WorldWideScience

Sample records for tebuconazole pesticide tolerances

  1. Removal of the pesticide tebuconazole in constructed wetlands: design comparison, influencing factors and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Lyu, T; Zhang, L; Xu, X; Arias, CA; Brix, H; Carvalho, PN

    2018-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are a promising technology to treat pesticide contaminated water, but its implementation is impeded by lack of data to optimize designs and operating factors. Unsaturated and saturated CW designs were used to compare the removal of triazole pesticide, tebuconazole, in unplanted mesocosms and mesocosms planted with five different plant species: Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Iris pseudacorus, Juncus effusus and Berula erecta. Tebuconazole removal efficiencies...

  2. Removal of emerging organic pollutants in constructed wetlands: imazalil and tebuconazole as model pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    on aquatic environment and human health. Constructed wetland systems (CWs) have been an economical, robust and sustainable technology for wastewater treatment, and are emerging for the treatment of pesticides contaminated water. However, excluding the studies on pesticides removal efficiency, the research......The pesticides imazalil and tebuconazole are commonly used to protect various agricultural crops against fungal attack or as biocides for wood protection, as such, they have been found in both rural and urban water bodies. The emerging pesticides are gaining prominence due to the toxic effects...... model pesticides imazalil and tebuconazole under different CWs designs with various operation strategies. The results showed that CWs can be applied to efficiently treat imazalil and tebuconazole contaminated wastewater. The pesticides removal in CWs can be adequate described by first order kinetics...

  3. Removal of the pesticide tebuconazole in constructed wetlands: Design comparison, influencing factors and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Tao; Zhang, Liang; Xu, Xiao; Arias, Carlos A; Brix, Hans; Carvalho, Pedro N

    2018-02-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are a promising technology to treat pesticide contaminated water, but its implementation is impeded by lack of data to optimize designs and operating factors. Unsaturated and saturated CW designs were used to compare the removal of triazole pesticide, tebuconazole, in unplanted mesocosms and mesocosms planted with five different plant species: Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Iris pseudacorus, Juncus effusus and Berula erecta. Tebuconazole removal efficiencies were significantly higher in unsaturated CWs than saturated CWs, showing for the first time the potential of unsaturated CWs to treat tebuconazole contaminated water. An artificial neural network model was demonstrated to provide more accurate predictions of tebuconazole removal than the traditional linear regression model. Also, tebuconazole removal could be fitted an area-based first order kinetics model in both CW designs. The removal rate constants were consistently higher in unsaturated CWs (range of 2.6-10.9 cm d -1 ) than in saturated CWs (range of 1.7-7.9 cm d -1 ) and higher in planted CWs (range of 3.1-10.9 cm d -1 ) than in unplanted CWs (range of 1.7-2.6 cm d -1 ) for both designs. The low levels of sorption of tebuconazole to the substrate (0.7-2.1%) and plant phytoaccumulation (2.5-12.1%) indicate that the major removal pathways were biodegradation and metabolization inside the plants after plant uptake. The main factors influencing tebuconazole removal in the studied systems were system design, hydraulic loading rate and plant presence. Moreover, tebuconazole removal was positively correlated to dissolved oxygen and all nutrients removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enantioselective uptake, translocation and degradation of the chiral pesticides tebuconazole and imazalil by Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tao; Carvalho, Pedro N; Casas, Mònica Escolà; Bollmann, Ulla E; Arias, Carlos A; Brix, Hans; Bester, Kai

    2017-10-01

    Phytoremediation of realistic environmental concentrations (10 μg L -1 ) of the chiral pesticides tebuconazole and imazalil by Phragmites australis was investigated. This study focussed on removal dynamics, enantioselective mechanisms and transformation products (TPs) in both hydroponic growth solutions and plant tissues. For the first time, we documented uptake, translocation and metabolisation of these pesticides inside wetland plants, using enantioselective analysis. Tebuconazole and imazalil removal efficiencies from water reached 96.1% and 99.8%, respectively, by the end of the experiment (day 24). Removal from the solutions could be described by first-order removal kinetics with removal rate constants of 0.14 d -1 for tebuconazole and 0.31 d -1 for imazalil. Removal of the pesticides from the hydroponic solution, plant uptake, within plant translocation and degradation occurred simultaneously. Tebuconazole and imazalil concentrations inside Phragmites peaked at day 10 and 5d, respectively, and decreased thereafter. TPs of tebuconazole i.e., (5-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-pentanediol and 5-(3-((1H-1,2,4-Triazol-1-yl)methyl)-3-hydroxy-4,4-dimethylpentyl)-2-chlorophenol) were quantified in solution, while the imazalil TPs (α-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol and 3-[1-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethoxy]-1,2-propanediol) were quantified in both solution and plant tissue. Pesticide uptake by Phragmites was positively correlated with evapotranspiration. Pesticide removal from the hydroponic solution was not enantioselective. However, tebuconazole was degraded enantioselectively both in the roots and shoots. Imazalil translocation and degradation inside Phragmites were also enantioselective: R-imazalil translocated faster than S-imazalil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 78 FR 68741 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ...%; cherries, (babyfood), 42%; cherries (all other food forms), 100%; corn, sweet, 22%; hops 64%; plum 26...%; cherries (all other food forms), 66%; corn, sweet, 14%; hops, 64%; plum, 24%; turnip, 44%). For further... A. Analytical Enforcement Methodology Adequate enforcement methodology (Gas Chromatography/Nitrogen...

  6. 75 FR 24421 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... are observed (the NOAEL) in the toxicology study identified as appropriate for use in risk assessment... been completed for residential handler scenarios as well as residential post-application scenarios. 4... Adequate gas chromatography/nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC/NPD) and liquid chromatography/mass...

  7. 76 FR 54127 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... DAF = 23.1% weights, brain measurements and motor activity in offspring. Inhalation short-term... concern. DAF = dermal absorption factor. C. Exposure Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed...

  8. Removal of emerging organic pollutants in constructed wetlands: imazalil and tebuconazole as model pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Lyu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The pesticides imazalil and tebuconazole are commonly used to protect variousagricultural crops against fungal attack or as biocides for wood protection, as such, they have been found in both rural and urban water bodies. The emerging pesticides are gaining prominence due to the toxic effects on aquatic environment and human health. Constructed wetland systems (CWs) have been an economical, robust and sustainable technology for wastewater treatment, and are emerging for the treatment of pesti...

  9. Removal of the pesticides imazalil and tebuconazole in saturated constructed wetland mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tao; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Liang; Carvalho, Pedro N; Arias, Carlos A; Brix, Hans

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of the pesticides imazalil and tebuconazole at realistic concentration levels (10 and 100 μg L(-1)) in saturated constructed wetland (CW) mesocosms planted with five wetland plant species (Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Iris pseudacorus, Juncus effusus and Berula erecta) at different hydraulic loading rates during summer and winter. The removal of imazalil and tebuconazole was not influenced by the influent concentration, but the removal efficiency for both compounds was lower in winter than in summer. Planted mesocosms had significantly higher removal efficiencies than the unplanted controls only in summer. The first-order kinetics model fitted the tebuconazole removal in all mesocosms, and the reaction rate constants varied by plant species and season (0.1-0.7 d(-1) in winter and 0.6-2.9 d(-1) in summer). For imazalil, the first-order kinetics model fitted the removal only in mesocosms planted with Phragmites australis (k = 1.2 ± 0.4 d(-1)) and in the unplanted control (k = 1.2 ± 0.5 d(-1) in both summer and winter). The removal of imazalil and tebuconazole by sorption to the bed substrate and plant uptake were low, suggesting a high rate of metabolization in the saturated CW mesocosms. The removal of imazalil and tebuconazole correlated with the rate of evapotranspiration and the removal of nutrients (N and P) during summer and with the DO/oxygen saturation during winter. This reveals two possible metabolization pathways: degradation inside the plant tissue after uptake and plant-stimulated microbial degradation in the bed substrate. Furthermore, the results indicate that nitrifying bacteria may play an active role in the biodegradation of these pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Uptake kinetics of pesticides chlorpyrifos and tebuconazole in the earthworm Eisenia andrei in two different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Markéta; Šmídová, Klára; Hvězdová, Martina; Hofman, Jakub

    2018-05-01

    Agriculture is today indispensably connected with enormous use of pesticides. Despite tough regulation, their entrance into soil cannot be excluded and they might enter soil organisms and plants and continue further to terrestrial food chains. This study was conducted to investigate the bioaccumulation of two pesticides currently used in large amounts, the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CLP) and the fungicide tebuconazole (TBZ). Their detailed uptake kinetics in the model earthworm species Eisenia andrei were measured in two arable soils differing in organic carbon content (1.02 and 1.93% respectively). According to our results, a steady state was reached after 3-5 days for both pesticides and soils. The values of bioaccumulation factors calculated at the steady state ranged from 4.5 to 6.3 for CLP and 2.2-13.1 for TBZ. Bioaccumulation factors were also calculated as the ratio of uptake and elimination rate constants with results comparable with steady-state bioaccumulation factors. The results suggested that the degradation and bioaccumulation of tested compounds might be influenced by other factors than only total organic carbon (e.g. clay content). The lower K oc and hydrophobicity of TBZ relative to CLP probably led to higher availability of TBZ through pore water exposure. On the other hand, CLP's higher hydrophobicity probably caused an increase in availability by its additional uptake via ingestion. To enable a proper ecological risk assessment of current pesticides in soils, it is necessary to accurately determine their bioaccumulation in soil invertebrates. We believe that our study not only brings such information for two specific pesticides but also addresses key methodological issues in this area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Determination of propargite, tebuconazole and bromopropylate pesticide residues in Taiwan green jujubes by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun; Liu, Chunhua; Wu, Nancun; Wu, Xiaofang; Li, Shuhuai

    2014-08-01

    An analytical method was established for the determination of propargite, tebuconazole and bromopropylate in Taiwan green jujubes (Zizyphus mauritiana Lam) by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted with acetonitrile from the Taiwan green jujubes after treated with a homogenizer. The organic phase was then separated from water phase by adding NaCl. The extract was further purified on a carbon/ NH2 cartridge with elution solvents of acetonitrile/toluene (3:1, v/v). Finally, the target analytes were separated by a capillary gas chromatographic column SLB-5MS (30 m x 0. 25 mm x 0. 25 μm). A tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in either full scan mode or in MS/MS mode for multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the constituents, respectively. The results showed that the average recoveries of the three pesticides ranged from 75. 8% to 103. 6% with the RSDs of 1. 7%-9. 3% at the spiking levels from 0.01 mg/kg to 0. 50 mg/kg (n= 5). The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-0.50 mg/kg, with the determination coefficients over 0.99 (R2>0.99). The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.01 mg/kg for propargite, tebuconazole and bromopropylate in Taiwan green jujubes. The method is available for the determination of propargite, tebuconazole and bromopropylate pesticide residues in Taiwan green jujubes.

  12. 76 FR 38036 - Propylene Oxide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Propylene Oxide; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This regulation amends the propylene oxide tolerance on ``nut, tree, group...), announcing the Agency's proposal to amend the propylene oxide tolerance (40 CFR 180.491) on ``nut, tree...

  13. 77 FR 27130 - Ametoctradin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be publicly available only... the USA, Australia, and Canada and import tolerance establishment in the European Union (EU) for... Pesticide Management Regulatory Agency of Canada (PMRA), and the EU. Although much effort was made to...

  14. 78 FR 78738 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... infants and children to the pesticide chemical residue in establishing a tolerance and to ``ensure that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate exposure... risk from residues of pendimethalin on almond hulls, which are an animal feed item. Based on that...

  15. 75 FR 5522 - Spiromesifen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... decreased cholesterol, triglycerides), and spleen effects (atrophy, decreased spleen cell count, and... the metabolism studies to create a tolerance-equivalent value for the parent spiromesifen and the BSN... solubility of 40 to 50 [micro]g/L. The pesticide degrades primarily through aerobic soil metabolism and...

  16. Evolved pesticide tolerance in amphibians: Predicting mechanisms based on pesticide novelty and mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K.; Mattes, Brian M.; Cothran, Rickey D.; Relyea, Rick A.; Hoverman, Jason T.

    2015-01-01

    We examined 10 wood frog populations distributed along an agricultural gradient for their tolerance to six pesticides (carbaryl, malathion, cypermethrin, permethrin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) that differed in date of first registration (pesticide novelty) and mode-of-action (MOA). Our goals were to assess whether: 1) tolerance was correlated with distance to agriculture for each pesticide, 2) pesticide novelty predicted the likelihood of evolved tolerance, and 3) populations display cross-tolerance between pesticides that share and differ in MOA. Wood frog populations located close to agriculture were more tolerant to carbaryl and malathion than populations far from agriculture. Moreover, the strength of the relationship between distance to agriculture and tolerance was stronger for older pesticides compared to newer pesticides. Finally, we found evidence for cross-tolerance between carbaryl and malathion (two pesticides that share MOA). This study provides one of the most comprehensive approaches for understanding patterns of evolved tolerance in non-pest species. - Highlights: • We explored patterns of tolerance to six insecticides across 10 wood frog populations. • We found evidence that wood frogs have evolved tolerance to carbaryl and malathion. • The likelihood of evolved tolerance was stronger for older compared to newer pesticides. • We found evidence for cross-tolerance between carbaryl and malathion. • This is one of the most comprehensive approaches studying evolved tolerance in a non-pest species. - Using 10 wood frog populations, we detected evidence for evolved tolerance, found that the evolved tolerance depends on insecticide novelty, and found evidence for cross-tolerance.

  17. Behavior of fluopyram and tebuconazole and some selected pesticides in ripe apples and consumer exposure assessment in the applied crop protection framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbielska, Magdalena; Szpyrka, Ewa; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Zwolak, Aneta; Sadło, Stanisław

    2017-07-01

    The supervised field trials were conducted in a commercial apple orchard in 2016. The trials were an attempt to determine a model for dissipation and toxicological evaluation of fluopyram, tebuconazole, captan, tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI), pirimicarb, spirodiclofen, and boscalid residues detected in fruit of Red Jonaprince, Lobo, and Gala varieties immediately before harvest. The analysis also covered amounts of pesticides still present in remnants of calyx in Lobo and Gala varieties immediately before harvest. Laboratory samples of ripe apples were collected within 14 days of the treatment. Levels of pesticide residues detected in the samples changed at a constant exponential rate, and the residue levels found in ripe apples of Red Jonaprince, Gala, and Lobo varieties immediately before harvest were below maximum residue levels (MRL). Overall, captan residues in remnants of calyx were at a level of 22.3% for the Gala variety and 9.3% for the Lobo variety. Likewise, the long-term daily intake of the detected substances by a Polish adult consumer was low, ranging from 0.02% ADI for pirimicarb to 0.72% ADI for captan.

  18. Simultaneous treatment with tebuconazole and abscisic acid induces drought and salinity stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana by maintaining key plastid protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ruth; Chudobova, Ivana; Hänsel, Ulrike; Herwartz, Denise; Koskull-Döring, Pascal von; Schillberg, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants were treated simultaneously with the fungicide tebuconazole and the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). We carried out comparative proteomic and transcriptomic analysis against untreated controls under different stress regimes. The chemicals were applied 24 h before the onset of drought stress (removal of the nutrient medium) or salinity stress (hydroponic culture using 150 mM NaCl), and samples were taken during the stress treatments and after a 24 h recovery period. The combined chemical treatment protected plants against both forms of stress. Difference in-gel electrophoresis revealed 18 and 34 unique protein markers representing induced tolerance to drought and salinity stress, respectively. Most of the markers represented plastid functions (such as CO(2) fixation and photosystem II activity), and their abundance was reduced under stress conditions but maintained at near normal levels in the treated plants. The corresponding transcripts were reduced in abundance primarily under drought stress but not salinity stress, indicating that the signal transduction pathways activated by tebuconazole/ABA treatment depend on the nature of the stress stimulus.

  19. 77 FR 18710 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... member of the neonicotinoid class of pesticides which also includes thiamethoxam, clothianidin... preliminary evidence suggests that clothianidin operates by direct competitive inhibition, while thiamethoxam...

  20. 77 FR 60917 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 RIN 2070-ZA16 Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental... trinexapac-ethyl in or on multiple commodities and modifies existing tolerance levels and commodity definitions for trinexapac-ethyl, which are identified and discussed later in this document. EPA proposed...

  1. 76 FR 17611 - Propylene Oxide; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Propylene Oxide; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the propylene oxide... this action, EPA is proposing to amend the propylene oxide tolerance ] (40 CFR 180.491) on ``nut, tree...

  2. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from...

  3. 78 FR 78740 - Isopyrazam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... weight gain in females; increased incidences of hepatocellular hypertrophy, pigment in centrilobular...

  4. 77 FR 46304 - Rimsulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Research Project No. 4 (IR-4) requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act... enforce the tolerance expression. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch...

  5. 77 FR 23625 - Quizalofop Ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... definition for several commodities. The Agency has also removed the established tolerance on canola, meal, as... 2.0 ppm, and EPA is revising the commodity definition for canola, meal to rapeseed, meal in order to... established tolerances on canola seed and canola meal, as they will be superseded by new tolerances. Finally...

  6. NAFTA Guidance on Data Requirements for Pesticide Import Tolerances: Questions & Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    These Qs&As provide details of implementation related to a guidance document describing the data requirements for establishing pesticide import tolerances in Canada and the United States: NAFTA Guidance on Data Requirements for Pesticide Import Tolerances.

  7. 77 FR 12207 - Pyroxasulfone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... drinking water models used in pesticide exposure assessment can be found at http://www.epa.gov/oppefed1... drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure. Section 408(b)(2)(C... the prerequisite for subsequent hyperplasia and neoplasia. In other words, urinary bladder tumors do...

  8. 75 FR 17579 - Aminopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... or on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; and corn, field, stover. Dow AgroSciences requested... not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532...

  9. 75 FR 75389 - Metrafenone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer.... FQPA SF = Food Quality Protection Act Safety Factor. LOC = level of concern. C. Exposure Assessment 1... the choice of a different factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity. There is no evidence of...

  10. 75 FR 17566 - Flutolanil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... issues arising from pesticide application to rice paddies, EPA used the FARM rather than GENEEC or PRZM... adequate enforcement methodology, (Method AU/95R/04), a common moiety Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry... flutolanil. The commenter criticized EPA's reliance on toxicology testing on animals. The Agency has received...

  11. 77 FR 25904 - Acequinocyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... tasks associated with the use of acequinocyl including mixing and loading (if needed), and application... 870.6200) for pesticide registration. The toxicology database for acequinocyl does not show any... Morse Methods (Meth-135 and Meth-133, revision 3), two high-performance liquid chromatography methods...

  12. 75 FR 60327 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... screening level estimates. Estimates are thought to be conservative, even when measures of central tendency... ``there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is...

  13. 76 FR 61592 - Isopyrazam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... and body weight gain in females; increased incidences of hepatocellular hypertrophy, pigment in...

  14. 78 FR 76987 - Mandipropamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... determine whether this document applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... transferase, as well as periportal hypertrophy in rats; increased liver enzymes, increased pigment in...

  15. 75 FR 29441 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... findings: i. The toxicity database for novaluron is complete except for immunotoxicity testing. Recent changes to 40 CFR part 158 make immunotoxicity testing (OPPTS Guideline 870.7800) required for pesticide... target the immune system and the Agency does not believe that conducting a functional immunotoxicity...

  16. 75 FR 33190 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... for trifloxystrobin is complete except for neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity testing. Recent changes to 40 CFR part 158 make neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity testing required for pesticide registration... immunotoxicity studies are needed to complete the database, there are no concerns for immunotoxicity or...

  17. 75 FR 29908 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... for prothioconazole is considered complete, with the exception of required functional immunotoxicity testing. The Agency began requiring functional immunotoxicity testing of all food and non-food use pesticides on December 26, 2007. Although an immunotoxicity study in the mouse is part of the existing...

  18. 75 FR 69005 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... complete except for immunotoxicity, acute neurotoxicity, and sub-chronic neurotoxicity testing. Recent...), and immunotoxicity testing (OPPTS Test Guideline 870.7800) required for pesticide registration... effects are not considered to be the result of potential immunotoxicity. Thus, EPA has concluded that...

  19. 78 FR 40017 - Ethalfluralin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... immunotoxicity testing and acute and subchronic neurotoxicity testing for pesticide registration. In 2012, EPA..., the immunotoxicity study remains a data requirement at this time. Although an immunotoxicity study has... immunotoxicity in the toxicology database; it does not appear that ethalfluralin directly targets the immune...

  20. 78 FR 20461 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... U.S.C. 346a(d)(3), announcing the filing of a pesticide petition (PP 2E7982) by IR-4, 500 College... derivation of reference values for risk assessment. PODs are developed based on a careful analysis of the... (MOE). For non-threshold risks, the Agency assumes that any amount of exposure will lead to some degree...

  1. 78 FR 19130 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... pesticide petitions ((PP) 1E7923 and 2F8008) by IR-4, IR-4 Headquarters, 500 College Road East, Suite 201 W... toxicological POD is used as the basis for derivation of reference values for risk assessment. PODs are... amount of exposure will lead to some degree of risk. Thus, the Agency estimates risk in terms of the...

  2. 78 FR 42693 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... ruminant meat byproducts from 0.05 ppm to 0.5 ppm (PP 2F8054); and by amending the regional restriction of... Agriculture's 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, What We Eat in America (NHANES/WWEIA... the ruminant meat byproduct tolerances to 0.5 ppm and an increase in the current egg tolerance to 0.05...

  3. 76 FR 27268 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    .... Monsanto Company requested this tolerance under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES... from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd., Ft. Meade, MD... Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) contemplates that tolerances greater than zero may be set when...

  4. 76 FR 34877 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ...; horse, liver; sheep, liver; and decreases the existing tolererance for egg and revises the tolerance... to 0.40 ppm for the livers of cattle, goat, hog, horse, and sheep; decreased the existing tolerance... based on developmental toxicity studies in rats and rabbits, and a reproduction study in rats as fetal...

  5. 76 FR 53641 - Tetraconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ..., horse and sheep based on the proposed tolerances and revisions to existing feed commodity tolerances. 4... highest dose tested. A 2-generation rat reproduction study also revealed no increased quantitative... reproduction study. 3. Conclusion. EPA has determined that reliable data show the safety of infants and...

  6. 77 FR 49732 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... reliable information.'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does.../puree (1x) and lemon/lime juice (1x) were used to modify the tolerance values. iii. Cancer. Based on the... the date of issuance of these tolerances. 2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency used...

  7. 76 FR 34883 - Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... be affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to...; tolerances for residues. * * * * * (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. * * * * * 0 4. In Sec. 180.110, revise paragraph (b) to read as follows: Sec. 180.110 Maneb; tolerances for residues. * * * * * (b...

  8. 75 FR 22256 - Difenoconazole Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... tolerances and to establish new tolerances for new uses of metconazole (canola, corn, cotton, and sugarcane... CFR 180.475. Method AG-575B (gas chromatography/nitrogen-phosphorus detection) is available for... livestock and methods AG-544A (gas chromatography/nitrogen-phosphorus [[Page 22261

  9. 78 FR 14461 - Fenpyrazamine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Agency estimates risk in terms of the probability of an occurrence of the adverse effect expected in a...) and tolerance level residues of parent fenpyrazamine plus the maximum residue of S-2188-DC (expressed... tolerance level residues of parent fenpyrazamine plus the maximum residue of S-2188-DC (expressed as parent...

  10. 77 FR 73937 - Spirodiclofen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ...-dichlorophenyl)-2-oxo-1- oxaspiro[4.5]dec-3-en-4-yl 2,2-dimethylbutanoate in or on apple, wet pomace and grape....regulations.gov or at the Office of Pesticide Programs Regulatory Public Docket (OPP Docket) in the...., Washington, DC 20460-0001. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday...

  11. 77 FR 47296 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... Agency Docket Center (EPA/DC), located in EPA West, Rm. 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC.../Nitrogen/ Phosphorus detector (GS/NPD) method for proposed tolerances and method ICIA AM00306 for ruminant...

  12. 78 FR 66651 - Imazapyr; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective... requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd., Ft. Meade...

  13. 77 FR 48907 - Fludioxonil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... exposures for which there is reliable information.'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in..., lemon, lime, orange, pear, tomato, head lettuce, leaf lettuce, fresh parsley, brassica leafy vegetables... tolerances. [[Page 48911

  14. 77 FR 65827 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Tolerances for Residues in/on Field, Sweet and Pop Corn,'' pp. 17-21 in docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0278... Methodology Adequate enforcement methodology (gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC/NPD...

  15. 78 FR 9322 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... of the potential increase of hexythiazox in the poultry diet, largely due to alfalfa use, and based on updated maximum reasonably balanced diet (MRBD) calculations for poultry, tolerances for eggs...

  16. 77 FR 60311 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... utilize a reasonably balanced diet that considered nutritional needs of livestock. C. Response to Comments... the methods of diet calculation. The United States tolerances include more livestock feed items than...

  17. 77 FR 66721 - Metconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... into account the makeup of the livestock diet. EPA's analysis of the impact of raising the corn stover tolerance shows that there will be no increase in the maximum reasonably balanced dietary burden for beef...

  18. 75 FR 53586 - Bifenazate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ...-limited tolerances for tart cherry, soybean hulls, soybean meal, soybean refined oil, and soybean seed, as...%; pepper 1%; pistachio 1%; plum 5%; strawberry 30%; tomato 1%; walnut 1%; and watermelon 1%. One hundred...

  19. 76 FR 55807 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... and allowed to evaporate until equilibrium is reached. ii. There were signs of neurotoxicity in the... tolerance expression. The methods may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental...

  20. 75 FR 53581 - Spiromesifen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... phosphatase, ALT and decreased cholesterol, triglycerides), and spleen effects (atrophy, decreased spleen cell... assessment purposes only. EPA used data from the lettuce metabolism studies to create a tolerance-equivalent...

  1. 78 FR 32146 - Triforine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... triforine residues to be imported into the United States. III. Aggregate Risk Assessment and Determination... determination on aggregate exposure for triforine including exposure resulting from the tolerances established........... day. decreased RBC, hematocrit, hemoglobin values and siderosis in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow...

  2. 78 FR 40027 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Assessment and Determination of Safety Section 408(b)(2)(A)(i) of FFDCA allows EPA to establish a tolerance... make a determination on aggregate exposure for novaluron including exposure resulting from the... hematotoxic effects such as methemoglobinemia, decreased hemoglobin, decreased hematocrit, and decreased red...

  3. 77 FR 8746 - Indoxacarb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0578; FRL-9336-7] Indoxacarb... regulation establishes tolerances for residues of indoxacarb in or on egg, poultry fat, poultry meat, and... under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective February 15...

  4. 75 FR 22240 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... canola, seed. Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc. requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and... on canola, seed, imported at 0.03 parts per million (ppm). That notice referenced a summary of the... Canola Seed'', pp. 24 through 27, in docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0551. B. Toxicological Points of...

  5. 76 FR 69642 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... tested in guinea pigs. Short-term, subchronic, and chronic toxicity studies in rats, mice, and dogs.... C. Revisions to Petitioned-For Tolerances Based on an analysis of residue levels from crop field... Facility is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The Docket...

  6. 78 FR 69562 - Fenpropathrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... food) only if EPA determines that the tolerance is ``safe.'' Section 408(b)(2)(A)(ii) of FFDCA defines... were observed for both adults and pups, reducing concern for quantitative or qualitative sensitivity... sensitivity in the young, specifically in the form of neurotoxicity. Examination of pharmacokinetic and...

  7. 76 FR 70890 - Fenamidone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... definitions for which tolerances are being established. The reason for these changes is explained in Unit IV.C... feces, hunched posture and unsteady gait. In a developmental neurotoxicity study in Wistar rats, no... FQPA SF = 1x in the feces, and unsteady gait in the females. Chronic dietary (All populations).. NOAEL...

  8. 76 FR 16308 - Dichlormid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... commodities. Dow AgroSciences requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA... chemistry and toxicology studies, as identified in the March 27, 2000 and September 30, 2004 final rules. In... chemistry and toxicology data (including immunotoxicity testing) have all been submitted and reviewed, so...

  9. 78 FR 36671 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... of cattle, goat, horse, and sheep, and milk. Tolerances in cattle, goat, horse, and sheep meat are proposed at 0.30 ppm; cattle, goat, horse, and sheep fat at 0.20 ppm; cattle, goat, horse, and sheep meat... observed in fetuses at doses that reduced maternal body weight and food consumption. In the reproduction...

  10. 78 FR 57280 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    .../day) in rats or rabbits in the development or 2-generation reproduction studies. Moreover, there were... rats or rabbits in the prenatal developmental studies or in young rats in the 2-generation reproduction... livestock necessitates increased tolerances for cattle, sheep, horse, and goat meat byproducts from 0.2 ppm...

  11. 76 FR 28675 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... in the 2-generation reproduction study. iv. There are no residual uncertainties identified in the... byproducts of hog and poultry, and revise the tolerances on meat byproducts of cattle, goat, horse, and sheep... byproducts 0.02 Sheep, fat 0.02 Sheep, meat 0.02 Sheep, meat byproducts 0.20 * * * * * [FR Doc. 2011-11937...

  12. 75 FR 14086 - Clopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0092, by one of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http... serum glucose, protein, and albumin) were observed at the highest dose tested (HDT). In the rat... to residue levels in food, EPA used tolerance- level residues, Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model...

  13. 78 FR 48068 - Topramezone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the online instructions for... Evaluation Model (DEEM) 7.81 default processing factors, and tolerance-level residues. ii. Chronic exposure... from proteins in the diet). Inhibition of HPPD can result in elevated tyrosine levels in the blood, a...

  14. 76 FR 18899 - Indaziflam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... electronic version of EPA's tolerance regulations at 40 CFR part 180 through the Government Printing Office's... commodities Australian desert lime, Australian finger lime, Australian round lime, Brown River finger lime... substantial direct effect on States or tribal governments, on the relationship between the national government...

  15. 77 FR 10962 - Flazasulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... electronic version of EPA's tolerance regulations at 40 CFR part 180 through the Government Printing Office's... group 10 included adding Australian desert lime, Australian finger lime, Australian round lime, Brown... substantial direct effect on States or tribal governments, on the relationship between the national government...

  16. 78 FR 29041 - Sulfoxaflor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... Citrus Fruits at 0.6 ppm (from orange at 0.6 ppm; lemon at 0.45 ppm; grapefruit at 0.25 ppm); citrus... exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure... of issuance of these tolerances. 2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency used screening...

  17. 78 FR 76561 - Endothall; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... for grain 36%, corn for grain 19%, dry beans 32%, grape 95%, grape fresh market 99%, grape processing... production that is irrigated. Estimates from this method are provided for barley, corn, dry edible beans... nitrogen detection and a confirmatory HPLC/MSD method) is available to enforce the tolerance expression...

  18. 77 FR 13502 - Pyriofenone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... uses a different additional safety factor when reliable data available to EPA support the choice of a... and grape, raisin. ISK BioSciences Corporation requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug... INFORMATION: I. General Information A. Does this action apply to me? You may be potentially affected by this...

  19. 78 FR 28507 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...-azaspiro[4.5]decan-2-one, calculated as spirotetramat equivalents, in or on taro, leaves at 9 parts per..., group 11-10 at 0.7 ppm; fruit, citrus, group 10-10 at 0.6 ppm; pineapple at 0.3 ppm; pineapple, process... determined that the proposed tolerances on pineapple, process residue, and coffee, roast beans, are not...

  20. 76 FR 50904 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... (Group 9), and Cereal Grains (Group 15, except rice).'' Specific information on the studies received and... effects were identified for thiamethoxam. In estimating acute dietary exposure, EPA used food consumption... consumption data from the USDA 1994-1996 and 1998 CSFII. As to residue levels in food, EPA assumed tolerance...

  1. 75 FR 35653 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... (Group 5), Fruiting Vegetables (Group 8), Cucurbit Vegetables (Group 9), and Cereal Grains (Group 15... identified for thiamethoxam. In estimating acute dietary exposure, EPA used food consumption information from... consumption data from the USDA 1994-1996 and 1998 CSFII. As to residue levels in food, EPA assumed tolerance...

  2. 77 FR 26462 - Dimethomorph; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... regulation amends the tolerances for residues of dimethomorph, (E,Z)-4-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(3,4... either of the two developmental toxicity studies or in the 2-generation reproduction study. In either of...-generation reproduction study. iv. There are no residual uncertainties identified in the exposure databases...

  3. 78 FR 25396 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... safety standards-setting organization in trade agreements to which the United States is a party. EPA may... or on cotton seed at 40 ppm, sunflower seed at 7 ppm, and rape seed at 20 ppm. The MRL for cotton... policy concerning significant figures. V. Conclusion Therefore, tolerances are established for residues...

  4. 77 FR 38199 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... experimental animals by the oral, dermal and inhalation routes. It is moderately irritating to the eyes, and... susceptible to its toxicity than rats. Decreased body weight gain in experimental animals was seen in... available to enforce the tolerance expression. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry...

  5. 75 FR 24428 - Spirodiclofen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... new study using identical experimental conditions as the previous study. The results of the new study... conducted using the identical doses and experimental conditions. The concern for increased susceptibility in... tolerance expression. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental...

  6. 77 FR 72226 - Picoxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ....0 ppm; soybean oil at 0.05 ppm; canola seed at 0.05 ppm; meat and meat byproducts except liver of... barley at 0.04 ppm; vegetable, foliage of legume, except soybean, subgroup 7A at 40.0 ppm. Crop group 16... oil at 1.5 ppm is revised to corn, field, refined oil at 0.07 ppm. The proposed tolerance for cereal...

  7. 40 CFR 180.6 - Pesticide tolerances regarding milk, eggs, meat, and/or poultry; statement of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide tolerances regarding milk... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Definitions and Interpretative Regulations § 180.6 Pesticide tolerances regarding milk...

  8. Sorption of tebuconazole onto selected soil minerals and humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadková, Eva; Komárek, Michael; Kaliszová, Regina; Koudelková, Věra; Dvořák, Jiří; Vaněk, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate tebuconazole sorption on common soil minerals (birnessite, ferrihydrite, goethite, calcite and illite) and humic acids (representing soil organic matter). Tebuconazole was used (i) in the commercial form Horizon 250 EW and (ii) as an analytical grade pure chemical. In the experiment with the commercially available tebuconazole, a significant pH-dependent sorption onto the oxides was observed (decreasing sorption with increasing pH). The highest sorption was found for ferrihydrite due to its high specific surface area, followed by humic acids, birnessite, goethite and illite. No detectable sorption was found for calcite. The sorption of analytical grade tebuconazole on all selected minerals was significantly lower compared to the commercial product. The sorption was the highest for humic acids, followed by ferrihydrite and illite and almost negligible for goethite and birnessite without any pH dependence. Again, no sorption was observed for calcite. The differences in sorption of the commercially available and analytical grade tebuconazole can be attributed to the additives (e.g., solvents) present in the commercial product. This work proved the importance of soil mineralogy and composition of the commercially available pesticides on the behavior of tebuconazole in soils.

  9. 76 FR 54185 - Fenamiphos; Proposed Data Call-In Order for Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... of a family of pesticides known as the organophosphates. EPA has concluded fenamiphos and other organophosphate pesticides share a common mechanism of toxicity. As with other organophosphates, the principal... completed its cumulative risk assessment for the organophosphate pesticides finding that these tolerances...

  10. 14C tebuconazole degradation in Colombian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, C S; Martínez, M J; Guerrero, J A

    2010-01-01

    Tebuconazole is a fungicide used on onion crops (Allium Fistulosum L) in Colombia. Persistence of pesticides in soils is characterized by the half-life (DT50), which is influenced by their chemical structure, the physical and chemical properties of the soil and the previous soil history. Based on its structural and chemical properties, tebuconazole should be expected to be relatively persistent in soils. Laboratory incubation studies were conducted to evaluate persistence and bond residues of 14C tebuconazole in three soils, two inceptisol (I) and one histosol (H). Textural classifications were: loam (101), loamy sand (102) and loam (H03), respectively. Data obtained followed a first-order degradation kinetics (R2 > or = 0.899) with DT50 values between 158 and 198 days. The production of 14CO2 from the 14C-ring-labelled test chemicals was very low and increased slightly during 63 days in all cases. The methanol extractable 14C-residues were higher than aqueous ones and both decreased over incubation time for the three soils. The formation of bound 14C-residues increased with time and final values were 11.3; 5.55 and 7.87% for 101, 102 and H03 respectively. Soil 101 showed the lowest mineralization rate and the highest bound residues formation, which might be explained by the clay fraction content. In contrast, an inverse behavior was found for soils 102 and H03, these results might be explained by the higher soil organic carbon content.

  11. The influence of copper on tebuconazole sorption onto soils, humic substances, and ferrihydrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čadková, Eva; Komárek, Michael; Kaliszová, Regina; Száková, Jiřina; Vaněk, Aleš; Bordas, François; Bollinger, Jean-Claude

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how the presence of Cu influences tebuconazole (Teb) sorption onto contrasting soil types and two important constituents of the soil sorption complex: hydrated Fe oxide and humic substances. Tebuconazole was used in commercial form and as an analytical-grade chemical at different Teb/Cu molar ratios (1:4, 1:1, 4:1, and Teb alone). Increased Cu concentrations had a positive effect on tebuconazole sorption onto most soils and humic substances, probably as a result of Cu-Teb tertiary complexes on the soil surfaces. Tebuconazole sorption increased in the following order of different Teb/Cu ratios 1:4>1:1>4:1>without Cu addition, with the only exception for the Leptosol and ferrihydrite. The highest K f value was observed for humic substances followed by ferrihydrite, the Cambisol, the Arenosol, and the Leptosol. The sorption of analytical-grade tebuconazole onto all matrices was lower, but the addition of Cu supported again tebuconazole sorption. The Teb/Cu ratio with the highest Cu addition (1:4) exhibited the highest K f values in all matrices with the exception of ferrihydrite. The differences in tebuconazole sorption can be attributed to the additives present in the commercial product. This work proved the importance of soil characteristics and composition of the commercially available pesticides together with the presence of Cu on the behavior of tebuconazole in soils.

  12. Effect of different formulations on tebuconazole residues in stone fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, Luigi; Molinari, Gian Pietro

    2009-04-01

    The correlation between pesticide residue levels and formulation of an active substance is often not considered, even if it is reasonable to expect some differences arising from behaviour during dilution and spraying, from adhesion to plant and from degradation. An experimental study to investigate the magnitude of tebuconazole residues as a function of different tebuconazole formulated products was carried out in Italy. The fungicide was applied as wettable powder (WP) and water-dispersible granule (WG) formulations to peach, plum, apricot and nectarine orchards, on four different sites. The fruit samples gained from the field trials were quantitatively analysed by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC/NPD) for tebuconazole residues. Tebuconazole residues in the fruits gained from the plot treated with the WP formulation, 14 days after application, were in the range 0.01-0.07 mg kg(-1), while corresponding residues in the plot treated with the WG formulation were in the range 0.01-0.06 mg kg(-1). No significant differences in the residue levels of tebuconazole could be observed between the trials conducted with the WP and the WG formulation. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Pesticide tolerant and phosphorus solubilizing Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 isolated from pesticides treated Achillea clavennae rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasankar, R; Manju Gayathry, G; Sathiavelu, A; Ramalingam, C; Saravanan, V S

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to identify an effective phosphate solubilizing bacteria from pesticide polluted field soil. Based on the formation of solubilization halo on Pikovskaya's agar, six isolates were selected and screened for pesticide tolerance and phosphate (P) solubilization ability through liquid assay. The results showed that only one strain (SGRAJ09) obtained from Achillea clavennae was found to tolerate maximum level of the pesticides tested and it was phylogenetically identified as Pseudomonas sp. It possessed a wide range of pesticide tolerance, ranging from 117 μg mL(-1) for alphamethrin to 2,600 μg mL(-1) for endosulfan. The available P concentrations increased with the maximum and double the maximum dose of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, respectively. On subjected to FT-IR and HPLC analysis, the presence of organic acids functional group in the culture broth and the production of gluconic acid as dominant acid aiding the P solubilization were identified. On comparison with control broth, monocrotophos and imidacloprid added culture broth showed quantitatively high organic acids production. In addition to gluconic acid production, citric and acetic acids were also observed in the pesticide amended broth. Furthermore, the Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 possessed all the plant growth promoting traits tested. In presence of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, its plant growth promoting activities were lower than that of the pesticides unamended treatment.

  14. Tebuconazole photocatalytic degradation kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Prestes, Thiago de Hermann; Gibbon, Danielle de Oliveira; Lansarin, Marla Azário; Moro, Celso Camilo

    2010-01-01

    The tebuconazole photocatalytic degradation kinetics was studied in a batch reactor using TiO2 (P25-Degussa) as catalyst and a high pressure mercury lamp. The photolysis, adsorption and irradiation effects in the reaction rate were evaluated. Afterward, the suspension catalyst concentration and initial pH to the maximum reaction rate was determined. It was observed that the reaction rate can be approached by a pseudo-first order, with a maximum kinetics constant at 260 mg L-1catalyst concentr...

  15. 40 CFR 174.508 - Pesticidal substance from sexually compatible plant; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compatible plant; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.508 Section 174.508 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.508 Pesticidal substance from...

  16. Leaching of oxadyxil and tebuconazole in Colombian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, M; De Prado, R; Martínez, M J

    2011-01-01

    Lake Tota (Boyaca, Colombia) supplies water for human consumption, agriculture and industry for more than 500.000 people. Oxadixyl and Tebuconazole are fungicides used in onion crops in the lake catchment area. The mobility of pesticides in soil, bioavailability and transfer to other environmental compartments depend on sorption and desorption kinetics and mechanisms. An understanding of these processes is essential for transport modeling and the rational design of corrective measures against pollution. A displacement study was performed on a hand packed soil column in laboratory conditions. A pulse of 0,01 M CaCl2 solution, containing a tracer (Bromide) and the fungicides Oxadixyl y Tebuconazole, was injected. Column experiment was performed at 0.078 cmh(-1) flow rate under unsaturated conditions. Eluates were collected in flasks at constant intervals and the volumes of eluate were recorded. After rainfall simulation, the soil from the column was sliced into six successive sections (5 cm). Methanol extraction was used to determine the fungicide in each soil section. Samples were measured by HPLC. Only Oxadixyl was recovered in leachates. Unlike bromide breakthrough curve, Oxadixyl was asymmetrical, with early breakthrough and increased tailing. The percentage eluted was 96.7% after ten pore volumes. Tebuconazole showed the highest retention in the first five cm of soil layer. The results suggest that oxadyxil presents highs risk to leachate through the soil profile and that Tebuconazole is strongly absorbed in Colombian soil.

  17. 77 FR 72223 - Clodinafop-Propargyl; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... observed only in males at the highest treatment-dose (71 mg/kg/day), and were fully reversed after a 4-week..., Pesticides and pests, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Dated: November 27, 2012. G. Jeffrey Herndon...

  18. Comparative toxicity of rac- and S-tebuconazole to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Su Z; Chen, Xiao F; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Jia Z; Wang, Cheng J

    2015-01-01

    Tebuconazole is a chiral triazole fungicide used as raceme in a variety of agricultural applications. Earlier studies showed that tebuconazole is toxic to many non-target aquatic organisms but relative data for tebuconazole enantiomers are lacking. Thus, goal of this study was to evaluate and compare the toxicity of rac- and S-tebuconazole with Daphnia magna at both acute and chronic levels according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines 202 and 211 respectively, to provide some guidelines for optimizing chiral pesticides application and management. The exposure concentrations were 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 10 mg L(-1) for both rac- and S-tebuconazole and their 48-h EC(50) values to D. magna were 3.53 (3.32-3.78) and 2.74 (2.33-3.10) mg L(-1) respectively, indicating that these both are medium toxic to D. magna with no significant toxicity difference at acute level. In chronic test, magna were exposed to 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.40 mg L(-1) of rac- and S-tebuconazole with one blank and one solvent control for 21 days according to OECD guideline 211. Four developmental (molting rate, days to the 1st and 3rd brood, and body length) and five reproductive (size of the 1st and 3rd brood, number of broods, and number of neonates) parameters for each D. magna were determined. Results showed that both rac- and S-tebuconazole significantly reduced the reproduction and impacted the development of D. magna at concentrations of 0.05 mg L(-1) or higher. Furthermore, S-tebuconazole was more toxic than raceme, and the difference between effects on the same parameters induced by rac- and S-tebuconazole was statistically significant. These results demonstrated that the chronic toxicity of S-tebuconazole might be underestimated in general use, and further studies should focus more on the biological behaviors of enantiomers and not just the raceme of tebuconazole and other chiral pesticides in the environment.

  19. 77 FR 66715 - Fluridone; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... Printing Office's e-CFR site at: http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?&c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse... http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf . 4. Cumulative effects from substances with a...

  20. 75 FR 5515 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... in or on corn, sweet, plus cobs with husks removed (K+CWHR); corn, sweet, forage; and corn, sweet... Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) authorizing use of the pesticide on sweet corn... not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food...

  1. 77 FR 59561 - Sulfoxaflor; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are... human population (intraspecies). FQPA SF = Food Quality Protection Act Safety Factor. PAD = population... reliable data available to EPA support the choice of a different factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal...

  2. 78 FR 13257 - Pyraflufen-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System... lawns (residential, industrial, and institutional), parks, cemeteries, athletic fields, golf courses...) exposures, (2) residential handlers are assumed to be wearing short-sleeved shirts, short pants, shoes, and...

  3. 76 FR 55814 - 2,4-D; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... harm'' and ``only long term studies can provide data on the health impact of exposure to these... other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be publicly... harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated...

  4. 78 FR 53047 - Halosulfuron-methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ...), announcing the filing of a pesticide petition (PP 2E8050) by IR-4, IR-4 Project Headquarters, 500 College Rd... basis for derivation of reference values for risk assessment. PODs are developed based on a careful... (MOE). For non-threshold risks, the Agency assumes that any amount of exposure will lead to some degree...

  5. 77 FR 67282 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This regulation establishes time-limited tolerances for... published a final rule establishing tolerances for residues of dinotefuran in 40 CFR 180.603(a) in or on berry, low growing, except strawberry, subgroup 13-07H; fruit, small, vine climbing, except fuzzy...

  6. 77 FR 4248 - Cyazofamid; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ....gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?&c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title40/40tab_02.tpl . http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?&c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title40/40tab_02.tpl . To access the harmonized test...: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf . 4. Cumulative effects from substances with a...

  7. 77 FR 48899 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Docket in the Environmental Protection Agency Docket Center (EPA/DC), located in EPA West, Rm. 3334, 1301... methodology (gas chromatography/Nitrogen/ Phosphorus detector (NPD) for tolerances and method ICIA AM00306 for...

  8. 77 FR 25903 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... previously established tolerances for caneberry subgroup 13-07A; mustard, seed; onion, dry bulb; papaya... thiamethoxam in or on: Caneberry subgroup 13-07A at 0.35 parts per million (ppm); mustard, seed at 0.02 ppm.... Section 180.565 is corrected by alphabetically adding: Caneberry subgroup 13-07A; mustard, seed; onion...

  9. 77 FR 75855 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerance for Emergency Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ..., identified by docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0900, by one of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking... surrounding areas, and attack the apical stem tips of plants. Watercress plants respond with reduced vigor... with tandem spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), is available to enforce the tolerance expression. The method may...

  10. 76 FR 55799 - Mandipropamid; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Office's e-CFR site at http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?&c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title40..., clinical chemistry, organ weights, and/or histopathology indicates that mandipropamid does not directly... to enforce the tolerance expression. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry...

  11. 77 FR 41346 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ...'' as these changes are needed to correct inadvertent typographical errors listed in the final rule... proposing to correct these errors. In March 2, 2012 rule and the risk assessment underlying the rule, EPA... mass spectrometry) is available to enforce the tolerance expression. The method may be requested from...

  12. Stereoselective degradation kinetics of tebuconazole in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wentao; Qiu, Jing; Dang, Ziheng; Lv, Chunguang; Jia, Guifang; Li, Li; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2007-02-01

    Tebuconazole[(RS)-1-p-chlorophenyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)pentan-3-ol] is a potent triazole fungicide and consists of a pair of enantiomers. The enantioselective degradation kinetics of tebuconazole was investigated in rabbits by intravenous (iv) injection. The concentrations of (-)-(R)-tebuconazole and (+)-(S)-tebuconazole in plasma and tissues were determined by HPLC with a cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)-based chiral stationary phase. Enantioselective analysis methods for this fungicide in plasma and tissues were developed and validated. Good linearities were obtained over the concentration range of 0.25-25 mg/l for both enantiomers. The degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and the degradation of the (+)-(S)-tebuconazole was much faster than that of the (-)-(R)-tebuconazole in plasma after administration of racemic tebuconazole. This study also indicated that environmental assessment of enantiomeric degradation may be needed to fully evaluate risks of tebuconazole use. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Behaviour of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on grapes under semi-arid tropical climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, Ashok K; Deepa, M; Jagadish, G K; Prakash, G S; Kumar, Sampath

    2010-08-01

    A mixture of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole is excellent in controlling both powdery and downy mildew of grapes. The objective of the present work was to study the behaviour of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on grape berries and soil following treatment with Nativo 75 WG, a formulation containing both fungicides (trifloxystrobin 250 + tebuconazole 500 g kg(-1)). This study was carried out for planned registration of this mixture for use on grapes in India. Initial residue deposits of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on grapes were below their maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.5 and 2 mg kg(-1), respectively, when Nativo 75 WG was applied at the recommended dose of 175 g product ha(-1). The residues dissipated gradually to 0.02 and 0.05 mg kg(-1) by 30 days, and were below the quantifiable limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1) at the time of harvest (60 days after the last treatment). Trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole dissipated at a pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 36 and 34 days, respectively, from the recommended treatment dose. The acid metabolite of trifloxystrobin, CGA 321 113, was not detected in grape berries at any point in time. Soil at harvest was free of any pesticide residues. Residue levels of both trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were below MRLs when grapes were harvested 30 days after the last of four applications of 175 g product ha(-1) (trifloxystrobin 44 g AI ha(-1), tebuconazole 88 g AI ha(-1)) under the semi-arid tropical climatic conditions of India. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Impact of Pesticide Resistance on Toxicity and Tolerance of Hostplant Phytochemicals in Amyelois Transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Vikram A; Siegel, Joel P; Demkovich, Mark R; Zehr, Luke N; Berenbaum, May R

    2016-01-01

    For some polyphagous insects, adaptation to phytochemically novel plants can enhance resistance to certain pesticides, but whether pesticide resistance expands tolerance to phytochemicals has not been examined. Amyelois transitella Walker (navel orangeworm) is an important polyphagous pest of nut and fruit tree crops in California. Bifenthrin resistance, partially attributable to enhanced cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated detoxification, has been reported in an almond-infesting population exposed to intense pesticide selection. We compared the toxicity of bifenthrin and three phytochemicals-chlorogenic acid, and the furanocoumarins xanthotoxin and bergapten-to three strains of A. transitella: pyrethroid-resistant R347 (maintained in the laboratory for ∼10 generations), fig-derived FIG (in the laboratory for ∼25 generations), and CPQ-a laboratory strain derived from almonds ∼40 years ago). Whereas both Ficus carica (fig) and Prunus dulcis (almond) contain chlorogenic acid, furanocoumarins occur only in figs. Both R347 and FIG exhibited 2-fold greater resistance to the three phytochemicals compared with CPQ; surprisingly, bifenthrin resistance was highest in FIG. Piperonyl butoxide, a P450 synergist, increased toxicity of all three phytochemicals only in CPQ, implicating alternate tolerance mechanisms in R347 and FIG. To test the ability of the strains to utilize novel hostplants directly, we compared survival on diets containing seeds of Wisteria sinensis and Prosopis pallida, two non-host Fabaceae species; survival of FIG was highest and survival of R347 was lowest. Our results suggest that, while P450-mediated pesticide resistance enhances tolerance of certain phytochemicals in this species, it is only one of multiple biochemical adaptations associated with acquiring novel hostplants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Acute toxicity and bioconcentration of fungicide tebuconazole in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Sánchez, Oscar; Paraíba, Lourival C; Jonsson, Claudio M; Carrasco, José M

    2012-02-01

    This research work investigated the bioconcentration of tebuconazole [(±)-α-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol] fungicide in zebrafish (Danio rerio) under laboratory conditions and a first-order kinetic pesticide dissipation in the water. The concentrations of tebuconazole fitted to an equivalent nonlinear kinetic type model which allowed the calculation of the following parameters: bioconcentration factor (38.80 L kg(-1) ), time to reach maximum fish concentration (6 days), maximum concentration in fish (0.0075 μg mg(-1) ), half-life in fish (24 days) and time needed for the fish to eliminate 95% of the maximum concentration (105 days). These calculations permitted the establishment of theoretical reference limit values for human consumption of fish and the establishment of safe limits for the water pesticide concentration. The data would also be useful in safe strategies associated with fishery activities that are conducted in aquatic regions close to crops using tebuconazole. The information will contribute to enlarge the tebuconazole toxicokinetics database of aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... few. Top of Page How do pesticides work? Pesticides are designed to interfere with some biological or chemical pathway critical to the survival of the pest to which it is targeted. When the pesticide interrupts these pathways, the target organism dies. Top ...

  17. 76 FR 49318 - Import Tolerances; Order Denying ABC's Petition to Revoke Import Tolerances for Various Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Agriculture. Section 408 was substantially rewritten by the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA), which...''); Seattle Audubon Soc'y v. Evans, 781 F. Supp. 1502 (9th Cir. 1991) (finding no government liability in....S. EPA, Report of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) Tolerance Reassessment Progress and Risk...

  18. Identification and characterization of tebuconazole transformation products in soil by combining suspect screening and molecular typology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storck, Veronika; Lucini, Luigi; Mamy, Laure; Ferrari, Federico; Papadopoulou, Evangelia S.; Nikolaki, Sofia; Karas, Panagiotis A.; Servien, Remi; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G.; Trevisan, Marco; Benoit, Pierre; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides generate transformation products (TPs) when they are released into the environment. These TPs may be of ecotoxicological importance. Past studies have demonstrated how difficult it is to predict the occurrence of pesticide TPs and their environmental risk. The monitoring approaches mostly used in current regulatory frameworks target only known ecotoxicologically relevant TPs. Here, we present a novel combined approach which identifies and categorizes known and unknown pesticide TPs in soil by combining suspect screening time-of-flight mass spectrometry with in silico molecular typology. We used an empirical and theoretical pesticide TP library for compound identification by both non-target and target time-of-flight (tandem) mass spectrometry, followed by structural proposition through a molecular structure correlation program. In silico molecular typology was then used to group TPs according to common molecular descriptors and to indirectly elucidate their environmental parameters by analogy to known pesticide compounds with similar molecular descriptors. This approach was evaluated via the identification of TPs of the triazole fungicide tebuconazole occurring in soil during a field dissipation study. Overall, 22 empirical and 12 yet unknown TPs were detected, and categorized into three groups with defined environmental properties. This approach combining suspect screening time-of-flight mass spectrometry with molecular typology could be extended to other organic pollutants and used to rationalize the choice of TPs to be investigated towards a more comprehensive environmental risk assessment scheme. - Highlights: • Combined method to detect and categorize pesticide transformation products in soil. • Detection by QTOF-MS of new tebuconazole transformation products without standards. • Estimation by in silico molecular typology of their environmental parameters. • Method to rationally choose relevant transformation products to be studied. • The

  19. Simultaneous determination of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in gherkin under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, Mariappan; Selvi, Chellamuthu; Deepa, Manthirachalam; Jayaprakash, Samiyannan A; Chandrasekaran, Subramanian

    2015-03-01

    A rapid, simple, and selective analytical method for the simultaneous determination of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in gherkin and soil was developed and validated by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine sorbent. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.05 mg/kg for all three compounds. The method was validated using blank samples spiked at three levels and recoveries ranged from 83.5 to 103.8% with a relative standard deviation of 1.2 to 4.8%. The developed method was validated and applied for the analysis of a degradation study sample. The residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were found to dissipate following first-order kinetics with half-life ranging between 3.31-3.38 and 3.0-3.04 days, respectively, for two different dosages. Pesticide residues were below the European Union maximum residue level after seven days for trifloxystrobin (0.2 mg/kg) and ten days for tebuconazole (0.05 mg/kg), which suggested the use of this fungicide mixture to be safe to humans. These results can be utilized in formulating the spray schedule and safety evaluation on trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in gherkin crop. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. 77 FR 32401 - 2,6-Diisopropylnaphthalene (2,6-DIPN) and Its Metabolites and Degradates; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...-Diisopropylnaphthalene (2,6-DIPN) and Its Metabolites and Degradates; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...,6- Diisopropylnaphthalene (2,6-DIPN) and it's metabolites and degradates in or on certain... metabolites and degradates, 2,6- DIPN and its metabolites and degradates, in or on potato, granules/flakes at...

  1. Chiral bioaccumulation behavior of tebuconazole in the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-04-01

    Tebuconazole is an effective chiral fungicide, and previous studies have demonstrated that tebuconazole enantiomers exhibit enantioselective toxicity to non-target aquatic organisms. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the chiral bioaccumulation behavior of tebuconazole in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Two exposure concentrations (0.107 and 1.07 mg/L) of tebuconazole were used. The uptake experiments lasted for 8 days, and subsequently, the zebrafish were transferred to another clean tank containing water without tebuconazole for depuration experiments (up to 14 days). A significant trend in enantioselective bioaccumulation was observed in these zebrafish with the preferential accumulation of (-)-R-tebuconazole at two dose levels. The results of the depuration experiments indicated that the degradation of (-)-R-tebuconazole in zebrafish was slower than that of (+)-S-tebuconazole. The BCFk values for (+)-S-tebuconazole and (-)-R-tebuconazole in a low dose of this chemical were 11.22 and 16.25, respectively, while at a high dose, these values were 9.79 and 10.31, respectively. The enantiomer fraction of tebuconazole in zebrafish and water ranged from 0.31-0.49. Hence, future research should focus on the fate of tebuconazole in the aquatic environment at the enantiomer levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ternary cycle treatment of high saline wastewater from pesticide production using a salt-tolerant microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Du, Ya-guang; Qu, Yi; Du, Dong-yun

    2013-01-01

    The material of this study is provided by biological aerobic treatment of high saline wastewater from pesticide production. The microorganism used for biodegradation has been identified by gene-sequencing as a strain of Bacillus sp. SCUN. The best growth condition for the salt-tolerant microorganism has been studied by varying the pH, immobilized microorganism dosage and temperature conditions. The feasibility of pretreating wastewater in ethyl chloride production containing 4% NaCl has been discussed. It was found that under the pH range of 6.0-8.0, immobilized microorganism dosage of 1.5 g/L, temperature of 30 °C, and NaCl concentration of 0-3%, the microorganism achieves the best growth for biodegradation. After domestication, the strain can grow under 4% NaCl. This salt-tolerant microorganism is effective in the pretreated high saline wastewater. With a newly developed ternary cycle treatment, the chemical oxygen demand removal approaches 58.3%. The theoretical basis and a new method for biological treatments in biodegradation of high saline wastewater in ethyl chloride production are discussed.

  3. 75 FR 44181 - Mevinphos; Proposed Data Call-in Order for Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... a family of pesticides known as the organophosphates. EPA has concluded mevinphos and other organophosphate pesticides share a common mechanism of toxicity. As with other organophosphates, the principal... 2006, EPA completed its cumulative risk assessment for the organophosphate pesticides finding that...

  4. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jinghua [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Jianyun [Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, Feixue [Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Organ Development and Regeneration, Institute of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliue@zju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Tebuconazole (TEB) inhibited the proliferation of human placental trophoblasts. • TEB changed cell cycle distribution of G1 and G2 phases of trophoblasts. • TEB induced apoptosis of trophoblasts via mitochondrial pathway. • TEB decreased the invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts. • TEB altered the mRNA levels of key regulatory genes in trophoblasts - Abstract: Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy.

  5. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jinghua; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Feixue; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Tebuconazole (TEB) inhibited the proliferation of human placental trophoblasts. • TEB changed cell cycle distribution of G1 and G2 phases of trophoblasts. • TEB induced apoptosis of trophoblasts via mitochondrial pathway. • TEB decreased the invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts. • TEB altered the mRNA levels of key regulatory genes in trophoblasts - Abstract: Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy.

  6. Enantioseletive bioaccumulation of tebuconazole in earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingyi; Li, Jianzhong; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Huili; Guo, Baoyuan; Zheng, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Methods of extraction and determination of tebuconazole enantiomers in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) were developed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both CE and HPLC have excellent resolution and recovery. The linearity ranges were 2.9-102.4 mg/kg and 3.0-99.6 mg/kg for (+)-R-tebuconazole and (-)-S-tebuconazole respectively in CE, and from 0.56 to 1000 mg/kg for both enantiomers in HPLC. Enantioselective bioaccumulation in earthworms from soil was investigated under laboratory condition at concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/kg dw in soil. The uptake kinetics of (+)-R-tebuconazole fitted the first-order kinetics well with r2 0.97 and 0.94 under 10 and 50 mg/kg dw exposure condition, respectively, while (-)-S-tebuconazole with r2 0.75 and 0.22 did not show the same. Bioaccumulation of tebuconazole in earthworm tissues was enantioselective with a preferential accumulation of (+)-R-tebuconazole. The (+)-R-tebuconazole might also have biomagnifying effect potential in earthworm food chain with biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) of 1.64 kg OC/kg lip in 10 mg/kg dw exposure group and 2.61 kg OC/kg lip in 50 mg/kg dw exposure group from soil to earthworm after 36 days. Although (-)-S-tebuconazole shares the same physicochemical properties with (+)-R-tebuconazole, it did not biomagnify. BSAFs of (-)-S-tebuconazole were 0.50 kg OC/kg lip (10 mg/kg dw tebuconazole exposure) and 0.28 kg OC/kg lip (50 mg/kg dw tebuconazole exposure) after 36 days, which was possibly owing to biotransformation or metabolism in earthworm tissues.

  7. Dermal exposure and risk assessment of tebuconazole applicators in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic-Rajcevic, Stefan; Rubino, Federico Maria; Vianello, Giorgio; Fugnoli, Lorenzo; Polledri, Elisa; Mercadante, Rosa; Moretto, Angelo; Fustinoni, Silvia; Colosio, Claudio

    2015-07-08

    Models used in the pre-marketing evaluation do not cover all work scenarios and may over- or underestimate exposure. Uncertainties present in the extrapolation from pre-marketing to the post-marketing warrant exposure and risk assessment in real-life working conditions. Seven vineyard pesticide applicators were followed for a total of 12 work-days. A data collection sheet was developed specifically for this study. Workers' body exposure, hands, and head exposure were measured. Tebuconazole was analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Median potential and actual body exposures were 22.41 mg/kg and 0.49 mg/kg of active substance applied, respectively. The median protection factor provided by the coverall was 98% (range: 90-99%). Hand exposure was responsible for 61% of total actual exposure, and was reduced by more than 50% in workers using gloves. The German Model underestimated the exposure in one work-day, and grossly overestimated it in 3 work-days. High levels of potential body exposure were efficiently controlled by the cotton coverall. Use of personal protective devices, especially chemically-resistant gloves and head cover is the main determinant of skin protection. Field studies on pesticide exposure in real-life conditions and development of methods and tools for easier risk assessment are necessary to complement and confirm the risk assessment done in the authorization process.

  8. Genotoxic effects of commercial formulations of Chlorpyrifos and Tebuconazole on green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ricardo Santiago; Di Marzio, Walter Darío; Sáenz, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) was used for the study of the genotoxic effects of insecticide Chlorpyrifos and fungicide Tebuconazole (commercial formulations) on two freshwater green algae species, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Nannocloris oculata, after 24 h of exposure. The percentage of DNA in tail of migrating nucleoids was taken as an endpoint of DNA impairment. Cell viability was measured by fluorometric detection of chlorophyll "a" in vivo and the determination of cell auto-fluorescence. Only the higher concentration of Chlorpyrifos tested resulted to affect significantly the cell viability of P. subcapitata, whereas cells of N. oculata were not affected. Tebuconazole assayed concentrations (3 and 6 mg/l) did not affect cell viability of both species. The results of comet assay on P. subcapitata showed that Chlorpyrifos concentration evaluated (0.8 mg/l) exerted a genotoxic effects; while for the other specie a concentration of 10 mg/l was needed. Tebuconazole was genotoxic at 3 and 6 mg/l for both species. The comet assay evidenced damage at the level of DNA simple strains molecule at pesticide concentrations were cytotoxicity was not evident, demonstrating that algae are models to take into account in ecological risk assessments for aquatic environments.

  9. Tebuconazole and Azoxystrobin Residue Behaviors and Distribution in Field and Cooked Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fan; Teng, Peipei; Liu, Fengmao; Wang, Wenzhuo

    2017-06-07

    Residue behaviors of tebuconazole and azoxystrobin in field condition and the variation of their residue levels during the boiling process were evaluated. The terminal residues of peanut kernels were determined by using a modified QuEChERS method (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) by means of the optimization of the novel purification procedure with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe 3 O 4 -magnetic nanoparticle (Fe 3 O 4 -MNP) in the presence of an external magnetic field, and the terminal residues were all at trace level at harvest time. The residues in shells were detected as well to investigate the distribution in peanuts. Tebuconazole and azoxystrobin residue levels varied before/after boiling in kernels and shells to different degrees due to various factors, such as the modes of action and physicochemical properties of pesticides. The residues have been transferred from peanut into the infusion during boiling with the higher percentage of azoxystrobin as its lower logK ow . The processing factors (PFs) for tebuconazole and azoxystrobin after processing were <1, indicating that home cooking in this study could reduce the residue levels in peanut. Risk assessment showed there was no health risk for consumers.

  10. Enantioselective degradation of tebuconazole in cabbage, cucumber, and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinquan; Wang, Xuesong; Zhang, Hu; Wu, Changxing; Wang, Xiangyun; Xu, Hao; Wang, Xiaofu; Li, Zhen

    2012-02-01

    The enantioselective degradation of tebuconazole has been investigated to elucidate the behaviors in agricultural soils, cabbage, and cucumber fruit. Rac-tebuconazole was fortified into three types of agricultural soils and sprayed foliage of cabbage and cucumber, respectively. The degradation kinetics, enantiomer fraction and enantiomeric selectivity were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) on a Lux amylose-2 chiral column. The process of the degradation of tebuconazole enantiomers followed first-order kinetic in the test soils and vegetables. It has been shown that the degradation of tebuconazole was enantioselective. The results indicated that the (+)-S-tebuconazole showed a faster degradation in cabbage, while the (-)-R-tebuconazole dissipated faster than (+)-S-form in cucumber fruit and the test soils. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    . In this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative potency...

  12. Stereoselective degradation of flutriafol and tebuconazole in grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Hua, Xiude; Yang, Yu; Yin, Wei; Tian, Mingming; Shi, Haiyan; Wang, Minghua

    2015-03-01

    The stereoselective dissipation of flutriafol and tebuconazole in grape had been studied. A simple and sensitive method for determination of flutriafol and tebuconazole enantiomers in grape was developed by high-performance liquid chromatography on a cellulose tris(3-chloro-4-methylphenylcarbamate) column. The limits of quantification for flutriafol and tebuconazole in grape were 0.033 and 0.043 mg kg(-1), respectively. The dissipations of flutriafol and tebuconazole stereoisomers in grape followed first-order kinetics (R (2) > 0.93). The stereoisomers of flutriafol and tebuconazole were enantioselectively degraded in grape, and tebuconazole was more enantioselective than flutriafol. The half-life of (-)-tebuconazole was 5.2 days and shorter than (+)-tebuconazole with half-life of 6.4 days. The (-)-flutriafol was also preferentially degraded in grape, the half-lives of which were 6.59 and 6.98 days for (-) and (+)-flutriafol, respectively. The enantiomeric ratio value of the two fungicides was nearly 1.0 at the 1st day and increased to 1.143 for flutriafol and 2.015 for tebuconazole at the 28th day. The stereoselective dissipations could provide a reference to fully evaluate the risks of two important chiral triazole fungicides.

  13. 77 FR 8755 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Temporary Tolerance Exemption for Residues of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Residues of Prohydrojasmon in or on Various Commodities AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on or before... modification of a regulation in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food...

  14. Integrating both interaction pathways between warming and pesticide exposure on upper thermal tolerance in high- and low-latitude populations of an aquatic insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op de Beeck, Lin; Verheyen, Julie; Stoks, Robby

    2017-05-01

    Global warming and chemical pollution are key anthropogenic stressors with the potential to interact. While warming can change the impact of pollutants and pollutants can change the sensitivity to warming, both interaction pathways have never been integrated in a single experiment. Therefore, we tested the effects of warming and multiple pesticide pulses (allowing accumulation) of chlorpyrifos on upper thermal tolerance (CTmax) and associated physiological traits related to aerobic/anaerobic energy production in the damselfly Ischnura elegans. To also assess the role of latitude-specific thermal adaptation in shaping the impact of warming and pesticide exposure on thermal tolerance, we exposed larvae from replicated high- and low-latitude populations to the pesticide in a common garden rearing experiment at 20 and 24 °C, the mean summer water temperatures at high and low latitudes. As expected, exposure to chlorpyrifos resulted in a lower CTmax. Yet, this pesticide effect on CTmax was lower at 24 °C compared to 20 °C because of a lower accumulation of chlorpyrifos in the medium at 24 °C. The effects on CTmax could partly be explained by reduction of the aerobic scope. Given that these effects did not differ between latitudes, gradual thermal evolution is not expected to counteract the negative effect of the pesticide on thermal tolerance. By for the first time integrating both interaction pathways we were not only able to provide support for both of them, but more importantly demonstrate that they can directly affect each other. Indeed, the warming-induced reduction in pesticide impact generated a lower pesticide-induced climate change sensitivity (in terms of decreased upper thermal tolerance). Our results indicate that, assuming no increase in pesticide input, global warming might reduce the negative effect of multiple pulse exposures to pesticides on sensitivity to elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tebuconazole disrupts steroidogenesis in Xenopus laevis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Luong, Xuan; Hansen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    or animals adapted to the xenobiotic, blood samples were collected 12 days into the study and at termination (day 27). After 12 days of exposure to 100 and 500μgL(-1) tebuconazole, plasma levels of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were increased, while plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations...... were greatly reduced. Exposure to 0.1μgL(-1), on the other hand, resulted in decreased levels of T and DHT, with no effects observed for E2. After 27 days of exposure, effects were no longer observed in circulating androgen levels while the suppressive effect on E2 persisted in the two high......-exposure groups (100 and 500μgL(-1)). Furthermore, tebuconazole increased gonadal concentrations of T and DHT as well as expression of the enzyme CYP17 (500μgL(-1), 27 days). These results suggest that tebuconazole exposure may supress the action of CYP17 at the lowest exposure (0.1μgL(-1)), while CYP19...

  16. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinghua; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Feixue; Liu, Jing

    2016-05-05

    Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Alleviation of fungicide-induced phytotoxicity in greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] using fungicide-tolerant and plant growth promoting Pseudomonas strain

    OpenAIRE

    Ahemad, Munees; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to explore beneficial plant-associated rhizobacteria exhibiting substantial tolerance against fungicide tebuconazole vis-à-vis synthesizing plant growth regulators under fungicide stressed soils and to evaluate further these multifaceted rhizobacteria for protection and growth promotion of greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] plants against phytotoxicity of tebuconazole. Tebuconazole-tolerant and plant growth promoting bacterial strain PS1 was isolated from mustard (...

  18. Persistence behaviour of fungicide tebuconazole in a viticulture application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Chiranjit; Goon, Arnab; Bhattacharyya, Anjan

    2014-04-01

    Dissipation pattern and risk assessment of tebuconazole in grapes was studied following two application rates (250 and 500 mL ha(-1)) under tropical humid climatic condition of West Bengal during 2009-2010. Residues of tebuconazole were confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The average recoveries were found 87.53 % and 89.67 % for grapes and cropped soil respectively. Following the first order kinetics the fungicide dissipates in grapes with a half-life (T1/2) value ranges between 2.62 and 2.86 days irrespective of seasons and doses. No residues of tebuconazole were detected in harvest grapes and soil samples which refers that, tebuconazole does not possess any background contamination property in grapes. So it may be concluded from the study that tebuconazole does not possess any toxicological property when applied at the recommended dose.

  19. Competition magnifies the impact of a pesticide in a warming world by reducing heat tolerance and increasing autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op de Beeck, Lin; Verheyen, Julie; Stoks, Robby

    2018-02-01

    There is increasing concern that standard laboratory toxicity tests may be misleading when assessing the impact of toxicants, because they lack ecological realism. Both warming and biotic interactions have been identified to magnify the effects of toxicants. Moreover, while biotic interactions may change the impact of toxicants, toxicants may also change the impact of biotic interactions. However, studies looking at the impact of biotic interactions on the toxicity of pesticides and vice versa under warming are very scarce. Therefore, we tested how warming (+4 °C), intraspecific competition (density treatment) and exposure to the pesticide chlorpyrifos, both in isolation and in combination, affected mortality, cannibalism, growth and heat tolerance of low- and high-latitude populations of the damselfly Ischnura elegans. Moreover, we addressed whether toxicant exposure, potentially in interaction with competition and warming, increased the frequency of autotomy, a widespread antipredator mechanism. Competition increased the toxicity of chlorpyrifos and made it become lethal. Cannibalism was not affected by chlorpyrifos but increased at high density and under warming. Chlorpyrifos reduced heat tolerance but only when competition was high. This is the first demonstration that a biotic interaction can be a major determinant of 'toxicant-induced climate change sensitivity'. Competition enhanced the impact of chlorpyrifos under warming for high-latitude larvae, leading to an increase in autotomy which reduces fitness in the long term. This points to a novel pathway how transient pesticide pulses may cause delayed effects on populations in a warming world. Our results highlight that the interplay between biotic interactions and toxicants have a strong relevance for ecological risk assessment in a warming polluted world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tebuconazole disrupts steroidogenesis in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Luong, Xuan; Hansen, Martin; Styrishave, Bjarne; Hayes, Tyrone

    2015-11-01

    A 27-day controlled exposure study of adult male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) was conducted to examine the mechanism by which tebuconazole may disrupt steroidogenesis. The fungicide was measured by LC-MS/MS in tank water and in target tissues (adipose, kidney, liver, and brain), and we observed tissue-specific bioconcentration with BCF up to 238. Up to 10 different steroid hormones were quantified in gonads using LC-MS/MS and in plasma using GC-MS/MS and a radioimmunoassay was performed for further measurement of androgens. In order to assess whether effects increased with exposure or animals adapted to the xenobiotic, blood samples were collected 12 days into the study and at termination (day 27). After 12 days of exposure to 100 and 500μgL(-1) tebuconazole, plasma levels of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were increased, while plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations were greatly reduced. Exposure to 0.1μgL(-1), on the other hand, resulted in decreased levels of T and DHT, with no effects observed for E2. After 27 days of exposure, effects were no longer observed in circulating androgen levels while the suppressive effect on E2 persisted in the two high-exposure groups (100 and 500μgL(-1)). Furthermore, tebuconazole increased gonadal concentrations of T and DHT as well as expression of the enzyme CYP17 (500μgL(-1), 27 days). These results suggest that tebuconazole exposure may supress the action of CYP17 at the lowest exposure (0.1μgL(-1)), while CYP19 suppression dominates at higher exposure concentrations (increased androgens and decreased E2). Increased androgen levels in plasma half-way into the study and in gonads at termination may thus be explained by compensatory mechanisms, mediated through increased enzymatic expression, as prolonged exposure had no effect on circulating androgen levels. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Identification and characterization of tebuconazole transformation products in soil by combining suspect screening and molecular typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Veronika; Lucini, Luigi; Mamy, Laure; Ferrari, Federico; Papadopoulou, Evangelia S; Nikolaki, Sofia; Karas, Panagiotis A; Servien, Remi; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Trevisan, Marco; Benoit, Pierre; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides generate transformation products (TPs) when they are released into the environment. These TPs may be of ecotoxicological importance. Past studies have demonstrated how difficult it is to predict the occurrence of pesticide TPs and their environmental risk. The monitoring approaches mostly used in current regulatory frameworks target only known ecotoxicologically relevant TPs. Here, we present a novel combined approach which identifies and categorizes known and unknown pesticide TPs in soil by combining suspect screening time-of-flight mass spectrometry with in silico molecular typology. We used an empirical and theoretical pesticide TP library for compound identification by both non-target and target time-of-flight (tandem) mass spectrometry, followed by structural proposition through a molecular structure correlation program. In silico molecular typology was then used to group TPs according to common molecular descriptors and to indirectly elucidate their environmental parameters by analogy to known pesticide compounds with similar molecular descriptors. This approach was evaluated via the identification of TPs of the triazole fungicide tebuconazole occurring in soil during a field dissipation study. Overall, 22 empirical and 12 yet unknown TPs were detected, and categorized into three groups with defined environmental properties. This approach combining suspect screening time-of-flight mass spectrometry with molecular typology could be extended to other organic pollutants and used to rationalize the choice of TPs to be investigated towards a more comprehensive environmental risk assessment scheme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of chronic and acute pesticide exposures on periphyton communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlili, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.tlili@cemagref.fr [CEMAGREF, UR MAEP, 3 quai Chauveau CP 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Montuelle, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.montuelle@cemagref.fr [CEMAGREF, UR MAEP, 3 quai Chauveau CP 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); INRA UMR CARRTEL, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Aquatique, BP 511, 74203, Thonon Cedex (France); Berard, Annette, E-mail: annette.berard@avignon.inra.fr [INRA UMR EMMAH 1114, Domaine Saint-Paul-Site Agroparc 84914 Avignon Cedex 9 (France); Bouchez, Agnes, E-mail: agnes.bouchez@thonon.inra.fr [INRA UMR CARRTEL, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Aquatique, BP 511, 74203, Thonon Cedex (France)

    2011-05-01

    Aquatic ecosystems face variable exposure to pesticides, especially during floodings which are associated with short bursts of high contaminant concentrations that influence biological systems. A study was undertaken to highlight the impact of the herbicide diuron applied in mixture with the fungicide tebuconazole on natural periphyton during flooding events. Periphyton were grown in two series of two lotic outdoor mesocosms: one series was non-contaminated while the other was exposed to chronic contamination. After 4 weeks, one channel of each series was exposed to three successive pulses, with each pulse followed by one week of recovery. Impacts on periphyton were assessed by using Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis to characterize eukaryotic community structure. At a functional scale, photosynthetic efficiency was quantified during each pulse, and the induced tolerance to diuron was estimated by performing short-term inhibition tests based on photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, pesticide concentrations in the water column and periphyton matrix were measured. Diuron was adsorbed in the periphyton during each pulse and desorbed 13 h after pulse end. The different pulses affected the eukaryotic community structures of the control biofilms, but not of the chronically exposed ones. During the first pulse, photosynthetic efficiency was correlated with pesticide concentration in the water phase, and there was no difference between periphyton from chronically contaminated channels and control channels. However, during the second and third pulses, the photosynthetic efficiency of periphyton chronically exposed to pesticides appeared to be less impacted by the acute pulsed exposure of pesticide. These changes were consistent with the acquisition of induced tolerance to diuron since only after the third pulse that periphyton from chronic channel became tolerant to diuron. Our experimental study indicates that the effects of pulsed acute exposures to pesticides on

  3. Impact of chronic and acute pesticide exposures on periphyton communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlili, Ahmed; Montuelle, Bernard; Berard, Annette; Bouchez, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems face variable exposure to pesticides, especially during floodings which are associated with short bursts of high contaminant concentrations that influence biological systems. A study was undertaken to highlight the impact of the herbicide diuron applied in mixture with the fungicide tebuconazole on natural periphyton during flooding events. Periphyton were grown in two series of two lotic outdoor mesocosms: one series was non-contaminated while the other was exposed to chronic contamination. After 4 weeks, one channel of each series was exposed to three successive pulses, with each pulse followed by one week of recovery. Impacts on periphyton were assessed by using Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis to characterize eukaryotic community structure. At a functional scale, photosynthetic efficiency was quantified during each pulse, and the induced tolerance to diuron was estimated by performing short-term inhibition tests based on photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, pesticide concentrations in the water column and periphyton matrix were measured. Diuron was adsorbed in the periphyton during each pulse and desorbed 13 h after pulse end. The different pulses affected the eukaryotic community structures of the control biofilms, but not of the chronically exposed ones. During the first pulse, photosynthetic efficiency was correlated with pesticide concentration in the water phase, and there was no difference between periphyton from chronically contaminated channels and control channels. However, during the second and third pulses, the photosynthetic efficiency of periphyton chronically exposed to pesticides appeared to be less impacted by the acute pulsed exposure of pesticide. These changes were consistent with the acquisition of induced tolerance to diuron since only after the third pulse that periphyton from chronic channel became tolerant to diuron. Our experimental study indicates that the effects of pulsed acute exposures to pesticides on

  4. Enhanced Tolerance of House Mosquito to Different Insecticides due to Agricultural and Household Pesticides in Sewage System of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Vatandoost, L Ezeddinloo, A H Mahvi, M R Abai, EB Kia, I Mobedi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Different insecticides are being used for household and agricultural pest control in the capital city of Iran, Tehran. An investigation was carried out in order to evaluate the susceptibility level of laboratory and field collected mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatusin to different insecticides. Field strain was collected from sewage system of the city. Adult females were subjected to the diagnostic dose of different insecticides as recommended by WHO. Results showed that laboratory strains only exhibit resistant to DDT 4%, and susceptible to other insecticides. By using WHO criteria, field strain is resistant to DDT 4%, bendiocarb 0.1%, and tolerant to malathion 5%, permethrin 0.75%, deltamethrin 0.05%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.05% and etofenprox 5%. The field strain is still susceptible to cyfluthrin 0.15%.This findings indicate that routine use of pesticides in household and agricultural pest control may cause resistant in the wastewater mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus.

  5. Impact of pesticide resistance on toxicity and tolerance of hostplant phytochemicals in Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For some polyphagous insects adaptation to phytochemically novel plants confers enhanced resistance to insecticides, but whether insecticide resistance enhances tolerance to novel phytochemicals has not been assessed. We used Amyelois transitella Walker (navel orangeworm), an economically important ...

  6. Stereoselective degradation of tebuconazole in rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhigang; Zhu, Wentao; Liu, Donghui; Xu, Xinyuan; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the stereoselectivity of two tebuconazole [(RS)-1-p-chlorophenyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)pentan-3-ol] enantiomers in in vitro system (rat liver microsomes). The analytes were extracted with acetic ether and concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)-based chiral stationary phase. The degradation of rac-tebuconazole (15 μM) followed first-order kinetics, and the degradation of the S-tebuconazole (t(1/2) = 22.31 min) was faster than that of the R-tebuconazole (t(1/2) = 48.76 min), but no significant difference between the enantiomers was found in the respective incubation (7.5 μM for each). Kinetic assays showed that the K(m) was different between the two enantiomers (K(mR) = 14.83 ± 2.19, K(mS) = 12.23 ± 2.72). The interaction results revealed that there was competitive inhibition between S- and R-form, and there was a significant difference between the IC(50) of R- to S-tebuconazole and S- to R-tebuconazole (IC(50R/S)/IC(50S/R) = 4.98). Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. 77 FR 75859 - Pyraflufen-Ethyl; Extension of Time-Limited Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective December 26... tolerance expression. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental... existing legal framework provided by section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) states...

  8. 77 FR 30402 - Acibenzolar- S -methyl; Time-Limited Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... pears 0.05 parts per million (ppm) in conjunction with approval of an experimental use permit. That..., tolerance level residues for the Experimental Use Permit (EUP) uses and maximum PCT estimates were used for... may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd...

  9. Dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on chili and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S K; Jyot, Gagan; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2012-03-01

    Dissipation of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were studied following two applications of a combination formulation of Nativo 75 WG (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%) @ 250 and 500 g ha(-1) at 10 days interval. Samples of chili were collected at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after the last application. Red chili and soil samples were collected after 20 days of last application. Half-life period for trifloxystrobin were found to be 1.81 and 1.58 days and for tebuconazole these values were observed to be 1.37 and 1.41 days, respectively, at single and double the application rates. Trifloxystrobin residues dissipated below its limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.01 mg kg(-1) after 5 and 7 days, respectively, at single and double the application dosages whereas tebuconazole residues took 7 and 10 days, respectively. Red chili & soil samples collected after 20 days did not reveal the presence of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole at their determination limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1).

  10. 40 CFR 180.474 - Tebuconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-harvest 5.0 Coffee, green bean 1 0.15 Coffee, roasted bean 1 0.3 Corn, field, forage 4.0 Corn, field..., green, subgroup 3-07B 1.3 Peach 1.0 Peanut 0.1 Pistachio 0.05 Plum, pre- and post-harvest 1.0 Soybean...

  11. Biodegradation of tebuconazole by bacteria isolated from contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehnem, Nicole T; Souza-Cruz, Priscila; Peralba, Maria Do Carmo R; Ayub, Marco A Záchia

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to isolate bacteria from soil historically exposed to tebuconazole and to evaluate the biodegradation of this fungicide by them. Tebuconazole is a commonly used systemic fungicide of the triazol group, which inhibits the sterol C-14 alpha-demethylation of 24-methylenedihydrolanosterol, a precursor of ergosterol, a cell membrane component in fungi. Microorganisms were isolated by different methods of soil sampling and the screening of degrading bacteria was performed in bioreactors cultivations, with some isolates showing the ability to degrade up to 42.76 mg L(- 1) of tebuconazole (51% of the initial concentration). These strains were identified by standard biochemical procedures as being Enterobacter sakazakii and Serratia sp. These bacteria present some important characteristics for potential uses on environmental bioremediation, considering that tebucanozale is an extremely recalcitrant chemical.

  12. Effect of different rates of spent mushroom substrate on the dissipation and bioavailability of cymoxanil and tebuconazole in an agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Martín, Alba; Sánchez-Martín, María Jesús; Pose-Juan, Eva; Rodríguez-Cruz, María Sonia

    2016-04-15

    Physicochemical methods to immobilize pesticides in vulnerable soils are currently being developed to prevent water contamination. Some of these methods include the use of different organic residues to modify soils because they could limit the transport of pesticides and/or facilitate their dissipation. Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) may be used for these purposes. Accordingly a study was conducted under laboratory conditions to know the dissipation and bioavailability of the fungicides cymoxanil and tebuconazole over time in a vineyard soil amended with two rates of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) (5% and 50% (w/w)), selected to prevent the diffuse or point pollution of soil. The dissipation of cymoxanil was more rapid than that of tebuconazole in the different soils studied. The dissipation rate was higher in the amended soil than in the unamended one for both compounds, while no significant differences were observed between the amended soils in either case. An apparent dissipation occurred in the amended soil due to the formation of non-extractable residues. Bound residues increased with incubation time for tebuconazole, although a proportion of this fungicide was bioavailable after 303days. The major proportion of cymoxanil was tightly bound to the amended soil from the start, although an increasing fraction of bound fungicide was bioavailable for mineralization. Soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly affected by SMS application and incubation time; however, it was not significantly modified by fungicide application. The significance of this research suggests that SMS applied at a low or high rate to agricultural soil can be used to prevent both the diffuse or point pollution of soil through the formation of non-extractable residues, although more research is needed to discover the time that fungicides remain adsorbed into the soil decreasing either bioavailability (tebuconazole) or mineralization (cymoxanil) in SMS-amended soils. Copyright © 2016

  13. Tebuconazole Regulates Fatty Acid Composition of Etiolated Winter Wheat Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Korsukova; T.G. Gornostai; O.I. Grabelnych; N.V. Dorofeev; T.P. Pobezhimova; N.A. Sokolova; L.V. Dudareva; V.K. Voinikov

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of shoots of unhardened and hardened to cold etiolated winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated with tebuconazole-based protectant «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L), and the seedlings frost resistance has been studied. It is shown that treatment of winter wheat seeds by «Bunker» preparation (1,5 microliter per gram of seeds, µl/g) is accompanied by an increase of the fatty acids unsaturation in the shoots and increase of the seedlings...

  14. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...... the current models of restraint and benevolence, other ways of understanding the politics of democratic pluralism might be developed, which will enable us to conceive of tolerance's future in terms different than those currently on offer. Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics develops...

  15. Effects of mancozeb, metalaxyl and tebuconazole on steroid production by bovine luteal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Nurgul; Arikan, Sevket; Essiz, Dinc; Kalender, Hakan; Simsek, Ozkan; Bilmen, Fatih Sultan; Kabakci, Ruhi

    2018-03-13

    Mancozeb, metalaxyl and tebucanazole are widely used pesticides in agriculture and industry to treat plant pathogenic fungi. Livestock may be exposed to such substances by consuming contaminated plants. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of these three fungicides on bovine luteal cell steroidogenesis. Luteal slices from mid-cycle corpus luteum were dissociated into single cell suspension in aerated (O 2 ) culture media (DMEM/F12) by enzymatic digestion. The cells were incubated in newborn calf serum (10%) for 18 h and then with serum-free media containing mancozeb (0.01 μM, 0.1 μM, 1 μM), tebuconazole (1 μM, 10 μM, 100 μM) or metalaxyl (100 μM, 500 μM, 2500 μM) for additional 96 h. The medium was replaced on day 1 and 3; and the retrieved medium was stored at -20 °C until progesterone assay. Treatment of cells with three different fungicides induced dose dependent variable decrease in steroid synthesis during incubation periods. Incubation of cells with 1 μM mancozeb exhibited a 33% decline in steroid synthesis on day 3 and 48% decline on day 5 compared with controls. Treatment of cells with 100 μM tebuconazole and 500 μM metalaxyl resulted in a 65% and 31% decrease, respectively, in progesterone accumulation on day 5 of incubation. Fungicide induced suppressive effects on luteal steroidogenesis were as metalaxyl tebuconazole < mancozeb. Results of the present study suggest that designated concentrations of all three fungicides studied might have varying degrees of adverse effects on luteal steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tebuconazole Regulates Fatty Acid Composition of Etiolated Winter Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Korsukova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of shoots of unhardened and hardened to cold etiolated winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated with tebuconazole-based protectant «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L, and the seedlings frost resistance has been studied. It is shown that treatment of winter wheat seeds by «Bunker» preparation (1,5 microliter per gram of seeds, µl/g is accompanied by an increase of the fatty acids unsaturation in the shoots and increase of the seedlings frost resistance (–8°C, 24 h. The most pronounced decrease in the content of saturated palmitic acid and increase in the content of unsaturated α-linolenic acid were observed during cold hardening of winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated by tebuconazole-based protectant. It is concluded that the seeds treatment with tebuconazole-based protectant causes changes of fatty acid composition of winter wheat seedlings to increase their frost resistance.

  17. Test Guidelines for Pesticides and Toxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents that specify methods EPA recommends to generate data submitted to EPA to support the registration of a pesticide, setting of a tolerance or tolerance exemption for pesticide residues, or the decision making process for an industrial chemical.

  18. Identification of new metabolic pathways in the enantioselective fungicide tebuconazole biodegradation by Bacillus sp. 3B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youness, Mohamed; Sancelme, Martine; Combourieu, Bruno; Besse-Hoggan, Pascale

    2018-02-24

    The use of triazole fungicides in various fields ranging from agriculture to therapy, can cause long-term undesirable effects on different organisms from various environmental compartments and lead to resistance phenomena (even in humans) due to their extensive use and persistence. Their occurrence in various water bodies has increased and tebuconazole, in particular, is often detected, sometimes in high concentration. Only a few bacterial and fungal strains have been isolated and found to biotransform this fungicide, described as not easily biodegradable. Nevertheless, the knowledge of efficient degrading-strains and metabolites potentially formed could improve bioremediation process and global overview of risk assessment. Therefore, a broad screening of microorganisms, isolated from various environmental compartments or from commercially-available strain collections, allowed us to find six bacterial strains able to biotransform tebuconazole. The most efficient one was studied further: this environmental strain Bacillus sp. 3B6 biotransforms the fungicide enantioselectively (ee = 18%) into two hydroxylated metabolites, one of them being transformed in its turn to alkene by a biotic dehydration reaction. This original enantioselective pathway shows that racemic pesticides should be treated by the environmental risk assessment authorities as a mixture of two compounds because persistence, biodegradation, bioaccumulation and toxicity often show chiral dependence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced antifungal efficacy of tebuconazole using gated pH-driven mesoporous nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Núria; Galiana, Irene; Hurtado, Silvia; Mondragón, Laura; Bernardos, Andrea; Sancenón, Félix; Marcos, María D; Amorós, Pedro; Abril-Utrillas, Nuria; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Murguía, José Ramón

    2014-01-01

    pH-sensitive gated mesoporous silica nanoparticles have been synthesized. Increased extracellular pH and internalization into living yeast cells triggered molecular gate aperture and cargo release. Proper performance of the system was demonstrated with nanodevices loaded with fluorescein or with the antifungal agent tebuconazole. Interestingly, nanodevices loaded with tebuconazole significantly enhanced tebuconazole cytotoxicity. As alterations of acidic external pH are a key parameter in the onset of fungal vaginitis, this nanodevice could improve the treatment for vaginal mycoses.

  20. Accumulation of pesticides in pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) from California's Sierra Nevada Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are receiving increasing attention as potential causes of amphibian declines, acting singly or in combination with other stressors, but limited information is available on the accumulation of current-use pesticides in tissue. The authors examined potential exposure and accumulation of currently used pesticides in pond-breeding frogs (Pseudacris regilla) collected from 7 high elevations sites in northern California. All sites sampled are located downwind of California's highly agricultural Central Valley and receive inputs of pesticides through precipitation and/or dry deposition. Whole frog tissue, water, and sediment were analyzed for more than 90 current-use pesticides and pesticide degradates using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Two fungicides, pyraclostrobin and tebuconazole, and one herbicide, simazine, were the most frequently detected pesticides in tissue samples. Median pesticide concentration ranged from 13 µg/kg to 235 µg/kg wet weight. Tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin were the only 2 compounds observed frequently in frog tissue and sediment. Significant spatial differences in tissue concentration were observed, which corresponded to pesticide use in the upwind counties. Data generated indicated that amphibians residing in remote locations are exposed to and capable of accumulating current-use pesticides. A comparison of P. regilla tissue concentrations with water and sediment data indicated that the frogs are accumulating pesticides and are potentially a more reliable indicator of exposure to this group of pesticides than either water or sediment.

  1. Microencapsulation of seed-coating tebuconazole and its effects on physiology and biochemistry of maize seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Daibin; Wang, Na; Yan, Xiaojing; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Min; Wang, Zhenying; Yuan, Huizhu

    2014-02-01

    Tebuconazole is a triazole systemic fungicide that is commonly used to treat fungal pathogens of crops, but at high doses can reduce seed germination. Seeds with microcapsulated tebuconazole were investigated to determine effects of this method on maize seedlings and the bioefficacy against maize head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana). The ethyl cellulose (EC)-based microcapsules had encapsulation efficiency of 90.6%, and average size of 1.6 μm. A release kinetic study revealed that tebuconazole release from EC-based microcapsules fits the model (Mt/Mz=kt(n)+C). Glasshouse studies indicated that maize seedling emergence and growth were negatively affected in an exponential manner as predicted by model Y=A+B×e((-x/k)). However, microencapsulation could induce tebuconazole's growth promoting effects by increasing emergence, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, carotenoid and chlorophyll content. Phytohormone analysis indicated the beneficial effects of microencapsulated tebuconazole were due to the sustained release of tebuconazole that appeared to influence the balance of phytohormones in maize seedlings. Contrary to conventional tebuconazole, microencapsulated seed-coated tebuconazole can lead to slightly increased gibberellins (GA) level and disappearance of abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in maize. In addition, microcapsule formulation of tebuconazole was found to provide better protection against maize head smut when compared to conventional formulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Processing Factors of Several Pesticides and Degradation Products in Carrots by Household and Industrial Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnechere, Aurore; Hanot, Vincent; Jolie, Ruben; Hendrickx, Marc; Bragard, Claude; Bedoret, Thomas; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the effect of household and industrial processing on the pesticide residues, carrots (Daucus carota) were sprayed during cultivation with three fungicides (boscalid, difenoconazole and tebuconazole), two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and dimethoate) and one herbicide (linuron). The most concentrated formulations were applied pursuant to Good Agricultural Practices, to ensure sufficiently high levels of residues, The subsequent processing conditions were established to correspond as c...

  3. Combined exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides impairs parturition and causes pup mortality in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    to five pesticides, i.e. procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and prochloraz. Common features for the three azole fungicides are that they increase gestational length possibly because of an increase in progesterone levels in dams. Groups of 8 time-mated Wistar rats (HanTac:WH) were gavaged...

  4. 78 FR 59347 - Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... and associated tolerance petitions for pesticides that are termed ``conventional chemicals,'' excluding pesticides intended for antimicrobial uses. The term ``conventional chemical'' is a term of art...

  5. A high-throughput sequencing ecotoxicology study of freshwater bacterial communities and their responses to tebuconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascault, Noémie; Roux, Simon; Artigas, Joan; Pesce, Stéphane; Leloup, Julie; Tadonleke, Rémy D; Debroas, Didier; Bouchez, Agnès; Humbert, Jean-François

    2014-12-01

    The pollution of lakes and rivers by pesticides is a growing problem worldwide. However, the impacts of these substances on microbial communities are still poorly understood, partly because next-generation sequencing (NGS) has rarely been used in an ecotoxicology context to study bacterial communities despite its interest for accessing rare taxa. Microcosm experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of tebuconazole (TBZ) on the structure and composition of bacterial communities from two types of freshwater ecosystem (lakes and rivers) with differing histories of pollutant contamination (pristine vs. previously exposed sites). Pyrosequencing revealed that bacterial diversity was higher in the river than in the lakes and in previously exposed sites than in pristine sites. Lakes and river stations shared very few OTUs, and differences at the phylum level were identified between these ecosystems (i.e. the relative importance of Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria). Despite differences between these ecosystems and their contamination history, no significant effect of TBZ on bacterial community structure or composition was observed. Compared to functional parameters that displayed variable responses, we demonstrated that a combination of classical methods and NGS is necessary to investigate the ecotoxicological responses of microbial communities to pollutants. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Endocrine-disrupting activities in vivo of the fungicides tebuconazole and epoxiconazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla; Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    2007-01-01

    The triazole fungicides tebuconazole and epoxiconazole were investigated for reproductive toxic effects after exposure during gestation and lactation. Rats were dosed with epoxiconazole (15 or 50 mg/kg bw/day) or tebuconazole (50 or 100 mg/kg bw/day) during pregnancy from gestational day (GD) 7...... 13 or PND 16, and semen quality was assessed in adults. Both tebuconazole and epoxiconazole affected reproductive development in the offspring after exposure in utero. Both compounds virilized the female offspring as shown by an increased AGD PND 0. Furthermore, tebuconazole had a feminizing effect...... on male offspring as shown by increased nipple retention. This effect was likely caused by the reduced testosterone levels seen in male fetuses. Tebuconazole increased the testicular concentrations of progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in male fetuses, indicating a direct impact on the steroid...

  7. Application of a biosorbent to soil: a potential method for controlling water pollution by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Martín, Alba; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia; Andrades, M Soledad; Sánchez-Martín, María J

    2016-05-01

    Different strategies are now being optimized to prevent water from agricultural areas being contaminated by pesticides. The aim of this work was to optimize the adsorption of non-polar (tebuconazole, triadimenol) and polar (cymoxanil, pirimicarb) pesticides by soils after applying the biosorbent spent mushroom substrate (SMS) at different rates. The adsorption isotherms of pesticides by three soils and SMS-amended soils were obtained and the adsorption constants were calculated. The distribution coefficients (K d) increased 1.40-23.1 times (tebuconazole), 1.08-23.7 times (triadimenol), 1.31-42.1 times (cymoxanil), and 0.55-23.8 times (pirimicarb) for soils amended with biosorbent at rates between 2 and 75 %. Increasing the SMS rates led to a constant increase in adsorption efficiency for non-polar pesticides but not for polar pesticides, due to the increase in the organic carbon (OC) content of soils as indicated by K OC values. The OC content of SMS-amended soils accounted for more than 90 % of the adsorption variability of non-polar pesticides, but it accounted for only 56.3 % for polar pesticides. The estimated adsorption of SMS-amended soils determined from the individual adsorption of soils and SMS was more consistent with real experimental values for non-polar pesticides than for polar pesticides. The results revealed the use of SMS as a tool to optimize pesticide adsorption by soils in dealing with specific contamination problems involving these compounds.

  8. Adverse effects on sexual development in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a mixture of low doses of five environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, would cause adverse developmental toxicity effects in rats. In rat dams, a significant increase...... and cumulative intake, because of the potentially serious impact of mixed exposure on development and reproduction in humans....

  9. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of five pesticides used in rice farming on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, Andreu; Sabater, Consuelo; Castillo, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity of five pesticides typically used in rice farming (trichlorfon, dimethoate, carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz) was evaluated on different lethal and sub-lethal endpoints of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The evaluated endpoints included: avoidance behaviour after an exposure

  10. Combined exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides impairs parturition, causes pup mortality and affects sexual differentiation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    2010-01-01

    were gavaged during gestation and lactation with five doses of a mixture of the fungicides procymidone, mancozeb, epoxyconazole, tebuconazole and prochloraz. The mixture ratio was chosen according to the doses of each individual pesticide that produced no observable effects on pregnancy length and pup...

  11. Residue levels and dissipation behaviors for trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango fruit and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2015-03-01

    An evaluation of residue levels of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole was carried out on mango fruits after treatments with the combined formulation, trifloxystrobin (25 % w/w) and tebuconazole (50 % w/w), at standard and double doses of 250 + 500 and 500 + 1000 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. Extraction and purification of the mango fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method after validating the analytical parameters. Determination of the fungicides was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for both fungicides were 0.015 μg mL(-1) and 0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residue levels of trifloxystrobin for standard and double-dose treatments were 0.492 and 0.901 mg kg(-1) and for tebuconazole were 0.535 and 1.124 mg kg(-1), respectively. A faster dissipation of tebuconazole in mango fruit was observed compared with that for tebuconazole. Dissipation of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango followed first-order kinetics, and the half-lives were 9 and 6 days, respectively. The preharvest intervals (PHI), the time taken for the combined residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole to dissipate to their permissible levels (maximum residue limits), were 14 and 20 days for standard and double doses, respectively. At harvest, mature mango fruit and soil were free from fungicide residues.

  12. Residue analysis and risk assessment of tebuconazole in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiangwei; Li, Yiqiang; Wang, Xiuguo; Xu, Jinli; Zheng, Xiao; Sui, Chengcheng

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a sensitive and reliable analytical method, based on a modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe procedure, was established for determination of tebuconazole in jujube. After extraction with acetonitrile, the samples were cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine, and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. At fortification levels of 0.01, 0.1 and 2.0 mg kg -1 , the average recoveries of tebuconazole in jujube were in the range 97.6-101.9%, with relative standard deviations of 1.5-3.5%. The dissipation and residual levels of tebuconazole in jujube under field conditions were investigated. Tebuconazole dissipated relatively slowly in jujube, with a half-life of 33.0 days. The terminal residue experiments of tebuconazole in jujube were conducted in four locations in China and the risk was evaluated using risk quotients (RQ). RQ values were found to be significantly lower than RQ = 1, indicating that the risk to human health of using the recommended doses of tebuconazole in jujube was not significant. This study could provide guidance for the safe and reasonable use of tebuconazole in jujube and serve as a reference for the establishment of limit of maximum residue in China. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on Allium cepa l.

    OpenAIRE

    Gurmail Singh; Reenu Takker; Gurminder Singh Chahil; Gaganjyot; Sanjay Kumar Sahoo; Balwinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    A supervised field trial was conducted to study the persistence and therefore to evaluate the risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on onion. A combined formulation of trifloxystrobin 25 % + tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG) was applied on onion crop @ 300 and 600 g ha-1, which resulted in active application @ 75.0 and 150.0 g.a.ha-1 with respect to trifloxystrobin and @ 150.0 and 300 g.a.ha-1 with respect to tebuconazole. The average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin ...

  14. The Fungicidal Activity of Tebuconazole Enantiomers against Fusarium graminearum and Its Selective Effect on DON Production under Different Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Xue; Han, Yiye; Liu, Chenglan

    2018-03-26

    Tebuconazole, which consists of a pair of enantiomers with different fungicidal activities, is one of the most common fungicides used in the control of Fusarium graminearum. In this study, the fungicidal activity of rac-tebuconazole and its enantiomers against F. graminearum was determined at 0.997, 0.975, and 0.950 a w and at 20, 25, and 30 °C on wheat-based media. Then, F. graminearum was treated with rac-tebuconazole and its enantiomers at the EC 10 , EC 50 , and EC 90 levels under different culture conditions, and DON production was measured. Finally, expression of the DON biosynthetic genes ( TRI5 and TRI6) was quantified by real-time RT-PCR after incubation with EC 50 doses of rac-tebuconazole and its enantiomers for 4, 8, and 14 days at 30 °C and a w 0.997. The results showed that the fungicidal activity of tebuconazole was strongly influenced by temperature, a w , and the combined factors. (-)-Tebuconazole is higher in fungicidal activity than (+)-tebuconazole and rac-tebuconazole with 24-99-fold and 1.8-6.7-fold, respectively. However, (-)-tebuconazole was generally more favorable for DON production than (+)-tebuconazole under the same conditions. Additionally, (-)-tebuconazole and rac-tebuconazole induced significantly increased expression of the DON biosynthetic genes ( TRI5 and TRI6) compared to the control by the 14th day of treatment. In this research, the combination condition of 30 °C and 0.997 a w is the most suitable for DON production by F. graminearum. The test strains of F. graminearum treated with the EC 10 dose of (-)-tebuconazole produced the greatest amounts of DON.

  15. Translocation and degradation of tebuconazole and prothioconazole in wheat following fungicide treatment at flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczki-Krsjak, Szabolcs; Varga, Mónika; Szabó-Hevér, Ágnes; Mesterházy, Ákos

    2013-11-01

    Prothioconazole and tebuconazole are among the most effective fungicides against Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The translocation between the ears and the flag leaves and the kinetics of degradation may influence field efficacy of these active ingredients (AIs). In greenhouse experiments, only traces (tebuconazole. Cultivar and environmental effects influenced the degradation kinetics of these AIs, but a high level of protection against FHB was maintained. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Racemic, R-, and S-tebuconazole altered chitinase and chitobiase activity of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Suzhen; Liu, Xue; Zhu, Lizhen; Chen, Xiaofeng; Wang, Chengju

    2018-03-04

    Tebuconazole is a chiral trizole fungicide and widely used in many crops for controlling disease. Tebuconazole is potential toxic to some aquatic organisms but relative information of its isomers is scarce. To detect the endocrine disrupting effects and difference of rac-, R-, and S-tebuconazole, the chitinase activity in Daphnia magna and chitobiase activity in each test medium were used as biomonitors after a 14-day exposure. Results showed that chitinase activity was significantly reduced by rac-, R-, and S-tebuconazole. The chitobiase activity in the test medium was reduced by rac- and R-tebuconazole before day 10, and only one peak was observed at day 10 or day 12 compared with two obvious peaks in the control group (days 6 and 12). S-tebuconazole delayed and reduced the reproduction of D. magna, but did not delay the first chitobiase activity peak, whereas the second peak could not be characterized as the exposure concentration and time increased. Compared with chitinase activity, chitobiase activity can still be used as a rudimentary model for identifying molt-interfering xenobiotics, and further studies should focus on the analysis of correlations between these parameters.

  17. Contacts in the Office of Pesticide Programs, Pesticide Re-Evaluation Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contact the Pesticide Re-Evaluation Division (PRD) about registration review and reregistration follow up (including post-RED activities, product reregistration, and implementing certain tolerance reassessment decisions) for conventional pesticides.

  18. Pesticide residues in grain from Kazakhstan and potential health risks associated with exposure to detected pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozowicka, B; Kaczynski, P; Paritova, Capital A Cyrillic Е; Kuzembekova, G B; Abzhalieva, A B; Sarsembayeva, N B; Alihan, K

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the first study of pesticide residue results in grain from Kazakhstan. A total of 80 samples: barley, oat, rye, and wheat were collected and tested in the accredited laboratory. Among 180 pesticides, 10 active substances were detected. Banned pesticides, such as DDTs, γ-HCH, aldrin and diazinon were found in cereal grain. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the most frequently detected residues. No residues were found in 77.5% of the samples, 13.75% contained pesticide residues at or below MRLs, and 8.75% above MRLs. The greatest percentage of samples with residues (29%) was noted for wheat, and the lowest for rye (20%). Obtained data were used to estimate potential health risks associated with exposure to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were as follows: 789% of the ADI for aldrin (wheat) and 49.8% of the ADI for pirimiphos methyl (wheat and rye). The acute risk from aldrin and tebuconazole in wheat was 315.9% and 98.7% ARfD, respectively. The results show that despite the highest EDIs of pesticide residues in cereals, the current situation could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in grain is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Control of Pesticides 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    , fluazinam, and kresoxim-methyl, and among insecticides containing fenazaquin. Thus, all the eighteen analysed samples of these pesticides complied with the accepted tolerances with respect to content of active ingredients set by the Danish regulation of pesticides. The only product containing buprofezin......, one of four samples containing terbuthylazine, one of eleven samples containing clopyralid, and one of four samples containing ioxynil did not comply with the accepted limits of content of active ingredient...

  20. Control of Pesticides 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the pro......The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients...... in the products comply with the labelled content. The tolerance of deviation from the labelled content of active ingredient is set by the Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. In addition to the examination of the content of active ingredients, all collected samples are examined for the content of octylphenol...... chloride and ethephon. Satisfactory results were found for all examined pesticide formulations. Thus, the analysed samples of these formulations complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None...

  1. Individual Pesticides in Registration Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    You can used the Chemical Search database to search pesticides by chemical name and find their registration review dockets, along with Work Plans, risk assessments, interim and final decisions, tolerance rules, and cancellation actions.

  2. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  3. Towards the identification and quantification of candidate metabolites of tebuconazole fungicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Azhari, Najoi; Dermou, Eftychia; Botteri, Lucio; Lucini, Luigi; Karas, Panagiotis; Karpouzas, Dimitris; Tsiamis, George; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Trevisan, Marco; Rossi, Riccardo; Ferrari, Federico

    2017-04-01

    Tebuconazole belongs to the family of triazole fungicides, used for crop protection and human health applications. In the environment, the dissipation of the parent molecule leads to the formation of metabolites that are of unknown identity or toxicity. In order to identify and determine the putative identity of those metabolites and their po- tential toxicity, a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) approach is often used. Q-SAR ap- proaches help to predict their toxicity by comparing them to a known database of mole- cules with known properties. All together the information on the candidate by-products may help to select relevant sub-set of metabolites for further quantification by LC or GC coupled with MS. It is thereby possible to select putative toxic compounds for further quanti- fication using chemical analysis. Previous work allowed the identification of potential metabolites of tebuconazole. Triazole, triazolyl acetic acid and p-chlorophenol were suspected to result from the decomposition of tebuconazole. Tebuconazole degradation kinetics was followed for 125 days by quanti- fying the dissipation of the parent molecule and the emergence of the three candidate metabolites by LC/MS for tebuconazole, triazol and triazolyl acetate and by GC/MS for p- chlorophenol. The data allowed the proposition of several metabolic pathways.

  4. Persistence of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on grape leaves, grape berries and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyot, Gagan; Arora, Parshotam Kumar; Sahoo, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Balwinder; Battu, Raminderjit Singh

    2010-03-01

    Following four foliar applications of Nativo 75 WG (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%) on grapes @ 175 and 350 g/ha, resulting in active applications of trifloxystrobin @ 43.75 and 87.5 g a.i./ha and that of tebuconazole @ 87.5 and 175 g a.i./ha, the average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin were observed to be 7.76 and 15.53 mg/kg, respectively, at single and double the application rates. These residue levels dissipated to >85% after 10 days of its application at both the dosages. Similarly, the average initial deposits of tebuconazole were observed to be 13.84 and 26.55 mg/kg at single and double the application rate, respectively. These residue levels dissipated to >90% after 10 days of application at both the dosages. The half-life (t(1/2)) periods of trifloxystrobin on grape leaves were observed to be 2.92 and 3.48 days at single and double application rates, respectively, whereas these values were 2.68 and 3.96 days for tebuconazole. Ripe grape berries and soil samples collected at harvest which happened to be 34 days after the last application, did not show the presence of residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole at their determination limit of 0.01 and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively.

  5. Efficacy of tebuconazole embedded in biodegradable poly-3-hydroxybutyrate to inhibit the development of Fusarium moniliforme in soil microecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volova, Tatiana G; Prudnikova, Svetlana V; Zhila, Natalia O; Vinogradova, Olga N; Shumilova, Anna A; Nikolaeva, Elena D; Kiselev, Evgeniy G; Shishatskaya, Ekaterina I

    2017-05-01

    An important line of research is the development of a new generation of formulations with targeted and controlled release of the pesticide, using matrices made from biodegradable materials. In this study, slow-release formulations of the fungicide tebuconazole (TEB) have been prepared by embedding it into the matrix of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) in the form of films, microgranules and pellets. The average rates of P3HB degradation were determined by the geometry of the formulation, reaching, for 63 days, 0.095-0.116, 0.081-0.083 and 0.030-0.055 mg day -1 for films, microgranules and pellets respectively. The fungicidal activity of P3HB/TEB against the plant pathogen Fusarium moniliforme was compared with that of the commercial formulation Raxil Ultra. A pronounced fungicidal effect of the experimental P3HB/TEB formulations was observed in 2-4 weeks after application, and it was retained for 8 weeks, without affecting significantly the development of soil aboriginal microflora. TEB release can be regulated by the process employed to fabricate the formulation and the fungicide loading, and the TEB accumulates in the soil gradually, as the polymer is degraded. The experimental forms of TEB embedded in the slowly degraded P3HB can be used as a basis for developing slow-release fungicide formulations. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Evaluation of the performance of a castor-oil based formulation in limiting pesticide residues in strawberry crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Galhiane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made to evaluate the effect of a castor oil-based detergent on strawberry crops treated with different classes of pesticides, namely deltamethrin, folpet, tebuconazole, abamectin and mancozeb, in a controlled environment. Experimental crops of greenhouse strawberries were cultivated in five different ways with control groups using pesticides and castor oil-based detergent. The results showed that the group 2, which was treated with castor oil-based detergent, presented the lowest amount of pesticide residues and the highest quality of fruit produced.

  7. Dissipation kinetics and safety evaluation of tebuconazole and trifloxystrobin in tea under tropical field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, Mariappan; Deepa, Manthirachalam; Selvi, Chellamuthu; Chandrasekaran, Subramanian

    2017-12-01

    Dissipation kinetics of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin and its acid metabolite residues were studied in tea under tropical field conditions using GC-MS (SIM). The average recoveries ranged from 80.7% to 105.8%, with a RSD of tea were 2.7-3.6 days for trifloxystrobin and 3.0-3.1 days for tebuconazole. The trifloxystrobin residues were not transferred into the tea infusion during the infusion process; tebuconazole did transfer, in the range of 14.3-18.9%. As the theoretical maximum residue contributions on tea from initial deposits were found to be less than the maximum permissible intake values, at the recommended application dose a withdrawal period of 23 days before consumption should be applied to reduce risk.

  8. Gene transcription profiling of Fusarium graminearum treated with an azole fungicide tebuconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Jiang, Jinhua; Shao, Jiaofang; Yin, Yanni; Ma, Zhonghua

    2010-01-01

    Using a deep serial analysis of gene expression (DeepSAGE) sequencing approach, we profiled the transcriptional response of Fusarium graminearum to tebuconazole, a most widely used azole fungicide. By comparing the expression of genes in F. graminearum treated and untreated with tebuconazole, we identified 324 and 155 genes showing more than a 5-fold increase and decrease, respectively, in expression upon tebuconazole treatment. These genes are involved in a variety of cell functions including egrosterol biosynthesis, transcription, and cellular metabolism. The validity of DeepSAGE results were confirmed by real-time PCR analysis of expression of 20 genes with different expression levels in the DeepSAGE analysis. The results from this study provide useful information in understanding the mechanisms for the responses of F. graminearum to azole fungicides.

  9. Complexation between the fungicide tebuconazole and copper(II) probed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dytrtová, Jana Jaklová; Jakl, Michal; Schröder, Detlef; Čadková, Eva; Komárek, Michael

    2011-04-30

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is used to probe the complex formation between tebuconazole (1) and copper(II) salts, which both are commonly used fungicides in agriculture. Experiments with model solutions containing 1 and CuCl(2) reveal the initial formation of the copper(II) species [(1)CuCl](+) and [(1)(2)CuCl](+) which undergo reduction to the corresponding copper(I) ions [(1)Cu](+) and [(1)(2)Cu](+) under more drastic ionization conditions in the ESI source. In additional experiments, copper/tebuconazole complexes were also detected in samples made from soil solutions of various origin and different amount of mineralization. The direct sampling of such solutions via ESI-MS is thus potentially useful for understanding of the interactions between copper(II) salts and tebuconazole in environmental samples. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Impacto do glyphosate associado com endossulfan e tebuconazole sobre microrganismos endossimbiontes da soja Impact of glyphosate associated with endosulphan and tebuconazole on the endosymbiotic microorganisms of the soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Reis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o efeito do glyphosate, em aplicação sequencial, e da sua interação com endossulfan + tebuconazole na colonização micorrízica, na nodulação e nos teores de fósforo e nitrogênio foliar em plantas de soja. O experimento foi conduzido a campo em Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo câmbico, no ano agrícola de 2007/08. Foram avaliados dez tratamentos em em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, no delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas, avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação ou não da mistura de inseticida (endossulfan + fungicida (tebuconazole e, nas subparcelas, o efeito dos métodos de controle de plantas daninhas (testemunha não capinada, testemunha capinada, aplicação única de glyphosate, aplicação sequencial de glyphosate e aplicação única de fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butil. A matéria seca de nódulos (MSN e da parte aérea (MSPA, o número de nódulos (NN, a colonização micorrízica e os teores de N e P foliar foram avaliados quando as plantas de soja atingiram o estádio R2. O glyphosate e fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butil não reduziram a MSN de plantas de soja, exceto na presença de endossulfan + tebuconazole. O glyphosate em aplicação sequencial, na ausência de endossulfan + tebuconazole, reduziu o NN das plantas de soja em relação às plantas tratadas com inseticida + fungicida. A mistura fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butil e o glyphosate em aplicação sequencial afetaram negativamente os teores de N foliar em relação à testemunha capinada na ausência de endossulfan + tebuconazole, enquanto que na presença dessa mistura não se observou efeito. O glyphosate não afetou a colonização micorrízica em soja tratada ou não com a mistura endossulfan + tebuconazole. Já a mistura de fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butil estimulou a colonização micorrízica na ausência da mistura endossulfan + tebuconazole. O glyphosate, em aplicação sequencial, não afetou a coloniza

  11. 40 CFR 180.564 - Indoxacarb; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indoxacarb; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.564 Indoxacarb; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  12. 40 CFR 180.324 - Bromoxynil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromoxynil; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.324 Bromoxynil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues...

  13. 40 CFR 180.314 - Triallate; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triallate; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.314 Triallate; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  14. 40 CFR 180.298 - Methidathion; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methidathion; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.298 Methidathion; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  15. 40 CFR 180.278 - Phenmedipham; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenmedipham; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.278 Phenmedipham; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the...

  16. 40 CFR 180.299 - Dicrotophos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dicrotophos; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.299 Dicrotophos; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  17. 40 CFR 180.245 - Streptomycin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Streptomycin; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.245 Streptomycin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for...

  18. 40 CFR 180.128 - Pyrethrins; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pyrethrins; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.128 Pyrethrins; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances for residues of the...

  19. 40 CFR 180.208 - Benfluralin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benfluralin; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.208 Benfluralin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  20. 40 CFR 180.178 - Ethoxyquin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethoxyquin; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.178 Ethoxyquin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established for residues of...

  1. 40 CFR 180.241 - Bensulide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bensulide; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.241 Bensulide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the residues...

  2. 40 CFR 180.263 - Phosalone; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosalone; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.263 Phosalone; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  3. 40 CFR 180.229 - Fluometuron; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluometuron; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.229 Fluometuron; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for the...

  4. 40 CFR 180.315 - Methamidophos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methamidophos; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.315 Methamidophos; tolerances for residues. (a) Tolerances are established for residues of the...

  5. 40 CFR 180.235 - Dichlorvos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dichlorvos; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.235 Dichlorvos; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances for residues of the...

  6. 40 CFR 180.242 - Thiabendazole; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thiabendazole; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.242 Thiabendazole; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for the...

  7. 40 CFR 180.222 - Prometryn; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prometryn; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.222 Prometryn; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  8. 40 CFR 180.144 - Cyhexatin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cyhexatin; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.144 Cyhexatin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for combined...

  9. 40 CFR 180.239 - Phosphamidon; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphamidon; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.239 Phosphamidon; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances (expressed as phosphamidon) for...

  10. 40 CFR 180.198 - Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.198 Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  11. 40 CFR 180.122 - Parathion; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parathion; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.122 Parathion; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  12. 40 CFR 180.328 - Napropamide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Napropamide; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.328 Napropamide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  13. 40 CFR 180.231 - Dichlobenil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dichlobenil; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.231 Dichlobenil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined...

  14. 40 CFR 180.243 - Propazine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propazine; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.243 Propazine; tolerances for residues. Tolerances are established for negligible residues (N) of...

  15. Physicologically Based Toxicokinetic Models of Tebuconazole and Application in Human Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, Svava Ósk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa

    2016-05-16

    A series of physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models for tebuconazole were developed in four species, rat, rabbit, rhesus monkey, and human. The developed models were analyzed with respect to the application of the models in higher tier human risk assessment, and the prospect of using such models in risk assessment of cumulative and aggregate exposure is discussed. Relatively simple and biologically sound models were developed using available experimental data as parameters for describing the physiology of the species, as well as the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of tebuconazole. The developed models were validated on in vivo half-life data for rabbit with good results, and on plasma and tissue concentration-time course data of tebuconazole after i.v. administration in rabbit. In most cases, the predicted concentration levels were seen to be within a factor of 2 compared to the experimental data, which is the threshold set for the use of PBTK simulation results in risk assessment. An exception to this was seen for one of the target organs, namely, the liver, for which tebuconazole concentration was significantly underestimated, a trend also seen in model simulations for the liver after other nonoral exposure scenarios. Possible reasons for this are discussed in the article. Realistic dietary and dermal exposure scenarios were derived based on available exposure estimates, and the human version of the PBTK model was used to simulate the internal levels of tebuconazole and metabolites in the human body for these scenarios. By a variant of the models where the R(-)- and S(+)-enantiomers were treated as two components in a binary mixture, it was illustrated that the inhibition between the two tebuconazole enantiomers did not affect the simulation results for these realistic exposure scenarios. The developed models have potential as an important tool in risk assessment.

  16. Agricultural pesticides and veterinary substances in Uruguayan beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriet, Jorge; Campá, Juan Pablo; Grajales, Mauricio; Lhéritier, Christophe; Gómez Pajuelo, Antonio; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas

    2017-06-01

    Over the last decade, Uruguay has expanded and intensified its rainfed crop production. This process has affected beekeeping in several ways: for example, by reducing the space available. This has increased the density of apiaries, the risk of varroosis and acaricide use. Additionally, the dominance of no-tillage crops has increased the frequencies of application and of loads of pesticides in regions where such crops share the land with beekeeping and honey production. Therefore, the exposure of bees to xenobiotics (agricultural pesticides and veterinary products) has increased in line with pollution of hives and their products. To document pollution from hive exposure to pesticides, we surveyed the presence of 30 xenobiotics normally used in Uruguay, in recycled beeswax (RB) and in honey cappings (HC) from the main Uruguayan beekeeping regions. There was contamination of all the analyzed samples (RB and HC) with the herbicide atrazine at a range of 1-2 ng g -1 . At least three or four additional xenobiotics were detected: insecticides (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and thiacloprid); fungicides (azoxystrobin and tebuconazole); and veterinary products (coumaphos, ethion, and tau-fluvalinate). The frequency of detection of chlorpyrifos-ethyl and coumaphos in RB samples was higher than in those of HC. Moreover, the concentrations of azoxystrobin, coumaphos, and tebuconazole in RB samples were higher than in HC samples. Therefore, we suggest the use of HC to produce recycled printed beeswax films for use in hives to minimize pollution transfer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006–2009, while residue...... data for epoxiconazole were obtained from the Swedish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2007–2009. Food consumption data were obtained from the Danish nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000–2002. Relative potency factors for the four pesticides were obtained from rat studies...

  18. Biological monitoring of exposure to tebuconazole in winegrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Mercadante, Rosa; Polledri, Elisa; Rubino, Federico Maria; Mandic-Rajcevic, Stefan; Vianello, Giorgio; Colosio, Claudio; Moretto, Angelo

    2014-11-01

    Tebuconazole (TEB) is a fungicide widely used in vineyards and is a suspected teratogen for humans. The aim of this research was to identify urinary biomarkers and the best sampling time for the biological monitoring of exposure to TEB in agricultural workers. Seven vineyard workers of the Monferrato region, Piedemont, Italy, were investigated for a total of 12 workdays. They treated the vineyards with TEB for 1-2 consecutive days, one of them for 3 days. During each application coveralls, underwears, hand washing liquids and head coverings were used to estimate dermal exposure. For biomonitoring, spot samples of urine from each individual were collected starting from 24 h before the first application, continuing during the application, and again after the application for about 48 h. TEB and its metabolites TEB-OH and TEB-COOH were measured by liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. TEB contamination of coveralls and total dermal exposure showed median levels of 6180 and 1020 μg. Urinary TEB-OH was the most abundant metabolite; its excretion rate peaked within 24 h after product application (post 24 h). In this time frame, median levels of TEB-OH and TEB-COOH ranged from 8.0 to 387.8 μg/l and from 5.7 to 102.9 μg/l, respectively, with a ratio between the two metabolites of about 3.5. The total amount of urinary metabolites (U-TEBeq) post 24 h was significantly correlated with both TEB on coveralls and total dermal exposure (Pearson's r=0.756 and 0.577). The amount of metabolites excreted in urine represented about 17% of total dermal TEB exposure. Our results suggest that TEB-OH and TEB-COOH in post-exposure urine samples are promising candidates for biomonitoring TEB exposure in agricultural workers.

  19. Nanoemulsion Formulations of Fungicide Tebuconazole for Agricultural Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Blancas, Vianney; Medina, Dora I; Padilla-Ortega, Erika; Bortolini-Zavala, Raquel; Olvera-Romero, Melissa; Luna-Bárcenas, Gabriel

    2016-09-26

    Tebuconazole (TBZ) nanoemulsions (NEs) were formulated using a low energy method. TBZ composition directly affected the drop size and surface tension of the NE. Water fraction and the organic-to-surfactant-ratio (R O/S ) were evaluated in the range of 1-90 and 1-10 wt %, respectively. The study was carried out with an organic phase (OP) consisting of an acetone/glycerol mixture containing TBZ at a concentration of 5.4 wt % and Tween 80 (TW80) as a nonionic and Agnique BL1754 (AG54) as a mixture of nonionic and anionic surfactants. The process involved a large dilution of a bicontinuous microemulsion (ME) into an aqueous phase (AP). Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of the OP//TW80//AP and OP//AG54//AP systems at T = 25 °C were determined to map ME regions; these were in the range of 0.49-0.90, 0.01-0.23, and 0.07-0.49 of OP, AP, and surfactant, respectively. Optical microscope images helped confirm ME formation and system viscosity was measured in the range of 25-147 cP. NEs with drop sizes about 9 nm and 250 nm were achieved with TW80 and AG54, respectively. An innovative low-energy method was used to develop nanopesticide TBZ formulations based on nanoemulsion (NE) technology. The surface tension of the studied systems can be lowered 50% more than that of pure water. This study's proposed low-energy NE formulations may prove useful in sustainable agriculture.

  20. Nanoemulsion Formulations of Fungicide Tebuconazole for Agricultural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney Díaz-Blancas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tebuconazole (TBZ nanoemulsions (NEs were formulated using a low energy method. TBZ composition directly affected the drop size and surface tension of the NE. Water fraction and the organic-to-surfactant-ratio (RO/S were evaluated in the range of 1–90 and 1–10 wt %, respectively. The study was carried out with an organic phase (OP consisting of an acetone/glycerol mixture containing TBZ at a concentration of 5.4 wt % and Tween 80 (TW80 as a nonionic and Agnique BL1754 (AG54 as a mixture of nonionic and anionic surfactants. The process involved a large dilution of a bicontinuous microemulsion (ME into an aqueous phase (AP. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of the OP//TW80//AP and OP//AG54//AP systems at T = 25 °C were determined to map ME regions; these were in the range of 0.49–0.90, 0.01–0.23, and 0.07–0.49 of OP, AP, and surfactant, respectively. Optical microscope images helped confirm ME formation and system viscosity was measured in the range of 25–147 cP. NEs with drop sizes about 9 nm and 250 nm were achieved with TW80 and AG54, respectively. An innovative low-energy method was used to develop nanopesticide TBZ formulations based on nanoemulsion (NE technology. The surface tension of the studied systems can be lowered 50% more than that of pure water. This study’s proposed low-energy NE formulations may prove useful in sustainable agriculture.

  1. Concentration and timing of application reveal strong fungistatic effect of tebuconazole in a Daphnia-microparasitic yeast model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuco, Ana P; Santos, Joana I; Abrantes, Nelson; Gonçalves, Fernando; Wolinska, Justyna; Castro, Bruno B

    2017-12-01

    Given the importance of pollutant effects on host-parasite relationships and disease spread, the main goal of this study was to assess the influence of different exposure scenarios for the fungicide tebuconazole (concentration×timing of application) on a Daphnia-microparasitic yeast experimental system. Previous results had demonstrated that tebuconazole is able to suppress Metschnikowia bicuspidata infection at ecologically-relevant concentrations; here, we aimed to obtain an understanding of the mechanism underlying the anti-parasitic (fungicidal or fungistatic) action of tebuconazole. We exposed the Daphnia-yeast system to four nominal tebuconazole concentrations at four timings of application (according to the predicted stage of parasite development), replicated on two Daphnia genotypes, in a fully crossed experiment. An "all-or-nothing" effect was observed, with tebuconazole completely suppressing infection from 13.5μgl -1 upwards, independent of the timing of tebuconazole application. A follow-up experiment confirmed that the suppression of infection occurred within a narrow range of tebuconazole concentrations (3.65-13.5μgl -1 ), although a later application of the fungicide had to be compensated for by a slight increase in concentration to elicit the same anti-parasitic effect. The mechanism behind this anti-parasitic effect seems to be the inhibition of M. bicuspidata sporulation, since tebuconazole was effective in preventing ascospore production even when applied at a later time. However, this fungicide also seemed to affect the vegetative growth of the yeast, as demonstrated by the enhanced negative effect of the parasite (increasing mortality in one of the host genotypes) at a later time of application of tebuconazole, when no signs of infection were observed. Fungicide contamination can thus affect the severity and spread of disease in natural populations, as well as the inherent co-evolutionary dynamics in host-parasite systems. Copyright © 2017

  2. Physicologically Based Toxicokinetic Models of Tebuconazole and Application in Human Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    a factor of 2 compared to the experimental data, which is the threshold set for the use of PBTK simulation results in risk assessment. An exception to this was seen for one of the target organs, namely, the liver, for which tebuconazole concentration was significantly underestimated, a trend also seen...

  3. Complexation between the fungicide tebuconazole and copper(II) probed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Jakl, M.; Schröder, Detlef; Čadková, E.; Komárek, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 8 (2011), s. 1037-1042 ISSN 0951-4198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : copper * electrospray ionization * mass spectrometry * tebuconazole * soil solutions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.790, year: 2011

  4. Application of Copper Solid Amalgam Electrode for Determination of Fungicide Tebuconazole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Kateřina; Navrátil, Tomáš; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Chýlková, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-16 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/1638; GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : tebuconazole * fungicide * copper solid amalgam electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2013

  5. Fast ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by capillary gas chromatography combined with nitrogen-phosphorous selective detector for the trace determination of tebuconazole in garlic, soil and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunil Kumar; Padmaja, P; Pandey, S Y

    2014-06-01

    A fast and an efficient ultrasound-assisted extraction technique using a lower density extraction solvent than water was developed for the trace-level determination of tebuconazole in garlic, soil and water samples followed by capillary gas chromatography combined with nitrogen-phosphorous selective detector (GC-NPD). In this approach, ultrasound radiation was applied to accelerate the emulsification of the ethyl acetate in aqueous samples to enhance the extraction efficiency of tebuconazole without requiring extra partitioning or cleaning, and the use of capillary GC-NPD was a more sensitive detection technique for organonitrogen pesticides. The experimental results indicate an excellent linear relationship between peak area and concentration obtained in the range 1-50 μg/kg or μg/L. The limit of detection (S/N, 3 ± 0.5) and limit of quantification (S/N, 7.5 ± 2.5) were obtained in the range 0.2-3 and 1-10 μg/kg or μg/L. Good spiked recoveries were achieved from ranges 95.55-101.26%, 96.28-99.33% and 95.04-105.15% in garlic, Nanivaliyal soil and Par River water, respectively, at levels 5 and 20 μg/kg or μg/L, and the method precision (% RSD) was ≤5%. Our results demonstrate that the proposed technique is a viable alternative for the determination of tebuconazole in complex samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. 40 CFR 180.435 - Deltamethrin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deltamethrin; tolerances for residues. 180.435 Section 180.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.435 Deltamethrin; tolerances for residues. ...

  7. 40 CFR 180.275 - Chlorothalonil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... residues. 180.275 Section 180.275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.275 Chlorothalonil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for the...

  8. 40 CFR 180.252 - Tetrachlorvinphos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... residues. 180.252 Section 180.252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.252 Tetrachlorvinphos; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the...

  9. Microbial pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Interest in the use of microbial pesticides has intensified because of public concern about the safety of chemical pesticides and their impact in the environment. Characteristics of the five groups of entomopathogens that have potential as microbial pesticides are briefly discussed and an update is provided on research and development activities underway to enhance the...

  10. Concentration and timing of application reveal strong fungistatic effect of tebuconazole in a Daphnia-microparasitic yeast model

    OpenAIRE

    Cuco, A. P.; Santos, J. I.; Abrantes, N.; Gonçalves, F.; Castro, Bruno B.

    2017-01-01

    Given the importance of pollutant effects on host-parasite relationships and disease spread, the main goal of this study was to assess the influence of different exposure scenarios for the fungicide tebuconazole (concentration × timing of application) on a Daphnia-microparasitic yeast experimental system. Previous results had demonstrated that tebuconazole is able to suppress Metschnikowia bicuspidata infection at ecologically-relevant concentrations; here, we aimed to obtain an understanding...

  11. Dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on wheat leaves and their harvest time residues in wheat grains and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sarabjit; Takkar, Reenu; Bhardwaj, Urvashi; Kumar, Rajinder; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2012-09-01

    Following single application of Nativo 75 WG (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%) on wheat crop @ 300 and 600 g ha(-1), resulting in active application of trifloxystrobin @ 75.0 and 150.0 g a.i. ha(-1) and tebuconazole @ 150 and 300 g a.i. ha(-1), the average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on wheat leaves were 5.54 and 8.30 mg kg(-1), and that of tebuconazole were 14.66 and 27.94 mg kg(-1), respectively. Half-life values for trifloxystrobin were observed to be 2.80 and 2.51 days whereas those for tebuconazole were found to be 2.46 and 1.85 days at recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively. The residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole dissipated to the extent of >89% at both the dosages after 7 days. Wheat grain samples at harvest having pre harvest interval of 140 days did not show the presence of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole at their determination limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1).

  12. Degradação fotocatalítica do fungicida tebuconazole em solução aquosa Tebuconazole photocatalytic degradation kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Hermann Prestes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The tebuconazole photocatalytic degradation kinetics was studied in a batch reactor using TiO2 (P25-Degussa as catalyst and a high pressure mercury lamp. The photolysis, adsorption and irradiation effects in the reaction rate were evaluated. Afterward, the suspension catalyst concentration and initial pH to the maximum reaction rate was determined. It was observed that the reaction rate can be approached by a pseudo-first order, with a maximum kinetics constant at 260 mg L-1catalyst concentration and pH 7.7.

  13. Pesticide related issues in forest tree nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Taylor

    2007-01-01

    The FQPA was designed to protect infants, children, and females from pesticides, and was effective immediately on signing by the president. The act requires review of ALL tolerances, and introduced the “risk cup” concept as a method for evaluating lifetime exposures to pesticides.

  14. Effect of grass cover on water and pesticide transport through undisturbed soil columns, comparison with field study (Morcille watershed, Beaujolais)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, S.; Thevenot, M.; Schrack, D.; Gouy, V.; Carluer, N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of two grass covers (buffer zone and grass-covered inter-row), to reduce pesticide leaching, and subsequently to preserve groundwater quality. Lower amounts of pesticides leached through grass-cover soil columns (2.7-24.3% of the initial amount) than the bare soil columns (8.0-55.1%), in correspondence with their sorption coefficients. Diuron was recovered in higher amounts in leachates (8.9-32.2%) than tebuconazole (2.7-12.9%), in agreement with their sorption coefficients. However, despite having a sorption coefficient similar to that of diuron, more procymidone was recovered in the leachates (10.2-55.1%), probably due to its facilitated transport by dissolved organic matter. Thus even in this very permeable soil, higher organic matter contents associated with grass-cover reduce the amount of pesticide leaching and limit the risk of groundwater contamination by the pesticides. The results of diuron and tebuconazole transfer through undisturbed buffer zone soil columns are in agreement with field observations on the buffer zone. - Grass-covered soils reduce the amount of pesticide leaching, due mainly to their higher organic matter contents, thereby reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.

  15. Effect of grass cover on water and pesticide transport through undisturbed soil columns, comparison with field study (Morcille watershed, Beaujolais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dousset, S., E-mail: sylvie.dousset@limos.uhp-nancy.f [Nancy-Universite, CNRS, LIMOS, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Thevenot, M. [Universite de Lille 1, CNRS, Geosystemes, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Schrack, D. [INRA-SAD ASTER, 88500 Mirecourt (France); AFSSA, Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches en Hydrologie, 54000 Nancy (France); Gouy, V.; Carluer, N. [UR Milieux Aquatiques, Ecologie et Pollution, Cemagref, 69336 Lyon Cedex (France)

    2010-07-15

    The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of two grass covers (buffer zone and grass-covered inter-row), to reduce pesticide leaching, and subsequently to preserve groundwater quality. Lower amounts of pesticides leached through grass-cover soil columns (2.7-24.3% of the initial amount) than the bare soil columns (8.0-55.1%), in correspondence with their sorption coefficients. Diuron was recovered in higher amounts in leachates (8.9-32.2%) than tebuconazole (2.7-12.9%), in agreement with their sorption coefficients. However, despite having a sorption coefficient similar to that of diuron, more procymidone was recovered in the leachates (10.2-55.1%), probably due to its facilitated transport by dissolved organic matter. Thus even in this very permeable soil, higher organic matter contents associated with grass-cover reduce the amount of pesticide leaching and limit the risk of groundwater contamination by the pesticides. The results of diuron and tebuconazole transfer through undisturbed buffer zone soil columns are in agreement with field observations on the buffer zone. - Grass-covered soils reduce the amount of pesticide leaching, due mainly to their higher organic matter contents, thereby reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.

  16. Pyrethroids and DDT tolerance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Sengerema District, an area of intensive pesticide usage in north-western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbert, Anitha; Lyantagaye, Sylvester Leonard; Pradel, Gabriele; Ngwa, Che Julius; Nkwengulila, Gamba

    2017-04-01

    To assess the susceptibility status of malaria vectors to pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), characterise the mechanisms underlying resistance and evaluate the role of agro-chemical use in resistance selection among malaria vectors in Sengerema agro-ecosystem zone, Tanzania. Mosquito larvae were collected from farms and reared to obtain adults. The susceptibility status of An. gambiae s.l. was assessed using WHO bioassay tests to permethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, cyfluthrin and DDT. Resistant specimens were screened for knock-down resistance gene (kdr), followed by sequencing both Western and Eastern African variants. A gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) was used to determine pesticide residues in soil and sediments from mosquitoes' breeding habitats. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was resistant to all the insecticides tested. The population of Anopheles gambiae s.l was composed of Anopheles arabiensis by 91%. The East African kdr (L1014S) allele was found in 13 of 305 specimens that survived insecticide exposure, with an allele frequency from 0.9% to 50%. DDTs residues were found in soils at a concentration up to 9.90 ng/g (dry weight). The observed high resistance levels of An. gambiae s.l., the detection of kdr mutations and pesticide residues in mosquito breeding habitats demonstrate vector resistance mediated by pesticide usage. An integrated intervention through collaboration of agricultural, livestock and vector control units is vital. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Enhanced antifungal efficacy of tebuconazole using gated pH-driven mesoporous nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas N

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Núria Mas,1–3 Irene Galiana,3 Silvia Hurtado,† Laura Mondragón,1–3 Andrea Bernardos,1–3 Félix Sancenón,1–3 María D Marcos,1–3 Pedro Amorós,4 Nuria Abril-Utrillas,5 Ramón Martínez-Máñez,1–3 José Ramón Murguía1,3 1Centro de Reconocimiento Molecular y Desarrollo Tecnológico (IDM, Centro Mixto Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 2Departamento de Química, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 3CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, Madrid, Spain; 4Institut de Ciència del Materials (ICMUV, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain; 5Servicio Ginecología y Obstetricia, Hospital de la Plana, Vila-real, Spain†Silvia Hurtado passed away in September 2013 Abstract: pH-sensitive gated mesoporous silica nanoparticles have been synthesized. Increased extracellular pH and internalization into living yeast cells triggered molecular gate aperture and cargo release. Proper performance of the system was demonstrated with nanodevices loaded with fluorescein or with the antifungal agent tebuconazole. Interestingly, nanodevices loaded with tebuconazole significantly enhanced tebuconazole cytotoxicity. As alterations of acidic external pH are a key parameter in the onset of fungal vaginitis, this nanodevice could improve the treatment for vaginal mycoses.Keywords: capped mesoporous nanoparticles, intracellular release, pH-responsive nanoparticles, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, tebuconazole loading

  18. Biogenic nanosilica blended by nanofibrillated cellulose as support for slow-release of tebuconazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Bruno D.; Magalhães, Washington L. E.

    2016-09-01

    Despite the potential application of nanotechnology in the agricultural sector, it is not as competitive as other industrial sectors because these approaches do not demonstrate a sufficient economic return to counterbalance the high production costs. For biocidal purposes, the reduction of the initial costs can be addressed if biogenic nanosilica and nanofibrillated cellulose were used to prepare nanocomposite for further utilization as support for slow-release of tebuconazole. Infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis revealed that biocide was entrapped in the cellulose/silica nanocomposites network. The scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microtomography evaluation showed the nanocomposite's microstructure based on irregular shape nanosilica blended by nanofibrillated cellulose in a randomly organized network. Elemental mapping images showed the tebuconazole better dispersed in the composite blended with lower content of cellulose. The nanofibrillated cellulose played an important role in the release rate of the biocide mainly at short-term periods. At 15 days of immersion, the pure biocide had 95 % release compared with 30-45 % release of the tebuconazole loaded in the nanocomposites.

  19. Toxicity of copper hydroxide, dithianon, fluazinam, tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin to Didymella applanata isolates from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirković, Biljana; Tanović, Brankica; Hrustić, Jovana; Mihajlović, Milica; Stević, Milan; Delibašić, Goran; Vukša, Petar

    2015-01-01

    A study of the in vitro sensitivity of 10 isolates of Didymella applanata to copper hydroxide, dithianon, fluazinam, tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin, was conducted. The isolates were derived from diseased raspberry canes sampled during 2013 at five localities in western part of Serbia, known as the main raspberry growing region of the country. Prior to sensitivity testing experimental conditions for radial growth assay were optimized. The results showed that the temperature of 22 °C, oatmeal agar medium and 12/12 hrs light/ darkness light regimen provided the best conditions for sensitivity tests. Most of D. applanata isolates were sensitive to the tested fungicides. The narrowest range of EC50 values was recorded for tebuconazole (1.42-2.66 mg L(-1)). The widest range of EC50 values was obtained for pyraclostrobin, ranging from 0.17 mg L(-1) to 55.33 mg L(-1). The EC50 values for the studied isolates were 39.48-51.19 mg L(-1) for copper hydroxide, 12.12-18.73 mg L(-1) for dithianon and 5.72-42.56 mg L(-1) for fluazinam. According to resistance factor values, all D. applanata isolates were sensitive to copper hydroxide, dithianon and tebuconazole. Among tested isolates, six were highly resistant to pyraclostrobin (RFs in the range of 207.1-325.5) and two moderately resistant to fluazinam (RFs were 3 and 7.4), respectively.

  20. Persistence and dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in onion and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2014-01-01

    The persistence and dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on onion were studied after application of their combination formulation at a standard and double dose of 75 + 150 and 150 + 300 g a.i. ha(-1). The fungicides were extracted with acetone, cleaned-up using activated charcoal (trifloxystrobin) and neutral alumina (tebuconazole). Analysis was carried out by gas chromatograph (GC) and confirmed by gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The recovery was above 80% and limit of quantification (LOQ) 0.05 mg kg(-1) for both fungicides. Initial residue deposits of trifloxystrobin were 0.68 and 1.01 mg kg(-1) and tebuconazole 0.673 and 1.95 mg kg(-1) from standard and double dose treatments, respectively. Dissipation of the fungicides followed first-order kinetics and the half life of degradation was 6-6.6 days. Matured onion bulb (and field soil) harvested after 30 days was free from fungicide residues. These findings suggest recommended safe pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 14 and 25 days for spring onion consumption after treatment of Nativo 75 WG at the standard and double doses, respectively. Matured onion bulbs at harvest were free from fungicide residues.

  1. Dissipation, residues, and safety evaluation of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on ginseng and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Chunwei; Gao, Jie; Liu, Chang; Cui, Lili; Li, Aijun

    2015-06-01

    Supervised field trials at two locations in 2012 and 2013 were conducted to evaluate the dissipation, terminal residues, and safety evaluation of Nativo 75 water dispersible granule (WG) (25 % trifloxystrobin + 50 % tebuconazole) on ginseng and soil following foliar application at a recommended dose 150 (50 + 100) and 1.5 times of the recommended dosage 225 (75 + 150) g a.i. ha(-1). The average recoveries of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole at three spiking levels in ginseng root, stem, and leaf and in soil were in the ranges of 81.0-96.8 % and 80.2-97.5 % with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 4.92-13.13 % and 4.67-8.35 %, respectively. The half-lives of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were 5.92-9.76 days and 4.59-7.53 days, respectively. The terminal residues were all below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of EU, USA, Canada, Japan, and South Korea. The food safety was evaluated by comparing the estimated daily intake (IEDI) with its acceptable daily intake (ADI). IEDI values calculated from residue data were found to be far less than the ADI on ginseng. Therefore, it would be unlikely to cause health problems induced by Nativo 75 WG use on ginseng at a dosage of 150-225 g a.i. ha(-1).

  2. Biogenic nanosilica blended by nanofibrillated cellulose as support for slow-release of tebuconazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Bruno D., E-mail: brunodufaumattos@gmail.com [Federal University of Paraná, Integrated Graduate Program in Engineering and Materials Science, Polytechnic Center (Brazil); Magalhães, Washington L. E. [Embrapa Florestas (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Despite the potential application of nanotechnology in the agricultural sector, it is not as competitive as other industrial sectors because these approaches do not demonstrate a sufficient economic return to counterbalance the high production costs. For biocidal purposes, the reduction of the initial costs can be addressed if biogenic nanosilica and nanofibrillated cellulose were used to prepare nanocomposite for further utilization as support for slow-release of tebuconazole. Infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis revealed that biocide was entrapped in the cellulose/silica nanocomposites network. The scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microtomography evaluation showed the nanocomposite’s microstructure based on irregular shape nanosilica blended by nanofibrillated cellulose in a randomly organized network. Elemental mapping images showed the tebuconazole better dispersed in the composite blended with lower content of cellulose. The nanofibrillated cellulose played an important role in the release rate of the biocide mainly at short-term periods. At 15 days of immersion, the pure biocide had 95 % release compared with 30–45 % release of the tebuconazole loaded in the nanocomposites.Graphical abstract.

  3. Ecotoxicological impact of the fungicide tebuconazole on an aquatic decomposer-detritivore system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrod, Jochen P; Bundschuh, Mirco; Feckler, Alexander; Englert, Dominic; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-12-01

    Leaf litter breakdown is a fundamental process in aquatic ecosystems that is realized by microbial decomposers and invertebrate detritivores. Although this process may be adversely affected by fungicides, among other factors, no test design exists to assess combined effects on such decomposer-detritivore systems. Hence, the present study assessed effects of the model fungicide tebuconazole (65 µg/L) on the conditioning of leaf material (by characterizing the associated microbial community) as well as the combined effects (i.e., direct toxicity and food quality-related effects (=indirect)) on the energy processing of the leaf-shredding amphipod Gammarus fossarum using a five-week semistatic test design. Gammarids exposed to tebuconazole produced significantly less feces (≈ 20%), which in turn significantly increased their assimilation (≈ 30%). Moreover, a significantly reduced lipid content (≈ 20%) indicated lower physiological fitness. The conditioning process was altered as well, which was indicated by a significantly reduced fungal biomass (≈ 40%) and sporulation (≈ 30%) associated with the leaf material. These results suggest that tebuconazole affects both components of the investigated decomposer-detritivore system. However, adverse effects on the level of detritivores cannot be explicitly attributed to direct or indirect pathways. Nevertheless, as the endpoints assessed are directly related to leaf litter breakdown and associated energy transfer processes, the protectiveness of environmental risk assessment for this ecosystem function may be more realistically assessed in future studies by using this or comparable test designs. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  4. Induced tolerance from a sublethal insecticide leads to cross-tolerance to other insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-04-01

    As global pesticide use increases, the ability to rapidly respond to pesticides by increasing tolerance has important implications for the persistence of nontarget organisms. A recent study of larval amphibians discovered that increased tolerance can be induced by an early exposure to low concentrations of a pesticide. Since natural systems are often exposed to a variety of pesticides that vary in mode of action, we need to know whether the induction of increased tolerance to one pesticide confers increased tolerance to other pesticides. Using larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we investigated whether induction of increased tolerance to the insecticide carbaryl (AChE-inhibitor) can induce increased tolerance to other insecticides that have the same mode of action (chlorpyrifos, malathion) or a different mode of action (Na(+)channel-interfering insecticides; permethrin, cypermethrin). We found that embryonic exposure to sublethal concentrations of carbaryl induced higher tolerance to carbaryl and increased cross-tolerance to malathion and cypermethrin but not to chlorpyrifos or permethrin. In one case, the embryonic exposure to carbaryl induced tolerance in a nonlinear pattern (hormesis). These results demonstrate that that the newly discovered phenomenon of induced tolerance also provides induced cross-tolerance that is not restricted to pesticides with the same mode of action.

  5. Sensitivity of Penicillium expansum field isolates to tebuconazole, iprodione, fludioxonil and cyprodinil and characterization of fitness parameters and patulin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoglanidis, George S; Markoglou, Anastasios N; Bardas, George A; Doukas, Eleftherios G; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Kalampokis, John F

    2011-01-31

    A total of 236 Penicillium expansum field isolates from decayed apple fruit collected from packinghouses and processing industries located in the region of Imathia, Northern Greece were tested for their sensitivity to tebuconazole, fludioxonil, iprodione and cyprodinil. Preliminary fungitoxicity tests on the response of the isolates showed several phenotypes, distinguished according to their sensitivity to fungicides tested. The EC(50) values ranged from 0.64 to 5 (average = 0.98) μg/ml for iprodione, 0.9 to 7.3 (average = 2.66) μg/ml for tebuconazole, 0.008 to 1.28 (average = 0.55) μg/ml for cyprodinil and from 0.013 to 0.47 (average = 0.08) μg/ml for fludioxonil. A bimodal distribution of the EC(50) values of isolates with distinct sensitive and resistant populations to fludioxonil and tebuconazole were observed. In the case of cyprodinil, a much broader, hundred-fold, range of sensitivity was found, probably indicating that some isolates are relatively insensitive to cyprodinil compared to the most sensitive ones. Isolates exhibiting simultaneously reduced sensitivity to tebuconazole and fludioxonil or tebuconazole and iprodione or to tebuconazole and cyprodinil were also observed at low frequencies. A small portion of the population (7.5%) showed multiple resistance to tebuconazole, fludioxonil and iprodione. Study of fitness determining parameters showed that the resistance to tebuconazole, fludioxonil and iprodione had a significant adverse effect on mycelial growth rate and pathogenicity. Contrary to that, these fitness parameters were not affected in the isolates showing reduced sensitivity to cyprodinil. Analysis of patulin production on YES-agar growth medium and on artificially inoculated apple fruit showed that all isolates were mycotoxigenic. Most of the cyprodinil-insensitive isolates produced patulin at concentrations similar to or relatively higher (up to 1.5-fold on growth medium) than the sensitive ones. In contrast, a significant reduction

  6. Residue dynamics of tebuconazole and quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves, mature onion bulb and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M; Jagdish, G K

    2011-12-01

    Residue persistence of tebuconazole and quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves (spring onion), mature onion bulb and soil was studied following their spray applications 3 times. The applications were untreated control; tebuconazole @ 187.5 and 375 g a.i. ha(-1); quinalphos @ 300 and 600 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of tebuconazole in immature onion bulb with leaves from the two treatments were 0.628 and 1.228 mg kg(-1). The residues of tebuconazole dissipated with the half-life of 5 and 7.7 days. The safe pre-harvest intervals (PHI) for consumption of immature onion bulb with leaves were 16 and 35 days, respectively. Initial residue deposits of quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves from the two treatments were 0.864 and 2.283 mg kg(-1). Loss of quinalphos residues from immature onion bulb with leaves was very fast. The residues dissipated with the half-life of 1.7 and 2.6 days and the required PHI was 5 and 11 days, respectively. At harvest mature onion bulbs were free from residues of both tebuconazole and quinalphos.

  7. Enhancing pesticide degradation using indigenous microorganisms isolated under high pesticide load in bioremediation systems with vermicomposts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Diaz, Jean Manuel; Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Núñez, Rafael; Nogales, Rogelio; Romero, Esperanza

    2016-08-01

    In biobed bioremediation systems (BBSs) with vermicomposts exposed to a high load of pesticides, 6 bacteria and 4 fungus strains were isolated, identified, and investigated to enhance the removal of pesticides. Three different mixtures of BBSs composed of vermicomposts made from greenhouse (GM), olive-mill (OM) and winery (WM) wastes were contaminated, inoculated, and incubated for one month (GMI, OMI and WMI). The inoculums maintenance was evaluated by DGGE and Q-PCR. Pesticides were monitored by HPLC-DAD. The highest bacterial and fungal abundance was observed in WMI and OMI respectively. In WMI, the consortia improved the removal of tebuconazole, metalaxyl, and oxyfluorfen by 1.6-, 3.8-, and 7.7-fold, respectively. The dissipation of oxyfluorfen was also accelerated in OMI, with less than 30% remaining after 30d. One metabolite for metalaxyl and 4 for oxyfluorfen were identified by GC-MS. The isolates could be suitable to improve the efficiency of bioremediation systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 40 CFR 180.40 - Tolerances for crop groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tolerances for crop groups. 180.40 Section 180.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Procedural Regulations § 180.40 Tolerances...

  9. Pesticide load dynamics during stormwater flow events in Mediterranean coastal streams: Alexander stream case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, Tom; Egozi, Roey; Eshel, Gil; Chefetz, Benny

    2018-06-01

    Cultivated land is a major source of pesticides, which are transported with the runoff water and eroded soil during rainfall events and pollute riverine and estuarine environments. Common ecotoxicological assessments of riverine systems are mainly based on water sampling and analysis of only the dissolved phase, and address a single pesticide's toxicological impact under laboratory conditions. A clear overview of mixtures of pesticides in the adsorbed and dissolved phases is missing, and therefore the full ecotoxicological impact is not fully addressed. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify pesticide concentrations in both suspended sediment and dissolved phases, to provide a better understanding of pesticide-load dynamics during storm events in coastal streams in a Mediterranean climate. High-resolution sampling campaigns of seven flood events were conducted during two rainy seasons in Alexander stream, Israel. Samples of suspended sediments were separated from the solution and both media were analyzed separately for 250 pesticides. A total of 63 pesticides were detected; 18 and 16 pesticides were found solely in the suspended sediments and solution, respectively. Significant differences were observed among the pesticide groups: only 7% of herbicide, 20% of fungicide and 42% of insecticide load was transported with the suspended sediments. However, in both dissolved and adsorbed phases, a mix of pesticides was found which were graded from "mobile" to "non-mobile" with varied distribution coefficients. Diuron, and tebuconazole were frequently found in large quantities in both phases. Whereas insecticide and fungicide transport is likely governed by application time and method, the governing factor for herbicide load was the magnitude of the stream discharge. The results show a complex dynamic of pesticide load affected by excessive use of pesticides, which should be taken into consideration when designing projects to monitor riverine and estuarine

  10. Effect of grass cover on water and pesticide transport through undisturbed soil columns, comparison with field study (Morcille watershed, Beaujolais).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousset, S; Thévenot, M; Schrack, D; Gouy, V; Carluer, N

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of two grass covers (buffer zone and grass-covered inter-row), to reduce pesticide leaching, and subsequently to preserve groundwater quality. Lower amounts of pesticides leached through grass-cover soil columns (2.7-24.3% of the initial amount) than the bare soil columns (8.0-55.1%), in correspondence with their sorption coefficients. Diuron was recovered in higher amounts in leachates (8.9-32.2%) than tebuconazole (2.7-12.9%), in agreement with their sorption coefficients. However, despite having a sorption coefficient similar to that of diuron, more procymidone was recovered in the leachates (10.2-55.1%), probably due to its facilitated transport by dissolved organic matter. Thus even in this very permeable soil, higher organic matter contents associated with grass-cover reduce the amount of pesticide leaching and limit the risk of groundwater contamination by the pesticides. The results of diuron and tebuconazole transfer through undisturbed buffer zone soil columns are in agreement with field observations on the buffer zone. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of chronic effects of tebuconazole on survival, reproduction and growth of Daphnia magna after different exposure times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, E; Villarroel, M J; Ferrando, M D

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the fungicide tebuconazole (0.41, 0.52, 0.71 and 1.14mg/L) on survival, reproduction and growth of Daphnia magna organisms was monitored using 14 and 21 days exposure tests. A third experiment was performed by exposing D. magna to the fungicide for 14 days followed by 7 days of recovery (14+7). In order to test fungicide effects on D. magna, parameters as survival, mean whole body length, mean total number of neonates per female, mean number of broods per female, mean brood size per female, time to first brood/reproduction and intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) were used. Reproduction was seriously affected by tebuconazole. All tebuconazole concentrations tested affected the number of broods per female and day to first brood. At 14-days test, number of neonates per female and body size decreased by concentrations of tebuconazole higher than 0.52mg/L, whereas at 21-days test both parameters were affected at all the concentrations tested. Survival of the daphnids after 14 days fungicide exposure did not exhibited differences among experimental and control groups. In this experiment r value was reduced (in a 22%) when animals were exposed to concentrations of 0.71mg/L and 1.14mg/L. Survival of daphnids exposed during 21 days to 1.14mg/L declined, and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) decreased in a 30 % for tebuconazole concentrations higher than 0.41mg/L. Longevity of daphnids pre-exposed to tebuconazole for 14 days and 7 days in clean water did not show differences from control values and all of them survived the 21 days of the test. However, after 7 days in fungicide free medium animals were unable to restore control values for reproductive parameters and length. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was calculated using the r values as parameter of evaluation. MATC estimations were 0.61mg/L and 0.46mg/L for 14 and 21 days, respectively. Results showed that the number of neonates per female was the highest sensitive

  12. Carbonic anhydrase from Apis mellifera: purification and inhibition by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Ercan; Güler, Ahmet; Bıyık, Selim; Şentürk, Murat; Supuran, Claudiu T; Ekinci, Deniz

    2017-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have been shown to play an important role in ion transport and in pH regulation in several organisms. Despite this information and the wealth of knowledge regarding the significance of CA enzymes, few studies have been reported about bee CA enzymes and the hazardous effects of chemicals. Using Apis mellifera as a model, this study aimed to determine the risk of pesticides on Apis mellifera Carbonic anhydrase enzyme (Am CA). CA was initially purified from Apis mellifera spermatheca for the first time in the literature. The enzyme was purified with an overall purification of ∼35-fold with a molecular weight of ∼32 kDa. The enzyme was then exposed to pesticides, including tebuconazole, propoxur, carbaryl, carbofuran, simazine and atrazine. The six pesticides dose-dependently inhibited in vitro AmCA activity at low micromolar concentrations. IC 50 values for the pesticides were 0.0030, 0.0321, 0.0031, 0.0087, 0.0273 and 0.0165 μM, respectively. The AmCA inhibition mechanism of these compounds is unknown at this moment.

  13. Determination of the distribution coefficient of pesticides in soil and potential mobility to bodies of water using isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Moreno, Marcela Angelica

    2014-01-01

    The Carbaryl, Diazinon and Chloropyrifos insecticides, herbicides Atrazine and Glyphosate and the fungicide Tebuconazole are widely used pesticides in agriculture. Due the large use of this products that is important the knowledge of their destiny after their application. This way you can prevent and minimize pollution and decreased quality of different environmental compartments like soil and water. In this work, the adsorption of pesticides 14 C-Atrazine, 14 C-Carbaryl , 14 C-Chloropyrifos, 14 C-Diazinon, 14 C-Glyphosate-and 14 C-Tebuconazol was studied by adsorption isotherms through the Batch equilibrium method in an agricultural soil in the region of Araucania in 4 depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm). To the adsorption isotherm was applied the model of Freundlich to obtain distribution Freundlich constant (Kf) and subsequently the normalized adsorption constant depending (according?) on the content of organic matter (Koc). Besides the potential mobility and toxicity of pesticides on nearby bodies of water to the study site by the Pesticide Impact Rating Index program was obtained. Was considered for adsorption curves 5 concentrations for each pesticide unchecked, this solution pesticide was marked by an addition of 14 C-so to achieve a given activity. The solutions were added to 0.1 M CaCl 2 in a ratio soil: solution of 1: 2. The equilibration time was 24 hours with continuous agitation at 170 rpm horizontally pulse. Adsorbed pesticide concentration was determined by the difference between the concentration of pesticide added and the adsorbed pesticide concentration for which no activity (dpm) in the sample was quantified in a liquid scintillation counter (CCL). In addition the ground with the adsorbed pesticide was put to combustion in a Biological Oxidizer where pesticide molecules are degraded to CO 2 marking, this methodology recovery method is determined, which are considered low in this study. Koc indicate that has a weak adsorption Atrazine (Koc

  14. Herbicide-tolerant Transgenic Soybean over 15 Years of Cultivation: Pesticide Use, Weed Resistance, and Some Economic Issues. The Case of the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Bonny

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM herbicide-tolerant (HT crops have been largely adopted where they have been authorized. Nevertheless, they are fiercely criticized by some, notably because of the herbicide use associated with them. However, how much herbicide is applied to GMHT crops compared to conventional crops, and what impacts does the use of herbicide have? The paper first presents some factors explaining the predominance of GMHT crops. Then, trends in the use of herbicide for GM crops are studied in the case of the most widespread HT crop: HT soybean in the USA. The trends in the toxicity of herbicides applied to HT soybean are also addressed, as well as the appearance of glyphosate-resistant (GR weeds. Lastly, the paper examines the spread of GR weeds and its impact. How are farmers, weed scientists, and the industry coping with this development, and what are the prospects of glyphosate-tolerant crops given weed resistance? In conclusion, some issues of sustainability and innovation governance raised by genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops are discussed.

  15. Impacto do glyphosate associado ao endossulfan e tebuconazole sobre microbiota do solo na cultura da soja

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Marcelo Rodrigues dos

    2009-01-01

    A adoção das culturas transgênicas tem levado à maior utilização de glyphosate. Esse produto associado a outros agrotóxicos podem impactar negativamente o ambiente. Dessa forma objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar os impactos da aplicação de glyphosate, endossulfan, tebuconazole e da mistura fomesafen + fluazifop-ρ-butil na microbiota do solo, nos microrganismos endossimbiontes, na nutrição mineral e na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja Roundup Ready (RR). O experimento foi conduz...

  16. Residue decline and risk assessment of fluopyram + tebuconazole (400SC) in/on onion (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Badal V; Chawla, Suchi; Gor, Hetal; Upadhyay, Payal; Parmar, Kaushik D; Patel, Anil R; Shah, Paresh G

    2016-10-01

    A method was validated for estimating fluopyram and tebuconazole in onion on LC-MS/MS using dispersive QuEChERS. Three sprays of a combination fungicide fluopyram + tebuconazole (Luna experience, 400 SC) were applied @ 75 + 75 and 150 + 150 g a.i. ha -1 at an interval of 10 days on onion using Knapsack sprayer. First spray was made at bulb setting stage. Spring onion samples were drawn at 0 (1 h), 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 days and matured onion bulb at harvest (52 days) after the last spray. Soil samples were also drawn at harvest. Foliar application of the combination product resulted in 1.14 and 2.86 mg kg -1 fluopyram residues on spring onion at standard and double dose, respectively, one hour after the last application. The levels of fluopyram residues gradually declined and recorded 0.25 and 0.58 mg kg -1 on 20th day of application with half-lives of 8.8 and 9.1 days at standard and double dose, respectively. For tebuconazole, the corresponding residues observed after 1 h (0 day) of application were 0.92 and 2.29 mg kg -1 . The levels declined gradually to 0.12 and 0.33 mg kg -1 on 20th days with half-life of 6.7 to 7.7 days at standard and double dose, respectively. Here, we are proposing a pre-harvest interval of 7 day for fluopyram and tebuconazole in spring onion when applied at 75 + 75 g a.i. ha -1 (400 SC). Risk assessment was done by calculating hazard quotient and by comparing theoretical maximum residue intake (TMRI) with maximum permissible intake (MPI). In all the cases, results of the study showed that HQ (Hazard Quotient) ≤1 and TMDI < MPI. Hence, the use of this combination product can be recommended with pre harvest interval of 7 days. The data can be used in establishing MRLs (maximum residue limits) for spring onion after considering multilocation trials.

  17. Pesticide Reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the process for periodically evaluating registered pesticides to ensure they meet current science standards for risk assessment, as required by the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act.

  18. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be harboring disease organisms. Determining human and ecological risks from exposure to antimicrobial pesticides requires different ... Open Government Regulations.gov Subscribe USA.gov White House Ask. Contact Us Hotlines FOIA Requests Frequent Questions ...

  19. High frequency monitoring of pesticides in runoff water from a vineyard: ecotoxicological and hysteresis pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrancq, Marie; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Landry, David; Payraudeau, Sylvain

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall-induced peaks in pesticide concentrations can occur rapidly; therefore, low frequency sampling may largely underestimate maximum pesticide concentrations and fluxes. Detailed storm-based sampling of pesticide concentrations in runoff water to better predict pesticide sources, transport pathways and toxicity within the headwater catchments is actually lacking. High frequency monitoring (2 min) of dissolved concentrations and loads for seven pesticides (Dimetomorph, Fluopicolide, Glyphosate, Iprovalicarb, Tebuconazole, Tetraconazole and Triadimenol) and one degradation product (AMPA) were assessed for 20 runoff events from 2009 to 2012 at the outlet of a vineyard catchment in the Layon catchment in France. The pesticide concentrations reached 387 µg/L. All of the runoff events exceeded the mandated acceptable concentrations of 0.1 µg/L for each pesticide (European directive 2013/39/EC). High resolution sampling used to detect the peak pesticide levels revealed that Toxic Units (TU) for algae, invertebrates and fish often exceeded the European Uniform principles (25%). The instantaneous and average (time or discharge-weighted) concentrations indicated an up to 30- or 4-fold underestimation of the TU obtained when measuring the maximum concentrations, respectively, highlighting the important role of the sampling methods for assessing peak exposure. High resolution sampling combined with concentration-discharge hysteresis analyses revealed that clockwise responses were predominant (52%), indicating that Hortonian runoff is the prevailing surface runoff trigger mechanism in the study catchment. The hysteresis patterns for suspended solids and pesticides were highly dynamic and storm- and chemical-dependent. Intense rainfall events induced stronger C-Q hysteresis (magnitude). This study provides new insights into the complexity of pesticide dynamics in runoff water and highlights the ability of hysteresis analysis to improve the understanding of pesticide

  20. Pesticide Use Site Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Use Site Index will help a company (or other applicant) identify which data requirements are needed to register a pesticide product. It provides information on pesticide use sites and pesticide major use patterns.

  1. 40 CFR 180.176 - Mancozeb; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mancozeb; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.176 Mancozeb; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances for residues of a fungicide which is a...

  2. 40 CFR 180.210 - Bromacil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromacil; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.210 Bromacil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide...

  3. 40 CFR 180.191 - Folpet; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Folpet; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.191 Folpet; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the fungicide folpet (N...

  4. 40 CFR 180.227 - Dicamba; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dicamba; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.227 Dicamba; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for the combined residues of...

  5. 40 CFR 180.209 - Terbacil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terbacil; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.209 Terbacil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for combined residues of the...

  6. 40 CFR 180.232 - Butylate; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butylate; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.232 Butylate; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the herbicide butylate in or...

  7. 40 CFR 180.249 - Alachlor; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alachlor; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.249 Alachlor; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for combined residues of...

  8. 40 CFR 180.258 - Ametryn; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ametryn; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.258 Ametryn; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the desiccant...

  9. 40 CFR 180.213 - Simazine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Simazine; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.213 Simazine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the...

  10. 40 CFR 180.269 - Aldicarb; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aldicarb; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.269 Aldicarb; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for combined residues of the...

  11. 40 CFR 180.172 - Dodine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dodine; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.172 Dodine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the fungicide dodine (n...

  12. 40 CFR 180.262 - Ethoprop; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethoprop; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.262 Ethoprop; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the nematocide...

  13. 40 CFR 180.304 - Oryzalin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oryzalin; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.304 Oryzalin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide...

  14. 40 CFR 180.169 - Carbaryl; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbaryl; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.169 Carbaryl; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the...

  15. 40 CFR 180.220 - Atrazine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atrazine; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.220 Atrazine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the...

  16. 40 CFR 180.200 - Dicloran; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dicloran; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.200 Dicloran; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the...

  17. 40 CFR 180.133 - Lindane; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lindane; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.133 Lindane; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the insecticide...

  18. 40 CFR 180.132 - Thiram; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thiram; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.132 Thiram; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the fungicide...

  19. 40 CFR 180.301 - Carboxin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carboxin; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.301 Carboxin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the...

  20. The effect of synthetic pesticides and sulfur used in conventional and organically grown strawberry and soybean on Neozygites floridana, a natural enemy of spider mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Thiago; Roggia, Samuel; Wekesa, Vitalis W; de Andrade Moral, Rafael; Gb Demétrio, Clarice; Delalibera, Italo; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2016-09-01

    The beneficial fungus Neozygites floridana kills the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, which is a serious polyphagous plant pest worldwide. Outbreaks of spider mites in strawberry and soybean have been associated with pesticide applications. Pesticides may affect N. floridana and consequently the natural control of T. urticae. N. floridana is a fungus difficult to grow in artificial media, and for this reason, very few studies have been conducted with this fungus, especially regarding the impact of pesticides. The aim of this study was to conduct a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effect of pesticides used in strawberry and soybean crops on N. floridana. Among the pesticides used in strawberry, the fungicides sulfur and cyprodinil + fludioxonil completely inhibited both the sporulation and conidial germination of N. floridana. The fungicide fluazinam affected N. floridana drastically. The application of the fungicide tebuconazole and the insecticides fenpropathrin and abamectin resulted in a less pronounced negative effect on N. floridana. Except for epoxiconazole and cyproconazole, all tested fungicides used in soybean resulted in a complete inhibition of N. floridana. Among the three insecticides used in soybean, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin resulted in a significant inhibition of N. floridana. The insecticides/ acaricides abamectin and lambda-cyhalothrin at half concentrations and fenpropathrin and permethrin and the fungicide tebuconazole at the recommended concentrations resulted in the lowest impact on N. floridana. The fungicides with the active ingredients sulfur, cyprodinil + fludioxonil, azoxystrobin, azoxystrobin + cyproconazole, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole negatively affected N. floridana. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Control of Pesticides 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    containing hymexazol. 3) Insecticides and molluscicides containing imidacloprid and methiocarb. 4) Rodenticides containing coumatetralyl. All samples were examined for the content of the respective active ingredients and for the content of OPEO and NPEO. All samples but two out of three contained...... coumatetralyl and one out of four contained dicamba complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the examined samples contained OPEO, but one of the samples contained NPEO. On three products...

  2. Control of pesticides 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    . 3) Insecticides containing cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, methoprene and cyromazine. 4) Plant growth regulators containing 1-napthylacetic acid. All products were examined for the content of the respective active ingredients and for the content of OPEO and NPEO. All samples but one...... containing methoprene complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the 44 examined samples contained OPEO, but 5 of the samples contained NPEO. Three of these five samples were produced before...

  3. [Time course of excretion of tebuconazole and its metabolites in vineyard workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, S; Polledri, E; Mercadante, R; Rubino, F; Colosio, C; Moretto, A

    2012-01-01

    Tebuconazole (TEB) is a fungicide widely used in vineyards. This work aimed at the identification of urinary metabolites of TEB for the biological monitoring of exposure, and to study their kinetics of excretion. Major urinary metabolites of TEB in rats are t-butyl-hydroxy-and-carboxy-tebuconazole (TEB-OH and TEB-COOH). TEB and these metabolites were determined in urine samples of 5 wine growers who collected each void before (24 hours), during and after (48 hours) TEB application. These chemicals were found in 95%, 100% and 100% of the samples with levels of < 1.5-13.4 microg/L for TEB, 5.2-749 microg/L for TEB-OH e 2.8-234 microg/l for TEB-COOH. TEB-OH is the major metabolite of TEB, its concentration increases at the end of exposure and peaks after 16-24 hours. TEB-COOH has similar pattern. TEB-OH and TEB -COOH are promising candidates for biological monitoring of TEB exposure; preliminary results suggest the day after the application as the best sampling time.

  4. Stereoselective Determination of Tebuconazole in Water and Zebrafish by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Chen, Zenglong; Tao, Yan; Pan, Xinglu; Chen, XiXi; Zheng, Yongquan

    2015-07-22

    A simple and sensitive method for the enantioselective determination of tebuconazole enantiomers in water and zebrafish has been established using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC)-MS/MS. The effects of the chiral stationary phases, mobile phase, auto back pressure regulator (ABPR) pressure, column temperature, flow rate of the mobile phase, and compensation pump solvent were evaluated. Finally, the optimal SFC-MS/MS working conditions were determined to include a CO2/MeOH mobile phase (87:13, v/v), 2.0 mL/min flow rate, 2200 psi ABPR, and 30 °C column temperature using a Chiralpak IA-3 chiral column under electrospray ionization positive mode. The modified QuEChERS method was applied to water and zebrafish samples. The mean recoveries for the tebuconazole enantiomers were 79.8-108.4% with RSDs ≤ 7.0% in both matrices. The LOQs ranged from 0.24 to 1.20 μg/kg. The developed analytical method was further validated by application to the analysis of authentic samples.

  5. In situ generation of copper cations and complexation with tebuconazole in a hyphenation of electrochemistry with mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Jakl, M.; Schröder, Detlef; Norková, Renáta

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 338, 15 MAR (2013), s. 45-49 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-21409P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : electrochemical ion generation * ESI-MS * coupling * fungicide * tebuconazole * soil solution Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.227, year: 2013

  6. Unexpected effects of propiconazole, tebuconazole and their mixture on the receptors CAR and PXR in human liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, Constanze; Neeb, Jannika; Zahn, Elisabeth; Schmidt, Flavia; Carazo, Alejandro; Holas, Ondej; Pavek, Petr; Püschel, Gerhard P; Zanger, Ulrich M; Süssmuth, Roderich; Lampen, Alfonso; Marx-Stoelting, Philip; Braeuning, Albert

    2018-02-06

    Analyzing mixture toxicity requires an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms of action of its individual components. Substances with the same target organ, same toxic effect and same mode of action are believed to cause additive effects, whereas substances with different modes of action are assumed to act independently. Here, we tested two triazole fungicides, propiconazole and tebuconazole, for individual and combined effects on liver toxicity-related endpoints. Both triazoles are proposed to belong to the same cumulative assessment group (CAG) and are therefore thought to display similar and additive behavior. Our data show that tebuconazole is an antagonist of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in rats and humans, while propiconazole is an agonist of this receptor. Both substances activate the pregnane X-receptor (PXR) and further induce mRNA expression of CYP3A4. The CYP3A4 enzyme activity, however, is inhibited by propiconazole. For common targets of PXR and CAR, the activation of PXR by tebuconazole overrides CAR inhibition. In summary, propiconazole and tebuconazole affect different hepatotoxicity-relevant cellular targets and, depending on the individual endpoint analyzed, act via similar or dissimilar mechanisms. The use of molecular data based on research in human cell systems extends the picture to refine CAG grouping and substantially contributes to the understanding of mixture effects of chemicals in biological systems. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Distribution of prothioconazole and tebuconazole between wheat ears and flag leaves following fungicide spraying with different nozzle types at flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczki-Krsjak, Szabolcs; Varga, Mónika; Mesterházy, Ákos

    2015-01-01

    Wheat ears are difficult targets from the aspect of fungicide spraying. Sideward-spraying nozzle types may enhance the ear coverage, which may possibly lead to higher effectiveness in the management of Fusarium head blight (FHB). On average, sideward-spraying Turbo TeeJet Duo nozzles resulted in 1.30 and 1.43 times higher prothioconazole-desthio and tebuconazole contents and Turbo FloodJet nozzles in 1.08 and 1.34 times higher prothioconazole-desthio and tebuconazole contents in wheat ears by comparison with those achieved with vertically-spraying XR TeeJet nozzles. In contrast, the vertically-spraying XR TeeJet nozzles resulted in 1.57 and 1.31 times higher prothioconazole-desthio and tebuconazole contents in the flag leaf blade. The degradation of the active ingredient (AI) depended on the year, the cultivar and the plant organ, but not on the spraying method. There was no clear relationship between the efficacy of a given nozzle type and the outcome of the FHB epidemic. The ear coverage and therefore the AI content have been improved with the two sideward-spraying nozzle types. There was no effective translocation of the AI content between the ears and flag leaf blades. Prothioconazole and tebuconazole proved to be highly effective in the management of FHB, but the FHB resistance of the cultivar was also decisive. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Determination of some selected pesticide residues in apple juice by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography – mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hercegová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of solid phase microextraction (SPME for enrichment of pesticides from apple juice was investigated. Samples were diluted with water, extracted by solid-phase microextraction and analysed by gas chromatography using mass-spectrometry detector (MSD in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM. The method was tested for the following pesticides used mostly in fruit culturing at Slovakia: tebuthylazine, fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos, myclobutanil, cyprodinil, phosalone, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole, kresoxim-methyl, methidathion, penconazole. All pesticides were extracted with polydimethylsiloxane fibre 100 μm thickness. The linear concentration range of application was 0.05 μg dm−3–10 μg dm−3. The method described provides detectabilities complying with the maximum residue levels (MRLs set by regulatory organizations for pesticides in apple juice matrices. The solvent – free SPME procedure was found to be quicker and more cost effective then the solvent extraction methods commonly used.

  9. Comparison of the residue persistence of trifloxystrobin (25%) + tebuconazole (50%) on gherkin and soil at two locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2015-12-01

    Residue study of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on gherkin was carried out at two locations (Bangalore and Gouribiddunur, India) after applications at the standard and double doses of 75 + 150 and of 150 + 300 g ha(-1) of the formulated product, trifloxystrobin (25%) + tebuconazole (50%) (Nativo 75 WG). The fungicides were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Extraction and purification of the samples were carried out by Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method after validating the analytical parameters. Initial residues of trifloxystrobin on gherkin fruits were 0.335 and 0.65 mg kg(-1) at Bangalore, and 0.34 and 0.615 mg kg(-1) at Gouribiddunur. Tebuconazole residues were 0.842 and 1.682 mg kg(-1) at Bangalore, and 0.71 and 1.34 mg kg(-1) at Gouribiddunur. Residue dissipation of the fungicides followed first-order rate kinetics. Trifloxystrobin residues dissipated at the half-life of 2.9-3.7 days, and tebuconazole at 3.2 days. At the standard dose treatment, trifloxystrobin residues dissipated to below the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.2 mg kg(-1) (European Union) within 3 days at both the locations. Residues of the metabolite CGA 321113 was less than the limit of quantification (LOQ; 0.05 mg kg(-1)) on all sampling days. Tebuconazole residues dissipated to below its MRL (0.05 mg kg(-1)) within 14 and 11 days, at Bangalore and Gouribiddunur, respectively. From the two trials, it was concluded that the required pre-harvest interval (PHI) for the combination formulation was 14 days. Application of Nativo 75 WG should be given before flowering to allow the residues to dissipate below the MRLs at harvest.

  10. Interplay between fungicides and parasites: Tebuconazole, but not copper, suppresses infection in a Daphnia-Metschnikowia experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuco, Ana P; Abrantes, Nelson; Gonçalves, Fernando; Wolinska, Justyna; Castro, Bruno B

    2017-01-01

    Natural populations are commonly exposed to complex stress scenarios, including anthropogenic contamination and their biological enemies (e.g., parasites). The study of the pollutant-parasite interplay is especially important, given the need for adequate regulations to promote improved ecosystem protection. In this study, a host-parasite model system (Daphnia spp. and the microparasitic yeast Metschnikowia bicuspidata) was used to explore the reciprocal effects of contamination by common agrochemical fungicides (copper sulphate and tebuconazole) and parasite challenge. We conducted 21-day life history experiments with two host clones exposed to copper (0.00, 25.0, 28.8 and 33.1 μg L-1) or tebuconazole (0.00, 154, 192 and 240 μg L-1), in the absence or presence of the parasite. For each contaminant, the experimental design consisted of 2 Daphnia clones × 4 contaminant concentrations × 2 parasite treatments × 20 replicates = 320 experimental units. Copper and tebuconazole decreased Daphnia survival or reproduction, respectively, whilst the parasite strongly reduced host survival. Most importantly, while copper and parasite effects were mostly independent, tebuconazole suppressed infection. In a follow-up experiment, we tested the effect of a lower range of tebuconazole concentrations (0.00, 6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100 μg L-1) crossed with increasing parasite challenge (2 Daphnia clones × 6 contaminant concentrations × 2 parasite levels × 20 replicates = 480 experimental units). Suppression of infection was confirmed at environmentally relevant concentrations (> 6.25 μg L-1), irrespective of the numbers of parasite challenge. The ecological consequences of such a suppression of infection include interferences in host population dynamics and diversity, as well as community structure and energy flow across the food web, which could upscale to ecosystem level given the important role of parasites.

  11. Presence of pesticides in surface water from four sub-basins in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Aparicio, Virginia C; Bárbaro, Sebastián; Portocarrero, Rocío; Jaime, Sebastián; Costa, José L

    2014-07-01

    Argentina has 31 million hectares given over to agriculture comprising 2.2% of the world's total area under cultivation (Stock Exchange of Rosario, Argentina). Despite the intensity of this agricultural activity, data on pesticide pollution in surface water are rather scarce. In this sense, the aim of this work is to determine the presence of pesticides in surface water of four agricultural sub-basins of Argentine. An environmental monitoring was carried out to determine the impact of twenty-nine pesticides used in agricultural activities on the surface water quality of agricultural areas within the San Vicente, Azul, Buenos Aires southeast and Mista stream sub-basins. The samples were analyzed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using OASIS HLB 60 mg cartridges and ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MSMS) that provided good analytical quality parameters. The southeast of Buenos Aires was the site with the highest frequency of pesticides detection, followed by Azul and San Vicente microbasins. The most detected pesticides, considering all surface water samples, were atrazine, tebuconazole and diethyltoluamide with maximum concentration levels of 1.4, 0.035, and 0.701 μg L(-1), respectively. The results obtained for all basins studied show the presence of residual pesticides in surface waters according the different agricultural activities developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pesticide residues in locally available cereals and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Santos, F.L.; Bonoan, L.S.

    1976-03-01

    Vegetable samples (pechay, cabbage, lettuce, green beans and tomatoes) bought from public markets in the Metro Manila area were analyzed for pesticide residues using gas chromatography. The samples analyzed in 1968-69 contained high levels of chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, Aldrin, Endrin, and Thiodan, while in the samples analyzed in January 1976, no chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides were detected. Cereal samples (rice, corn and sorghum) were obtained from the National Grains Authority and analyzed for pesticide residues and bromine residues. Total bromine residues was determined by neutron activation analysis. In most of the samples analyzed, the concentrations of pesticide residues were below the tolerance levels set by the FAO/WHO Committee on Pesticide Residues in Foods. An exception was one rice sample from Thailand, the bromine residue content (110ppm) of which exceeds the tolerance level of 50ppm

  13. 40 CFR 180.342 - Chlorpyrifos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... avoid atomization or splashing of the spray. (iii) Paint-on application for spot treatment shall be...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... removed or covered during treatment. (ii) Spray concentration for spot treatment shall be limited to a...

  14. Biodegradation of high doses of commercial pesticide products in pilot-scale biobeds using olive-oil agroindustry wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, L; Nogales, R; Romero, E

    2017-12-15

    Biobeds systems containing soil, peat and straw (SPS) are used worldwide to eliminate pesticide point-source contamination, but implantation is difficult when peat and/or straw are not available. Novel biobeds composed of soil, olive pruning and wet olive mill cake (SCPr) or its vermicompost (SVPr) were assayed at pilot scale for its use in olive grove areas. Their removal efficiency for five pesticides applied at high concentration was compared with the biobed with SPS. The effect of a grass layer on the efficiency of these biobeds was also evaluated. Pesticides were retained mainly in the upper layer. In non-planted biobeds with SCPr and SVPr, pesticides dissipation was higher than in SPS, except for diuron. In the biobed with SVPr, with the highest pesticide dissipation capacity, the removed amount of dimethoate, imidacloprid, tebuconazole, diuron and oxyfluorfen was 100, 80, 73, 75 and 50%, respectively. The grass layer enhanced dehydrogenase and diphenol-oxidase activities, modified the pesticides dissipation kinetics and favored the pesticide downward movement. One metabolite of imidacloprid, 3 of oxyfluorfen and 4 of diuron were identified by GC-MS. These novel biobeds represent an alternative to the traditional one and a contribution to promote a circular economy for the olive-oil production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19... chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use of... exemption granted or a tolerance prescribed under section 408 of the act, the processed food will not be...

  16. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19... chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use of... exemption granted or a tolerance prescribed under section 408 of the Act, the processed food will not be...

  17. Endangered Species: Pesticide Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.

  18. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1177 Section 180.1177 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.117...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1244 - Ammonium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1244 Section 180.1244 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1244...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1176 Section 180.1176 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176...

  1. Sorption of selected pesticides on soils, sediment and straw from a constructed agricultural drainage ditch or pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Romain; Dousset, Sylvie; Billet, David; Benoit, Marc

    2014-04-01

    Buffer zones such as ponds and ditches are used to reduce field-scale losses of pesticides from subsurface drainage waters to surface waters. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of these buffer zones, in particular constructed wetlands, focusing specifically on sorption processes. We modelled the sorption processes of three herbicides [2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-MCPA), isoproturon and napropamide] and three fungicides (boscalid, prochloraz and tebuconazole) on four substrates (two soils, sediment and straw) commonly found in a pond and ditch in Lorraine (France). A wide range of Freundlich coefficient (K fads) values was obtained, from 0.74 to 442.63 mg(1 - n) L (n) kg(-1), and the corresponding K foc values ranged from 56 to 3,725 mg(1 - n) L (n) kg(-1). Based on potential retention, the substrates may be classified as straw > sediments > soils. These results show the importance of organic carbon content and nature in the process of sorption. Similarly, the studied pesticides could be classified according to their adsorption capacity as follows: prochloraz > tebuconazole-boscalid > napropamide > MCPA-isoproturon. This classification is strongly influenced by the physico-chemical properties of pesticides, especially solubility and K oc. Straw exhibited the largest quantity of non-desorbable pesticide residues, from 12.1 to 224.2 mg/L for all pesticides. The presence of plants could increase soil-sediment sorption capacity. Thus, establishment and maintenance of plants and straw filters should be promoted to optimise sorption processes and the efficiency of ponds and ditches in reducing surface water pollution.

  2. Field-scale dissipation of tebuconazole in a vineyard soil amended with spent mushroom substrate and its potential environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Hernández, Eliseo; Andrades, M Soledad; Marín-Benito, Jesús M; Sánchez-Martín, María J; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia

    2011-09-01

    The persistence, mobility and degradation of tebuconazole were assessed under field conditions in a sandy clay loam soil amended with spent mushroom substrate (SMS) at two rates. The aim was to evaluate the environmental impact of the simultaneous application of SMS and fungicide in a vineyard soil. SMS is the pasteurized and composted organic material remaining after a crop of mushroom is produced. SMS is generated in increasing amounts in La Rioja region (Spain), and could be used as soil amendment in vineyard soils, where fungicides are also applied in large amounts. The study was carried out in 18 experimental plots (6 treatments and 3 replicates per treatment) over one year. Laboratory experiments were also conducted to verify the changes over time in the adsorption of fungicide by soils and in soil dehydrogenase activity caused by the fungicide and/or SMS. Tebuconazole dissipation followed biphasic kinetics with a rapid dissipation phase, followed by a slow dissipation phase. Half-life (DT50) values ranged from 8.2 to 12.4 days, with lower DT50 for amended soils when compared to the non-amended controls. The distribution of tebuconazole through the soil profile (0-50 cm) determined at 124, 209 and 355 days after its application indicated the higher mobility of fungicide to deeper soil layers in amended soils revealing the influence of solid and dissolved organic matter from SMS in this process. Tebuconazole might be available for biodegradation although over time only chemical or photochemical degradation was evident in surface soils. The results obtained highlight the interest of field and laboratory data to design rational applications of SMS and fungicide when they are jointly applied to prevent the possible risk of water contamination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of gibberellins in improving the resistance of tebuconazole-coated maize seeds to chilling stress by microencapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Yang, Daibin; Yan, Xiaojing; Cui, Li; Wang, Zhenying; Yuan, Huizhu

    2016-11-01

    Chilling stress during germination often causes severe injury. In the present study, maize seed germination and shoot growth under chilling stress were negatively correlated with the dose of tebuconazole in an exponential manner as predicted by the model Y = A + B × e(-x/k). Microencapsulation was an effective means of eliminating potential phytotoxic risk. The gibberellins (GAs) contents were higher after microencapsulation treatment than after conventional treatment when the dose of tebuconazole was higher than 0.12 g AI (active ingredient) kg-1 seed. Further analysis indicated that microencapsulation can stimulate ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) activity to some extent, whereas GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox) and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) activities remained similar to those in the control. Genes encoding GA metabolic enzymes exhibited different expression patterns. Transcript levels of ZmKO1 increased in the microcapsule treatments compared to the control. Even when incorporated into microcapsules, tebuconazole led to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox1 at doses of less than 0.12 g AI kg-1 seed and to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox2 when the dose was higher than 0.12 g AI kg-1 seed. With increasing doses of microencapsulated tebuconazole, the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox4, ZmGA2ox5 and ZmGA2ox6 exhibited upward trends, whereas the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox7 exhibited a downward trend.

  4. The role of gibberellins in improving the resistance of tebuconazole-coated maize seeds to chilling stress by microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Yang, Daibin; Yan, Xiaojing; Cui, Li; Wang, Zhenying; Yuan, Huizhu

    2016-11-07

    Chilling stress during germination often causes severe injury. In the present study, maize seed germination and shoot growth under chilling stress were negatively correlated with the dose of tebuconazole in an exponential manner as predicted by the model Y = A + B × e (-x/k) . Microencapsulation was an effective means of eliminating potential phytotoxic risk. The gibberellins (GAs) contents were higher after microencapsulation treatment than after conventional treatment when the dose of tebuconazole was higher than 0.12 g AI (active ingredient) kg -1 seed. Further analysis indicated that microencapsulation can stimulate ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) activity to some extent, whereas GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox) and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) activities remained similar to those in the control. Genes encoding GA metabolic enzymes exhibited different expression patterns. Transcript levels of ZmKO1 increased in the microcapsule treatments compared to the control. Even when incorporated into microcapsules, tebuconazole led to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox1 at doses of less than 0.12 g AI kg -1 seed and to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox2 when the dose was higher than 0.12 g AI kg -1 seed. With increasing doses of microencapsulated tebuconazole, the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox4, ZmGA2ox5 and ZmGA2ox6 exhibited upward trends, whereas the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox7 exhibited a downward trend.

  5. The Y137H mutation of VvCYP51 gene confers the reduced sensitivity to tebuconazole in Villosiclava virens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Lin, Yang; Yin, Wei-Xiao; Peng, You-Liang; Schnabel, Guido; Huang, Jun-Bin; Luo, Chao-Xi

    2015-12-03

    Management of rice false smut disease caused by Villosiclava virens is dependent on demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides. Investigation of molecular mechanisms of resistance is therefore of upmost importance. In this study the gene encoding the target protein for DMI fungicides (VvCYP51) was cloned and investigated. The VvCYP51 gene in the resistant mutant revealed both a change from tyrosine to histidine at position 137 (Y137H) and elevated gene expression compared to the parental isolate. In order to determine which of these mechanisms was responsible for the reduced sensitivity to DMI fungicide tebuconazole, transformants expressing the mutated or the wild type VvCYP51 gene were generated. Transformants carrying the mutated gene were more resistant to tebuconazole compared to control transformants lacking the mutation, but the expression of the VvCYP51 gene was not significantly correlated with EC50 values. The wild type VvCYP51 protein exhibited stronger affinity for tebuconazole compared to the VvCYP51/Y137H in both molecular docking analysis and experimental binding assays. The UV-generated mutant as well as transformants expressing the VvCYP51/Y137H did not exhibit significant fitness penalties based on mycelial growth and spore germination, suggesting that isolates resistant to DMI fungicides based on the Y137H mutation may develop and be competitive in the field.

  6. Plant uptake of pesticides and human health: dynamic modeling of residues in wheat and ingestion intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantke, Peter; Charles, Raphaël; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Friedrich, Rainer; Jolliet, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Human intake of pesticide residues from consumption of processed food plays an important role for evaluating current agricultural practice. We take advantage of latest developments in crop-specific plant uptake modeling and propose an innovative dynamic model to estimate pesticide residues in the wheat-environment system, dynamiCROP. We used this model to analyze uptake and translocation of pesticides in wheat after foliar spray application and subsequent intake fractions by humans. Based on the evolution of residues in edible parts of harvested wheat we predict that between 22 mg and 2.1 g per kg applied pesticide are taken in by humans via consumption of processed wheat products. Model results were compared with experimentally derived concentrations in wheat ears and with estimated intake via inhalation and ingestion caused by indirect emissions, i.e. the amount lost to the environment during pesticide application. Modeled and measured concentrations in wheat fitted very well and deviate from less than a factor 1.5 for chlorothalonil to a maximum factor 3 for tebuconazole. Main aspects influencing pesticide fate behavior are degradation half-life in plant and time between pesticide application and crop harvest, leading to variations in harvest fraction of at least three orders of magnitude. Food processing may further reduce residues by approximately 63%. Intake fractions from residues in sprayed wheat were up to four orders of magnitude higher than intake fractions estimated from indirect emissions, thereby demonstrating the importance of exposure from consumption of food crops after direct pesticide treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross-tolerance in amphibians: wood frog mortality when exposed to three insecticides with a common mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jessica; Cothran, Rickey; Stoler, Aaron; Relyea, Rick

    2013-04-01

    Insecticide tolerance and cross-tolerance in nontarget organisms is often overlooked despite its potential to buffer natural systems from anthropogenic influence. We exposed wood frog tadpoles from 15 populations to three acetylcholine esterase-inhibiting insecticides and found widespread variation in insecticide tolerance and evidence for cross-tolerance to these insecticides. Our results demonstrate that amphibian populations with tolerance to one pesticide may be tolerant to many other pesticides. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  8. Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: evidence from two provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N D G; Sebesvari, Z; Amelung, W; Renaud, F G

    2015-06-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources with agrochemicals is often a major threat to human and ecosystem health in some river deltas, where agricultural production must meet the requirements of national food security or export aspirations. This study was performed to survey the use of different drinking water sources and their pollution with pesticides in order to inform on potential exposure sources to pesticides in rural areas of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. The field work comprised both household surveys and monitoring of 15 frequently used pesticide active ingredients in different water sources used for drinking (surface water, groundwater, water at public pumping stations, surface water chemically treated at household level, harvested rainwater, and bottled water). Our research also considered the surrounding land use systems as well as the cropping seasons. Improper pesticide storage and waste disposal as well as inadequate personal protection during pesticide handling and application were widespread amongst the interviewed households, with little overall risk awareness for human and environmental health. The results show that despite the local differences in the amount and frequency of pesticides applied, pesticide pollution was ubiquitous. Isoprothiolane (max. concentration 8.49 μg L(-1)), fenobucarb (max. 2.32 μg L(-1)), and fipronil (max. 0.41 μg L(-1)) were detected in almost all analyzed water samples (98 % of all surface samples contained isoprothiolane, for instance). Other pesticides quantified comprised butachlor, pretilachlor, propiconazole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole, cypermethrin, fenoxapro-p-ethyl, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin, quinalphos, and thiamethoxam. Among the studied water sources, concentrations were highest in canal waters. Pesticide concentrations varied with cropping season but did not diminish through the year. Even in harvested rainwater or purchased bottled water, up to 12 different pesticides were detected at

  9. Potential effects of environmental conditions on the efficiency of the antifungal tebuconazole controlling Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum growth rate and fumonisin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Patricia; de Ory, Ana; Cruz, Alejandra; Magan, Naresh; González-Jaén, M Teresa

    2013-08-01

    Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum are important phytopathogens which contaminate cereals in the Mediterranean climatic region with fumonisins. In this study we examined the interaction between the fungicide efficacy of tebuconazole and water potential (Ψw) (-0.7-7.0MPa)×temperature (20-35°C) on growth and FUM1 gene expression by real time RT-PCR (an indicator of fumonisin biosynthesis) in strains of both Fusarium species. Concentrations of tebuconazole required to reduce growth by 50 and 90% (ED50 and ED90 values) were determined. Growth of strains of both species was largely reduced by tebuconazole, with similar efficacy profiles in the interacting water potential×temperature conditions. In contrast, FUM1 expression was not generally reduced by tebuconazole. Moreover, sub-lethal doses in combination with mild water stress and temperatures less than 35°C significantly induced FUM1 expression with slight differences in both species. These results suggest that the efficacy of antifungal compounds to reduce mycotoxin risk would be more effective if consideration is given to both growth rate and toxin biosynthesis in relation to interacting environmental conditions. This is the first study linking fungicide efficacy of tebuconazole with environmental factor effects on control of growth and FUM1 gene expression of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 77 FR 28276 - Penflufen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...; alfalfa, hay; vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C; vegetable, legume, group 6; vegetable, foliage of... across studies and species (no data provided on thyroid hormone levels). The liver and thyroid findings... Uses on Potato (Crop Subgroup 1C), Legume Vegetables (Crop Group 6 and Crop Group 7), Cereal Grains...

  11. 78 FR 46279 - Forchlorfenuron; Temporary Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... document to refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Forchlorfenuron is not registered for... threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on...

  12. 76 FR 61587 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets... threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on... support the choice of a different factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity. There is evidence of...

  13. 75 FR 22252 - Cyromazine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Cyromazine is not registered for any specific use patterns that would result in... prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on toxicity and exposure unless EPA...

  14. 78 FR 67048 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ...-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Prothioconazole is not registered for any specific use patterns that would... threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on...

  15. 76 FR 18895 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets... children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the... support the choice of a different factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity. The prenatal and...

  16. 78 FR 75262 - Flonicamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... the prenatal developmental studies or in young rats in the 2-generation reproduction study. There are... exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Flonicamid is not registered for any specific use patterns that would result in...

  17. 78 FR 75257 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Flutriafol is not... children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the... choice of a different factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity. The potential impact of in utero and...

  18. 77 FR 67771 - Flonicamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... or rabbits in the prenatal developmental studies or in young rats in the 2-generation reproduction... exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Flonicamid is currently registered for the following uses that could result in non...

  19. 77 FR 73951 - Pyriproxyfen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... pyriproxyfen is not a neurotoxic chemical. There was no evidence of prenatal or postnatal sensitivity or... non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Pyriproxyfen is currently registered for flea and tick...

  20. 76 FR 12877 - Fomesafen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... in the prenatal developmental studies or in young rats in the 2-generation reproduction study. There... refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Fomesafen is not registered for any specific...

  1. 77 FR 12727 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Trifloxystrobin is currently registered for the following uses... of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the...

  2. 78 FR 60715 - Sedaxane; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Sedaxane is not registered for any specific use... prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on toxicity and exposure unless EPA...

  3. 78 FR 33744 - Sedaxane; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Sedaxane is not registered for any specific use patterns that... prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on toxicity and exposure unless EPA...

  4. 78 FR 13264 - Acetochlor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Acetochlor is not registered for any specific... infants and children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and...

  5. 78 FR 49927 - Imazapic; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets... threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on... different factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity. There is no evidence of increased pre- or postnatal...

  6. 77 FR 59114 - Cyazofamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... kidney tubules and mild increases in urinary volume, pH, and protein. However, no adverse kidney effects........... tubules of the kidneys, increased urinary volume, pH, and protein. This toxicity endpoint is also.../day or above increased incidence of basophilic tubules in the kidneys was found. Dermal, short-term (1...

  7. 77 FR 43524 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ..., N 1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)methyl]- N 2- cyano- N 1-methylacetamidine, in or on asparagus at 0.8 ppm... document titled ``Acetamiprid: Human Health Risk Assessment for New Uses on Asparagus; Brassica, Leafy..., in or on asparagus at 0.80 ppm; Brassica, leafy greens, subgroup 5B at 15 ppm; turnip greens at 15...

  8. 75 FR 74634 - Spiroxamine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ..., import at 0.7 parts per million (ppm) asparagus, import at 0.05 ppm; and vegetables, fruiting, crop group..., globe at 0.7 parts per million (ppm); asparagus at 0.05 ppm and vegetable, fruiting, group 8 at 1.2 ppm..., Asparagus and Fruiting Vegetables (Corp Group 8),'' pp. 33-36 in docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0136...

  9. 78 FR 44444 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... the following crops: Apples: 45%; asparagus: 30%; barley: 2.5%; cantaloupes: 15%; carrots: 2.5...%; asparagus: 15%; barley: 1%; cantaloupes: 5%; carrots: 1%; celery: 1%; cherries: 1%; corn: 1%; cranberries...

  10. 75 FR 50902 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...%; tobacco 5%; cucumber 10%; garlic 10%; sweet corn 10%; grapes 15%; squash 15%; asparagus 20%; eggplant 20.... For metiram, the Agency estimated the PCT for existing uses as follows: Apples 15%; asparagus 1...

  11. 76 FR 82146 - Tepraloxydim; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety Section 408(b)(2)(A)(i) of FFDCA allows EPA to establish a... and to make a determination on aggregate exposure for tepraloxydim including exposure resulting from... dogs, hemolytic anemia was demonstrated by depressed hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cells (RBCs...

  12. 77 FR 3621 - Rimsulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... response to the notice of filing. III. Aggregate Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety Section 408(b... support of this action. EPA has sufficient data to assess the hazards of and to make a determination on... in mice, increased red blood cell (RBC) and hemoglobin, and decreased body weight gain and food...

  13. 78 FR 60709 - Methoxyfenozide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ....C. III. Aggregate Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety Section 408(b)(2)(A)(i) of FFDCA... sufficient data to assess the hazards of and to make a determination on aggregate exposure for... to methoxyfenozide. Mild anemia (decreases in red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin) was...

  14. 78 FR 17123 - Amitraz; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... developed based on a careful analysis of the doses in each toxicological study to determine the dose at... refined acute dietary analysis using the Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model DEEM-FCID TM , Version 2.03 and assumed exposure through honey, imported cottonseed oil, meat and milk from dermal treatments of livestock...

  15. 77 FR 45498 - Pyrimethanil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... sensitive than humans to the development of thyroid follicular cell tumors in response to thyroid hormone... validity, completeness, and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human... activity, hind limb grip strength, and body temperature. However, there was no evidence of neurotoxicity...

  16. 77 FR 41081 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ..., and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also..., an increased incidence of clinical signs (staggered gait, splayed hind limbs, and abdominal gripping... physical and reflex development are likely secondary effects reflective of the poor general state of the...

  17. 77 FR 35295 - Methyl Bromide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production...-OPP-2012-0245, by one of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov... contains high concentrations of protein, energy (or fat), and fiber; is highly digestible; and has proven...

  18. 78 FR 78731 - Indoxacarb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... exposures from indoxacarb in food as follows: i. Acute exposure. Quantitative acute dietary exposure and... available reliable information on the regional consumption of food to which indoxacarb may be applied in a... chronic exposure, EPA has concluded that chronic exposure to indoxacarb from food and water will utilize...

  19. 78 FR 66649 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... spirotetramat. The commenter expressed a general opposition to the use of ``toxic chemicals'' on food and... alter the relationships or distribution of power and responsibilities established by Congress in the... not have a substantial direct effect on States or tribal governments, on the relationship between the...

  20. 77 FR 64911 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... fluoxastrobin and its Z-isomer in or on poultry, liver; hog, fat; hog, meat byproducts; and rice, grain. Arysta...)methanone O- methyloxime, and its Z-isomer, (1Z)-[2-[[6-(2-chlorophenoxy)-5-fluoro- 4-pyrimydinyl]oxy]phenyl... toxicity studies in rabbits. iii. A 2-generation reproduction study in rats. 3. Conclusion. EPA has...

  1. 77 FR 47539 - Paraquat Dichloride; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... valid basis to show what percentage of the food derived from such crop is likely to contain the... percentage of the food treated is not likely to be an underestimation. As to Conditions b and c, regional...'' (coagulation using alum with either lime or soda ash, flocculation and sedimentation), followed by duel media...

  2. 78 FR 46274 - Pyroxasulfone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... exposure assessment can be found at http://www.epa.gov/oppefed1/models/water/index.htm . Based on the....'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include... urinary bladder calculi is the prerequisite for subsequent hyperplasia and neoplasia. In other words...

  3. 76 FR 71459 - Prohexadione Calcium; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... organotins, heavy metals, halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons) that would be expected to be immunotoxic... fruit commodities, as defined in SOP No. ACB-019 (9/15/08). The method may be requested from: Chief...

  4. 75 FR 4279 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ..., 26 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3528. The petition requested that 40 CFR 180.361 be... use of pendimethalin on grass grown for seed and dormant Bermuda grass as requested by the petitioner...

  5. 77 FR 56782 - Bifenthrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... startle response was similar between adult and young rats. 3. Conclusion. Given different levels of...) of FFDCA defines ``safe'' to mean that ``there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result... = 3x........ is an MOE = 100.. Occupational: Adults, LOC is an MOE = 100. Inhalation short-term (1 to...

  6. 78 FR 60707 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective October 2, 2013. Objections and requests for.... The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center...

  7. 77 FR 41284 - Azoxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ..., dried pulp 20.0 Citrus, oil 40.0 Corn, field, forage 12.0 Corn, field, grain 0.05 Corn, field, refined... Peanut, hay 15.0 Peanut, refined oil 0.6 Pepper/eggplant subgroup 8-10B 3.0 Peppermint, tops 30 Persimmon..., cucurbit, group 9 0.3 Vegetable, foliage of legume, group 7 30.0 Vegetable, leafy, except brassica, group 4...

  8. 78 FR 53039 - Pyraclostrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Corn, field, refined oil 0.2 Corn, field, stover 17.0 Corn, pop, grain 0.1 Corn, pop, stover 17.0 Corn..., subgroup 6C 0.5 Peanut 0.05 Peanut, refined oil 0.1 Peppermint, tops 8.0 Persimmon 3.0 Pistachio 0.7 Radish..., bulb, group 3-07 0.9 [[Page 53047

  9. 77 FR 14291 - Penthiopyrad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...; vegetables, leaves of root and tuber, group 2 at 55 ppm; vegetable, edible-podded legume, subgroup 6A at 2.5..., sweet, pop at 0.01 ppm; corn, refined oil at 0.03 ppm; cereal grain, millet at 0.9 ppm; cereal grain...; alfalfa, forage at 10 ppm; alfalfa, hay at 25 ppm; foliage of legume vegetables, group 7, hay at 80 ppm...

  10. 76 FR 16301 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ..., nutmeat at 0.02 ppm; peanut, refined oil at 0.04 ppm; pistachio at 0.06 ppm; safflower, seed at 4.5 ppm... at 0.03 ppm; peanut, nutmeat at 0.02 ppm; peanut, refined oil at 0.03 ppm; pistachio at 0.06 ppm... Soybean, seed 0.25 Sugarcane, cane 0.30 Sunflower, seed 5.0 Turnip, greens 25 Vegetable, foliage of legume...

  11. 77 FR 28270 - Fluxapyroxad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Grains, Legume Vegetables (Succulent and Dry), Oil Seed Crops (Canola and Sunflower), Peanuts, Pome Fruit....5 Peanut 0.01 Peanut, refined oil 0.02 Plum, prune 3.0 Potato, wet peel 0.1 Rice, bran 4.5 Rice... 0.15 Vegetable, foliage of legume, group 7 30 Vegetables, fruiting, group 8 0.7 Vegetable, legume...

  12. 76 FR 22045 - Fluopicolide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... fluopicolide metabolite, BAM on cattle, goat, horse and sheep meat at 0.02 ppm; cattle, goat, horse and sheep fat at 0.05 ppm; cattle, goat, horse and sheep meat byproducts at 0.05 ppm; and milk at 0.01 ppm... and rat developmental toxicity studies or in the 2-generation rat reproduction study. Qualitative...

  13. 78 FR 65565 - Fomesafen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...-generation reproduction study. Acute neurotoxicity studies indicate fomesafen may cause neurotoxicity (decreased motor activity) at the same dose level as systemic toxicity. Although suppression of anti-sheep... reproduction toxicity study in rats. The rabbit developmental study was classified as unacceptable because of...

  14. 76 FR 77703 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... byproducts; horse, meat byproducts; and sheep, meat byproducts to 0.05 ppm; and iii. By adding a request for...-term (1 to 30 NOAEL= 30 mg/kg/day... LOC for MOE = 100..... 2-Generation Reproduction days ) and... studies or in young rats in the 2-generation reproduction study. iv. There are no residual uncertainties...

  15. 77 FR 52246 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ..., by one of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the... in both animals, dogs also displayed decreased white blood cells, albumin and total protein, as well... water. The Agency used screening level water exposure models in the dietary exposure analysis and risk...

  16. 77 FR 58045 - Clopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the online instructions for submitting comments. Do not... (females). Additionally, skin lesions and clinical chemistry changes (decreased serum glucose, protein, and... used screening level water exposure models in the dietary exposure analysis and risk assessment for...

  17. 77 FR 72975 - Zeta Cypermethrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure..., 25%; celery, 60%; cherries, 5%; grapefruit, 50%; green beans, 20%; green peas, 15%; lemon, 2.5...%; green beans, 15%; green peas, 10%; lemon, 1%; lettuce, 55%; orange, 35%; peach, 2.5%; peppers, 15...

  18. 76 FR 4542 - Mefenoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure...% Apple, 1% 5% Lemon, 5% Artichoke; 5% Lettuce, 10% Asparagus, 10% Onion, 30% Avocado, 2.5% Orange, 5... area. 2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency used screening level water exposure models in...

  19. 77 FR 73945 - Fenpyroximate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... exposures for which there is reliable information.'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in... juice; raisin; orange, grapefruit, tangerine, lemon and lime juice; tomato paste and puree; and..., tangerine, lemon and lime juice; tomato paste and puree; and peppermint and spearmint oil. Chemical-specific...

  20. 78 FR 33736 - Imidacloprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure. Section 408(b)(2)(C...%; grapefruit: 25%; grapes: 30%; honeydew: 30%; lemons: 5%; lettuce: 65%; onions: 1%; oranges: 20%; peaches: 5... water. The Agency used screening level water exposure models in the dietary [[Page 33741

  1. 77 FR 40806 - Methoxyfenozide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... fruit, citrus, group 10-10 at 1.9 parts per million (ppm); lemon, oil at 45 ppm; citrus, oil (except lemon) at 100 ppm; vegetable, root, except sugar beet, subgroup 1B at 0.8 ppm; and beet, sugar at 0.5... drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure. Section 408(b)(2)(C...

  2. 77 FR 63745 - Buprofezin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure... follows: Almond 1%; Cantaloupes 5%; Cotton 1%; Grapefruit 1%; Honeydew 2.5%: Lemons 2.5%; Lettuce (head... particular area. 2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency used screening level water exposure...

  3. 77 FR 52240 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... chemical does not directly target the immune system. There is no evidence of neurotoxicity for... manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes is not... thyroid hormone homeostasis during development. A developmental thyroid study was submitted and...

  4. 75 FR 29901 - Boscalid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... data for boscalid show no evidence of treatment-related effects on the immune system, and the Agency... be affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to... cytochrome P450 activity, and disruption of thyroid homeostasis (by decreasing circulating T3 and T4 and...

  5. 76 FR 18906 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...%; watermelon, 30%; wheat, grain, 2.3%. In the 2007 chronic risk assessment for mancozeb, the Agency estimated..., 1%; rye grain, 1%; squash, summer, 41%; squash, winter, 8%; tomato, 49%; watermelon, 28%; wheat...%; turnip tops, 86%; walnut, 37.5%; watermelon, 55%; wheat, grain, 3.5%. In the 2007 chronic risk assessment...

  6. 76 FR 23882 - Metiram; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ...%; tomato, processed, 25%; turnip tops, 86%; walnut, 37.5%; watermelon, 55%; and wheat, grain, 3.5%. For the..., winter, 25%; tomato, fresh, 54%; tomato, processed, 54%; walnut, 31%; watermelon, 10%; and wheat, grain...%; turnip tops, 36%; walnut, 36%; watermelon, 45%; and wheat, grain, 11%. In most cases, EPA uses available...

  7. 75 FR 22245 - Imidacloprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ..., black, seed 0.05 Mustard, field, seed 0.05 Mustard, Indian, seed 0.05 Mustard, rapeseed, seed 0.05 Mustard, seed 0.05 Nut, tree, group 14 0.05 Okra 1.0 Onion, dry bulbs, subgroup 3-07A 0.15 Onion, green... Biriba 0.30 Blueberry 3.5 Borage, seed 0.05 Caneberry, subgroup 13-A 2.5 Canistel 1.0 Canola, seed 0.05...

  8. 75 FR 4274 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ...) reverse mutation assay, an in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration assay, an in vivo mouse bone-marrow... residues for meat, hog, and milk commodities. One-hundred percent crop treated (PCT) was assumed for all...

  9. 76 FR 31485 - Bromoxynil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV); statistically significant increased urea nitrogen; increased... for existing uses in the acute dietary exposure assessment as follows: Alfalfa 2.5%; barley 35%; corn... exposure assessments as follows: Alfalfa 1%; barley 20%; corn 2.5%; cotton 2.5%; flax 35%; garlic 50%; mint...

  10. 77 FR 75561 - Quinclorac; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    .... Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated the available toxicity data and considered its validity, completeness... effects occurred at higher doses than the maternal effects of decreased food consumption and increased water consumption and decreased body weight gain. In the rat, no developmental toxicity was observed up...

  11. 78 FR 33731 - Propamocarb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Profile EPA has evaluated the available toxicity data and considered its validity, completeness, and... weights, body-weight gains, and food consumption were observed following subchronic and chronic durations..., body-weight gains and food consumption, and mortality. In rabbits, the only developmental effect was an...

  12. 78 FR 67042 - Boscalid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... follows. A. Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated the available toxicity data and considered its... profile is determined, EPA identifies toxicological points of departure (POD) and levels of concern (LOC... used food consumption information from the 2003-2008 food consumption data from the U.S. Department of...

  13. 78 FR 8410 - Thiacloprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... and risks associated with thiacloprid follows. A. Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated the... decreased food consumption and fecal output). In the reproduction study in rats, decreased body weights were... (decreased body weight, body weight gain and food consumption, increased urination, and changes in water...

  14. 78 FR 71523 - Quinclorac; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    .... Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated the available toxicity data and considered its validity, completeness... the maternal effects of decreased food consumption, and increased water consumption, and decreased... toxicological profile is determined, EPA identifies toxicological points of departure (POD) and levels of...

  15. 77 FR 66723 - Fluazinam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... fluazinam, the liver appeared to be a primary target organ in rats, dogs, and mice. Signs of liver toxicity..., diaphragmatic hernias, delayed ossification in several bone types, increases in late resorptions, as well as... dogs; however, this lesion was found to be reversible and is attributed to an impurity. Based on the...

  16. 75 FR 26662 - Fluazinam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... to be a primary target organ in rats, dogs, and mice. Signs of liver toxicity included changes in... incidences of facial/palate clefts, diaphragmatic hernias, delayed ossification in several bone types... subchronic and chronic studies in mice and dogs; however, this lesion was found to be reversible and is...

  17. 76 FR 27256 - Saflufenacil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    .... Protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibition in the mammalian species may result in disruption of heme synthesis which in... increased clearance of defective RBCs (i.e., defective hemoglobin synthesis) and is thus an indication of...

  18. 76 FR 76304 - Saflufenacil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... species may result in disruption of heme synthesis which in turn causes anemia. In these studies... RBCs (i.e., defective hemoglobin synthesis) and is thus an indication of toxicity to the hematopoietic...

  19. 77 FR 26467 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... petition, EPA has corrected the commodity definition for peanut oil. The reason for this change is... revised to agree with the Agency's Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary. The petitioned for commodities were peanut and peanut oil. The correct commodity definitions are peanut and peanut, refined oil. V...

  20. 78 FR 49932 - Emamectin; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... also considered available information concerning the variability of the sensitivities of major... mediated neurotoxicity is a solid hypothesis, data in mammalian preparations linking alterations in GABA...

  1. 78 FR 13252 - Pyroxasulfone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... degeneration in the sciatic nerve (dog, mouse, and rat) and spinal cord sections (dog), skeletal muscle... population- adjusted dose (PAD) or a RfD--and a safe margin of exposure (MOE). For non-threshold risks, the... occupy 3.6% of the aPAD for infants less than 1 year old, the population group receiving the greatest...

  2. 76 FR 59909 - Amisulbrom; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ..., constricted spinal cord in the cervical region, cervical kyphosis, and medially thickened/ kinked ribs with... relating to potential carcinogenicity, the Agency has determined that the chronic population adjusted dose... population including UFA = 10x aPAD = 2 mg/kg/day screen study. infants and children) UFH = 10x LOAEL = 2,000...

  3. 78 FR 70864 - Metaldehyde; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... paralysis, spinal cord necrosis, and hemorrhage in maternal rats; salivation; and twitching. Liver effects... including limb paralysis, spinal cord necrosis and hemorrhage were observed in the maternal animals. Effects... reference dose (RfD) [[Page 70866

  4. 77 FR 70902 - Fenpropathrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... characteristic of Type I pyrethroids were seen in most of the experimental toxicology studies including the acute... application of an additional 3X for risk assessments for infants and children less than 6 years of age. ii... methodology utilizing gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC/ECD, Residue Method Number RM-22...

  5. 75 FR 26673 - Clethodim; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... genotoxic. The data demonstrate no reproductive effect in rats and no developmental effects in rabbits. No... fetal weights and increased incidence of reduced ossification were seen in the fetuses at the maternal... Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (NTTAA), Public Law 104-113, section 12(d) (15 U.S.C. 272...

  6. 77 FR 10968 - Fluopyram; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...) OPPTS Test Guideline 860.1000'' and ``Guidance on Constructing Maximum Reasonably Balanced Diets (MRBD... for livestock is calculated on the basis of the diets listed in Annex 6 of the 2009 JMPR Report (OECD Feedstuffs Derived from Field Crops) and the use of a reasonable worst case diet/feed approach (RWCF). The...

  7. 78 FR 3328 - Fluroxypyr; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... the food consumption data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Health and Nutrition... residential exposures: Residential turfgrass, golf courses, parks and sports fields. EPA assessed residential...

  8. 78 FR 18519 - Abamectin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... formulation will impact the PCT estimates. In most cases, EPA uses available data from USDA of Agriculture..., please submit a copy of the filing (excluding any Confidential Business Information (CBI)) for inclusion... submit electronically any information you consider to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other...

  9. 76 FR 5704 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...- triazol-1-yl)phenyl)methanesulfonamide] and DMS [(N-2,4-dichloro-5-[4- (difluoromethyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-oxo...-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenyl)methanesulfonamide) and DMS (N-(2,4- dichloro-5-(4-(difluoromethyl)-4,5...,5-dihydro-3-hydroxymethyl-5-oxo-1H-1,2,4- triazol-1-yl)phenyl)methanesulfonamide) and DMS (N-(2,4...

  10. 78 FR 42736 - Spirotetramat; Proposed Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ...[4.5]dec-3-en-4-yl-ethyl carbonate) and its metabolites in or on taro leaves; watercress; pomegranate... 10-10; pineapple; coffee, green bean; and instant coffee, based on EPA's conclusion that aggregate..., Leaves; Watercress; Pomegranate; Banana; Vegetable, Bulb, Group 3-07; Low growing Berry Subgroup 13-07H...

  11. 75 FR 69353 - Isoxaben; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... ai/A, equivalent to 3X the maximum single rate of 1.0 lb ai/A. The higher rate was assumed to account... regulates growers, food processors, food handlers, and food retailers, not States or tribes, nor does this...

  12. 75 FR 42324 - Pyraclostrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ...% Pigeon pea (succulent) 5% Pink bean seed 5% Pinto bean seed 5% Pistachio 25% Plum 5% Pop corn 5% Potato... Effects Division's Science Advisory Council for Exposure. 4. Cumulative effects from substances with a..., Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd., Ft. Meade, MD 20755-5350; telephone number: (410) 305-2905; e-mail...

  13. 77 FR 58493 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... types of entities not listed in this unit could also be affected. The North American Industrial... assumption that homeowner handlers wear shorts, short-sleeved shirts, socks, and shoes, and that they...

  14. 76 FR 11344 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... be affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to.../ applicator wearing short pants and short-sleeved shirts as well as shoes plus socks using garden hose-end...

  15. 77 FR 42433 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... entities not listed in this unit could also be affected. The North American Industrial Classification... shoes plus socks using garden hose-end sprayer, pump-up compressed air sprayer, and backpack sprayer...

  16. 76 FR 82157 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... entities not listed in this unit could also be affected. The North American Industrial Classification... and short-sleeved shirts as well as shoes plus socks using garden hose-end sprayer, ``pump-up...

  17. 78 FR 70870 - Etofenprox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... College Road East, Suite 201 W, Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition requested that 40 CFR 180.620 be amended... a positive trend in renal cortical adenomas alone and in combined carcinomas and adenomas; however...

  18. 78 FR 44440 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... in dogs. Dramatic eye effects (retinal degeneration, lens vascularization, cataracts and corneal..., all of which were resolved by day 2. No treatment-related effects were observed in Functional...

  19. 75 FR 81878 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... thyroid effects were apparent only in the chronic toxicity study in dogs. Dramatic eye effects (retinal degeneration, lens vascularization, cataracts and corneal scarring) were observed in rats fed > 1,000 mg/kg/day... effects is seen throughout the toxicology database. No treatment-related changes indicative of potential...

  20. 75 FR 60321 - Spinosad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    .... Chronic exposure. In conducting the chronic dietary exposure assessment EPA used the food consumption data..., Brassica leafy vegetables, citrus, fruiting vegetables, herbs, banana, grape, several cereal grains, and... consumption in a particular area, the exposure estimate [[Page 60324

  1. 77 FR 36919 - Sedaxane; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    .... Human Health Risk Assessment to Support New Seed Treatment Uses on Canola, Cereal Grains (Barley, Oat..., piloerection, ruffled fur and recumbency, decreased BW, decreased BWG and food consumption (males). In females... dietary exposure, EPA used food consumption information from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA...

  2. 75 FR 50914 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... hemorrhage appearing only in infancy, were observed in rat offspring in the reproductive and DNT studies... studies and accompanied by histopathological findings of synechia, hemorrhage, keratitis, iritis, and... during post-natal days 5 to 20, neonatal rats appear to have an increased susceptibility to flubendiamide...

  3. 77 FR 26450 - Metconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also considered available... and dog being slightly more sensitive than the mouse. Like other triazoles, a primary target organ in mammalian toxicity studies is the liver. Liver toxicity was seen in the mouse, rat and dog following oral...

  4. 78 FR 57276 - Quinoxyfen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... toxicity data and considered their validity, completeness, and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also considered available information concerning the... dog study. Subchronic effects observed in rats and mice at high doses included increased liver weights...

  5. 75 FR 12691 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ..., and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also... adrenal glands in dogs, rats and mice, with the dog being the most sensitive species. The chronic dog... the immune system. Hexythiazox is classified as ``Likely to be Carcinogenic to Humans'' based upon...

  6. 75 FR 26668 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ..., and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also... http://www.regulations.gov in document Flutriafol. Human-Health Risk Assessment for Proposed Uses on... toxicity studies in rats, mice, and dogs identified the liver as the primary target organ of flutriafol...

  7. 76 FR 20537 - Etoxazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also considered... organ in mice, rats and dogs. In a 90- day toxicity study in dogs, increased liver weights and... toxicity study in dogs at similar doses, indicating that systemic effects (mainly liver effects) occur at...

  8. 76 FR 44815 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective July 27, 2011. Objections and... 13-07G at 2.5 ppm; ti palm, roots at 0.35 ppm; ti palm, leaves at 13 ppm; root and tuber vegetables.... In conducting the chronic dietary exposure assessment EPA used the food consumption data from the...

  9. 78 FR 46267 - Trifluralin; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    .... Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112..., multifocal cortical tubular cytoplasmic pigment deposition was noted in the kidneys of both sexes. In the...

  10. 76 FR 23891 - Pyrasulfotole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ...: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code... (colloid alteration, pigment deposition) and kidney (tubular dilation) toxicity were observed in adult animals of each generation. Colloid alteration and pigment deposition were also observed in rats following...

  11. 76 FR 50893 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ...,2-dioxazin-3-yl)methanone O- methyloxime, and its Z isomer, (1Z)-[2-[[6-(2-chlorophenoxy)-5-fluoro... induced. In the rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies and the 2- generation reproduction rat study... including the subchronic, chronic toxicity/ carcinogenicity, 2-generation reproduction, and developmental...

  12. 75 FR 54033 - Thiabendazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ...-term (1-30 days) NOAEL= 10 mg/kg/ UFA = 3x Occupational and Subchronic oral DAF = 0.5% day UFH = 10... = 10 mg/kg/ UFA = 3x Occupational LOC Subchronic oral mos) DAF = 0.5%* day UFH = 10x......... for MOE...

  13. 78 FR 37468 - Cyproconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... regenerative proliferation as alternative modes of action. The quantification of carcinogenic potential is not..., stress responses, and altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether these biochemical...

  14. 78 FR 40020 - Fenbuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... applied to the animal data for the quantification of human risk (Q1*). This classification was based on a... altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether these biochemical events are directly...

  15. 77 FR 75039 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ..., unscheduled DNA synthesis studies in human fibroblasts and primary rat hepatocytes, mitotic gene conversion... carcinogen used the reference dose (RfD) approach for quantification of human risk. Propiconazole is not... cholesterol levels, stress responses, and altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether these...

  16. 78 FR 23497 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... aberration assay, unscheduled DNA synthesis studies in human fibroblasts and primary rat hepatocytes, mitotic... reference Dose (RfD) approach be used for quantification of human risk. Propiconazole produced liver tumors... range of biochemical events including altered cholesterol levels, stress responses, and altered DNA...

  17. 76 FR 76309 - Isoxaflutole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... not performed in the study, there were no effects on pup swimming ability, learning, memory, motor activity, or auditory startle response at any dose, nor was there any evidence of neuropathology in the...

  18. 75 FR 6576 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... determined that changes in motor activity, auditory startle reflex, learning and memory assessments and... gains, decreased pup viability and decreased maximum auditory startle response in males. These effects... strength and foot splay at the highest dose tested (HDT). There was a decrease in the auditory startle...

  19. 75 FR 29435 - Diquat Dibromide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... 260 for teenagers and adults. The aggregate MOEs for infants and toddlers include dietary exposures... swimming in ponds and lakes treated with diquat dibromide. The aggregate MOEs for teenagers and adult... exposures by other routes in the aggregate exposure assessment for teenagers and adults, since the effects...

  20. 76 FR 50898 - Metconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to assist... hepatocellular lipid vacuolation (M) and centrilobular hypertrophy (M). Similar effects were observed in Females... wt (F) and hepatic vacuolation (M). Cancer (Oral, dermal, inhalation).... Classification: ``Not...

  1. 76 FR 55804 - Dicamba; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Enforcement Methodology Adequate enforcement methodologies, Methods I and II--gas chromatography with electron..., Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd., Ft. Meade, MD 20755-5350; telephone... the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (NTTAA), Public Law 104-113, section 12(d...

  2. 77 FR 38204 - Cyflufenamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... decreased lipid metabolism; cyflufenamid caused an approximately 50% inhibition of carnitine... those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS... = chronic). RfD = reference dose. UF = uncertainty factor. UFA = extrapolation from animal to human...

  3. 77 FR 73940 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... angle are differentiating and specializing into definite structures during postnatal days 5 to 20... petition submitted to the Agency. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has exempted these types of...

  4. 77 FR 10381 - Metaflumizone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be publicly available only in hard... not exhibiting a strong dose dependence. vii. The FQPA safety factor for dermal exposure scenarios is...

  5. 78 FR 55635 - Prometryn; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... neurotoxicity in the subchronic study. In the immunotoxicity study, there was a decreased humoral response in... Register of December 18, 2009 (74 FR 67104) (FRL-8801-8), immunotoxicity (OCSPP Guideline 870.7800) and... endpoints selected for assessing the dietary risks of concern. In the immunotoxicity study, although there...

  6. 75 FR 40745 - Cyazofamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... following findings: i. The toxicity database for cyazofamid is complete except for immunotoxicity and subchronic neurotoxicity testing. Recent changes to 40 CFR part 158 make immunotoxicity testing (OSCPP... immunotoxicity. Further, there is no evidence of neurotoxicity in any study in the toxicity database for...

  7. 76 FR 5691 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... immunotoxicity study provided no evidence for immunotoxicity. There was no evidence of carcinogenic potential in... and the functional immunotoxicity study. EPA has determined that an additional uncertainty factor is... immunotoxicity study for cyprodinil is not expected to alter the RfD. A preliminary immunotoxicity study was...

  8. 75 FR 19272 - Thifensulfuron methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    .... There were also no immunotoxicity studies submitted for review. Immunotoxicity was observed as a... remainder of the database reduce EPA's concern for immunotoxicity. Specific information on the studies... thifensulfuron methyl is complete except for immunotoxicity, acute neurotoxicity and subchronic neurotoxicity...

  9. 77 FR 42654 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... complete except for an immunotoxicity study and an inhalation study. Although an immunotoxicity study is... chemical directly targets the immune system. EPA does not believe that conducting an immunotoxicity study... additional database uncertainty factor (UF) for potential immunotoxicity does not need to be applied...

  10. 77 FR 56133 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... hematopoietic system. Furthermore, the toxicology data base contains immunotoxicity studies in mice and rats and a developmental immunotoxicity study in rats. In the immunotoxicity studies there were no effect on... histopathological lesions in these organs in those studies. In the developmental immunotoxicity study, there was no...

  11. 75 FR 17573 - Nicosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... comparable dietary levels. There was no evidence of potential immunotoxicity or neurotoxicity in the... Toxicology Data Requirements, an immunotoxicity study (870.7800), and acute and subchronic neurotoxicity studies (870.6200) are required for nicosulfuron. Despite the absence of specific immunotoxicity and...

  12. 76 FR 69648 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... immunotoxicity testing. Recent changes to 40 CFR part 158 make neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity testing required... and subchronic neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity studies are needed to complete the database, there are no concerns for immunotoxicity or neurotoxicity based on the results of the existing studies. The...

  13. 78 FR 24094 - Azoxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... azoxystrobin is complete except for immunotoxicity. Changes to 40 CFR part 158 make immunotoxicity testing... not believe that conducting the immunotoxicity study will result in a dose less than the point of... immunotoxicity does not need to be applied. ii. Clinical signs, including transient diarrhea and decreased body...

  14. 75 FR 5518 - Dithianon; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... retain the safety factor EPA also took into account the following considerations: i. Immunotoxicity.... Although a study has not yet been submitted, there is no evidence of immunotoxicity in any study in the toxicity database for dithianon and the Agency does not believe that conducting an immunotoxicity study...

  15. 76 FR 25240 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... guideline immunotoxicity study showed no evidence of clothianidin-mediated immunotoxicity in adult rats and a developmental immunotoxicity study demonstrated no increased susceptibility for offspring with regard to immunotoxicity. Specific information on the studies received and the nature of the adverse...

  16. 75 FR 4284 - Triticonazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... for triticonazole is complete with the exception of a newly required immunotoxicity study. In accordance with 40 CFR Part 158 toxicity data requirements, an immunotoxicity study (Harmonized guideline 870.7800) is required for triticonazole. In the absence of specific immunotoxicity studies, EPA has...

  17. 75 FR 80346 - Flutolanil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... and immunotoxicity studies. Recent changes to 40 CFR part 158 make acute and subchronic neurotoxicity testing (OPPTS Test Guideline 870.6200), and immunotoxicity testing (OPPTS Test Guideline 870.7800... compound produces hematological or thymus/spleen organ effects indicative of immunotoxicity. Further, there...

  18. 77 FR 3617 - Etoxazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... tested (HDT) in another carcinogenicity study in mice. There is no evidence of immunotoxicity or... neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity studies. Changes to 40 CFR 180.158 make acute and subchronic neurotoxicity testing (OPPTS Guideline 870.6200), and immunotoxicity testing (OPPTS Guideline 870.7800) required for...

  19. 75 FR 70143 - Acequinocyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... following studies needed, including: (1) A 28- day inhalation study; (2) an immunotoxicity study; and (3... this chemical does not directly target the immune system. An immunotoxicity study is required as a part... Agency does not believe that conducting a functional immunotoxicity study will result in a lower point of...

  20. 75 FR 56892 - Fenarimol; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... complete except for immunotoxicity testing. Changes to 40 CFR part 158 make immunotoxicity testing (OPPTS... fenarimol do not show the potential for immunotoxicity. Consequently, the EPA believes the existing data are...

  1. 78 FR 21267 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ..., the toxicology data base contains immunotoxicity studies in mice and rats and a developmental immunotoxicity study in rats. In the immunotoxicity studies there were no effects on T-cell dependent antibody... these organs. In the developmental immunotoxicity study, there was no evidence of an effect on the...

  2. 77 FR 72232 - Dodine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... concerns for immunotoxicity and the registrant has agreed to perform an immunotoxicity study (OCSPP... indicate neurotoxicity or immunotoxicity concerns. Thus, EPA has waived the acute and subchronic neurotoxicity studies. An immunotoxicity study is required pursuant to the recent amendment of EPA's data...

  3. 75 FR 8261 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... toxicity database for flumioxazin is complete except for immunotoxicity, acute neurotoxicity, and... testing (OPPTS Guideline 870.6200), and immunotoxicity testing (OPPTS Guideline 870.7800) required for...), and the blood effects are not considered to be the result of potential immunotoxicity in this case...

  4. 77 FR 70908 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... base contains immunotoxicity studies in mice and rats and a developmental immunotoxicity study in rats. In the immunotoxicity studies there were no effect on T-cell dependent antibody response when tested... the developmental immunotoxicity study, there was no evidence of an effect on the functionality of the...

  5. 76 FR 69653 - Abamectin (avermectin); Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... immunotoxicity testing. Recent changes to 40 CFR part 158 imposed new data requirements for immunotoxicity... abamectin (avermectin) provides no indication of immunotoxicity and abamectin (avermectin) does not belong... conducting an immunotoxicity study will result in a NOAEL less than the NOAELs of 0.5 mg/kg/day and 0.12 mg...

  6. 76 FR 3026 - Fluazinam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ...- pyridinamine), in or on carrot, root at 0.8 parts per million (ppm). PP 9F7571 requested that 40 CFR 180.574 be... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0032; FRL-8859-3] Fluazinam..., 2011, and must be filed in accordance with the instructions provided in 40 CFR part 178 (see also Unit...

  7. 78 FR 18511 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... of Thiamethoxam on Imported Coffee Beans and Condition-of-Registration Residue Data for Leaf Lettuce...-of-Registration Residue Data for Leaf Lettuce,'' available in the docket EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0488..., confers the notably greater selective toxicity of this class towards insects, including aphids and...

  8. 75 FR 5526 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... ppm; cacao bean, bean at 0.15 ppm; cacao, roasted beans at 1.4 ppm; canistel at 4.0 ppm; cattle, fat... of chlorantraniliprole on the following commodities: cacao bean from 0.15 ppm to 0.08 ppm; cacao bean, roasted bean from 1.4 ppm to 0.8 ppm; cacao bean, chocolate from 3.0 ppm to 1.5 ppm; cacao bean, cocoa...

  9. 76 FR 27261 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... consumers, including infants and children. Propiconazole has low to moderate toxicity in experimental... than rats. Decreased body weight gain in experimental animals was seen in subchronic, chronic.... The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center...

  10. 77 FR 52236 - Thifensulfuron Methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... (PP 1E7885) by IR-4, 500 College Rd. East, Suite 201W, Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition requested... derivation of reference values for risk assessment. PODs are developed based on a careful analysis of the... (MOE). For non-threshold risks, the Agency assumes that any amount of exposure will lead to some degree...

  11. 77 FR 59106 - Glufosinate Ammonium; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ...; (PP 9E7604) by Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4), IR-4 Project Headquarters, 500 College... toxicological POD is used as the basis for derivation of reference values for risk assessment. PODs are... amount of exposure will lead to some degree of risk. Thus, the Agency estimates risk in terms of the...

  12. 78 FR 36093 - Fenpyroximate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4), 500 College Road East, Suite 201W, Princeton, NJ 08540. The... levels than males. The highest dose tested in the dog resulted in first- and second-degree heart block... used as the basis for derivation of reference values for risk assessment. PODs are developed based on a...

  13. 78 FR 18504 - Emamectin Benzoate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ..., and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also... the PCT for the market leaders were exceeded. Further review of these cases identified factors... residue.* * * '' Consistent with FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(D), and the factors specified in FFDCA section...

  14. 76 FR 18915 - Ethiprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... phosphates activity, increased cholesterol, increased triglycerides, and increased total protein... with the metabolism data that suggests that ethiprole is not accumulated in the system. A developmental...

  15. 77 FR 12731 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... liver metabolism, hepatotoxicity/regenerative proliferation) in the animal mode of action for cancer..., triglyceride levels, FQPA SF = 1 and alkaline phosphatase activity and inflammatory cell infiltration in the... liver metabolism, hepatotoxicity/regenerative proliferation) in the animal mode of [[Page 12735

  16. 78 FR 3333 - Spiromesifen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ..., alanine transaminase (ALT) and decreased cholesterol, and triglycerides), and spleen effects (atrophy...-hydroxymethyl and BSN 2060-4- hydroxymethyl-glucoside, were observed in the metabolism studies of lettuce only...; concentrations from the lettuce metabolism study). Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model (DEEM) 7.81 default...

  17. Tolerating Zero Tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian N.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…

  18. Polymeric and Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Sustained Release of Carbendazim and Tebuconazole in Agricultural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Estefânia Vangelie Ramos; Oliveira, Jhones Luiz De; da Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves; Pascoli, Mônica; Pasquoto, Tatiane; Lima, Renata; Abhilash, P. C.; Fernandes Fraceto, Leonardo

    2015-09-01

    Carbendazim (MBC) (methyl-2-benzimidazole carbamate) and tebuconazole (TBZ) ((RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)pentan-3-ol) are widely used in agriculture for the prevention and control of fungal diseases. Solid lipid nanoparticles and polymeric nanocapsules are carrier systems that offer advantages including changes in the release profiles of bioactive compounds and their transfer to the site of action, reduced losses due to leaching or degradation, and decreased toxicity in the environment and humans. The objective of this study was to prepare these two types of nanoparticle as carrier systems for a combination of TBZ and MBC, and then investigate the release profiles of the fungicides as well as the stabilities and cytotoxicities of the formulations. Both nanoparticle systems presented high association efficiency (>99%), indicating good interaction between the fungicides and the nanoparticles. The release profiles of MBC and TBZ were modified when the compounds were loaded in the nanoparticles, and cytotoxicity assays showed that encapsulation of the fungicides decreased their toxicity. These fungicide systems offer new options for the treatment and prevention of fungal diseases in plants.

  19. Characterization of biodegradable poly-3-hydroxybutyrate films and pellets loaded with the fungicide tebuconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volova, Tatiana; Zhila, Natalia; Vinogradova, Olga; Shumilova, Anna; Prudnikova, Svetlana; Shishatskaya, Ekaterina

    2016-03-01

    Biodegradable polymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB) has been used as a matrix to construct slow-release formulations of the fungicide tebuconazole (TEB). P3HB/TEB systems constructed as films and pellets have been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray structure analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TEB release from the experimental formulations has been studied in aqueous and soil laboratory systems. In the soil with known composition of microbial community, polymer was degraded, and TEB release after 35 days reached 60 and 36 % from films and pellets, respectively. That was 1.23 and 1.8 times more than the amount released to the water after 60 days in a sterile aqueous system. Incubation of P3HB/TEB films and pellets in the soil stimulated development of P3HB-degrading microorganisms of the genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Variovorax, and Streptomyces. Experiments with phytopathogenic fungi F. moniliforme and F. solani showed that the experimental P3HB/TEB formulations had antifungal activity comparable with that of free TEB.

  20. Thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae following exposure to hexaconazole and tebuconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Chen, Mengli; Liu, Yihua; Gui, Wenjun; Zhu, Guonian

    2013-08-15

    The widely used triazole fungicides have the potential to disrupt endocrine system, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms of hexaconazole (HEX) and tebuconazole (TEB) in fish. In the present study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to various concentrations of HEX (0.625, 1.25 and 2.5 mg/L) and TEB (1, 2 and 4 mg/L) from fertilization to 120 h post-fertilization (hpf). The whole body content of thyroid hormone and transcription of genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were analyzed. The results showed that thyroxine (T4) levels were significantly decreased, while triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were significantly increased after exposure to HEX and TEB, indicating thyroid endocrine disruption. Exposure to HEX significantly induced the transcription of all the measured genes (i.e., corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHβ), sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), transthyretin (TTR), uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1ab), thyronine deiodinase (Dio1 and Dio2), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) in the HPT axis, but did not affect the transcription of thyroglobulin (TG). However, TEB exposure resulted in the upregulation of all the measured genes, excepting that TG, Dio1and TRα had not changed significantly. The overall results indicated that exposure to HEX and TEB could alter thyroid hormone levels as well as gene transcription in the HPT axis in zebrafish larvae. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Degradation and sorption of the fungicide tebuconazole in soils from golf greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Nora; Rosenbom, Annette E; Jensen, Anne M D; Sørensen, Sebastian R

    2016-12-01

    The fungicide tebuconazole (TBZ) is used to repress fungal growth in golf greens and ensure their playability. This study determined the degradation and sorption of TBZ applied as an analytical grade compound, a commercial fungicide formulation or in combination with a surfactant product in thatch and soils below two types of greens (USGA and push-up greens) in 12-cm vertical profiles covered by three different types of turf grass. Only minor TBZ degradation was observed and it was most pronounced in treatments with the commercial fungicide product or in combination with the surfactant compared to the analytical grade compound alone. A tendency for higher TBZ sorption when applied as the formulated product and lowest sorption when applied as a formulated product in combination with the surfactant was observed, with this effect being most distinct on USGA greens. No correlation between occurrence of degradation and soil depth, green type or grass type was observed. Sorption seemed to be the main process governing the leaching risk of TBZ from the greens and a positive correlation to the organic matter content was shown. In light of these findings, organic matter content should be taken into consideration during the construction of golf courses, especially when following USGA guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mesnage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone. We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines (HepG2, HEK293, and JEG3. Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prochloraz constitute, respectively, the active principles of 3 major herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 3 fungicides. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. Fungicides were the most toxic from concentrations 300–600 times lower than agricultural dilutions, followed by herbicides and then insecticides, with very similar profiles in all cell types. Despite its relatively benign reputation, Roundup was among the most toxic herbicides and insecticides tested. Most importantly, 8 formulations out of 9 were up to one thousand times more toxic than their active principles. Our results challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake for pesticides because this norm is calculated from the toxicity of the active principle alone. Chronic tests on pesticides may not reflect relevant environmental exposures if only one ingredient of these mixtures is tested alone.

  3. Dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on apple (Malus domestica) and soil--a multi location study from north western Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyal, S K; Sharma, I D; Chandel, R S; Dubey, J K

    2013-08-01

    A new combinational fungicide formulation trifloxystrobin 25%+tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG), introduced as a part of resistance management strategy, was studied for dissipation behaviour on apple fruits. Nativo 75WG was sprayed twice at the rate of 400 g and 800 g a.i. ha(-1) equal to trifloxystrobin application rate of 100 and 200 g a.i. ha(-1) and tebuconazole at application rate of 200 and 400 g a.i. ha(-1) at four different locations in the Northwest Himalayan region of India. The fruit samples collected at 10d interval and soil samples taken at harvest time were analyzed after second spray. The residual concentrations of trifloxystrobin, its acid metabolite CGA 321113 and tebuconazole were measured. Residues of both fungicides were determined by using gas chromatograph, Agilent 6890N having electron capture detector. The mean initial deposits of trifloxystrobin at four locations were found to be in the range of 0.333-0.387 mg kg(-1) and 0.512-0.714 mg kg(-1) at the application rate of 100 and 200 g a.i. ha(-1), and half-life were found between 19.38-24.93 d and 19.84-28.86 d at the respective doses. The Σ-trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues were below determination limit in 40 d apple fruits and soil samples. Initial deposits of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were below their Codex MRLs at the respective single doses. The half life value of the tebuconazole deposits ranged between 19.38-25.99 d and 19.84-28.86 d at the respective single and double dose. The study thus suggests 1d pre harvest interval for safe consumption of apple fruit after the application of Nativo 75 WG at single dose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A trench study to assess transfer of pesticides in subsurface lateral flow for a soil with contrasting texture on a sloping vineyard in Beaujolais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrard, X; Liger, L; Guillemain, C; Gouy, V

    2016-01-01

    Subsurface lateral flow in both texture-contrast soils and catchments with shallow bedrock is suspected to be a non-point source of contamination of watercourses by pesticides used in agriculture. As a case study, the north of the Beaujolais region (eastern France) provides a favorable environment for such contamination due to its agro-pedo-climatic conditions. Environments seen in the Beaujolais region include intense viticulture, permeable and shallow soils, steep hillslopes, and storms that occur during the periods of pesticide application. Watercourse contamination by pesticides has been widely observed in this region, and offsite pesticide transport by subsurface lateral flow is suspected to be involved in diffuse and chronic presence of pesticides in surface water. In order to confirm and quantify the potential role of such processes in pesticide transfer, an automated trench system has been designed. The trench was set up on a steep farmed hillslope in a texture-contrast soil. It was equipped with a tipping bucket flow meter and an automatic sampler to monitor pesticide concentrations in lateral flow at fine resolution, by means of a flow-dependent sampling strategy. Four pesticides currently used in vine growing were studied to provide a range of mobility properties: one insecticide (chlorpyrifos-methyl) and three fungicides (spiroxamine, tebuconazole, and dimethomorph). With this system, it was possible to study pesticide concentration dynamics in the subsurface lateral flow, generated by substantial rainfall events following pesticide applications. The experimental design ascertained to be a suitable method in which to monitor subsurface lateral flow and related transfer of pesticides.

  5. Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program (PESP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PESP is an EPA partnership program that works with the nation's pesticide-user community to promote IPM practices. Pesticide users can reduce the risks from pests and pesticides. Members include organizations and companies in the pesticide-user community.

  6. Photocatalytic degradation of eight pesticides in leaching water by use of ZnO under natural sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, S; Fenoll, J; Vela, N; Ruiz, E; Navarro, G

    2009-12-30

    Photodegradation of eight pesticides in leaching water at pilot plant scale using the tandem ZnO/Na(2)S(2)O(8) as photosensitizer/oxidant and compound parabolic collectors under natural sunlight is reported. The pesticides, habitually used on pepper culture and belonging to different chemical groups were azoxyxtrobin, kresoxim-methyl, hexaconazole, tebuconazole, triadimenol, and pyrimethanil (fungicides), primicarb (insecticide), and propyzamide (herbicide). As expected, the influence of the semiconductor used at 150 mg L(-1) on the degradation of pesticides was very significant in all cases. Photocatalytic experiments show that the addition of photosensitizer strongly improves the elimination of pesticides in comparison with photolytic tests; significantly increasing the reaction rates. The use of Na(2)S(2)O(8) implies a significant reduction in treatment time showing a quicker reaction time than ZnO alone. On the contrary, the addition of H(2)O(2) into illuminated ZnO suspensions does not improve the rate of photooxidation. The disappearance of the pesticides followed first-order kinetics according to Langmuir-Hinshelwood model and complete degradation occurs from 60 to 120 min. The disappearance time (DT(75)), referred to the normalized illumination time (t(30 W)) was lower than 3 min in all cases.

  7. Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-05-09

    The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, λ-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers.

  8. In vitro sensitivity of Fusarium graminearum, F. avenaceum and F. verticillioides to carbendazim, tebuconazole, flutriafol, metconazole and prochloraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Ivić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth of 13 F. graminearum isolates, 6 F. avenaceum isolates and 6 F. verticillioides isolates was analysed on potato-dextrose agar amended with 0.1, 0.33, 1, 3.3 and 10 mg l-1 of carbendazim, tebuconazole, flutriafol, metconazole, and prochloraz. Average concentration which reduced mycelial growth by 50% comparing it to control (EC50 was calculated for each isolate. Among fungicides tested, prochloraz was shown to be the most effective in growth inhibition of all three species, while flutirafol was proven to be the least effective.Metocnazole was more efficient in comparison with carbendazim and tebuconazole. EC50 values of all isolates on prochloraz were lower than 0.1 mg l-1, while on flutirafol they ranged between 1.66 and 8.51 mg l-1 for 18 isolates, or were higher than 10 mg l-1 for 7 isolates. EC50 values on carbendazim were 0.39-1.41 mg l-1 for F. graminearum isolates, 0.91-1.35 mg l-1 forF. avenaceum, and 0.47-0.6 mg l-1 for F. verticillioides. EC50 values on tebuconazole were 0.85-2.57 mg l-1 for F. graminearum, 0.85-1.58 mg l-1 for F. avenaceum and 0.22-0.85 mg l-1 for F. verticillioides,while on metconazole EC50 values ranged between less than 0.1 mg l-1 to 1.66, 0.56,and 0.17 mg l-1 for F. graminearum, F. avenaceum and F. verticillioides, respectively. Average growth inhibitions of different Fusarium species and all Fusarium isolates together on different concentrations of fungicides tested were significantly different. Significant differences in growth were not determined among isolates of the same species on neither one of fungicides tested, indicating that no decreased sensitivity to the fungicides exists among isolates included in the study.

  9. Before the curtain falls: endocrine-active pesticides--a German contamination legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Oehlmann, Jörg; Keil, Florian

    2011-01-01

    The European Parliament recently approved a new EU regulation aimed at eliminating the use of pesticides that have unwanted endocrine-disrupting properties. The test criteria for these chemicals are slated to be finalized by 2013. For this reason, in this review, we have evaluated the meta data of lists and databanks that address pesticides with potentially endocrine-disrupting properties, and have checked which of the 250 active ingredients currently in use in Germany are affected. Azoles, dithio-carbamates/carbamates, and pyrethroids were most frequently rated as endocrine-active ingredients. In Germany, assessments have shown that total environmental pesticide emission is equivalent to approximately 0.1% of total pesticide use.Courtyard drainage and field runoff are regarded to constitute the most important sources of pesticide emission into the aquatic environment. In addition, in several investigations of drinking- and groundwater contamination, various pesticide-active ingredients and their metabolites were confirmed to be contaminants. Water suppliers recorded the following pesticides or their metabolites as being most frequently detected in drinking water: atrazine, desethylatrazine, diuron, simazine, isoproturon,and its dichlobenil metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzamide. Surface water contamination results mainly from substances that are no longer approved by EU pesticide regulation. The most frequently detected pesticides in streaming waters that are still authorized were bentazone, diuron, glyphosate, isoproturon, MCPA, mecoprop,metamitron, pendimethalin, and tebuconazole. Pesticide residues in comestible goods of herbal origin are periodically detected in all EU member countries. The European Commission recently published results showing that 54% of all monitoring samples were devoid of positive findings. Of samples showing detectable residues, 42% were below, and 4.4% exceeded the EUMRLs. Monitoring data over a 10-year period revealed that the percentage of

  10. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  11. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  12. National Pesticide Standard Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Pesticide Standards Repository collects and maintains an inventory of analytical “standards” of registered pesticides in the United States, as well as some that are not currently registered for food and product testing and monitoring.

  13. Combined effects of drought and the fungicide tebuconazole on aquatic leaf litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Stéphane; Zoghlami, Olfa; Margoum, Christelle; Artigas, Joan; Chaumot, Arnaud; Foulquier, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    Loss of biodiversity and altered ecosystem functioning are driven by the cumulative effects of multiple natural and anthropogenic stressors affecting both quantity and quality of water resources. Here we performed a 40-day laboratory microcosm experiment to assess the individual and combined effects of drought and the model fungicide tebuconazole (TBZ) on leaf litter decomposition (LLD), a fundamental biogeochemical process in freshwater ecosystems. Starting out from a worst-case scenario perspective, leaf-associated microbial communities were exposed to severe drought conditions (four 5-day drought periods alternated with 4-day immersion periods) and/or a chronic exposure to TBZ (nominal concentration of 20μgL(-1)). We assessed the direct effects of drought and fungicide on the structure (biomass, diversity) and activity (extracellular enzymatic potential) of fungal and bacterial assemblages colonizing leaves. We also investigated indirect effects on the feeding rates of the amphipod Gammarus fossarum on leaves previously exposed to drought and/or TBZ contamination. Results indicate a stronger effect of drought stress than fungicide contamination under the experimental conditions applied. Indeed, the drought stress strongly impacted microbial community structure and activities, inhibiting the LLD process and leading to cascading effects on macroinvertebrate feeding. However, despite the lack of significant effect of TBZ applied alone, the effects of drought on microbial functions (i.e., decrease in LLD and in enzymatic activities) and on Gammarus feeding rates were more pronounced when drought and TBZ stresses were applied together. In a perspective of ecological risk assessment and ecosystem management for sustainability, these findings stress the need for deeper insight into how multiple stressors can affect the functioning of aquatic ecosystems and associated services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification and quantification of metabolites of the fungicide tebuconazole in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, R; Polledri, E; Scurati, S; Moretto, A; Fustinoni, S

    2014-11-17

    Tebuconazole (TEB) is a fungicide used in agriculture; the objective of this work was to identify and quantify TEB metabolites in human urine. Samples from seven vineyard workers exposed to TEB were submitted to liquid chromatography interfaced with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, equipped with an electron spray source, and a linear ion trap to gain a profile of candidate metabolites. Based on the presence of the ion m/z 70 in the MS/MS spectra, which corresponds to protonated triazole (a specific moiety of TEB), and the isotopic pattern of the molecular ions, typical of molecules with one chlorine atom, hydroxyl and carboxyl derivatives of TEB, that is, TEB-OH and TEB-COOH, were identified as major metabolites, both as free molecules and as glucuronide (Glc) conjugates. The mean molar fractions were 0.67, 0.13, 0.13, and 0.07 for TEB-O-Glc, TEB-OH, TEB-COO-Glc, and TEB-COOH. Urine samples were submitted to hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase, and the free compounds were quantified in the presence of deuterated TEB (TEB-d6) as the internal standard (IS), by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The assay was linear in the ranges of 0.2-600 μg/L and 0.1-240 μg/L for TEB-OH and TEB-COOH, respectively; precision, accuracy, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were <3.1%, 98-103%, and 0.3 μg/L for both analytes. An evaluation of matrix effects showed that the use of TEB-d6 controlled these sources of bias. The urinary levels of TEB-OH and TEB-COOH in specimens collected from farmers exposed to TEB ranged from 10 to 473 and from 3 to 159 μg/L, respectively.

  15. Nephrotoxic Effects of Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Gönültaş, Tülin; Aytaç, Necdet; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    Pesticidesare used extensively throughout the world and, in recent years, their use hasincreased considerably. Pesticides are responsible for several adverse effectson human health, and they represent a potential risk to human. Liver and kidneyare firstly most harmed tissues by pesticides, because pesticides are removedfrom the body by being metabolized in the liver and kidney main road. A broad rangeof pesticides, including organophosphates, organochlorines, carbamates,pyrethroids and triazi...

  16. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  17. 40 CFR 180.215 - Naled; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naled; tolerances for residues. 180.215 Section 180.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... commodities, except those otherwise listed in this section, from use of the pesticide for area pest (mosquito...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1050 - Nitrogen; exemption from the requirements of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... insecticide nitrogen is exempted from the requirements of a tolerance when used after harvest in modified atmospheres for stored product insect control on all food commodities. [65 FR 33716, May 24, 2000] ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1049 - Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... insecticide carbon dioxide is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used after harvest in modified atmospheres for stored insect control on food commodities. [65 FR 33716, May 24, 2000] ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD...

  20. Influence of tebuconazole and copper hydroxide on phosphatase and urease activities in red sandy loam and black clay soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, B; Rekhapadmini, A; Rangaswamy, V

    2016-06-01

    The efficacy of two selected fungicides i.e., tebuconazole and coppoer hydroxide, was conducted experiments in laboratory and copper hydroxide on the two specific enzymes phosphatase and urease were determined in two different soil samples (red sandy loam and black clay soils) of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from cultivated fields of Anantapuramu District, Andhra Pradesh. The activities of the selected soil enzymes were determined by incubating the selected fungicides-treated (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg ha -1 ) and -untreated groundnut soil samples at 10 day intervals. By determining the effective concentration, the rate of selected enzyme activity was estimated by adding the suitable substrate at 10, 20, 30 and 40 days of soil incubation. Both the enzyme activities were increased up to 5.0 kg ha -1 level of fungicide in both soil samples significantly at 10 days of soil incubation and further enhanced up to 20 days of incubation. The activity of the phosphatase and urease decreased progressively at 30 and 40 days of incubation. From overall studies, higher concentrations (7.5 and 10.0 kg ha -1 ) of both tebuconazole and copper hydroxide were toxic to phosphatase and urease activities, respectively, in both soil samples.

  1. The Point Mutation G461S in the MfCYP51 Gene is Associated with Tebuconazole Resistance in Monilinia fructicola Populations in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtemberg, Paulo S F; Luo, Yong; Morales, Rafael G; Muehlmann-Fischer, Juliana M; Michailides, Themis J; May De Mio, Louise L

    2017-12-01

    The ascomycete Monilinia fructicola is the causal agent of brown rot of stone fruit in Brazil, causing major pre- and postharvest losses. For many years, the demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicide tebuconazole has been used as the most effective active ingredient for controlling brown rot and, as a result, strains of M. fructicola resistant to this ingredient have emerged in many Brazilian states producing stone fruit. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms associated with the resistance of M. fructicola to DMI tebuconazole. By sequencing the M. fructicola CYP51 (MfCYP51) gene, encoding the azole target sterol 14α-demethylase, a mutation was identified at the nucleotide position 1,492, causing the amino acid substitution from glycine to serine at the codon position 461, associated with reduced tebuconazole sensitivity. In addition, it was observed that MfCYP51 gene expression could play a secondary role in DMI fungicide resistance of M. fructicola strains in Brazil. However, for the specific isolate found to exhibit elevated expression levels of MfCYP51, no insertions that would trigger gene expression were found. Based on the point mutation associated with tebuconazole resistance, an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction method was developed to quickly identify resistant genotypes within the Brazilian population. This is the first report determining molecular mechanisms for DMI resistance identification for M. fructicola isolates from Brazil. This information provides an important advancement for risk assessment of DMI fungicides used to manage brown rot of stone fruit.

  2. Impact of gibberelic acid and tebuconazole on formation of the leaf system and functioning of donor – acceptor plant system of solanaceae vegetable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Kuryata

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the comparable effect of gibberelic acid and tebuconazole on morphogenesis, mesostructure formation and redistribution of flows in sweet peppers and tomatoes. It has been found that the use of gibberelic acid and tebuconazole retardant during budding leads to increased plant productivity due to optimization of the structure and operation of the plants’ leaf apparatus. It was established that both gibberelic and antigibberelic tebuconazole drug stimulated the formation and functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus of peppers and tomatoes, but the mechanisms of this regulation were different. Increased photosynthetic activity of plants under the influence of gibberellin was determined primarily by the formation of more leaves and total leaf surface. When using tebuconazole retardant there was a significant restructuring of the organization of leaf mezostructure: the leaves were thickened by chlorenchyma proliferation, there was an increase in the volume of columnar parenchyma cells and linear dimensions of spongy parenchyma leaf cells. The surface density of leaves significantly increased, the chlorophyll content and nitrogen content (especially protein also increased, compared with control variants and variants using gibberelin. Such a profound restructuring of the photosynthetic apparatus in plants under the actions of tebuconazole led to a significant increase in donor leaves function of peppers and tomatoes, which is an indicator of the growth of net productivity of photosynthesis – the highest among all the variants of the experiment. The results also show that increasing the chlorophyll phytocenotic index was more significant than the increase of leaf index: the tomatoes under the action of tebuconazole had a lower leaf index than in control options, but due to a higher chlorophyll index the crop productivity increased.Since during the fruiting period the costs of assimilates to the growth of vegetative organs are greatly

  3. Occurrence of pesticides in water and sediment collected from amphibian habitats located throughout the United States, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Orlando, James L.; Calhoun, Daniel; Battaglin, William A.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    herbicides, 4 insecticides, 1 synergist, and 2 pesticide degradates. On a national scale, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the primary degradate of the herbicide glyphosate, which is the active ingredient in Roundup®, was the most frequently detected pesticide in water (16 of 54 samples) followed by glyphosate (8 of 54 samples). The maximum number of pesticides observed at a single site was nine compounds in a water sample from a site in Louisiana. The maximum concentration of a pesticide or degradate observed in water was 2,880 nanograms per liter of clomazone (a herbicide) at a site in Louisiana. In California, a total of eight pesticides were detected among all of the low and high elevation sites; AMPA was the most frequently detected pesticide, but glyphosate was detected at the highest concentrations (1.1 micrograms per liter). Bed-sediment samples were analyzed for 94 pesticides by using accelerated solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography for sulfur removal, and carbon/alumina stacked solid-phase extraction cartridges to remove interfering sediment matrices. In bed sediment, 22 pesticides were detected in one or more of the samples, including 9 fungicides, 3 pyrethroid insecticides, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and its major degradates, as well as several herbicides. Pyraclostrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, and bifenthrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, were detected most frequently. Maximum pesticide concentrations ranged from less than their respective method detection limits to 1,380 micrograms per kilogram (tebuconazole in California). The number of pesticides detected in samples from each site ranged from zero to six compounds. The sites with the greatest number of pesticides were in Maine and Oregon with six pesticides detected in one sample from each state, followed by Georgia with four pesticides in one sample. For California, a total of 10 pesticides were detected among all sites, and 4 pesticides were detected at both low and high

  4. Pesticides and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, Vincent F.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored

  5. Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by natural river biofilms in different seasons and their effects on biofilm community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, Chien-Jung; Lin, Mon-Chu; Chiu, Wan-Hsin; Chen, Colin S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of natural river biofilms from different seasons to degrade the carbamate pesticides methomyl, carbaryl and carbofuran in single and multiple pesticide systems, and the effects of these pesticides on algal and bacterial communities within biofilms. Spring biofilms had the lowest biomass of algae and bacteria but showed the highest methomyl degradation (>99%) and dissipation rates, suggesting that they might contain microorganisms with high methomyl degradation abilities. Degradation of carbofuran (54.1–59.5%) by biofilms in four seasons was similar, but low degradation of carbaryl (0–27.5%) was observed. The coexistence of other pesticides was found to cause certain effects on pesticide degradation and primarily resulted in lower diversity of diatoms and bacteria than when using a single pesticide. The tolerant diatoms and bacteria potentially having the ability to degrade test pesticides were identified. River biofilms could be suitable biomaterials or used to isolate degraders for bioremediating pesticide-contaminated water. -- Highlights: •Natural river biofilms showed high ability to degrade methomyl and carbofuran. •The presence of other pesticides caused certain effects on pesticide degradation. •Carbamate pesticides caused adverse effects on communities of diatoms and bacteria. •The tolerant diatoms and bacteria were found as potential pesticide-degraders. -- Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by river biofilms

  6. Particle size distributions of currently used pesticides in ambient air of an agricultural Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscollà, Clara; Muñoz, Amalia; Borrás, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Ródenas, Milagros; Yusà, Vicent

    2014-10-01

    This work presents first data on the particle size distribution of 16 pesticides currently used in Mediterranean agriculture in the atmosphere. Particulate matter air samples were collected using a cascade impactor distributed into four size fractions in a rural site of Valencia Region, during July to September in 2012 and from May to July in 2013. A total of 16 pesticides were detected, including six fungicides, seven insecticides and three herbicides. The total concentrations in the particulate phase (TSP: Total Suspended Particulate) ranged from 3.5 to 383.1 pg m-3. Most of the pesticides (such as carbendazim, tebuconazole, chlorpyrifos-ethyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl) were accumulated in the ultrafine-fine (<1 μm) and coarse (2.5-10 μm) particle size fractions. Others like omethoate, dimethoate and malathion were presented only in the ultrafine-fine size fraction (<1 μm). Finally, diuron, diphenylamine and terbuthylazine-desethyl-2-OH also show a bimodal distribution but mainly in the coarse size fractions.

  7. Safety evaluation of chemicals in food: toxicological data profiles for pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettorazzi, G.; Miles-Vettorazzi, P.

    1975-01-01

    The sources of the scientific information used over the past several years by the Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues in carrying out toxicological evaluations are classified systematically according to compound and subject for the first time in this paper. It is hoped that those engaged in the toxicological assessment of pesticide chemicals, for the purpose of standardizing pesticide tolerances or for developing criteria of acceptability, will profit from this classification. PMID:779805

  8. Antifungal activity of essential oils on two Venturia inaequalis strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchembled, Jérôme; Deweer, Caroline; Sahmer, Karin; Halama, Patrice

    2017-11-02

    The antifungal activity of seven essential oils (eucalyptus, clove, mint, oregano, savory, tea tree, and thyme) was studied on Venturia inaequalis, the fungus responsible for apple scab. The composition of the essential oils was checked by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Each essential oil had its main compound. Liquid tests were performed to calculate the IC 50 of essential oils as well as their majority compounds. The tests were made on two strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole: S755, the sensitive strain, and rs552, the strain with reduced sensitivity. Copper sulfate was selected as the reference mineral fungicidal substance. IC 50 with confidence intervals were calculated after three independent experiments. The results showed that all essential oils and all major compounds had in vitro antifungal activities. Moreover, it was highlighted that the effectiveness of four essential oils (clove, eucalyptus, mint, and savory) was higher than copper sulfate on both strains. For each strain, the best activity was obtained using clove and eucalyptus essential oils. For clove, the IC 50 obtained on the sensitive strain (5.2 mg/L [4.0-6.7 mg/L]) was statistically lower than the IC 50 of reduced sensitivity strain (14 mg/L [11.1-17.5 mg/L]). In contrast, for eucalyptus essential oil, the IC 50 were not different with respectively 9.4-13.0 and 12.2-17.9 mg/L for S755 and rs552 strains. For mint, origano, savory, tea tree, and thyme, IC 50 were always the best on rs552 strain. The majority compounds were not necessarily more efficient than their corresponding oils; only eugenol (for clove) and carvacrol (for oregano and savory) seemed to be more effective on S755 strain. On the other hand, rs552 strain seemed to be more sensitive to essential oils than S755 strain. In overall, it was shown that essential oils have different antifungal activities but do not have the same antifungal activities depending on the fungus strain used.

  9. Selectivity of pesticides used in peach orchards on the larval stage of the predator Chrysoperla externa (Hagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Dionei Grützmacher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The selectivity of sixteen pesticides used in peach orchards in Brazil was evaluated on larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in laboratory (25±1ºC, 70±10% RH and 14 hours photophase. The bioassays consisted on the exposure of larvae to fresh dry pesticide film applied on glass plates. Lenght of each development stage, the mortality, the fecundity and fertility of survival adults were evaluated. Pesticides were classified according to the total toxic effect in harmless (99%, in conformity to “International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants” (IOBC recommendation. Only abamectin and deltamethrin caused significant prolongation in the post embryonic period. Fecundity and fertility of survival adults were not affected by any pesticide tested. The acaricide/insecticide abamectin, the two mineral oils, the fungicides mancozeb, dodine, azoxystrobin, captan, mancozeb + cooper oxichloride and pholpet, and the herbicide ghlyphosate were harmless; the fungicide tebuconazole was slightly harmful; the insecticide deltamethrin was moderately harmful; and the insecticides malathion, dimethoate and phosmet, and the herbicide paraquat dichloride were harmful to C. externa larvae.

  10. Pesticides: chemicals for survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Pesticides are chemicals used to control pests such as insects, weeds, plant diseases, nematodes, and rodents. The increased use of pesticides since 1945 has greatly aided the increase in crop production, protected livestock from diseases such as trypanosomiasis, protected man from diseases such as malaria and filarisis, decreased losses of stored grain, and has generally improved man's welfare. Despite the enormous benefits derived from pesticides these chemicals are not problem-free. Many pesticides are toxic to living organisms and interfere with specific biochemical systems. To measure the very small quantities of a pesticide radiolabelled chemicals are frequently essential, particularly to measure changes in the chemical structure of the pesticide, movement of the pesticide in soil, plants, or animals, amounts of pesticide going through various steps in food processing, etc. The use of radiolabelled pesticides is shortly shown for metabolism of the pesticide in crop species, metabolism in ruminant, in chickens and eggs, in soil, and possibly leaching and sorption in soil, hydrolysis, bio-concentration, microbial and photodegradation, and toxicity studies

  11. Assessmet of temporal distribution of pesticide residues in vineyard soils of La Rioja (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pose Juan, Eva; Herrero Hernandez, Eliseo; Soledad Andrades, Maria; Rodriguez Cruz, Maria Sonia; Sanchez Martin, Maria Jesus

    2013-04-01

    The use and application of pesticides in vineyard is a common practice, which is important to prevent pest and diseases and improve the crop health and production, but on the other hand it could involve a potential risk for humans and the environment. For this reason, it is important to develop and validate a simple and fast multiresidue method to determine the presence of these compounds in soils. La Rioja region (Spain) is one of the most important wine-growing regions in Spain, which also entails that could be an important area of pesticide pollution. The objective of this work is to assess the temporal distribution of the possible pesticide pollution in soils from different areas of La Rioja (Spain). The pesticides selected in this study included fungicides (metalaxyl, and its metabolite CGA62826, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole, myclobutanil, kresoxim-methyl, triadimenol and flutriafol); herbicides (fluometuron, terbuthylazine and its metabolites desethylterbuthylazine and hydroxyterbuthylazine, lenacil, ethofumesate and acetochlor) and insecticides (methoxyfenozide and pirimicarb). The pesticide residues were evaluated by two analytical techniques, gas chromatography and liquid chromatography (GC-MS and LC-MS). The extraction procedure of pesticides from soils was optimized using two soil samples (blank soils) with different texture and characteristics collected from areas without pesticide application. Recoveries were studied in soil samples fortified with all pesticides at two levels of concentrations (the agronomic dose, 0.1 mg kg-1, and ten times this dose, 1 mg kg-1). Different extraction solvents were tested. The best results were obtained with methanol:acetone (50:50) mixture or methanol:CaCl2 0.01 M (50:50) mixture for hydroxyterbuthylazine and CGA62826. The accuracy (average recovery) and precision (reproducibility and repeatability) of the method were assessed using six replicates and the limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were

  12. Pesticides and oncogenic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakonaki, Elena; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides constitute a diverse class of chemicals used for the protection of agricultural products. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides can cause malignant transformation of cells in in vitro and in vivo models. In the current minireview a comprehensive summary of recent in vitro findings is presented along with data reported from human population studies, regarding the impact of pesticide exposure on activation or dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Substantial mechanistic work suggests that pesticides are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and increase their transcriptional expression in vitro, whereas human population studies indicate associations between pesticide exposure levels and mutation occurrence in cancer-related genes. Further work is required to fully explore the exact mechanisms by which pesticide exposure affects the integrity and normal function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. New Labeling for Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    These documents, a graphic of the bee advisory box and letters to pesticide registrants, describe steps by EPA to change pesticide labels to better protect pollinators by being clearer and more precise in their directions for pesticide application.

  14. Pesticides: evaluation of environmental pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rathore, Hamir Singh; Nollet, Leo M. L

    2012-01-01

    ..., and more. It describes the degradation of pesticides in the atmosphere and in the environment. The text also covers the fate and transport of pesticides in the environment and the effects of pesticides on plants, animals, and humans...

  15. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  16. Understanding Pesticide Risks: Toxicity and Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Muntz, Helen; Miller, Rhonda; Alston, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about pesticide risks to human health, primary means of pesticide exposure, standardized measures of pesticide toxicity, pesticide signal words and type of pesticide formulations.

  17. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A F; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. ...

  18. Toxicology of pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Dubská, Veronika

    2008-01-01

    Toxykology of pesticides Pesticides are substances or mixtures substances as a natural so synthetic origin. By effect of pesticides is removing of pest and undesirable plants. However owing to their toxicity and unaware manipulation with these substances may go to a waste of another than target organism, plants, rivers and land. The target of this graduation theses has been draw up possibility hazards resulting of using these substances.

  19. Effect of the submergence, the bed form geometry, and the speed of the surface water flow on the mitigation of pesticides in agricultural ditches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutron, Olivier; Margoum, Christelle; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Guillemain, CéLine; Gouy, VéRonique

    2011-08-01

    Pesticides, which have been extensively used in agriculture, have become a major environmental issue, especially regarding surface and groundwater contamination. Of particular importance are vegetated farm drainage ditches, which can play an important role in the mitigation of pesticide contamination by adsorption onto ditch bed substrates. This role is, however, poorly understood, especially regarding the influence of hydrodynamic parameters, which make it difficult to promote best management practice of these systems. We have assessed the influence of three of these parameters (speed of the surface water flow, submergence, and geometrical characteristics of the bed forms) on the transfer and adsorption of selected pesticides (isoproturon, diuron, tebuconazole, and azoxystrobin) into the bed substrate by performing experiments with a tilted experimental flume, using hemp fibers as a standard of natural organic substrates that are found at the bottom of agricultural ditches. Results show the transfer of pesticides from surface water flow into bed substrate is favored, both regarding the amounts transferred into the bed substrate and the kinetics of the transfer, when the surface water speed and the submergence increase and when the bed forms are made of rectangular shapes. Extrapolation of flume data over a distance of several hundred meters suggests that an interesting possibility for improving the mitigation of pesticides in ditches would be to increase the submergence and to favor bed forms that tend to enhance perturbations and subsequent infiltration of the surface water flow.

  20. Growth promotion of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants by single and mixed cultures of efficient phosphate solubilizing bacteria that are tolerant to abiotic stress and pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzuay, María Soledad; Ciancio, María Gabriela Ruiz; Ludueña, Liliana Mercedes; Angelini, Jorge Guillermo; Barros, Germán; Pastor, Nicolás; Taurian, Tania

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were, to analyze in vitro phosphate solubilization activity of six native peanut bacteria and to determine the effect of single and mixed inoculation of these bacteria on peanut and maize plants. Ability to produce organic acids and cofactor PQQ, to solubilize FePO 4 and AlPO 4 and phosphatase activity were analyzed. Also, the ability to solubilize phosphate under abiotic stress and in the presence of pesticides of the selected bacteria was determined. The effect of single and mixed bacterial inocula was analyzed on seed germination, maize plant growth and in a crop rotation plant assay with peanut and maize. The six strains produced gluconic acid and five released cofactor PQQ into the medium. All bacteria showed ability to solubilize phosphate from FePO 4 and AlPO 4 and phosphatase activity. The ability of the bacteria to solubilize tricalcium phosphate under abiotic stress and in presence of pesticides indicated encouraging results. Bacterial inoculation on peanut and maize increased seed germination, plant́s growth and P content. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study showed efficient phosphate mineralizing and solubilization ability and would be potential P-biofertilizers for peanut and maize. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.