ASTM E 399 type tests. Toughness values obtained at {minus}196{degrees}C were converted to J-integral values for comparison to the 25{degrees}C data. The 25{degrees}C fracture toughness was very high with none of the specimens giving valid results per ASTM criteria. Specimens fractured by microvoid coalescence. The fracture toughness at {minus}196{degrees}C was much lower than that at 25{degrees}C and the fracture surface showed predominantly cleavage features. The present results show a transition from ductile to brittle behavior with decreasing test temperature which is not observed from one-third scale Charpy impact tests. The fracture toughness at {minus}196{degrees}C was still quite high, however, at about 75 kJ/m{sup 2}. Delaminations in planes normal to the thickness direction were seen at both test temperatures. Fracture surfaces inside the delaminations exhibited nearly 100% cleavage facets. The cause of the brittle delaminations was not determined, but will be a subject for further investigation.

  19. Comparison of 45-degree Kelman and 45-degree balanced phaco tip designs in torsional microcoaxial phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Demircan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the intraoperative performance and postoperative outcome after microcoaxial torsional phacoemulsification using either a Kelman or balanced phaco tip. METHODS: Cataracts were treated using 2.2 mm microcoaxial torsional phacoemulsification using either a 45-degree mini-flared Kelman® or a 45-degree Intrepid® Balanced phaco tip. Intraoperative measurements included total ultrasound (US time, cumulative dissipated energy (CDE, torsional US time, and balanced salt solution (BSS use. The central endothelial cell density (ECD and central corneal thickness (CCT were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively 1, 7, and 30d after surgery using noncontact specular microscopy. RESULTS: The 116 enrolled eyes (116 patients were divided equally between the Kelman and balanced tip groups. Intraoperative measurements showed significantly less total US time, torsional US time, CDE, and BSS use in the balanced group than in Kelman group (P<0.05. The total US time, torsional US time, CDE, and BSS use were 17.45±14.53s, 16.63±13.97s, 6.38±5.26, and 48.21±17.21 mL in the Kelman group and 11.39 ± 9.60s, 10.90 ± 9.25s, 4.04 ± 3.42, and 41.36 ± 12.70 mL in the balanced group, respectively. CONCLUSION: Torsional phacoemulsification performed with a balanced tip provided more effective lens removal with less total US time, torsional time, CDE, and BSS use, as well as similar changes in ECD with a Kelman tip in all cataract grades. This special designed phaco tip for torsional phacoemulsification provides an alternative phaco tip for many surgeons' preference with straight phaco tip.

  20. Degree of urbanization and gender differences in substance use among Slovak adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitel, Lukas; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; vanDijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Substance use among adolescents varies with gender and between countries. Urbanization may contribute to this. The aim of our study is to explore the association between the degree of urbanization and gender differences in adolescent smoking, binge drinking, and cannabis use. A cross-sectional quest

  1. Students' Perceptions of Long-Functioning Cooperative Teams in Accelerated Adult Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favor, Judy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined 718 adult students' perceptions of long-functioning cooperative study teams in accelerated associate's, bachelor's, and master's business degree programs. Six factors were examined: attraction toward team, alignment of performance expectations, intrateam conflict, workload sharing, preference for teamwork, and impact on…

  2. The Top 100 Business, Education, Engineering and Social Sciences Degrees Conferred on Hispanic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" publishes lists of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This article presents lists of the top…

  3. Dangerous Liaisons: Exploring Employer Engagement Relationships in Vocational Undergraduate Adventure and Outdoor Management Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhuish, Lynsey

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the aspects of employer engagement in higher education (HE). The vocational field of the adventure and outdoor industry provides the context, with associated undergraduate degrees offering contemporary "real-world" provision, underpinned by values of inclusivity and widening participation--an approach that addresses…

  4. What's Your College Degree Worth? A Research Project for the Labor Economics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Calculating the expected rate of return to their own college degree and comparing it to those of students with other majors can be an interesting and fruitful project for students in a labor economics course. Data from the surveys of the National Association of Colleges and Employers (not all that well known but available in most college…

  5. Delivering an AS Engineering Degree Program to Home-Based Learners Using Affordable Multiple Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, John

    1996-01-01

    Describes results of a project to develop a distance education associate in science (AS) engineering degree program through Northern Virginia Community College. Highlights include combining self-paced independent learning with interactive/collaborative learning asynchronously; transmitting graphics, equations, and formulas via computer-mediated…

  6. Delivering an A.S. Engineering Degree Program through Home Study Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, John

    Northern Virginia Community College (NVCC) and the Extended Learning Institute (ELI) undertook a project to develop the mathematics, science, and engineering courses required to complete an entire Associate of Science degree in Engineering through home study distance education. The project's ultimate goal was to create asynchronous learning…

  7. Educator, Supervisor, and Graduate Recommendations of a Bachelor Degree for Physical Therapist Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druse, Ty Lowell

    2012-01-01

    The breadth and depth of education within physical therapy continues to expand as the profession develops; in fact, entry-level physical therapist education has transitioned from the bachelor to doctorate level. However, physical therapist assistant education has remained at the associate degree level despite increasing professional…

  8. Social Issues in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Master's Degrees: The Socio-Political Stakes of Curricular Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fages, Volny; Albe, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a study of the various ways in which social and ethical issues are integrated in the curricula of nanoscience and nanotechnology master degrees. During the last decade, new types of courses have appeared in science and technology universities, first in the United States and now reaching Europe and France, associating a call for…

  9. Analysis and perturbation of degree correlation in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Ju; Hu, Tao; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Degree correlation is an important topological property common to many real-world networks. In this paper, the statistical measures for characterizing the degree correlation in networks are investigated analytically. We give an exact proof of the consistency for the statistical measures, reveal the general linear relation in the degree correlation, which provide a simple and interesting perspective on the analysis of the degree correlation in complex networks. By using the general linear analysis, we investigate the perturbation of the degree correlation in complex networks caused by the addition of few nodes and the rich club. The results show that the assortativity of homogeneous networks such as the ER graphs is easily to be affected strongly by the simple structural changes, while it has only slight variation for heterogeneous networks with broad degree distribution such as the scale-free networks. Clearly, the homogeneous networks are more sensitive for the perturbation than the heterogeneous networks.

  10. Most probable degree distribution at fixed structural entropy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ginestra Bianconi

    2008-06-01

    The structural entropy is the entropy of the ensemble of uncorrelated networks with given degree sequence. Here we derive the most probable degree distribution emerging when we distribute stubs (or half-edges) randomly through the nodes of the network by keeping fixed the structural entropy. This degree distribution is found to decay as a Poisson distribution when the entropy is maximized and to have a power-law tail with an exponent → 2 when the entropy is minimized.

  11. On nth commutativity degree of some 3-Engel groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Zainab; Mohd Ali, Nor Muhainiah; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Sabani, Muhammad Syafiq; Zakaria, Mardhiah

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on some 3-Engel groups. Suppose x and y are elements of a group G. The commutativity degree of a group is the probability that two elements in the group commute and is denoted by P(G). Meanwhile, the nth commutativity degree of a group G is the probability that for any pairs of x and y in G, xn and y commute. In this paper, the nth commutativity degree of some 3-Engel groups is determined.

  12. Constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to Jacobi norms

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-12-31

    We show that a weighted least squares approximation of Bézier coefficients with factored Hahn weights provides the best constrained polynomial degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm. This result affords generalizations to many previous findings in the field of polynomial degree reduction. A solution method to the constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm is presented.

  13. Empirical study on clique-degree distribution of networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei-Ke; Ren, Jie; Qi, Feng; Song, Zhi-Wei; Zhu, Meng-Xiao; Yang, Hong-Feng; Jin, Hui-Yu; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhou, Tao

    2007-09-01

    The community structure and motif-modular-network hierarchy are of great importance for understanding the relationship between structures and functions. We investigate the distribution of clique degrees, which are an extension of degree and can be used to measure the density of cliques in networks. Empirical studies indicate the extensive existence of power-law clique-degree distributions in various real networks, and the power-law exponent decreases with an increase of clique size.

  14. World Migration Degree Global migration flows in directed networks

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this article we analyze the global flow of migrants from 206 source countries to 145 destination countries (2006-2010) and focus on the differences in the migration network pattern between destination and source counters as represented by its degree and weight distribution. Degree represents the connectivity of a country to the global migration network, and plays an important role in defining migration processes and characteristics. Global analysis of migration degree distribution offers a...

  15. Study on safety cost and insurance degree of coal enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, M.; Han, C.; Yang, G. [Shandong Institute of Business and Technology, Yantai (China)

    2007-06-15

    The study confirmed the safety insurance degree of coal enterprises based on the various components of safety cost and analysed the connection between safety cost of component parts and safety insurance degree. Using Matlab software, a functional relationship was derived between mimesis curves of safety losing expenses, safety assets and management expenses, safety cost and safety insurance degree. The cost of a safety programme was forecast on the basis of this functional relationship. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. The nematode Panagrellus redivivus is susceptible to killing by human pathogens at 37 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Thomas R; Smith, Simon A; Smith, Martin P; Harding, Sarah V; Atkins, Timothy P; Titball, Richard W

    2005-09-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has been used as a host for the study of bacteria that cause disease in mammals. However, a significant limitation of the model is that C. elegans is not viable at 37 degrees C. We report that the gonochoristic nematode Panagrellus redivivus survives at 37 degrees C and maintains its life cycle at temperatures up to and including 31.5 degrees C. The C. elegans pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, but not Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, reduced P. redivivus lifespan. Of four strains of Burkholderia multivorans tested, one reduced P. redivivus lifespan at both temperatures, one was avirulent at both temperatures and two strains reduced P. redivivus lifespan only at 37 degrees C. The mechanism by which one of these strains killed P. redivivus at 37 degrees C, but not at 25 degrees C, was investigated further. Killing required viable bacteria, did not involve bacterial invasion of tissues, is unlikely to be due to a diffusible, bacterial toxin and was not associated with increased numbers of live bacteria within the intestine of the worm. We believe B. multivorans may kill P. redivivus by a temperature-regulated mechanism similar to B. pseudomallei killing of C. elegans.

  17. Interfacial and emulsifying properties of soybean peptides with different degrees of hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Tomohiro; Nakayama, Mio; Taira, Toshiaki; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the degree of hydrolysis on the interfacial and emulsifying properties of soybean peptides were evaluated based on surface and interfacial tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM) analyses. Of the five evaluated soybean peptides (SP95, SP87, SP75, SP49, and SP23), those with higher degrees of hydrolysis (SP95 and SP87) did not exhibit noticeable surface-active properties in water, whereas those with relatively low degrees of hydrolysis (SP75, SP49, and SP23) exhibited remarkable surface tension-lowering activity. The latter set (SP75, SP49, and SP23) also formed giant associates with average sizes ranging from 64.5 nm to 82.6 nm above their critical association concentration (CAC). Moreover, SP23 with the lowest degree of hydrolysis exhibited excellent emulsifying activity for soybean oil, and FF-TEM analysis demonstrated that the emulsions were stabilized by a lamella-like multilayer peptide structure on the oil droplets that prevented coagulation. The peptide with the lowest degree of hydrolysis (SP23) was effective not only for soybean oil emulsification, but also for the emulsification of liquid paraffin and silicon oil that are generally difficult to emulsify.

  18. Brief 70 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees, 2011 Summary Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Don Johnson

    2012-10-31

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2011. The enrollment and degree data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2011, and data was received from all thirty-two programs. The data for two nuclear engineering programs include enrollments and degrees in health physics options that are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees data.

  19. Characterization of the degree of Musical non-Markovianity

    CERN Document Server

    Mannone, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Musical compositions could be characterized by a certain degree of memory, that takes into account repetitions and similarity of sequences of pitches, durations and intensities (the patterns). The higher the quantity of variations, the lower the degree of memory. This degree has never quantitatively been defined and measured. In physics, mathematical tools to quantify memory (defined as non-Markovianity) in quantum systems have been developed. The aim of this paper is to extend these mathematical tools to music, defining a general method to measure the degree of memory in musical compositions. Applications to some musical scores give results that agree with the expectations.

  20. Brief 74 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-15

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014, and enrollments for fall 2014. There are three academic programs new to this year's survey. Thirty-five academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2014, and data were provided by all thirty-five. The enrollments and degrees data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Two nuclear engineering programs have indicated that health physics option enrollments and degrees are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees survey.

  1. Brief 77 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2015 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-15

    The 2015 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey reports degrees granted between September 1, 2014 and August 31, 2015. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2015. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. The enrollments and degrees information comprises students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major. The report includes enrollment information on undergraduate students and graduate students and information by degree level for post-graduation plans.

  2. Brief 76 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2015 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-15

    The 2015 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey reports degrees granted between September 1, 2014 and August 31, 2015. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2015. The enrollments and degrees data comprises students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Thirty-five academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2015, and data was received from all thirty-five programs. The report includes enrollment information on undergraduate students and graduate students and information by degree level for post-graduation plans.

  3. Influence of degree correlations on network structure and stability in protein-protein interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmer Ralf

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of negative correlations between degrees of interacting proteins is being discussed since such negative degree correlations were found for the large-scale yeast protein-protein interaction (PPI network of Ito et al. More recent studies observed no such negative correlations for high-confidence interaction sets. In this article, we analyzed a range of experimentally derived interaction networks to understand the role and prevalence of degree correlations in PPI networks. We investigated how degree correlations influence the structure of networks and their tolerance against perturbations such as the targeted deletion of hubs. Results For each PPI network, we simulated uncorrelated, positively and negatively correlated reference networks. Here, a simple model was developed which can create different types of degree correlations in a network without changing the degree distribution. Differences in static properties associated with degree correlations were compared by analyzing the network characteristics of the original PPI and reference networks. Dynamics were compared by simulating the effect of a selective deletion of hubs in all networks. Conclusion Considerable differences between the network types were found for the number of components in the original networks. Negatively correlated networks are fragmented into significantly less components than observed for positively correlated networks. On the other hand, the selective deletion of hubs showed an increased structural tolerance to these deletions for the positively correlated networks. This results in a lower rate of interaction loss in these networks compared to the negatively correlated networks and a decreased disintegration rate. Interestingly, real PPI networks are most similar to the randomly correlated references with respect to all properties analyzed. Thus, although structural properties of networks can be modified considerably by degree

  4. High degree of duodenal inflammation in Nigerians with functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwokediuko SC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sylvester Chuks Nwokediuko,1 Uchenna N Ijoma,1 Olive Obienu,1 Gideon E Anigbo,1 Okechukwu Okafor21Department of Medicine, 2Department of Morbid Anatomy, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla Enugu, NigeriaBackground: Functional dyspepsia (FD is a heterogeneous disorder associated with diverse pathophysiological mechanisms, including immune activation and low-grade mucosal inflammation. Genetic factors, physiological functions, and environmental factors may determine the relative importance of various pathophysiological mechanisms. This study was designed to determine the histological alterations in the duodenal mucosa of Nigerian patients with FD.Methods: Consecutive patients with dyspepsia seen over a 27-month period in two gastrointestinal endoscopy facilities in Enugu, South-East Nigeria were further evaluated with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal mucosal biopsies if no lesion was found in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Patients with heartburn and/or regurgitation who did not have any dyspeptic symptoms and did not have any lesion in the upper gastrointestinal tract on endoscopy were presumed to have non-erosive reflux disease (NERD and they served as controls. The control subjects also had duodenal biopsies. The histopathological findings in the cases and controls were compared.Results: There were 68 patients with FD and 52 patients with NERD. The total inflammatory score was 242 in FD and 66 in NERD (Mann-Whitney U =1168, P=0.0011. Similarly, the scores for chronic inflammation, gastric metaplasia, neutrophilic activity, eosinophilic infiltration, and Helicobacter pylori were significantly higher in FD than NERD.Conclusion: Functional dyspepsia is associated with a high degree of inflammation in the duodenal mucosa. This may reflect the high prevalence of gastrointestinal infections in a tropical environment such as Nigeria. These findings may have therapeutic potential that further studies might elucidate

  5. Combined 30-degree bevel up and down technique against 0-degree phaco tip for phacoemulsification surgery of hard cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh Subhash; Muley, Sonal Jayant

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effective phaco time (EPT), cumulative dissipated energy (CDE) and nucleus emulsification time (NET) as phaco parameters with 0- and 30-degree phaco tip. This prospective, interventional and observational case series included 294 patients scheduled for cataract removal by phacoemulsification technique. Patients with nuclear cataracts of grade 4 and 5 nuclear opalescence of Lens Opacities Classification System III were included in the study. Patients were consecutively allocated to phaco chop technique with 0-degree (0-degree group, n=147) and combined bevel up and down position using 30-degree phaco tip (combined bevel up/down group, n=147). The 0-degree group had phacoemulsification with 0-degree phaco tip, while the 30-degree group had chopping of the nucleus with bevel down phaco tip and emulsification of nuclear fragments was accomplished with bevel up tip. EPT, CDE, NET and intraoperative complications were noted and compared between the groups using analysis of variance. Average EPT, CDE and NET were lower in the 30-degree group than in the 0-degree group. However, no statistically significant difference was found in EPT (P=0.0733), CDE (P=0.0663) and NET (P=0.0633) between the two groups. No serious intraoperative complications were noted. The anterior chamber was maintained throughout the procedure in both groups. No patients had wound burn and miosis during the procedure. None of the patients developed bullous keratopathy, uveitis and cystoid macular edema during the follow-up period. Combined bevel up and down 30-degree tip can yield effective hard nucleus phacoemulsification. Bevel down tip of 30-degree helps in effective chopping and bevel up tip assists in emulsification of the nuclear fragments. Although combined bevel up and down 30-degree tip can yield effective hard nucleus phacoemulsification, no statistically significant difference was found in EPT, CDE and NET between the two groups.

  6. Are PhDs Winners or Losers? Wage Premiums for Doctoral Degrees in Private Sector Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers expect that increasing shares of PhDs will find employment within the private sector. However, the incentive structure for undertaking PhD education and subsequently seeking private sector employment has not been adequately assessed in the literature. This paper investigates...... the economic incentives for this career path of recent Danish PhD graduates. Wage premiums associated with holding a PhD compared to a master’s degree are estimated by an program evaluation approach using regression on a matched sample. Income levels three years after receipt of the PhD degree are three...

  7. On Self-Mapping Degrees of S3- Geometry Manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Ming DU

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we determined all of the possible self-mapping degrees of the manifolds with S3-geometry, which are supposed to be all 3-manifolds with finite fundamental groups. This is a part of a project to determine all possible self-mapping degrees of all closed orientable 3-manifold in Thurston's picture.

  8. Experiences with the Development of an Undergraduate Degree in Ecohydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, L.; Walker, M.; Markee, N.

    2014-12-01

    In 2007, the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science established the first undergraduate degree in Ecohydrology in the United States. The degree was designed to prepare students for careers as hydrologists while also including coursework equivalent to a minor in ecology (UNR does not officially offer a minor in ecology). The development of the major was intended to provide students with useful skills and training for the job market, and also to increase enrollment in the University's water-related undergraduate majors. The Department also established an Ecohydrology minor. Since the degree was established, average enrollment in the major has been almost two times higher than the previous Watershed Science option in Environmental Science (the closest comparable degree offering at UNR). The Department has graduated 19 students as of May 2014, and an additional 8 students have graduated with the Ecohydrology minor. Several Ecohydrology graduates have gone on to graduate degrees, and most of the remainder are employed in water-related areas. The students have established an Ecohydrology Club at UNR and are active in organizing water-related activities to do together. This presentation will describe the development of the degree, its implementation, and challenges and opportunities for carrying out an undergraduate degree in Ecohydrology. It will also discuss potential development of a 5-year Bachelor of Science-Master of Science (BS-MS) degree in Ecohydrology.

  9. Attitudes of Prospective Human Resource Personnel towards Distance Learning Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udegbe, I. Bola

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of Prospective Human Resource Personnel toward degrees obtained by distance learning in comparison to those obtained through conventional degree program. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a total of 215 postgraduate students who had been or had potential to be involved in the hiring process in their…

  10. Annealing properties of potato starches with different degrees of phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhrbeck, Per; Svensson, E

    1996-01-01

    Changes in the gelatinization temperature interval and gelatinization enthalpy with annealing time at 50 degrees C were followed for a number of potato starch samples, with different degrees of phosphorylation, using differential scanning calorimetry. The gelatinization temperature increased with...... and crystalline structure of amylopectin helices. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  11. Formality Degrees of Language from the Perspective of Register

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xia

    2014-01-01

    The three variables-field, mode and tenor form the integrated system of a register which has the function of reflecting culture and language features. Via the analysis of the three dimensions of register, it intends to explore the influence of register on the formality degrees of language, so that the proper formality degrees of language are chosen during communication.

  12. On the Lorentz degree of a product of polynomials

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    In this note, we negatively answer two questions of T. Erdélyi (1991, 2010) on possible lower bounds on the Lorentz degree of product of two polynomials. We show that the correctness of one question for degree two polynomials is a direct consequence of a result of Barnard et al. (1991) on polynomials with nonnegative coefficients.

  13. Declining MIS Enrollment: The Death of the MIS Degree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Gary; Lockridge, T. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    There is little doubt that enrollments in MIS degree programs have been declining since the recession in the technical industry in 2001. Reagan's research (2008) indicates that enrollments in MIS degree programs is only about 25% of the 2001 level. Many MIS (IS) programs have been abandoned or combined with other related programs. While many…

  14. Higher Degree Research Supervision: From Practice toward Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T. W.; Smyth, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our theorizing about the complex nature of higher degree research supervision. The intent is to make a contribution to the current debates about higher education generally, and supervision of higher degree research students in particular. We add to the pedagogy of supervision by extending its scope to and beyond the supervisory…

  15. Rethinking Graduation and Time to Degree: A Fresh Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Hongtao; Fu, Xuanning

    2017-01-01

    Graduation and time to degree are paramount concerns in higher education today and have caught the attention of policy makers, educators and researchers in recent years. However, our understanding is limited regarding the factors related to graduation and time to degree beyond students' pre-college characteristics (demographics and academic…

  16. The Output of Canadian Universities as Measured by Graduate Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Avigdor

    1973-01-01

    Aim of this study was to determine a common unit of graduate degrees granted per province in proportion to the labor force, that is, to compare the graduate degrees/labor force ratios (1) between Quebec and the other provinces and (2) between the French-language and the English-language universities in Quebec. (Author/CB)

  17. Gender Division in Sociology Degree Programmes--Causes and Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Ann-Katrin

    2009-01-01

    In spite of engagement and efforts to bring about gender equality in Swedish universities, gender division paradoxically appears in both old and new degree programs and academic disciplines. In recent years there has been a tendency for higher education students to enrol in degree programmes rather than in single subject courses. Due to the…

  18. The Impact of Dual Enrollment Participation on Degree Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Peggy Anne

    2009-01-01

    Dual enrollment programs continue to grow in the United States; however, little empirical research examines the relationship between this high school experience and future college success and degree attainment. This study examines degree attainment for first-time beginning students who began their postsecondary education at a Virginia Community…

  19. Top 100 Undergraduate Degree Producers--Interpreting the Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents "Diverse Online's" annual analysis of the Top 100 degrees conferred to African-American students. The tables in this edition of the Top 100 analysis reflect degrees conferred during the 2006-2007 academic year as of mid March 2008 by the vast majority of U.S. postsecondary institutions to the Department of Education's…

  20. Families of Fixed Degree Graphs for Processor Interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerrum, Mark; Skyum, Sven

    1984-01-01

    A construction is presented which, given a fixed undirected graph of low degree and small average path length, yields an infinite sequence of low diameter graphs of increasing order and fixed degree. As examples of the construction, infinite sequences of low diameter graphs are presented with deg...

  1. The Real and the Fake Degree and Diploma Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Alan; Gollin, George

    2009-01-01

    The recent release of a list of over 9,000 people who bought degrees from St. Regis "University" has helped bring into focus a problem that legitimate institutions like to ignore: An enormous number of people who could be getting real college credentials are buying degree- and diploma-mill ones instead. This causes damage that goes beyond the…

  2. Investigating MBA Degrees Earned by Women: A Decade of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Cheryl; Rush, Douglas; Gartland, Myles

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined master of business administration (MBA) degrees earned by women at U.S. higher education institutions at three specific years spanning a decade: 2003, 2008, and 2013 to determine whether there was a significant difference in the percentage of MBA degrees earned by women based on the independent variables of institutional type,…

  3. Investigating MBA Degrees Earned by Women: A Decade of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Cheryl; Rush, Douglas; Gartland, Myles

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined master of business administration (MBA) degrees earned by women at U.S. higher education institutions at three specific years spanning a decade: 2003, 2008, and 2013 to determine whether there was a significant difference in the percentage of MBA degrees earned by women based on the independent variables of institutional type,…

  4. Attitudes of Prospective Human Resource Personnel towards Distance Learning Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udegbe, I. Bola

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of Prospective Human Resource Personnel toward degrees obtained by distance learning in comparison to those obtained through conventional degree program. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a total of 215 postgraduate students who had been or had potential to be involved in the hiring process in their…

  5. A Geometric Approach for Multi-Degree Spline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Li; Zhang-Jin Huang; Zhao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Multi-degree spline (MD-spline for short) is a generalization of B-spline which comprises of polynomial segments of various degrees.The present paper provides a new definition for MD-spline curves in a geometric intuitive way based on an efficient and simple evaluation algorithm.MD-spline curves maintain various desirable properties of B-spline curves,such as convex hull,local support and variation diminishing properties.They can also be refined exactly with knot insertion.The continuity between two adjacent segments with different degrees is at least C1 and that between two adjacent segments of same degrees d is Cd-1.Benefited by the exact refinement algorithm,we also provide several operators for MD-spline curves,such as converting each curve segment into Bézier form,an efficient merging algorithm and a new curve subdivision scheme which allows different degrees for each segment.

  6. The Degree of Symmetry of Certain Compact Smooth Manifolds Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin XU

    2007-01-01

    We give the sharp estimates for the degree of symmetry and the semi-simple degree of symmetry of certain compact fiber bundles with non-trivial four dimensional fibers in the sense of cobordism, by virtue of the rigidity theorem of harmonic maps due to Schoen and Yau (Topology, 18, 1979, 361-380). As a corollary of this estimate, we compute the degree of symmetry and the semi-simple degree of symmetry of CP2 × V, where V is a closed smooth manifold admitting a real analytic Riemannian metric of non-positive curvature. In addition, by the Albanese map, we obtain the sharp estimate of the degree of symmetry of a compact smooth manifold with some restrictions on its one dimensional cohomology.

  7. The effect of Internet separation degree time sensitivity on transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hai; SU Wei-ji; XU Ye; ZHANG Xin

    2006-01-01

    Separation degree is a standard measure for complex network research.Whatever its scale or its increase makes the Interact take on a complex network character.Because of the development of complex network theory and the continuous evolution of the Internet,it is a key problem that uses complex network theory to research the Internet nowadays.In this paper,the Internet separation degree is put forward.The time series stochastic process model of the Internet separation degree is established.According to actual data,the Internet separation degree time sensitivity model (ISDTSM) is established and the effect of time sensitivity of the Internet separation degree to the Intemet IP level transmission is computed.Finally the Internet separation and IP transmission during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games were forecasted by using the model.

  8. The Degree Semantics Parameter and cross-linguistic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ryan Bochnak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The standard degree analysis of gradability in English holds that the function of degree morphology, such as the comparative, measure phrases, and degree adverbs, is to bind a degree variable located in the lexical semantics of gradable predicates. In this paper, I investigate gradation structures in Washo (isolate/Hokan, and claim that this language systematically lacks degree morphology of this sort. I propose that this gap in the functional inventory of Washo stems from a parameter on whether languages are able to introduce degree variables into the logical form that can be bound by such operators, providing further cross-linguistic support for a similar proposal made by Beck et al. (2009 for Motu (Austronesian. Specifically, I argue that gradable predicates in Washo do not introduce a degree variable. Consequently, if we assume that gradable predicates in English are type ⟨d, ⟨e, t⟩⟩, then Washo and English must differ in their lexical semantics for gradable predicates. Alternatively, if we want to maintain lexical uniformity between the two languages (i.e., that gradable predicates in English don’t themselves introduce degrees, then we must place variation at the level of a grammatical mechanism that introduces degrees in English for degree operators to bind, but which is lacking in Washo. The results of this investigation thus inform questions about the nature of cross-linguistic variation, specifically the division of labor between variation in functional categories and the lexicon. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.8.6 BibTeX info

  9. Is That Graduate Degree Worth It? Comparing the Recruitment of Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Job Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R. M.

    2001-12-01

    One could argue from a business prospective that colleges and universities are not working hard enough to train students for life in the business and civic world, at either the undergraduate or graduate levels. What is it that employers are looking for in students? How different are the skills and attributes employers are looking for between undergraduate and graduate students? How unique are the geosciences in this respect? At the undergraduate level recruiters have spoken loud and clear about what they want. According to the dean of the business school here at the University of Arizona, recruiters at the undergraduate degree level in business base less than half of their hiring decision on specific content knowledge in the discipline, and correspondingly more than half on the so-called soft skills ... ability to apply knowledge in new situations, ability to think critically, ability to communicate with others in both written and oral forms, ability to work in teams, ability to work with a diverse set of employees and customers (especially, but not limited to, the global job market), etc. How true is this at the graduate level, where students have typically spent 4-6 years specializing in a discipline? Is there a set of fundamental knowledge that employers are looking for at the graduate level? Are the so-called soft skills correspondingly less important? I will present results from a survey of graduate programs and industry recruiters addressing these questions, and highlight the areas of overlap and difference between undergraduates and graduates looking for jobs. I will concentrate specifically on jobs in the oil industry and on both masters and Ph.D. programs.

  10. Associação entre a presença da proteína p53 e o grau de diferenciação em carcinomas ductais invasivos de mama Association of p53 protein expression and degree of differentiation in infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Sanae Siroma

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a expressão da proteína p53 no carcinoma de mama ductal invasivo e avaliar a sua associação com o grau histológico e o grau nuclear. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas sessenta e cinco mulheres atendidas consecutivamente, entre julho de 1999 e julho de 2001. Todas tiveram diagnóstico de carcinoma primário de mama ductal invasivo. As pacientes foram primeiramente tratadas por terapia cirúrgica conservadora ou mastectomia. Nenhuma paciente recebeu terapia neoadjuvante. Os espécimes cirúrgicos dos tumores foram fixados em formalina a 10%, posteriormente incluídos em parafina e conservados para análise imuno-histoquimica. A expressão da proteína p53 foi avaliada. Foi utilizado o anticorpo primário monoclonal anti-humano p53 DO - 7 (DAKO. As distribuições das freqüências foram avaliadas pelo teste do chi2. O valor pPURPOSE: to assess p53 protein expression in infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma and to analyze its association with histological and nuclear grade. METHODS: sixty-five consecutive females who were diagnosed with primary infiltrating ductal breast tumor from July 1999 to July 2001 were included in the present study. Mean patient age at diagnosis was 69.2 years (range 41 - 90. All patients were first treated with surgical therapy, conservative surgery or mastectomy. None of the patients received any preoperative adjuvant therapy. Resected breast tumor specimens were fixed in 10% formalin, paraffin embedded, and conserved for immunohistochemical analysis. p53 protein expression was evaluated. Primary monoclonal anti-human p53 antibody DO-7 (DAKO was used. Frequency distributions were tested by the chi2 test. A level of p<0,05 was considered significant. RESULTS: p53 expression was detected in 24 (36,9% of 65 carcinomas. Of the cases with protein expression, 13 (54,2% were high or histological grade III, 8 (33,3%, were grade II, 3 (12,5% were grade I. On nuclear grade analysis, of the cases with protein

  11. Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees: Results from the 2009 & 2010 Surveys of Physics & Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics conducts an annual census from October through February of all departments that offer degrees in astronomy (78) in the United States. Astronomy departments consist of stand-alone degree-granting departments (39) and departments that are administered along with a physics program…

  12. Degrees of Influence: The Politics of Honorary Degrees in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, 1900-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Michael; Jons, Heike

    2007-01-01

    The universities of Oxford and Cambridge had developed different attitudes towards the award of honorary degrees through the early and middle decades of the twentieth century. Recently, both have adopted a similar cautious and apolitical stance. This essay describes the role of honorary degrees in the production and reproduction of their cultural…

  13. Network controllability is determined by the density of low in-degree and out-degree nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichetti, Giulia; Dall'Asta, Luca; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-08-15

    The problem of controllability of the dynamical state of a network is central in network theory and has wide applications ranging from network medicine to financial markets. The driver nodes of the network are the nodes that can bring the network to the desired dynamical state if an external signal is applied to them. Using the framework of structural controllability, here, we show that the density of nodes with in degree and out degree equal to one and two determines the number of driver nodes in the network. Moreover, we show that random networks with minimum in degree and out degree greater than two, are always fully controllable by an infinitesimal fraction of driver nodes, regardless of the other properties of the degree distribution. Finally, based on these results, we propose an algorithm to improve the controllability of networks.

  14. 颈椎间盘突出程度与颈椎X线片相关指标测量值的相关性研究%The correlation analysis of the degree of cervical intervertebral disc herniation associated with cervical X-ray radiography index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋维利; 申才良; 董福龙; 章仁杰; 汪军; 朱晓红; 张华庆

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship of the related parameters of X-ray and the severity of cervical spinal cord compression caused by disc herniation in patients with single segment spondylotic myelopathy. Methods Clinical data of sixty paitents with single segment spondylotic myelopathy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from August 2012 to March 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients, aged from 42 to 65 (58. 4±9. 3), were male. According to the compression ratio ( E value) of cervical spinal cord in sagittal MRI images, all the patients were firstly divided into group Ⅰ, II and Ⅲ. The ratio of cervical spinal crosscutting area ( S1 ) to effective cervical canal crosscutting area ( S0 ) in cross-sectional imagings of cervical spine MRI was then calculated to reflect the degree of intervertebral disc herniation. Furthermore, the following indicators in cervical X-ray in different postures were measured for each case: the range of motion of the responsibility of intervertebral space ( B value) , the height of the anterior of intervertebral space ( D value) , Cobb angle of C2-7 , and the area of intervertebral foramen ( M value) . Linear correlation regression was used to study the relationship of the severity of cervical spinal cord compression and the above observation indexes. Results There were significant differences in the ratio of S1/S0 , E value, B value, D value, M value and Cobb angle of C2-7 among three groups (F values were 44. 187, 112. 789, 7. 232, 3. 778, 3. 232 and 15. 813, respectively. all P values<0. 05). E value, B value, D value, M value and Cobb angle of C2-7 decreased with the increase of the ratio of S1/S0 . These indicated that E value, B value, D value, M value and Cobb angle of C2-7 were negatively correlated with the ratio of S1/ S0 ( R values were-0. 821, -0. 581, -0. 378, -0. 419 and-0. 576, respectively, all P values<0. 05). The multiple linear regression results showed that B value, D

  15. Hawk eyes I: diurnal raptors differ in visual fields and degree of eye movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen T O'Rourke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (∼33° and wide blind areas (∼82°, but intermediate degree of eye movement (∼5°, which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (∼36°, small blind areas (∼60°, and high degree of eye movement (∼8°, which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (∼1° may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that: (a there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats; (c variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence

  16. Perceptions of Dental Hygiene Master's Degree Learners About Dental Hygiene Doctoral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumath, Ursula G M; Walsh, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    To determine perceptions about dental hygiene doctoral education among dental hygiene master's degree program enrollees. In this cross-sectional national study, all dental hygiene master degree program directors were sent an email requesting they forward an attached consent form and online-survey-link to their graduate learners. The 29-item online survey assessed their perceptions about need for, importance of and interest in applying to proposed dental hygiene doctoral degree programs. A second-request was sent 1 month later to capture non-responders. Frequencies and cross-tabulations of responses were analyzed using the online software program, Qualtrics.™ Of the 255 graduate learners enrolled in 2014 reported by dental hygiene program directors, 159 completed the survey for a 62% response rate. The majority of respondents (77%) indicated that doctoral education in dental hygiene is needed for the advancement of the dental hygiene discipline and such programs are important to the dental hygiene profession (89%). Although most respondents supported both the PhD in dental hygiene and the Doctor of Dental Hygiene Practice (DDHP) degrees, more were interested in applying to a DDHP program (62%) than to a dental hygiene PhD program (38%). In addition, 43% expressed interest in enrolling in a doctoral degree program in the next 1 to 5 years and most preferred a hybrid online/onsite program format. The most frequently reported reasons for pursing a doctoral degree were: to become a better teacher, to expand clinical practice opportunities, to become a better researcher and to increase salary. Most dental hygiene master degree learners in this study believed doctoral dental hygiene education is needed and important to the dental hygiene discipline and profession, and were interested in applying to such programs. Future research is needed in this area. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  17. Vague inclusion degree%Vague集的包含度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱英丽; 杨勇; 朱晓钟; 席元鸿

    2011-01-01

    Vague集是Zadeh模糊集的一种推广形式,同样Vague集的包含度也是模糊集包含度的一种扩展.针对现有文献涉及到的Vague集的包含度只是属于[0,1]区间的一个模糊值的问题,根据Vague集理论的基本思想拓展了Vague集的包含度,提出一种新的Vague集的包含度定义,以体现Vague集的拓展意义.提出并验证了四类Vague集的包含度的计算公式,同时给出此Vague集包含度与模糊集包含度之间关系的定理.%Vague set is one of generalizations of Zadeh's fuzzy set, and Vague inclusion degree is also an extension of fuzzy inclusion degree.For the definition of Vague inclusion degree existed in present references is only a fuzzy value, this paper proposes a new definition of Vague inclusion degree to reflect the expansion meaning of the Vague set.This new Vague inclusion degree based on the notion of vague set extends the conception of Vague inclusion degree and fully expresses the advantage of Vague set. Four classes of Vague inclusion degree formulas are proposed and verified, a theorem about the relationship between Vague inclusion degree and fuzzy inclusion degree is given.

  18. High Degree Spherical Harmonic Synthesis Over Geographic Rectangles: A Simple Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, S. A.; Featherstone, W. E.; Kuhn, M.

    Future spherical harmonic models of the geopotential and other quantities, such as digital elevation models, are likely extend to degree 2160 (corresponding to 5' by 5' geographic rectangles), and beyond. Simple techniques have been developed by the first two authors (Journal of Geodesy, in press) for high-degree (2700) `point' synthesis of gravimetric quantities, in IEEE double precision, pole to pole. Numerical underflows are avoided by modifying exiting recursive algorithms to generate scaled, fully normalised, associated Legendre functions [ALFs] and their first and second derivatives. Final point-synthesis and rescaling was achieved using Horner's scheme. This simple approach has now been extended to stabilise high-degree (2700) `integral' synthesis over geographic rectangles (bound by meridians and parallels). Existing recursive routines compute definite integrals of ALFs for constant orders (`column- wise'). New routines have been designed to compute definite integrals of ALFs for constant degrees (`row-wise'). Both routines have been modified to generate scaled in- tegrals. Final synthesis and rescaling is achieved using Horner's scheme. Preliminary tests indicate that this approach allows, in IEEE double precision, integral synthesis to degree and order 2700, pole to pole, without underflow or overflow errors. Numer- ical tests suggest the new row-wise routines to be more precise than the column-wise routines, especially in polar regions.

  19. The nth commutativity degree of some 2-Engel groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Zainab; Mohd Ali, Nor Muhainiah; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Johari, Nor Azwin

    2013-04-01

    Suppose x and y are elements of a group G. The commutativity degree of a group G is defined as the total number of pair (x, y) for which x and y commute divided by the total number of pair (x, y) which is possible. Moreover, the nth commutativity degree of a group G is the total number of pair (x, y) for which xn and y commute divided by the total number of (x, y) which is possible. In this research, all 2-Engel groups of order at most 25 are first determined. Then, the nth commutativity degree of those groups are computed.

  20. Community Structure Detection Algorithm Based on the Node Belonging Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm to identify communities in complex networks based on the node belonging degree. First, we give the concept of the node belonging degree, and then determine whether a node belongs to a community or not according to the belonging degree of the node with respect to the community. The experiment results of three real-world networks: a network with three communities with 19 nodes, Zachary Karate Club and network of American college football teams show that the proposed algorithm has satisfactory community structure detection.  

  1. Nonlinearity degree of short-term heart rate variability signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Chunhua; NING Xinbao

    2004-01-01

    A nonlinear autoregressive (NAR) model is built to model the heartbeat interval time series and the optimum model degree is proposed to be taken to evaluate the nonlinearity degree of heart rate variability (HRV). A group of healthy persons are studied and the results indicate that this method can effectively get nonlinear information from short (6-7 min) heartbeat series and consequently reflect the degree of heart rate variability, which supplies convenience in clinical application. Finally, a comparison with the traditional time domain method shows that the NAR model method can reflect the complexity of the whole signal and lessen the influence of noise and instability in the signal.

  2. Markov Chain-based Degree Distributions of Evolving Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Xing KONG; Zhen Ting HOU; Ding Hua SHI; Quan Rong CHEN; Qing Gui ZHAO

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we study a class of stochastic processes,called evolving network Markov chains,in evolving networks. Our approach is to transform the degree distribution problem of an evolving network to a corresponding problem of evolving network Markov chains.We investigate the evolving network Markov chains,thereby obtaining some exact formulas as well as a precise criterion for determining whether the steady degree distribution of the evolving network is a power-law or not.With this new method,we finally obtain a rigorous,exact and unified solution of the steady degree distribution of the evolving network.

  3. Points of Low Degree on Smooth Plane Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Debarre, O; Debarre, Olivier; Klassen, Matthew

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to provide some applications of Faltings' recent proof of S. Lang's conjecture to smooth plane curves. Let $C$ be a smooth plane curve defined by an equation of degree $d$ with integral coefficients. We show that for $d\\ge 7$, the curve $C$ has only finitely many points whose field of definition has degree $\\le d-2$ over $Q$, and that for $d\\ge 8$, all but finitely many points of $C$ whose field of definition has degree $\\le d-1$ over $Q$ arise as points of intersection of rational lines through rational points of $C$.

  4. Asymptotic of trees with a prescribed degree sequence and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Broutin, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Let $t$ be a rooted tree and $n_i(t)$ the number of nodes in $t$ having $i$ children. The degree sequence $(n_i(t),i\\geq 0)$ of $t$ satisfies $\\sum_{i\\ge 0} n_i(t)=1+\\sum_{i\\ge 0} in_i(t)=|t|$, where $|t|$ denotes the number of nodes in $t$. In this paper, we consider trees sampled uniformly among all trees having the same degree sequence $\\ds$; we write $`P_\\ds$ for the corresponding distribution. Let $\\ds(\\kappa)=(n_i(\\kappa),i\\geq 0)$ be a list of degree sequences indexed by $\\kappa$ corresponding to trees with size $\

  5. Subgroup s-commutativity degree of finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Otera, Daniele Ettore

    2010-01-01

    In a recent contribution, Tarnauceanu has introduced the subgroup commutativity degree of a finite group, adapting to the context of the lattice theory some ideas and some techniques, which were known by the studies of Lescot on the commutativity degree. This new notion allows us to detect how a group is far from having all subgroups which are permutable. In the present paper we investigate a probability, which generalizes the subgroup commutativity degree, and find some numerical restrictions on groups which are rich in S-permutable subgroups in the sense of Kegel.

  6. Nonconvexity of the set of hypergraph degree sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ricky Ini

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the set of possible degree sequences for a graph on $n$ vertices is the intersection of a lattice and a convex polytope. We show that the set of possible degree sequences for a $k$-uniform hypergraph on $n$ vertices is not the intersection of a lattice and a convex polytope for $k \\geq 3$ and $n \\geq k+13$. We also show an analogous nonconvexity result for the set of degree sequences of $k$-partite $k$-uniform hypergraphs and the generalized notion of $\\lambda$-balanced $k$-uniform hypergraphs.

  7. The number of nilpotent semigroups of degree 3

    CERN Document Server

    Distler, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A semigroup is \\emph{nilpotent} of degree 3 if it has a zero, every product of 3 elements equals the zero, and some product of 2 elements is non-zero. It is part of the folklore of semigroup theory that almost all finite semigroups are nilpotent of degree 3. We give formulae for the number of nilpotent semigroups of degree 3 with $n\\in\\N$ elements up to equality, isomorphism, and isomorphism or anti-isomorphism. Likewise, we give formulae for the number of nilpotent commutative semigroups with $n$ elements up to equality and up to isomorphism.

  8. Examination of Lifestyle Behaviors and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in University Students Enrolled in Kinesiology Degree Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many, Gina M; Lutsch, Andrea; Connors, Kimberly E; Shearer, Jane; Brown, Haley C; Ash, Garrett; Pescatello, Linda S; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Barfield, Whitney; Dubis, Gabriel; Houmard, Joseph A; Hoffman, Eric P; Hittel, Dustin S

    2016-04-01

    Preventing physical inactivity and weight gain during college is critical in decreasing lifelong obesity and associated disease risk. As such, we sought to compare cardiometabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors between college students enrolled in kinesiology and non-kinesiology degree programs to assess whether health and exercise degree programs may influence health behaviors and associated disease risk outcomes. Anthropometrics, fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles and HbA1c%, blood pressure, and peak oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) were assessed in 247 healthy college students. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA) was calculated using glucose and insulin levels. Self-reported physical activity from the Paffenbarger questionnaire was collected to estimate the average caloric expenditure due to different types of physical activities. Despite no significant differences in body mass index or waist circumference between groups, kinesiology majors presented with ∼20% lower fasting insulin levels and HOMA (p = 0.01; p Kinesiology majors reported increased weekly participation in vigorous-intensity sport and leisure activities and, on average, engaged in >300 metabolic equivalent-h·wk, whereas non-kinesiology majors engaged in kinesiology degree programs display improved healthy behaviors and associated outcomes (parameters of glucose homeostasis). Practical outcomes of this research indicate that implementing components of a comprehensive kinesiology curriculum encourages improved health behaviors and associated cardiometabolic risk factors.

  9. Lithium associated autoimmune thyroiditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, M; Hirokawa, M.; T. Manabe; Shimozuma, K; Sonoo, H; Harada, T.

    1997-01-01

    A case of autoimmune thyroiditis after long term treatment with lithium is described in a 29 year old Japanese woman with manic depression. Positive serum antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal antibodies, diffuse goitre, and microscopic chronic thyroiditis, as well as the clinical history of long term lithium treatment were suggestive of lithium associated autoimmune thyroiditis. Microscopically, there was a mild degree of interstitial fibrosis and a moderate degree of lymphocytic infiltration...

  10. Class 1 integrons in environments with different degrees of urbanization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Nardelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Class 1 integrons are one of the most successful elements in the acquisition, expression and spread of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG among clinical isolates. Little is known about the gene flow of the components of the genetic platforms of class 1 integrons within and between bacterial communities. Thus it is important to better understand the interactions among "environmental" intI1, its genetic platforms and its distribution with human activities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An evaluation of two types of genetic determinants, ARG (sul1 and qacE1/qacEΔ1 genes and lateral genetic elements (LGE (intI1, ISCR1 and tniC genes in a model of a culture-based method without antibiotic selection was conducted in a gradient of anthropogenic disturbances in a Patagonian island recognized as being one of the last regions containing wild areas. The intI1, ISCR1 genes and intI1 pseudogenes that were found widespread throughout natural communities were not associated with urbanization (p>0.05. Each ARG that is embedded in the most common genetic platform of clinical class 1 integrons, showed different ecological and molecular behaviours in environmental samples. While the sul1 gene frequency was associated with urbanization, the qacE1/qacEΔ1 gene showed an adaptive role to several habitats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The high frequency of intI1 pseudogenes suggests that, although intI1 has a deleterious impact within several genomes, it can easily be disseminated among natural bacterial communities. The widespread occurrence of ISCR1 and intI1 throughout Patagonian sites with different degree of urbanization, and within different taxa, could be one of the causes of the increasing frequency of multidrug-resistant isolates that have characterized Argentina for decades. The flow of ARG and LGE between natural and clinical communities cannot be explained with a single general process but is a direct consequence of the interaction of multiple

  11. The value of educational degrees in turbulent economic times: Evidence from the Youth Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, Mike; Mortimer, Jeylan T; Staff, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Rising costs of higher education have prompted debate about the value of college degrees. Using mixed effects panel models of data from the Youth Development Study (ages 31-37), we compare occupational outcomes (i.e., weekly hours worked, earnings, employment status, career attainment, and job security) between educational attainment categories within year, and within categories across years, from 2005 to 2011, capturing the period before, during, and in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Our findings demonstrate the long-term value of post-secondary degrees. Bachelor's and Associate's degree recipients, while experiencing setbacks at the height of recession, were significantly better off than those with some or no college attendance. Vocational-Technical degree holders followed a unique trajectory: pre-recession, they are mostly on par with Associate's and Bachelor's recipients, but they are hit particularly hard by the recession and then rebound somewhat afterwards. Our findings highlight the perils of starting but not finishing post-secondary educational programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Educational Attainment and Mortality in the United States: Effects of Degrees, Years of Schooling, and Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Elizabeth M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Zajacova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have extensively documented a strong and consistent education gradient for mortality, with more highly educated individuals living longer than those with less education. This study contributes to our understanding of the education-mortality relationship by determining the effects of years of education and degree attainment on mortality, and by including nondegree certification, an important but understudied dimension of educational attainment. We use data from the mortality-linked restricted-use files of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) sample (N=9,821) and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate mortality risk among U.S. adults. Results indicate that more advanced degrees and additional years of education are associated with reduced mortality risk in separate models, but when included simultaneously, only degrees remain influential. Among individuals who have earned a high school diploma only, additional years of schooling (beyond 12) and vocational school certification (or similar accreditation) are both independently associated with reduced risks of death. Degrees appear to be most important for increasing longevity; the findings also suggest that any educational experience can be beneficial. Future research in health and mortality should consider including educational measures beyond a single variable for educational attainment. PMID:27482124

  13. Características sedimentares fluviais associadas ao grau de reservação da mata Ciliar - Rio Urumajó, Nordeste Paraense Fluvial sedimentology associated with the degree of preservation of the riparian vegetation, Urumajó River, PA / Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roney Nonato Reis de Brito

    2009-03-01

    sedimentology of the Urumajó River (Pará, Brazil in relation to the preservation state of riparian vegetation. Sediment samples were collected at five sites (A to E, including a five-sample transversal profile at each site. The sites were distributed from the source to the estuarine area. The characteristics and preservation state of the riparian vegetation were analyzed at each site as well. The collected sediments were submitted to grain size analysis, where mean grain size, median, asymmetry, selection and kurtosis were obtained. The results made it possible to recognize the regular characteristics (sites A and C, which included median sand as the main sediment class and well-sorted and approximate symmetric grain size distribution, directly related to the well-preserved riparian vegetation at sites A and C. On the other hand, sites B, D and E showed substantial differences in relation to the regular pattern. This fact could be associated to the vegetation degradation at those sites, resulting in margin erosion. Furthermore, at site E, reflexes of tide influence on the sediment characteristics could be observed, subsidizing the estuary delimitation.

  14. Marketing and Retention Strategies for Adult Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joann A.

    2004-01-01

    Four marketing strategies are critical to the success of adult degree programs: integrating marketing, knowing your students (research), shaping programs and services for adults, and staying the course (retention).

  15. Climate Prediction Center Weekly Corn Growing Degree Days

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A corn growing degree day (GDD) is an index used to express crop maturity. The index is computed by subtracting a base temperature of 50?F from the average of the...

  16. Derivations and Generating Degrees in the Ring of Arithmetical Functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alexandru Zaharescu; Mohammad Zaki

    2007-05-01

    In this paper we study a family of derivations in the ring of arithmetical functions of several variables over an integral domain, and compute the generating degrees of the ring of arithmetical functions over the kernel of these derivations.

  17. On Effective Degrees of Freedom in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Husdal, Lars

    2016-01-01

    We explore the effective degrees of freedom in the early Universe, from before the electroweak scale at a few femtoseconds after the Big Bang, until the last positrons disappeared a few minutes later. We first look at the established concepts of effective degrees of freedom for energy density, pressure and entropy density, and introduce effective degrees of freedom for number density as well. We discuss what happens with particle species as their temperature cools down from relativistic to semi- and non-relativistic temperatures, and then annihilates completely. This will affect the pressure as well as the entropy per particle. We also look at the transition from a quark-gluon plasma to a hadron gas. Using a list a known hadrons, we use a "cross-over" temperature of 214 MeV where the effective degrees of freedom for a quark-gluon plasma equals that of a hadron gas.

  18. Degree-based attacks and defense strategies in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehezkel, Aviv; Cohen, Reuven

    2012-12-01

    We study the stability of random scale-free networks to degree-dependent attacks. We present analytical and numerical results to compute the critical fraction pc of nodes that need to be removed for destroying the network under this attack for different attack parameters. We study the effect of different defense strategies, based on the addition of a constant number of links on network robustness. We test defense strategies based on adding links to either low degree, middegree or high degree nodes. We find using analytical results and simulations that the middegree nodes defense strategy leads to the largest improvement to the network robustness against degree-based attacks. We also test these defense strategies on an internet autonomous systems map and obtain similar results.

  19. Maiorana-McFarland class: Degree optimization and algebraic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasalic, Enes

    2006-01-01

    in the original class. Preserving a high-nonlinearity value immanent to the original construction method, together with the degree optimization gives in many cases functions with cryptographic properties superior to all previously known construction methods. This approach is then used to increase the algebraic......In this paper, we consider a subclass of the Maiorana-McFarland class used in the design of resilient nonlinear Boolean functions. We show that these functions allow a simple modification so that resilient Boolean functions of maximum algebraic degree may be generated instead of suboptimized degree...... degree of functions in the extended Maiorana-McFarland (MM) class (nonlinear resilient functions F : GF (2)(n) -> GF (2)(m) derived from linear codes). We also show that in the Boolean case, the same subclass seems not to have an optimized algebraic immunity, hence not providing a maximum resistance...

  20. On Effective Degrees of Freedom in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Husdal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore the effective degrees of freedom in the early Universe, from before the electroweak scale at a few femtoseconds after the Big Bang until the last positrons disappeared a few minutes later. We look at the established concepts of effective degrees of freedom for energy density, pressure, and entropy density, and introduce effective degrees of freedom for number density as well. We discuss what happens with particle species as their temperature cools down from relativistic to semi- and non-relativistic temperatures, and then annihilates completely. This will affect the pressure and the entropy per particle. We also look at the transition from a quark-gluon plasma to a hadron gas. Using a list a known hadrons, we use a “cross-over” temperature of 214 MeV, where the effective degrees of freedom for a quark-gluon plasma equals that of a hadron gas.

  1. The effects of degree correlations on network topologies and robustness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Jing; Tao Lin; Yu Hong; Luo Jian-Hua; Cao Zhi-Wei; Li Yi-Xue

    2007-01-01

    Complex networks have been applied to model numerous interactive nonlinear systems in the real world. Knowledge about network topology is crucial to an understanding of the function, performance and evolution of complex systems. In the last few years, many network metrics and models have been proposed to investigate the network topology, dynamics and evolution. Since these network metrics and models are derived from a wide range of studies, a systematic study is required to investigate the correlations among them. The present paper explores the effect of degree correlation on the other network metrics through studying an ensemble of graphs where the degree sequence (set of degrees) is fixed.We show that to some extent, the characteristic path length, clustering coefficient, modular extent and robustness of networks are directly influenced by the degree correlation.

  2. Marketing and Retention Strategies for Adult Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joann A.

    2004-01-01

    Four marketing strategies are critical to the success of adult degree programs: integrating marketing, knowing your students (research), shaping programs and services for adults, and staying the course (retention).

  3. Accumulated Growing Degree Days, Contiguous United States, 1981 - Current Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USA National Phenology Network has available a series of gridded products enabling researchers to analyze current year Accumulated Growing Degree Days (AGDD)...

  4. Coral Reef Watch, Degree Heating Weeks, 50 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Coral Reef Watch distributes Degree Heating Week products using a combination of the POES AVHRR Global Area Coverage data, and data from a climatological...

  5. Customer service factors of a Telematic Learning BBA degree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Customer service factors of a Telematic Learning BBA degree. ... accessibility of quality tertiary education via distance learning programmes of foreign institutions. ... Continuous client satisfaction research is conducted and this article reports ...

  6. Change in Annual Heating and Cooling Degree Days by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This service show changes in heating and cooling degree days by state in the US. Both layers in this service were created by comparing the first 60 years of...

  7. SALT INTAKE IN FIRST DEGREE RELATIONS OF l-IYPERTENSIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-10-10

    Oct 10, 2004 ... Design: A comparative study of STT and salt intake in the first degree offspring of hypertensive and ... of both(3). Meyer et al (7) have demonstrated erythrocyte .... Table 1 shows the baseline characteristics of participants.

  8. Project Work by Students for First Degree: An Appraisal | Ekwenze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Project Work by Students for First Degree: An Appraisal. ... The proper order, format and form for legal research and writing must be observed. ... law faculties should have websites that will enable supervisors cross-check projects for originality.

  9. Comparison of 180-degree and 90-degree needle rotation to reduce wound size in PIT-injected juvenile Chinook salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryson, Amanda J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Karls, Rhonda K.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2013-04-30

    Animal telemetry, which requires the implantation of passive transponders or active transmitters, is used to monitor and assess fish stock and conservation to gain an understanding of fish movement and behavior. As new telemetry technologies become available, studies of their effects on species of interest are imperative as is development of implantation techniques. In this study, we investigated the effects of bevel rotation (0-, 90-, 180-degree axis rotation) on wound extent, tag loss, and wound healing rates in juvenile Chinook salmon injected with an 8-gauge needle, which is required for implantation of the novel injectable Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry Systems (JSATS) acoustic transmitter or large passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Although the injection sites were not closed after injection (e.g., with sutures or glue), there were no mortalities, dropped tags, or indications of fungus, ulceration, and/or redness around the wound. On Day 0 and post-implantation Day 7, the 90-degree bevel rotation produced smaller wound extent than the 180-degree bevel rotation. No axis rotation (0-degrees) resulted in the PIT tag frequently misleading or falling out upon injection. The results of this study indicated the 90-degree bevel rotation was the more efficient technique, produced less wound extent. Given the wound extent compared to size of fish, we recommend researchers should consider a 90-degree rotation over the 180-degree rotation in telemetry studies. Highlights •Three degrees of needle rotation were examined for effects in Chinook salmon. •Mortality, tag loss, wound extent, healing, and infection indicators were measured. •There were no mortalities, tag loss, or indications of infection. •The 90-degree needle rotation through Day 7 produced the smallest wound extent.

  10. Fractional Path Coloring in Bounded Degree Trees with Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Caragiannis, I.; Ferreira, Afonso; Kaklamanis, C.; Pérennes, Stéphane; Rivano, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    OPTx-editorial-board=yes, OPTx-proceedings=yes, OPTx-international-audience=yes; International audience; This paper studies the natural linear programming relaxation of the path coloring problem. We prove constructively that finding an optimal fractional path coloring is Fixed Parameter Tractable (FPT), with the degree of the tree as parameter: the fractional coloring of paths in a bounded degree trees can be done in a time which is linear in the size of the tree, quadratic in the load of the...

  11. The degree distribution of fixed act-size collaboration networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qinggui Zhao; Xiangxing Kong; Zhenting Hou

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate a special evolving model of collaboration net-works, where the act-size is fixed. Based on the first-passage probability of Markov chain theory, this paper provides a rigorous proof for the existence of a limiting degree distribution of this model and proves that the degree distribution obeys the power-law form with the exponent adjustable between 2 and 3.

  12. Characterization Parameters for a Three Degree of Freedom Mobile Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics , Monterey, CA, USA. [5] E. Shuey and M. Shuey, “Modeling and simulation for a surf zone robot ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS CHARACTERIZATION PARAMETERS FOR A THREE DEGREE OF FREEDOM MOBILE ROBOT by Jessica L. Fitzgerald...Z39.18 12-20-2013 Master’s Thesis 2102-06-01—2104-10-31 CHARACTERIZATION PARAMETERS FOR A THREE DEGREE OF FREEDOM MOBILE ROBOT Jessica L. Fitzgerald

  13. Parallel Mechanisms with Two or Three Degrees of Freedom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辛军; 汪劲松; 李铁民; 段广洪

    2003-01-01

    Parallel manipulators for the machine tool industry have been studied extensively for various industrial applications. However, limited useful workspace areas, the poor mobility, and design difficulties of more complex parallel manipulators have led to more interest in parallel manipulators with less than six degrees of freedom (DoFs). Several parallel mechanisms with various numbers and types of degrees of freedom are described in this paper, which can be used in parallel kinematics machines, motion simulators, and industrial robots.

  14. A Note on Primitive Permutation Groups of Prime Power Degree

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Cai; Hua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Primitive permutation groups of prime power degree are known to be affine type, almost simple type, and product action type. At the present stage finding an explicit classification of primitive groups of affine type seems untractable, while the product action type can usually be reduced to almost simple type. In this paper, we present a short survey of the development of primitive groups of prime power degree, together with a brief description on such groups.

  15. Are UK undergraduate Forensic Science degrees fit for purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Charles; Hannis, Marc

    2011-09-01

    In October 2009 Skills for Justice published the social research paper 'Fit for purpose?: Research into the provision of Forensic Science degree programmes in UK Higher Education Institutions.' The research engaged employers representing 95% of UK Forensic Science providers and 79% of UK universities offering Forensic Science or Crime Scene degree programmes. In addition to this, the research collected the views of 430 students studying these degrees. In 2008 there were approximately 9000 people working in the Forensic Science sector in the UK. The research found that the numbers of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees in the UK have more than doubled since 2002-03, from 2191 in to 5664 in 2007-08. Over the same period there were twice as many females as males studying for these degrees. The research concluded that Forensic Science degree programmes offered by UK universities were of a good quality and they provided the student with a positive learning experience but the content was not relevant for Forensic Science employers. This echoed similar research by the former Government Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills on graduates from wider science, technology, engineering and mathematics degree programmes. The research also found that 75% of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees expected to have a career in the Forensic Science sector, meaning that ensuring these courses are relevant for employers is a key challenge for universities. This paper reflects on the original research and discusses the implications in light of recent government policy. Copyright © 2011 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. CPUG: Computational Physics UG Degree Program at Oregon State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Rubin H.

    2004-03-01

    A four-year undergraduate degree program leading to a Bachelor's degree in Computational Physics is described. The courses and texts under development are research- and Web-rich, and culminate in an advanced computational laboratory derived from graduate theses and faculty research. The five computational courses and course materials developed for this program act as a bridge connecting the physics with the computation and the mathematics, and as a link to the computational science community.

  17. Subjective experiences in first-degree relatives of schizophrenic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loas, Gwenolé; Dimassi, Hajer; Yon, Valérie; Monestes, Jean Louis

    2012-10-01

    First-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia may score higher on the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ) than controls. The present study was designed to provide evidence of validity for the French version of the 24-item subscale of the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ-24). In 27 first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (high-risk group) and 30 controls, the high-risk group scored significantly higher on the FCQ, as expected.

  18. Degree of Entanglement for Some Bipartite Entangled Bosonic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xian-Ting

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the degree of entanglement for some bipartite entangled states of continuous variables.These states include common two-mode squeezed vacuum state, thermal vacuum state of a free single particle (where the fictitious tilde system is regarded as another particle), and the squeezed vacuum state of two coupling harmonic oscillators.The degree of entanglement for these quantum systems are shown clearly by using the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators.

  19. The best uniform approximation of ellipse with degree two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Abedallah; AlMeraj, Zainab

    2017-07-01

    A uniform quadratic approximation of degree 2 is created in explicit parametric form to represent elliptical arcs. The error function is identical to that of the Chebyshev polynomial of degree 4 and equioscillates five times with an approximation order of four. In this paper we provide the approximation method, show it is efficient, its error bound to be accurate and demonstrate that it satisfies properties of the best uniform approximation.

  20. Brief 75 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-05

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2014. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.

  1. Brief 73 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2013 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-15

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2013. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2013. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.taoi_na

  2. Degree distribution of a new model for evolving networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xuan Zhang; Qinggui Zhao

    2010-03-01

    We propose and study an evolving network model with both preferential and random attachments of new links, incorporating the addition of new nodes, new links, and the removal of links. We first show that the degree evolution of a node follows a nonhomogeneous Markov chain. Based on the concept of Markov chain, we provide the exact solution of the degree distribution of this model and show that the model can generate scale-free evolving network.

  3. Tunable degree of localization in random lasers with controlled interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Leonetti, Marco; Lopez, Cefe

    2012-01-01

    We show that the degree of localization for the modes of a random laser (RL) is affected by the inter mode interaction that is controlled by shaping the spot of the pump laser. By experimentally investigating the spatial properties of the lasing emission we infer that strongly localized modes are activated in the low interacting regime while in the strongly interacting one extended modes are found lasing. Thus we demonstrate that the degree o localization may be finely tuned at the micrometer level.

  4. Algorithms for degree-constrained Euclidean Steiner minimal tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jin; Ma Liang; Zhang Liantang

    2008-01-01

    A new problem of degree-constrained Euclidean Steiner minimal tree is discussed,which is quite useful in several fields.Although it is slightly different from the traditional degree-constrained minimal spanning tree,it is aho NP-hard.Two intelligent algorithms are proposed in an attempt to solve this difficult problem.Series of numerical examples are tested,which demonstrate that the algorithms also work well in practice.

  5. A degree condition for maximal cycles in bipartite digraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Adamus, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    We prove a sharp Ore-type criterion for hamiltonicity of balanced bipartite digraphs: A bipartite digraph D, with colour classes of cardinality N, is hamiltonian if, for every pair of vertices u and v from opposite colour classes of D such that the arc u->v is not in D, the sum of the positive half-degree of u and the negative half-degree of v is greater than or equal to N+2.

  6. Combined 30-degree bevel up and down technique against 0-degree phaco tip for phacoemulsification surgery of hard cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi RS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rajesh Subhash Joshi, Sonal Jayant Muley Department of Ophthalmology, Vasantrao Naik Government Medical College, Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India Purpose: To evaluate the effective phaco time (EPT, cumulative dissipated energy (CDE and nucleus emulsification time (NET as phaco parameters with 0- and 30-degree phaco tip. Patients and methods: This prospective, interventional and observational case series included 294 patients scheduled for cataract removal by phacoemulsification technique. Patients with nuclear cataracts of grade 4 and 5 nuclear opalescence of Lens Opacities Classification System III were included in the study. Patients were consecutively allocated to phaco chop technique with 0-degree (0-degree group, n=147 and combined bevel up and down position using 30-degree phaco tip (combined bevel up/down group, n=147. The 0-degree group had phacoemulsification with 0-degree phaco tip, while the 30-degree group had chopping of the nucleus with bevel down phaco tip and emulsification of nuclear fragments was accomplished with bevel up tip. EPT, CDE, NET and intraoperative complications were noted and compared between the groups using analysis of variance. Results: Average EPT, CDE and NET were lower in the 30-degree group than in the 0-degree group. However, no statistically significant difference was found in EPT (P=0.0733, CDE (P=0.0663 and NET (P=0.0633 between the two groups. No serious intraoperative complications were noted. The anterior chamber was maintained throughout the procedure in both groups. No patients had wound burn and miosis during the procedure. None of the patients developed bullous keratopathy, uveitis and cystoid macular edema during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Combined bevel up and down 30-degree tip can yield effective hard nucleus phacoemulsification. Bevel down tip of 30-degree helps in effective chopping and bevel up tip assists in emulsification of the nuclear fragments. Although combined bevel up and down 30

  7. Degree correlations in directed scale-free networks

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Scale-free networks, in which the distribution of the degrees obeys a power-law, are ubiquitous in the study of complex systems. One basic network property that relates to the structure of the links found is the degree assortativity, which is a measure of the correlation between the degrees of the nodes at the end of the links. Degree correlations are known to affect both the structure of a network and the dynamics of the processes supported thereon, including the resilience to damage, the spread of information and epidemics, and the efficiency of defence mechanisms. Nonetheless, while many studies focus on undirected scale-free networks, the interactions in real-world systems often have a directionality. Here, we investigate the dependence of the degree correlations on the power-law exponents in directed scale-free networks. To perform our study, we consider the problem of building directed networks with a prescribed degree distribution, providing a method for proper generation of power-law-distributed direc...

  8. The 200 Degree-Long Magellanic Stream System

    CERN Document Server

    Nidever, David L; Burton, W Butler; Nigra, Lou

    2010-01-01

    We establish that the Magellanic Stream (MS) is some 40 degrees longer than previously known with certainty and that the entire MS and Leading Arm (LA) system is thus at least 200 degrees long. With the GBT, we conducted a ~200 square degree, 21-cm survey at the MS-tip to substantiate the continuity of the MS between the Hulsbosch & Wakker data and the MS-like emission reported by Braun & Thilker. Our survey, in combination with the Arecibo survey by Stanimirovic et al., shows that the MS gas is continuous in this region and that the MS is at least ~140 degrees long. We identify a new filament on the eastern side of the MS that significantly deviates from the equator of the MS coordinate system for more than ~45 degrees. Additionally, we find a previously unknown velocity inflection in the MS-tip near MS longitude L_MS=-120 degrees at which the velocity reaches a minimum and then starts to increase. We find that five compact high velocity clouds cataloged by de Heij et al. as well as Wright's Cloud ar...

  9. Characteristics of Patients with Hearing Aids according to the Degree and Pattern of Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, Young Seok; Kim, Sung Su; Park, Sang Hyun; Park, Eun Bin; Kim, Ho Joong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives This study was designed to assess the characteristics of patients according to the degree and audiogram shape of hearing loss and the association of these characteristics with hearing aids (HA) choice, return rate, and cause of return. Subjects and Methods This study included 460 individuals who received HAs from 2011 to 2015. The relationships between type of HA and age, primary and accompanying symptoms, HA choice and return and cause of return were evaluated accor...

  10. Effects of different curing methods and microleakage and degree of conversion of composite resin restorations

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Recently, investigators have presented new methods to reduce polymerization shrinkage of composite resin restorations. It is claimed that more powerful light cure systems associated with a change in radiation patterns, lead to improved mechanical properties and reduced microleakage. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of two curing systems, known as Soft-Start, Pulse-Delay, on microleakage and degree of conversion of composite resin restorat...

  11. Perineal Trauma in Primiparous Women with Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery: Episiotomy or Second Degree Perineal Tear?

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Mora-Hervás; Emília Sánchez; Francisco Carmona

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the incidence of perineal trauma in primiparous women with spontaneous vaginal delivery and to identify the factors associated with second-degree lacerations. Materials and Methods: A subset analysis of women with spontaneous vaginal deliveries (n=489) from an institutional review board-approved parent study in healthy, nulliparous, continent pregnant women, attending the public health care system of Catalonia (northeast Spain). Primary outcome measure was perineal ...

  12. Combined 30-degree bevel up and down technique against 0-degree phaco tip for phacoemulsification surgery of hard cataracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joshi RS; Muley SJ

    2017-01-01

    ...) as phaco parameters with 0- and 30-degree phaco tip. Patients and methods: This prospective, interventional and observational case series included 294 patients scheduled for cataract removal by phacoemulsification technique...

  13. Gender and Degree Programs: The Interest for an Academic Field, a Factor that Influences the Choice of a Bachelors Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gamboa García

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of a study on the expectations of benefit of higher education applicants, this article approaches the choice of a degree program according to the academic interest from the perspective of the rational analysis. Applicants who took the admissions test in two institutions were surveyed in order to carry out later statistical analysis with the purpose of finding a multivariate model. The obtained results showed that gender, work, and age were related to the applicants’ interest on certain academic degree program. The interest for a degree program tends to be unimportant in employed women’s choices, aged 20 years or older. Among applicants whose father considered higher education very important, the probability to consider one’s interest on the choice of a bachelor’s degree was higher for male applicants. The above information confirms the variation in rational calculations regarding social characteristics.

  14. Bouguer gravity anomaly and isostatic residual gravity maps of the Tonopah 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plouff, Donald

    1992-01-01

    These gravity maps are part of a folio of maps of the Tonopah 1 degree by 2 degrees quadrangle, Nevada, prepared under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program. Each product of the folio is designated by a different letter symbol, starting with A, in the MF-1877 folio. The quadrangle encompasses an area of about 19,500 km2  in the west central part of Nevada.

  15. Fishes of the family Ipnopidae (Teleostei: Aulopiformes) collected on the Brazilian continental slope between 11 degrees and 23 degrees S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, M A L; Braga, A C; Nunan, G W A; Costa, P A S

    2009-09-01

    A collection of fishes from the Brazilian continental slope between 11 degrees and 23 degrees S obtained through trawling revealed nine species of Ipnopidae. Bathypterois bigelowi and Bathytyphlops marionae represent first records from the south-western Atlantic Ocean and Bathypterois grallator is reported off Brazil for the first time. Four species have their distribution extended in Brazilian waters: Bathypterois phenax, Bathypterois quadrifilis, Bathypterois viridensis and Ipnops murrayi. An identification key of Ipnopidae species from the south-western Atlantic Ocean is included.

  16. Quantitative assessments of burn degree by high-frequency ultrasonic backscattering and statistical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yi-Hsun; Wang, Shyh-Hau [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, and Institute of Medical Informatics, National Cheng Kung University, No 1, University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chih-Chung, E-mail: shyhhau@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, 510, Chung Cheng Rd, Hsin Chuang, Taipei County 24205, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-07

    An accurate and quantitative modality to assess the burn degree is crucial for determining further treatments to be properly applied to burn injury patients. Ultrasounds with frequencies higher than 20 MHz have been applied to dermatological diagnosis due to its high resolution and noninvasive capability. Yet, it is still lacking a substantial means to sensitively correlate the burn degree and ultrasonic measurements quantitatively. Thus, a 50 MHz ultrasound system was developed and implemented to measure ultrasonic signals backscattered from the burned skin tissues. Various burn degrees were achieved by placing a 100 deg. C brass plate onto the dorsal skins of anesthetized rats for various durations ranged from 5 to 20 s. The burn degrees were correlated with ultrasonic parameters, including integrated backscatter (IB) and Nakagami parameter (m) calculated from ultrasonic signals acquired from the burned tissues of a 5 x 1.4 mm (width x depth) area. Results demonstrated that both IB and m decreased exponentially with the increase of burn degree. Specifically, an IB of -79.0 {+-} 2.4 (mean {+-} standard deviation) dB for normal skin tissues tended to decrease to -94.0 {+-} 1.3 dB for those burned for 20 s, while the corresponding Nakagami parameters tended to decrease from 0.76 {+-} 0.08 to 0.45 {+-} 0.04. The variation of both IB and m was partially associated with the change of properties of collagen fibers from the burned tissues verified by samples of tissue histological sections. Particularly, the m parameter may be more sensitive to differentiate burned skin due to the fact that it has a greater rate of change with respect to different burn durations. These ultrasonic parameters in conjunction with high-frequency B-mode and Nakagami images could have the potential to assess the burn degree quantitatively.

  17. Controllability of deterministic networks with the identical degree sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Ma

    Full Text Available Controlling complex network is an essential problem in network science and engineering. Recent advances indicate that the controllability of complex network is dependent on the network's topology. Liu and Barabási, et.al speculated that the degree distribution was one of the most important factors affecting controllability for arbitrary complex directed network with random link weights. In this paper, we analysed the effect of degree distribution to the controllability for the deterministic networks with unweighted and undirected. We introduce a class of deterministic networks with identical degree sequence, called (x,y-flower. We analysed controllability of the two deterministic networks ((1, 3-flower and (2, 2-flower by exact controllability theory in detail and give accurate results of the minimum number of driver nodes for the two networks. In simulation, we compare the controllability of (x,y-flower networks. Our results show that the family of (x,y-flower networks have the same degree sequence, but their controllability is totally different. So the degree distribution itself is not sufficient to characterize the controllability of deterministic networks with unweighted and undirected.

  18. Controllability of deterministic networks with the identical degree sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiujuan; Zhao, Haixing; Wang, Binghong

    2015-01-01

    Controlling complex network is an essential problem in network science and engineering. Recent advances indicate that the controllability of complex network is dependent on the network's topology. Liu and Barabási, et.al speculated that the degree distribution was one of the most important factors affecting controllability for arbitrary complex directed network with random link weights. In this paper, we analysed the effect of degree distribution to the controllability for the deterministic networks with unweighted and undirected. We introduce a class of deterministic networks with identical degree sequence, called (x,y)-flower. We analysed controllability of the two deterministic networks ((1, 3)-flower and (2, 2)-flower) by exact controllability theory in detail and give accurate results of the minimum number of driver nodes for the two networks. In simulation, we compare the controllability of (x,y)-flower networks. Our results show that the family of (x,y)-flower networks have the same degree sequence, but their controllability is totally different. So the degree distribution itself is not sufficient to characterize the controllability of deterministic networks with unweighted and undirected.

  19. Determination of the distributions of degrees of acetylation of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevarajah, Joel Jerushan; Van Leeuwen, Matthew Paul; Cottet, Herve; Castignolles, Patrice; Gaborieau, Marianne

    2017-02-01

    Chitosan is often characterized by its average degree of acetylation. To increase chitosan's use in various industries, a more thorough characterization is necessary as the acetylation of chitosan affects properties such as dissolution and mechanical properties of chitosan films. Despite the poor solubility of chitosan, free solution capillary electrophoresis (CE) allows a robust separation of chitosan by the degree of acetylation. The distribution of degrees of acetylation of various chitosan samples was characterized through their distributions of electrophoretic mobilities. These distributions can be obtained easily and with high precision. The heterogeneity of the chitosan chains in terms of acetylation was characterized through the dispersity of the electrophoretic mobility distributions obtained. The relationship between the number-average degree of acetylation obtained by solid-state NMR spectroscopy and the weight-average electrophoretic mobilities was established. The distribution of degrees of acetylation was determined using capillary electrophoresis in the critical conditions (CE-CC). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Degree Heterogeneity on Attack Vulnerability of Interdependent Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiwen; Wu, Yafang; Ma, Yilin; Wang, Li; Gao, Zhongke; Xia, Chengyi

    2016-09-01

    The study of interdependent networks has become a new research focus in recent years. We focus on one fundamental property of interdependent networks: vulnerability. Previous studies mainly focused on the impact of topological properties upon interdependent networks under random attacks, the effect of degree heterogeneity on structural vulnerability of interdependent networks under intentional attacks, however, is still unexplored. In order to deeply understand the role of degree distribution and in particular degree heterogeneity, we construct an interdependent system model which consists of two networks whose extent of degree heterogeneity can be controlled simultaneously by a tuning parameter. Meanwhile, a new quantity, which can better measure the performance of interdependent networks after attack, is proposed. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that degree heterogeneity can significantly increase the vulnerability of both single and interdependent networks. Moreover, it is found that interdependent links between two networks make the entire system much more fragile to attacks. Enhancing coupling strength between networks can greatly increase the fragility of both networks against targeted attacks, which is most evident under the case of max-max assortative coupling. Current results can help to deepen the understanding of structural complexity of complex real-world systems.