WorldWideScience

Sample records for tebuconazole pesticide tolerances

  1. 78 FR 68741 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... residential exposures: Turf, flower gardens, trees, ornamentals, and pressure-treated wood. EPA assessed... activities on pressure-treated wood after application of tebuconazole may receive exposure to tebuconazole... consumption, prolonged gestation with mortality, and increased number of dead fetuses), while offspring...

  2. Removal of emerging organic pollutants in constructed wetlands: imazalil and tebuconazole as model pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The pesticides imazalil and tebuconazole are commonly used to protect various agricultural crops against fungal attack or as biocides for wood protection, as such, they have been found in both rural and urban water bodies. The emerging pesticides are gaining prominence due to the toxic effects...... model pesticides imazalil and tebuconazole under different CWs designs with various operation strategies. The results showed that CWs can be applied to efficiently treat imazalil and tebuconazole contaminated wastewater. The pesticides removal in CWs can be adequate described by first order kinetics...... model. Moreover, the removal ability was strongly influenced by CWs design, dissolved oxygen (DO) level, season (temperature), initial concentrations, hydraulic loading rate (HLR), plant present and species, and potentially nitrification processes. The pesticides biodegradation inside plant tissue after...

  3. 75 FR 24421 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... on treated wood structures. Children may also be exposed via the incidental oral route when playing on treated wood structures. Long-term exposure is not expected. As a result, risk assessments have... dead fetuses), while offspring toxicity (including decreases in body weight, brain weight, brain...

  4. 76 FR 54127 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... golf turf and to adults and children from contact to treated wood structures. Children may also be exposed via the incidental oral route when playing on treated wood structures. Long- term exposure is not... consumption, prolonged gestation with mortality, and increased number of dead fetuses), while offspring...

  5. 75 FR 17566 - Flutolanil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... ppm, and the greater tolerance value is needed to accommodate indirect residues from soybean..., and soybean hay at 2.5 ppm are being revoked since the same tolerance values are being established...; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  6. 77 FR 49732 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    .../puree (1x) and lemon/lime juice (1x) were used to modify the tolerance values. iii. Cancer. Based on the... the tolerance necessitate a higher value. Additionally, Codex has an established MRL on grape at 3 ppm...; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  7. Behavior of fluopyram and tebuconazole and some selected pesticides in ripe apples and consumer exposure assessment in the applied crop protection framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbielska, Magdalena; Szpyrka, Ewa; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Zwolak, Aneta; Sadło, Stanisław

    2017-07-01

    The supervised field trials were conducted in a commercial apple orchard in 2016. The trials were an attempt to determine a model for dissipation and toxicological evaluation of fluopyram, tebuconazole, captan, tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI), pirimicarb, spirodiclofen, and boscalid residues detected in fruit of Red Jonaprince, Lobo, and Gala varieties immediately before harvest. The analysis also covered amounts of pesticides still present in remnants of calyx in Lobo and Gala varieties immediately before harvest. Laboratory samples of ripe apples were collected within 14 days of the treatment. Levels of pesticide residues detected in the samples changed at a constant exponential rate, and the residue levels found in ripe apples of Red Jonaprince, Gala, and Lobo varieties immediately before harvest were below maximum residue levels (MRL). Overall, captan residues in remnants of calyx were at a level of 22.3% for the Gala variety and 9.3% for the Lobo variety. Likewise, the long-term daily intake of the detected substances by a Polish adult consumer was low, ranging from 0.02% ADI for pirimicarb to 0.72% ADI for captan.

  8. 76 FR 61587 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... class of pesticides. Although conazoles act similarly in plants (fungi) by inhibiting ergosterol... barley at 0.2 ppm; oats, rye, and wheat at 0.05 ppm each; in the fodder (dry) of cereal grains at 5 ppm..., including barley (0.35 ppm), wheat (0.07 ppm). Harmonization of the proposed tolerances with the existing...

  9. Evolved pesticide tolerance in amphibians: Predicting mechanisms based on pesticide novelty and mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K.; Mattes, Brian M.; Cothran, Rickey D.; Relyea, Rick A.; Hoverman, Jason T.

    2015-01-01

    We examined 10 wood frog populations distributed along an agricultural gradient for their tolerance to six pesticides (carbaryl, malathion, cypermethrin, permethrin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) that differed in date of first registration (pesticide novelty) and mode-of-action (MOA). Our goals were to assess whether: 1) tolerance was correlated with distance to agriculture for each pesticide, 2) pesticide novelty predicted the likelihood of evolved tolerance, and 3) populations display cross-tolerance between pesticides that share and differ in MOA. Wood frog populations located close to agriculture were more tolerant to carbaryl and malathion than populations far from agriculture. Moreover, the strength of the relationship between distance to agriculture and tolerance was stronger for older pesticides compared to newer pesticides. Finally, we found evidence for cross-tolerance between carbaryl and malathion (two pesticides that share MOA). This study provides one of the most comprehensive approaches for understanding patterns of evolved tolerance in non-pest species. - Highlights: • We explored patterns of tolerance to six insecticides across 10 wood frog populations. • We found evidence that wood frogs have evolved tolerance to carbaryl and malathion. • The likelihood of evolved tolerance was stronger for older compared to newer pesticides. • We found evidence for cross-tolerance between carbaryl and malathion. • This is one of the most comprehensive approaches studying evolved tolerance in a non-pest species. - Using 10 wood frog populations, we detected evidence for evolved tolerance, found that the evolved tolerance depends on insecticide novelty, and found evidence for cross-tolerance.

  10. Phytoremediation of imazalil and tebuconazole by four emergent wetland plant species in hydroponic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tao; Zhang, Yang; Casas, Mònica E; Carvalho, Pedro N; Arias, Carlos A; Bester, Kai; Brix, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Pollution from pesticide residues in aquatic environments is of increasing concern. Imazalil and tebuconazole, two commonly used systemic pesticides, are water contaminants that can be removed by constructed wetlands. However, the phytoremediation capability of emergent wetland plants for imazalil and tebuconazole, especially the removal mechanisms involved, is poorly understood. This study compared the removal of both pesticides by four commonly used wetland plants, Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Iris pseudacorus and Juncus effusus, and aimed to understand the removal mechanisms involved. The plants were individually exposed to an initial concentration of 10 mg/L in hydroponic solution. At the end of the 24-day study period, the tebuconazole removal efficiencies were relatively lower (25%-41%) than those for imazalil (46%-96%) for all plant species studied. The removal of imazalil and tebuconazole fit a first-order kinetics model, with the exception of tebuconazole removal in solutions with I. pseudacorus. Changes in the enantiomeric fraction for imazalil and tebuconazole were detected in plant tissue but not in the hydroponic solutions; thus, the translocation and degradation processes were enantioselective in the plants. At the end of the study period, the accumulation of imazalil and tebuconazole in plant tissue was relatively low and constituted 2.8-14.4% of the total spiked pesticide in each vessel. Therefore, the studied plants were able to not only take up the pesticides but also metabolise them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    of soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) and catalase increased with soil pesticide contamination in A. caliginosa. Pesticide stress was reflected in depletion of energy reserves in A. chlorotica. Acute exposure of pre-adapted and naïve A. caliginosa to pesticides (fungicide Opus ®, 0.1 μg active...

  12. 14C tebuconazole degradation in Colombian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, C S; Martínez, M J; Guerrero, J A

    2010-01-01

    Tebuconazole is a fungicide used on onion crops (Allium Fistulosum L) in Colombia. Persistence of pesticides in soils is characterized by the half-life (DT50), which is influenced by their chemical structure, the physical and chemical properties of the soil and the previous soil history. Based on its structural and chemical properties, tebuconazole should be expected to be relatively persistent in soils. Laboratory incubation studies were conducted to evaluate persistence and bond residues of 14C tebuconazole in three soils, two inceptisol (I) and one histosol (H). Textural classifications were: loam (101), loamy sand (102) and loam (H03), respectively. Data obtained followed a first-order degradation kinetics (R2 > or = 0.899) with DT50 values between 158 and 198 days. The production of 14CO2 from the 14C-ring-labelled test chemicals was very low and increased slightly during 63 days in all cases. The methanol extractable 14C-residues were higher than aqueous ones and both decreased over incubation time for the three soils. The formation of bound 14C-residues increased with time and final values were 11.3; 5.55 and 7.87% for 101, 102 and H03 respectively. Soil 101 showed the lowest mineralization rate and the highest bound residues formation, which might be explained by the clay fraction content. In contrast, an inverse behavior was found for soils 102 and H03, these results might be explained by the higher soil organic carbon content.

  13. 77 FR 72984 - Buprofezin Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0759; FRL-9371-3] Buprofezin..., 2012, concerning buprofezin pesticide tolerances. This document corrects a typographical error. DATES...: Sec. 180.511 Buprofezin; tolerances for residues. (a) * * * Parts per Commodity million...

  14. 75 FR 29908 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    .... The straw numerical value (5 ppm) is matched between the U.S. and Codex. The tolerance definition for... lower (0.07 ppm) than the recommended U.S. group tolerance. The 0.07 ppm value is the current U.S. tolerance value for wheat, but will be replaced by the cereal grain group tolerance. Canada does not...

  15. 78 FR 40027 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ...). This regulation additionally deletes the time- limited tolerance for strawberry, as that tolerance..., pears, potatoes, strawberries, and tomatoes and utilized estimates for PCT for recently registered uses... deletes the time-limited tolerance for strawberry, as that tolerance expired on December 31, 2011. VI...

  16. 78 FR 24094 - Azoxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Statistics Service (USDA/NASS), proprietary market surveys, and the National Pesticide Use Database for the... 1 to the table in paragraph (a)(1); and 0 e. Revise the introductory text of paragraph (a)(2) The...

  17. 78 FR 18511 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Health Risk Assessment of New Uses on Strawberry, Pistachio, and Citrus; New Tolerance for Tea; and... Uses on Strawberry, Pistachio, and Citrus; New Tolerance for Tea; and Revised PHI and Tolerance for... ``Clothianidin--Aggregate Human Health Risk Assessment of New Uses on Strawberry, Pistachio, and Citrus; New...

  18. 75 FR 26673 - Clethodim; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... regulation establishes tolerances for residues of clethodim in or on the raw agricultural commodity artichoke... clethodim, in or on the raw agricultural commodity artichoke, globe at 1.3 parts per million (ppm... bushberry subgroup 13-07B tolerance from 3.0 ppm to 0.20 ppm and the globe artichoke tolerance from 1.3 ppm...

  19. 78 FR 40017 - Ethalfluralin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). B. How... system. Additionally, ethalfluralin does not belong to a class of chemicals (e.g., the organotins, heavy... Alimentarius is a joint United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization food...

  20. 78 FR 18504 - Emamectin Benzoate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... availability and use of monitoring data and food preparation-reduction factors for washing, cooking, etc. may... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective March 27, 2013... affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer...

  1. 75 FR 22256 - Difenoconazole Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...; fruit, citrus, group 10; grape; grape, raisin; nut, tree, group 14; onion, bulb, subgroup 3-07A; onion... entities may include, but are not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide...

  2. 76 FR 5704 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... sulfentrazone, citing the cruelty of animal testing as the main source of opposition. The Agency has received... (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide...). UFA = extrapolation from animal to human (interspecies). UFH = potential variation in sensitivity...

  3. 77 FR 66723 - Fluazinam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... included changes in clinical chemistry (increased serum alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase... white matter of the central nervous system was observed in subchronic and chronic studies in mice and..., including adults, youth (11 to http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf . 4. Cumulative...

  4. 77 FR 73951 - Pyriproxyfen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... and was negative in the dermal sensitization study in guinea pigs. Based on repeated dose studies in... determine whether this document applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide...

  5. 77 FR 73940 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... irritant and it is not a skin sensitizer under the conditions of the guinea pig maximization test. In the... determine whether this document applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide...

  6. 78 FR 33736 - Imidacloprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... exposure assessments of pesticides found in swimming pools and spas and EPA's Risk Assessment Guidance for... during recreational swimming, or in the case of subsistence fishermen or local Native American tribes... Order 13211, entitled ``Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply...

  7. 77 FR 59114 - Cyazofamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ..., sod farms, seed farms, college and professional sports fields, residential and commercial lawns, and.../pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf . 4. Cumulative effects from substances with a common mechanism of... Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd., Ft. Meade, MD 20755-5350; telephone number...

  8. 77 FR 42433 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... characteristics of difenoconazole. Further information regarding EPA drinking water models used in pesticide... exposures for which there is reliable information.'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in... States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 and 1998 Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake...

  9. 77 FR 43524 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... the oral route of exposure and is minimally toxic via the dermal and inhalation routes of exposure. It... rats); the effects were considered to be adaptive. Other effects observed in the oral studies include... to the presence of any pesticide residues on food. The Agency understands the commenter's concerns...

  10. 76 FR 22045 - Fluopicolide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... regulation establishes tolerances for residues of fluopicolide and its metabolites in or on multiple... occurred at dose levels where significant maternal toxicity (severe body weight gain decrements and...

  11. 75 FR 69353 - Isoxaben; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ...; and pistachio. Dow AgroSciences requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic... 0.01 ppm; and nut, tree, group 14 and pistachio at 0.03 ppm. That notice referenced a summary of the... the data supporting the petition, EPA has reduced the tolerances for nut, tree, group 14 and pistachio...

  12. 76 FR 27268 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0938; FRL-8872-6] Glyphosate... regulation increases the established tolerance for residues of glyphosate in or on corn, field, forage... tolerance for residues of the herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, in or on corn, field...

  13. 77 FR 60311 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... sheep, fat to 0.5 ppm. EPA has also increased the existing tolerances in cattle, meat; goat, meat; horse..., horse and sheep, fat at 0.5 ppm, and cattle, goat, horse and sheep, meat at 0.1 ppm. Consistent with the.... Revise the tolerances for cattle, fat; cattle, meat; goat, fat; goat, meat; horse, fat; horse, meat...

  14. 75 FR 26662 - Fluazinam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... due to systemic toxicity and not a result of frank neurotoxicity. No signs of neurotoxicity were... chromatography with electron capture detection (GC/ECD), is available to enforce the tolerance expression for...) enforcement method is also available to enforce the tolerance expression for wine grapes, which includes...

  15. 77 FR 59558 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... hay; wheat grain; wheat straw; and cowpea, succulent. The human health risk assessment used to support... Tolerances in/on: Rhubarb, Turnip Roots and Tops, Sunflower Subgroup 20B, Succulent Cowpea, Succulent Lima...

  16. 78 FR 46267 - Trifluralin; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ...), trifluralin was tested up to the limit dose (1000 mg/kg/day) and caused no systemic toxicity. Handler exposure... detection (ECD)) is available to enforce the tolerance expression. The method may be requested from: Chief...

  17. 77 FR 3617 - Etoxazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... similar doses, indicating that systemic effects (mainly liver effects) occur at similar dose levels... chromatography/mass selective detection (GC/MSD) methods) are available to enforce the tolerance expression. The...

  18. 78 FR 13252 - Pyroxasulfone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... moderately toxic to rats following a 4-week dermal exposure producing local inflammation and systemic effects...) method) is available to enforce the tolerance expression. The method may be requested from: Chief...

  19. 76 FR 50893 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... 30 days)..... None: There were no systemic or dermal toxicity findings in a 28-day dermal toxicity... to enforce the tolerance expression. Method No. 00604 is available for plant commodities and Method...

  20. 78 FR 76987 - Mandipropamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... screening battery. No systemic or dermal toxicity was observed following dermal exposure for 28 days, up to... mass spectrometric detection (LC/MS/MS), is available to enforce the tolerance expression. The method...

  1. 78 FR 44440 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... NOAEL is clearly defined, less than or equal to the offspring NOAEL and based on general systemic... chromatography method with tandem mass spectroscopy detection (LC/MS/ MS)) is available to enforce the tolerance...

  2. 78 FR 60715 - Sedaxane; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... 28-day dermal study did not show systemic toxicity at the limit dose of 1,000 milligrams/kilogram/day... Enforcement Methodology Adequate enforcement methodology is available to enforce the tolerance expression. A...

  3. 76 FR 25240 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... requested tolerances for residues of clothianidin to support mustard, seed treatment uses. III. Aggregate... other relevant information in support of this action. EPA has sufficient data to assess the hazards of... operates by direct competitive inhibition, while thiamethoxam is a non-competitive inhibitor. Furthermore...

  4. 77 FR 18710 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    .... Based upon review of the data supporting the petitions, EPA has revised the tolerance associated with..., EPA has reviewed the available scientific data and other relevant information in support of this... preliminary evidence suggests that clothianidin operates by direct competitive inhibition, while thiamethoxam...

  5. 77 FR 38204 - Cyflufenamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... data supporting the petition, EPA has slightly increased the tolerances for pome fruit (Crop Group 11... information in support of this action. EPA has sufficient data to assess the hazards of and to make a... decreased lipid metabolism; cyflufenamid caused an approximately 50% inhibition of carnitine...

  6. 77 FR 41081 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... of the data supporting the petition, EPA has modified the tolerance levels for some commodities and... information in support of this action. EPA has sufficient data to assess the hazards of and to make a... target of sulfentrazone. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibition in the mammalian species may result in...

  7. 76 FR 23891 - Pyrasulfotole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... data supporting the petition, EPA has revised the sorghum commodity terms and the proposed tolerances..., EPA has reviewed the available scientific data and other relevant information in support of this... retinal atrophy. Ocular toxicity is believed to be an indirect result of tyrosinemia caused by inhibition...

  8. 78 FR 8410 - Thiacloprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... the data supporting the petition, EPA has modified the levels at which the tolerances are being... the available scientific data and other relevant information in support of this action. EPA has... potential developmental effects. Thiacloprid affects nerve function through inhibition of nicotinic...

  9. 77 FR 10968 - Fluopyram; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... at 260 ppm; hop, dried cones at 100 ppm; nut, tree, group (including pistachio) 14 at 0.05 ppm; okra..., sugar, root; cherry (sweet and tart); grape, wine; nut tree crop group 14; peanut; pistachio; potatoes..., group 14 (including pistachio)'' at 0.05 ppm, EPA determined that separate tolerances must be...

  10. 75 FR 22240 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... commodities. In addition, a high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) method... Executive Order Reviews This final rule establishes tolerances under section 408(d) of FFDCA in response to... types of actions from review under Executive Order 12866, entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR...

  11. 75 FR 17571 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Enforcement Methodology Adequate enforcement methodology, using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry... Order Reviews This final rule establishes tolerances under section 408(d) of FFDCA in response to a... actions from review under Executive Order 12866, entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735...

  12. 78 FR 60707 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry Method 15444) is available to enforce the tolerance expression...) 566-1744, and the telephone number for the OPP Docket is (703) 305- 5805. Please review the visitor...-acetyl-glyphosate (expressed as glyphosate equivalents). VI. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews This...

  13. 78 FR 37468 - Cyproconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). B. How can I get electronic access to other related information? You may access a frequently updated electronic version of EPA's tolerance regulations at 40 CFR part 180 through... effects included increased plasma globulin, protein and cholesterol, and hemosiderin deposition in the...

  14. 78 FR 9322 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... an increase in the established tolerances for cattle meat byproducts; goat, meat byproducts; horse... cattle meat byproducts; goat, meat byproducts; horse, meat byproducts; and sheep, meat byproducts to 0.20... table, revise the entries for ``cattle, fat;'' ``cattle, meat byproducts;'' ``goat, fat;'' ``goat, meat...

  15. 76 FR 77703 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... in the established tolerances for cattle, meat byproducts; goat, meat byproducts; hog, meat... cattle, meat byproducts; goat, meat byproducts; hog, meat byproducts; horse, meat byproducts; and sheep... to paragraph (a), revise the entries for ``cattle, meat byproducts;'' ``goat, meat by products...

  16. 75 FR 33190 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ..., fat and meat byproduct of cattle, goats, horses, and sheep tolerances to 0.1 ppm. The reasons for... byproducts; corn, field, forage; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; goat, fat; goat, meat; goat, meat..., forage 7.0 * * * * * Corn, sweet, stover 4.0 * * * * * Goat, fat 0.1 Goat, meat 0.1 Goat, meat byproducts...

  17. 75 FR 17573 - Nicosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ..., meat byproducts; goat, fat; goat, meat; goat, meat byproducts; grass, forage; grass, hay; horse, fat..., and sheep) at 0.05 ppm; meat (of cattle, goat, hog, horse, and sheep) at 0.05 ppm; meat byproducts (of...; and milk, fat. The proposed tolerance levels for cattle, fat; cattle, meat; goat, fat; goat, meat...

  18. 76 FR 27256 - Saflufenacil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... established tolerances for liver and meat byproducts, except liver, of cattle, goats, horses, and sheep should...), revise the entries for cattle, liver; cattle, meat byproducts, except liver; goat, liver; goat, meat... 0.05 * * * * * Goat, liver 2.5 * * * * * Goat, meat byproducts, except liver 0.05 * * * * * Horse...

  19. 76 FR 70890 - Fenamidone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    .... Bayer Crop Science requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA... Bayer CropScience, 2 T.W. Alexander Dr., Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. The petition requested that... Bayer CropScience, the registrant, which is available in the docket, http://www.regulations.gov . There...

  20. 76 FR 5691 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    .... This regulation also establishes tolerances for meat byproducts of cattle, goats, horses and sheep... meat byproducts of cattle, goats, horses, and sheep are adequate but the currently established... byproducts 0.02 Goat, meat byproducts 0.02 Horse, meat byproducts 0.02 Sheep, meat byproducts 0.02...

  1. 77 FR 41284 - Azoxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Rice, straw 12 Rice, wild, grain 5.0 Sapodilla 2.0 Sapote, black 2.0 Sapote, mamey 2.0 Sapote, white 2... Crop Protection requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA...%; peppers, 15%; pistachios, 15%; potatoes, 35%; prunes, 2.5%; pumpkins, 20%; raspberries, 5%; rice, 35...

  2. 78 FR 57276 - Quinoxyfen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... or on grape; pepper, bell; pepper, nonbell; and strawberry as they will be superseded by crop group... grape at 0.60 ppm; strawberry at 0.90 ppm; pepper, bell at 0.35 ppm; and pepper, nonbell at 1.7 ppm, as..., strawberries, and peppers. EPA is raising the level of the requested U.S. tolerances for residues of quinoxyfen...

  3. 77 FR 12207 - Pyroxasulfone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ...: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd., Ft. Meade, MD 20755.... The submitted data for wheat were collected from field trials conducted in Australia and, therefore... global review partners, Australia and Canada, U.S. tolerances for corn grain commodities will be enforced...

  4. 77 FR 8746 - Indoxacarb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0578; FRL-9336-7] Indoxacarb... regulation establishes tolerances for residues of indoxacarb in or on egg, poultry fat, poultry meat, and... under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective February 15...

  5. 76 FR 20537 - Etoxazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... apple, black sapote, mango, sapodilla, canistel, and mamey sapote at 0.20 ppm; and tea at 15 ppm. The... Assessment for Proposed Tolerances and Uses on Peppers (Bell and Non-bell); Squash/Cucumbers (Subgroup 9B... identifies toxicological points of departure (POD) and levels of concern to use in evaluating the risk posed...

  6. 78 FR 32146 - Triforine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... America Holding Corporation requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act... in the liver and hematopoietic system following repeated oral dosing, and the dog is the most... UFA = 10x mg/kg/day. (dog) UFH = 10x cPAD = 0.22 mg/kg/ LOAEL = 120 mg/kg/day, based on FQPA SF = 1x...

  7. 78 FR 46274 - Pyroxasulfone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    .... requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is... pyroxasulfone in mice, rats, and dogs produced a variety of adverse effects in several target organs. Effects... indicators), neurotoxicity characterized by axonal/myelin degeneration in the sciatic nerve (dog, mouse, and...

  8. 78 FR 42693 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... the tolerances for cotton, gin byproducts; and cotton, undelinted seed by including Arizona (PP 2F8073... (PCT), and incorporated DEEM default processing factors when processing data were not available. iii..., gin byproducts, CA only;'' and ``Cotton, undelinted seed, CA only.'' 0 e. Add alphabetically the...

  9. 77 FR 13502 - Pyriofenone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... and grape, raisin. ISK BioSciences Corporation requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug... maternal body weight gain and food consumption. There was no evidence of neurotoxicity and a developmental... pregnancy in a developmental toxicity study are assumed to be attributable to a single exposure and thus...

  10. 76 FR 11344 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... LOAEL of 12.5 mg/kg/day; the parental systemic and off spring toxicity NOAEL was 1.25 mg/kg/day. 3... enforce the tolerance expression. The method determines residues of difenoconazole per se in or on crop...

  11. 76 FR 18899 - Indaziflam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... were generally observed in the available subchronic and chronic studies. No systemic toxicity was... limited to doses that also caused systemic toxicity in the adult. In the rat developmental toxicity study... to enforce the tolerance expression. The method is able to determine, separately, residues of...

  12. 75 FR 29435 - Diquat Dibromide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... exposure studies in rats, diquat dibromide showed evidence of severe systemic toxicity, including high... systemic toxicity (e.g., piloerection, diarrhea, urinary incontinence, upward curvature of the spine... Method (HPLC)) is available to enforce the tolerance expression. The method may be requested from: Chief...

  13. 77 FR 47539 - Paraquat Dichloride; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... effects of paraquat. The effects of paraquat in lungs are considered systemic effects. There are no dermal toxicity studies suitable for evaluation of systemic lung effects in the toxicity database for paraquat... (PAM) Vol. II, is available for enforcing tolerances for residues of paraquat in/on plant commodities...

  14. 78 FR 20461 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... offspring were observed at doses lower than those that caused parental/systemic toxicity, and because the reproductive effects in offspring were considered to be more severe than the parental/systemic effects. 3... available to enforce the tolerance expression. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry...

  15. 75 FR 70143 - Acequinocyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... systemic LOAEL was also 58.9 mg/kg/ day. Though the offspring LOAEL was similar to that of parental male's... since they occur in the presence of more severe systemic effects in both studies. Therefore, although an... enforcing tolerances for acequinocyl residues of concern in/on the proposed/ registered plant commodities...

  16. 75 FR 53586 - Bifenazate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... characterized and were seen at dose(s) that produce evidence of overt systemic toxicity. These effects included... system, and these findings may be due to secondary effect of overt systemic toxicity. Further, there is... Adequate enforcement methodology is available to enforce the tolerance expression. High-performance liquid...

  17. 78 FR 25396 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... found no systemic effects in any of the parameters examined (body weight, food consumption, clinical... evidence of carcinogenicity was found in mice or rats. In a chronic toxicity study in dogs, no systemic... chromatography (HPLC)) is available to enforce the tolerance expression. The method may be requested from: Chief...

  18. 77 FR 25904 - Acequinocyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... for parental males was 58.9/69.2 mg/kg/ day, based on hemorrhagic effects. The offspring systemic... effects because they were observed at very high doses and in the presence of more severe systemic effects... to enforce the tolerance expression. The methods may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry...

  19. 75 FR 8261 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... anomalies, including ventricular septal defects. In the two-generation reproduction study, systemic effects... which caused parental/systemic toxicity (red substance in vagina and increased mortality in females as... to enforce the tolerance expression: A gas chromatography/nitrogen- phosphorus detection (GC/NPD...

  20. Leaching of oxadyxil and tebuconazole in Colombian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, M; De Prado, R; Martínez, M J

    2011-01-01

    Lake Tota (Boyaca, Colombia) supplies water for human consumption, agriculture and industry for more than 500.000 people. Oxadixyl and Tebuconazole are fungicides used in onion crops in the lake catchment area. The mobility of pesticides in soil, bioavailability and transfer to other environmental compartments depend on sorption and desorption kinetics and mechanisms. An understanding of these processes is essential for transport modeling and the rational design of corrective measures against pollution. A displacement study was performed on a hand packed soil column in laboratory conditions. A pulse of 0,01 M CaCl2 solution, containing a tracer (Bromide) and the fungicides Oxadixyl y Tebuconazole, was injected. Column experiment was performed at 0.078 cmh(-1) flow rate under unsaturated conditions. Eluates were collected in flasks at constant intervals and the volumes of eluate were recorded. After rainfall simulation, the soil from the column was sliced into six successive sections (5 cm). Methanol extraction was used to determine the fungicide in each soil section. Samples were measured by HPLC. Only Oxadixyl was recovered in leachates. Unlike bromide breakthrough curve, Oxadixyl was asymmetrical, with early breakthrough and increased tailing. The percentage eluted was 96.7% after ten pore volumes. Tebuconazole showed the highest retention in the first five cm of soil layer. The results suggest that oxadyxil presents highs risk to leachate through the soil profile and that Tebuconazole is strongly absorbed in Colombian soil.

  1. 78 FR 36671 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... of cattle, goat, horse, and sheep, and milk. Tolerances in cattle, goat, horse, and sheep meat are proposed at 0.30 ppm; cattle, goat, horse, and sheep fat at 0.20 ppm; cattle, goat, horse, and sheep meat..., citrus, group 10-10 at 1.0 ppm; goat, fat at 0.20 ppm; goat, meat at 0.30 ppm; goat, meat byproducts at 0...

  2. 78 FR 60709 - Methoxyfenozide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ..., group 11 at 1.5 ppm; okra at 2.0 ppm; pea, dry seed at 2.5 ppm; strawberry at 1.5 ppm; and vegetable...; pome fruits at 2 mg/kg; and strawberries at 2 mg/kg. The U.S. tolerances for small vine climbing fruit... cranberry (represented by strawberry) at 2.0 ppm, in order to harmonize with the Codex MRL in or on...

  3. 77 FR 73937 - Spirodiclofen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ...-dichlorophenyl)-2-oxo-1- oxaspiro[4.5]dec-3-en-4-yl 2,2-dimethylbutanoate in or on apple, wet pomace and grape..., in or on apple, wet pomace and grape, raisin from 2.0 and 4.0 parts per million (ppm) respectively... EPA determines that the tolerance is ``safe.'' Section 408(b)(2)(A)(ii) of FFDCA defines ``safe'' to...

  4. 75 FR 807 - Pesticide Tolerance Crop Grouping Program II; Revision to General Tolerance Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    .... pubescens Ruiz & Pav., Capsicum spp.; (12) Roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa L.; (13) Scarlet eggplant, Solanum..., specialty crop producers, pesticide registrants, the environment, or human health. No crop group tolerance... Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997) does not apply to this proposed rule...

  5. 40 CFR 180.6 - Pesticide tolerances regarding milk, eggs, meat, and/or poultry; statement of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide tolerances regarding milk... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Definitions and Interpretative Regulations § 180.6 Pesticide tolerances regarding milk...

  6. Pesticide tolerant and phosphorus solubilizing Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 isolated from pesticides treated Achillea clavennae rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasankar, R; Manju Gayathry, G; Sathiavelu, A; Ramalingam, C; Saravanan, V S

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to identify an effective phosphate solubilizing bacteria from pesticide polluted field soil. Based on the formation of solubilization halo on Pikovskaya's agar, six isolates were selected and screened for pesticide tolerance and phosphate (P) solubilization ability through liquid assay. The results showed that only one strain (SGRAJ09) obtained from Achillea clavennae was found to tolerate maximum level of the pesticides tested and it was phylogenetically identified as Pseudomonas sp. It possessed a wide range of pesticide tolerance, ranging from 117 μg mL(-1) for alphamethrin to 2,600 μg mL(-1) for endosulfan. The available P concentrations increased with the maximum and double the maximum dose of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, respectively. On subjected to FT-IR and HPLC analysis, the presence of organic acids functional group in the culture broth and the production of gluconic acid as dominant acid aiding the P solubilization were identified. On comparison with control broth, monocrotophos and imidacloprid added culture broth showed quantitatively high organic acids production. In addition to gluconic acid production, citric and acetic acids were also observed in the pesticide amended broth. Furthermore, the Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 possessed all the plant growth promoting traits tested. In presence of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, its plant growth promoting activities were lower than that of the pesticides unamended treatment.

  7. Order Denying Petition to Revoke All Tolerances for the Pesticide Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this Order, EPA denies a petition requesting that EPA revoke all tolerances for the pesticide chlorpyrifos under section 408(d) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and cancel all chlorpyrifos registrations under FIFRA.

  8. Production of Trichoderma strains with pesticide-polyresistance by mutagenesis and protoplast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatvani, Lóránt; Manczinger, László; Kredics, László; Szekeres, András; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2006-01-01

    The sensitivity of two cold-tolerant Trichoderma strains belonging to the species T. harzianum and T. atroviride was determined to a series of pesticides widely used in agriculture. From the 16 pesticides tested, seven fungicides: copper sulfate, carbendazim, mancozeb, tebuconazole, imazalil, captan and thiram inhibited colony growth of the test strains significantly with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 300, 0.4, 50, 100, 100, 100 and 50 microg/ml, respectively. Mutants resistant to carbendazim and tebuconazole were produced from both wild type strains by means of UV-mutagenesis. The cross-resistance capabilities and in vitro antagonistic properties of the mutants were determined. Carbendazim-resistant mutants showed total cross-resistance to benomyl and thiabendazole at a concentration of 20 microg/ml. Intraspecific protoplast fusion was carried out between carbendazim- and tebuconazole-resistant mutants of both parental strains, and putative haploid recombinants with stable resistance to both pesticides were produced in the case of T. atroviride. These pesticide-polyresistant progenies are potential candidates for application in an integrated pest management system.

  9. Identification and characterization of tebuconazole transformation products in soil by combining suspect screening and molecular typology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storck, Veronika; Lucini, Luigi; Mamy, Laure; Ferrari, Federico; Papadopoulou, Evangelia S.; Nikolaki, Sofia; Karas, Panagiotis A.; Servien, Remi; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G.; Trevisan, Marco; Benoit, Pierre; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides generate transformation products (TPs) when they are released into the environment. These TPs may be of ecotoxicological importance. Past studies have demonstrated how difficult it is to predict the occurrence of pesticide TPs and their environmental risk. The monitoring approaches mostly used in current regulatory frameworks target only known ecotoxicologically relevant TPs. Here, we present a novel combined approach which identifies and categorizes known and unknown pesticide TPs in soil by combining suspect screening time-of-flight mass spectrometry with in silico molecular typology. We used an empirical and theoretical pesticide TP library for compound identification by both non-target and target time-of-flight (tandem) mass spectrometry, followed by structural proposition through a molecular structure correlation program. In silico molecular typology was then used to group TPs according to common molecular descriptors and to indirectly elucidate their environmental parameters by analogy to known pesticide compounds with similar molecular descriptors. This approach was evaluated via the identification of TPs of the triazole fungicide tebuconazole occurring in soil during a field dissipation study. Overall, 22 empirical and 12 yet unknown TPs were detected, and categorized into three groups with defined environmental properties. This approach combining suspect screening time-of-flight mass spectrometry with molecular typology could be extended to other organic pollutants and used to rationalize the choice of TPs to be investigated towards a more comprehensive environmental risk assessment scheme. - Highlights: • Combined method to detect and categorize pesticide transformation products in soil. • Detection by QTOF-MS of new tebuconazole transformation products without standards. • Estimation by in silico molecular typology of their environmental parameters. • Method to rationally choose relevant transformation products to be studied. • The

  10. 75 FR 68214 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... typographical errors in the referenced rule, specifically, to revise incorrect tolerance values for the... tolerance value for the established tolerances for corn, field, grain (0.02 ppm); corn, field, stover (0.15... field trial and processing data, these tolerance values should be revised to 0.03 ppm; 15 ppm; 25 ppm...

  11. 77 FR 4248 - Cyazofamid; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... basil, fresh and dried. This action is in response to EPA's granting of an emergency exemption under... pesticide on basil. This regulation establishes a maximum permissible level for residues of cyazofamid in or... of the fungicide cyazofamid, in or on fresh basil at 12 parts per million (ppm), and on dried basil...

  12. 76 FR 55799 - Mandipropamid; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... on basil, fresh and basil, dried. This action is in response to EPA's granting of an emergency... use of the pesticide on basil. This regulation establishes a maximum permissible level for residues of...-propynyloxy)- benzeneacetamide, in or on basil, fresh at 20 parts per million (ppm) and basil, dried at 240...

  13. 76 FR 7707 - Fludioxonil; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... fungicide, such as fludioxonil, to address this issue, the future viability of the pineapple industry in... Departure/Levels of Concern Once a pesticide's toxicological profile is determined, EPA identifies... incidental oral exposure. Further information regarding EPA standard assumptions and generic inputs for...

  14. 76 FR 55272 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... pesticide, flubendiamide in or on the meat and meat byproducts of cattle, goat, hog, horse, and sheep. The..., meat byproducts (0.08 ppm); goat, meat (0.60 ppm); goat, meat byproducts (0.08 ppm); hog, meat (0.15.... Section 180.639(a)(2) is amended by revising the entries for cattle, meat; cattle, meat byproducts; goat...

  15. 77 FR 8741 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... production season with the available insecticides in most areas of onion production. After having reviewed... on onion, dry bulb under section 408(l)(6) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), 21 U... pesticide on dry bulb onions. This regulation establishes a maximum permissible level for residues of...

  16. 75 FR 56897 - S-metolachlor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... 13-07B at 0.15 ppm; onion, bulb, subgroup 3-07A at 0.1 ppm; and onion, green, subgroup 3-07B at 2.0...

  17. 78 FR 29049 - Streptomycin; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... determine whether this document applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide....40 ppm. Streptomycin is an antibiotic of the aminoglycoside class and is produced by the bacteria...

  18. 77 FR 71555 - Halosulfuron-Methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... LOQ values. In addition, already established tolerances for cattle, goat, horse, and sheep meat...; tolerances for residues. (a) * * * (1) * * * Parts per Commodity million Cattle, fat 0.05 Cattle, meat 0.05 Cattle, meat byproducts 1.0 Goat, fat 0.05 Goat, meat 0.05 Goat, meat byproducts 1.0 Hog, meat byproducts...

  19. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jinghua; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Feixue; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Tebuconazole (TEB) inhibited the proliferation of human placental trophoblasts. • TEB changed cell cycle distribution of G1 and G2 phases of trophoblasts. • TEB induced apoptosis of trophoblasts via mitochondrial pathway. • TEB decreased the invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts. • TEB altered the mRNA levels of key regulatory genes in trophoblasts - Abstract: Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy.

  20. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jinghua [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Jianyun [Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, Feixue [Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Organ Development and Regeneration, Institute of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliue@zju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Tebuconazole (TEB) inhibited the proliferation of human placental trophoblasts. • TEB changed cell cycle distribution of G1 and G2 phases of trophoblasts. • TEB induced apoptosis of trophoblasts via mitochondrial pathway. • TEB decreased the invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts. • TEB altered the mRNA levels of key regulatory genes in trophoblasts - Abstract: Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy.

  1. Adsorption-desorption and hysteresis phenomenon of tebuconazole in Colombian agricultural soils: Experimental assays and mathematical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera-Vivas, Carmen S; Martinez, María J; García-Santos, Glenda; Guerrero-Dallos, Jairo A

    2018-01-01

    The adsorption-desorption, hysteresis phenomenon, and leachability of tebuconazole were studied for Inceptisol and Histosol soils at the surface (0-10 cm) and in the subsurface (40-50 cm) of an agricultural region from Colombia by the batch-equilibrium method and mathematical approaches. The experimental K fa and K d (L kg -1 ) values (7.9-289.2) decreased with depth for the two Inceptisols and increased with depth for the Histosol due to the organic carbon content, aryl and carbonyl carbon types. Single-point and desorption isotherms depended on adsorption reversibility and suggested that tebuconazole showed hysteresis; which can be adequately evaluated with the single-point desorption isotherm and the linear model using the hysteresis index HI. The most suitable mathematical approach to estimate the adsorption isotherms of tebuconazole at the surface and in the subsurface was that considering the combination of the n-octanol-water partition coefficient, pesticide solubility, and the mass-balance concept. Tebuconazole had similar moderate mobility potential as compared with the values of other studies conducted in temperate amended and unamended soils, but the risk of the fungicide to pollute groundwater sources increased when the pesticide reached subsurface soil layers, particularly in the Inceptisols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 48899 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Docket in the Environmental Protection Agency Docket Center (EPA/DC), located in EPA West, Rm. 3334, 1301... methodology (gas chromatography/Nitrogen/ Phosphorus detector (NPD) for tolerances and method ICIA AM00306 for...

  3. 78 FR 30213 - 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... systemic effects and the dermal and inhalation endpoints are based on decreased body weight gain. Exposure...-AM-002), is available to enforce the tolerance expression for NAA in plant commodities. The method...

  4. 78 FR 13257 - Pyraflufen-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    .... months). No dermal or systemic toxicity was seen at the limit dose (1,000 mg/kg/day). [[Page 13260... enforcement methodology (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS)) is available to enforce the tolerance...

  5. Tebuconazole disrupts steroidogenesis in Xenopus laevis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Luong, Xuan; Hansen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    or animals adapted to the xenobiotic, blood samples were collected 12 days into the study and at termination (day 27). After 12 days of exposure to 100 and 500μgL(-1) tebuconazole, plasma levels of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were increased, while plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations...... were greatly reduced. Exposure to 0.1μgL(-1), on the other hand, resulted in decreased levels of T and DHT, with no effects observed for E2. After 27 days of exposure, effects were no longer observed in circulating androgen levels while the suppressive effect on E2 persisted in the two high......-exposure groups (100 and 500μgL(-1)). Furthermore, tebuconazole increased gonadal concentrations of T and DHT as well as expression of the enzyme CYP17 (500μgL(-1), 27 days). These results suggest that tebuconazole exposure may supress the action of CYP17 at the lowest exposure (0.1μgL(-1)), while CYP19...

  6. 76 FR 17611 - Propylene Oxide; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ...: This document proposes to amend the propylene oxide tolerance on ``nut, tree, group 14'' to ``nutmeat... or before April 14, 2011. ADDRESSES: Submit your comments, identified by docket identification (ID... ``nut, tree, group 14'' to read ``nutmeat, processed, except peanuts.'' A final rule published in the...

  7. 76 FR 5696 - Fluazifop-P-butyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...: This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of fluazifop-P-butyl in or on multiple commodities... based on maternal body weight gain decrement during GD 7- 16. Incidental oral intermediate- NOAEL= 0.74....0 and 2% at 200 mg dose.) mg/kg/day based on fetal UFA = 10x weight decrement, UFH = 10x hydroureter...

  8. 78 FR 53047 - Halosulfuron-methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ...: This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of halosulfuron-methyl in or on artichoke and... metabolites and degradates, in or on artichoke and caneberry subgroup 13-07A at 0.05 parts per million (ppm... Proposed New Uses on Artichoke and Caneberry (Crop subgroup 13-07A),'' dated March 25, 2013, pp. 30-34...

  9. 75 FR 46847 - Halosulfuron-methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ...; vegetables, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C; bushberry, subgroup 13-07B; apple; rhubarb; and okra at 0.05 ppm... food) only if EPA determines that the tolerance is ``safe.'' Section 408(b)(2)(A)(ii) of FFDCA defines ``safe'' to mean that ``there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure...

  10. 77 FR 25903 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... previously established tolerances for caneberry subgroup 13-07A; mustard, seed; onion, dry bulb; papaya... thiamethoxam in or on: Caneberry subgroup 13-07A at 0.35 parts per million (ppm); mustard, seed at 0.02 ppm.... Section 180.565 is corrected by alphabetically adding: Caneberry subgroup 13-07A; mustard, seed; onion...

  11. Induction and transmission of tolerance to the synthetic pesticide emamectin benzoate in field and laboratory populations of diamondback moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Baker, G; Powis, K J; Roush, R T; Schmidt, O

    2010-08-01

    Field surveys of pest insect pest populations in agroecosystems reveal low but significant levels of tolerance to synthetic and biological pesticides but fail to uncover resistance alleles in test crosses. To study the potential of inducible mechanisms to generate tolerance to synthetic pesticides, we performed baseline susceptibility studies in field and laboratory populations of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), to commercial formulations of emamectin benzoate. Pesticide exposure in the field caused elevated levels of tolerance, which decreased in field-collected populations after maintaining insects with pesticide-free diet in the laboratory. Because no significant resistance alleles were identified in back-crossed individuals, the observed increase in tolerance was probably not based on preexisting recessive resistance mechanisms in the population. Instead, the genetic analysis after five and 12 generations is compatible with a transient up-regulation of an immune and metabolic status in tolerant insects that can be transmitted to offspring by a maternal effect. Although the epigenetic effects contributed to incremental increases in tolerance in the first five generations, other resistance mechanisms that are transmitted genetically predominate after 12 generations of increased exposure to the pesticide.

  12. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stores. Exposure to pesticides can happen in the workplace, through foods that are eaten, and in the ... or place bait in areas where children or pets have access. DO NOT stock up on pesticides, ...

  13. Integrating both interaction pathways between warming and pesticide exposure on upper thermal tolerance in high- and low-latitude populations of an aquatic insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op de Beeck, Lin; Verheyen, Julie; Stoks, Robby

    2017-05-01

    Global warming and chemical pollution are key anthropogenic stressors with the potential to interact. While warming can change the impact of pollutants and pollutants can change the sensitivity to warming, both interaction pathways have never been integrated in a single experiment. Therefore, we tested the effects of warming and multiple pesticide pulses (allowing accumulation) of chlorpyrifos on upper thermal tolerance (CTmax) and associated physiological traits related to aerobic/anaerobic energy production in the damselfly Ischnura elegans. To also assess the role of latitude-specific thermal adaptation in shaping the impact of warming and pesticide exposure on thermal tolerance, we exposed larvae from replicated high- and low-latitude populations to the pesticide in a common garden rearing experiment at 20 and 24 °C, the mean summer water temperatures at high and low latitudes. As expected, exposure to chlorpyrifos resulted in a lower CTmax. Yet, this pesticide effect on CTmax was lower at 24 °C compared to 20 °C because of a lower accumulation of chlorpyrifos in the medium at 24 °C. The effects on CTmax could partly be explained by reduction of the aerobic scope. Given that these effects did not differ between latitudes, gradual thermal evolution is not expected to counteract the negative effect of the pesticide on thermal tolerance. By for the first time integrating both interaction pathways we were not only able to provide support for both of them, but more importantly demonstrate that they can directly affect each other. Indeed, the warming-induced reduction in pesticide impact generated a lower pesticide-induced climate change sensitivity (in terms of decreased upper thermal tolerance). Our results indicate that, assuming no increase in pesticide input, global warming might reduce the negative effect of multiple pulse exposures to pesticides on sensitivity to elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Competition magnifies the impact of a pesticide in a warming world by reducing heat tolerance and increasing autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op de Beeck, Lin; Verheyen, Julie; Stoks, Robby

    2018-02-01

    There is increasing concern that standard laboratory toxicity tests may be misleading when assessing the impact of toxicants, because they lack ecological realism. Both warming and biotic interactions have been identified to magnify the effects of toxicants. Moreover, while biotic interactions may change the impact of toxicants, toxicants may also change the impact of biotic interactions. However, studies looking at the impact of biotic interactions on the toxicity of pesticides and vice versa under warming are very scarce. Therefore, we tested how warming (+4 °C), intraspecific competition (density treatment) and exposure to the pesticide chlorpyrifos, both in isolation and in combination, affected mortality, cannibalism, growth and heat tolerance of low- and high-latitude populations of the damselfly Ischnura elegans. Moreover, we addressed whether toxicant exposure, potentially in interaction with competition and warming, increased the frequency of autotomy, a widespread antipredator mechanism. Competition increased the toxicity of chlorpyrifos and made it become lethal. Cannibalism was not affected by chlorpyrifos but increased at high density and under warming. Chlorpyrifos reduced heat tolerance but only when competition was high. This is the first demonstration that a biotic interaction can be a major determinant of 'toxicant-induced climate change sensitivity'. Competition enhanced the impact of chlorpyrifos under warming for high-latitude larvae, leading to an increase in autotomy which reduces fitness in the long term. This points to a novel pathway how transient pesticide pulses may cause delayed effects on populations in a warming world. Our results highlight that the interplay between biotic interactions and toxicants have a strong relevance for ecological risk assessment in a warming polluted world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of chronic and acute pesticide exposures on periphyton communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlili, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.tlili@cemagref.fr [CEMAGREF, UR MAEP, 3 quai Chauveau CP 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Montuelle, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.montuelle@cemagref.fr [CEMAGREF, UR MAEP, 3 quai Chauveau CP 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); INRA UMR CARRTEL, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Aquatique, BP 511, 74203, Thonon Cedex (France); Berard, Annette, E-mail: annette.berard@avignon.inra.fr [INRA UMR EMMAH 1114, Domaine Saint-Paul-Site Agroparc 84914 Avignon Cedex 9 (France); Bouchez, Agnes, E-mail: agnes.bouchez@thonon.inra.fr [INRA UMR CARRTEL, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Aquatique, BP 511, 74203, Thonon Cedex (France)

    2011-05-01

    Aquatic ecosystems face variable exposure to pesticides, especially during floodings which are associated with short bursts of high contaminant concentrations that influence biological systems. A study was undertaken to highlight the impact of the herbicide diuron applied in mixture with the fungicide tebuconazole on natural periphyton during flooding events. Periphyton were grown in two series of two lotic outdoor mesocosms: one series was non-contaminated while the other was exposed to chronic contamination. After 4 weeks, one channel of each series was exposed to three successive pulses, with each pulse followed by one week of recovery. Impacts on periphyton were assessed by using Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis to characterize eukaryotic community structure. At a functional scale, photosynthetic efficiency was quantified during each pulse, and the induced tolerance to diuron was estimated by performing short-term inhibition tests based on photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, pesticide concentrations in the water column and periphyton matrix were measured. Diuron was adsorbed in the periphyton during each pulse and desorbed 13 h after pulse end. The different pulses affected the eukaryotic community structures of the control biofilms, but not of the chronically exposed ones. During the first pulse, photosynthetic efficiency was correlated with pesticide concentration in the water phase, and there was no difference between periphyton from chronically contaminated channels and control channels. However, during the second and third pulses, the photosynthetic efficiency of periphyton chronically exposed to pesticides appeared to be less impacted by the acute pulsed exposure of pesticide. These changes were consistent with the acquisition of induced tolerance to diuron since only after the third pulse that periphyton from chronic channel became tolerant to diuron. Our experimental study indicates that the effects of pulsed acute exposures to pesticides on

  16. Impact of chronic and acute pesticide exposures on periphyton communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlili, Ahmed; Montuelle, Bernard; Berard, Annette; Bouchez, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems face variable exposure to pesticides, especially during floodings which are associated with short bursts of high contaminant concentrations that influence biological systems. A study was undertaken to highlight the impact of the herbicide diuron applied in mixture with the fungicide tebuconazole on natural periphyton during flooding events. Periphyton were grown in two series of two lotic outdoor mesocosms: one series was non-contaminated while the other was exposed to chronic contamination. After 4 weeks, one channel of each series was exposed to three successive pulses, with each pulse followed by one week of recovery. Impacts on periphyton were assessed by using Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis to characterize eukaryotic community structure. At a functional scale, photosynthetic efficiency was quantified during each pulse, and the induced tolerance to diuron was estimated by performing short-term inhibition tests based on photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, pesticide concentrations in the water column and periphyton matrix were measured. Diuron was adsorbed in the periphyton during each pulse and desorbed 13 h after pulse end. The different pulses affected the eukaryotic community structures of the control biofilms, but not of the chronically exposed ones. During the first pulse, photosynthetic efficiency was correlated with pesticide concentration in the water phase, and there was no difference between periphyton from chronically contaminated channels and control channels. However, during the second and third pulses, the photosynthetic efficiency of periphyton chronically exposed to pesticides appeared to be less impacted by the acute pulsed exposure of pesticide. These changes were consistent with the acquisition of induced tolerance to diuron since only after the third pulse that periphyton from chronic channel became tolerant to diuron. Our experimental study indicates that the effects of pulsed acute exposures to pesticides on

  17. Evaluation of hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides and their tolerant microorganisms from an agricultural soil to define its bioremediation feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-García, Alejandro; Vega-Loyo, Libia; Aguilar-López, Ricardo; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), nutrients and tolerant microorganisms in an agricultural soil from a locality in Tepeaca, Puebla, Mexico, were determined to define its feasibility for bioremediation. The OCPs detected were heptachlor, aldrin, trans-chlordane, endosulfán I, endosulfán II, 1,1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-trichloroethane (4,4'-DDT), 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (4,4'-DDE) and endrin aldehyde, with values of 0.69-30.81 ng g(-1). The concentration of hydrocarbons in the soil of Middle Hydrocarbons Fraction (MHF), C10 to C28, was 4608-27,748 mg kg(-1) and 1117-19,610 mg kg(-1) for Heavy Hydrocarbons Fraction (HHF), C28 to C35, due to an oil spill from the rupture of a pipeline. The soil was deficient in nitrogen (0.03-0.07%) and phosphorus (0 ppm), and therefore it was advisable to fertilize to bio-stimulate the native microorganisms of soil. In the soil samples, hydrocarbonoclast fungi 3.72 × 10(2) to 44.6 × 10(2) CFU g(-1) d.s. and hydrocarbonoclast bacteria (0.17 × 10(5) to 8.60 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) d.s.) were detected, with a tolerance of 30,000 mg kg(-1) of diesel. Moreover, pesticideclast fungi (5.13 × 10(2) to 42.2 × 10(2) CFU g(-1) d.s.) and pesticideclast bacteria (0.15 × 10(5) to 9.68 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) d.s.) were determined with tolerance to 20 mg kg(-1) of OCPs. Fungi and bacteria tolerant to both pollutants were also quantified. Therefore, native microorganisms had potential to be stimulated to degrade hydrocarbons and pesticides or both pollutants. The concentration of pollutants and the microbial activity analyzed indicated that bioremediation of the soil contaminated with hydrocarbons and pesticides using bio-stimulation of native microorganisms was feasible.

  18. Enhanced Tolerance of House Mosquito to Different Insecticides due to Agricultural and Household Pesticides in Sewage System of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Vatandoost, L Ezeddinloo, A H Mahvi, M R Abai, EB Kia, I Mobedi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Different insecticides are being used for household and agricultural pest control in the capital city of Iran, Tehran. An investigation was carried out in order to evaluate the susceptibility level of laboratory and field collected mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatusin to different insecticides. Field strain was collected from sewage system of the city. Adult females were subjected to the diagnostic dose of different insecticides as recommended by WHO. Results showed that laboratory strains only exhibit resistant to DDT 4%, and susceptible to other insecticides. By using WHO criteria, field strain is resistant to DDT 4%, bendiocarb 0.1%, and tolerant to malathion 5%, permethrin 0.75%, deltamethrin 0.05%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.05% and etofenprox 5%. The field strain is still susceptible to cyfluthrin 0.15%.This findings indicate that routine use of pesticides in household and agricultural pest control may cause resistant in the wastewater mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus.

  19. Endocrine-disrupting activities in vivo of the fungicides tebuconazole and epoxiconazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla; Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    2007-01-01

    13 or PND 16, and semen quality was assessed in adults. Both tebuconazole and epoxiconazole affected reproductive development in the offspring after exposure in utero. Both compounds virilized the female offspring as shown by an increased AGD PND 0. Furthermore, tebuconazole had a feminizing effect......The triazole fungicides tebuconazole and epoxiconazole were investigated for reproductive toxic effects after exposure during gestation and lactation. Rats were dosed with epoxiconazole (15 or 50 mg/kg bw/day) or tebuconazole (50 or 100 mg/kg bw/day) during pregnancy from gestational day (GD) 7...... and continued during lactation until postnatal day (PND) 16. Some dams were randomly chosen for cesarean section at GD 21 to evaluate effects on sexual differentiation in the fetuses. Other dams delivered normally, and the pups were examined (e.g., anogenital distance [AGD] and hormone levels) at birth, at PND...

  20. Accumulation of pesticides in pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) from California's Sierra Nevada Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are receiving increasing attention as potential causes of amphibian declines, acting singly or in combination with other stressors, but limited information is available on the accumulation of current-use pesticides in tissue. The authors examined potential exposure and accumulation of currently used pesticides in pond-breeding frogs (Pseudacris regilla) collected from 7 high elevations sites in northern California. All sites sampled are located downwind of California's highly agricultural Central Valley and receive inputs of pesticides through precipitation and/or dry deposition. Whole frog tissue, water, and sediment were analyzed for more than 90 current-use pesticides and pesticide degradates using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Two fungicides, pyraclostrobin and tebuconazole, and one herbicide, simazine, were the most frequently detected pesticides in tissue samples. Median pesticide concentration ranged from 13 µg/kg to 235 µg/kg wet weight. Tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin were the only 2 compounds observed frequently in frog tissue and sediment. Significant spatial differences in tissue concentration were observed, which corresponded to pesticide use in the upwind counties. Data generated indicated that amphibians residing in remote locations are exposed to and capable of accumulating current-use pesticides. A comparison of P. regilla tissue concentrations with water and sediment data indicated that the frogs are accumulating pesticides and are potentially a more reliable indicator of exposure to this group of pesticides than either water or sediment.

  1. Nanoemulsion Formulations of Fungicide Tebuconazole for Agricultural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney Díaz-Blancas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tebuconazole (TBZ nanoemulsions (NEs were formulated using a low energy method. TBZ composition directly affected the drop size and surface tension of the NE. Water fraction and the organic-to-surfactant-ratio (RO/S were evaluated in the range of 1–90 and 1–10 wt %, respectively. The study was carried out with an organic phase (OP consisting of an acetone/glycerol mixture containing TBZ at a concentration of 5.4 wt % and Tween 80 (TW80 as a nonionic and Agnique BL1754 (AG54 as a mixture of nonionic and anionic surfactants. The process involved a large dilution of a bicontinuous microemulsion (ME into an aqueous phase (AP. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of the OP//TW80//AP and OP//AG54//AP systems at T = 25 °C were determined to map ME regions; these were in the range of 0.49–0.90, 0.01–0.23, and 0.07–0.49 of OP, AP, and surfactant, respectively. Optical microscope images helped confirm ME formation and system viscosity was measured in the range of 25–147 cP. NEs with drop sizes about 9 nm and 250 nm were achieved with TW80 and AG54, respectively. An innovative low-energy method was used to develop nanopesticide TBZ formulations based on nanoemulsion (NE technology. The surface tension of the studied systems can be lowered 50% more than that of pure water. This study’s proposed low-energy NE formulations may prove useful in sustainable agriculture.

  2. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    is linked to a different set of circumstances than the ones suggested by existing models in contemporary democratic theory. Reorienting the discussion of tolerance, the book raises the question of how to disclose new possibilities within our given context of affect and perception. Once we move away from......Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...

  3. Physicologically Based Toxicokinetic Models of Tebuconazole and Application in Human Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    (ADME) of tebuconazole. The developed models were validated on in vivo half-life data for rabbit with good results, and on plasma and tissue concentration-time course data of tebuconazole after i.v. administration in rabbit. In most cases, the predicted concentration levels were seen to be within......A series of physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models for tebuconazole were developed in four species, rat, rabbit, rhesus monkey, and human. The developed models were analyzed with respect to the application of the models in higher tier human risk assessment, and the prospect of using...... such models in risk assessment of cumulative and aggregate exposure is discussed. Relatively simple and biologically sound models were developed using available experimental data as parameters for describing the physiology of the species, as well as the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination...

  4. Dissipation kinetics and safety evaluation of tebuconazole and trifloxystrobin in tea under tropical field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, Mariappan; Deepa, Manthirachalam; Selvi, Chellamuthu; Chandrasekaran, Subramanian

    2017-12-01

    Dissipation kinetics of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin and its acid metabolite residues were studied in tea under tropical field conditions using GC-MS (SIM). The average recoveries ranged from 80.7% to 105.8%, with a RSD of tea were 2.7-3.6 days for trifloxystrobin and 3.0-3.1 days for tebuconazole. The trifloxystrobin residues were not transferred into the tea infusion during the infusion process; tebuconazole did transfer, in the range of 14.3-18.9%. As the theoretical maximum residue contributions on tea from initial deposits were found to be less than the maximum permissible intake values, at the recommended application dose a withdrawal period of 23 days before consumption should be applied to reduce risk.

  5. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated by the d...... these alternatives by returning to the notion of tolerance as the endurance of pain, linking this notion to exemplars and theories relevant to the politics of multiculturalism, religious freedom, and free speech....

  6. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of five pesticides used in rice farming on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, Andreu; Sabater, Consuelo; Castillo, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity of five pesticides typically used in rice farming (trichlorfon, dimethoate, carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz) was evaluated on different lethal and sub-lethal endpoints of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The evaluated endpoints included: avoidance behaviour after an exposure

  7. Adverse effects on sexual development in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a mixture of low doses of five environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, would cause adverse developmental toxicity effects in rats. In rat dams, a significant increase...... and cumulative intake, because of the potentially serious impact of mixed exposure on development and reproduction in humans....

  8. Application of Copper Solid Amalgam Electrode for Determination of Fungicide Tebuconazole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Kateřina; Navrátil, Tomáš; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Chýlková, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-16 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/1638; GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : tebuconazole * fungicide * copper solid amalgam electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2013

  9. Application of a biosorbent to soil: a potential method for controlling water pollution by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Martín, Alba; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia; Andrades, M Soledad; Sánchez-Martín, María J

    2016-05-01

    Different strategies are now being optimized to prevent water from agricultural areas being contaminated by pesticides. The aim of this work was to optimize the adsorption of non-polar (tebuconazole, triadimenol) and polar (cymoxanil, pirimicarb) pesticides by soils after applying the biosorbent spent mushroom substrate (SMS) at different rates. The adsorption isotherms of pesticides by three soils and SMS-amended soils were obtained and the adsorption constants were calculated. The distribution coefficients (K d) increased 1.40-23.1 times (tebuconazole), 1.08-23.7 times (triadimenol), 1.31-42.1 times (cymoxanil), and 0.55-23.8 times (pirimicarb) for soils amended with biosorbent at rates between 2 and 75 %. Increasing the SMS rates led to a constant increase in adsorption efficiency for non-polar pesticides but not for polar pesticides, due to the increase in the organic carbon (OC) content of soils as indicated by K OC values. The OC content of SMS-amended soils accounted for more than 90 % of the adsorption variability of non-polar pesticides, but it accounted for only 56.3 % for polar pesticides. The estimated adsorption of SMS-amended soils determined from the individual adsorption of soils and SMS was more consistent with real experimental values for non-polar pesticides than for polar pesticides. The results revealed the use of SMS as a tool to optimize pesticide adsorption by soils in dealing with specific contamination problems involving these compounds.

  10. Control of Pesticides 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    comply with the label-claimed content. The tolerance of deviation from the label-claimed content of active ingredient is set by the Danish pesticide regulation. Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2001 analytical chemical authority control: 1...

  11. Enhanced antifungal efficacy of tebuconazole using gated pH-driven mesoporous nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas N

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Núria Mas,1–3 Irene Galiana,3 Silvia Hurtado,† Laura Mondragón,1–3 Andrea Bernardos,1–3 Félix Sancenón,1–3 María D Marcos,1–3 Pedro Amorós,4 Nuria Abril-Utrillas,5 Ramón Martínez-Máñez,1–3 José Ramón Murguía1,3 1Centro de Reconocimiento Molecular y Desarrollo Tecnológico (IDM, Centro Mixto Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 2Departamento de Química, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 3CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, Madrid, Spain; 4Institut de Ciència del Materials (ICMUV, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain; 5Servicio Ginecología y Obstetricia, Hospital de la Plana, Vila-real, Spain†Silvia Hurtado passed away in September 2013 Abstract: pH-sensitive gated mesoporous silica nanoparticles have been synthesized. Increased extracellular pH and internalization into living yeast cells triggered molecular gate aperture and cargo release. Proper performance of the system was demonstrated with nanodevices loaded with fluorescein or with the antifungal agent tebuconazole. Interestingly, nanodevices loaded with tebuconazole significantly enhanced tebuconazole cytotoxicity. As alterations of acidic external pH are a key parameter in the onset of fungal vaginitis, this nanodevice could improve the treatment for vaginal mycoses.Keywords: capped mesoporous nanoparticles, intracellular release, pH-responsive nanoparticles, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, tebuconazole loading

  12. Biogenic nanosilica blended by nanofibrillated cellulose as support for slow-release of tebuconazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Bruno D., E-mail: brunodufaumattos@gmail.com [Federal University of Paraná, Integrated Graduate Program in Engineering and Materials Science, Polytechnic Center (Brazil); Magalhães, Washington L. E. [Embrapa Florestas (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Despite the potential application of nanotechnology in the agricultural sector, it is not as competitive as other industrial sectors because these approaches do not demonstrate a sufficient economic return to counterbalance the high production costs. For biocidal purposes, the reduction of the initial costs can be addressed if biogenic nanosilica and nanofibrillated cellulose were used to prepare nanocomposite for further utilization as support for slow-release of tebuconazole. Infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis revealed that biocide was entrapped in the cellulose/silica nanocomposites network. The scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microtomography evaluation showed the nanocomposite’s microstructure based on irregular shape nanosilica blended by nanofibrillated cellulose in a randomly organized network. Elemental mapping images showed the tebuconazole better dispersed in the composite blended with lower content of cellulose. The nanofibrillated cellulose played an important role in the release rate of the biocide mainly at short-term periods. At 15 days of immersion, the pure biocide had 95 % release compared with 30–45 % release of the tebuconazole loaded in the nanocomposites.Graphical abstract.

  13. Toxicity of copper hydroxide, dithianon, fluazinam, tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin to Didymella applanata isolates from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirković, Biljana; Tanović, Brankica; Hrustić, Jovana; Mihajlović, Milica; Stević, Milan; Delibašić, Goran; Vukša, Petar

    2015-01-01

    A study of the in vitro sensitivity of 10 isolates of Didymella applanata to copper hydroxide, dithianon, fluazinam, tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin, was conducted. The isolates were derived from diseased raspberry canes sampled during 2013 at five localities in western part of Serbia, known as the main raspberry growing region of the country. Prior to sensitivity testing experimental conditions for radial growth assay were optimized. The results showed that the temperature of 22 °C, oatmeal agar medium and 12/12 hrs light/ darkness light regimen provided the best conditions for sensitivity tests. Most of D. applanata isolates were sensitive to the tested fungicides. The narrowest range of EC50 values was recorded for tebuconazole (1.42-2.66 mg L(-1)). The widest range of EC50 values was obtained for pyraclostrobin, ranging from 0.17 mg L(-1) to 55.33 mg L(-1). The EC50 values for the studied isolates were 39.48-51.19 mg L(-1) for copper hydroxide, 12.12-18.73 mg L(-1) for dithianon and 5.72-42.56 mg L(-1) for fluazinam. According to resistance factor values, all D. applanata isolates were sensitive to copper hydroxide, dithianon and tebuconazole. Among tested isolates, six were highly resistant to pyraclostrobin (RFs in the range of 207.1-325.5) and two moderately resistant to fluazinam (RFs were 3 and 7.4), respectively.

  14. A computational approach to mechanistic and predictive toxicology of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Kristine Grønning; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hadrup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Emerging challenges of managing and interpreting large amounts of complex biological data have given rise to the growing field of computational biology. We investigated the applicability of an integrated systems toxicology approach on five selected pesticides to get an overview of their modes...... of action in humans, to group them according to their modes of action, and to hypothesize on their potential effects on human health. We extracted human proteins associated to prochloraz, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, procymidone, and mancozeb and enriched each protein set by using a high confidence human......, and procymidone exerted their effects mainly via interference with steroidogenesis and nuclear receptors. Prochloraz was associated to a large number of human diseases, and together with tebuconazole showed several significant associations to Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome. Mancozeb showed a differential mode...

  15. Pesticide residues in grain from Kazakhstan and potential health risks associated with exposure to detected pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozowicka, B; Kaczynski, P; Paritova, Capital A Cyrillic Е; Kuzembekova, G B; Abzhalieva, A B; Sarsembayeva, N B; Alihan, K

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the first study of pesticide residue results in grain from Kazakhstan. A total of 80 samples: barley, oat, rye, and wheat were collected and tested in the accredited laboratory. Among 180 pesticides, 10 active substances were detected. Banned pesticides, such as DDTs, γ-HCH, aldrin and diazinon were found in cereal grain. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the most frequently detected residues. No residues were found in 77.5% of the samples, 13.75% contained pesticide residues at or below MRLs, and 8.75% above MRLs. The greatest percentage of samples with residues (29%) was noted for wheat, and the lowest for rye (20%). Obtained data were used to estimate potential health risks associated with exposure to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were as follows: 789% of the ADI for aldrin (wheat) and 49.8% of the ADI for pirimiphos methyl (wheat and rye). The acute risk from aldrin and tebuconazole in wheat was 315.9% and 98.7% ARfD, respectively. The results show that despite the highest EDIs of pesticide residues in cereals, the current situation could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in grain is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 40 CFR 180.1127 - Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds: cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions..., chinese cabbage, cowpeas, cucurbitis (cucumbers, squash, pumpkin), egg plant, endive (escarole...

  17. Control of Pesticides 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    , fluazinam, and kresoximmethyl. 3) Insecticides containing buprofezin and fenazaquin. All products were examined for content of active ingredient. Satisfactory results were found among herbicides containing aclonifen, dicamba, quinoclamine, bromoxynil, and simazine, among fungicides containing fenpropidin......, fluazinam, and kresoxim-methyl, and among insecticides containing fenazaquin. Thus, all the eighteen analysed samples of these pesticides complied with the accepted tolerances with respect to content of active ingredients set by the Danish regulation of pesticides. The only product containing buprofezin...

  18. Agricultural pesticides and veterinary substances in Uruguayan beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriet, Jorge; Campá, Juan Pablo; Grajales, Mauricio; Lhéritier, Christophe; Gómez Pajuelo, Antonio; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas

    2017-06-01

    Over the last decade, Uruguay has expanded and intensified its rainfed crop production. This process has affected beekeeping in several ways: for example, by reducing the space available. This has increased the density of apiaries, the risk of varroosis and acaricide use. Additionally, the dominance of no-tillage crops has increased the frequencies of application and of loads of pesticides in regions where such crops share the land with beekeeping and honey production. Therefore, the exposure of bees to xenobiotics (agricultural pesticides and veterinary products) has increased in line with pollution of hives and their products. To document pollution from hive exposure to pesticides, we surveyed the presence of 30 xenobiotics normally used in Uruguay, in recycled beeswax (RB) and in honey cappings (HC) from the main Uruguayan beekeeping regions. There was contamination of all the analyzed samples (RB and HC) with the herbicide atrazine at a range of 1-2 ng g -1 . At least three or four additional xenobiotics were detected: insecticides (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and thiacloprid); fungicides (azoxystrobin and tebuconazole); and veterinary products (coumaphos, ethion, and tau-fluvalinate). The frequency of detection of chlorpyrifos-ethyl and coumaphos in RB samples was higher than in those of HC. Moreover, the concentrations of azoxystrobin, coumaphos, and tebuconazole in RB samples were higher than in HC samples. Therefore, we suggest the use of HC to produce recycled printed beeswax films for use in hives to minimize pollution transfer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006–2009, while residue...... data for epoxiconazole were obtained from the Swedish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2007–2009. Food consumption data were obtained from the Danish nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000–2002. Relative potency factors for the four pesticides were obtained from rat studies...

  20. In situ generation of copper cations and complexation with tebuconazole in a hyphenation of electrochemistry with mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Jakl, M.; Schröder, Detlef; Norková, Renáta

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 338, 15 MAR (2013), s. 45-49 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-21409P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : electrochemical ion generation * ESI-MS * coupling * fungicide * tebuconazole * soil solution Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.227, year: 2013

  1. Individual Pesticides in Registration Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    You can used the Chemical Search database to search pesticides by chemical name and find their registration review dockets, along with Work Plans, risk assessments, interim and final decisions, tolerance rules, and cancellation actions.

  2. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  3. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates pesticides under the statutory authority of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). The registration requirements for antimicrobial pesticides differ somewhat from those of other pesticides. Find out more.

  4. 40 CFR 180.425 - Clomazone; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... Cotton, undelinted seed 0.05 Cucumber 0.1 Pea, succulent 0.05 Pepper 0.05 Peppermint, tops 0.05 Pumpkin 0...

  5. 40 CFR 180.588 - Quinoxyfen; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... Pepper, bell 0.35 Pepper, nonbell 1.7 Pumpkin 0.20 Squash, winter 0.20 Strawberry 0.90 (b) Section 18...

  6. Control of Pesticides 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    in the products comply with the labelled content. The tolerance of deviation from the labelled content of active ingredient is set by the Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. In addition to the examination of the content of active ingredients, all collected samples are examined for the content of octylphenol...

  7. 40 CFR 180.564 - Indoxacarb; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indoxacarb; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.564 Indoxacarb; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  8. The role of gibberellins in improving the resistance of tebuconazole-coated maize seeds to chilling stress by microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Yang, Daibin; Yan, Xiaojing; Cui, Li; Wang, Zhenying; Yuan, Huizhu

    2016-11-07

    Chilling stress during germination often causes severe injury. In the present study, maize seed germination and shoot growth under chilling stress were negatively correlated with the dose of tebuconazole in an exponential manner as predicted by the model Y = A + B × e (-x/k) . Microencapsulation was an effective means of eliminating potential phytotoxic risk. The gibberellins (GAs) contents were higher after microencapsulation treatment than after conventional treatment when the dose of tebuconazole was higher than 0.12 g AI (active ingredient) kg -1 seed. Further analysis indicated that microencapsulation can stimulate ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) activity to some extent, whereas GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox) and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) activities remained similar to those in the control. Genes encoding GA metabolic enzymes exhibited different expression patterns. Transcript levels of ZmKO1 increased in the microcapsule treatments compared to the control. Even when incorporated into microcapsules, tebuconazole led to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox1 at doses of less than 0.12 g AI kg -1 seed and to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox2 when the dose was higher than 0.12 g AI kg -1 seed. With increasing doses of microencapsulated tebuconazole, the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox4, ZmGA2ox5 and ZmGA2ox6 exhibited upward trends, whereas the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox7 exhibited a downward trend.

  9. Effect of grass cover on water and pesticide transport through undisturbed soil columns, comparison with field study (Morcille watershed, Beaujolais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dousset, S., E-mail: sylvie.dousset@limos.uhp-nancy.f [Nancy-Universite, CNRS, LIMOS, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Thevenot, M. [Universite de Lille 1, CNRS, Geosystemes, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Schrack, D. [INRA-SAD ASTER, 88500 Mirecourt (France); AFSSA, Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches en Hydrologie, 54000 Nancy (France); Gouy, V.; Carluer, N. [UR Milieux Aquatiques, Ecologie et Pollution, Cemagref, 69336 Lyon Cedex (France)

    2010-07-15

    The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of two grass covers (buffer zone and grass-covered inter-row), to reduce pesticide leaching, and subsequently to preserve groundwater quality. Lower amounts of pesticides leached through grass-cover soil columns (2.7-24.3% of the initial amount) than the bare soil columns (8.0-55.1%), in correspondence with their sorption coefficients. Diuron was recovered in higher amounts in leachates (8.9-32.2%) than tebuconazole (2.7-12.9%), in agreement with their sorption coefficients. However, despite having a sorption coefficient similar to that of diuron, more procymidone was recovered in the leachates (10.2-55.1%), probably due to its facilitated transport by dissolved organic matter. Thus even in this very permeable soil, higher organic matter contents associated with grass-cover reduce the amount of pesticide leaching and limit the risk of groundwater contamination by the pesticides. The results of diuron and tebuconazole transfer through undisturbed buffer zone soil columns are in agreement with field observations on the buffer zone. - Grass-covered soils reduce the amount of pesticide leaching, due mainly to their higher organic matter contents, thereby reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.

  10. Effect of grass cover on water and pesticide transport through undisturbed soil columns, comparison with field study (Morcille watershed, Beaujolais)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, S.; Thevenot, M.; Schrack, D.; Gouy, V.; Carluer, N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of two grass covers (buffer zone and grass-covered inter-row), to reduce pesticide leaching, and subsequently to preserve groundwater quality. Lower amounts of pesticides leached through grass-cover soil columns (2.7-24.3% of the initial amount) than the bare soil columns (8.0-55.1%), in correspondence with their sorption coefficients. Diuron was recovered in higher amounts in leachates (8.9-32.2%) than tebuconazole (2.7-12.9%), in agreement with their sorption coefficients. However, despite having a sorption coefficient similar to that of diuron, more procymidone was recovered in the leachates (10.2-55.1%), probably due to its facilitated transport by dissolved organic matter. Thus even in this very permeable soil, higher organic matter contents associated with grass-cover reduce the amount of pesticide leaching and limit the risk of groundwater contamination by the pesticides. The results of diuron and tebuconazole transfer through undisturbed buffer zone soil columns are in agreement with field observations on the buffer zone. - Grass-covered soils reduce the amount of pesticide leaching, due mainly to their higher organic matter contents, thereby reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.

  11. Characterization of biodegradable poly-3-hydroxybutyrate films and pellets loaded with the fungicide tebuconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volova, Tatiana; Zhila, Natalia; Vinogradova, Olga; Shumilova, Anna; Prudnikova, Svetlana; Shishatskaya, Ekaterina

    2016-03-01

    Biodegradable polymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB) has been used as a matrix to construct slow-release formulations of the fungicide tebuconazole (TEB). P3HB/TEB systems constructed as films and pellets have been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray structure analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TEB release from the experimental formulations has been studied in aqueous and soil laboratory systems. In the soil with known composition of microbial community, polymer was degraded, and TEB release after 35 days reached 60 and 36 % from films and pellets, respectively. That was 1.23 and 1.8 times more than the amount released to the water after 60 days in a sterile aqueous system. Incubation of P3HB/TEB films and pellets in the soil stimulated development of P3HB-degrading microorganisms of the genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Variovorax, and Streptomyces. Experiments with phytopathogenic fungi F. moniliforme and F. solani showed that the experimental P3HB/TEB formulations had antifungal activity comparable with that of free TEB.

  12. Polymeric and Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Sustained Release of Carbendazim and Tebuconazole in Agricultural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Estefânia Vangelie Ramos; Oliveira, Jhones Luiz De; da Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves; Pascoli, Mônica; Pasquoto, Tatiane; Lima, Renata; Abhilash, P. C.; Fernandes Fraceto, Leonardo

    2015-09-01

    Carbendazim (MBC) (methyl-2-benzimidazole carbamate) and tebuconazole (TBZ) ((RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)pentan-3-ol) are widely used in agriculture for the prevention and control of fungal diseases. Solid lipid nanoparticles and polymeric nanocapsules are carrier systems that offer advantages including changes in the release profiles of bioactive compounds and their transfer to the site of action, reduced losses due to leaching or degradation, and decreased toxicity in the environment and humans. The objective of this study was to prepare these two types of nanoparticle as carrier systems for a combination of TBZ and MBC, and then investigate the release profiles of the fungicides as well as the stabilities and cytotoxicities of the formulations. Both nanoparticle systems presented high association efficiency (>99%), indicating good interaction between the fungicides and the nanoparticles. The release profiles of MBC and TBZ were modified when the compounds were loaded in the nanoparticles, and cytotoxicity assays showed that encapsulation of the fungicides decreased their toxicity. These fungicide systems offer new options for the treatment and prevention of fungal diseases in plants.

  13. Contacts in the Office of Pesticide Programs, Registration Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Registration Division (RD) is responsible product registrations, amendments, registrations, tolerances, experimental use permits, and emergency exemptions for conventional chemical pesticides. Find contacts in this division.

  14. Pesticide monitoring in surface water and groundwater using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodes, V.; Grabic, R.

    2009-04-01

    Passive samplers as screening devices have been used within a czech national water quality monitoring network since 2002 (SPMD and DGT samplers for non polar substances and metals). The passive sampler monitoring of surface water was extended to polar substances, in 2005. Pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS samplers have been exposed in surface water at 21 locations and analysed for polar pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Pesticide POCIS samplers in groundwater were exposed at 5 locations and analysed for polar pesticides. The following active substances of plant protection products were analyzed in surface water and groundwater using LC/MS/MS: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Acetochlor, Alachlor, Atrazine, Atrazine_desethyl, Azoxystrobin, Bentazone, Bromacil, Bromoxynil, Carbofuran, Clopyralid, Cyanazin, Desmetryn, Diazinon, Dicamba, Dichlobenil, Dichlorprop, Dimethoat, Diuron, Ethofumesate, Fenarimol, Fenhexamid, Fipronil, Fluazifop-p-butyl, Hexazinone, Chlorbromuron, Chlorotoluron, Imazethapyr, Isoproturon, Kresoxim-methyl, Linuron, MCPA, MCPP, Metalaxyl, Metamitron, Methabenzthiazuron, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Metobromuron, Metolachlor, Metoxuron, Metribuzin, Monolinuron, Nicosulfuron, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosphamidon, Prometryn, Propiconazole, Propyzamide, Pyridate, Rimsulfuron, Simazine, Tebuconazole, Terbuthylazine, Terbutryn, Thifensulfuron-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl and Tri-allate. The POCIS samplers performed very well being able to provide better picture than grab samples. The results show that polar pesticides and also perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals as well occur in hydrosphere of the Czech republic. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of grant No. 2B06095 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

  15. LONG-TERM OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO PENCONAZOLE AND TEBUCONAZOLE BY HAIR BIOMONITORING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Rosa; Polledri, Elisa; Moretto, Angelo; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2018-06-09

    Penconazole (PEN) and tebuconazole (TEB) are fungicides widely used in vineyards. The aim of this the study was to assess the suitability of hair to assess long-term exposure to PEN and TEB. Hair samples of agricultural workers exposed to PEN (AW-PEN, 18 subjects) or TEB (AW-TEB, 2 subjects) during the application of fungicides, agricultural workers relatives (AR, 4 subjects), and research staff technicians (RS, 5 subjects) were collected before (PRE-EXP) and after (POST-EXP) the application season. PEN in PRE-EXP samples was quantifiable in all AW and AR (medians from 1.4 to 7.9 pg/mg hair) and in one RS (1.4 pg/mg hair); PEN in POST-EXP samples was always quantifiable (medians from 2.6 to 23.7 pg/mg hair), with higher levels in AW. Comparing PRE- vs. POST-EXP samples, an increase in PEN level in AW and RS was found. TEB in PRE-EXP samples was quantifiable in most AW and AR (median from 2.1 to 15.5 pg/mg hair), but not in RS; TEB in POST-EXP samples was similarly quantifiable in AW and AR, and was quantifiable also in RS (from 1.4 to median of 141.3 pg/mg hair). Comparing PRE- vs. POST-EXP samples, an increase in TEB level in AW and RS was found. In AW, a positive correlation between the number of PEN treatments during the season and the POST-EXP level of PEN in hair was found (N = 8, Spearman rho = 0.794, p = 0.019). Our results suggest that PEN and TEB accumulate in hair during the agricultural season and that hair is a promising matrix for biomonitoring long-term exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancing pesticide degradation using indigenous microorganisms isolated under high pesticide load in bioremediation systems with vermicomposts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Diaz, Jean Manuel; Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Núñez, Rafael; Nogales, Rogelio; Romero, Esperanza

    2016-08-01

    In biobed bioremediation systems (BBSs) with vermicomposts exposed to a high load of pesticides, 6 bacteria and 4 fungus strains were isolated, identified, and investigated to enhance the removal of pesticides. Three different mixtures of BBSs composed of vermicomposts made from greenhouse (GM), olive-mill (OM) and winery (WM) wastes were contaminated, inoculated, and incubated for one month (GMI, OMI and WMI). The inoculums maintenance was evaluated by DGGE and Q-PCR. Pesticides were monitored by HPLC-DAD. The highest bacterial and fungal abundance was observed in WMI and OMI respectively. In WMI, the consortia improved the removal of tebuconazole, metalaxyl, and oxyfluorfen by 1.6-, 3.8-, and 7.7-fold, respectively. The dissipation of oxyfluorfen was also accelerated in OMI, with less than 30% remaining after 30d. One metabolite for metalaxyl and 4 for oxyfluorfen were identified by GC-MS. The isolates could be suitable to improve the efficiency of bioremediation systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pyrethroids and DDT tolerance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Sengerema District, an area of intensive pesticide usage in north-western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbert, Anitha; Lyantagaye, Sylvester Leonard; Pradel, Gabriele; Ngwa, Che Julius; Nkwengulila, Gamba

    2017-04-01

    To assess the susceptibility status of malaria vectors to pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), characterise the mechanisms underlying resistance and evaluate the role of agro-chemical use in resistance selection among malaria vectors in Sengerema agro-ecosystem zone, Tanzania. Mosquito larvae were collected from farms and reared to obtain adults. The susceptibility status of An. gambiae s.l. was assessed using WHO bioassay tests to permethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, cyfluthrin and DDT. Resistant specimens were screened for knock-down resistance gene (kdr), followed by sequencing both Western and Eastern African variants. A gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) was used to determine pesticide residues in soil and sediments from mosquitoes' breeding habitats. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was resistant to all the insecticides tested. The population of Anopheles gambiae s.l was composed of Anopheles arabiensis by 91%. The East African kdr (L1014S) allele was found in 13 of 305 specimens that survived insecticide exposure, with an allele frequency from 0.9% to 50%. DDTs residues were found in soils at a concentration up to 9.90 ng/g (dry weight). The observed high resistance levels of An. gambiae s.l., the detection of kdr mutations and pesticide residues in mosquito breeding habitats demonstrate vector resistance mediated by pesticide usage. An integrated intervention through collaboration of agricultural, livestock and vector control units is vital. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effect of grass cover on water and pesticide transport through undisturbed soil columns, comparison with field study (Morcille watershed, Beaujolais).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousset, S; Thévenot, M; Schrack, D; Gouy, V; Carluer, N

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of two grass covers (buffer zone and grass-covered inter-row), to reduce pesticide leaching, and subsequently to preserve groundwater quality. Lower amounts of pesticides leached through grass-cover soil columns (2.7-24.3% of the initial amount) than the bare soil columns (8.0-55.1%), in correspondence with their sorption coefficients. Diuron was recovered in higher amounts in leachates (8.9-32.2%) than tebuconazole (2.7-12.9%), in agreement with their sorption coefficients. However, despite having a sorption coefficient similar to that of diuron, more procymidone was recovered in the leachates (10.2-55.1%), probably due to its facilitated transport by dissolved organic matter. Thus even in this very permeable soil, higher organic matter contents associated with grass-cover reduce the amount of pesticide leaching and limit the risk of groundwater contamination by the pesticides. The results of diuron and tebuconazole transfer through undisturbed buffer zone soil columns are in agreement with field observations on the buffer zone. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on apple (Malus domestica) and soil--a multi location study from north western Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyal, S K; Sharma, I D; Chandel, R S; Dubey, J K

    2013-08-01

    A new combinational fungicide formulation trifloxystrobin 25%+tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG), introduced as a part of resistance management strategy, was studied for dissipation behaviour on apple fruits. Nativo 75WG was sprayed twice at the rate of 400 g and 800 g a.i. ha(-1) equal to trifloxystrobin application rate of 100 and 200 g a.i. ha(-1) and tebuconazole at application rate of 200 and 400 g a.i. ha(-1) at four different locations in the Northwest Himalayan region of India. The fruit samples collected at 10d interval and soil samples taken at harvest time were analyzed after second spray. The residual concentrations of trifloxystrobin, its acid metabolite CGA 321113 and tebuconazole were measured. Residues of both fungicides were determined by using gas chromatograph, Agilent 6890N having electron capture detector. The mean initial deposits of trifloxystrobin at four locations were found to be in the range of 0.333-0.387 mg kg(-1) and 0.512-0.714 mg kg(-1) at the application rate of 100 and 200 g a.i. ha(-1), and half-life were found between 19.38-24.93 d and 19.84-28.86 d at the respective doses. The Σ-trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues were below determination limit in 40 d apple fruits and soil samples. Initial deposits of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were below their Codex MRLs at the respective single doses. The half life value of the tebuconazole deposits ranged between 19.38-25.99 d and 19.84-28.86 d at the respective single and double dose. The study thus suggests 1d pre harvest interval for safe consumption of apple fruit after the application of Nativo 75 WG at single dose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pesticide load dynamics during stormwater flow events in Mediterranean coastal streams: Alexander stream case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, Tom; Egozi, Roey; Eshel, Gil; Chefetz, Benny

    2018-06-01

    Cultivated land is a major source of pesticides, which are transported with the runoff water and eroded soil during rainfall events and pollute riverine and estuarine environments. Common ecotoxicological assessments of riverine systems are mainly based on water sampling and analysis of only the dissolved phase, and address a single pesticide's toxicological impact under laboratory conditions. A clear overview of mixtures of pesticides in the adsorbed and dissolved phases is missing, and therefore the full ecotoxicological impact is not fully addressed. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify pesticide concentrations in both suspended sediment and dissolved phases, to provide a better understanding of pesticide-load dynamics during storm events in coastal streams in a Mediterranean climate. High-resolution sampling campaigns of seven flood events were conducted during two rainy seasons in Alexander stream, Israel. Samples of suspended sediments were separated from the solution and both media were analyzed separately for 250 pesticides. A total of 63 pesticides were detected; 18 and 16 pesticides were found solely in the suspended sediments and solution, respectively. Significant differences were observed among the pesticide groups: only 7% of herbicide, 20% of fungicide and 42% of insecticide load was transported with the suspended sediments. However, in both dissolved and adsorbed phases, a mix of pesticides was found which were graded from "mobile" to "non-mobile" with varied distribution coefficients. Diuron, and tebuconazole were frequently found in large quantities in both phases. Whereas insecticide and fungicide transport is likely governed by application time and method, the governing factor for herbicide load was the magnitude of the stream discharge. The results show a complex dynamic of pesticide load affected by excessive use of pesticides, which should be taken into consideration when designing projects to monitor riverine and estuarine

  1. Determination of the distribution coefficient of pesticides in soil and potential mobility to bodies of water using isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Moreno, Marcela Angelica

    2014-01-01

    The Carbaryl, Diazinon and Chloropyrifos insecticides, herbicides Atrazine and Glyphosate and the fungicide Tebuconazole are widely used pesticides in agriculture. Due the large use of this products that is important the knowledge of their destiny after their application. This way you can prevent and minimize pollution and decreased quality of different environmental compartments like soil and water. In this work, the adsorption of pesticides 14 C-Atrazine, 14 C-Carbaryl , 14 C-Chloropyrifos, 14 C-Diazinon, 14 C-Glyphosate-and 14 C-Tebuconazol was studied by adsorption isotherms through the Batch equilibrium method in an agricultural soil in the region of Araucania in 4 depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm). To the adsorption isotherm was applied the model of Freundlich to obtain distribution Freundlich constant (Kf) and subsequently the normalized adsorption constant depending (according?) on the content of organic matter (Koc). Besides the potential mobility and toxicity of pesticides on nearby bodies of water to the study site by the Pesticide Impact Rating Index program was obtained. Was considered for adsorption curves 5 concentrations for each pesticide unchecked, this solution pesticide was marked by an addition of 14 C-so to achieve a given activity. The solutions were added to 0.1 M CaCl 2 in a ratio soil: solution of 1: 2. The equilibration time was 24 hours with continuous agitation at 170 rpm horizontally pulse. Adsorbed pesticide concentration was determined by the difference between the concentration of pesticide added and the adsorbed pesticide concentration for which no activity (dpm) in the sample was quantified in a liquid scintillation counter (CCL). In addition the ground with the adsorbed pesticide was put to combustion in a Biological Oxidizer where pesticide molecules are degraded to CO 2 marking, this methodology recovery method is determined, which are considered low in this study. Koc indicate that has a weak adsorption Atrazine (Koc

  2. The effect of synthetic pesticides and sulfur used in conventional and organically grown strawberry and soybean on Neozygites floridana, a natural enemy of spider mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Thiago; Roggia, Samuel; Wekesa, Vitalis W; de Andrade Moral, Rafael; Gb Demétrio, Clarice; Delalibera, Italo; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2016-09-01

    The beneficial fungus Neozygites floridana kills the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, which is a serious polyphagous plant pest worldwide. Outbreaks of spider mites in strawberry and soybean have been associated with pesticide applications. Pesticides may affect N. floridana and consequently the natural control of T. urticae. N. floridana is a fungus difficult to grow in artificial media, and for this reason, very few studies have been conducted with this fungus, especially regarding the impact of pesticides. The aim of this study was to conduct a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effect of pesticides used in strawberry and soybean crops on N. floridana. Among the pesticides used in strawberry, the fungicides sulfur and cyprodinil + fludioxonil completely inhibited both the sporulation and conidial germination of N. floridana. The fungicide fluazinam affected N. floridana drastically. The application of the fungicide tebuconazole and the insecticides fenpropathrin and abamectin resulted in a less pronounced negative effect on N. floridana. Except for epoxiconazole and cyproconazole, all tested fungicides used in soybean resulted in a complete inhibition of N. floridana. Among the three insecticides used in soybean, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin resulted in a significant inhibition of N. floridana. The insecticides/ acaricides abamectin and lambda-cyhalothrin at half concentrations and fenpropathrin and permethrin and the fungicide tebuconazole at the recommended concentrations resulted in the lowest impact on N. floridana. The fungicides with the active ingredients sulfur, cyprodinil + fludioxonil, azoxystrobin, azoxystrobin + cyproconazole, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole negatively affected N. floridana. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Evaluation of Self-Propelled High-Energy Ultrasonic Atomizer on Azoxystrobin and Tebuconazole Application in Sunlit Greenhouse Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jie Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a self-propelled high-energy ultrasonic atomizer was evaluated in terms of deposition on the canopy, the loss to the ground, and fungicide residues in cherry tomato and tomato. Artificial collectors fixed to the upper side and underside of the leaves at different depths and heights were used to collect the depositions. A reliable analytical method for determination of azoxystrobin and tebuconazole in artificial collectors and residue samples was developed by using liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry. The results showed that the atomizer distributed the droplets evenly throughout the greenhouse with good uniformity (CVs below 39%. The ratio of depositions on the internal and external sides was 66–83%, and the ratio of depositions on the underside and upper side was 39–50%. There were no significant differences in depositions between two different height crops. The residues of azoxystrobin and tebuconazole in tomato and cherry tomato fruits were far below the maximum residue limits at harvest time. In general, self-propelled high-energy ultrasonic atomizer used in a greenhouse could increase the depositions, especially on the underside and internal side of the canopies, and lead to a reduction of operator exposure risk.

  4. Induced tolerance from a sublethal insecticide leads to cross-tolerance to other insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-04-01

    As global pesticide use increases, the ability to rapidly respond to pesticides by increasing tolerance has important implications for the persistence of nontarget organisms. A recent study of larval amphibians discovered that increased tolerance can be induced by an early exposure to low concentrations of a pesticide. Since natural systems are often exposed to a variety of pesticides that vary in mode of action, we need to know whether the induction of increased tolerance to one pesticide confers increased tolerance to other pesticides. Using larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we investigated whether induction of increased tolerance to the insecticide carbaryl (AChE-inhibitor) can induce increased tolerance to other insecticides that have the same mode of action (chlorpyrifos, malathion) or a different mode of action (Na(+)channel-interfering insecticides; permethrin, cypermethrin). We found that embryonic exposure to sublethal concentrations of carbaryl induced higher tolerance to carbaryl and increased cross-tolerance to malathion and cypermethrin but not to chlorpyrifos or permethrin. In one case, the embryonic exposure to carbaryl induced tolerance in a nonlinear pattern (hormesis). These results demonstrate that that the newly discovered phenomenon of induced tolerance also provides induced cross-tolerance that is not restricted to pesticides with the same mode of action.

  5. Antifungal activity of essential oils on two Venturia inaequalis strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchembled, Jérôme; Deweer, Caroline; Sahmer, Karin; Halama, Patrice

    2017-11-02

    The antifungal activity of seven essential oils (eucalyptus, clove, mint, oregano, savory, tea tree, and thyme) was studied on Venturia inaequalis, the fungus responsible for apple scab. The composition of the essential oils was checked by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Each essential oil had its main compound. Liquid tests were performed to calculate the IC 50 of essential oils as well as their majority compounds. The tests were made on two strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole: S755, the sensitive strain, and rs552, the strain with reduced sensitivity. Copper sulfate was selected as the reference mineral fungicidal substance. IC 50 with confidence intervals were calculated after three independent experiments. The results showed that all essential oils and all major compounds had in vitro antifungal activities. Moreover, it was highlighted that the effectiveness of four essential oils (clove, eucalyptus, mint, and savory) was higher than copper sulfate on both strains. For each strain, the best activity was obtained using clove and eucalyptus essential oils. For clove, the IC 50 obtained on the sensitive strain (5.2 mg/L [4.0-6.7 mg/L]) was statistically lower than the IC 50 of reduced sensitivity strain (14 mg/L [11.1-17.5 mg/L]). In contrast, for eucalyptus essential oil, the IC 50 were not different with respectively 9.4-13.0 and 12.2-17.9 mg/L for S755 and rs552 strains. For mint, origano, savory, tea tree, and thyme, IC 50 were always the best on rs552 strain. The majority compounds were not necessarily more efficient than their corresponding oils; only eugenol (for clove) and carvacrol (for oregano and savory) seemed to be more effective on S755 strain. On the other hand, rs552 strain seemed to be more sensitive to essential oils than S755 strain. In overall, it was shown that essential oils have different antifungal activities but do not have the same antifungal activities depending on the fungus strain used.

  6. Carbonic anhydrase from Apis mellifera: purification and inhibition by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Ercan; Güler, Ahmet; Bıyık, Selim; Şentürk, Murat; Supuran, Claudiu T; Ekinci, Deniz

    2017-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have been shown to play an important role in ion transport and in pH regulation in several organisms. Despite this information and the wealth of knowledge regarding the significance of CA enzymes, few studies have been reported about bee CA enzymes and the hazardous effects of chemicals. Using Apis mellifera as a model, this study aimed to determine the risk of pesticides on Apis mellifera Carbonic anhydrase enzyme (Am CA). CA was initially purified from Apis mellifera spermatheca for the first time in the literature. The enzyme was purified with an overall purification of ∼35-fold with a molecular weight of ∼32 kDa. The enzyme was then exposed to pesticides, including tebuconazole, propoxur, carbaryl, carbofuran, simazine and atrazine. The six pesticides dose-dependently inhibited in vitro AmCA activity at low micromolar concentrations. IC 50 values for the pesticides were 0.0030, 0.0321, 0.0031, 0.0087, 0.0273 and 0.0165 μM, respectively. The AmCA inhibition mechanism of these compounds is unknown at this moment.

  7. The use of pesticides in Belgian illicit indoor cannabis plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Eva; Vanhove, Wouter; Gotink, Joachim; Bonneure, Arne; Van Damme, Patrick; Tytgat, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis spp.) use and cultivation continue to increase in many (European) countries. The illicit indoor cannabis plantations that supply Belgian and European cannabis markets create problems and concerns about health and safety of intervention staff, dismantling companies, the direct environment of cannabis plantations and, eventually, of cannabis users. Main risks may come from pesticide residues on plants, cultivation infrastructure and materials; left-over plant growth-promoting substances; mycotoxins from fungal pathogens on harvested plants; and/or high levels of cannabinoids in cannabis plant parts for consumption. In the present research, we report on pesticides found in illicit indoor cannabis plantations in Belgium. EN15662 QuEChERS extraction method and LC-MS/MS analysis were used to identify pesticides in indoor cannabis plantations and thus to evaluate the hazards associated with the use, cultivation and removal of cannabis plants in plantations as well as with dismantling activities in the cultivation rooms. We found pesticides in 64.3% of 72 cannabis plant samples and in 65.2% of 46 carbon filter cloth samples. Overall, 19 pesticides belonging to different chemical classes were identified. We found o-phenylphenol, bifenazate, cypermethrin, imidacloprid, propamocarb, propiconazole and tebuconazole, which is consistent with the commonly reported pesticides from literature. In only a few cases, pesticides found in bottles with a commercial label, were also identified in plant or stagnant water samples collected from the growth rooms where the bottles had been collected. We further revealed that, even though most pesticides have a low volatility, they could be detected from the carbon filters hanging at the ceiling of cultivation rooms. As a result, it is likely that pesticides also prevail in the plantation atmosphere during and after cultivation. The risk of inhaling the latter pesticides increases when plants sprayed with pesticides are

  8. Impact of gibberelic acid and tebuconazole on formation of the leaf system and functioning of donor – acceptor plant system of solanaceae vegetable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Kuryata

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the comparable effect of gibberelic acid and tebuconazole on morphogenesis, mesostructure formation and redistribution of flows in sweet peppers and tomatoes. It has been found that the use of gibberelic acid and tebuconazole retardant during budding leads to increased plant productivity due to optimization of the structure and operation of the plants’ leaf apparatus. It was established that both gibberelic and antigibberelic tebuconazole drug stimulated the formation and functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus of peppers and tomatoes, but the mechanisms of this regulation were different. Increased photosynthetic activity of plants under the influence of gibberellin was determined primarily by the formation of more leaves and total leaf surface. When using tebuconazole retardant there was a significant restructuring of the organization of leaf mezostructure: the leaves were thickened by chlorenchyma proliferation, there was an increase in the volume of columnar parenchyma cells and linear dimensions of spongy parenchyma leaf cells. The surface density of leaves significantly increased, the chlorophyll content and nitrogen content (especially protein also increased, compared with control variants and variants using gibberelin. Such a profound restructuring of the photosynthetic apparatus in plants under the actions of tebuconazole led to a significant increase in donor leaves function of peppers and tomatoes, which is an indicator of the growth of net productivity of photosynthesis – the highest among all the variants of the experiment. The results also show that increasing the chlorophyll phytocenotic index was more significant than the increase of leaf index: the tomatoes under the action of tebuconazole had a lower leaf index than in control options, but due to a higher chlorophyll index the crop productivity increased.Since during the fruiting period the costs of assimilates to the growth of vegetative organs are greatly

  9. Determination of some selected pesticide residues in apple juice by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography – mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hercegová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of solid phase microextraction (SPME for enrichment of pesticides from apple juice was investigated. Samples were diluted with water, extracted by solid-phase microextraction and analysed by gas chromatography using mass-spectrometry detector (MSD in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM. The method was tested for the following pesticides used mostly in fruit culturing at Slovakia: tebuthylazine, fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos, myclobutanil, cyprodinil, phosalone, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole, kresoxim-methyl, methidathion, penconazole. All pesticides were extracted with polydimethylsiloxane fibre 100 μm thickness. The linear concentration range of application was 0.05 μg dm−3–10 μg dm−3. The method described provides detectabilities complying with the maximum residue levels (MRLs set by regulatory organizations for pesticides in apple juice matrices. The solvent – free SPME procedure was found to be quicker and more cost effective then the solvent extraction methods commonly used.

  10. Pesticide Reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the process for periodically evaluating registered pesticides to ensure they meet current science standards for risk assessment, as required by the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act.

  11. Herbicide-tolerant Transgenic Soybean over 15 Years of Cultivation: Pesticide Use, Weed Resistance, and Some Economic Issues. The Case of the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Bonny

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM herbicide-tolerant (HT crops have been largely adopted where they have been authorized. Nevertheless, they are fiercely criticized by some, notably because of the herbicide use associated with them. However, how much herbicide is applied to GMHT crops compared to conventional crops, and what impacts does the use of herbicide have? The paper first presents some factors explaining the predominance of GMHT crops. Then, trends in the use of herbicide for GM crops are studied in the case of the most widespread HT crop: HT soybean in the USA. The trends in the toxicity of herbicides applied to HT soybean are also addressed, as well as the appearance of glyphosate-resistant (GR weeds. Lastly, the paper examines the spread of GR weeds and its impact. How are farmers, weed scientists, and the industry coping with this development, and what are the prospects of glyphosate-tolerant crops given weed resistance? In conclusion, some issues of sustainability and innovation governance raised by genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops are discussed.

  12. Biodegradation of high doses of commercial pesticide products in pilot-scale biobeds using olive-oil agroindustry wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, L; Nogales, R; Romero, E

    2017-12-15

    Biobeds systems containing soil, peat and straw (SPS) are used worldwide to eliminate pesticide point-source contamination, but implantation is difficult when peat and/or straw are not available. Novel biobeds composed of soil, olive pruning and wet olive mill cake (SCPr) or its vermicompost (SVPr) were assayed at pilot scale for its use in olive grove areas. Their removal efficiency for five pesticides applied at high concentration was compared with the biobed with SPS. The effect of a grass layer on the efficiency of these biobeds was also evaluated. Pesticides were retained mainly in the upper layer. In non-planted biobeds with SCPr and SVPr, pesticides dissipation was higher than in SPS, except for diuron. In the biobed with SVPr, with the highest pesticide dissipation capacity, the removed amount of dimethoate, imidacloprid, tebuconazole, diuron and oxyfluorfen was 100, 80, 73, 75 and 50%, respectively. The grass layer enhanced dehydrogenase and diphenol-oxidase activities, modified the pesticides dissipation kinetics and favored the pesticide downward movement. One metabolite of imidacloprid, 3 of oxyfluorfen and 4 of diuron were identified by GC-MS. These novel biobeds represent an alternative to the traditional one and a contribution to promote a circular economy for the olive-oil production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 40 CFR 180.110 - Maneb; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.110... None Pepper 7 None Potato 0.1 None Pumpkin 7 None Squash, summer 4 None Squash, winter 4 None Tomato 4...

  14. High frequency monitoring of pesticides in runoff water to improve understanding of their transport and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrancq, Marie; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Landry, David; Payraudeau, Sylvain

    2017-06-01

    Rainfall-induced peaks in pesticide concentrations can occur rapidly. Low frequency sampling may therefore largely underestimate maximum pesticide concentrations and fluxes. Detailed storm-based sampling of pesticide concentrations in runoff water to better predict pesticide sources, transport pathways and toxicity within the headwater catchments is lacking. High frequency monitoring (2min) of seven pesticides (Dimetomorph, Fluopicolide, Glyphosate, Iprovalicarb, Tebuconazole, Tetraconazole and Triadimenol) and one degradation product (AMPA) were assessed for 20 runoff events from 2009 to 2012 at the outlet of a vineyard catchment in the Layon catchment in France. The maximum pesticide concentrations were 387μgL -1 . Samples from all of the runoff events exceeded the legal limit of 0.1μgL -1 for at least one pesticide (European directive 2013/39/EC). High resolution sampling used to detect the peak pesticide levels revealed that Toxic Units (TU) for algae, invertebrates and fish often exceeded the European Uniform principles (25%). The point and average (time or discharge-weighted) concentrations indicated up to a 30- or 4-fold underestimation of the TU obtained when measuring the maximum concentrations, respectively. This highlights the important role of sampling methods for assessing peak exposure. High resolution sampling combined with concentration-discharge hysteresis analyses revealed that clockwise responses were predominant (52%), indicating that Hortonian runoff is the prevailing surface runoff trigger mechanism in the study catchment. The hysteresis patterns for suspended solids and pesticides were highly dynamic and storm- and chemical-dependent. Intense rainfall events induced stronger C-Q hysteresis (magnitude). This study provides new insights into the complexity of pesticide dynamics in runoff water and highlights the ability of hysteresis analysis to improve understanding of pesticide supply and transport. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Sorption of selected pesticides on soils, sediment and straw from a constructed agricultural drainage ditch or pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Romain; Dousset, Sylvie; Billet, David; Benoit, Marc

    2014-04-01

    Buffer zones such as ponds and ditches are used to reduce field-scale losses of pesticides from subsurface drainage waters to surface waters. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of these buffer zones, in particular constructed wetlands, focusing specifically on sorption processes. We modelled the sorption processes of three herbicides [2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-MCPA), isoproturon and napropamide] and three fungicides (boscalid, prochloraz and tebuconazole) on four substrates (two soils, sediment and straw) commonly found in a pond and ditch in Lorraine (France). A wide range of Freundlich coefficient (K fads) values was obtained, from 0.74 to 442.63 mg(1 - n) L (n) kg(-1), and the corresponding K foc values ranged from 56 to 3,725 mg(1 - n) L (n) kg(-1). Based on potential retention, the substrates may be classified as straw > sediments > soils. These results show the importance of organic carbon content and nature in the process of sorption. Similarly, the studied pesticides could be classified according to their adsorption capacity as follows: prochloraz > tebuconazole-boscalid > napropamide > MCPA-isoproturon. This classification is strongly influenced by the physico-chemical properties of pesticides, especially solubility and K oc. Straw exhibited the largest quantity of non-desorbable pesticide residues, from 12.1 to 224.2 mg/L for all pesticides. The presence of plants could increase soil-sediment sorption capacity. Thus, establishment and maintenance of plants and straw filters should be promoted to optimise sorption processes and the efficiency of ponds and ditches in reducing surface water pollution.

  16. Pesticide residues in locally available cereals and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Santos, F.L.; Bonoan, L.S.

    1976-03-01

    Vegetable samples (pechay, cabbage, lettuce, green beans and tomatoes) bought from public markets in the Metro Manila area were analyzed for pesticide residues using gas chromatography. The samples analyzed in 1968-69 contained high levels of chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, Aldrin, Endrin, and Thiodan, while in the samples analyzed in January 1976, no chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides were detected. Cereal samples (rice, corn and sorghum) were obtained from the National Grains Authority and analyzed for pesticide residues and bromine residues. Total bromine residues was determined by neutron activation analysis. In most of the samples analyzed, the concentrations of pesticide residues were below the tolerance levels set by the FAO/WHO Committee on Pesticide Residues in Foods. An exception was one rice sample from Thailand, the bromine residue content (110ppm) of which exceeds the tolerance level of 50ppm

  17. Pesticides and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticides and the Environment Related Topics: What Happens to Pesticides Released into the Environment? Pesticide Storage Pesticide Disposal Pesticide Products Integrated Pest Management (IPM) How Safe

  18. 40 CFR 180.435 - Deltamethrin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in food handling establishments, including food service, manufacturing and processing establishments.... Contamination of food/feed or food/feed contact surfaces shall be avoided. (B) To assure safe use of the...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances...

  19. 40 CFR 180.422 - Tralomethrin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-handling establishments, including food service, manufacturing, and processing establishments, such as... shall be limited to a maximum of 0.06 percent active ingredient. Contamination of food and food-contact...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances...

  20. 40 CFR 180.442 - Bifenthrin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of bifenthrin in food handling establishments, including food service, manufacturing and... ingredient. Contamination of food/feed or food/feed contact surfaces shall be avoided. (B) To assure safe use...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances...

  1. 40 CFR 180.464 - Dimethenamid; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances...)-acetamide, applied as either the 90:10 or 50:50 S:R isomers, in or on the following food commodities... Pumpkin 0.01 Squash, winter 0.01 (d) Indirect or inadvertent residues. [Reserved] [65 FR 51551, Aug. 24...

  2. 40 CFR 180.254 - Carbofuran; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... than 1 ppm is carbamates) 2 12/31/09 Pumpkin (of which not more than 0.6 ppm is carbamates) 0.8 12/31...

  3. 40 CFR 180.368 - Metolachlor; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances....02 Poultry, meat byproducts 0.05 Pumpkin 0.10 Safflower, seed 0.10 Shallot, bulb 0.10 Sheep, fat 0.02... or on the following food commodities: Commodity Parts per million Animal feed, nongrass, group 18 1.0...

  4. 40 CFR 180.533 - Esfenvalerate; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances..., in or on food commodities as follows: Commodity Parts per million Almond 0.2 Almond, hulls 5.0 Apple... Poultry, meat byproducts, except liver 0.3 Pumpkin 0.5 Radish, roots 0.3 Radish, tops 3.0 Sheep, fat 1.5...

  5. The Tebuconazole-based Protectant of Seeds “Bunker” Induces the Synthesis of Dehydrins During Cold Hardening and Increases the Frost Resistance of Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Korsukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Triazole derivatives are widely used in agriculture for seed protectant of cereals against seed and soil infection. Triazole derivatives can have an effect on the biochemical and physiological functions of plants. The tebuconazole-based protectant of seeds «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L is a systemic fungicide of preventive and therapeutic action. The effect of the seed treatment by «Bunker» preparation on the shoot growth and cell viability coleoptile, synthesis of dehydrins in shoots and frost resistance etiolated winter and spring wheat seedlings has been studied. It has been shown that treatment of winter and spring wheat seed by «Bunker» preparation induces similar concentration-dependent inhibition of the coleoptiles length. At the recommended dose (0,5 liter per tonne of seeds, L/t growth inhibition was 28 - 30%, at a concentration of 1 L/t – 33 - 36%, at a concentration of 1,5 L/t – 40 - 42%, at a concentration of 3 L/t – 43 - 47%, at a concentration of 4 L/t – 48 - 51% and at 5 L/t – 53 - 56%. The treatment of wheat seed by «Bunker» preparation had no phytotoxic effect on coleoptile cells in any of the studied concentrations, on the contrary, with increasing concentration of preparation observed the increase in cell viability, as measured by recovery of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. We can assume that having retardant properties, tebuconazole not only inhibits the growth of plants, but also delays their aging. The treatment of seed protectant at a concentration of 1.5 L/t induced synthesis of the dehydrins with molecular masses about 19, 21, 22, 25 and 27 kD in winter wheat shoots and 18,6, 27 and 28,5 kD in spring wheat shoots during cold hardening. Among identified dehydrins the dehydrin of 27 kD is most significantly induced both in winter and spring wheat. The treatment of seed protectant «Bunker» in the same concentration increased the frost resistance of winter and spring wheat

  6. Reproductive disorders associated with pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Linda M

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of men or women to certain pesticides at sufficient doses may increase the risk for sperm abnormalities, decreased fertility, a deficit of male children, spontaneous abortion, birth defects or fetal growth retardation. Pesticides from workplace or environmental exposures enter breast milk. Certain pesticides have been linked to developmental neurobehavioral problems, altered function of immune cells and possibly childhood leukemia. In well-designed epidemiologic studies, adverse reproductive or developmental effects have been associated with mixed pesticide exposure in occupational settings, particularly when personal protective equipment is not used. Every class of pesticides has at least one agent capable of affecting a reproductive or developmental endpoint in laboratory animals or people, including organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, herbicides, fungicides, fumigants and especially organochlorines. Many of the most toxic pesticides have been banned or restricted in developed nations, but high exposures to these agents are still occurring in the most impoverished countries around the globe. Protective clothing, masks and gloves are more difficult to tolerate in hot, humid weather, or may be unavailable or unaffordable. Counseling patients who are concerned about reproductive and developmental effects of pesticides often involves helping them assess their exposure levels, weigh risks and benefits, and adopt practices to reduce or eliminate their absorbed dose. Patients may not realize that by the first prenatal care visit, most disruptions of organogenesis have already occurred. Planning ahead provides the best chance of lowering risk from pesticides and remediating other risk factors before conception.

  7. Simultaneous analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes by using a derivatisation step and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeppel, Caroline; Nief, Marie; Fabritius, Marie; Racault, Lucie; Appenzeller, Brice M; Millet, Maurice

    2011-11-04

    This work presents a new method to analyse simultaneously by GC-MS 31 pesticides from different chemical classes (2,4 D, 2,4 MCPA, alphacypermethrin, bifenthrin, bromoxynil, buprofezin, carbaryl, carbofuran, clopyralid, cyprodinil, deltamethrin dicamba, dichlobenil, dichlorprop, diflufenican, diuron, fenoxaprop, flazasulfuron, fluroxypyr, ioxynil, isoxaben, mecoprop-P, myclobutanil, oryzalin, oxadiazon, picloram, tau-fluvalinate tebuconazole, triclopyr, trifluralin and trinexapac-p-ethyl). This GC-MS method will be applied to the analysis of passive samplers (Tenax(®) tubes and SPME fiber) used for the evaluation of the indoor and outdoor atmospheric contamination by non-agricultural pesticides. The method involves a derivatisation step for thermo-labile or polar pesticides. Different agents were tested and MtBSTFA (N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide), a sylilation agent producing very specific fragments [M-57], was retained. However, diuron could not be derivatised and the isocyanate product was used for identification and quantification. Pesticides which did not need a derivatisation step were not affected by the presence of the derivatisation agent and they could easily be analysed in mixture with derivatised pesticides. The method can be coupled to a thermal-desorption unit or to SPME extraction for a multiresidue analysis of various pesticides in atmospheric samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Safe Disposal of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science ... or www.earth911.com . Think before disposing of extra pesticides and containers: Never reuse empty pesticide containers. ...

  9. Endangered Species: Pesticide Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.

  10. Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: evidence from two provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N D G; Sebesvari, Z; Amelung, W; Renaud, F G

    2015-06-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources with agrochemicals is often a major threat to human and ecosystem health in some river deltas, where agricultural production must meet the requirements of national food security or export aspirations. This study was performed to survey the use of different drinking water sources and their pollution with pesticides in order to inform on potential exposure sources to pesticides in rural areas of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. The field work comprised both household surveys and monitoring of 15 frequently used pesticide active ingredients in different water sources used for drinking (surface water, groundwater, water at public pumping stations, surface water chemically treated at household level, harvested rainwater, and bottled water). Our research also considered the surrounding land use systems as well as the cropping seasons. Improper pesticide storage and waste disposal as well as inadequate personal protection during pesticide handling and application were widespread amongst the interviewed households, with little overall risk awareness for human and environmental health. The results show that despite the local differences in the amount and frequency of pesticides applied, pesticide pollution was ubiquitous. Isoprothiolane (max. concentration 8.49 μg L(-1)), fenobucarb (max. 2.32 μg L(-1)), and fipronil (max. 0.41 μg L(-1)) were detected in almost all analyzed water samples (98 % of all surface samples contained isoprothiolane, for instance). Other pesticides quantified comprised butachlor, pretilachlor, propiconazole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole, cypermethrin, fenoxapro-p-ethyl, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin, quinalphos, and thiamethoxam. Among the studied water sources, concentrations were highest in canal waters. Pesticide concentrations varied with cropping season but did not diminish through the year. Even in harvested rainwater or purchased bottled water, up to 12 different pesticides were detected at

  11. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1177 Section 180.1177 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.117...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1244 - Ammonium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1244 Section 180.1244 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1244...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1204 - Harpin protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harpin protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1204 Section 180.1204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1204 Harpi...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1176 Section 180.1176 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176...

  15. Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mesnage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone. We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines (HepG2, HEK293, and JEG3. Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prochloraz constitute, respectively, the active principles of 3 major herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 3 fungicides. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. Fungicides were the most toxic from concentrations 300–600 times lower than agricultural dilutions, followed by herbicides and then insecticides, with very similar profiles in all cell types. Despite its relatively benign reputation, Roundup was among the most toxic herbicides and insecticides tested. Most importantly, 8 formulations out of 9 were up to one thousand times more toxic than their active principles. Our results challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake for pesticides because this norm is calculated from the toxicity of the active principle alone. Chronic tests on pesticides may not reflect relevant environmental exposures if only one ingredient of these mixtures is tested alone.

  16. Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone. We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines (HepG2, HEK293, and JEG3). Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prochloraz constitute, respectively, the active principles of 3 major herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 3 fungicides. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. Fungicides were the most toxic from concentrations 300–600 times lower than agricultural dilutions, followed by herbicides and then insecticides, with very similar profiles in all cell types. Despite its relatively benign reputation, Roundup was among the most toxic herbicides and insecticides tested. Most importantly, 8 formulations out of 9 were up to one thousand times more toxic than their active principles. Our results challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake for pesticides because this norm is calculated from the toxicity of the active principle alone. Chronic tests on pesticides may not reflect relevant environmental exposures if only one ingredient of these mixtures is tested alone. PMID:24719846

  17. Control of pesticides 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    . 3) Insecticides containing cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, methoprene and cyromazine. 4) Plant growth regulators containing 1-napthylacetic acid. All products were examined for the content of the respective active ingredients and for the content of OPEO and NPEO. All samples but one...... containing methoprene complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the 44 examined samples contained OPEO, but 5 of the samples contained NPEO. Three of these five samples were produced before...... the agreement. On three products, the content of active ingredient was declared only in g/L, but not in % (w/w). One product was declared as the ester and not as the acid...

  18. Pesticides in agricultural headwater streams in southwestern Germany and effects on macroinvertebrate populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gero; Christmann, Nicole; Thiery, Ann-Cathrin; Martens, Dieter; Kubiniok, Jochen

    2018-04-01

    Pesticides are a major burden for stream ecosystems in the central European cultivated landscape. The objective of the present study was to investigate the applicability of ecological indicator methods in relation to toxicity of pesticides under the specific hydro-morphological conditions in small water bodies. Thus, an association of toxicity evaluating methods with different ecological indicators was to be attempted. Based on three random samples taken within the 2016 vegetation period, 23 headwater areas in the Saarland were investigated to test for pesticides and their metabolites. The macroinvertebrate population was also surveyed in 16 of these streams. Evidence was found of 41 substances in total. Most dominant substances include atrazine, isoproturone, quinmerac and tebuconazol as well as metabolites of dimethenamid, chloridazon and metazachlor. At 9 of the 23 sampling points, over 10 plant protection products and metabolites were found. Only 17% of the water bodies investigated contained fewer than 5 substances. Around half of the bodies of water investigated show noticeably high concentrations of metabolites of plant protection products. Maximum concentrations exceeding environmental quality standards or the Health-oriented Guideline Values were measured for 13 substances at individual sampling points. Analysis of the biological data for only 4 of the water bodies investigated resulted in the Ecological Status Class (ESC) "good". All others fell short of the quality target, although they were classified as "good" or "very good" according to the Saprobic index. SPEAR pesticides as a measurement of the sensitivity of the biocoenosis to pesticides shows their influence in a few water bodies. Likewise, high toxic unit values have also been calculated, indicating the presence of toxic substances at relevant concentrations. However, an actual correlation between SPEAR pesticides and toxic unit could not be derived. Clearly in these very headwater streams other

  19. Water and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticides and the Environment Water and Pesticides Related Topics: What Happens to Pesticides Released into the Environment? Water Solubility Drinking Water and Pesticides Fact Sheet

  20. Soil and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticides and the Environment Soil and Pesticides Related Topics: What Happens to Pesticides español Soil and Pesticides Soil can be degraded and the community of organisms living in the soil can

  1. Cross-tolerance in amphibians: wood frog mortality when exposed to three insecticides with a common mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jessica; Cothran, Rickey; Stoler, Aaron; Relyea, Rick

    2013-04-01

    Insecticide tolerance and cross-tolerance in nontarget organisms is often overlooked despite its potential to buffer natural systems from anthropogenic influence. We exposed wood frog tadpoles from 15 populations to three acetylcholine esterase-inhibiting insecticides and found widespread variation in insecticide tolerance and evidence for cross-tolerance to these insecticides. Our results demonstrate that amphibian populations with tolerance to one pesticide may be tolerant to many other pesticides. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  2. A trench study to assess transfer of pesticides in subsurface lateral flow for a soil with contrasting texture on a sloping vineyard in Beaujolais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrard, X; Liger, L; Guillemain, C; Gouy, V

    2016-01-01

    Subsurface lateral flow in both texture-contrast soils and catchments with shallow bedrock is suspected to be a non-point source of contamination of watercourses by pesticides used in agriculture. As a case study, the north of the Beaujolais region (eastern France) provides a favorable environment for such contamination due to its agro-pedo-climatic conditions. Environments seen in the Beaujolais region include intense viticulture, permeable and shallow soils, steep hillslopes, and storms that occur during the periods of pesticide application. Watercourse contamination by pesticides has been widely observed in this region, and offsite pesticide transport by subsurface lateral flow is suspected to be involved in diffuse and chronic presence of pesticides in surface water. In order to confirm and quantify the potential role of such processes in pesticide transfer, an automated trench system has been designed. The trench was set up on a steep farmed hillslope in a texture-contrast soil. It was equipped with a tipping bucket flow meter and an automatic sampler to monitor pesticide concentrations in lateral flow at fine resolution, by means of a flow-dependent sampling strategy. Four pesticides currently used in vine growing were studied to provide a range of mobility properties: one insecticide (chlorpyrifos-methyl) and three fungicides (spiroxamine, tebuconazole, and dimethomorph). With this system, it was possible to study pesticide concentration dynamics in the subsurface lateral flow, generated by substantial rainfall events following pesticide applications. The experimental design ascertained to be a suitable method in which to monitor subsurface lateral flow and related transfer of pesticides.

  3. Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-05-09

    The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, λ-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers.

  4. 76 FR 69653 - Abamectin (avermectin); Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...: Adults were assessed for short- and intermediate-term residential handler and postapplication exposures (dermal and inhalation). Children were assessed for short- and intermediate-term postapplication dermal... children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the...

  5. 77 FR 64911 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... handler exposure for adults is expected to be short-term only. Intermediate-term and chronic exposures are... toxicity findings for the short-term dermal route of exposure up to the limit dose, the residential handler... (10X) margin of safety for infants and children in the case of threshold effects to account for...

  6. 76 FR 61592 - Isopyrazam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... risk in terms of the probability of an occurrence of the adverse effect expected in a lifetime. For... children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the... receiving the greatest exposure. There are no residential uses for isopyrazam. 3. Short-term risk. Short...

  7. 76 FR 12877 - Fomesafen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... to be a background exposure level). Short-/intermediate- term adverse effects (hyalinization of... (intraspecies). UFL = use of a LOAEL to extrapolate a NOAEL. UFS = use of a short-term study for long-term risk... (10X) margin of safety for infants and children in the case of threshold effects to account for...

  8. 77 FR 56133 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... gain and nephrotoxicity. FQPA SF = 1X........ Incidental Oral Short-Term (1-30 NOAEL= 99.7 mg/kg/ LOC... children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the... residential exposure to residues of dinotefuran is not expected. 3. Short-term risk. Short-term aggregate...

  9. 77 FR 58493 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... testicular atrophy in F1 males. Dermal-Children short-term (1 to NOAEL = 6.3 mg/kg/ LOC for MOE = 100.. 2... = 10x cardiovascular effects in FQPA SF = 1x........ fetuses. Inhalation short-term (1 to 30 oral study... effects attributable to a single exposure (dose) including infants and children). were observed in oral...

  10. 75 FR 19272 - Thifensulfuron methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... background exposure level). A short and intermediate-term adverse effect was identified; however... including infants dose effects and children). appropriate for acute exposure assessment for the general... population (intraspecies). UFL = use of a LOAEL to extrapolate a NOAEL. UFS = use of a short-term study for...

  11. 78 FR 17123 - Amitraz; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... depression. The human endpoint (0.125 mg/kg/day) will be protective of other longer term systemic effects as... (10X) margin of safety for infants and children in the case of threshold effects to account for... estimated aggregate exposure. Short-, intermediate-, and chronic-term risks are evaluated by comparing the...

  12. 78 FR 55635 - Prometryn; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... exposure level). Short-term and intermediate-term adverse effects were identified; however, prometryn is... safety for infants and children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal.... Short-term, intermediate-term, and chronic-term risks are evaluated by comparing the estimated aggregate...

  13. 77 FR 63745 - Buprofezin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... to be a background exposure level). A short and intermediate-term adverse effect was identified... children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the... susceptible to thyroid effects than humans; 10x for protection of infants and children) was applied to the...

  14. 78 FR 28507 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... background exposure level). Short- and intermediate-term adverse effects were identified; however... (10X) margin of safety for infants and children in the case of threshold effects to account for... estimated aggregate exposure. Short-, intermediate-, and chronic-term risks are evaluated by comparing the...

  15. 75 FR 4274 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    .... Reproductive toxicity (decreases in epididymal sperm counts and increased age at preputial separation in the F1..., reproductive effects (decreases in epididymal sperm counts and increased age at preputial separation in the F1... residues derived from average field trial residues for pome fruit, sugarcane, bushberry, Brassica leafy...

  16. 76 FR 55807 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... observed at the same dose. Reproductive toxicity (decreases in epididymal sperm counts and increase age at... dose; additionally, reproductive effects (decreases in epididymal sperm counts and increased age at... most recent 6-7 years. EPA uses an average PCT for chronic dietary risk analysis. The average PCT...

  17. 75 FR 29441 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... observed at the same dose. Reproductive toxicity (decreases in epididymal sperm counts and increased age at... dose; additionally, reproductive effects (decreases in epididymal sperm counts and increased age at... Individuals (CSFII). As to residue levels in food, EPA incorporated average percent crop treated (PCT) data...

  18. 75 FR 54033 - Thiabendazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Assessment for Seed Treatment Use on Corn,'' pages 6-11 in docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0546. B... (intraspecies). UFDB = to account for the absence of data or other data deficiency. FQPA SF = Food Quality... were used in the assessment: Apple 30%. Orange 20%. Pear 45%. Potato 1%. Soybeans 1%. Strawberry 6.3...

  19. 75 FR 53581 - Spiromesifen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... 2060-4-hydroxymethyl (free and conjugated), which is a residue of concern in leafy vegetables for risk... account for the metabolite BSN 2060-4-hydroxymethyl (free and conjugated). 2. Dietary exposure from..., limp, cyanosis, squatted posture, and salivation were observed in two studies (5-day inhalation and...

  20. 75 FR 22252 - Cyromazine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Cyromazine is not registered for any specific use patterns that would result in... prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on toxicity and exposure unless EPA...

  1. 76 FR 18895 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets... children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the... support the choice of a different factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity. The prenatal and...

  2. 77 FR 12727 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Trifloxystrobin is currently registered for the following uses... of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the...

  3. 77 FR 52240 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... chemical does not directly target the immune system. There is no evidence of neurotoxicity for... manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes is not... thyroid hormone homeostasis during development. A developmental thyroid study was submitted and...

  4. 75 FR 40745 - Cyazofamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... mild increases in urinary volume, pH, and protein. No adverse kidney effects were noted in chronic... increased number of basophilic tubules of the kidneys, increased urinary volume, pH, and protein. Dermal... ornamentals and on professionally managed turf areas, such as golf courses and college/professional sports...

  5. 75 FR 6576 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... notice of filing. Based upon review of the data supporting the petition, EPA has determined that the... relevant information in support of this action. EPA has sufficient data to assess the hazards of and to... preliminary evidence suggests that clothianidin operates by direct competitive inhibition, while thiamethoxam...

  6. 78 FR 33731 - Propamocarb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... to the notice of filing. Based upon review of the data supporting the petition, EPA has revised the... 408(b)(2)(D), EPA has reviewed the available scientific data and other relevant information in support... cholinesterase inhibition. Therefore, it was not included in the N- methyl carbamate cumulative risk assessment...

  7. 75 FR 56892 - Fenarimol; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... information in support of this action. EPA has sufficient data to assess the hazards of and to make a... conversion of androgens to estrogens, is the basis for toxicity endpoints. The inhibition of aromatase by... reliable data available to EPA support the choice of a different factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal...

  8. 75 FR 35653 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... scientific data and other relevant information in support of this action. EPA has sufficient data to assess... competitive inhibition, while thiamethoxam is a non-competitive inhibitor. Furthermore, even if future... factor when reliable data available to EPA support the choice of a different factor. 2. Prenatal and...

  9. 77 FR 59106 - Glufosinate Ammonium; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... response to the notices of filing. Based upon review of the data supporting the petition, EPA is: (1... 408(b)(2)(D), EPA has reviewed the available scientific data and other relevant information in support... sensitizer. Subchronic toxicity studies in rats showed inhibition of glutamate synthetase and lead the Agency...

  10. 76 FR 76304 - Saflufenacil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... response to these comments is discussed in Unit IV.C. Based upon review of the data supporting the petition..., EPA has reviewed the available scientific data and other relevant information in support of this... hematopoietic system as the target organ of saflufenacil. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibition in the mammalian...

  11. 75 FR 69005 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... scientific data and other relevant information in support of this action. EPA has sufficient data to assess..., or uses a different additional safety factor when reliable data available to EPA support the choice...; therefore, the inhibition of PPO results in anemia. Although anemia can potentially be considered an...

  12. 77 FR 26467 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... subgroups of consumers, including infants and children. The most recent human health risk assessment for... in drinking water. These simulation models take into account data on the physical, chemical, and fate... flea and tick control on pets). Fluoxastrobin is currently registered for the following uses that could...

  13. 77 FR 42654 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... document ``Trifloxystrobin. Human Health Risk Assessment for a Section 3 Petition Proposing Increased... for trifloxystrobin in drinking water. These simulation models take into account data on the physical... garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets...

  14. 77 FR 65827 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... document ``Trifloxystrobin. Human Health Risk Assessment for a Section 3 Petition Proposing Increased... trifloxystrobin in drinking water. These simulation models take into account data on the physical, chemical, and..., and flea and tick control on pets). Trifloxystrobin is currently registered for the following uses...

  15. 76 FR 59909 - Amisulbrom; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... apply to certain entities. If you have any questions regarding the applicability of this action to a.../ day from the multigenerational study (parental systemic NOAEL). The LOAEL of 96 mg/kg/day is from the... amended as follows: PART 180--[AMENDED] 0 1. The authority citation for part 180 continues to read as...

  16. 77 FR 40806 - Methoxyfenozide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ...'-(3-hydroxy-2-methylbenzoyl) hydrazide, RH-151,055 glucose conjugate of RH-117,236; 3,5... or clastogenic potential was observed in the battery of genotoxicity studies on methoxyfenozide... methoxyfenozide [3,5-dimethylbenzoic acid N-tert-butyl-N'-(3-hydroxy-2-methylbenzoyl) hydrazide], the glucose...

  17. 75 FR 50902 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... . Although listed in the index, some information is not publicly available, e.g., Confidential Business... Potomac Yard (South Bldg.), 2777 S. Crystal Dr., Arlington, VA. The Docket Facility is open from 8:30 a.m... Research Project Number 4 (IR-4), 681 US Highway No. 1 South, North Brunswick, NJ 08902-3390. The petitions...

  18. 76 FR 31485 - Bromoxynil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... particularly the case where some conservatism is maintained in the exposure assessment. Although the bromoxynil exposure risk assessment is refined, it retains some conservatism due, among other things, to the use of...

  19. 78 FR 44444 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... sensitizer, although it does cause mild eye irritation. The findings in multiple studies demonstrate that the... rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5%. Also, for the acute risk assessment for mancozeb and ETU derived... effects were observed in offspring, while thyroid effects and body weight gain decrements occurred in...

  20. 77 FR 23625 - Quizalofop Ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... males. No treatment-related effects on brain weight or histopathology of the nervous system were... specifically, there were no treatment- related effects on brain weight or histopathology of the nervous system... could also be affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been...

  1. 78 FR 14461 - Fenpyrazamine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... berry subgroup 13-07G at 3.0 ppm (PP 1F7841); pistachio at 0.02 ppm; Caneberry subgroup 13-07A at 7.0..., Bushberry Subgroup 13-07B, Caneberry Subgroup 13-07A, Ginseng, and Pistachio'' in docket ID number EPA-HQ..., hulls at 1.5 ppm; pistachio at 0.02 ppm; lettuce, head at 1.5 ppm; lettuce, leaf at 2 ppm; Caneberry...

  2. 76 FR 28675 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... spirotetramat equivalents, in or on pistachio at 0.25 parts per million (ppm); cotton, undelinted seed at 0.4...; Spanish lime; star apple; starfruit; sugar apple; wax jambu; white sapote; lychee; okra; pistachio; and....5 Pistachio 0.25 Potato, flakes 1.6 Pulasan 13.0 Rambutan 13.0 Sapodilla 0.60 [[Page 28682

  3. 78 FR 19130 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ..., citrus, group 10-10; citrus, dried pulp; pistachio; strawberry and tea, fresh at 0.60, 1.0, 0.01, 1.50...: ``Clothianidin--Aggregate Human Health Risk Assessment of New Uses on Strawberry, Pistachio, and Citrus; New... proposed pome fruit group 11-10, pepper/eggplant subgroup 8-10B, citrus fruit group 10-10, pistachio, and...

  4. 78 FR 29041 - Sulfoxaflor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ..., fruit at 0.6 ppm); Crop group 14 Tree Nuts (plus pistachio) at 0.02 ppm (from almond at 0.02 ppm; pistachio at 0.02 ppm; pecan at 0.01 ppm); almond, hulls at 4 ppm; Crop group 20, subgroup 20- A Rapeseed... 0.015 ppm; pistachio to 0.015 ppm; vegetable, fruiting, group 10 to 0.7 ppm; vegetable, leaves of...

  5. 78 FR 66649 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... enforcement methodology, a high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS... is (703) 305- 5805. Please review the visitor instructions and additional information about the... been specified by rulemaking after allowing for notice and comment by the public and peer review by...

  6. 77 FR 67771 - Flonicamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) (FMC No. P-3561M) to determine the residues of flonicamid and its major... telephone number for the OPP Docket is (703) 305-5805. Please review the visitor instructions and additional... . There were no comments received in response to the notice of filing. Based upon review of the data...

  7. 77 FR 52236 - Thifensulfuron Methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... (liquid chromatograpy/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS)) is available to enforce the... telephone number for the OPP Docket is (703) 305-5805. Please review the visitor instructions and additional... under review. Based on the lack of neurotoxicity in the submitted studies, a developmental neurotoxicity...

  8. 76 FR 76309 - Isoxaflutole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    .... Publicly available docket materials are available in the electronic docket at http://www.regulations.gov... electronic access to other related information? You may access a frequently updated electronic version of EPA... herbicides, mice and humans are unlikely to achieve the levels of plasma tyrosine necessary to produce ocular...

  9. 76 FR 53641 - Tetraconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... milk; milk, fat; poultry, meat by-products, and fat, liver, and meat by- products of cattle, goat....5 ppm; cattle, meat by-products, except liver at 0.15 ppm; goat, fat at 0.15 ppm; goat, liver at 1.50 ppm; goat, meat by-product, except liver at 0.15 ppm; horse, fat at 0.15 ppm; horse, liver at 1.50...

  10. 77 FR 72226 - Picoxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ...; liver of cattle, goat, hog, horse, and sheep at 0.8 ppm; meat, meat byproducts, fat, and eggs of poultry....01 ppm. Goat, liver at 0.8 ppm and goat, meat byproducts, except liver at 0.01 ppm were combined as goat, meat byproducts at 0.01 ppm.; hog, liver at 0.8 ppm and hog, meat byproducts, except liver at 0...

  11. 76 FR 3026 - Fluazinam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ...: Cattle, fat; cattle, kidney; cattle, liver; cattle, meat; cattle, meat byproducts; goat, fat; goat, kidney; goat, liver; goat, meat; goat, meat byproducts; horse, fat; horse, kidney; horse, liver; horse..., meat byproducts; goat, fat; goat, kidney; goat, liver; goat, meat; goat, meat byproducts; horse, fat...

  12. 76 FR 18915 - Ethiprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ....1 parts per million (ppm); cattle, liver at 0.1 ppm; cattle, meat at 0.01 ppm; cattle, meat byproducts, except liver at 0.02 ppm; eggs at 0.05 ppm; goat, fat at 0.1 ppm; goat, liver at 0.1 ppm; goat, meat at 0.01 ppm; goat, meat byproducts, except liver at 0.02 ppm; hog, fat at 0.1 ppm; hog, liver at 0...

  13. 77 FR 12731 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ..., except fuzzy 0.20 kiwifruit Fruit, stone, group 12 0.5 Goat, meat 0.02 Goat, meat byproducts 0.04 Grain, aspirated fractions 2.0 Grain, cereal, group 15, except barley 0.02 Grape, raisin 0.30 Hog, meat 0.02 Hog....40 Canola, seed 0.02 Cattle, meat 0.02 [[Page 12740

  14. 78 FR 70870 - Etofenprox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... byproducts at 4.0 ppm; fat of cattle, goat, horse, and sheep at 10.0 ppm; meat of cattle, goat, horse, and sheep at 0.40 ppm; meat byproducts of cattle, goat, horse, and sheep at 10.0 ppm; milk at 0.60 ppm... listed in this subsection Goat, fat 10.0 Goat, meat 0.40 Goat, meat byproducts 10.0 Hog, fat 4.0 Hog...

  15. 77 FR 14291 - Penthiopyrad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... 0.09 Goat, fat 0.03 Goat, meat 0.03 Goat, meat byproducts 0.09 Horse, fat 0.03 Horse, meat 0.03...-methyl-3-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide) in animal commodities hog, meat at 0.01 ppm; hog, fat at 0.01 ppm; hog, liver at 0.01 ppm; hog, kidney at 0.01 ppm; hog, meat byproducts at 0.01 ppm...

  16. 77 FR 48907 - Fludioxonil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ...: Milk at 0.01 ppm; cattle, goat, horse, and sheep meat at 0.01 ppm; meat byproducts of cattle, goat..., meat at 0.01 ppm; cattle, fat at 0.05 ppm; goat, meat byproducts at 0.05 ppm; goat, meat at 0.01 ppm; goat, fat at 0.05 ppm; horse, meat byproducts at 0.05 ppm; horse, [[Page 48914

  17. 78 FR 3328 - Fluroxypyr; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... the food consumption data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Health and Nutrition.... Fluroxypyr has low acute toxicity by the oral and dermal routes of exposure and moderate to mild acute... organ for fluroxypyr following oral exposure to rats, mice, and dogs. In the rat, increased kidney...

  18. 78 FR 49927 - Imazapic; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... USDA's 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, What We Eat in America (NHANES/WWEIA... categorized as having low acute toxicity by the oral, inhalation, and dermal routes of exposure. It is... subchronic toxicity was observed to rodents via the oral or dermal routes. In the chronic oral toxicity study...

  19. 78 FR 71523 - Quinclorac; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, What We Eat in America (NHANES/WWEIA). As to residue... subgroups of consumers, including infants and children. Quinclorac has low acute toxicity by oral... Use in Human Health Risk Assessment Point of departure Exposure/scenario and uncertainty/ RfD, PAD...

  20. 78 FR 23497 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, What We Eat in... exposure risk estimates using oral PODs and based on non-neurotoxic endpoints are conservative, health... infants and children. Propiconazole has low to moderate toxicity in experimental animals by the oral...

  1. 78 FR 75262 - Flonicamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, What We Eat in America, (NHANES/WWEIA). As to residue..., no dermal or systemic toxicity was seen at the limit dose. In oral studies using rats and dogs, the... droplet deposition were observed as well as liver centrilobular hypertrophy in the rat 28-day oral range...

  2. 75 FR 12691 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... assessment: Turf, gardens, ornamental landscape plantings, ornamental plants, trees and vines in nurseries, residential fruit trees, nut trees and caneberries, and orchids. Residential handler exposures are expected to...

  3. 78 FR 8407 - Endosulfan; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Classification System (NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers... adjudication and not a rule. Under the Administrative Procedures Act (APA), orders are expressly excluded from... the APA (5 U.S.C. 551(4)), and does not require the issuance of a proposed rule, the requirements of...

  4. 75 FR 60321 - Spinosad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... of the insecticide spinosad, a fermentation product of Saccharopolyspora spinosa, which consists of... the dietary exposure analysis and risk assessment for spinosad in drinking water. These simulation...

  5. 76 FR 23882 - Metiram; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... dietary exposure model. For acute dietary risk assessment, the water concentration value of 25.2 ppb was... levels below those currently used for quantifying metiram risks, reducing concerns for these effects (see... September 16, 2009. EPA's response to these comments is discussed in Unit IV.C. III. Aggregate Risk...

  6. 77 FR 56782 - Bifenthrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... the most sensitive neurotoxicity endpoint used for quantifying risks, there is no increase in hazard... endpoint used for quantifying risks, there is no increase in hazard with increasing dosing duration... Agency used screening level water exposure models in the dietary exposure analysis and risk assessment...

  7. 77 FR 72975 - Zeta Cypermethrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... for quantifying risks, there is no increase in hazard with increasing dosing duration. Therefore, the... exposure models in the dietary exposure analysis and risk assessment for zeta-cypermethrin in drinking... the dietary exposure model. For acute dietary risk assessment, the water concentration value of 3.77...

  8. 77 FR 36919 - Sedaxane; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... these effects did not result in reduced fertility. In the rat, no adverse effects in fetuses were seen... under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective June 20... effects reported in the submitted animal studies such as mitochondrial disintegration and glycogen...

  9. 75 FR 29901 - Boscalid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... effects were reversed with the cessation of test article administration. In the rabbit developmental... children from aggregate exposure to boscalid residues. IV. Other Considerations A. Analytical Enforcement..., respectively. The methods may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science...

  10. 78 FR 78740 - Isopyrazam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... hepatocytes, eosinophilic foci of altered hepatocytes, vacuolation of centrilobular hepatocytes, bile duct hyperplasia, and bile duct fibrosis in both sexes; and brown pigment in the kidney in females. [[Page 78743... liver (increased organ weight and centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy). Liver toxicity is usually...

  11. 78 FR 65565 - Fomesafen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...-generation reproduction study. Acute neurotoxicity studies indicate fomesafen may cause neurotoxicity... reproduction toxicity study in rats. The rabbit developmental study was classified as unacceptable because of bacterial infection in the colony; however, the study provided information to assess potential developmental...

  12. 77 FR 75039 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... maternally toxic. In the two generation reproduction study in rats, offspring toxicity occurred at a higher... transformation assay, bacterial reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster bone marrow chromosomal aberration assay... reproduction study in rats, neither quantitative nor qualitative evidence of increased susceptibility of...

  13. 77 FR 38199 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... reported at doses that were not maternally toxic. In the 2-generation reproduction study in rats, offspring... the in vitro BALB/C 3T3 cell transformation assay, bacterial reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster... fetuses to in utero exposure to propiconazole was observed in this study. In the 2-generation reproduction...

  14. 75 FR 14086 - Clopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... mutagenicity or clastogenicity observed in a battery of mutagenicity studies (including bacterial reverse gene... developmental toxicity studies and a 2- generation reproduction toxicity study in rats. In the developmental rat... maternal toxicity, including mortality. In the 2-generation reproduction study, decreased pup weights and...

  15. 77 FR 58045 - Clopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ...).. ``Not likely to be carcinogenic to humans.'' Cancer risk is not of concern. FQPA SF = Food Quality... Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment Data Warehouse ( http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/ ) for... from dietary consumption of food and drinking water. No adverse effect resulting from a single oral...

  16. 78 FR 40020 - Fenbuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ....59 x -3 in human equivalents. FQPA SF = Food Quality Protection Act Safety Factor. LOAEL = lowest... consumption of food and drinking water. The only population subgroup that is relevant for an acute assessment....'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include...

  17. 77 FR 26462 - Dimethomorph; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... sensitivity among members of the human population (intraspecies). FQPA SF = Food Quality Protection Act Safety... exposure estimates from dietary consumption of food and drinking water. No adverse effect resulting from a....'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include...

  18. 77 FR 3621 - Rimsulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... human population (intraspecies). FQPA SF = Food Quality Protection Act Safety Factor. PAD = population... account acute exposure estimates from dietary consumption of food and drinking water. No adverse effect... drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure. Section 408(b)(2)(C...

  19. 78 FR 21267 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311... acute toxicity by oral, dermal, and inhalation exposure routes. It is not a dermal sensitizer, but...). High levels of neonicotinoids can over stimulate the PNS, maintaining cation channels in the open state...

  20. 77 FR 70908 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production... toxicity by oral, dermal, and inhalation exposure routes. It is not a dermal sensitizer, but causes a low... neonicotinoids can over stimulate the PNS, maintaining cation channels in the open state which blocks the action...

  1. 75 FR 5522 - Spiromesifen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311... subgroups of consumers, including infants and children. Spiromesifen shows low acute toxicity via the oral... stimulating hormone, increased thyroxine binding capacity, decreased T 3 and T 4 levels, colloidal alteration...

  2. 75 FR 81878 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    .../safety RfD, PAD, LOC for risk Study and toxicological factors assessment effects Acute dietary (Females...-generation reproduction toxicity study in rats. No developmental effects were observed at the HDT in the... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0205; FRL-8857-4] Imazosulfuron...

  3. 76 FR 69648 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... which adverse effects of concern are identified (the LOAEL). Uncertainty/safety factors are used in... and females in the 2-generation reproduction study. The effect was not seen in any other toxicity... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0456; FRL-8890-1] Trifloxystrobin...

  4. 77 FR 28270 - Fluxapyroxad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Horse, fat 0.05 Horse, meat 0.01 Horse, meat byproducts 0.03 Milk 0.005 Oilseeds, group 20 0.9 Pea and... Beet, sugar, tops 7.0 Cattle, fat 0.05 Cattle, meat 0.01 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.03 Corn, field..., group 12 2.0 Goat, fat 0.05 [[Page 28276

  5. 75 FR 42324 - Pyraclostrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... 10% Cantaloupe 15% Carrot 25% Celery 2.5% Cherry 30% Chinese mustard cabbage 10% Cowpea seed 5% Cowpea (succulent) 2.5% Cucumber 5% Currant 5% Dry bulb onion 15% Field corn 5% Filbert 10% Garlic 10...

  6. 78 FR 42736 - Spirotetramat; Proposed Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... subgroup 13-07B; globe artichoke; pome fruit group 11-10; fruiting vegetable group 8-10; citrus fruit group..., Except Strawberry and Lowbush Blueberry; Bushberry Subgroup 13-07B; Artichoke, Globe; Vegetable, Fruiting...; Artichoke, Globe; Vegetable, Fruiting, Group 8-10; Fruit, Pome, Group 11-10; Fruit, Citrus, Group 10-10...

  7. 78 FR 53039 - Pyraclostrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... artichoke, globe at 3.0 parts per million (ppm); endive, belgium at 3.0 ppm; and persimmon at 3.0 ppm. The... for a Section 3 Registration of New Uses on Sugarcane, Globe Artichoke, Belgium Endive, Persimmon... Codex MRL has been established for pyraclostrobin in or on globe artichoke at 2.0 ppm. EPA has...

  8. 75 FR 5526 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... ppm; atemoya at 4.0 ppm; avocado at 4.0 ppm; banana at 4.0 ppm; biriba at 4.0 ppm; black sapote at 4.0... ppm; raisins at 5.0 ppm; rambutan at 4.0 ppm; rapeseed at 0.3 ppm; rice, grain at 0.15 ppm; rice, hulls at 0.3 ppm; rice, straw at 0.3 ppm; rose hip at 0.3 ppm; sapodilla at 4.0 ppm; sapote, mamey at 4...

  9. 77 FR 28276 - Penflufen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ....tpl . To access the OCSPP test guidelines referenced in this document electronically, please go http://www.epa.gov/ocspp and select ``Test Methods and Guidelines.'' C. How can I file an objection or... motor/locomotor activity was observed in both sexes of rats following acute and in female rats following...

  10. 76 FR 50904 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... locomotor activity and increase in forelimb grip strength, no evidence of neuropathology was observed. These... Test Guideline 860.1520, Table 3) is 2.2X. The empirical concentration factors for thiamethoxam in meal...

  11. 77 FR 70902 - Fenpropathrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Agriculture/National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA/NASS), proprietary market surveys, and the National... the introductory text, alphabetically add the following commodities and footnote 1 to the table to...

  12. 75 FR 80346 - Flutolanil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... relative liver weight in the absence of clinical chemistry and/or histopathology findings. In dogs, there... compound produces hematological or thymus/spleen organ effects indicative of immunotoxicity. Further, there...

  13. 77 FR 72232 - Dodine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... used for apples, cherries, peaches, pears, peanuts, pecans, and strawberries. One hundred PCT was... strawberries. In most cases, EPA uses available data from U.S. Department of Agriculture/National Agricultural...

  14. 78 FR 18519 - Abamectin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... equal to 20% avermectin delta-8,9-isomer) in or on cotton and strawberries. Syngenta Crop Protection Inc... ppm and strawberry from 0.02 ppm to 0.06 ppm. That document referenced a summary of the petition... strawberry at levels that vary from levels requested. The reasons for these changes are explained in Unit IV...

  15. 76 FR 34877 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ...; chickpea; fruits, stone, group 12; soybean, hulls; soybean, seed; strawberry; and turnip greens. Syngenta... grain fraction at 95 ppm; strawberry at 2.5 ppm; turnip greens at 35 ppm; and increasing the existing... Carrots, Chickpeas, Soybeans, Stone Fruits (Group 12), Strawberries, Turnip Greens and Golf Course Turf...

  16. 78 FR 67042 - Boscalid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ..., group 11 at 3.0 ppm; grape at 3.5 ppm; strawberry at 4.5 ppm; sunflower, seed at 0.6 ppm; vegetable...%; squash 5%; strawberries 55%; tomatoes 5%; walnuts 1%; and watermelons 25%. In most cases, EPA uses... 10; fruit, pome, group 11; grape; strawberry; sunflower, seed; vegetable, bulb, group 3; and...

  17. 78 FR 69562 - Fenpropathrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... subgroup 13B; grape; juneberry; salal; strawberry; and vegetable, fruiting, group 8. That document... juice, grapes, huckleberries, oranges, pears, raspberries, squash, strawberries, tangerines, and.... Finally, strawberry PDP data were translated to cranberries. Distributions of field trial data were used...

  18. 75 FR 22245 - Imidacloprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... toxicity/carcinogenicity study. Body weight decrements were noted in the rat and/or mouse chronic and... study has indicated the possibility of an effect of concern occurring as a result of a 1-day or single... Data Almonds http://www.epa.gov/oppefed1/models/water/index.htm . Based on the First Index Reservoir...

  19. 77 FR 26450 - Metconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... (PP 0F7807) by BASF Corporation, 26 Davis Drive, P.O. Box 13528, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3528... = 1x........ day. increased liver (M) weights and associated hepatocellular lipid vacuolation (M) and...

  20. 76 FR 50898 - Metconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... tuberous and corm vegetable subgroup 1C. The Interregional Research Project No. 4 (IR-4) requested these... (PP 0E7743) by Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4) Project Headquarters, Rutgers, The State... hepatocellular lipid vacuolation (M) and centrilobular hypertrophy (M). Similar effects were observed in Females...

  1. 75 FR 75389 - Metrafenone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective December 3, 2010... Evaluation Model software with the Food Commodity Intake Database (DEEM-FCID, Version 2.03), which... grape submission. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental...

  2. 77 FR 45498 - Pyrimethanil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production...-dimethyl-N- phenyl-2-pyrimidinamine) in or on the raw agricultural commodities onion, bulb, subgroup 03-07A at 0.1 parts per million (ppm), onion, green, subgroup 03-07B at 2.0 ppm, berry and small fruit...

  3. 76 FR 27261 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food... metabolites determined as 2,4-dichlorobenzoic acid and expressed as parent compound, in or on onion, bulb, subgroup 3-07A at 0.2 parts per million (ppm); onion, green, subgroup 3-07B at 9.0 ppm; caneberry subgroup...

  4. 76 FR 44815 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code... ppm; onion, bulb, subgroup 3-07A at 0.35 ppm; peanut, nutmeat at 0.35 ppm; peanut, hay at 90 ppm; tea... 0.5 ppm; decreases in low growing berries from 2.5 to 1.0 ppm, onions, bulb from 0.35 to 0.30 ppm...

  5. 77 FR 27130 - Ametoctradin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ...: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code...; grape at 5.0 ppm; grape, raisin at 8 ppm; hop, dried cones at 9 ppm; onion, bulb, subgroup 3-07A at 1.2 ppm; onion, green, subgroup 3-07B at 16 ppm; vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 at 4.5 ppm; vegetable...

  6. 77 FR 73945 - Fenpyroximate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ...-10 at 0.6 ppm; fruit, pome, group 11-10 at 0.4 ppm; mango at 0.2 ppm; papaya 0.2 ppm; sapodilla at 0... Assessment for (1) Proposed Section 3 Uses on Cucumber, Snap Bean, Avocado, Black Sapote, Canistel, Mamey Sapote, Mango, Papaya, Sapodilla, Star Apple, Corn (Field, Pop, Silage, and Grown for Seed); (2) Updated...

  7. 78 FR 36093 - Fenpyroximate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... available. These methods may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science..., 2001) or Executive Order 13045, entitled ``Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0716; FRL-9388-2] Fenpyroximate...

  8. 78 FR 76561 - Endothall; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... are Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota... scenarios: (1) applying granules by hand for treating garden pools, (2) applying granules by cup for... Alimentarius is a joint [[Page 76566

  9. 77 FR 52246 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... concern in plants include parent and TMG for leafy and root and tuber vegetables; parent-only for other... the TMG metabolite in rat showed evidence of increased relative toxicity. There is no evidence of... include clothianidin and TMG for leafy and root and tuber vegetables; parent-only for other crops; and...

  10. 77 FR 66721 - Metconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... Residues of BAS 555 F and its Metabolites in Corn and Cotton Matrices Using LC/MS/ MS''), with the German... Agency. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has exempted these types of actions from review under...

  11. 75 FR 17579 - Aminopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... on the immune system. The overall weight-of-evidence suggests that this chemical does not directly target the immune system, and the Agency does not believe that conducting a functional immunotoxicity... not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal...

  12. 78 FR 78738 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site at http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?&c=ecfr&tpl... Agency. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has exempted these types of actions from review under... (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), do not apply. This final rule directly regulates growers, food processors...

  13. 78 FR 48068 - Topramezone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... morphometric measurements (e.g., hippocampus, and parietal cortex). Topramezone is classified as ``not likely... weight, and decreases in brain morphometric measurements (e.g., hippocampus, and parietal cortex). 3... (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), do not apply. This final rule directly regulates growers, food processors...

  14. 75 FR 24428 - Spirodiclofen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... observed at terminal sacrifice in the chronic toxicity study. Cytoplasmic vacuolation in the adrenal cortex... mg/ kg/day; caudate putamen, parietal cortex, hippocampal gyrus, and dentate gyrus); there was no.... 601 et seq.) do not apply. This final rule directly regulates growers, food processors, food handlers...

  15. 75 FR 60327 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... males of the 90-day rat study where vacuolation was seen in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex.... This final rule directly regulates growers, food processors, food handlers, and food retailers, not...

  16. 77 FR 10381 - Metaflumizone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...), histopathology of the nasal tissues, lungs, thymus, prostate, and adrenal cortex was observed in males. The LOAEL.... This final rule directly regulates growers, food processors, food handlers, and food retailers, not...

  17. 78 FR 57280 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... toxicity studies in rats, minimally increased microvesiculation of adrenal cortex was observed in males... cortex effects observed in rat studies were not considered adverse. Chlorantraniliprole does not exhibit.... 601 et seq.), do not apply. This final rule directly regulates growers, food processors, food handlers...

  18. 77 FR 10962 - Flazasulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... expression. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science... central and peripheral nervous systems of high dose and control animals did not demonstrate any test...

  19. 78 FR 3333 - Spiromesifen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... online instructions for submitting comments. Do not submit electronically any information you consider to... Profile EPA has evaluated the available toxicity data and considered its validity, completeness, and... consumers, including infants and children. Spiromesifen was classified as having low acute toxicity via the...

  20. 75 FR 74634 - Spiroxamine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... is a skin sensitizer when tested in guinea pigs and is a severe dermal irritant. Spiroxamine... production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...

  1. 75 FR 50914 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... skin sensitizer under the conditions of the guinea pig maximization test. In the mammalian toxicology... activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS...

  2. 76 FR 69642 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... tested in guinea pigs. Short-term, subchronic, and chronic toxicity studies in rats, mice, and dogs...: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code...

  3. 77 FR 47296 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... guinea pigs. Short-term, subchronic, and chronic toxicity studies in rats, mice, and dogs identified the... those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS...

  4. 75 FR 26668 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... skin sensitizer when tested in guinea pigs. The pattern of toxicity attributed to flutriafol exposure... production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...

  5. 76 FR 16301 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ..., flubendiamide is not a skin irritant and it is not a skin sensitizer under the conditions of the guinea pig... limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production...

  6. 76 FR 82146 - Tepraloxydim; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... index, some information is not publicly available, e.g., Confidential Business Information (CBI) or... corpora lutea, and decreased follicles in female mice; increased incidences of focal calcification of the... study in rats, motor activity was decreased in all treated female groups, while forelimb grip strength...

  7. 77 FR 75561 - Quinclorac; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Confidential Business Information (CBI)) for inclusion in the public docket. Information not marked... be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by... one species of animals (male Wistar rats). There was no evidence of carcinogenicity in mice or female...

  8. 78 FR 70864 - Metaldehyde; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... Business Information (CBI)) for inclusion in the public docket. Information not marked confidential..., hepatocellular hypertrophy and inflammation), and an increased incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in female..., bilateral hindlimb paralysis was observed in one female rat at the highest dose tested. Chronic feeding...

  9. 76 FR 82157 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... entities not listed in this unit could also be affected. The North American Industrial Classification... and short-sleeved shirts as well as shoes plus socks using garden hose-end sprayer, ``pump-up...

  10. 76 FR 34883 - Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(3)(B), provides that, when an Agency for... format of the regulation, and make other minor, non- substantive improvements to the regulation. Other... Sec. 180.325. 0 15. In Sec. 180.328, in paragraph (a), in the table, remove the commodities Artichoke...

  11. 76 FR 4542 - Mefenoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... be received on or before March 28, 2011, and must be filed in accordance with the instructions... Clerk on or before March 28, 2011. Addresses for mail and hand delivery of objections and hearing... pathological observations in the liver (hepatocyte hypertrophy, vacuolation of hepatocytes, and fatty...

  12. 75 FR 5518 - Dithianon; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... retain the safety factor EPA also took into account the following considerations: i. Immunotoxicity.... Although a study has not yet been submitted, there is no evidence of immunotoxicity in any study in the toxicity database for dithianon and the Agency does not believe that conducting an immunotoxicity study...

  13. 75 FR 4284 - Triticonazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... for triticonazole is complete with the exception of a newly required immunotoxicity study. In accordance with 40 CFR Part 158 toxicity data requirements, an immunotoxicity study (Harmonized guideline 870.7800) is required for triticonazole. In the absence of specific immunotoxicity studies, EPA has...

  14. 78 FR 13264 - Acetochlor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... the first two studies; decreased pup weights, decreased F2 litter size at birth, and focal hyperplasia... the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...

  15. 78 FR 75257 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, What We Eat... also seen. Effects in the offspring (decreased litter size and percentage of live births, increased pup... Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization food standards program, and it is...

  16. 78 FR 67048 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2003-2008, Nationwide Health and Nutrition... birth in the rat, but persist as development continues. Although increased susceptibility was seen in... Alimentarius is a joint United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization food...

  17. 75 FR 4279 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). As to residue levels in food, the chronic dietary exposure...-dinitrobenzyl alcohol, expressed as the stoichiometric equivalent of pendimethalin, in or on grass forage... for pendimethalin. Thyroid toxicity in chronic and subchronic rat and mouse studies was manifested as...

  18. 78 FR 46279 - Forchlorfenuron; Temporary Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... infants and children. Forchlofenuron is not acutely toxic via the oral, dermal, and inhalation routes... environment. The Agency understands the commenter's concerns regarding toxic chemicals and their potential...

  19. 78 FR 49932 - Emamectin; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... existing uses as follows: Almonds, 2.5%; apples, 20%; broccoli, 20%; cabbage, 25%; cauliflower, 20%; celery..., 10%; broccoli, 5%; cabbage, 10%; cauliflower, 10%; celery, 25%; cotton, 1%; lettuce, 10%; pears, 5...

  20. 76 FR 18906 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ..., 32%; cantaloupe, 12.5%; carrot, 2.5%; casaba, 12.5%; cauliflower, 15%; celery, 12%; chickpea, 2.5...%; cauliflower, 5%; celery, 12%; chickpea, 1%; Chinese waxgourd, 5%; chive, 10%; collards, 10%; corn, field, 1...%; cauliflower, 10%; chickpea, 1%; collards, 31%; corn, field, 1%; corn, sweet, 6%; cottonseed, oil, 11...

  1. 78 FR 78731 - Indoxacarb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...)phenyl]amino]carbonyl]indeno[1,2- e][1,3,4][oxadiazine-4a(3H)-carboxylate, in or on bean, dry, seed at 0... (PCT) data, and 100 PCT estimates were assumed for the remaining uses. Available processing data for...), and other commodities where translation was applicable. DEEM-FCID TM (ver. 7.81) default processing...

  2. 78 FR 33744 - Sedaxane; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... 28-day dermal study did not show systemic toxicity at the limit dose of 1,000 milligrams/kilogram/day... A. Analytical Enforcement Methodology Adequate enforcement methodology is available to enforce the...

  3. Pesticides and biocides in a karst catchment: Identification of contaminant sources and related flow components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Thomas; Bollmann, Ulla E.; Bester, Kai; Birk, Steffen

    2013-04-01

    Karst aquifers are widely used as drinking water resources. However, their high vulnerability to chemical and bacterial contamination due to the heterogeneity in aquifer properties (highly conductive solution conduits embedded in the less conductive fissured rock) is difficult to assess and thus poses major challenges to the management of karst water resources. Contamination of karst springs by organic micro-pollutants has been observed in recent studies. Within this study the water from different springs draining one karst aquifer as well as the main sinking stream replenishing it were analysed before, during and after a storm water event in order to examine the occurrence of different pesticides and biocides. Contaminants from both urban as well as agricultural origin could be detected in the water with concentrations in the low ng/L range (tebuconazole, carbendazim, diuron, isoproturon, terbutryn, atrazine, dichlorobenzamide (BAM), which is a metabolite of dichlobenil). While some compounds could be followed from the sinking stream to the springs (e.g. dichlorobenzamide) some seem to have a source in the autogenic recharge from the karst plateau (Tebuconazole: wood preservative in buildings). These compounds appear to be related to fast flow components with residence times in the order of days, which are known from a number of tracer tests with fluorescent dyes. However, the occurrence of the pesticide atrazine (banned since 1995 in Austria) in the springs, while on the other hand no current input into the karst occurs, shows that some compounds have long residence times in the karst aquifer. These differences in residence times can hardly be attributed to differences in physico-chemical properties of the compounds and must thus be due to the presence of slow and fast flow components. This is in agreement with the duality of karst aquifers due to highly conductive networks of solution conduits embedded in less conductive fissured carbonate rocks.

  4. Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program (PESP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PESP is an EPA partnership program that works with the nation's pesticide-user community to promote IPM practices. Pesticide users can reduce the risks from pests and pesticides. Members include organizations and companies in the pesticide-user community.

  5. The dissipation and microbial ecotoxicity of tebuconazole and its transformation products in soil under standard laboratory and simulated winter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Azhari, Najoi; Dermou, Eftychia; Barnard, Romain L; Storck, Veronika; Tourna, Maria; Beguet, Jérémie; Karas, Panagiotis A; Lucini, Luigi; Rouard, Nadine; Botteri, Lucio; Ferrari, Federico; Trevisan, Marco; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2018-05-12

    Tebuconazole (TBZ) is a widely used triazole fungicide at EU level on cereals and vines. It is relatively persistent in soil where it is transformed to various transformation products (TPs) which might be environmentally relevant. We assessed the dissipation of TBZ in soil under contrasting incubation conditions (standard vs winter simulated) that are relevant to its application scheme, determined its transformation pathway using advanced analytical tools and 14 C-labeled TBZ and assessed its soil microbial toxicity. Mineralization of 14 C-triazole-ring-labeled TBZ was negligible but up to 11% of 14 C-penyl-ring-labeled TBZ evolved as 14 CO 2 within 150 days of incubation. TBZ persistence increased at higher dose rates (×10 compared to the recommended agronomical dose ×1) and under winter simulated conditions compared to standard incubation conditions (at ×1 dose rate DT 50 of 202 and 88 days, respectively). Non-target suspect screening enabled the detection of 22 TPs of TBZ, among which 17 were unknown. Mass spectrometry analysis led to the identification of 1-(4-chlorophenyl) ethanone, a novel TP of TBZ, the formation of which and decay in soil was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Three hypothetical transformation pathways of TBZ, all converging to 1H-1,2,4-triazole are proposed based on suspect screening. The ecotoxicological effect of TBZ and of its TPs was assessed by measuring by qPCR the abundance of the total bacteria and the relative abundance of 11 prokaryotic taxa and 4 functional groups. A transient impact of TBZ on the relative abundance of all prokaryotic taxa (except α-proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes) and one functional microbial group (pcaH-carrying microorganisms) was observed. However the direction of the effect (positive or negative) varied, and in certain cases, depended on the incubation conditions. Proteobacteria was the most responsive phylum to TBZ with recovery observed 20 days after treatment. The

  6. 40 CFR 180.342 - Chlorpyrifos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chlorpyrifos; tolerances for residues... § 180.342 Chlorpyrifos; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the pesticide chlorpyrifos per se (O,O-diethyl- O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate...

  7. 40 CFR 180.337 - Oxytetracycline; tolerance for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxytetracycline; tolerance for... § 180.337 Oxytetracycline; tolerance for residues. Tolerances are established for residues of the pesticide oxytetracycline in or on the following raw agricultural commodities: Commodity Parts per million...

  8. Lethal effects of selected novel pesticides on immature stages of Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Ashraf; Ruberson, John R

    2017-12-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley is an important egg parasitoid and biological control agent of caterpillar pests. We studied the acute toxicity of 20 pesticides (14 insecticides/miticides, three fungicides and three herbicides) exposed to recommended field rates. Egg, larval, and pupal stages of the parasitoid in their hosts were dipped in formulated solutions of the pesticides and evaluated 10 days later for percentage of host eggs with holes, number of parasitoids emerged per egg with holes, and stage-specific mortality of immature as well as adult wasps within the host eggs. Seven insecticides (buprofezin, chlorantraniliprole, spirotetramat, flonicamid, flubendiamide) and miticides (spiromesifen, cyflumetofen), one herbicide (nicosulfuron), and three fungicides (myclobutanil, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole) caused no significant mortality to immature stages or pre-emergent adult parasitoids relative to controls. By contrast, seven insecticides/miticides (abamectin, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, fipronil, novaluron, spinetoram, tolfenpyrad) adversely affected immature and pre-emergent adult T. pretiosum, with tolfenpyrad being particularly lethal. Two herbicides had moderate (glufosinate ammonium) to severe (s-metolachlor) acute lethal effects on the immature parasitoids. This study corroborates earlier findings with adult T. pretiosum. Over half of the pesticides - and all the fungicides - tested in the current study would appear to be compatible with the use of T. pretiosum in integrated pest management programs, with respect to acute parasitoid mortality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Occurrence of pesticides in water and sediment collected from amphibian habitats located throughout the United States, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Orlando, James L.; Calhoun, Daniel; Battaglin, William A.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    herbicides, 4 insecticides, 1 synergist, and 2 pesticide degradates. On a national scale, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the primary degradate of the herbicide glyphosate, which is the active ingredient in Roundup®, was the most frequently detected pesticide in water (16 of 54 samples) followed by glyphosate (8 of 54 samples). The maximum number of pesticides observed at a single site was nine compounds in a water sample from a site in Louisiana. The maximum concentration of a pesticide or degradate observed in water was 2,880 nanograms per liter of clomazone (a herbicide) at a site in Louisiana. In California, a total of eight pesticides were detected among all of the low and high elevation sites; AMPA was the most frequently detected pesticide, but glyphosate was detected at the highest concentrations (1.1 micrograms per liter). Bed-sediment samples were analyzed for 94 pesticides by using accelerated solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography for sulfur removal, and carbon/alumina stacked solid-phase extraction cartridges to remove interfering sediment matrices. In bed sediment, 22 pesticides were detected in one or more of the samples, including 9 fungicides, 3 pyrethroid insecticides, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and its major degradates, as well as several herbicides. Pyraclostrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, and bifenthrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, were detected most frequently. Maximum pesticide concentrations ranged from less than their respective method detection limits to 1,380 micrograms per kilogram (tebuconazole in California). The number of pesticides detected in samples from each site ranged from zero to six compounds. The sites with the greatest number of pesticides were in Maine and Oregon with six pesticides detected in one sample from each state, followed by Georgia with four pesticides in one sample. For California, a total of 10 pesticides were detected among all sites, and 4 pesticides were detected at both low and high

  10. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  11. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using solid-phase extraction and bead-beating-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion to quantify the fungicide tebuconazole in controlled frog exposure study: analysis of water and animal tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Poulsen, Rikke; Luong, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    and on tissue from exposed and non-exposed adult X. laevis. Using solid-phase extraction (SPE), the analytical method allows for quantification of tebuconazole at concentrations as low as 3.89 pg mL(-1) in 10 mL water samples. Using bead-beating-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), it was possible...

  12. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  13. Pesticide Instrumental Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samir, E.; Fonseca, E.; Baldyga, N.; Acosta, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Felicita, F.; Tomasso, M.; Esquivel, D.; Parada, A.; Enriquez, P.; Amilibia, M.

    2012-01-01

    This workshop was the evaluation of the pesticides impact on the vegetable matrix with the purpose to determine the analysis by GC / M S. The working material were lettuce matrix, chard and a mix of green leaves and pesticides.

  14. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  15. Development of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of pesticides in gaseous and particulate phases in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, E.; Sanchez, P.; Munoz, A.; Tortajada-Genaro, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → An efficient method for the determination of sixteen pesticides in atmospheric samples. → XAD-4 is an interesting support for collecting gas-phase pesticides, with similar performances than the conventional XAD-2. → The ultrasonic extraction is cheaper, less aggressive and time-consuming with excellent analytical parameters. → The method has been successfully tested by using high volume atmospheric simulation chamber and field campaigns. - Abstract: A reliable multi-residue method for determining gaseous and particulate phase pesticides in atmospheric samples has been developed. This method, based on full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), allowed the proper determination of sixteen relevant pesticides, in a wide range of concentrations and without the influence of interferences. The pesticides were benfluralin, bitertanol, buprofezin, chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, ethalfluralin, fenthion, lindane, malathion, methidathion, propachlor, propanil, pyriproxifen, tebuconazol and trifluralin. Comparisons of two types of sampling filters (quartz and glass fibre) and four types of solid-phase cartridges (XAD-2, XAD-4, Florisil and Orbo-49P) showed that the most suitable supports were glass fibre filter for particulate pesticides and XAD-2 and XAD-4 cartridges for gaseous pesticides (>95% recovery). Evaluations of elution solvents for ultrasonic-assisted extraction demonstrated that isooctane is better than ethylacetate, dichloromethane, methanol or a mixture of acetone:hexane (1:1). Recovery assays and the standard addition method were performed to validate the proposed methodology. Moreover, large simulator chamber experiments allowed the best study of the gas-particle partitioning of pesticides for testing the sampling efficiency for the validation of an analytical multiresidue method for pesticides in air. Satisfactory analytical parameters were obtained, with a repeatability of 5 ± 1%, a reproducibility of 13

  16. Pesticides and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, Vincent F.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored

  17. Effect of the submergence, the bed form geometry, and the speed of the surface water flow on the mitigation of pesticides in agricultural ditches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutron, Olivier; Margoum, Christelle; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Guillemain, CéLine; Gouy, VéRonique

    2011-08-01

    Pesticides, which have been extensively used in agriculture, have become a major environmental issue, especially regarding surface and groundwater contamination. Of particular importance are vegetated farm drainage ditches, which can play an important role in the mitigation of pesticide contamination by adsorption onto ditch bed substrates. This role is, however, poorly understood, especially regarding the influence of hydrodynamic parameters, which make it difficult to promote best management practice of these systems. We have assessed the influence of three of these parameters (speed of the surface water flow, submergence, and geometrical characteristics of the bed forms) on the transfer and adsorption of selected pesticides (isoproturon, diuron, tebuconazole, and azoxystrobin) into the bed substrate by performing experiments with a tilted experimental flume, using hemp fibers as a standard of natural organic substrates that are found at the bottom of agricultural ditches. Results show the transfer of pesticides from surface water flow into bed substrate is favored, both regarding the amounts transferred into the bed substrate and the kinetics of the transfer, when the surface water speed and the submergence increase and when the bed forms are made of rectangular shapes. Extrapolation of flume data over a distance of several hundred meters suggests that an interesting possibility for improving the mitigation of pesticides in ditches would be to increase the submergence and to favor bed forms that tend to enhance perturbations and subsequent infiltration of the surface water flow.

  18. Mycotoxins, pesticides and toxic metals in commercial spices and herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholds, Ingars; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bavrins, Konstantins; Kuckovska, Galina; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2017-03-01

    A total of 300 samples representing six condiments (black pepper, basil, oregano, nutmeg, paprika, and thyme) were analysed for 11 mycotoxins, 134 pesticides and 4 heavy metals by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mycotoxins were detected in 4%, 10% and 30% of all nutmeg, basil and thyme samples, respectively. The residues of 24 pesticides were detected in 59% of the analysed condiments. The maximum residue levels of pesticides were exceeded in 10% of oregano and 46% of thyme samples. A risk assessment of heavy metals was performed, indicating daily intake levels far below the tolerable intake levels.

  19. 40 CFR 180.379 - Fenvalerate; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... or on food commodities as follows: Commodity Parts per million Expiration/Revocation Date Almond 0.2.../10 Potato 0.02 4/2/10 Pumpkin 1.0 4/2/10 Radish, roots 0.3 4/2/10 Radish, tops 8.0 4/2/10 Sheep, fat...

  20. Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by natural river biofilms in different seasons and their effects on biofilm community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, Chien-Jung; Lin, Mon-Chu; Chiu, Wan-Hsin; Chen, Colin S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of natural river biofilms from different seasons to degrade the carbamate pesticides methomyl, carbaryl and carbofuran in single and multiple pesticide systems, and the effects of these pesticides on algal and bacterial communities within biofilms. Spring biofilms had the lowest biomass of algae and bacteria but showed the highest methomyl degradation (>99%) and dissipation rates, suggesting that they might contain microorganisms with high methomyl degradation abilities. Degradation of carbofuran (54.1–59.5%) by biofilms in four seasons was similar, but low degradation of carbaryl (0–27.5%) was observed. The coexistence of other pesticides was found to cause certain effects on pesticide degradation and primarily resulted in lower diversity of diatoms and bacteria than when using a single pesticide. The tolerant diatoms and bacteria potentially having the ability to degrade test pesticides were identified. River biofilms could be suitable biomaterials or used to isolate degraders for bioremediating pesticide-contaminated water. -- Highlights: •Natural river biofilms showed high ability to degrade methomyl and carbofuran. •The presence of other pesticides caused certain effects on pesticide degradation. •Carbamate pesticides caused adverse effects on communities of diatoms and bacteria. •The tolerant diatoms and bacteria were found as potential pesticide-degraders. -- Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by river biofilms

  1. Combined exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides impairs parturition, causes pup mortality and affects sexual differentiation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Risk assessment is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for single compounds. Humans are exposed to a mixture of chemicals and recent studies in our laboratory have shown that combined exposure to endocrine disrupters can cause adverse effects on male sexual development...... were gavaged during gestation and lactation with five doses of a mixture of the fungicides procymidone, mancozeb, epoxyconazole, tebuconazole and prochloraz. The mixture ratio was chosen according to the doses of each individual pesticide that produced no observable effects on pregnancy length and pup...... survival in our laboratory and the dose levels used ranged from 25 to 100% of this mixture. All dose levels caused increased gestation length and dose levels above 25% caused impaired parturition leading to markedly decreased number of live born offspring and high pup perinatal mortality. The sexual...

  2. Pesticides: chemicals for survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Pesticides are chemicals used to control pests such as insects, weeds, plant diseases, nematodes, and rodents. The increased use of pesticides since 1945 has greatly aided the increase in crop production, protected livestock from diseases such as trypanosomiasis, protected man from diseases such as malaria and filarisis, decreased losses of stored grain, and has generally improved man's welfare. Despite the enormous benefits derived from pesticides these chemicals are not problem-free. Many pesticides are toxic to living organisms and interfere with specific biochemical systems. To measure the very small quantities of a pesticide radiolabelled chemicals are frequently essential, particularly to measure changes in the chemical structure of the pesticide, movement of the pesticide in soil, plants, or animals, amounts of pesticide going through various steps in food processing, etc. The use of radiolabelled pesticides is shortly shown for metabolism of the pesticide in crop species, metabolism in ruminant, in chickens and eggs, in soil, and possibly leaching and sorption in soil, hydrolysis, bio-concentration, microbial and photodegradation, and toxicity studies

  3. Spatial and temporal trends and flow dynamics of glyphosate and other pesticides within an agricultural watershed in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Débora J; Okada, Elena; De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Menone, Mirta L; Aparicio, Virginia C; Costa, José L

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the spatial and temporal trends of current-use pesticides in surface water and sediments as well as their relationship with hydrological stream dynamics within the agricultural watershed of El Crespo stream (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). We sampled 2 contrasting sites: site 1 (upstream), surrounded by agricultural lands, and site 2 (downstream), surrounded by natural grasslands. Most of the applied pesticides (glyphosate, 2,4-D, atrazine, tebuconazole, and imidacloprid) were detected at high frequencies in surface water samples at both sites. However, only glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were present at high concentrations and had a significant spatial-temporal trend. The highest concentrations were found during spring 2014 at site 1, in association with the intense rains that occurred in that season. The fact that glyphosate and AMPA concentrations were higher than the rest of the studied compounds is closely related to the land use within the watershed, as glyphosate was the most applied herbicide during the fallow period of glyphosate-resistant crops (soybean, maize). The pesticide mixture had a significant spatial-temporal trend, reaching the highest levels during storm flow events in spring 2014. The intensive rains in spring 2014 could be the main factor influencing stream hydrology and pesticide behavior at El Crespo watershed. The estimated annual pesticide losses were 3.11 g/ha at site 1 and 0.72 g/ha at site 2. This result indicates that an attenuation process could be decreasing pesticide loads during downstream transport from site 1 to site 2. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3206-3216. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  4. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  5. Models for Pesticide Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA considers the toxicity of the pesticide as well as the amount of pesticide to which a person or the environments may be exposed in risk assessment. Scientists use mathematical models to predict pesticide concentrations in exposure assessment.

  6. Understanding Pesticide Risks: Toxicity and Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Muntz, Helen; Miller, Rhonda; Alston, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about pesticide risks to human health, primary means of pesticide exposure, standardized measures of pesticide toxicity, pesticide signal words and type of pesticide formulations.

  7. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, a permanent, broadly representative advisory committee, meets with EPA on a regular basis to discuss pesticide regulatory, policy, and program implementation issues.

  8. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  9. Growth promotion of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants by single and mixed cultures of efficient phosphate solubilizing bacteria that are tolerant to abiotic stress and pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzuay, María Soledad; Ciancio, María Gabriela Ruiz; Ludueña, Liliana Mercedes; Angelini, Jorge Guillermo; Barros, Germán; Pastor, Nicolás; Taurian, Tania

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were, to analyze in vitro phosphate solubilization activity of six native peanut bacteria and to determine the effect of single and mixed inoculation of these bacteria on peanut and maize plants. Ability to produce organic acids and cofactor PQQ, to solubilize FePO 4 and AlPO 4 and phosphatase activity were analyzed. Also, the ability to solubilize phosphate under abiotic stress and in the presence of pesticides of the selected bacteria was determined. The effect of single and mixed bacterial inocula was analyzed on seed germination, maize plant growth and in a crop rotation plant assay with peanut and maize. The six strains produced gluconic acid and five released cofactor PQQ into the medium. All bacteria showed ability to solubilize phosphate from FePO 4 and AlPO 4 and phosphatase activity. The ability of the bacteria to solubilize tricalcium phosphate under abiotic stress and in presence of pesticides indicated encouraging results. Bacterial inoculation on peanut and maize increased seed germination, plant́s growth and P content. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study showed efficient phosphate mineralizing and solubilization ability and would be potential P-biofertilizers for peanut and maize. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the extraction of pesticides from bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Asensio-Ramos, María; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2009-10-23

    This paper describes a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure using room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection capable of quantifying trace amounts of eight pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox and fenazaquin) in bananas. Fruit samples were first homogenized and extracted (1g) with acetonitrile and after suitable evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in 10 mL of water, a DLLME procedure using 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) as extraction solvent was used. Experimental conditions affecting the DLLME procedure (sample pH, sodium chloride percentage, ionic liquid amount and volume of disperser solvent) were optimized by means of an experimental design. In order to determine the presence of a matrix effect, calibration curves for standards and fortified banana extracts (matrix matched calibration) were studied. Mean recovery values of the extraction of the pesticides from banana samples were in the range of 69-97% (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 53-63%) with a relative standard deviation lower than 8.7% in all cases. Limits of detection achieved (0.320-4.66 microg/kg) were below the harmonized maximum residue limits established by the European Union (EU). The proposed method, was also applied to the analysis of this group of pesticides in nine banana samples taken from the local markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of RTILs as extraction solvents for DLLME of pesticides from samples different than water.

  11. Safe apples for baby-food production: survey of pesticide treatment regimes leaving minimum residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

    2007-06-01

    A total of 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agricultural practice in six trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and mature fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinyl, difenoconazole or thiram were detected in the first sampling. Also, the levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, penconazole, tebuconazole and tolylfluanid dropped during the pre-harvest interval. Detectable residues of pyridaben, thiacloprid, trifloxystrobin and tetraconazole in harvested fruits were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which is the maximum concentration of residues acceptable by baby-food producers in any raw material. The only residues exceeding this concentration were captan and teflubenzuron. Based on the data, farmers can choose pesticides for optimal treatment of plants, while enabling growth of a safe crop suitable for baby-food production.

  12. Effect of processing on the disappearance of pesticide residues in fresh-cut lettuce: Bioavailability and dietary risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Miguel A; Barba, Alberto; Cermeño, Sandra; Martinez, Gracia; Oliva, Jose

    2017-12-02

    The aim of this research is to establish the processing factors of six pesticides durong the preparation of fresh-cut lettuce and to assess the risk of ingestion of pesticide residues associated with the consumption of the same. A field study was carried out on the dissipation of three insecticides (imidacloprid, tebufenozide, cypermethrin) and three fungicides (metalaxyl, tebuconazole, azoxystrobin) during treatment conditions simulating those used for commercial fresh-cut lettuce. A simultaneous residue analysis method is validated using QuEChERS extraction with acetonitrile and CG-MS and LC-MS/MS analysis. The residues detected after field application never exceed the established Maximum Residue Limits. The processing factors were generally less than 1 (between 0.34 for tebufenozide and 0.53 for imidacloprid), indicating that the process, as a whole, considerably reduces residue levels in processed lettuce compared to fresh lettuce. It is confirmed that cutting, followed by washing and drying, considerably reduces the residues. A matrix effect in the dialyzation of the pesticides is observed and the in vitro study of bioavailability establishes a low percentage of stomach absorption capacity (lettuce showed no concerns for consumer health.

  13. Development and validation of an SPME-GC method for a degradation kinetics study of propiconazole I, propiconazole II and tebuconazole in blueberries in Concordia, the main production area of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munitz, Martín S; Medina, María B; Montti, María I T

    2017-05-01

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of propiconazole isomers and tebuconazole residues in blueberries was developed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography. Confirmation was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected-ion monitoring mode. The SPME fibre coating selected was CWX-DVB, and the pH was adjusted to 7 with NaOH. The method is selective with adequate precision and high accuracy and sensitivity. Recoveries ranged between 97.4% and 98.9% for all compounds; and detection and quantification limits were respectively 0.21 and 0.49 μg kg -1 for propiconazole I; 0.16 and 0.22 μg kg -1 for propiconazole II; and 0.16 and 0.48 μg kg -1 for tebuconazole. The degradation of these fungicides in blueberries followed first-order rate kinetics. The half-life times for flowering and fruit set applications were respectively 4.0 and 10.3 days for propiconazole I, 4.0 and 11.4 days for propiconazole II, and 3.5 and 12.4 days for tebuconazole.

  14. [Ecotoxicological study of chlorinated pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosival, L; Szokolay, A; Uhnák, J

    1980-01-01

    The authors describe a model for the ecotoxicological investigation of pesticide residues guided by the analysis of various links of the food chain and of human materials. It is pointed to the possibility of studying the dynamics of the exposure to human beings by analyzing gynaecological material (prenatal stage) and samples obtained at necropsy from human beings of varying age (different durations of exposure). The observations of the relative accumulation of hexachlorobenzene, beta-BHC and DDT in butter, human milk and human fat in a region with intensive cultivation revealed a considerble accumulation of hexachlorobenzene which reaches the level of DDT. The conclusion drawn from ecotoxicological studies indicates that a reduction of the tolerances of pesticide residues in raw materials for baby foods is imperative. The analyses of gynaecological material (202 samples of the available content of the uterus and 24 placental and embryonic specimens) permitted to evidence a significant difference between two regions and a specific relationship of the observed substances and their metabolites to the fat-dissolving power of the analyzed materials.

  15. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  16. National Pesticide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How can I protect my pets when using pesticides around them? More FAQs FAQ Comics Video FAQs From NPIC: Fact Sheets Videos Web Apps Podcasts Outreach Materials NPIC Professional Resources Social Media: National Pesticide Information Center Tweets by NPICatOSU Please read our ...

  17. Food and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA sets limits on how much of a pesticide may be used on food during growing and processing, and how much can remain on the food you buy. Learn about regulation of pesticides on food and how you can limit exposure.

  18. Trace analysis of pesticides in paddy field water by direct injection using liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Martínez-Bueno, M J; Cesio, Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2011-07-29

    A multiresidue method was developed for the quantification and confirmation of 70 pesticides in paddy field water. After its filtration, water was injected directly in a liquid chromatograph coupled to a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (QqLIT). The list of target analytes included organophosphates, phenylureas, sulfonylureas, carbamates, conazoles, imidazolinones and others compounds widely used in different countries where rice is cropped. Detection and quantification limits achieved were in the range from 0.4 to 80 ng L(-1) and from 2 to 150 ng L(-1), respectively. Correlation coefficients for the calibration curves in the range 0.1-50 μg L(-1) were higher than 0.99 except for diazinon (0.1-25 μg L(-1)). Only 9 pesticides presented more than 20% of signal suppression/enhancement, no matrix effect was observed in the studied conditions for the rest of the target pesticides. The method developed was used to investigate the occurrence of pesticides in 59 water samples collected in paddy fields located in Spain and Uruguay. The study shows the presence of bensulfuron methyl, tricyclazole, carbendazim, imidacloprid, tebuconazole and quinclorac in a concentration range from 0.08 to 7.20 μg L(-1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of pesticides in gaseous and particulate phases in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás, E; Sánchez, P; Muñoz, A; Tortajada-Genaro, L A

    2011-08-05

    A reliable multi-residue method for determining gaseous and particulate phase pesticides in atmospheric samples has been developed. This method, based on full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), allowed the proper determination of sixteen relevant pesticides, in a wide range of concentrations and without the influence of interferences. The pesticides were benfluralin, bitertanol, buprofezin, chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, ethalfluralin, fenthion, lindane, malathion, methidathion, propachlor, propanil, pyriproxifen, tebuconazol and trifluralin. Comparisons of two types of sampling filters (quartz and glass fibre) and four types of solid-phase cartridges (XAD-2, XAD-4, Florisil and Orbo-49P) showed that the most suitable supports were glass fibre filter for particulate pesticides and XAD-2 and XAD-4 cartridges for gaseous pesticides (>95% recovery). Evaluations of elution solvents for ultrasonic-assisted extraction demonstrated that isooctane is better than ethylacetate, dichloromethane, methanol or a mixture of acetone:hexane (1:1). Recovery assays and the standard addition method were performed to validate the proposed methodology. Moreover, large simulator chamber experiments allowed the best study of the gas-particle partitioning of pesticides for testing the sampling efficiency for the validation of an analytical multiresidue method for pesticides in air. Satisfactory analytical parameters were obtained, with a repeatability of 5±1%, a reproducibility of 13±3% and detection limits of 0.05-0.18 pg m(-3) for the particulate phase and 26-88 pg m(-3) for the gaseous phase. Finally, the methodology was successfully applied to rural and agricultural samples in the Mediterranean area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. PESTICIDES: BENEFITS AND HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Maksymiv

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are an integral part of modern life used to prevent growth of unwanted living  organisms. Despite the fact that scientific statements coming from many toxicological works provide indication on the low risk of the pesticides and their residues, the community especially last years is deeply concerned about massive application of pesticides in diverse fields. Therefore evaluation of hazard risks particularly in long term perspective is very important. In the fact there are at least two clearly different approaches for evaluation of pesticide using: the first one is defined as an objective or probabilistic risk assessment, while the second one is the potential economic and agriculture benefits. Therefore, in this review the author has considered scientifically based assessment of positive and negative effects of pesticide application and discusses possible approaches to find balance between them.

  1. 40 CFR 180.108 - Acephate; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... establishments, including food service, manufacturing and processing establishments, such as restaurants... avoid atomization or splashing of the spray. Contamination of food or food-contact surfaces shall be... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.108...

  2. 40 CFR 180.294 - Benomyl; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.294.../08 Poultry, meat byproducts, except liver 0.1 1/1/08 Pumpkin 1.0 1/1/07 Raspberry 7.0 1/1/08 Rice...

  3. 40 CFR 180.303 - Oxamyl; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.303... methyl N,N-dimethyl-N-hydroxy-1-thiooxamimidate calculated as oxamyl in or on the following food..., nonbell 5.0 Pineapple 1 Pineapple, process residue 2.0 Pumpkin 2.0 Soybean, seed 0.1 Spearmint, tops 10.0...

  4. 40 CFR 180.215 - Naled; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.215... 0.5 Pea, succulent 0.5 Pepper 0.5 Pumpkin 0.5 Safflower, seed 0.5 Spinach 3 Squash, summer 0.5...

  5. Pesticide Exposure in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James R.; Karr, Catherine J.

    2018-01-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children’s exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  6. Linking land use with pesticides in Dutch surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't, Zelfde M T; Tamis, W L M; Vijver, M G; De Snoo, G R

    2012-01-01

    Compared with other European countries The Netherlands has a relatively high level of pesticide consumption, particularly in agriculture. Many of the compounds concerned end up in surface waters. Surface water quality is routinely monitored and numerous pesticides are found to be present in high concentrations, with various standards being regularly exceeded. Many standards-breaching pesticides exhibit regional patterns that can be traced back to land use. These patterns have been statistically analysed by correlating surface area per land use category with standards exceedance per pesticide, thereby identifying numerous significant correlations with respect to breaches of both the ecotoxicological standard (Maximum Tolerable Risk, MTR) and the drinking water standard. In the case of the MTR, greenhouse horticulture, floriculture and bulb-growing have the highest number as well as percentage of standard-breaching pesticides, despite these market segments being relatively small in terms of area cropped. Cereals, onions, vegetables, perennial border plants and pulses are also associated with many pesticides that exceed the drinking water standard. When a correction is made for cropped acreage, cereals and potatoes also prove to be a major contributor to monitoring sites where the MTR standard is exceeded. Over the period 1998-2006 the land-use categories with the most and highest percentage of standards-exceeding pesticides (greenhouse horticulture, bulb-growing and flower cultivation) showed an increase in the percentage of standards-exceeding compounds.

  7. Occurrence of commonly used pesticides in personal air samples and their associated health risk among paddy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamsan, Hazwanee; Ho, Yu Bin; Zaidon, Siti Zulfa; Hashim, Zailina; Saari, Nazamid; Karami, Ali

    2017-12-15

    Tanjung Karang, Selangor, is widely known for its paddy cultivation activity and hosts the third largest paddy field in Malaysia. Pesticides contamination in agriculture fields has become an unavoidable problem, as pesticides are used to increase paddy productivity and reduce plant disease. Human exposure to agrichemicals is common and could results in both acute and chronic health effects, such as acute and chronic neurotoxicity. This study aims to determine the concentrations of commonly used pesticides (azoxystrobin, buprofezin, chlorantraniliprole, difenoconazole, fipronil, imidacloprid, isoprothiolane, pretilachlor, propiconazole, pymetrozine, tebuconazole, tricyclazole, and trifloxystrobin) in personal air samples and their associated health risks among paddy farmers. Eighty-three farmers from Tangjung Karang, Selangor were involved in this study. A solid sorbent tube was attached to the farmer's breathing zone with a clip, and an air pump was fastened to the belt to collect personal air samples. Pesticides collected in the XAD-2 resin were extracted with acetone, centrifuged, concentrated via nitrogen blowdown and reconstituted with 1mL of 3:1 ultrapure water/HPLC-grade methanol solution. The extract was analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The target compounds were detected with a maximum concentration reaching up to 462.5ngm -3 (fipronil). The hazard quotient (HQ) was less than 1 and the hazard index (HI) value was 3.86×10 -3 , indicating that the risk of pesticides related diseases was not significant. The lifetime cancer risk (LCR) for pymetrozine was at an acceptable level (LCR<10 -6 ) with 4.10×10 -8 . The results reported in this study can be beneficial in terms of risk management within the agricultural community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 75 FR 57942 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide..., Cheshire CH65 4EY, United Kingdom, proposes to establish an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance... residues harmful to plants and animals is highly unlikely to occur when it is applied as part of the...

  9. Utilization of long duration high-volume sampling coupled to SPME-GC-MS/MS for the assessment of airborne pesticides variability in an urban area (Strasbourg, France) during agricultural application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaud, Céline; Brucher, Michel; Schummer, Claude; Coscollà, Clara; Wolff, Hélène; Schwartz, Jean-Jacques; Yusà, Vicent; Millet, Maurice

    2016-10-02

    Atmospheric samples have been collected between 14 March and 12 September 2012 on a 2-week basis (15 days of sampling and exchange of traps each 7 days) in Strasbourg (east of France) for the analysis of 43 pesticides. Samples (particle and gas phases) were separately extracted using Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) and pre-concentrated by Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) before analysis by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Four SPME consecutive injections at distinct temperatures were made in order to increase the sensitivity of detection for the all monitored pesticides. Currently used detected pesticides can be grouped in four classes; those used in maize crops (acetochlor, benoxacor, dicamba, s-metolachlor, pendimethalin, and bromoxynil), in cereal crops (benoxacor, chlorothalonil, fenpropimorph, and propiconazole), in vineyards (tebuconazole), and as herbicides for orchards, meadows of green spaces (2,4-MCPA, trichlopyr). This is in accordance with the diversity of crops found in the Alsace region and trends observed are in accordance with the period of application of these pesticides. Variations observed permit also to demonstrate that the long time sampling duration used in this study is efficient to visualize temporal variations of airborne pesticides concentrations. Then, long time high-volume sampling could be a simple method permitting atmospheric survey of atmospheric contamination without any long analysis time and consequently low cost.

  10. Bioefficacy, residue dynamics and safety assessment of the combination fungicide trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%-75 WG in managing early blight of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sujoy; Purath, Ahammed Shabeer Thekkum; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Loganathan, M; Banerjee, Kaushik; Rai, A B

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the in vitro and in vivo bioefficacy of a combination fungicide trifloxystrobin (25%) + tebuconazole (50%) against early blight disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Alternaria solani and their corresponding pre-harvest intervals (PHI) with reference to the maximum residue limits (European Union). Bioefficacy of the test fungicide combination revealed that in vitro conditions manifested the best control (75.1%) at 350 mg kg(-1) against 76.2% control under field conditions. A sample preparation method based on ethyl acetate extraction and estimation by LC-MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was validated in tomato fruits at 0.01 mg/kg and dissipation studies were conducted in field at single and double doses. The residues of both the compounds on all the sampling days were below the European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRLs) and the maximum permissible intakes (MPIs) were calculated on the basis of prescribed acceptable daily intake (ADI). The combined bioefficacy and residue dynamics information will support label-claim of this fungicide combination for the management of early blight in tomato.

  11. 40 CFR 180.1040 - Ethylene glycol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene glycol; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1040 Ethylene glycol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Ethylene glycol as a component of pesticide formulations is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1189 - Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methyl salicylate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1189 Methyl salicylate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide methyl salicylate is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or on...

  13. Reducing Pesticide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.

  14. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  15. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is unlikely that having your home or workplace treated by a professional exterminator will result in a high enough exposure to increase the risk to a pregnancy. To reduce exposure to pesticides found on food, ...

  16. What are Antimicrobial Pesticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi on inanimate objects and surfaces.

  17. What Is a Pesticide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Related ... pesticide's distribution, sale, and use only after the company meets the scientific and regulatory requirements. In evaluating ...

  18. Control of Pesticides 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2004 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing bentazone, dicamba, dichlorprop-P, mecoprop-P, MCPA, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methylsodium, rimsulfuron and triasulfuron. 2) Fungicides...

  19. Pesticide Registration Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and...

  20. Occurrence of pesticides and some of their degradation products in waters in a Spanish wine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Hernández, E.; Andrades, M. S.; Álvarez-Martín, A.; Pose-Juan, E.; Rodríguez-Cruz, M. S.; Sánchez-Martín, M. J.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryA multi-residual analytical method based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was developed to monitor pesticides in natural waters. Fifty-eight compounds, including herbicides, fungicides, insecticides and some of their degradation products, were surveyed to evaluate the quality of natural waters throughout the wine-growing region of La Rioja (Rioja DOCa). Ninety-two sampling points were selected, including surface and ground waters that could be affected by agricultural activities covering the region's three sub-areas. Different parameters that may affect the efficiency of the SPE procedure were optimised (sorbent type, elution solvent and sample volume), and matrix-matched standards were used to eliminate the variable matrix effect and ensure good quantification. The developed method allows the determination of target compounds below the level established by the European Union for waters for human use with suitable precision (relative standard deviations lower than 18%) and accuracy (with recoveries over 61%). Forty compounds included in this study (six insecticides, 12 herbicides, 16 fungicides and six degradation products) were detected in one or more samples. The herbicides terbuthylazine, its metabolite desethyl terbuthylazine, fluometuron and ethofumesate and the fungicides pyrimethanil and tebuconazole were the compounds most frequently detected in water samples (present in more than 60% of the samples). Concentrations above 0.1 μg L-1 were detected for 37 of the compounds studied, and in several cases recorded values of over 18 μg L-1. The results reveal the presence of pesticides in most of the samples investigated. In 64% of groundwaters and 62% of surface waters, the sum of compounds detected was higher than 0.5 μg L-1 (the limit established by EU legislation for the sum of all pesticides detected in waters for human use).

  1. Crafting tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Antje; Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing changes in social structures, orientation, and value systems confront us with the growing necessity to address and understand transforming patterns of tolerance as well as specific aspects, such as social tolerance. Based on hierarchical analyses of the latest World Values Survey (2005......–08) and national statistics for 28 countries, we assess both individual and contextual aspects that influence an individual's perception of different social groupings. Using a social tolerance index that captures personal attitudes toward these groupings, we present an institutional theory of social tolerance. Our...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1159 - Pelargonic acid; exemption from the requirement of tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., vats, fillers, evaporators, pasteurizers and aseptic equipment in restaurants, food service operations, dairies, breweries, wineries, beverage and food processing plants. [62 FR 28364, May 23, 1997, as amended... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1157 - Cytokinins; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extract of seaweed meal and kinetin) in or on all food commodities when used as plant regulators on plants, seeds, or cuttings and on all food commodities after harvest in accordance with good agricultural... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD...

  4. Antimicrobial Pesticide Use Site Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Use Site Index provides guidance to assist applicants for antimicrobial pesticide registration by helping them identify the data requirements necessary to register a pesticide or support their product registrations.

  5. Human Health Benchmarks for Pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Advanced testing methods now allow pesticides to be detected in water at very low levels. These small amounts of pesticides detected in drinking water or source...

  6. ASSOCIATION OF PESTICIDES WITH SOYBEAN LEAF MICRONUTRIENTS CONTENTS AND SEEDS YIELD AND PHYSIOLOGIC QUALITY ASSOCIAÇÃO DE AGROTÓXICOS AOS TEORES FOLIARES DE MICRONUTRIENTES E À PRODUTIVIDADE E QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES DE SOJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cabral França

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Glyphosate effects on leaf micronutrients contents of transgenic soybean have been widely reported, however, little is known about these effects associated with other pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiologic quality and yield of soybean seeds, as well as leaf micronutrients contents, according to weed control methods. Ten RBD treatments were arranged in a split-plot scheme with four replications. The application or non-application of endosulphan + tebuconazole was evaluated in the plots, while the weeds control methods were assessed in the subplots (weeded control; non-weeded control; single application of glyphosate (1,080 g ha-1 and fomesafen + fluazifop-?-butil (180 + 225 g ha-1, both at 15 DAE; and sequential application of glyphosate (1,080 g ha-1 at 15, 30, and 45 DAE. After harvesting, the soybean seeds were sampled, in order to evaluate their germination, vigor, and yield. Copper and manganese contents were only influenced by the sequential application of glyphosate, associated with endosulphan + tebuconazole. The cold test germination was reduced in seeds of plants treated with fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butil associated with endosulphan + tebuconazole. Among the treatments without endosulphan + tebuconazole, the sequential application of glyphosate promoted the highest 100-seeds weight, as well as, when associated with endosulphan + tebuconazole, reduced the leaf concentrations of Cu and Mn, however, it improved seeds germination and showed no effects on seeds vigor, when compared with the weeded soybean.

  7. Om tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Begrebet tolerance og dets betydninger diskuteres med henblik på en tydeliggørelse af begrebets forbindelse med stat, religion, ytringsfrihed, skeptisk erkendelsesteori, antropologi og pædagogik.......Begrebet tolerance og dets betydninger diskuteres med henblik på en tydeliggørelse af begrebets forbindelse med stat, religion, ytringsfrihed, skeptisk erkendelsesteori, antropologi og pædagogik....

  8. Toxicity of Pesticide Tank Mixtures from Rice Crops Against Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de B Pazini, J; Pasini, R A; Rakes, M; de Armas, F S; Seidel, E J; da S Martins, J F; Grützmacher, A D

    2017-08-01

    The use of insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides commonly occurs in mixtures in tanks in order to control phytosanitary problems in crops. However, there is no information regarding the effects of these mixtures on non-target organisms associated to the rice agroecosystem. The aim of this study was to know the toxicity of pesticide tank mixtures from rice crops against Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Based on the methods adapted from the International Organisation for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC), adults of T. podisi were exposed to residues of insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, individually or in mixture commonly used by growers, in laboratory and on rice plants in a greenhouse. The mixture between fungicides tebuconazole, triclyclazole, and azoxystrobin and the mixture between herbicides cyhalofop-butyl, imazethapyr, imazapyr/imazapic, and penoxsulam are harmless to T. podisi and can be used in irrigated rice crops without harming the natural biological control. The insecticides cypermethin, thiamethoxam, and bifenthrin/carbosulfan increase the toxicity of the mixtures in tank with herbicides and fungicides, being more toxic to T. podisi and less preferred for use in phytosanitary treatments in the rice crop protection.

  9. Pesticides analysed in rainwater in Alsace region (Eastern France): Comparison between urban and rural sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

    Current-used pesticides commonly applied in Alsace region (Eastern France) on diverse crops (maize, vineyard, vegetables, etc.) were analysed, together with Lindane, in rainwater between January 2002 and June 2003 simultaneously on two sites situated in a typical rural (Erstein, France) and urban area (Strasbourg, France). Rainwater samples were collected on a weekly basis by using two automatic wet only collectors associated with an open collector for the measurement of rainwater height. Pesticides were analysed by GC-MSMS and extracted from rainwater by SPME. Two runs were performed. The first one was performed by using a PDMS (100 μm) fibre for pesticides where direct injection into GC is possible (alachlor, atrazine, azinphos-ethyl, azinphos-methyl, captan, chlorfenvinphos, dichlorvos, diflufenican, α- and β-endosulfan, iprodione, lindane, metolachlor, mevinphos, parathion-methyl, phosalone, phosmet, tebuconazole, triadimefon and trifluralin). The second run was performed by using PDMS/DVB fibre and this run concerns pesticides where a preliminary derivatisation step with pentafluorobenzylbromide (PFBBr) is required for very low volatiles (bromoxynil,2,4-MCPA, MCPP and 2,4-D) or thermo labiles (chlorotoluron, diuron and isoproturon) pesticides. Results showed that the more concentrated pesticides detected were those used as herbicides in large quantities in Alsace region for maize crops (alachlor, metolachlor and atrazine). Maximum concentrations for these herbicides have been measured during intensive applications periods on maize crops following by rapid decrease immediately after use. For Alachlor, most important peaks have been observed between 21 and 28 April 2003 (3327 ng L -1 at Erstein and 5590 ng L -1 at Strasbourg). This is also the case for Metolachlor where most important peak was observed during the same week. Concentrations of pesticides measured out of application periods were very low for many pesticides and some others where never detected

  10. Biodegradation of mixtures of pesticides by bacteria and white rot fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Gouma, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential for degradation of mixtures of pesticides (chlorpyrifos, linuron, metribuzin) by a range of bacteria and fungi and to relate this capability to enzyme production and quantify the rates of degradation of the components of the mixture of xenobiotic compounds. Overall, although bacteria (19 Bacillus and 4 Pseudomonas species) exhibited tolerance to the individual and micture of pesticides actual degradation was not eviden...

  11. Development of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of pesticides in gaseous and particulate phases in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borras, E.; Sanchez, P.; Munoz, A. [Instituto Universitario Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo CEAM-UMH (Fundacion CEAM-UMH), 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Tortajada-Genaro, L.A., E-mail: luitorge@qim.upv.es [Instituto IDM, Departamento de Quimica, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} An efficient method for the determination of sixteen pesticides in atmospheric samples. {yields} XAD-4 is an interesting support for collecting gas-phase pesticides, with similar performances than the conventional XAD-2. {yields} The ultrasonic extraction is cheaper, less aggressive and time-consuming with excellent analytical parameters. {yields} The method has been successfully tested by using high volume atmospheric simulation chamber and field campaigns. - Abstract: A reliable multi-residue method for determining gaseous and particulate phase pesticides in atmospheric samples has been developed. This method, based on full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), allowed the proper determination of sixteen relevant pesticides, in a wide range of concentrations and without the influence of interferences. The pesticides were benfluralin, bitertanol, buprofezin, chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, ethalfluralin, fenthion, lindane, malathion, methidathion, propachlor, propanil, pyriproxifen, tebuconazol and trifluralin. Comparisons of two types of sampling filters (quartz and glass fibre) and four types of solid-phase cartridges (XAD-2, XAD-4, Florisil and Orbo-49P) showed that the most suitable supports were glass fibre filter for particulate pesticides and XAD-2 and XAD-4 cartridges for gaseous pesticides (>95% recovery). Evaluations of elution solvents for ultrasonic-assisted extraction demonstrated that isooctane is better than ethylacetate, dichloromethane, methanol or a mixture of acetone:hexane (1:1). Recovery assays and the standard addition method were performed to validate the proposed methodology. Moreover, large simulator chamber experiments allowed the best study of the gas-particle partitioning of pesticides for testing the sampling efficiency for the validation of an analytical multiresidue method for pesticides in air. Satisfactory analytical parameters were obtained, with a repeatability of 5 {+-} 1%, a

  12. Citizen's Guide to Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This guide provides suggestions on pest control and safety rules for pesticide use at home. Pest prevention may be possible by modification of pest habitat: removal of food and water sources, removal or destruction of pest shelter and breeding sites, and good horticultural practices that reduce plant stress. Nonchemical alternatives to pesticides…

  13. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...

  14. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.516 Section 174.516 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance...

  15. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.515 Section 174.515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance...

  16. 40 CFR 174.509 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.509 Section 174.509 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance...

  17. 40 CFR 180.522 - Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. 180.522 Section 180.522 Protection of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.522 Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants for processed grain...

  18. Pesticide extraction from table grapes and plums using ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2009-12-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been used as extraction solvents in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the determination of eight multi-class pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox, and fenazaquin) in table grapes and plums. The developed method involves the combination of DLLME and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Samples were first homogenized and extracted with acetonitrile. After evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in water containing sodium chloride, a quick DLLME procedure that used the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) and methanol was developed. The RTIL dissolved in a very small volume of acetonitrile was directed injected in the chromatographic system. The comparison between the calibration curves obtained from standards and from spiked sample extracts (matrix-matched calibration) showed the existence of a strong matrix effect for most of the analyzed pesticides. A recovery study was also developed with five consecutive extractions of the two types of fruits spiked at three concentration levels. Mean recovery values were in the range of 72-100% for table grapes and 66-105% for plum samples (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 64-75% and 58-66%, respectively). Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range 0.651-5.44 microg/kg for table grapes and 0.902-6.33 microg/kg for plums, representing LODs below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union in these fruits. The potential of the method was demonstrated by analyzing 12 commercial fruit samples (six of each type).

  19. Towards Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper; Jurjen Iedema; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2013-01-01

    Across Europe, public attitudes towards lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals range from broad tolerance to widespread rejection. Attitudes towards homosexuality are more than mere individual opinions, but form part of the social and political structures which foster or hinder the equality

  20. Intolerant tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushf, G

    1994-04-01

    The Hyde Amendment and Roman Catholic attempts to put restrictions on Title X funding have been criticized for being intolerant. However, such criticism fails to appreciate that there are two competing notions of tolerance, one focusing on the limits of state force and accepting pluralism as unavoidable, and the other focusing on the limits of knowledge and advancing pluralism as a good. These two types of tolerance, illustrated in the writings of John Locke and J.S. Mill, each involve an intolerance. In a pluralistic context where the free exercise of religion is respected, John Locke's account of tolerance is preferable. However, it (in a reconstructed form) leads to a minimal state. Positive entitlements to benefits like artificial contraception or nontherapeutic abortions can legitimately be resisted, because an intolerance has already been shown with respect to those that consider the benefit immoral, since their resources have been coopted by taxation to advance an end that is contrary to their own. There is a sliding scale from tolerance (viewed as forbearance) to the affirmation of communal integrity, and this scale maps on to the continuum from negative to positive rights.

  1. Seasonal and spatial dynamic of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in an Argentinian watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Debora; Okada, Elena; Menone, Mirta; Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    The Argentinian Pampa region is the major agricultural zone, in which, the agricultural lands are strongly linked to surface waters. However, Argentina has not regulation for most of the current -used pesticides (CUPs) in surface water to protect the aquatic life. The objective of this work was to study the seasonal and spatial variations of CUPs in surface waters of "El Crespo" stream, and to determine the maximum levels reached to evaluate the possible impact on aquatic life. "El Crespo" stream is only influenced by farming activities, with intensive crop systems upstream (US) and extensive livestock production downstream (DS). It is an optimal site for pesticide monitoring studies since there are no urban or industrial inputs into the system. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2014 to October 2015 in the US and DS sites by triplicate using 1 L polypropylene bottles and stored at -20°C until analysis. The samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). The most frequently detected residues (>40%) were glyphosate (GLY) and its metabolite amino methylphosphonic acid (AMPA), atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, 2,4-D, metsulfuron methyl, fluorocloridone, imidacloprid, tebuconazole and epoxiconazole, which are used in the crops cultivated in the area (i.e. soybean, potato, maize and wheat). Individual analysis showed that the herbicide GLY and its metabolite AMPA presented seasonal and spatial variations. The highest concentrations of GLY and AMPA were detected in US site during spring 2014 (2.09 ± 0.39 and 1.13 ± 0.56 µg/L, respectively) and in DS during summer 2015 (1.06 ± 1.02 and 0.20 ± 0.23 µg/L). Comparing total CUPs concentration between sites, a significant increase in UP site during spring 2014 (4.03 ± 0.43 µg/L) in relation to DS (1.54 ± 1.17 µg/L) was observed, may be due to pesticide applications during fallow and transport via surface runoff. Data generated in the present

  2. Tips for Reducing Pesticide Impacts on Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web page provides tips for pesticide users in residential and agricultural settings, as well as tips for certified pesticide applicators for ways to protect wildlife from potentially harmful effects of pesticides.

  3. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the NPDES...

  4. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  5. Finding of pesticides in fashionable fruit juices by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kevin; Eide, David; Nickols, Susan M; Cromer, Michele R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando; Smith, Robert E

    2012-10-15

    Products labelled as containing extracts from two mushrooms (cordyceps plus reishi) and the juices from açaí, goji, mangosteen, noni, pomegranate, and sea buckthorn have been analysed for 174 different pesticides, using the validated QuEChERS method for sample preparation and electrospray LC-MS/MS in the positive ion mode for analysis. Pesticides were found in 10 of the 21 samples analysed. Most pesticides found were below the tolerance levels (1-6 μg/g, depending on the pesticide), but some were not. This included boscalid, dimethomorph, iprovalicarb, pyridaben, pyrimethanil, and imazalil, for which there is no tolerance reported or zero tolerance in any fruit. However, genuine açaí that was harvested in the state of Pará and lyophilised in Rio de Janeiro had no detectable pesticides, when analysed by both LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS, which can detect 213 more pesticides and industrial chemicals. Likewise no pesticides were found in one sample each of cordyceps plus reishi, sea buckthorn and noni. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The geochemistry of pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack E.

    2007-01-01

    The mid-1970s marked a major turning point in human history, for it was at that moment that the ability of the Earth’s ecosystems to absorb most of the biological impacts of human activities appears to have been exceeded by the magnitude of those impacts. This conclusion is based partly upon estimates of the rate of carbon dioxide emission during the combustion of fossil fuels, relative to the rate of its uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (Loh, 2002). A very different threshold, however, had already been crossed several decades earlier with the birth of the modern chemical industry, which produced novel substances for which no such natural assimilative capacity existed. Among these new chemical compounds, none has posed a greater challenge to the planet’s ecosystems than synthetic pesticides, compounds that have been intentionally released into the hydrologic system in vast quantities—several hundred million pounds of active ingredient (a.i.) per year in the United States alone (Donaldson et al., 2002)—for many decades. To gauge the extent to which we are currently able to assess the environmental implications of this new development in the Earth’s history, this chapter presents an overview of current understanding regarding the sources, transport, fate, and biological effects of pesticides, their transformation products, and selected adjuvants in the hydrologic system. (Adjuvants are the so-called inert ingredients included in commercial pesticide formulations to enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredients.)

  7. 40 CFR 180.582 - Pyraclostrobin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., seed 0.45 Hop, dried cones 23.0 Jojoba, seed 0.45 Lesquerella, seed 0.45 Lunaria, seed 0.45 Mango 0.6... use of the pesticide under section 18 emergency exemptions granted by EPA. The time-limited tolerance...

  8. 40 CFR 180.242 - Thiabendazole; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fruit, citrus, group 10, postharvest 10.0 None Fruit, pome, group 11, postharvest 5.0 None Mango 10.0... Strawberry1 5.0 None Sweet potato (postharvest to sweet potato intended only for use as seed) 0.05 None Wheat... connection with use of the pesticide under section 18 emergency exemptions granted by EPA. The tolerances are...

  9. 40 CFR 180.516 - Fludioxonil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subgroup 4A, except spinach 30 Lingonberry 2.0 Longan 1.0 Lychee 1.0 Mango 0.45 Melon subgroup 9A 0.03... connection with use of the pesticide under section 18 emergency exemptions granted by EPA. The tolerances...

  10. 78 FR 55641 - Polyurethane-Type Polymers; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ...-Type Polymers; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... polymers produced by the reaction of either 1,6-hexanediisocyanate; 2,4,4-trimethyl-1,6-hexanediisocyanate... (also known as polyurethane-type polymers), when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical...

  11. Electronic Submissions of Pesticide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications for pesticide registration can be submitted electronically, including forms, studies, and draft product labeling. Applicants need not submit multiple electronic copies of any pieces of their applications.

  12. Analysis of airborne pesticides from different chemical classes adsorbed on Radiello® Tenax® passive tubes by thermal-desorption-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeppel, Caroline; Fabritius, Marie; Nief, Marie; Appenzeller, Brice M R; Briand, Olivier; Tuduri, Ludovic; Millet, Maurice

    2015-02-01

    An analytical methodology using automatic thermal desorption (ATD) and GC/MS was developed for the determination of 28 pesticides of different chemical classes (dichlobenil, carbofuran, trifluralin, clopyralid, carbaryl, flazasulfuron, mecoprop-P, dicamba, 2,4-MCPA, dichlorprop, 2,4-D, triclopyr, cyprodinil, bromoxynil, fluroxypyr, oxadiazon, myclobutanil, buprofezin, picloram, trinexapac-p-ethyl, ioxynil, diflufenican, tebuconazole, bifenthrin, isoxaben, alphacypermethrin, fenoxaprop and tau-fluvalinate) commonly used in nonagricultural areas in atmospheric samples. This methodology was developed to evaluate the indoor and outdoor atmospheric contamination by nonagricultural pesticides. Pesticides were sampled passive sampling tubes containing Tenax® adsorbent. Since most of these pesticides are polar (clopyralid, mecoprop-P, dicamba, 2,4-MCPA, dichlorprop, 2,4-D, triclopyr, bromoxynil, fluroxypyr, picloram, trinexapac-p-ethyl and ioxynil), a derivatisation step is required. For this purpose, a silylation step using N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MtBSTFA) was added before thermal desorption. This agent was chosen since it delivers very specific ions on electronic impact (m/z = M-57). This method was established with special consideration for optimal thermal desorption conditions (desorption temperature, desorb flow and duration; trap heating duration and flow; outlet split), linear ranges, limits of quantification and detection which varied from 0.005 to 10 ng and from 0.001 to 2.5 ng, respectively, for an uncertainty varied from 8 to 30 %. The method was applied in situ to the analysis of passive tubes exposed during herbicide application to an industrial site in east of France.

  13. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  14. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplets for simultaneous extraction of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marube, Liziane Cardoso; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Soares, Karina Lotz; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplets (DLLME-SFO) has been applied to the extraction of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and pesticides from water samples. The PPCPs included bisphenol A, sodium diclofenac, gemfibrozil, furosemide, glibenclamide, nifedipine, nimesulide, propylparaben and triclocarban. The pesticides included 2,4-D, atrazine, azoxystrobin, cyproconazole, clomazone, dichloran, difenoconazole, diuron, epoxiconazole, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, fipronil, iprodione, irgarol, propanil, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and trifloxystrobin. The type and volume of extraction solvent, type and volume of disperser solvent, ionic strength and pH were optimized. All species were then quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 50 to 500 ng L −1 , and the linearity ranged from the LOQ of each compound up to 10,000 ng L −1 . Recoveries ranged from 63 to 120 %, with relative standard deviations lower than 14 %. It is making use of a low-toxicity and affordable extraction solvent (1-dodecanol) and was successfully applied to the analysis of surface water samples. (author)

  15. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee and Pesticide Regulatory Reform Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs will hold a public meeting of the Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC) on Wednesday, May 3, from 9:00 a.m. to 4:45 p.m., and on Thursday, May 4, from 8:30 a.m. to noon.

  16. Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE). 1. Agricultural pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans HJB; Beek MA; Linders JBHJ

    1992-01-01

    In this report a risk assessment or evaluation system for agricultural pesticides is presented, which estimates the hazards for man and environment resulting from the use of these pesticides. The evaluation system has also been placed within the context of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of

  17. Tracer work in pesticide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    Innumerable studies on the large number of pesticides being used throughout the world led to some adverse findings on the properties and behavior of these chemicals and their degradation products in revelation to potential toxicity and environmental pollution. However, it is also a fact (difficult to accept as it may) that the use of pesticides as an indirect means of increasing food production cannot yet be dispensed with despite the potential dangers attributed to it. What can be done is to insure its judicious application which means minimizing its effectiveness in controlling pest infestations. To be able to do this it is necessary to know not only what pesticide is to be used against a given pest but also the fate of pesticide after application to a particular environment under prevailing conditions. Knowledge of the distribution and persistence of the parent compounds under metabolites will also help either, to confirm or to dispel the alleged dangers posed by them. Radiotracer methodology is particularly effective for this type of work because it permits highly sensitive analysis with minimum clean-up and permits one to determine even the bound residues which defies ordinary extraction procedures. Some studies made are studies on fate of pesticides in plant after foliar application to plant needs, uptake and translocation of systemic pesticides, fate of pesticides in soil, bioaccumulation of pesticide by aquatic organisms, etc. This particular study is on distribution of pesticide among the components of a rice/fish ecosystem. This project aims to generate data from experiments conducted in a model ecosystem using radiolabelled lindane and carbo-furan. In both cases, results show a decline in extractable species from the recommended dosage of pesticide application although they tend to imbibe a considerable amount of pesticide. It is hoped that depuration in additional experiments will bring useful results. (Auth.)

  18. Choice of pesticide fate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balderacchi, Matteo; Trevisan, Marco; Vischetti, Costantino

    2006-01-01

    The choice of a pesticide fate model at field scale is linked to the available input data. The article describes the available pesticide fate models at a field scale and the guidelines for the choice of the suitable model as function of the data input requested [it

  19. Pesticide Health and Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal Health Safe Use Practices Pest Control Food Safety Low Risk Pesticides Integrated Pest Management directed by the product label. Pesticides may be ingested if stored improperly in food or beverage ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife

  20. Behavior of pesticides in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan A. Norris

    1974-01-01

    A number of chemicals of diverse characteristics have arbitrarily been classed together on the basis of their use and given the descriptive name "pesticides." An unfortunate aura of mystery has developed about these chemicals. However, there is nothing unique or mysterious about the chemicals we refer to as "pesticides." Like other chemicals, they...

  1. 77 FR 26954 - 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... population subgroups was not selected because no including infants and children). effect attributable to a... sinusoidal histocytosis in the liver of 50% of the males. Dermal short-term (1 to 30 days). Dermal (or oral... Inhalation short-term (1 to 30 Inhalation (or oral) LOC for MOE = 100.. Developmental Toxicity Study--Rat...

  2. 77 FR 75855 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerance for Emergency Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... water (considered to be a background exposure level). A short-term and intermediate-term adverse effect... Agency estimates risk in terms of the probability of an occurrence of the adverse effect expected in a... children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the...

  3. 76 FR 7712 - Clothianidin; Time-Limited Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... information in support of this action. EPA has sufficient data to assess the hazards of and to make a... evidence suggests that clothianidin operates by direct competitive inhibition, while thiamethoxam is a non... value of 10X, or uses a different additional safety factor when reliable data available to EPA support...

  4. 77 FR 66715 - Fluridone; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ...--Summary of Toxicological Doses and Endpoints for Fluridone for Use in Human Health Risk Assessment Point... account data on the physical, chemical, and fate/transport characteristics of fluridone. Further... pest control, termiticides, swimming in treated water, and flea and tick control on pets). Fluridone is...

  5. 75 FR 8256 - Nicosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ....gov in the July 14, 2009 document ``Nicosulfuron: Human Health Risk Assessment for Proposed Section 18... account data on the physical, chemical, and fate/transport characteristics of nicosulfuron. Further... garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Nicosulfuron...

  6. 75 FR 16017 - Cloquintocet-mexyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... certain entities. If you have any questions regarding the applicability of this action to a particular... for maternal/parental toxicity were either less than or equal to the NOAELs for fetal or reproductive... follows: PART 180--[AMENDED] 0 1. The authority citation for part 180 continues to read as follows...

  7. 76 FR 31479 - Pyraflufen-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... risk exceeds approximately 3 x 10 -6 . This is particularly the case where some conservatism is... refined, it retains significant conservatism due, among other things, to the assumption that 100 percent...

  8. 78 FR 38226 - Sulfoxaflor; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Fruit, stone, group 12 3.0 Goat, fat 0.10 Goat, meat 0.15 Goat, meat byproducts 0.40 Grain, aspirated fractions 20.0 Grape, raisin 6.0 Hog, fat 0.01 Hog, meat 0.01 Hog, meat byproducts 0.01 Horse, fat 0.10..., fat 0.10 Cattle, meat 0.15 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.40 Cauliflower 0.08 Citrus, dried pulp 3.6 Cotton...

  9. 77 FR 12740 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... at 12 ppm; cattle (fat, meat, meat byproducts) at 0.05 ppm; goat (fat, meat, meat byproducts) at 0.05 ppm; horse (fat, meat, meat byproducts) at 0.05 ppm and sheep (fat, meat, meat byproducts) at 0.05 ppm..., meat 0.02 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.04 Goat, fat 0.02 [[Page 12746

  10. 76 FR 23898 - Mefenpyr-diethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Barley, straw 0.5 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.1 Goat, meat byproducts 0.1 Grass, forage 1.6 Grass, hay 0.2 Hog, meat byproducts 0.1 Horse, meat byproducts 0.1 Sheep, meat byproducts 0.1 Sorghum, grain, forage...

  11. 77 FR 20752 - Methyl Bromide; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ..., plant product, noxious weed, or article if the Secretary determines that the prohibition or restriction... and children. IV. Other Considerations A. Analytical Enforcement Methodology An adequate analytical...

  12. 77 FR 26456 - Carfentrazone-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... observed in the form of decreased body-weight gains, increased liver weights, liver and bile duct.../organs identified are the blood and liver and the most sensitive species was the rat. Subchronic toxicity... urinary porphyrin excretion, increased liver weights, and liver histopathology findings consisting of...

  13. 76 FR 5711 - Bispyribac-sodium; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... sensitizer. The liver and bile duct were identified as the target organs in the subchronic and chronic... of the intrahepatic bile ducts in males and females and granulation of the liver in the females... intrahepatic bile duct. Short-Term Inhalation (1-30 Oral study NOAEL = LOC for MOE = 100 Developmental Toxicity...

  14. 77 FR 67282 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production... kiwifruit, subgroup 13-07F; onion, bulb, subgroup 3-07A; onion, green, subgroup 3-07B; peach; tea, dried..., Onion Subgroup 3-07A, Onion Subgroup 3-07B, Small Fruit Subgroup 13- 07F, Berry Subgroup 13-07H, Peach...

  15. 75 FR 19268 - Kasugamycin; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS... into account uncertainties inherent in the extrapolation from laboratory animal data to humans and in... recommended by public health experts to sustain the effectiveness of antibiotic materials. Field use of this...

  16. 77 FR 72223 - Clodinafop-Propargyl; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ..., please submit a copy of the filing (excluding any Confidential Business Information (CBI)) for inclusion... submit electronically any information you consider to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other...) (i.e., 10X for acute risk for females 13+ and chronic risk; 3X for acute risk for infants and...

  17. 76 FR 82152 - Cyhalofop-butyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... hematuria (gross pathological examinations revealed cloudy or dark colored kidneys). Slight kidney tubular... and the occurrence of cloudy or dark colored kidneys on gross pathological examination) were seen in... with the EPA Final Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (March 29, 2005). UFA = extrapolation from...

  18. 77 FR 59561 - Sulfoxaflor; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Zone Model/Exposure Analysis Modeling System (PRZM/EXAMS) and Screening Concentration in Ground Water... humans. Data indicate that juvenile rats are uniquely sensitive to perturbation of the muscular nicotinic...

  19. 77 FR 48902 - S-Metolachlor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... fate/transport characteristics of S-metolachlor. Further information regarding EPA drinking water... for which there is reliable information.'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in... information from the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food...

  20. 78 FR 7266 - Alpha-Cypermethrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... exposure, EPA used food consumption information from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996... data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture/National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA/NASS... > 6 years. For exposures from birth to Based on an evaluation of over 70 guideline toxicity studies...

  1. 77 FR 41346 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... and wheat, middlings as well as change the commodity definition for hog, kidney. Additionally the EPA..., molasses; and wheat, bran under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: Comments must be... commodity definition for ``hog, kidney'' to ``hog, meat by-products'' as these changes are needed to correct...

  2. 76 FR 22620 - Triflusulfuron-Methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective April 22... histopathological changes consistent with mild hemolytic anemia were observed in the rat and the dog. Following... observed in the rat, and testicular atrophy and reduced size were observed in the dog. Liver effects...

  3. 76 FR 56644 - Sulfur Dioxide; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... cause any relevant toxic effects, no quantitative dietary risk assessment is needed. Short-term studies... ingestion of sulfiting agents used as preservatives in food products, beverages, and fresh fruits and... phase of a study now being conducted on figs was submitted with this exemption request. The design of...

  4. Quality control of pesticide products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-15

    In light of an established need for more efficient analytical procedures, this publication, which documents the findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on “Quality Control of Pesticide Products”, simplifies the existing protocol for pesticide analysis while simultaneously upholding existing standards of quality. This publication includes both a report on the development work done in the CRP and a training manual for use by pesticide analysis laboratories. Based on peer reviewed and internationally recognized methods published by the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and the Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC), this report provides laboratories with versatile tools to enhance the analysis of pesticide chemicals and to extend the scope of available analytical repertoires. Adoption of the proposed analytical methodologies promises to reduce laboratories’ use of solvents and the time spent on reconfiguration and set-up of analytical equipment.

  5. Quality control of pesticide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In light of an established need for more efficient analytical procedures, this publication, which documents the findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on “Quality Control of Pesticide Products”, simplifies the existing protocol for pesticide analysis while simultaneously upholding existing standards of quality. This publication includes both a report on the development work done in the CRP and a training manual for use by pesticide analysis laboratories. Based on peer reviewed and internationally recognized methods published by the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and the Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC), this report provides laboratories with versatile tools to enhance the analysis of pesticide chemicals and to extend the scope of available analytical repertoires. Adoption of the proposed analytical methodologies promises to reduce laboratories’ use of solvents and the time spent on reconfiguration and set-up of analytical equipment

  6. Infectious Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Kakirman, Hacer; Stassen, Michael; Knop, Jürgen; Enk, Alexander H.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg) are mandatory for maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. We demonstrate that the cell-cell contact–mediated suppression of conventional CD4+ T cells by human CD25+ Treg cells is fixation resistant, independent from membrane-bound TGF-β but requires activation and protein synthesis of CD25+ Treg cells. Coactivation of CD25+ Treg cells with Treg cell–depleted CD4+ T cells results in anergized CD4+ T cells that in turn inhibit the activation of conventional, ...

  7. Pesticide reducing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    -mentioned models and tools. All three scenarios are constructed such that they result in the same welfare implication (measured by national consumption in the CGE model). The scenarios are: 1) pesticide taxes resulting in a 25 percent overall reduction; 2) use of unsprayed field margins, resulting in the same...... for improving bio-diversity and securing drinking water. That is, combining economic modeling with physical biological modeling and geological evaluation allows us to select unsprayed field margins as the most effective instrument. Sensitivity analysis conducted on bio-diversity suggest that this result...

  8. 75 FR 62323 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling... the pesticide container and containment regulations to provide an 8-month extension of the labeling... titled ``Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment'' (71 FR...

  9. Training Manual Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health and Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maden, van der E.C.L.J.; Koomen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in the horticulture sector. While emphasis is often on the correct and efficient application of pesticides, the risk associated with application of pesticides receives less attention. Those working with pesticides need to know about occupational pesticide exposure and

  10. Quantitative Structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the cattle milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqir Muhammad*, Ijaz Javed, Masood Akhtar1, Zia-ur-Rahman, Mian Muhammad Awais1, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi2 and Muhammad Irfan Anwar3

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk of cattle was collected from various localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Pesticides concentration was determined by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The residue analysis revealed that about 40% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SE levels (ppm of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.38±0.02, 0.26±0.02, 0.072±0.01 and 0.085±0.02, respectively. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models were used to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the milk of cattle using their known physicochemical properties such as molecular weight (MW, melting point (MP, and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w as well as the milk characteristics such as pH, % fat, and specific gravity (SG in this species. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.91 for cattle QSAR model. The coefficient for Ko/w for the studied pesticides was higher in cattle milk. Risk analysis was conducted based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes. The daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study were 3, 11, 2.5 times higher, respectively in cattle milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.

  11. Infectious Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Kakirman, Hacer; Stassen, Michael; Knop, Jürgen; Enk, Alexander H.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg) are mandatory for maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. We demonstrate that the cell-cell contact–mediated suppression of conventional CD4+ T cells by human CD25+ Treg cells is fixation resistant, independent from membrane-bound TGF-β but requires activation and protein synthesis of CD25+ Treg cells. Coactivation of CD25+ Treg cells with Treg cell–depleted CD4+ T cells results in anergized CD4+ T cells that in turn inhibit the activation of conventional, freshly isolated CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. This infectious suppressive activity, transferred from CD25+ Treg cells via cell contact, is cell contact–independent and partially mediated by soluble transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The induction of suppressive properties in conventional CD4+ Th cells represents a mechanism underlying the phenomenon of infectious tolerance. This explains previously published conflicting data on the role of TGF-β in CD25+ Treg cell–induced immunosuppression. PMID:12119350

  12. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus Reduces Organophosphate Pesticide Absorption and Toxicity to Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinder, Mark; McDowell, Tim W; Daisley, Brendan A; Ali, Sohrab N; Leong, Hon S; Sumarah, Mark W; Reid, Gregor

    2016-10-15

    Organophosphate pesticides used in agriculture can pose health risks to humans and wildlife. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus, a genus of commensal bacteria, would reduce absorption and toxicity of consumed organophosphate pesticides (parathion and chlorpyrifos [CP]). Several Lactobacillus species were screened for toleration of 100 ppm of CP or parathion in MRS broth based on 24-h growth curves. Certain Lactobacillus strains were unable to reach stationary-phase culture maxima and displayed an abnormal culture morphology in response to pesticide. Further characterization of commonly used, pesticide-tolerant and pesticide-susceptible, probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) and L. rhamnosus strain GR-1 (LGR-1), respectively, revealed that both strains could significantly sequester organophosphate pesticides from solution after 24-h coincubations. This effect was independent of metabolic activity, as L. rhamnosus GG did not hydrolyze CP and no difference in organophosphate sequestration was observed between live and heat-killed strains. Furthermore, LGR-1 and LGG reduced the absorption of 100 μM parathion or CP in a Caco-2 Transwell model of the small intestine epithelium. To determine the effect of sequestration on acute toxicity, newly eclosed Drosophila melanogaster flies were exposed to food containing 10 μM CP with or without supplementation with live LGG. Supplementation with LGG simultaneously, but not with administration of CP 3 days prior (prophylactically), mitigated CP-induced mortality. In summary, the results suggest that L. rhamnosus may be useful for reducing toxic organophosphate pesticide exposure via passive binding. These findings could be transferable to clinical and livestock applications due to affordability and practical ability to supplement products with food-grade bacteria. The consequences of environmental pesticide pollution due to widespread usage in agriculture and soil leaching are becoming a

  13. Promising pesticide results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Virotec Global Solutions has announced what it believes is the first successful destruction of intractable organochlorine pesticide contamination in industrial wastewater. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, otherwise known as DDT, is one of the most intractable and persistent chemical compounds known to man. In February remediation specialist Virotec reported it had been successful in reducing DDT contaminant levels. In addition to destroying DDT in wastewater, Virotec showed its ViroFlow Technology can reduce levels of two DDT metabolites (or breakdown products), DDD and DDE, along with an organo-phosphate insecticide called chlorpyrifos. Virotec was commissioned by a large pesticide and fertiliser company to find a way of using its ViroFlow suite of products to reliably reduce high levels of pesticides and heavy metals from wastewater and stormwater at an industrial site. “Along with our strategic partner Green Shadows Commercial from Tasmania, we were able to successfully reduce DDT from 108 parts per billion to under two parts per billion in industrial wastewater using a combination of ozofractionation and ElectroBind reagent,” said business development manager Gisela Barros. “In addition, we were successful in demonstrating similar reductions in Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) from 15.2 parts per billion to under 0.5 parts per billion, and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) from one part per billion to under accurate to around 0.5 parts per billion.” The level of detection for pesticides was 0.5 parts per billion (ppb). In addition, ViroFlow reduced chlorpyrifos from 7,972 ppb to 6.4 ppb, arsenic (a key ingredient in pesticide composition) from 0.13 parts per million (ppm) to 0.002 ppm, and zinc from 0.35 ppm to less than 0.005 ppm. “The significance of these findings cannot be overstated,” Barros said. “DDT and its metabolites are among the most persistent and toxic contaminants to be found in soil and groundwater and

  14. Long-term lessons on pesticide leaching obtained via the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Anette E.; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn

    To avoid any unacceptable influence on the environment posed by pesticides and their degradation products, all pesticides used in the European Union needs authorization. The authorization procedure includes assessing the leaching risk of both pesticides and their degradation products...

  15. Better ways of using pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.

    1992-01-01

    The primary role of agriculture is to produce a reliable supply of wholesome food to feed the world's population, safely and without adverse effects on the environment. Pesticides have a crucial part to play in reducing the loss of food during production and after harvesting, and this article discusses how the use of pesticides can be made more efficient. Two particular examples of safer and more effective pesticide delivery systems are described, relating to tsetse fly control in Africa and to the control of weeds in a rice paddy or rice-fish mixed ecosystem. 45 refs, 6 figs

  16. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhilash, P.C.; Singh, Nandita

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  17. Biodegradation and Utilization of Organophosphorus Pesticide Malathion by Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three strains of filamentous Cyanobacteria were used to study their growth and utilization of organophosphorus pesticide malathion. A sharp decrease in the growth of the algal strains was observed by increasing the concentration of malathion. Amongst them Nostoc muscorum tolerated different concentrations and was recorded as the highest efficient strain for biodegradation (91% of this compound. Moreover, carbohydrate and protein content of their cells overtopped the other strains especially at higher concentrations. The algal strains were further subjected to grow under P-limitation in absence and presence of malathion. Although, the algal growth under P-limitation recorded a very poor level, a massive enhanced growth and phosphorous content of cells were obtained when the P-limited medium was amended with malathion. This study clarified that N. muscorum with its capability to utilize malathion as a sole phosphorous source is considered as an inexpensive and efficient biotechnology for remediation of organophosphorus pesticide from contaminated wastewater.

  18. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesseling, Catharina; Corriols, Marianela; Bravo, Viria

    2005-01-01

    The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings

  19. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  20. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

  1. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PPIS includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status for all products registered in the U.S.

  2. Repressive Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Jarlbæk

    2017-01-01

    Consultation of organised interests and others when drafting laws is often seen as an important source of both input and output legitimacy. But whereas the input side of the equation stems from the very process of listening to societal actors, output legitimacy can only be strengthened if consult......Consultation of organised interests and others when drafting laws is often seen as an important source of both input and output legitimacy. But whereas the input side of the equation stems from the very process of listening to societal actors, output legitimacy can only be strengthened...... a substantial effect on the substance of laws – shows that there is a great difference in the amenability of different branches of government but that, in general, authorities do not listen much despite a very strong consultation institution and tradition. A suggestion for an explanation could be pointing...... to an administrative culture of repressive tolerance of organised interests: authorities listen but only reacts in a very limited sense. This bears in it the risk of jeopardising the knowledge transfer from societal actors to administrative ditto thus harming the consultation institutions’ potential for strengthening...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR... tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1120 - Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1120 Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biological pesticide Streptomyces sp. strain K61 is exempted from the requirement...

  5. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid... pesticide formulation. Advance Polymer Technology submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food, Drug...

  6. 40 CFR 174.502 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A.105 protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A.105 protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.502 Section 174.502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and...

  7. 40 CFR 174.504 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F protein in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F protein in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.504 Section 174.504 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and...

  8. 40 CFR 174.517 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.517 Section 174.517 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and...

  9. 40 CFR 174.520 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.520 Section 174.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and...

  10. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) or are required to register pesticides. The following list... remediation, on nonporous and porous surfaces, for residual activity, for mold prevention, and in heating...

  11. Household pesticide usage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, E P; Keefe, T J; Wheeler, H W; Mounce, L; Helwic, L; Applehans, F; Goes, E; Goes, T; Mihlan, G; Rench, J; Taylor, D K

    1981-01-01

    A total of 10,000 U.S. households in 25 standard metropolitan statistical areas and 25 counties were included in the United States. More than 8,200 households granted an interview. Nine of every ten households in the United States used some types of pesticide in their house, garden, or yard. Households in the southeastern United States used the most pesticides. Although more than 500 different pesticide formulations were used by the sampled households, 15 pesticides accounted for 65.5% of all pesticides reported in this study. Thirteen of these 15 pesticides were insecticides, one was a herbicide, and one was a rodenticide.

  12. Phytotoxicity of pesticides mancozeb and chlorpyrifos: correlation with the antioxidative defence system in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatma, Firdos; Verma, Sonam; Kamal, Aisha; Srivastava, Alka

    2018-02-01

    Pesticides are a group of chemical substances which are widely used to improve agricultural production. However, these substances could be persistent in soil and water, accumulative in sediment or bio-accumulative in biota depending on their solubility, leading to different types of environmental pollution. The present study was done to assess the impact of pesticides-mancozeb and chlorpyrifos, via morphological and physiological parameters using Allium cepa test system. Phytotoxic effects of pesticides were examined via germination percentage, survival percentage, root and shoot length, root shoot length ratio, seedling vigor index, percentage of phytotoxicity and tolerance index. Oxidative stress on Allium seedlings caused by pesticides was also assessed by investigating the activity of antioxidative enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Correlation was worked out between morphological parameters and antioxidative enzymes to bring out the alliance between them. Mancozeb and chlorpyrifos concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with the activity of antioxidative enzymes and negatively correlated with morphological parameters. Significant positive correlation between various morphological parameters showed their interdependency. However, negative correlation was obtained between activity of antioxidative enzymes and morphological parameters. The enzymes however, showed positive correlation with each other. Based on our result we can conclude that all morphological parameters were adversely affected by the two pesticides as reflected by phytotoxicity in Allium . Their negative correlation with activity of antioxidative enzymes indicates that upregulation of antioxidative enzymes is not sufficient to overcome the toxic effect, thereby signifying the threat being caused by the regular use of these pesticides.

  13. Pesticide Degrading Bacteria in Aquatic Environment: Bioprospecting and Evaluation of Biotechnological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rodrigues dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides play an important role in the increase of productivity in agro-industry and the extensive use of these substances cause environmental, economic and social damage in time. Microbial activity is an essential part in the dynamics and the destination of pesticides in the environment. This research focuses in prospecting and characterizing bacterial strains which are potentially able to degrade/tolerate Atrazine, Chlorpyrifos, Methyl parathion and Picloram. Bacteria were isolated from water samples collected according to the degree of salinity along the Pacoti River's estuary (Ceara, located in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. A total of 49 bacterial strains were isolated, all of which tolerated/ downgraded concentrations up to 200mg/L of picloram, atrazine and methyl parathion. Tested in pesticide mixtures, the percentage and tolerance level showed that 73% grew in concentrations up to 200mg/L, 17,4% tolerated/ downgraded up to 150ml/L and the remainder only grew in concentrations under 100ml/L. The strains which had the best performance against pesticides, by points, were P1 (13Db e 14D; P2 (10E; P3 (2M, 9M, 10M, 12Mb, 14M, 17M 18Mp 19M e 20M. A high percentage of isolates (67% expressed luminescence when exposed to the pesticides atrazine and methyl parathion in concentrations between 150 and 200ml/L. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i4.748

  14. 75 FR 33705 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling... the pesticide container and containment regulations to provide a 4-month extension of the 40 CFR 156... pesticide labels to comply with the label requirements in the container and containment regulations. DATES...

  15. Pesticide risks around the home (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

  16. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective ...

  17. Secondary Containers and Service Containers for Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary containers and service containers are used by pesticide applicators in the process of applying a pesticide. EPA does not require secondary containers or service containers to be labeled or to meet particular construction standards. Learn more.

  18. Chiral Pesticides: Identification, Description and Environmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless...

  19. How We Engage Our Pesticide Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of EPA's pesticide program is directly connected to our efforts to engage all stakeholders. In addition to meetings on pesticide-specific actions, we sponsor advisory committees that include diverse, independent stakeholders.

  20. 75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ..., Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection..., Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. [FR Doc. 2010-1582 Filed 1-26-10...