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Sample records for tata nano esitlusel

  1. B V R Tata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. B V R Tata. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 75 Issue 6 December 2010 pp 1209-1214 Conributed Papers. Quasi-elastic laser light scattering study of polyacrylamide hydrogel immersed in water and salt solutions · M Sivanantham ...

  2. Kajian Paduserasi Tata Ruang Daerah (Trd) dengan Tata Guna Hutan (Tgh)

    OpenAIRE

    Syahadat, Epi; Dwiprabowo, Hariyatno

    2013-01-01

    Kajian paduserasi tata ruang daerah dengan tata guna hutan adalah suatu kajian terhadap aturan main dalam pelaksanaan paduserasi rencana tata ruang daerah dengan tata guna hutan, dasar hukum, serta upaya yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah untuk mengoptimalkan struktur ruang daerah sesuai dengan rencana pembangunan/pengembangan daerah. Kajian paduserasi tata ruang daerah dengan tata guna hutan berorientasi terhadap aspek-aspek utama dan pendukung yang menyebabkan keberhasilan maupun kegagalan dari...

  3. The TATA box regulates TATA-binding protein (TBP) dynamics in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tora, Laszlo; Timmers, H Th Marc

    2010-06-01

    Early work established the TATA box as the predominant DNA element of core promoters which directed accurate transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II. This element is recognized by TATA-binding protein (TBP), the central DNA-binding subunit of TFIID. In vitro binding and structural experiments indicate that TBP has a strong preference for TATA and induces severe DNA bending. Recent in vivo studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicate that TBP turnover is higher at TATA-containing than at TATA-less promoters; this turnover seems to be regulated by NC2 and Mot1p. We propose that bending of TATA by TBP acts in synergy with NC2 and Mot1p to release TBP more rapidly from TATA promoters in vivo, thus providing a rationale for the predominance of TATA boxes in highly regulated promoters versus constitutively active TATA-less promoters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trust Ownership of the Tata Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    : the main holding company Tata Sons Limited is majority-owned by charitable trusts. We examine the governance of this remarkable entity. The Trusts own 66% of Tata Sons, the main holding company of the Group, while members of the founding Tata family are very small minority shareholders. The governance...... structure is characterized by managerial distance between trusts and Group companies. The Trusts are almost exclusively concerned with philanthropy, and according to the Articles of Association of Tata Sons Limited, their governance role is limited to nominating two members to the Selection Committee which...

  5. PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FLEKSIBEL DENGAN TEORI GRAPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Ristono

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, plant layouts is designed by considering the influence of the environment, i.e., the variability of demand. It also considers the new Total of Material Handling Cost (TMHC, which captures the inventory carrying costs. Moreover, the comparison between the distributed and the modular layout performance is presented. Those two types of layout are called as the next generation layout. It shows that the modular layout, which is done by using graph theory, i.e., modified Hamiltonian chain, gives flexibility as good as the distributed layout. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Dalam makalah akan dipaparkan suatu rancangan tata letak yang memperhatikan pengaruh dari lingkungan berupa permintaan yang selalu berubah dari waktu ke waktu. Selain itu digunakan juga ukuran Ongkos Material Handling (OMH yang baru dengan mengakomodasi ongkos simpan selama penanganan bahan. Selanjutnya diberikan juga perbandingan performansi antar tata letak generasi baru, yaitu tata letak terdistribusi dan tata letak modular. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tata letak modular dengan menggunakan teori graph, yaitu rantai Hamilton yang dimodifikasi, dapat dikatakan sama fleksibelnya dengan tata letak terdistribusi. Kata kunci: tata letak terdistribusi, tata letak modular, Total Ongkos Material Handling (TOMH, tata letak generasi masa depan

  6. Mechanistic Differences in Transcription Initiation at TATA-Less and TATA-Containing Promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donczew, Rafal; Hahn, Steven

    2018-01-01

    A yeast in vitro system was developed that is active for transcription at both TATA-containing and TATA-less promoters. Transcription with extracts made from cells depleted of TFIID subunit Taf1 demonstrated that promoters of both classes are TFIID dependent, in agreement with recent in vivo findings. TFIID depletion can be complemented in vitro by additional recombinant TATA binding protein (TBP) at only the TATA-containing promoters. In contrast, high levels of TBP did not complement Taf1 depletion in vivo and instead repressed transcription from both promoter types. We also demonstrate the importance of the TATA-like sequence found at many TATA-less promoters and describe how the presence or absence of the TATA element is likely not the only feature that distinguishes these two types of promoters. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Trust Ownership of the Tata Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    : the main holding company Tata Sons Limited is majority-owned by charitable trusts. We examine the governance of this remarkable entity. The Trusts own 66% of Tata Sons, the main holding company of the Group, while members of the founding Tata family are very small minority shareholders. The governance...... structure is characterized by managerial distance between trusts and Group companies. The Trusts are almost exclusively concerned with philanthropy, and according to the Articles of Association of Tata Sons Limited, their governance role is limited to nominating two members to the Selection Committee which...... recommends the Chairman of the company’s Board of Directors. Group companies are independently managed, but there are significant cross shareholdings and a member of the founding family, Mr Ratan Tata, chairs the Trusts, holding companies and major subsidiaries. Mr. Cyrus P Mistry, Managing Director...

  8. Nano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Bent; Engel, Lars Romann

    2007-01-01

    Gennem de sidste par år har et lille ord med et meget stort potentiale gentagende trængt sig på i den offentlige bevidsthed, det er ordet "nano". Nanovidenskab og nanoteknologi er lige nu to af de "hotteste" forskningsområder og betragtes af mange som porten til en helt ny verden af muligheder....... Muligheder, vi endnu ikke kender konsekvenserne af. Center for Kunst og Videnskabs forestilling NANO giver dig chancen for at blive bekendt med verdens mindste byggesten og idégrundlaget for nanoforskningen. Vi har skabt et rum, som på mange måder minder om et laboratorium. Rummet er forsynet med storskærme......, kolber, væsker og nanopartikler. Her vil du f.eks. opleve, hvordan forskere tilfører guld helt nye egenskaber. Forestillingen veksler mellem kemiske arbejdsdemonstrationer, stemningsskabende musik og livlig debat på storskærme mellem eksperter. NANO opfordrer publikum til at tage stilling til forskningen...

  9. How to achieve Tat transport with alien TatA

    OpenAIRE

    Hauer, René Steffen; Freudl, Roland; Dittmar, Julia; Jakob, Mario; Klösgen, Ralf Bernd

    2017-01-01

    TatA is an essential and structurally conserved component of all known Twin-arginine transport (Tat) machineries which are able to catalyse membrane transport of fully folded proteins. Here we have investigated if bacterial TatA, or chimeric pea/E. coli TatA derivatives, are capable of replacing thylakoidal TatA in function. While authentic E. coli TatA does not show any transport activity in thylakoid transport experiments, TatA chimeras comprising the transmembrane helix (TMH) of pea TatA a...

  10. TATA RUANG RUMAH BANGSAWAN YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Widayatsari

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To Study old buildings, it is necessary to study cultural aspects, hintory, place, environment, spatial arrangement, plan, shape, structure and construction, building materials, dcoration, and other architectural aspects. This article is a part of the result of the whole study about Architecture of the Noble Residence in Yogyakarta, studying especially the soatial arragement. The conslusion of this part of study is architecture of the noble residence in Yogyakarta having some abstract concept as a part of the tradition that couln't explain rationally. Criterias to select noble residences to study are: the owner's relationship to Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono, locations near kraton inside and outside fortifications, and recent condition. Four selected noble residences are: Yudaningratan, Notoprajan and Mangkubumen. This study aims to discover the traditional norms including regulations and beliefs that gave shape to noble residence's architecture, to give reference for noble residence's conservation and applied proportional design concept to modern vernakular construction. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Kajian mengenai bangunan masa lalu, mencakup aspek budaya, sejarah, tempat, lingkungan, tata letak, denah, bentuk, struktur dan konstruksi, bahan bangunan, dekorasi, dll aspek arsitektural. Artikel ini adalah bagian dari penelitian tentang Arsitektur Rumah Bangsawan di Yogyakarta mengkaji aspek-aspek tersebut, khusus mengemukakan tata-ruang. Kesimpulan kajian dari segi ini, rumah bangsawan Yogyakarta cukup banyak mempunyai konsep-konsep abstrak, sebagai bagian dari tardisi yang tidak dapat diterangkan secara rasional. Dalem di Yogyakarta cukup banyak sehingga tidak mungkin diteliti secara mendetail semuanya, maka dipilih dengan kriteria : perkerabatan pemilik pertama dengan Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwana, lokasi sekitar kraton dan kondisinya saat ini. Berdasarkan kriteria tersebut dipilih empat yaitu: Yudaningratan, Pakuningratan, Notoprajan dan

  11. molecular interactions of the TATA-binding protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    variants and lacking a UASGAL, showed that TATA-binding protein (TBP)-TATA complex gets stabilized in the presence of the acidic activator GAL4-VP16. Activator also greatly suppressed the non-specific TBP-DNA complex formation. The effects were more pronounced over weaker TATA boxes. Activator also reduced the.

  12. Mutations on the DNA binding surface of TBP discriminate between yeast TATA and TATA-less gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenova, Ivanka; Warfield, Linda; Hahn, Steven

    2014-08-01

    Most RNA polymerase (Pol) II promoters lack a TATA element, yet nearly all Pol II transcription requires TATA binding protein (TBP). While the TBP-TATA interaction is critical for transcription at TATA-containing promoters, it has been unclear whether TBP sequence-specific DNA contacts are required for transcription at TATA-less genes. Transcription factor IID (TFIID), the TBP-containing coactivator that functions at most TATA-less genes, recognizes short sequence-specific promoter elements in metazoans, but analogous promoter elements have not been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We generated a set of mutations in the yeast TBP DNA binding surface and found that most support growth of yeast. Both in vivo and in vitro, many of these mutations are specifically defective for transcription of two TATA-containing genes with only minor defects in transcription of two TATA-less, TFIID-dependent genes. TBP binds several TATA-less promoters with apparent high affinity, but our results suggest that this binding is not important for transcription activity. Our results are consistent with the model that sequence-specific TBP-DNA contacts are not important at yeast TATA-less genes and suggest that other general transcription factors or coactivator subunits are responsible for recognition of TATA-less promoters. Our results also explain why yeast TBP derivatives defective for TATA binding appear defective in activated transcription. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. 75 FR 24747 - TATA Technologies Incorporated, a Subsidiary of TATA Technologies Limited, Formally Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... wages reported under two separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax accounts under the names Tata... acquiring engineering design and product lifecycle management in India. The amended notice applicable to TA...

  14. 75 FR 21352 - Tata Technologies Incorporated; A Subsidiary of Tata Technologies Limited: Formally Known As...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... wages reported under two separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax accounts under the names Tata... acquiring engineering design and product lifecycle management in India. The amended notice applicable to TA...

  15. Characterization of TATA-containing genes and TATA-less genes in S. cerevisiae by network topologies and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Wang, Jizhe; Lv, Yingli; Hao, Dapeng; Zuo, Yongchun; Li, Xiang; Jiang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The TATA box is the core sequence of the promoter and the binding site of many transcription factors. Based on the presence or absence of TATA box, genes can be defined as TATA-containing or TATA-less genes. Many important stress-response functions and highly variable expression patterns are found to be correlated with the TATA box. However, until now, the relationships and differences between TATA-containing and TATA-less genes remain unclear. In this study, based on the transcriptional profiling of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, the perturbation sensitivity (PS) network is constructed. The topological and biological properties are used to investigate differences between TATA-containing and TATA-less genes. Significant differences are found in all topological properties and most of the biological properties. Notably, the TF number, determined mathematically by the number of transcription factors regulating a gene, demonstrates the highest discrimination between TATA-containing and TATA-less genes when all properties are estimated by the F-score. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An experimental verification of the predicted effects of promoter TATA-box polymorphisms associated with human diseases on interactions between the TATA boxes and TATA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinkova, Ludmila; Drachkova, Irina; Arshinova, Tatyana; Ponomarenko, Petr; Ponomarenko, Mikhail; Kolchanov, Nikolay

    2013-01-01

    Human genome sequencing has resulted in a great body of data, including a stunningly large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with unknown phenotypic manifestations. Identification and comprehensive analysis of regulatory SNPs in human gene promoters will help quantify the effects of these SNPs on human health. Based on our experimental and computer-aided study of SNPs in TATA boxes and the use of literature data, we have derived an equation for TBP/TATA equilibrium binding in three successive steps: TATA-binding protein (TBP) sliding along DNA due to their nonspecific affinity for each other ↔ recognition of the TATA box ↔ stabilization of the TBP/TATA complex. Using this equation, we have analyzed TATA boxes containing SNPs associated with human diseases and made in silico predictions of changes in TBP/TATA affinity. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)-based experimental study performed under the most standardized conditions demonstrates that the experimentally measured values are highly correlated with the predicted values: the coefficient of linear correlation, r, was 0.822 at a significance level of αTATA boxes (δ= -ln[K(D,TATAMut)]-(-ln[K(D,TATAMut)])). It has been demonstrated that the SNPs associated with increased risk of human diseases such as α-, β- and δ-thalassemia, myocardial infarction and thrombophlebitis, changes in immune response, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lung cancer and hemophilia B Leyden cause 2-4-fold changes in TBP/TATA affinity in most cases. The results obtained strongly suggest that the TBP/TATA equilibrium binding equation derived can be used for analysis of TATA-box sequences and identification of SNPs with a potential of being functionally important.

  17. DNA structural features of eukaryotic TATA-containing and TATA-less promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yella, Venkata Rajesh; Bansal, Manju

    2017-03-01

    Eukaryotic genes can be broadly classified as TATA-containing and TATA-less based on the presence of TATA box in their promoters. Experiments on both classes of genes have revealed a disparity in the regulation of gene expression and cellular functions between the two classes. In this study, we report characteristic differences in promoter sequences and associated structural properties of the two categories of genes in six different eukaryotes. We have analyzed three structural features, DNA duplex stability, bendability, and curvature along with the distribution of A-tracts, G-quadruplex motifs, and CpG islands. The structural feature analyses reveal that while the two classes of gene promoters are distinctly different from each other, the properties are also distinguishable across the six organisms.

  18. How to achieve Tat transport with alien TatA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, René Steffen; Freudl, Roland; Dittmar, Julia; Jakob, Mario; Klösgen, Ralf Bernd

    2017-08-18

    TatA is an essential and structurally conserved component of all known Twin-arginine transport (Tat) machineries which are able to catalyse membrane transport of fully folded proteins. Here we have investigated if bacterial TatA, or chimeric pea/E. coli TatA derivatives, are capable of replacing thylakoidal TatA in function. While authentic E. coli TatA does not show any transport activity in thylakoid transport experiments, TatA chimeras comprising the transmembrane helix (TMH) of pea TatA are fully active. For minimal catalytic activity it is even sufficient to replace three residues within TMH of E. coli TatA by the corresponding pea residues. Almost any further substitution within TMH gradually raises transport activity in the thylakoid system, while functional characterization of the same set of TatA derivatives in E. coli yields essentially inverse catalytic activities. Closer inspection of the substituted residues suggests that the two transport systems have deviating demands with regard to the hydrophobicity of the transmembrane helix.

  19. Nucleosomal TATA-switch: competing orientations of TATA on the nucleosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapala, Jan; Trifonov, Edward N

    2013-09-15

    Transcription is known to be affected by the rotational setting of the transcription response elements within nucleosomes. We studied the rotational positioning of the TATA box, the most universal promoter motif. We applied a bioinformatic high-resolution nucleosome mapping technique to eukaryotic promoters. Our results show that the nucleosome DNA sequence harboring the TATA box encodes alternative rotational positions for the same piece of DNA. This may serve for switching the gene activity on and off. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mot1 redistributes TBP from TATA-containing to TATA-less promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentner, Gabriel E; Henikoff, Steven

    2013-12-01

    The Swi2/Snf2 family ATPase Mot1 displaces TATA-binding protein (TBP) from DNA in vitro, but the global relationship between Mot1 and TBP in vivo is unclear. In particular, how Mot1 activates transcription is poorly understood. To address these issues, we mapped the distribution of Mot1 and TBP on native chromatin at base pair resolution. Mot1 and TBP binding sites coincide throughout the genome, and depletion of TBP results in a global decrease in Mot1 binding. We find evidence that Mot1 approaches TBP from the upstream direction, consistent with its in vitro mode of action. Strikingly, inactivation of Mot1 leads to both increases and decreases in TBP-genome association. Sites of TBP gain tend to contain robust TATA boxes, while sites of TBP loss contain poly(dA-dT) tracts that may contribute to nucleosome exclusion. Sites of TBP gain are associated with increased gene expression, while decreased TBP binding is associated with reduced gene expression. We propose that the action of Mot1 is required to clear TBP from intrinsically preferred (TATA-containing) binding sites, ensuring sufficient soluble TBP to bind intrinsically disfavored (TATA-less) sites.

  1. Menanamkan Konsep Tata Krama pada Anak melalui Perancangan Game Edukasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea Faustina Shaula

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tata krama sangat berperan penting untuk mepermudah manusia untuk diterima di lingkungan masyarakat sekitar. Peran orang tua sangatlah penting dalam pembentukan karakter anak terutama dalam menerapkan sikap tata krama atau sopan santun anak. . Saat ini perilaku anak lebih cenderung kehilangan etika dan sopan santun. Berdasarkan obeservasi yang dilakukan di beberapa sekolah dasar di Semarang ditemui beberapa sikap yang mencerminkan kurangnya tata krama siswa di sekolah. Perlu adanya media yang kreatif untuk menanmkan tata krama kepada anak dengan melibatkan perkembangan teknologi, salah satunya melalui perancanan game edukasi berbasis mobile. Pada penelitian ini,metode yang digunakan adalah metode pengembangan multimedia yang meliputi membuat konsep (concept, merancang desain (design, mengumpulkan bahan (material collecting, pembuatan (assembly, melakukan pengujian (testing, dan evaluasi produk (evaluating. Desain game dibuat desain vektor dengan style karakter chibi yang memiliki ciri kepala besar dan badan mungil atau kecil untuk membuat karakter lebih terlihat lucu. Hasil perancangan ini adalah sebuah game edukasi untuk menanamkan tata krama pada anak.

  2. Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education, Tata Institute of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 2. Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (A Deemed University). Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 2 February 2017 pp 189-189 ...

  3. RNAa Induced by TATA Box-Targeting MicroRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yijun; Zhang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies reveal that some nuclear microRNAs (miRNA) and synthesized siRNAs target gene promoters to activate gene transcription (RNAa). Interestingly, our group identified a novel HIV-1-encoded miRNA, miR-H3, which targets specifically the core promoter TATA box of HIV-1 and activates viral gene expression. Depletion of miR-H3 significantly impaired the replication of HIV-1. miR-H3 mimics could activate viruses from CD4 + T cells isolated from patients receiving suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy, which is very intriguing for reducing HIV-1 latent reservoir. Further study revealed that many cellular miRNAs also function like miR-H3. For instance, let-7i targets the TATA box of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) promoter and upregulates IL-2 expression in T-lymphocytes. In RNAa induced by TATA box-targeting miRNAs, Argonaute (AGO) proteins are needed, but there is no evidence for the involvement of promoter-associated transcripts or epigenetic modifications. We propose that the binding of small RNA-AGO complex to TATA box could facilitate the assembly of RNA Polymerase II transcription preinitiation complex. In addition, synthesized small RNAs targeting TATA box can also efficiently activate transcription of interested genes, such as insulin, IL-2, and c-Myc. The discovery of RNAa induced by TATA box-targeting miRNA provides an easy-to-use tool for activating gene expression.

  4. TATA is a modular component of synthetic promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogno, Ilaria; Vallania, Francesco; Mitra, Robi D; Cohen, Barak A

    2010-10-01

    The expression of most genes is regulated by multiple transcription factors. The interactions between transcription factors produce complex patterns of gene expression that are not always obvious from the arrangement of cis-regulatory elements in a promoter. One critical element of promoters is the TATA box, the docking site for the RNA polymerase holoenzyme. Using a synthetic promoter system coupled to a thermodynamic model of combinatorial regulation, we analyze the effects of different strength TATA boxes on various aspects of combinatorial cis-regulation. The thermodynamic model explains 75% of the variance in gene expression in synthetic promoter libraries with different strength TATA boxes, suggesting that many of the salient aspects of cis-regulation are captured by the model. Our results demonstrate that the effect of changing the TATA box on gene expression is the same for all synthetic promoters regardless of the arrangement of cis-regulatory sites we studied. Our analysis also showed that in our synthetic system the strength of the RNA polymerase-TATA interaction does not alter the combinatorial interactions between transcription factors, or between transcription factors and RNA polymerase. Finally, we show that although stronger TATA boxes increase expression in a predictable fashion, stronger TATA boxes have very little effect on noise in our synthetic promoters, regardless of the arrangement of cis-regulatory sites. Our results support a modular model of promoter function, where cis-regulatory elements can be mixed and matched (programmed) with outcomes on expression that are predictable based on the rules of simple protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions.

  5. Functional analysis of the molecular interactions of TATA box-containing genes and essential genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang-Hun; Han, Hyun Wook; Moon, Jisook

    2015-01-01

    Genes can be divided into TATA-containing genes and TATA-less genes according to the presence of TATA box elements at promoter regions. TATA-containing genes tend to be stress-responsive, whereas many TATA-less genes are known to be related to cell growth or "housekeeping" functions. In a previous study, we demonstrated that there are striking differences among four gene sets defined by the presence of TATA box (TATA-containing) and essentiality (TATA-less) with respect to number of associated transcription factors, amino acid usage, and functional annotation. Extending this research in yeast, we identified KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways that are statistically enriched in TATA-containing or TATA-less genes and evaluated the possibility that the enriched pathways are related to stress or growth as reflected by the individual functions of the genes involved. According to their enrichment for either of these two gene sets, we sorted KEGG pathways into TATA-containing-gene-enriched pathways (TEPs) and essential-gene-enriched pathways (EEPs). As expected, genes in TEPs and EEPs exhibited opposite results in terms of functional category, transcriptional regulation, codon adaptation index, and network properties, suggesting the possibility that the bipolar patterns in these pathways also contribute to the regulation of the stress response and to cell survival. Our findings provide the novel insight that significant enrichment of TATA-binding or TATA-less genes defines pathways as stress-responsive or growth-related.

  6. Structural basis for TatA oligomerization: an NMR study of Escherichia coli TatA dimeric structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Hu, Yunfei; Li, Hongwei; Jin, Changwen

    2014-01-01

    Many proteins are transported across lipid membranes by protein translocation systems in living cells. The twin-arginine transport (Tat) system identified in bacteria and plant chloroplasts is a unique system that transports proteins across membranes in their fully-folded states. Up to date, the detailed molecular mechanism of this process remains largely unclear. The Escherichia coli Tat system consists of three essential transmembrane proteins: TatA, TatB and TatC. Among them, TatB and TatC form a tight complex and function in substrate recognition. The major component TatA contains a single transmembrane helix followed by an amphipathic helix, and is suggested to form the translocation pore via self-oligomerization. Since the TatA oligomer has to accommodate substrate proteins of various sizes and shapes, the process of its assembly stands essential for understanding the translocation mechanism. A structure model of TatA oligomer was recently proposed based on NMR and EPR observations, revealing contacts between the transmembrane helices from adjacent subunits. Herein we report the construction and stabilization of a dimeric TatA, as well as the structure determination by solution NMR spectroscopy. In addition to more extensive inter-subunit contacts between the transmembrane helices, we were also able to observe interactions between neighbouring amphipathic helices. The side-by-side packing of the amphipathic helices extends the solvent-exposed hydrophilic surface of the protein, which might be favourable for interactions with substrate proteins. The dimeric TatA structure offers more detailed information of TatA oligomeric interface and provides new insights on Tat translocation mechanism.

  7. Tata võidujooks Jaguarile ja Roverile / Gail Edmondson, David Welch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Edmondson, Gail

    2007-01-01

    India autotöösturile Ratan N. Tata kuuluv Tata Motors soovib osta kahjumis olevad Jaguar Carsi ja Land Roveri, mille Ford Motor on enampakkumisele pannud. Kaasautor Nandini Lakshman. Diagramm: Briti brändidest kaugel ees

  8. Genome-wide characterization of the relationship between essential and TATA-containing genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyun Wook; Bae, Sang Hun; Jung, Yun Hwa; Kim, Ju Han; Moon, Jisook

    2013-03-01

    Essential genes are involved in most survival-related housekeeping functions. TATA-containing genes encode proteins involved in various stress-response functions. However, because essential and TATA-containing genes have been researched independently, their relationship remains unclear. The present study classified Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes into four groups: non-essential non-TATA, non-essential TATA, essential non-TATA, and essential TATA genes. The results showed that essential TATA genes have the most significant codon bias, the highest level of expression, and unique characteristics, including a large number of transcription factor binding sites, a higher degree in protein interaction networks, and significantly different amino acid usage patterns compared with the other gene groups. Notably, essential TATA genes were uniquely involved in functions such as unfolded protein binding, glycolysis, and alcohol and steroid-related processes. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aspek Budaya Dalam Keistimewaan Tata Ruang Kota Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanto .

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengan ditetapkannya budaya dan tata ruang kota sebagai penanda keistimewaan Yogyakarta dalam UU No. 13 tahun 2012 tentang Keistimewaan Yogyakarta, maka Yogyakarta merupakan kasus spesifik dalam Penataan Ruang, karena aspek Tata Ruang menjadi salah satu penanda Keistimewaannya. Apa yang istimewa. Apanya yang istimewa dang mengapa istimewa; apakah penanda (tata ruang kota, petanda (konsep budaya atau makna/pesan dari hubungan antara petanda dengan penandanya yang tersirat dalam wujud tata ruang kota Yogya. Penelitian ini berupaya untuk mengenali dan memahami hubungan antara kebudayaan, tata kota dan keistimewaan Yogyakarta. Dari bukti-bukti empiris, kajian tentang kebudayan dan tata ruang kota memerlukan rentang waktu panjang, karena akan menyangkut data longitudinal (diakronik dan lateral (sinkronik. Oleh karena itu studi ini perlu didudukkan dalam bingkai sejarah dan budaya, untuk membaca peristiwa sepanjang perkembangan kota Yogyakarta, dari HB I sampai HB IX. Kemudian untuk memahami makna kaitan antar penanda dan petanda sepanjang perjalanan perkembangan kota, maka digunakan metoda hermeneutika, khususnya Hermeneutik Paul Ricoeur. Dari hasil kajian terhadap obyek tata ruang kota yang dianggap istimewa, maka budaya yang mewujud dalam keistimewaan tata ruang kota Yogyakarta bisa dilihat dari komponen ruang kotanya maupun konfigurasi fungsi ruang kotanya. Kesimpulan penting dari penelitian ini adalah konsep budaya yang mewujud dalam tata ruang kota, yaitu monumental dan pertahanan, yang tidak ditemui di kota manapun di Indonesia. Kemudian dari sisi makna, terjadi perbedaan makna simbol-simbol tata ruang kota di era HB I dan HB IX.Kata kunci. Kebudayaan, tata ruang kota, budaya, Yogyakarta. Since Yogyakarta’s culture and spatiality were proclaimed as special features of Yogyakarta as stated in Law No. 13, 2012 on the Special Region of Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta is recognized as a specific case in spatial planning, because its spatiality is one of

  10. Nano Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, In Ju; Lee, Ik Mo; Kwon, Yeung Gu; and others

    2006-02-15

    This book introduces background of nano science such as summary, plenty room at the bottom, access way to nano technique, nanoparticles using bottom-up method which are a marvel of nature, and modern alchemy : chemical synthesis of artificial nano structure, understanding of quantum mechanics, STM/AFM, nano metal powder, ceramic nanoparticles, nano structure film, manufacture of nanoparticles using reverse micelle method, carbon nano tube, sol-gel material, nano energy material, nano catalyst nano bio material technology and spintronics.

  11. Nano Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, In Ju; Lee, Ik Mo; Kwon, Yeung Gu

    2006-02-01

    This book introduces background of nano science such as summary, plenty room at the bottom, access way to nano technique, nanoparticles using bottom-up method which are a marvel of nature, and modern alchemy : chemical synthesis of artificial nano structure, understanding of quantum mechanics, STM/AFM, nano metal powder, ceramic nanoparticles, nano structure film, manufacture of nanoparticles using reverse micelle method, carbon nano tube, sol-gel material, nano energy material, nano catalyst nano bio material technology and spintronics.

  12. Nano technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Sik

    2002-03-01

    This book is introduction of nano technology, which describes what nano technology is, alpha and omega of nano technology, the future of Korean nano technology and human being's future and nano technology. The contents of this book are nano period is coming, a engine of creation, what is molecular engineering, a huge nano technology, technique on making small things, nano materials with exorbitant possibility, the key of nano world the most desirable nano technology in bio industry, nano development plan of government, the direction of development for nano technology and children of heart.

  13. Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education Tata Institute of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INF. & ANN. Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (A Deemed University. Admission to PhD Programme in Science Education – 2018). We are looking for young people with. • Interest in science education • Flair for teaching and writing • Curiosity about how students learn.

  14. Genome-wide regulation of TATA-binding protein activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Werven, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Transcription, the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template, is a well-controlled process. TATA binding protein (TBP) recruitment to promoters is essential for transcription by all three RNA polymerases, and often is the rate-limiting step of transcription initiation. TBP is incorporated into different

  15. Controlling transcription fidelity via TATA-binding protein dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription underlies all cellular processes and responses to internal and external cues. Deregulation of transcription has implications for the fitness of the cell or organism. During my PhD I have investigated the importance of proper TATA-binding protein (TBP) regulation as a mechanism to

  16. Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education Tata Institute of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (A Deemed University). Admission to PhD Programme in Science Education – 2017 We are looking for young people with. • Interest in science ... mathematical thinking in students at school and college level • Design and technology in the curriculum •. Visual and spatial modes in ...

  17. PENGATURAN KEBIJAKAN PEMERINTAH INDONESIA MENGENAI TATA NIAGA IMPOR PANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihabudin Sihabudin

    2016-03-01

    This paper is about to do a reformulation of the government's policy regarding the adjustment of the trade system for food imports, in order to find effective policy formulation and efficient in solving the problems that arise regarding the marketing of food imports that has been happening. By using descriptive normative legal analysis, the study found that the common thread of chaos cross trade system for food import regulations which are due to unfitted between national regulations and regional regulations (AFTA, CAFTA, APEC as well as global regulations (GATT-WTO. Thus, administrative reform of domestic and foreign trade are necessary, particularly regarding to the procedure of rice imports. All forms of deviations in import licensing process, document manipulation, and the pattern of non-governmental practices must obtain decisive action, both administratively and legally, as a valuable shock-therapy. Key words: government policy, trade , regulation, import Abstrak Kebijakan adalah keputusan pemerintah yang bersifat umum dan berlaku untuk seluruh anggota masyarakat. Konsekuensi hukum dari menjadi anggota organisasi perdagangan dunia adalah bahwasanya pemerintah Indonesia harus ikut tunduk dan patuh pada kaidah-kaidah yang disepakati dalam persetujuan perdagangan internasional terkait ekspor-impor, termasuk melakukan perubahan terhadap instrumen hukum dan kebijaksanaan pembangunan di sektor perdagangan. Tata niaga beras dan beberapa komoditas pangan lain yang melibatkan impor memiliki dimensi permasalahan yang tidak sederhana, bahkan multi-dimensi, mulai dari ekonomi, politik, bahkan sosio kultural. Kebijakan pemerintah Indonesia mengenai pengaturan tata niaga impor pangan merupakan upaya melindungi produsen dalam negeri dari kegiatan dumping atau karena meningkatnya produk impor, juga untuk melindungi konsumen Indonesia dari produk impor yang tidak memenuhi standar kualitas keamanan dan kesehatan konsumen. Tulisan ini hendak melakukan reformulasi kebijakan

  18. Pengaruh Tata Ruang Perpustakaan STMIK Potensi Utama Terhadap Kepuasan Pengguna

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Lela Maya

    2010-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan di perpustakaan STMIK Potensi Utama yang berlokasi di Jl. K.L Yos Sudarso Km 6,5 No. 3A, Tj. Mulia Medan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh tata ruang perpustakaan terhadap kepuasan penggunadi STMIK Potensi Utama. Penelitian ini diharapkan dapat bermanfaat bagi pihak perpustakaan STMIK Potensi Utama, bagi peneliti lain, serta bagi penulis. Penelitian ini adalah termasuk jenis penelitian deskriptif asosiatif yang menggunakan angket sebagai...

  19. Medical applications of accelerators at Tata Memorial Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinshaw, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Tata Memorial Centre constitutes the national comprehensive cancer centre for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and research on cancer. It is well equipped with sophisticated state-of-the-art equipment capable of delivering External Beam Radiotherapy (Ebert) and Brachytherapy. Nearly 400 patients receive Ebert daily at the institute from a team of highly skilled and dedicated radiation oncologists, medical physicists and technologists, making it one of the busiest centres in the country

  20. Rituximab: Apakah Efektif dalam Tata Laksana Sindrom Nefrotik?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudung O. Pardede

    2016-11-01

    LPB diberikan dua dosis selang waktu dua minggu. Rituximab dapat mengurangi aktivitas penyakit dan memperbaiki sensitivitas terhadap obat imunsupresan. Efek samping yang sering terjadi berupa reaksi akut seperti demam, nyeri abdomen, diare, muntah, ruam kulit, bronkospasme, takikadia, dan hipertensi. Rituximab memberikan hasil yang baik dalam tata laksana sindrom nefrotik refrakter, namun diperlukan uji klinik dengan jumlah sampel yang cukup untuk menilai efikasi dan keamanan obat

  1. Predominant gain of promoter TATA box after gene duplication associated with stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yangyun; Huang, Wei; Gu, Zhenglong; Gu, Xun

    2011-10-01

    TATA box, the core promoter element, exists in a broad range of eukaryotes, and the expression of TATA-containing genes usually responds to various environmental stresses. Hence, the evolution of TATA-box in duplicate genes may provide some clues for the interrelationship among environmental stress, expression differentiation, and duplicate gene preservation. In the present study, we observed that the TATA box is significantly overrepresented in duplicate genes compared with singletons in human, worm, Arabidopsis, and yeast genomes. We then conducted an extensive functional genomic analysis to investigate the evolution of TATA box along over 700 yeast gene family phylogenies. After reconstructing the ancestral TATA-box states (presence or absence), we found that significantly higher numbers of TATA box gain events than loss events had occurred after yeast gene duplications-the overall gain-loss ratio is about 3-4 to 1. Interestingly, these TATA-gain duplicate genes on average have experienced greater expression divergence from the ancestral expression states than their most closely related TATA-less duplicate partners, but only under environmental stress conditions (asymmetric evolution); indeed, under normal physiological conditions, they have similar expression divergence (symmetric evolution). Moreover, we showed that TATA-gain duplicates are enriched in stress-associated functional categories but that is not the case for TATA-ancestral duplicates (those inherited from their ancestors prior to duplication). Together, we conclude that after the gene duplication, gain of the TATA box in duplicate promoters may have played an important role in yeast duplicate preservation by accelerating expression divergence that may facilitate the adaptive evolution of the organism in response to environmental changes.

  2. Subunit Organization in the TatA Complex of the Twin Arginine Protein Translocase

    OpenAIRE

    White, Gaye F.; Schermann, Sonya M.; Bradley, Justin; Roberts, Andrew; Greene, Nicholas P.; Berks, Ben C.; Thomson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The Tat system is used to transport folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane in bacteria and archaea and across the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. Multimers of the integral membrane TatA protein are thought to form the protein-conducting element of the Tat pathway. Nitroxide radicals were introduced at selected positions within the transmembrane helix of Escherichia coli TatA and used to probe the structure of detergent-solubilized TatA complexes by EPR spectroscopy. A compa...

  3. ANALISIS KUALITAS PELAYANAN PADA BAGIAN TATA USAHA BERDASARKAN TINGKAT KEPUASAN MAHASISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzakiyah Muzakiyah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Kepuasan pelanggan merupakan hasil (outcome yang dirasakan atas penggunanya produk atau jasa, sama atau melebihi harapan yang diinginkan. Pelayanan di bagian Tata Usaha idealnya lebih bersahabat, cepat dan akurat. Ini berarti orientasi layanan di bagian Tata Usaha harus didasarkan pada kebutuhan mahasiswa. Dalam penelitian ini metode yang digunakan dengan menggunakan Pendekatan Lean ServPerf (Lean Service dan Service Performance. Service Performance digunakan untuk menganalisis tingkat instrumen kinerja pelayanan bagian Tata Usaha. Lean Service digunakan untuk menghilangkan waste aktivitas yang tidak bernilai tambah. Hasil dari penelitian ini, terdapat 14 atribut pelayanan yang perlu dilakukan perbaikan untuk meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan di bagian Tata Usaha Fakultas.

  4. Efektifitas Dukungan Sosial Dokter kepada Orangtua dalam Tata Laksana Anak Asma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fx. Wikan Indrarto

    2016-11-01

    Kesimpulan. Pemberian dukungan sosial dokter tidak berhubungan dengan keberhasilan tata laksana anak asma. Kepuasan orangtua akan pemberian dukungan sosial dokter, terutama diperoleh dari jenis dukungan penghargaan.

  5. Anomalous DNA binding by E2 regulatory protein driven by spacer sequence TATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhiqun; Zhang, Yongli; Hegde, Rashmi S; Shakked, Zippora; Crothers, Donald M

    2010-06-01

    We have investigated the anomalously weak binding of human papillomavirus (HPV) regulatory protein E2 to a DNA target containing the spacer sequence TATA. Experiments in magnesium (Mg(2+)) and calcium (Ca(2+)) ion buffers revealed a marked reduction in cutting by DNase I at the CpG sequence in the protein-binding site 3' to the TATA spacer sequence, Studies of the cation dependence of DNA-E2 affinities showed that upon E2 binding the TATA sequence releases approximately twice as many Mg(2+) ions as the average of the other spacer sequences. Binding experiments for TATA spacer relative to ATAT showed that in potassium ion (K(+)) the E2 affinity of the two sequences is nearly equal, but the relative dissociation constant (K(d)) for TATA increases in the order K(+ )TATA relative to ATAT is independent of ion concentration, whereas for Mg(2+) the affinity for TATA drops sharply as ion concentration increases. Thus, ions of increasing positive charge density increasingly distort the E2 binding site, weakening the affinity for protein. In the case of Mg(2+), additional ions are bound to TATA that require displacement for protein binding. We suggest that the TATA sequence may bias the DNA structure towards a conformation that binds the protein relatively weakly.

  6. A conserved GA element in TATA-less RNA polymerase II promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seizl, Martin; Hartmann, Holger; Hoeg, Friederike; Kurth, Fabian; Martin, Dietmar E; Söding, Johannes; Cramer, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Initiation of RNA polymerase (Pol) II transcription requires assembly of the pre-initiation complex (PIC) at the promoter. In the classical view, PIC assembly starts with binding of the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) to the TATA box. However, a TATA box occurs in only 15% of promoters in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, posing the question how most yeast promoters nucleate PIC assembly. Here we show that one third of all yeast promoters contain a novel conserved DNA element, the GA element (GAE), that generally does not co-occur with the TATA box. The distance of the GAE to the transcription start site (TSS) resembles the distance of the TATA box to the TSS. The TATA-less TMT1 core promoter contains a GAE, recruits TBP, and supports formation of a TBP-TFIIB-DNA-complex. Mutation of the promoter region surrounding the GAE abolishes transcription in vivo and in vitro. A 32-nucleotide promoter region containing the GAE can functionally substitute for the TATA box in a TATA-containing promoter. This identifies the GAE as a conserved promoter element in TATA-less promoters.

  7. Model Manajemen Laba Stubben, Tata Kelola dan Nilai Perusahaan Industri Dasar dan Kimia di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Gultom, Riris Rollyna; Ahmar, Nurmala

    2016-01-01

    Implementasi IFRS secarra mandatory berdampak pada semakin bergesernya manajemen laba secara akrual. Model Manajemen Laba Stubben merupakan solusi untuk mengukur manajemen laba. Tata kelola yang baik akan meningkatkan nilai Perusahaan. Riset ini menguji 43 data tahun Perusahaan inndustri dasar dan kimia. Pengujian dilakukan dengan uji analisis regresi berganda. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa pengukuran tata kelola dengan pendekatan kepemilikan manajerial (KM), komite audit (KA), dewan ...

  8. Tata Kelola Publik Dan Kinerja Keuangan Pemerintah Daerah Di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko A Hasthoro

    2016-08-01

      Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh penerapan tata kelola publik terhadap kinerja keuangan pemerintah daerah di Indonesia. Pelaksanaan pemerintahan umum diukur dengan menggunakan transparansi pemerintah daerah, akuntabilitas pemerintah daerah, budaya hukum, dan partisipasi masyarakat. Sejumlah lima puluh pemerintah daerah yang disurvei oleh Tansparency International Indonesia pada tahun 2010 digunakan sebagai sampel. Hasil dari analisis regresi berganda menunjukkan bahwa budaya hukum yang ditunjukkan oleh indeks persepsi korupsi, dan partisipasi masyarakat yang diwakili oleh jumlah pemilih pemilu memiliki pengaruh signifikan positif pada kinerja keuangan pemerintah daerah di Indonesia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penegakan hukum dan pemilu yang adil mendorong kepercayaan masyarakat untuk membayar pajak yang meningkatkan pendapatan asli.

  9. Transcription factor binding site positioning in yeast: proximal promoter motifs characterize TATA-less promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Ionas; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The availability of sequence specificities for a substantial fraction of yeast's transcription factors and comparative genomic algorithms for binding site prediction has made it possible to comprehensively annotate transcription factor binding sites genome-wide. Here we use such a genome-wide annotation for comprehensively studying promoter architecture in yeast, focusing on the distribution of transcription factor binding sites relative to transcription start sites, and the architecture of TATA and TATA-less promoters. For most transcription factors, binding sites are positioned further upstream and vary over a wider range in TATA promoters than in TATA-less promoters. In contrast, a group of 6 'proximal promoter motifs' (GAT1/GLN3/DAL80, FKH1/2, PBF1/2, RPN4, NDT80, and ROX1) occur preferentially in TATA-less promoters and show a strong preference for binding close to the transcription start site in these promoters. We provide evidence that suggests that pre-initiation complexes are recruited at TATA sites in TATA promoters and at the sites of the other proximal promoter motifs in TATA-less promoters. TATA-less promoters can generally be classified by the proximal promoter motif they contain, with different classes of TATA-less promoters showing different patterns of transcription factor binding site positioning and nucleosome coverage. These observations suggest that different modes of regulation of transcription initiation may be operating in the different promoter classes. In addition we show that, across all promoter classes, there is a close match between nucleosome free regions and regions of highest transcription factor binding site density. This close agreement between transcription factor binding site density and nucleosome depletion suggests a direct and general competition between transcription factors and nucleosomes for binding to promoters.

  10. Dynamics of TBP binding to the TATA box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluesche, Peter; Heiss, Gregor; Meisterernst, Michael; Lamb, Don C.

    2008-02-01

    Gene expression is highly controlled and regulated in living cells. One of the first steps in gene transcription is recognition of the promoter site by the TATA box Binding Protein (TBP). TBP recruits other transcriptions factors and eventually the RNA polymerase II to transcribe the DNA in mRNA. We developed a single pair Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (spFRET) assay to investigate the mechanism of gene regulation. Here, we apply this assay to investigate the initial binding process of TBP to the adenovirus major late (AdML) promoter site. From the spFRET measurements, we were able to identify two conformations of the TBP-DNA complex that correspond to TBP bound in the correct and the opposite orientation. Increased incubation times or the presence of the transcription factor TFIIA improved the alignment of TBP on the promoter site. Binding of TBP to the TATA box shows a rich dynamics with abrupt transitions between multiple FRET states. A frame-wise histogram analysis revealed the presence of at least six discrete states, showing that TBP binding is more complicated than previously thought. Hence, the spFRET assay is very sensitive to the conformation of the TBP-DNA complex and is very promising tool for investigating the pathway of TBP binding in detail.

  11. VISUALISASI SISTEM TATA SURYA MENGGUNAKAN ANIMASI 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Nur Hamid

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia berkembang pesat seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi. Salah satu aspek yang dipengaruhi adalah dunia pendidikan. Dalam dunia pendidikan multimedia digunakan sebagai media pembelajaran. Dengan aplikasi pembelajaran berbasis multimedia, materi yang disajikan diharapkan lebih menarik dan mudah dipahami. Tujuan dari penulisan skripsi ini adalah untuk membuat aplikasi system tatasurya menggunakan animasi 3 dimensi untuk menunjang sarana belajar yang sudah ada seperti buku. Pengumpulan data dalam pembuatan aplikasi ini dilakukan dengan cara mendayagunakan sumber informasi yang terdapat pada perpustakaan dan sumber informasi lain seperti internet. Aplikasi ini dikembangkan dengan metode pengembangan multimedia menurut Luther yaitu concept, design, material collecting, assembly, testing dan distribution. Dalam pembuatan aplikasi ini menggunakan 3DS Max 2009 sebagai software untuk membuat objek-objek yang terdapat pada system tata surya dengan bentuk 3 dimensi, Adobe Premiere Pro sebagai software untuk menggabungkan suara (audio dan video hasil renderan dari 3DS Max, Adobe Flash CS4 Professional di gunakan sebagai penggabungan semua objek multimedia yang telah dibuat oleh perangkat lunak lainnya. Dengan aplikasi ini siswa dapat memahami materi tentang sistem tata surya dan membuat suasana belajar lebih menyenangkan.

  12. A Random Screen Using a Novel Reporter Assay System Reveals a Set of Sequences That Are Preferred as the TATA or TATA-Like Elements in the CYC1 Promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Yabe, Makoto; Kasahara, Koji; Kokubo, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the core promoters of class II genes contain either TATA or TATA-like elements to direct accurate transcriptional initiation. Genome-wide analyses show that the consensus sequence of the TATA element is TATAWAWR (8 bp), whereas TATA-like elements carry one or two mismatches to this consensus. The fact that several functionally distinct TATA sequences have been identified indicates that these elements may function, at least to some extent, in a gene-specific manner. The purpose of the present study was to identify functional TATA sequences enriched in one particular core promoter and compare them with the TATA or TATA-like elements that serve as the pre-initiation complex (PIC) assembly sites on the yeast genome. For this purpose, we conducted a randomized screen of the TATA element in the CYC1 promoter by using a novel reporter assay system and identified several hundreds of unique sequences that were tentatively classified into nine groups. The results indicated that the 7 bp TATA element (i.e., TATAWAD) and several sets of TATA-like sequences are preferred specifically by this promoter. Furthermore, we find that the most frequently isolated TATA-like sequence, i.e., TATTTAAA, is actually utilized as a functional core promoter element for the endogenous genes, e.g., ADE5,7 and ADE6. Collectively, these results indicate that the sequence requirements for the functional TATA or TATA-like elements in one particular core promoter are not as stringent. However, the variation of these sequences differs significantly from that of the PIC assembly sites on the genome, presumably depending on promoter structures and reflecting the gene-specific function of these sequences.

  13. Enough is enough: TatA demand during Tat-dependent protein transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, René Steffen; Schlesier, René; Heilmann, Kathleen; Dittmar, Julia; Jakob, Mario; Klösgen, Ralf Bernd

    2013-05-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat(1)) pathway is unique with respect to its property to translocate proteins in a fully folded conformation across ion-tight membranes. In chloroplasts and Gram-negative bacteria, Tat translocase consists of the integral subunits TatB and TatC, which are assumed to constitute the membrane receptor, and TatA, a bitopic membrane protein being responsible in a yet unknown manner for the membrane translocation step. Antibody inhibition of intrinsic thylakoidal TatA activity and recovery of transport by heterologously expressed, purified TatA allowed to exactly quantify the amount of TatA required to catalyse membrane transport of the model Tat substrate 16/23. We can show that TatA concentrations in the 100nM range are sufficient to efficiently catalyse membrane transport of the protein, which corresponds well to the amount of TatA identified in thylakoids. Furthermore, TatA shows cooperativity in its catalytic activity suggesting that Tat translocase operates as an allosteric enzyme complex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. SNPs in the HIV-1 TATA box and the AIDS pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, Valentin V; Ponomarenko, Petr M; Efimov, Vadim M; Savinkova, Ludmila K; Ponomarenko, Mikhail P; Kolchanov, Nikolay A

    2010-06-01

    Evolutionary trends have been examined in 146 HIV-1 forms (2662 copies, 2311 isolates) polymorphic for the TATA box using the "DNA sequence-->affinity for TBP" regression (TBP is the TATA binding protein). As a result, a statistically significant excess of low-affinity TATA box HIV-1 variants corresponding to a low level of both basal and TAT-dependent expression and, consequently, slow replication of HIV-1 have been detected. A detailed analysis revealed that the excess of slowly replicating HIV-1 is associated with the subtype E-associated TATA box core sequence "CATAAAA". Principal Component Analysis performed on 2662 HIV-1 TATA box copies in 70 countries revealed the presence of two principal components, PC1 (75.7% of the variance) and PC2 (23.3% of the variance). They indicate that each of these countries is specifically associated with one of the following trends in HIV-1 evolution: neutral drift around the normal TATA box; neutral drift around the slowly replicating TATA box core sequence (phylogenetic inertia); an adaptive increase in the frequency of the slowly replicating form.

  15. Stepwise bending of DNA by a single TATA box binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolic-Nørrelykke, Simon F; Rasmussen, Mette B; Pavone, Francesco S

    2006-01-01

    The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is required by all three eucaryotic RNA polymerases for the initiation of transcription from most promoters. TBP recognizes, binds to, and bends promoter sequences called "TATA-boxes" in the DNA. We present results from the study of individual Saccharomyces...... cerevisiae TBPs interacting with single DNA molecules containing a TATA-box. Using video microscopy, we observed the Brownian motion of the beads tethered by short surface-bound DNA. When TBP binds to and bends the DNA, the conformation of the DNA changes and the amplitude of Brownian motion of the tehtered...

  16. Use of waste plastics in cokemaking at Tata Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, S.H.; Sharma, R.; Dash, P.S.; Haldar, S.K.; Biswas, B. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2006-08-15

    Disposal of waste plastics is a serious global issue, and hence it is imperative to explore methods to recycle them for efficient utilisation. The coke making process is considered to be a promising area to which the thermal decomposition of waste plastics is applicable, because the process involves coal carbonisation at a high temperature under a reducing atmosphere. As an outcome of the research work carried out on a laboratory scale followed by plant trials at Tata Steel, it was found that waste plastics recycling process using stamp charged coke ovens is feasible to recover coke, tar, light oil and gas from general waste plastics mixed in coal by carbonisation in coke ovens. It has also been established in the laboratory that waste plastics up to 1% can be used in coke making without any deterioration in coke strength. Plant trials have also indicated that co-carbonisation of waste plastics with coal is a possible solution for its disposal.

  17. Role of indirect readout mechanism in TATA box binding protein-DNA interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Manas; Choudhury, Devapriya; Chakrabarti, Jaydeb; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay

    2015-03-01

    Gene expression generally initiates from recognition of TATA-box binding protein (TBP) to the minor groove of DNA of TATA box sequence where the DNA structure is significantly different from B-DNA. We have carried out molecular dynamics simulation studies of TBP-DNA system to understand how the DNA structure alters for efficient binding. We observed rigid nature of the protein while the DNA of TATA box sequence has an inherent flexibility in terms of bending and minor groove widening. The bending analysis of the free DNA and the TBP bound DNA systems indicate presence of some similar structures. Principal coordinate ordination analysis also indicates some structural features of the protein bound and free DNA are similar. Thus we suggest that the DNA of TATA box sequence regularly oscillates between several alternate structures and the one suitable for TBP binding is induced further by the protein for proper complex formation.

  18. Interpreting SCAMPI for a People CMM Appraisal at Tata Consultancy Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radice, Ron; Hefley, William E; Curtis, Bill; Ferguson, Jack; Hayes, Will

    2005-01-01

    Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) is a large information technology consulting, services, and business process outsourcing organization interested in reducing the costs of conducting process improvement appraisals at its multiple locations...

  19. Nano dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.; Park, Y.B.; Kim, S.; Jin, S.

    2014-01-01

    Nano technology in dentistry has drawn many scientists’ and clinicians’ attention to significant advances in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of oral disease. Also, nano materials in dentistry have been studied to overcome the physical and chemical characteristics of conventional dental materials. These interesting facts are the motivation of this special issue. The presented issue provides a variety of topics in the field of dentistry such as novel nano filled composite resin, the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles deposited on orthodontic bands, the osseointegration of 3D nano scaffold, and nano surface treated implant.

  20. Penerapan Framework COBIT untuk Identifikasi Tingkat Kematangan Tata Kelola Teknologi Informasi: Studi Kasus di Fasilkom Unwidha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus Suradi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan IT sebagai media komunikasi data hingga saat ini berkembang sangat pesat. Peranan teknologi informasi dalam suatu lembaga sangat krusial, namun  masalah  yang sering terjadi di lembaga/ instansi adalah penggunaan teknologi informasi yang ternyata tidak sesuai dengan harapan, oleh karena itu diperlukan tata kelola terhadap penggunaan teknologi informasi. Permasalahan yang dihadapi di Fasilkom Unwidha adalah adanya ketidak puasan layanan IT yang diberikan, terdapatnya gangguan layanan yang tidak segera diatasi, adanya koordinasi maintenance infrastruktur IT yang kurang optimal. Sehingga perlu adanya evaluasi terhadap tata kelola teknologi informasi yang diberikan untuk penyelarasan dengan tujuan organisasi agar visi yang diharapkan dapat tercapai. Penelitian ini membahas tentang kondisi tata kelola teknologi informasi di Fasilkom Unwidha, dan sejauh mana telah menerapkan tata kelola teknologi informasi yang baik. Metode analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan menggunakan  framework Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT. Hasil dari analisis ini berupa tingkat kematangan tata kelola  teknologi informasi  yang  mencerminkan  kondisi  tata  kelola  teknologi informasi  di  Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Unwidha. Tingkat kematangan dengan mengacu pada maturity level yang disediakan kerangka kerja COBIT, diperoleh nilai  kematangan 2,84 yaitu pada level Defined Process. Sistem memiliki ruang lingkup Business Goals sebanyak 13, IT Goals sebanyak 18, IT Process sebanyak 30 proses dan 4 Domain.

  1. Cellular microRNAs up-regulate transcription via interaction with promoter TATA-box motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yijun; Fan, Miaomiao; Zhang, Xue; Huang, Feng; Wu, Kang; Zhang, Junsong; Liu, Jun; Huang, Zhuoqiong; Luo, Haihua; Tao, Liang; Zhang, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The TATA box represents one of the most prevalent core promoters where the pre-initiation complexes (PICs) for gene transcription are assembled. This assembly is crucial for transcription initiation and well regulated. Here we show that some cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and TATA box-binding protein (TBP) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Among them, let-7i sequence specifically binds to the TATA-box motif of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene and elevates IL-2 mRNA and protein production in CD4(+) T-lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. Through direct interaction with the TATA-box motif, let-7i facilitates the PIC assembly and transcription initiation of IL-2 promoter. Several other cellular miRNAs, such as mir-138, mir-92a or mir-181d, also enhance the promoter activities via binding to the TATA-box motifs of insulin, calcitonin or c-myc, respectively. In agreement with the finding that an HIV-1-encoded miRNA could enhance viral replication through targeting the viral promoter TATA-box motif, our data demonstrate that the interaction with core transcription machinery is a novel mechanism for miRNAs to regulate gene expression. © 2014 Zhang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  2. Early Contacts between Substrate Proteins and TatA Translocase Component in Twin-arginine Translocation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröbel, Julia; Rose, Patrick; Müller, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Twin-arginine translocation (Tat) is a unique protein transport pathway in bacteria, archaea, and plastids. It mediates the transmembrane transport of fully folded proteins, which harbor a consensus twin-arginine motif in their signal sequences. In Gram-negative bacteria and plant chloroplasts, three membrane proteins, named TatA, TatB, and TatC, are required to enable Tat translocation. Available data suggest that TatA assembles into oligomeric pore-like structures that might function as the protein conduit across the lipid bilayer. Using site-specific photo-cross-linking, we have investigated the molecular environment of TatA under resting and translocating conditions. We find that monomeric TatA is an early interacting partner of functionally targeted Tat substrates. This interaction with TatA likely precedes translocation of Tat substrates and is influenced by the proton-motive force. It strictly depends on the presence of TatB and TatC, the latter of which is shown to make contacts with the transmembrane helix of TatA. PMID:22041896

  3. Early contacts between substrate proteins and TatA translocase component in twin-arginine translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröbel, Julia; Rose, Patrick; Müller, Matthias

    2011-12-23

    Twin-arginine translocation (Tat) is a unique protein transport pathway in bacteria, archaea, and plastids. It mediates the transmembrane transport of fully folded proteins, which harbor a consensus twin-arginine motif in their signal sequences. In Gram-negative bacteria and plant chloroplasts, three membrane proteins, named TatA, TatB, and TatC, are required to enable Tat translocation. Available data suggest that TatA assembles into oligomeric pore-like structures that might function as the protein conduit across the lipid bilayer. Using site-specific photo-cross-linking, we have investigated the molecular environment of TatA under resting and translocating conditions. We find that monomeric TatA is an early interacting partner of functionally targeted Tat substrates. This interaction with TatA likely precedes translocation of Tat substrates and is influenced by the proton-motive force. It strictly depends on the presence of TatB and TatC, the latter of which is shown to make contacts with the transmembrane helix of TatA.

  4. SISTEM Tata niaga KEDELAI DI DESA CIPEUYEUM, KECAMATAN HAURWANGI, KABUPATEN CIANJUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldha Hermianty Alang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objectives of this research were 1 identify the channel, institution, and trade system function of soy in Cipeuyeum Village, Haurwangi District, Cianjur, 2 Analyze the structure and the behavior of soy market in Cipeuyeum Village, Haurwangi District, Cianjur, also 3 Analyze the efficiency of soy trade system at each channel with trade channel margin approach, farmers’ share and profit-cost ratio (π/c. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were used to analyze the data. Qualitative analysis includes: channel and institution of the trade system, analysis of farmers and institutions functions involved in the trade system, analysis of market structure and behavior, trade system margin analysis, farmers’ share analysis, and analysis of π/c ratio.  There are four channels of marketing system in this village with five institutions that identified with the snowball method. The institutions within the trade systems perform their own function and face diverse market structures. Quantitative analysis showed that the most efficient channel is the one with Rp917 for the trade margin, 85,89% for the farmer’s share value, and 7,06 for profit-cost ratio. Therefore, Soybean Farmers should not sell the entire stock system directly to large traders without going through the small traders as it will increase the share of the farmers.Keywords: soy agribusiness, Cipeuyeum village, demand for soy, trade system of soy, soyABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah 1 mengidentifikasi saluran, lembaga, dan fungsi tata niaga kedelai di Desa Cipeuyeum, Kecamatan Haurwangi, Kabupaten Cianjur, 2 menganalisis struktur dan perilaku pasar kedelai di Desa Cipeuyeum, Kecamatan Haurwangi, Kabupaten Cianjur, dan 3 menganlisis efisiensi tata niaga kedelai pada setiap saluran yang ada dengan pendekatan margin tata niaga, farmer’s share, serta rasio keuntungan terhadap biaya (π/c. Analisis data dilakukan secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Analisis kualitatif

  5. The conformational state of the nucleosome entry–exit site modulates TATA box-specific TBP binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieb, Aaron R.; Gansen, Alexander; Böhm, Vera; Langowski, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The TATA binding protein (TBP) is a critical transcription factor used for nucleating assembly of the RNA polymerase II machinery. TBP binds TATA box elements with high affinity and kinetic stability and in vivo is correlated with high levels of transcription activation. However, since most promoters use less stable TATA-less or TATA-like elements, while also competing with nucleosome occupancy, further mechanistic insight into TBP's DNA binding properties and ability to access chromatin is needed. Using bulk and single-molecule FRET, we find that TBP binds a minimal consensus TATA box as a two-state equilibrium process, showing no evidence for intermediate states. However, upon addition of flanking DNA sequence, we observe non-specific cooperative binding to multiple DNA sites that compete for TATA-box specificity. Thus, we conclude that TBP binding is defined by a branched pathway, wherein TBP initially binds with little sequence specificity and is thermodynamically positioned by its kinetic stability to the TATA box. Furthermore, we observed the real-time access of TBP binding to TATA box DNA located within the DNA entry–exit site of the nucleosome. From these data, we determined salt-dependent changes in the nucleosome conformation regulate TBP's access to the TATA box, where access is highly constrained under physiological conditions, but is alleviated by histone acetylation and TFIIA. PMID:24829456

  6. The conformational state of the nucleosome entry-exit site modulates TATA box-specific TBP binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieb, Aaron R; Gansen, Alexander; Böhm, Vera; Langowski, Jörg

    2014-07-01

    The TATA binding protein (TBP) is a critical transcription factor used for nucleating assembly of the RNA polymerase II machinery. TBP binds TATA box elements with high affinity and kinetic stability and in vivo is correlated with high levels of transcription activation. However, since most promoters use less stable TATA-less or TATA-like elements, while also competing with nucleosome occupancy, further mechanistic insight into TBP's DNA binding properties and ability to access chromatin is needed. Using bulk and single-molecule FRET, we find that TBP binds a minimal consensus TATA box as a two-state equilibrium process, showing no evidence for intermediate states. However, upon addition of flanking DNA sequence, we observe non-specific cooperative binding to multiple DNA sites that compete for TATA-box specificity. Thus, we conclude that TBP binding is defined by a branched pathway, wherein TBP initially binds with little sequence specificity and is thermodynamically positioned by its kinetic stability to the TATA box. Furthermore, we observed the real-time access of TBP binding to TATA box DNA located within the DNA entry-exit site of the nucleosome. From these data, we determined salt-dependent changes in the nucleosome conformation regulate TBP's access to the TATA box, where access is highly constrained under physiological conditions, but is alleviated by histone acetylation and TFIIA. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. A minimal tat system from a gram-positive organism - A bifunctional TatA subunit participates in discrete TatAC and TatA complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnett, James P.; Eijlander, Robyn T.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Robinson, Colin

    2008-01-01

    The Tat system transports folded proteins across bacterial and thylakoid membranes. In Gram-negative organisms, a TatABC substrate-binding complex and separate TatA complex are believed to coalesce to form an active translocon, with all three subunits essential for translocation. Most Gram-positive

  8. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research School of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    The diverse activities currently in progress in the School of Physics at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay are reported in detail. The activities involving theoretical and experimental research are grouped under the following areas: (1) pure physics (2) astronomy and space science (3) chemical and biological studies and (4) applied research. In pure physics, studies are in progress in nuclear physics, high energy physics and solid state physics. In astronomy and space science, the fields of investigation comprise: cosmic ray physics, theoretical astrophysics and radio-astronomy. In chemical physics, structure of a variety of systems have been investigated using NMR and Moessbauer techniques. In molecular biology, basic biological processes have been studied in terms of structure and properties of biomolecules. In addition to these areas of pure research, considerable advances have been made in computer science and technology, solid state electronics, microwave engineering and hydrogy. The work done in each one of these areas is briefly summarized. A number of supporting research facilities are mentioned. A brief mention has also been made on the existing education and training programmes. (A.K.)

  9. Crystal structure of Methanococcus jannaschii TATA box-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Naruhiko; Senda, Miki; Natsume, Ryo; Senda, Toshiya; Horikoshi, Masami

    2008-11-01

    As the archaeal transcription system consists of a eukaryotic-type transcription apparatus and bacterial-type regulatory transcription factors, analyses of the molecular interface between the transcription apparatus and regulatory transcription factors are critical to reveal the evolutionary change of the transcription system. TATA box-binding protein (TBP), the central components of the transcription apparatus are classified into three groups: eukaryotic, archaeal-I and archaeal-II TBPs. Thus, comparative functional analysis of these three groups of TBP is important for the study of the evolution of the transcription system. Here, we present the first crystal structure of an archaeal-II TBP from Methanococcus jannaschii. The highly conserved and group-specific conserved surfaces of TBP bind to DNA and TFIIB/TFB, respectively. The phylogenetic trees of TBP and TFIIB/TFB revealed that they evolved in a coupled manner. The diversified surface of TBP is negatively charged in the archaeal-II TBP, which is completely different from the case of eukaryotic and archaeal-I TBPs, which are positively charged and biphasic, respectively. This difference is responsible for the diversification of the regulatory functions of TBP during evolution.

  10. Annual report 1988-89: Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isloor, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The annual report surveys the work of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Bombay, during the fiscal year 1988-89. Most of the research activities are organised and carried out in two schools of the Institute, namely, the School of Mathematics and the School of Physics. In the School of Mathematics, active research is carried out in almost every branch of pure mathematics. The School of Physics is engaged in research activities of both theoretical and experimental nature in high energy physics, astrophysics, cosmic rays, space physics, astronomy, nuclear and atomic physics, condensed matter physics, molecular biology, computer science and communication and microwave engineering. TIFR has a Basic Dental Research Unit which carries out intervention studies on oral cancer and precancerous lesions. Its Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education (HBCSE) carries out programmes for improvement of science education at all levels in the country. TIFR outstation units are: (1) TIFR Centre at Bangalore which in collaboration with the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore has a programme in Applications of Mathematics (2) Radio Astronomy Centre, Ooty, (3) Baloon Facility, Hyderabad and (4) National Image Processing Facility, Ooty. The academic and research activities of the schools, new technique and instruments and experimental facilities developed and fabricated by various units of TIFR are briefly described. Faculty and section wise list of staff members is given. Lists of publications by the members and other activities such as colloquia, seminars, conferences etc. are also given. (M.G.B.)

  11. Analisis Tata Kelola Teknologi Informasi Menggunakan Kerangka Kerja COBIT 4.1 pada Fakultas Teknik Undip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arini Arumana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peran teknologi informasi dalam suatu instansi sudah tidak dapat dielakkan lagi, mengingat perkembangannya yang begitu pesat seiring berjalannya waktu. Namun masalah yang sering terjadi di instansi adalah penggunaan teknologi informasi yang kadang tidak sesuai dengan harapan. Oleh karena itu diperlukan tata kelola terhadap penggunaan teknologi informasi yang biasa disebut dengan IT Governance. Fakultas teknik UNDIP adalah salah satu fakultas yang dalam operasionalnya sangat mengandalkan teknologi informasi, baik dalam aktifitas belajar mengajar maupun dalam menjalankan operasional bisnis. Kondisi sekarang di Fakultas Teknik sendiri tidak terdapat suatu indikator yang dapat menyatakan bahwa kinerja TI yang berjalan telah sesuai dengan visi dan misi Fakultas Teknik, oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan analisis tata kelola teknologi informasi, guna mengetahui performa TI sekarang sesuai dengan yang diharapkan oleh managemen atau tidak. Hasil dari analisis ini berupa tingkat kematangan tata kelola TI yang mecerminkan kondisi tata kelola TI di Fakultas Teknik dengan mengacu pada maturity level yang disediakan kerangka kerja COBIT 4.1, yakni dari level 0 (non-existent sampai 5 (optimized. Berdasarkan analisis yang dilakukan, secara garis besar kondisi kematangan tata kelola TI Fakultas Teknik berada pada level 2 yakni repeatable but intuitive. Kondisi ini mengacu pada beberapa kelemahan dalam proses-proses TI yang berjalan, diantaranya penetapan dan dokumentasi tindakan, kebijakan dan prosedur yang minim, serta tidak tersedianya service level yang disetujui bersama.

  12. Comprehensive study in the inhibitory effect of berberine on gene transcription, including TATA box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yugang; Kheir, Michael M; Chai, Yushuang; Hu, Jun; Xing, Dongming; Lei, Fan; Du, Lijun

    2011-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) is an established natural DNA intercalator with numerous pharmacological functions. However, currently there are neither detailed reports concerning the distribution of this alkaloid in living cells nor reports concerning the relationship between BBR's association with DNA and the function of DNA. Here we report that the distribution of BBR within the nucleus can be observed 30 minutes after drug administration, and that the content of berberine in the nucleus peaks at around 4 µmol, which is twelve hours after drug administration. The spatial conformation of DNA and chromatin was altered immediately after their association with BBR. Moreover, this association can effectively suppress the transcription of DNA in living cell systems and cell-free systems. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) demonstrated further that BBR can inhibit the association between the TATA binding protein (TBP) and the TATA box in the promoter, and this finding was also attained in living cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Based on results from this study, we hypothesize that berberine can suppress the transcription of DNA in living cell systems, especially suppressing the association between TBP and the TATA box by binding with DNA and, thus, inhibiting TATA box-dependent gene expression in a non-specific way. This novel study has significantly expanded the sphere of knowledge concerning berberine's pharmacological effects, beginning at its paramount initial interaction with the TATA box.

  13. Transcription factors operate TATA switches via rotational remodeling of local columnar chromatin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Edward N

    2016-12-01

    Our earlier study on the nucleosomes containing TBP binding sites (TATA boxes) indicated that generally the same sequence, which harbors the TATA box, encodes simultaneously an alternative rotational setting of the box, so that the TATA element is either exposed (position "minor groove out") or hidden in position "minor groove in". The sequence elements (dinucleotides) residing on the inner surface of DNA in contact with histone octamers are identified by calculating YR tracks in the promoter regions of the genes - periodically reappearing YR elements, at distances of 10-11 bases from one another. Non-YR elements of the YR tracks are also verified by nucleosome mapping procedure based on alternation of runs of purines with runs of pyrimidines. The tracks observed in yeast promoter regions are found to split into two, passing further downstream either through the TATA element or 4-6 bases toward the tail of the box. The points of splitting which play the role of TATA switches are located in close vicinity or within the transcription factor binding sites. This suggests the regulatory function of transcription factors changing the YR tracks by over- or under-twisting DNA induced by their binding.

  14. Implikasi Persyaratan dan Tata Cara Pemberian Izin Penyelenggaraan Pos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuningsih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Industri pos sebagai sarana komunikasi dan informasi yang mendukung distribusi diatur dalam UU 38 tahun 2009 tentang Pos Ketentuan Izin Penyelenggaraan Pos selanjutnya diatur dalam Peraturan Pemerintah No.15 tahun 2013, dan Peraturan Menteri Kominfo no.32/2014 tentang Persyaratan dan Tata Cara Pemberian Izin Penyelenggaraan Pos. yaitu Izin Penyelenggaraan Pos Nasional, Izin Penyelenggaraan Pos Provinsi dan Izin Penyelenggaraan Pos Kabupaten/Kota. Kajian membahas implikasi persyaratan izin penyelenggaraan pos dari aspek bisnis dan operasional.Hasil kajian literatur dan data sekunder dengan analisis menggunakan konsep Mattew B.Miles dan A.Michael Huberman,didapatkan kejelasan implikasi terhadap bisnis, penyelenggara pos memiliki peluang menentukan wilayah potensial sedangkan implikasi terhadap aspek operasional penyelenggara pos wajib melakukan kegiatan jaringanya sesuai jenis izin yang diajukan. Penyelenggara pos dapat melakukan interkoneksi untuk pengembangan bisnis dan operasionalnya, sehingga pola bisnis dapat direncanakan lebih efektif dan efisien. Abstract Postal industry as a means of communication and information that support the distribution stipulated in Law 38 of 2009 on the Post Operation License further provisions stipulated in Government Regulation 15 of 2013, and the Regulation of the Minister of Communications and Information Technology no.32 / 2014 on Conditions and Procedures for Granting Licenses Implementation Pos. namely the National Post Operation Permits, Licenses and Permits Province of Post of Post Regency / City. Studies discuss the implications of the requirements of the operating license of the postal business aspects and operasional.Hasil literature review and secondary data analysis using the concept Mattew B.Miles and A.MichaelHuberman, obtained clarity on the business implications, the organizer of the post has a chance determine potential areas while the implications of the operational aspects the

  15. KESESUAIAN LABORATORIUM SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR DI PRODI TATA BOGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Sadha Bakti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk: (1 Menganalisis kondisi sarana dan prasarana la­­boratorium; (2 ke­sesuaian sarana dan prasarana laboratorium Tata Boga Jurusan TI-FT UM dengan standar minimal laboratorium maupun yang te­lah di­per­sya­rat­kan Permendiknas No.40 tahun 2008. Metode penelitian dan analisis di­gunakan   ranc­ang­an dan statistik deskriftif.  Hasilpenelitian   kondisi peralatan di La­boratorium Pastry (luas ruang 136m2,intensitas cahaya dan kuat arus pencahayaan   710 lux 82,57% se­suai standar minimal. Prasarana   (lantai,warna dinding,sirkulasi uda­ra, tempat cuci peralatan dan bahantersedia dan  memadai. Kondisi laboratorium Pro­duksi(jumlah peralatan, lantai keramik, sirkulasi udara  56,00% sesuai dan me­madai,    di­dukung jendela sepanjang 12m dan exhouse fan dan kipas angin dibe­be­ra­pa titik, re­rataintensitas cahaya 990 lux dengan luas ruangan 80m2, kuat arus pen­ca­hayaan da­lam laboratorium sangat memenuhi. Laboratorium Industri kondisi per­alatan 50,00% me­­menuhi standar,luas ruang 96m2 untuk 30 mahasiswa kurang me­me­nuhi. In­ten­si­tas cahaya 710 lux, kuat arus pencahayaan  laboratorium sudah me­me­nuh­i, namun kon­disi lantai belum memenuhi dari segi kemiringan dan material.

  16. Effective Governance in the Era of Disruptive Changes in Business Illustrated by the Tata Capital Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar; Sherman, David; Haraszuk, Anni

    2015-01-01

    Identifying, assessing, managing, and containing risks is a fundamental responsibility of business and ‘business as usual’ in 2015. The question is: How can businesses be effectively governed in an era of disruptive changes while managing risks of business? This article explores – through the case...... example of Tata Capital, part of the Indian, global conglomerate Tata Group – how to effectively govern in an environment of disruptive forces impacting business while managing risk seen from an audit committee and internal audit perspective. Effective governance through regular evaluation of internal...... financial controls and risk management ensures that the systems of risk management are robust and defensible. This agenda should be integrated into the audit committee oversight and cannot merely reflect a check the box exercise. Instead, as illustrated by the Tata Capital Framework, it must reflect...

  17. Implementasi Kebijakan Tata Kelola Pemerintahan Daerah Dengan Semangat Euforia Demokrasi Lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaelan Usman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Perjalan reformasi kurang lebih 13 tahun pasca pemerintahan rezim Orde Baru 32 tahun; menimbulkan beberapa pertanyaan kritis yang harus dijawab dalam konteks “Tata Kelola Pemerintahan Daerah, dengan semangat Efouria Demokrasi Lokal”. Beberapa pertanyaan kritis dimaksud, timbul dari praktek desentralisasi dan otonomi daerah, antara lain: Sejauh mana desentralisasi dan otonomi daerah mendorong tumbuhnya demokrasi lokal yang kokoh dan beradab? Bagaimana nasib perkembangan demokrasi lokal pasca Pemilihan Umum Legislatif dan Pemilihan Presiden 2009? Desentralisasi, secara teoretis, merupakan upaya untuk membawa negara lebih dekat dengan masyarakat lokal serta mendorong tumbuhnya tata pemerintahan lokal yang lebih demokratis. Dengan kata lain, tanpa diikuti dengan demokrasi lokal, desentralisasi dan otonomi daerah tidak lebih hanya memindahkan sentralisasi dan korupsi dari pusat ke daerah. Tata pemerintahan lokal yang demokratis, mengedepankan prinsip pemerintahan “dari” masyarakat, dikelola secara akuntabel dan transparan “oleh” masyarakat dan dimanfaatkan secara responsive “untuk” kepentingan masyarakat luas.

  18. Recombinant expression and purification of human TATA binding protein using a chimeric fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Robert; Saxena, Krishna; Kudlinzki, Denis; Schwalbe, Harald

    2012-09-01

    The TATA binding protein (TBP) is the central core protein of the transcription factor II D that binds directly to the TATA box and therefore plays an integral part in eukaryotic transcription. This pivotal position of TBP is underlined by the vast number of interaction partners involved. Expression and purification of human TATA binding protein (hTBP) has remained a challenge due to protein instability and the protein loss during expression and purification involved. Here, we present a novel approach for high yield expression and purification of human TBP core (hTBPc) protein. Protein fold and activity are verified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and microscale thermophoresis (MST). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Core promoter-specific gene regulation: TATA box selectivity and Initiator-dependent bi-directionality of serum response factor-activated transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muyu; Gonzalez-Hurtado, Elsie; Martinez, Ernest

    2016-04-01

    Gene-specific activation by enhancers involves their communication with the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery at the core promoter. Core promoters are diverse and may contain a variety of sequence elements such as the TATA box, the Initiator (INR), and the downstream promoter element (DPE) recognized, respectively, by the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and TBP-associated factors of the TFIID complex. Core promoter elements contribute to the gene selectivity of enhancers, and INR/DPE-specific enhancers and activators have been identified. Here, we identify a TATA box-selective activating sequence upstream of the human β-actin (ACTB) gene that mediates serum response factor (SRF)-induced transcription from TATA-dependent but not INR-dependent promoters and requires the TATA-binding/bending activity of TBP, which is otherwise dispensable for transcription from a TATA-less promoter. The SRF-dependent ACTB sequence is stereospecific on TATA promoters but activates in an orientation-independent manner a composite TATA/INR-containing promoter. More generally, we show that SRF-regulated genes of the actin/cytoskeleton/contractile family tend to have a TATA box. These results suggest distinct TATA-dependent and INR-dependent mechanisms of TFIID-mediated transcription in mammalian cells that are compatible with only certain stereospecific combinations of activators, and that a TBP-TATA binding mechanism is important for SRF activation of the actin/cytoskeleton-related gene family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulation of activity of the yeast TATA-binding protein through intra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    413. Keywords. Chemical cross-linking; dimerization; gene regulation; TBP; transcription; yeast ... [Vanathi P, Mishra A K and Bhargava P 2003 Regulation of activity of the yeast TATA-binding protein through intra-molecular interactions; J. Biosci. ..... Data given was obtained from more than three independent estimations in ...

  1. Regulation of activity of the yeast TATA-binding protein through intra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... TATA-binding protein (TBP) activity both in vitro and in vivo. The reversible dimer-monomer transition of TBP is influenced by the buffer conditions in vitro. Using in vitro chemical cross-linking, we found yeast TBP (yTBP) to be largely monomeric in the presence of the divalent cation Mg2+, even at high salt concentrations.

  2. The archaeal TFIIE homologue facilitates transcription initiation by enhancing TATA-box recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, S.D.; Brinkman, A.B.; Oost, van der J.; Jackson, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Transcription from many archaeal promoters can be reconstituted in vitro using recombinant TATA-box binding protein (TBP) and transcription factor B (TFB)—homologues of eukaryal TBP and TFIIB—together with purified RNA polymerase (RNAP). However, all archaeal genomes sequenced to date reveal the

  3. Pretata: predicting TATA binding proteins with novel features and dimensionality reduction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Quan; Wan, Shixiang; Ju, Ying; Tang, Jijun; Zeng, Xiangxiang

    2016-12-23

    It is necessary and essential to discovery protein function from the novel primary sequences. Wet lab experimental procedures are not only time-consuming, but also costly, so predicting protein structure and function reliably based only on amino acid sequence has significant value. TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a kind of DNA binding protein, which plays a key role in the transcription regulation. Our study proposed an automatic approach for identifying TATA-binding proteins efficiently, accurately, and conveniently. This method would guide for the special protein identification with computational intelligence strategies. Firstly, we proposed novel fingerprint features for TBP based on pseudo amino acid composition, physicochemical properties, and secondary structure. Secondly, hierarchical features dimensionality reduction strategies were employed to improve the performance furthermore. Currently, Pretata achieves 92.92% TATA-binding protein prediction accuracy, which is better than all other existing methods. The experiments demonstrate that our method could greatly improve the prediction accuracy and speed, thus allowing large-scale NGS data prediction to be practical. A web server is developed to facilitate the other researchers, which can be accessed at http://server.malab.cn/preTata/ .

  4. DTIE, a novel core promoter element that directs start site selection in TATA-less genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Bar, Nadav; Bahat, Anat; Ashkenazi, Shaked; Golan-Mashiach, Michal; Haimov, Ora; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Puzio-Kuter, Anna; Hirshfield, Kim M; Levine, Arnold J; Dikstein, Rivka

    2016-02-18

    The transcription start site (TSS) determines the length and composition of the 5' UTR and therefore can have a profound effect on translation. Yet, little is known about the mechanism underlying start site selection, particularly from promoters lacking conventional core elements such as TATA-box and Initiator. Here we report a novel mechanism of start site selection in the TATA- and Initiator-less promoter of miR-22, through a strictly localized downstream element termed DTIE and an upstream distal element. Changing the distance between them reduced promoter strength, altered TSS selection and diminished Pol II recruitment. Biochemical assays suggest that DTIE does not serve as a docking site for TFIID, the major core promoter-binding factor. TFIID is recruited to the promoter through DTIE but is dispensable for TSS selection. We determined DTIE consensus and found it to be remarkably prevalent, present at the same TSS downstream location in ≈20.8% of human promoters, the vast majority of which are TATA-less. Analysis of DTIE in the tumor suppressor p53 confirmed a similar function. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of transcription initiation from TATA-less promoters. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. CRTC1 mediates preferential transcription at neuronal activity-regulated CRE/TATA promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Damas, Arnaldo; Rubió-Ferrarons, Laura; Shen, Jie; Saura, Carlos A

    2017-12-21

    Gene expression mediated by the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is essential for a wide range of brain processes. The transcriptional coactivartor CREB-regulated transcription coactivator-1 (CRTC1) is required for efficient induction of CREB target genes during neuronal activity. However, the mechanisms regulating induction of specific CREB/CRTC1-dependent genes during neuronal activity remain largely unclear. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms regulating activity-dependent gene transcription upon activation of the CREB/CRTC1 signaling pathway in neurons. Depolarization and cAMP signals induce preferential transcription of activity-dependent genes containing promoters with proximal CRE/TATA sequences, such as c-fos, Dusp1, Nr4a1, Nr4a2 and Ptgs2, but not genes with proximal CRE/TATA-less promoters (e.g. Nr4a3, Presenilin-1 and Presenilin-2). Notably, biochemical and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses reveal constitutive binding of CREB to target gene promoters in the absence of neuronal activity, whereas recruitment of CRTC1 to proximal CRE/TATA promoters depends on neuronal activity. Neuronal activity induces rapid CRTC1 dephosphorylation, nuclear translocation and binding to endogenous CREB. These results indicate that neuronal activity induces a preferential binding of CRTC1 to the transcriptional complex in CRE/TATA-containing promoters to engage activity-dependent transcription in neurons.

  6. TATA Box Insertion Provides a Selection Mechanism Underpinning Adaptations to Fe Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiling; Lv, Yuanda; Wang, Yi; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Shen, Fei; Han, Zhenyun; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Xuefeng; Wu, Ting; Han, Zhenhai

    2017-01-01

    Intraspecific genetic variation is essential for the responses and adaption of plants to evolutionary challenges, such as changing environmental conditions. The development of the Earth's aerobic atmosphere has increased the demand for iron (Fe) in organisms, and Fe deficiency has become a limiting environmental factor for plant growth. Here, we demonstrate that genus Malus adapt to Fe deficiency through modification of the Iron-Regulated Transporter1 (IRT1) promoter. Specifically, an IRT1 mutant allele with a TATA-box insertion in the promoter region upstream of the coding region exhibited increased IRT1 expression. The altered IRT1 promoter is responsible for enhancing Fe uptake. Increasing the number of synthetic repeat TATA-boxes correlates with increased promoter activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the insertion of the TATA-box correlates with an increase in transcriptional activation via specific binding of the transcription factor IID (MDP0000939369). Taken together, these results indicate that an allelic insertion of a TATA-box in a gene promoter has allowed apple to adapt to the selective pressure posed by Fe deficiency. More broadly, this study reveals a new mechanism for enhancing gene expression to help plants adapt to different environments, providing new insights into molecular genetic divergence in plants. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. TBP-like protein (TLP) interferes with Taspase1-mediated processing of TFIIA and represses TATA box gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidefumi; Isogai, Momoko; Maeda, Ryo; Ura, Kiyoe; Tamura, Taka-Aki

    2015-07-27

    TBP-TFIIA interaction is involved in the potentiation of TATA box-driven promoters. TFIIA activates transcription through stabilization of TATA box-bound TBP. The precursor of TFIIA is subjected to Taspase1-directed processing to generate α and β subunits. Although this processing has been assumed to be required for the promoter activation function of TFIIA, little is known about how the processing is regulated. In this study, we found that TBP-like protein (TLP), which has the highest affinity to TFIIA among known proteins, affects Taspase1-driven processing of TFIIA. TLP interfered with TFIIA processing in vivo and in vitro, and direct binding of TLP to TFIIA was essential for inhibition of the processing. We also showed that TATA box promoters are specifically potentiated by processed TFIIA. Processed TFIIA, but not unprocessed TFIIA, associated with the TATA box. In a TLP-knocked-down condition, not only the amounts of TATA box-bound TFIIA but also those of chromatin-bound TBP were significantly increased, resulting in the stimulation of TATA box-mediated gene expression. Consequently, we suggest that TLP works as a negative regulator of the TFIIA processing and represses TFIIA-governed and TATA-dependent gene expression through preventing TFIIA maturation. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Live cell imaging shows reversible assembly of the TatA component of the twin-arginine protein transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Felicity; Baker, Matthew A B; Greene, Nicholas P; Palmer, Tracy; Wallace, Mark I; Berks, Ben C

    2013-09-17

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) machinery transports folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. It has been inferred that the Tat translocation site is assembled on demand by substrate-induced association of the protein TatA. We tested this model by imaging YFP-tagged TatA expressed at native levels in living Escherichia coli cells in the presence of low levels of the TatA paralogue TatE. Under these conditions the TatA-YFP fusion supports full physiological Tat transport activity. In agreement with the TatA association model, raising the number of transport-competent substrate proteins within the cell leads to an increase in the number of large TatA complexes present. Formation of these complexes requires both a functional TatBC substrate receptor and the transmembrane proton motive force (PMF). Removing the PMF causes TatA complexes to dissociate, except in strains with impaired Tat transport activity. Based on these observations we propose that TatA assembly reaches a critical point at which oligomerization can be reversed only by substrate transport. In contrast to TatA-YFP, the oligomeric states of TatB-YFP and TatC-YFP fusions are not affected by substrate or the PMF, although TatB-YFP oligomerization does require TatC.

  9. TatA complexes exhibit a marked change in organisation in response to expression of the TatBC complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah M; Yarwood, Andrew; Fleck, Roland A; Robinson, Colin; Smith, Corinne J

    2017-04-19

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system is an integral membrane protein complex that accomplishes the remarkable feat of transporting large, fully folded polypeptides across the inner membrane of bacteria, into the periplasm. In Escherichia coli , Tat comprises three membrane proteins: TatA, TatB and TatC. How these proteins arrange themselves in the inner membrane to permit passage of Tat substrates, whilst maintaining membrane integrity, is still poorly understood. TatA is the most abundant component of this complex and facilitates assembly of the transport mechanism. We have utilised immunogold labelling in combination with array tomography to gain insight into the localisation and distribution of the TatA protein in E. coli cells. We show that TatA exhibits a uniform distribution throughout the inner membrane of E. coli and that altering the expression of TatBC shows a previously uncharacterised distribution of TatA in the inner membrane. Array tomography was used to provide our first insight into this altered distribution of TatA in three-dimensional space, revealing that this protein forms linear clusters in the inner membrane of E. coli upon increased expression of TatBC. This is the first indication that TatA organisation in the inner membrane alters in response to changes in Tat subunit stoichiometry. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Real-Time Interaction between TBP and the TATA Box of the Human Triosephosphate Isomerase Gene Promoter in the Norm and Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkova, O V; Kuznetsov, N A; Fedorova, O S; Kolchanov, N A; Savinkova, L K

    2014-04-01

    The TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a key part of the transcription complex of RNA polymerase II. Alone or as a part of the basal transcription factor TFIID, TBP binds the TATA box located in the core region of the TATA-containing promoters of class II genes. Previously, we studied the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on TBP/TATA-box interactions using gel retardation assay. It was demonstrated that most SNPs in the TATA boxes of some human gene promoters cause a 2- to 4-fold decrease in TBP/TATA affinity, which is associated with an increased risk of hereditary diseases, such as β thalassemias of diverse severity, hemophilia B Leyden, myocardial infarction, thrombophlebitis, lung cancer, etc. In this work, the process of TBP/TATA complex formation has been studied in real time by a stopped-flow technique using recombinant human TBP and duplexes, which were identical to the TATA box of the wild-type and a SNP-containing triosephosphate isomerase gene promoter and were fluorescently labeled by the Cy3/Cy5 FRET pair. It has been demonstrated for the first time that real-time binding of TBP to the TATA box of the TPI gene promoter is complete within 10 s and is described by a single-stage kinetic model. The complex formation of TBP with the wild-type TATA box occurs 5.5 times faster and the complex dissociation occurs 31 times slower compared with the SNPcontaining TATA box. Within the first seconds of the interaction, TBP binds to and simultaneously bends the TATA box. Importantly, the TATA box of the wild-type TPI gene promoter requires lower TBP concentrations compared to the TATA box containing the -24T → G SNP, which is associated with neurological and muscular disorders, cardiomyopathy, and other diseases.

  11. The Association between Prolonged Jaundice and TATA Box Dinucleotide Repeats in Gilbert's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Yadollah Zahed; Kacho, Mousa Ahmadpor; Niaki, Haleh Akhavan; Tarighati, Mehdi; Alaee, Ehsan

    2017-09-01

    Jaundice is a common condition during the neonatal period. Prolonged jaundice occurs in a large number of breastfed infants, considering the impact of genetic factors on the incidence of jaundice. To determine the association between prolonged jaundice and TATA box dinucleotide repeats in Gilbert's Syndrome (GS). In this case-control study, the case group consisted of 51 neonates with jaundice, aged more than two weeks with indirect bilirubin level higher than 10 mg/dl. Acute diseases, mother's use of phenobarbital and other medications were the exclusion criteria. The control group consisted of 54 newborns without jaundice. The two groups were matched in terms of age and sex. TATA box polymorphisms in the promoter region of UGT1A1 gene were evaluated using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in order to determine TATA box dinucleotide repeats. Overall, 64.7% and 50% of subjects in the case and control groups were male, respectively (p=0.168). The mean age of neonates in the case and control groups was 20.1±7.1days and 18.8±4.1 days, respectively. The distribution of Gilbert genome was not significantly different between the two groups. In the case group, 13.7% of the subjects were homozygous, 37.3% were heterozygous and 49% were normal. In the control group, 7.4% of the participants were homozygous, 35.2% were heterozygous and 57.4% were normal. The results of this study showed an association between TATA box polymorphism and prolonged jaundice in neonates which revealed that TATA box polymorphism is an important risk to increase and extend icterus.

  12. Tata Kelola Sistem Informasi pada Perusahaan Pelayaran Lepas Pantai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimo Andono

    2017-05-01

    peningkatan tingkat kematangan Sistem Informasi (SI PT BRL menggunakan kerangka kerja COBIT. Dari hasil penelitian ini dapat diketahui arah yang diinginkan manajemen PT BRL serta dapat disusun beberapa rekomendasi untuk dapat mewujudkannya. Tata kelola TI adalah konsep penting yang berkembang di perusahaan TI dan bertindak sebagai patokan untuk mengukur kematangan organisasi TI (Ayat et al. 2011. Secara keseluruhan proses perencanaan dan implementasi Sistem Informasi (SI di PT BRL sudah mengikuti kaidah-kaidah sesuai dengan kerangka kerja COBIT dan Maturity Level-nya berada pada level: 3 – Defined dimana prosedur kerja telah distandarisasi dan didokumentasikan serta dikomunikasikan melalui proses pelatihan. Telah dimandatkan pula bahwa prosedur ini wajib dipatuhi, namun bagaimanapun juga masih ada deviasi prosedur dalam pelaksanaannya yang belum diakomodasi. Sudah ada prosedur yang memiliki standar dan didokumentasikan dengan baik, sudah ada pelatihan formal untuk mengkomunikasikan prosedur dan kebijakan yang dibuat. Namun pada tahap implementasinya masih tergantung pada individu apakah mau melakukan prosedur yang ditetapkan atau tidak. Prosedur yang dibuat masih terbatas pada bentuk formalisasi dari praktik yang ada.Kata kunci: Audit, COBIT, CSF, KPI, KGI

  13. The world of Nano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Seung Jeong; Hyun, Jun Won; An, Yong Hyeon; Lee, Sung Uk; Jee, Hye Gu; Kim, Young Seon

    2006-07-01

    The contents of this book are the beginning of nano technology, definition of nano, commercialization of nano technology, prospect of nano technology, survive with nano t-, development strategy of n-t in the U.S, and Japan, Korea, and other countries, comparison of development strategy of n-t among each country, various measurement technology for practical n-t, scanning tunneling microscopy, nano device, carbon nano tube, nano belt and nano wire, application of sensor in daily life, energy, post-Genome period and using as medicine with nano bio technology.

  14. Processing by rhomboid protease is required for Providencia stuartii TatA to interact with TatC and to form functional homo-oligomeric complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Maximilian J; Krehenbrink, Martin; Tarry, Michael J; Berks, Ben C; Palmer, Tracy

    2012-06-01

    The twin arginine transport (Tat) system transports folded proteins across the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane and the plant thylakoid membrane. In Escherichia coli three membrane proteins, TatA, TatB and TatC, are essential components of the machinery. TatA from Providencia stuartii is homologous to E. coli TatA but is synthesized as an inactive pre-protein with an N-terminal extension of eight amino acids. Removal of this extension by the rhomboid protease AarA is required to activate P. stuartii TatA. Here we show that P. stuartii TatA can functionally substitute for E. coli TatA provided that the E. coli homologue of AarA, GlpG, is present. The oligomerization state of the P. stuartii TatA pro-protein was compared with that of the proteolytically activated protein and with E. coli TatA. The pro-protein still formed small homo-oligomers but cannot form large TatBC-dependent assemblies. In the absence of TatB, E. coli TatA or the processed form of P. stuartii TatA form a complex with TatC. However, this complex is not observed with the pro-form of P. stuartii TatA. Taken together our results suggest that the P. stuartii TatA pro-protein is inactive because it is unable to interact with TatC and cannot form the large TatA complexes required for transport. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Multimerization of the mouse TATA-binding protein (TBP) driven by its C-terminal conserved domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, K; Makino, Y; Kishimoto, T; Yamauchi, J; Kato, S; Muramatsu, M; Tamura, T

    1994-04-11

    The conformational states of the mouse TATA-binding protein (TBP) in solution were studied. A histidine tag and a factor Xa recognition site-carrying mouse TBP was expressed in E. coli, highly purified, and its fundamental functions as a TBP were demonstrated. We analyzed the molecular states of mouse TBP by gel filtration and glycerol gradient sedimentation, and found that TBP forms heterogeneous multimers in solution. Direct binding of TBP molecules to each other was proven by the far-Western procedure. Analyses using TBPs truncated at the N- and C-termini demonstrated that the functionally important C-terminal domain was responsible for homomultimer formation, and the N-terminal domain enhances multimerization. Furthermore, it was found that the TATA sequence dissociates homomultimers, and only monomeric TBP binds to the TATA-box. We suggest that TBP shares structural motifs in the C-terminal conserved domain for intermolecular interaction and TATA-binding.

  16. PERENCANAAN TATA GUNA LAHAN DAS WAY SEPUTIH HULU LAMPUNG TENGAH MENGGUNAKAN MODEL TATA AIR (Landuse Planning for Way Seputih Watershed at Central Lampung by Water Management Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Das Way Seputih Hulu merupakan sungai yang terletak di Kabupaten Larnpung Tengah, merniliki luas 175,28 km2. Kejadian banjir di Desa Segalarninder hilir Way Seputih Hulu terjadi setiap datang musim penghujan. Hasil penelitian bempa software program tata-air.exe, konsep dasar rnodel menggunakan neraca air (waterbalance yang dibuat dengart program delphi versi 7. Hasil uji t-tes antara tebal aliran model simulasi dengan pengukuran lapangan menunjukkan nilai t-hitung (0,14 lebih besar dari t-tabel (2,51, sehingga dikatakan model dapat digunakan untuk melakukan simulasi berbagai alternatif penggunaan lahan. Hasil simulasi program tata-air.exe menunjukkan bahwa keseluruhan alternatif untuk eksperimentasi model menghasilkan nilai rasio tebal aliran di bawah angka 30. Kondisi rasio tebal aliran air Way Seputih Hulu memiliki nilai berkisar antara 2,84 sanrpai 3,40, sehingga dapat dikatakan dalam kondisi masih wajar bahkan dapat dikatakan mempunvai nilai yang cukup bagus. Alternatif penggunaan lahan yang mengarah kepada bentuk lahan kebun campuran akan memberikan nilai rasio paling kecil dan menghasilkan produksi air yang kecil pula.   ABSTRACT  Watersheed of Way Seputih Upstream represent river which located in Kabupaten Lampung Tengah, oing wide of 175,28 km2. Occurence of floods in Countryside of Segalaminder go downstream Way Seputih Upstream happened in every coming rain season. Result of the research namely tata-air.exe, base concept of modeling uses water balance was made by using Delphi 7th version. Result of t-test value between modeled discharge flow and field measurement result shows t-counting value (0.14 higher than t-table (2.51, hence the model is can be used for simulating various landuse alternative. The simulation result using tata-air.exe shows that entire alternatives for model experimentation resulted discharge ratio value was under 30. Condition of Way Seputih Hulu River discharge was in the range between 2.84 until 3

  17. [TATA box polymorphisms in genes of commercial and laboratory animals and plants associated with selectively valuable traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, V V; Ponomarenko, P M; Ponomarenko, M P; Drachkova, I A; Arshinova, T V; Savinkova, L K; Kolchanov, N A

    2010-04-01

    Most of more than 11 million experimentally established polymorphisms, accumulated in dbSNP, were identified in the intergenic spacers or coding DNA regions. This fact enables interpretation of the former polymorphisms as neutral, while the latter make clear the biological sense of the associated mutant phenotypes, "the defect of certain proteins". The association of polymorphisms in regulatory DNA regions with mutant phenotypes is poorly studied. Specifically, the defects in certain DNA/protein binding sites were identified in less than 500 cases. In TATA-containing genes of eukaryotes the TATA box, the TBP (TATA-binding protein) binding site, is located about 30 bp upstream from the transcription start site. Interaction between DNA and TBP triggers assemblage of the preinitiation complex. For 37 TATA box polymorphisms in the genes of commercial and laboratory animals and plants, the effect on TBP-binding activity was evaluated using the equilibrium equation for the four subsequent steps of TBP/TATA box binding (nonspecific binding sliding recognition stabilization). According to the GenBank data, these 37 polymorphisms were associated with the changes in a number of selectively valuable traits. Statistically significant congruence of in silico analysis performed with mutant phenotypes (a TATA box mutations in specified genes on selectively valuable traits of the species, varieties, and breeds.

  18. PERAN DINAS TATA RUANG DAN CIPTA KARYA DALAM PENGELOLAAN SAMPAH DI KABUPATEN BULUKUMBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Affandi

    2015-10-01

        Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan peran dan upaya Dinas Tata Ruang dan Cipta Karya dalam mengelola sampah di Kabupaten Bulukumba. Jenis penelitian ini adalah Kualitatif dengan teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan instrumen wawancara dan observasi. Data tersebut dianalisis secara deskriktif dan interpretasi kepada informan dengan melakukan wawancara. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: dalam melaksanakan peran sebagai implementor dan pengawas terhadap pengelolaan sampah di Kabupaten Bulukumba, Dinas Tata Ruang dan Cipta Karya Kabupaten Bulukumba belum dapat memberikan hasil yang maksimal. Belum maksimalnya hasil tersebut dipengaruhi oleh kurangnya sumber daya manusia serta masih minimnya sarana dan prasarana yang tersedia memiliki pengaruh lebih besar dalam pengelolaan sampah. Adapun faktor pendukung yakni: partisipasi masyarakat dan ketersediaan lahan (TPA.

  19. Bibliometric dimension of innovation communication productivity of Tata Institute of Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Koganuramath, M. M.; Angadi, Mallikarjun; Kademani, B. S.

    2002-01-01

    Bibliometric analysis of 663 papers published by the social scientists of Tata Institute of Social Sciences during 1990-2000 in diverse domains: Criminology and Correctional Administration, Extra Mural Studies, Family and Child Welfare, Health Service Studies, Medical and Psychiatric Social work, Personnel Management and Industrial Relations, Research Methodology, Social Welfare Administration, and Urban and Rural Community Development, and Research Units: Social Work Education and Practice ...

  20. Conserved features of complexes of TATA-box binding proteins with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanegina, Olga; Aksianov, Evgeniy; Alexeevski, Andrei V; Karyagina, Anna; Spirin, Sergei

    2016-04-01

    A comparative analysis of all available structures of complexes of TATA-box binding proteins (TBPs) with DNA is performed. Conserved features of DNA-protein interaction are described, including nine amino acid residues that form conserved hydrogen bonds, 13 residues participating in formation of two conserved hydrophobic clusters at DNA-protein interface, and four conserved water-mediated contacts. Partial symmetry of conserved contacts reflects quasi-symmetry of TBP structure.

  1. Subunit organization in the TatA complex of the twin arginine protein translocase: a site-directed EPR spin labeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gaye F; Schermann, Sonya M; Bradley, Justin; Roberts, Andrew; Greene, Nicholas P; Berks, Ben C; Thomson, Andrew J

    2010-01-22

    The Tat system is used to transport folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane in bacteria and archaea and across the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. Multimers of the integral membrane TatA protein are thought to form the protein-conducting element of the Tat pathway. Nitroxide radicals were introduced at selected positions within the transmembrane helix of Escherichia coli TatA and used to probe the structure of detergent-solubilized TatA complexes by EPR spectroscopy. A comparison of spin label mobilities allowed classification of individual residues as buried within the TatA complex or exposed at the surface and suggested that residues Ile(12) and Val(14) are involved in interactions between helices. Analysis of inter-spin distances suggested that the transmembrane helices of TatA subunits are arranged as a single-walled ring containing a contact interface between Ile(12) on one subunit and Val(14) on an adjacent subunit. Experiments in which labeled and unlabeled TatA samples were mixed demonstrate that TatA subunits are exchanged between TatA complexes. This observation is consistent with the TatA dynamic polymerization model for the mechanism of Tat transport.

  2. [A precise equilibrium equation for four steps of binding between TBP and TATA-box allows for the prediction of phenotypical expression upon mutation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, P M; Suslov, V V; Savinkova, L K; Ponomarenko, M P; Kolchanov, N A

    2010-01-01

    Among the main events of transcription initiation of TATA-containing genes in eukayotes are the recognition and binding of the TATA-box by the TATA-binding protein (TBP) to start the preinitiation complex formation on the nucleosomal DNA. Using the equilibrium equation for step-by-step TBP/TATA-binding, we have analyzed 69 experimental datasets on the characteristics of biologicacally important features altered by TATA-box mutations. Among these features, the TBP/TATA-complex parameters, the transcription level, the activity of gene products, yeast colony growth at a dose of growth inhibitor (phenotype), and the heterogenity of the response of a population to unspecific environmental stress have been described. Significant correlations were found between in silico prediction for TBP/TATA affinity and experimental data for in vivo and in vitro test-systems based on 15 cell types of 19 species, RNA polymerases II and III, and natural, recombinant or mutant TBP. Such an invariant impact of the step-by-step TBP/TATA-binding on the biological activity of complex systems, from a molecule to a population, might be due to the fact that TBP/TATA-complex formation precedes specific steps of transcription machinery assembly, which provide the multivariant jigsaw puzzle according to the expression pattern of each eukaryotic gene.

  3. Nano-bio-sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Carrara, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    This book examines state-of-the-art applications of nano-bio-sensing. It brings together researchers from nano-electronics and bio-technology, providing multidisciplinary content from nano-structures fabrication to bio-sensing applications.

  4. PENERAPAN METODE TUTOR SEBAYA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILANPREPARE DANTABLE SET UP DALAM MATA KULIAH TATA HIDANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuningsih Wahyuningsih

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This learning teching research was intended to improve the learning outcomes of the students practicing in the subject of prepare and table set up, the main subject of Tata Hidang I (Servicing Arragements I. The subject for this research consisted of 18 S1 students of the learning group number 02 for the study Program for PKK, concentrating on Tata Boga, Departement of Service & Production Technology, the Technical Faculty of Semarang State University for the academic period of 2009-2010. This research was conducted in the gasal semester of the academic year of 2009-2010. The needed data were collected by means of tests and obsevation on the learning outcomes of the students practicing in the sub-subject of Prepare and Table Set up. The data collection used grading sheets for practices in Tata Hidang as its instrument. The data were then analized using the method of descriptive presentation. This was a classroom-action research planned in three cycles. The second and third cycles were implemented based on reflections on the first cycle and on improvements that should be reached. Every cycle consisted of two face to face encounters and of 4 activities: (1planning, (2 implementations, (3 observations, (4 reflections. The results of this research showed that the use of peeer tutorials for the learning-teching pocesses had positive effects both on the students and the lecturers that it might improve the quality of lecturing for the Tata Hidang I. The grades obtained by the students from practicing in the sub-subject of prepare and table set up increased from the lowest grade C (46.7% BC and B (60% and AB (26.6 %, and AB (26.6%.. Trough the three cycles, the number of BC grade decreased from 66% to only 20%. Based on the results of this research, it is recommended that peer tutorial for the subject of Tata Hidang I and Servicing in Food & Beverage should be continued in order that the educational serveices provided to the practicing students might be

  5. Synthesis of Boron Nano wires, Nano tubes, and Nano sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.B.; Chou, T.; Iqbal, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of boron nano wires, nano tubes, and nano sheets using a thermal vapor deposition process is reported. This work confirms previous research and provides a new method capable of synthesizing boron nano materials. The materials were made by using various combinations of MgB 2 , Mg(BH 4 ) 2 , MCM-41, NiB, and Fe wire. Unlike previously reported methods, a nanoparticle catalyst and a silicate substrate are not required for synthesis. Two types of boron nano wires, boron nano tubes, and boron nano sheets were made. Their morphology and chemical composition were determined through the use of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. These boron-based materials have potential for electronic and hydrogen storage applications.

  6. SAGA mediates transcription from the TATA-like element independently of Taf1p/TFIID but dependent on core promoter structures in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Kokubo, Tetsuro

    2017-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, core promoters of class II genes contain a TATA element, either a TATA box (TATA[A/T]A[A/T][A/G]) or TATA-like element (1 or 2 bp mismatched version of the TATA box). The TATA element directs the assembly of the preinitiation complex (PIC) to ensure accurate transcriptional initiation. It has been proposed the PIC is assembled by two distinct pathways in which TBP is delivered by TFIID or SAGA, leading to the widely accepted model that these complexes mediate transcription mainly from TATA-like element- or TATA box-containing promoters, respectively. Although both complexes are involved in transcription of nearly all class II genes, it remains unclear how efficiently SAGA mediates transcription from TATA-like element-containing promoters independently of TFIID. We found that transcription from the TATA box-containing AGP1 promoter was greatly stimulated in a Spt3p-dependent manner after inactivation of Taf1p/TFIID. Thus, this promoter provides a novel experimental system in which to evaluate SAGA-mediated transcription from TATA-like element(s). We quantitatively measured transcription from various TATA-like elements in the Taf1p-dependent CYC1 promoter and Taf1p-independent AGP1 promoter. The results revealed that SAGA could mediate transcription from at least some TATA-like elements independently of Taf1p/TFIID, and that Taf1p-dependence or -independence is highly robust with respect to variation of the TATA sequence. Furthermore, chimeric promoter mapping revealed that Taf1p-dependence or independence was conferred by the upstream activating sequence (UAS), whereas Spt3p-dependent transcriptional stimulation after inactivation of Taf1p/TFIID was specific to the AGP1 promoter and dependent on core promoter regions other than the TATA box. These results suggest that TFIID and/or SAGA are regulated in two steps: the UAS first specifies TFIID or SAGA as the predominant factor on a given promoter, and then the core promoter structure

  7. Nano-technology and nano-toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid developments in nano-technology are likely to confer significant benefits on mankind. But, as with perhaps all new technologies, these benefits are likely to be accompanied by risks, perhaps by new risks. Nano-toxicology is developing in parallel with nano-technology and seeks to define the hazards and risks associated with nano-materials: only when risks have been identified they can be controlled. This article discusses the reasons for concern about the potential effects on health of ...

  8. Substrate-triggered position switching of TatA and TatB during Tat transport in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habersetzer, Johann; Moore, Kristoffer; Cherry, Jon; Buchanan, Grant; Stansfeld, Phillip J; Palmer, Tracy

    2017-08-01

    The twin-arginine protein transport (Tat) machinery mediates the translocation of folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. The Escherichia coli Tat system comprises TatC and two additional sequence-related proteins, TatA and TatB. The active translocase is assembled on demand, with substrate-binding at a TatABC receptor complex triggering recruitment and assembly of multiple additional copies of TatA; however, the molecular interactions mediating translocase assembly are poorly understood. A 'polar cluster' site on TatC transmembrane (TM) helix 5 was previously identified as binding to TatB. Here, we use disulfide cross-linking and molecular modelling to identify a new binding site on TatC TM helix 6, adjacent to the polar cluster site. We demonstrate that TatA and TatB each have the capacity to bind at both TatC sites, however in vivo this is regulated according to the activation state of the complex. In the resting-state system, TatB binds the polar cluster site, with TatA occupying the TM helix 6 site. However when the system is activated by overproduction of a substrate, TatA and TatB switch binding sites. We propose that this substrate-triggered positional exchange is a key step in the assembly of an active Tat translocase. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. The mechanism by which TATA-box polymorphisms associated with human hereditary diseases influence interactions with the TATA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachkova, Irina; Savinkova, Ludmila; Arshinova, Tatyana; Ponomarenko, Mikhail; Peltek, Sergey; Kolchanov, Nikolay

    2014-05-01

    SNPs in ТАТА boxes are the cause of monogenic diseases, contribute to a large number of complex diseases, and have implications for human sensitivity to external and internal environmental signals. The aim of this work was to explore the kinetic characteristics of the formation of human ТВР complexes with ТАТА boxes, in which the SNPs are associated with β-thalassemias of diverse severity, immunosuppression, neurological disorders, and so on. It has for the first time been demonstrated, using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, that TBP interacts with SNP-containing ТАТА boxes with a significant (8-36-fold) decrease in TBP/ТАТА association rate constant (ka ) as compared with that in healthy people, a smaller decrease in dissociation rate constant (kd ) and changes in the half-lives of TBP/ТАТА complexes. Carriers of the -24G allele (rs 1800202T>G) in the TATA box of the triosephosphate isomerase gene promoter, associated with neurological and muscular disorders, were observed to have a 36-fold decrease in TBP/TATA association rate constant that are consistent with TPI deficiency shown for patients who carry this defective allele. The kinetic characteristics of TBP/ТАТА complexes obtained suggest that, at a molecular level, hereditary diseases are largely caused by changes in TBP/ТАТА association rates and these changes have a bearing on disease severity. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  10. Characterize the relationship between essential and TATA-containing genes for S. cerevisiae by network topologies in the perturbation sensitivity network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Wang, Shiyuan; Zhou, Meng; Chen, Xiaowen; Zuo, Yongchun; Lv, Yingli

    2016-10-01

    Essential genes are those that are indispensable for the survival and propagation of an organism. TATA-containing genes are associated with responses to various stresses and are highly regulated. Although both essential genes and TATA genes are very important in the function of biological systems, their relationship remains unclear because they have typically been researched independently. In this study, to investigate the relationship between essential genes and TATA genes, S. cerevisiae genes were classified as: essential TATA-containing, non-essential TATA-containing, essential non-TATA, and non-essential non-TATA genes. Network-based methods were applied to analyze these four gene categories in the S. cerevisiae perturbation sensitivity (PS) network, which was created from the transcriptional profiling of hundreds of different gene disruptions. All of the topological properties were found to be statistically discriminative among the four gene categories, and the non-essential TATA-containing genes had the most important roles in the yeast PS network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Escherichia coli TatA and TatB Proteins Have N-out, C-in Topology in Intact Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sabrina; Fritsch, Maximilian J.; Buchanan, Grant; Palmer, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    The twin arginine protein transport (Tat) system translocates folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes and the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. In Escherichia coli, TatA, TatB, and TatC are essential components of the machinery. A complex of TatB and TatC acts as the substrate receptor, whereas TatA is proposed to form the Tat transport channel. TatA and TatB are related proteins that comprise an N-terminal transmembrane helix and an adjacent amphipathic helix. Previous studies addressing the topological organization of TatA have given conflicting results. In this study, we have addressed the topological arrangement of TatA and TatB in intact cells by labeling of engineered cysteine residues with the membrane-impermeable thiol reagent methoxypolyethylene glycol maleimide. Our results show that TatA and TatB share an N-out, C-in topology, with no evidence that the amphipathic helices of either protein are exposed at the periplasmic side of the membrane. We further show that the N-out, C-in topology of TatA is fixed and is not affected by the absence of other Tat components or by the overproduction of a Tat substrate. These data indicate that topological reorganization of TatA is unlikely to accompany Tat-dependent protein transport. PMID:22399293

  12. Escherichia coli TatA and TatB proteins have N-out, C-in topology in intact cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sabrina; Fritsch, Maximilian J; Buchanan, Grant; Palmer, Tracy

    2012-04-27

    The twin arginine protein transport (Tat) system translocates folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes and the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. In Escherichia coli, TatA, TatB, and TatC are essential components of the machinery. A complex of TatB and TatC acts as the substrate receptor, whereas TatA is proposed to form the Tat transport channel. TatA and TatB are related proteins that comprise an N-terminal transmembrane helix and an adjacent amphipathic helix. Previous studies addressing the topological organization of TatA have given conflicting results. In this study, we have addressed the topological arrangement of TatA and TatB in intact cells by labeling of engineered cysteine residues with the membrane-impermeable thiol reagent methoxypolyethylene glycol maleimide. Our results show that TatA and TatB share an N-out, C-in topology, with no evidence that the amphipathic helices of either protein are exposed at the periplasmic side of the membrane. We further show that the N-out, C-in topology of TatA is fixed and is not affected by the absence of other Tat components or by the overproduction of a Tat substrate. These data indicate that topological reorganization of TatA is unlikely to accompany Tat-dependent protein transport.

  13. Molecular Mechanism of Mot1, a TATA-binding Protein (TBP)-DNA Dissociating Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Ramya; True, Jason D; Auble, David T

    2016-07-22

    The essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATPase Mot1 globally regulates transcription by impacting the genomic distribution and activity of the TATA-binding protein (TBP). In vitro, Mot1 forms a ternary complex with TBP and DNA and can use ATP hydrolysis to dissociate the TBP-DNA complex. Prior work suggested an interaction between the ATPase domain and a functionally important segment of DNA flanking the TATA sequence. However, how ATP hydrolysis facilitates removal of TBP from DNA is not well understood, and several models have been proposed. To gain insight into the Mot1 mechanism, we dissected the role of the flanking DNA segment by biochemical analysis of complexes formed using DNAs with short single-stranded gaps. In parallel, we used a DNA tethered cleavage approach to map regions of Mot1 in proximity to the DNA under different conditions. Our results define non-equivalent roles for bases within a broad segment of flanking DNA required for Mot1 action. Moreover, we present biochemical evidence for two distinct conformations of the Mot1 ATPase, the detection of which can be modulated by ATP analogs as well as DNA sequence flanking the TATA sequence. We also show using purified complexes that Mot1 dissociation of a stable, high affinity TBP-DNA interaction is surprisingly inefficient, suggesting how other transcription factors that bind to TBP may compete with Mot1. Taken together, these results suggest that TBP-DNA affinity as well as other aspects of promoter sequence influence Mot1 function in vivo. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Nano-technology and nano-toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    Rapid developments in nano-technology are likely to confer significant benefits on mankind. But, as with perhaps all new technologies, these benefits are likely to be accompanied by risks, perhaps by new risks. Nano-toxicology is developing in parallel with nano-technology and seeks to define the hazards and risks associated with nano-materials: only when risks have been identified they can be controlled. This article discusses the reasons for concern about the potential effects on health of exposure to nano-materials and relates these to the evidence of the effects on health of the ambient aerosol. A number of hypotheses are proposed and the dangers of adopting unsubstantiated hypotheses are stressed. Nano-toxicology presents many challenges and will need substantial financial support if it is to develop at a rate sufficient to cope with developments in nano-technology.

  15. PENERAPAN STANDAR PELAYANAN MINIMAL PEGAWAI TATA USAHA DI SMP NEGERI SE-KOTA SALATIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aan Ikhsananto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pegawai tata usaha memiliki tugas-tugas pelayanan yang berhubungan dengan banyak orang di lingkungan sekolah. Observasi awal yang dilakukan peneliti menunjukkan bahwa penerapan Standar Pelayanan Minimal (SPM masih kurang. Melalui peningkatan kompetensi pegawai diharapkan dapat memenuhi standar pelayanan minimal pegawai tata usaha di sekolah. Pemanfaatan fasilitas kantor juga diharapkan dapat menunjang standar pelayanan minimal. Selain itu ketersediaan teknologi informasi diharapkan penerapan standar pelayanan minimal dapat semakin meningkat. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui apakah kompetensi pegawai, fasilitas kantor, dan teknologi infomasi berpengaruh terhadap penerapan SPM pegawai tata usaha.Variabel dalam penelitian ini adalah kompetensi pegawai (X1, fasilitas kantor (X2 dan teknologi informasi (X3 sebagai variabel bebas serta standar pelayanan minimal (Y sebagai variabel terikatnya. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh pegawai tata usaha (TU di SMP Negeri Se-Kota Salatiga, berjumlah 54 pegawai. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah metode dokumentasi, wawancara, dan kuesioner. Teknik analisis data dapat menggunakan regresi berganda bantuan SPSS, asumsi klasik, dan analisis deskriptif persentase. Hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa kompetensi pegawai, fasilitas kantor, dan teknologi informasi berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap penerapan standar pelayanan minimal pegawai. Clerical employee has service tasks associated with many people in the school environment. Preliminary observations conducted by researchers showed that the application of the Minimum Service Standards (SPM is still lacking. By improving the competence of employees is expected to meet minimum service standards in school administration employees. The usefullness of office facilities are also expected to support the minimum service standards. Besides the availability of information technology is expected implementation of

  16. Proses Penanganan Tata Kearsipan Daerah pada Kantor Perpustakaan Arsip dan Dokumentasi Deli Serdang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisnawati Lisnawati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan manusia akan informasi begitu penting, beragamnya jenis media saluran informasi turut menambah kemudahan bagi siapa saja untuk mencari informasi tidak terkecuali bagi pemerintahan daerah sebagai penyelenggara pemerintahan memiliki peran penting untuk menyediakan sistem pengarsipan dalam mendukung kinerja. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk melihat bagaimanakah proses penanganan tata kearsipan daerah pada kantor perpustakaan arsip dan dokumentasi Kabupaten Deli Serdang. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah berjenis kualitatif dengan pendekatan deskriptif dimana pencarian data menggunakan data primer dan data skunder. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan peralatan penyimpanan arsip masih mengunakan peralatan sederhana dan belum berbasis teknologi.

  17. TC-motifs at the TATA-box expected position in plant genes: a novel class of motifs involved in the transcription regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Virginie; Brunaud, Véronique; Lecharny, Alain

    2010-03-12

    The TATA-box and TATA-variants are regulatory elements involved in the formation of a transcription initiation complex. Both have been conserved throughout evolution in a restricted region close to the Transcription Start Site (TSS). However, less than half of the genes in model organisms studied so far have been found to contain either one of these elements. Indeed different core-promoter elements are involved in the recruitment of the TATA-box-binding protein. Here we assessed the possibility of identifying novel functional motifs in plant genes, sharing the TATA-box topological constraints. We developed an ab-initio approach considering the preferential location of motifs relative to the TSS. We identified motifs observed at the TATA-box expected location and conserved in both Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa promoters. We identified TC-elements within non-TA-rich promoters 30 bases upstream of the TSS. As with the TATA-box and TATA-variant sequences, it was possible to construct a unique distance graph with the TC-element sequences. The structural and functional features of TC-element-containing genes were distinct from those of TATA-box- or TATA-variant-containing genes. Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptome analysis revealed that TATA-box-containing genes were generally those showing relatively high levels of expression and that TC-element-containing genes were generally those expressed in specific conditions. Our observations suggest that the TC-elements might constitute a class of novel regulatory elements participating towards the complex modulation of gene expression in plants.

  18. El tratamiento de la metáfora en la traducción de Historias de Tata Mundo (The Treatment of the Metaphor in the Translation of Historias de Tata Mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Araya Ríos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fabián Dobles plantea mediante hechos característicos y regionalismos una imagen del campesino nacional de mediados de siglo xx en su obra Historias de Tata Mundo. Joan Henry lo traduce al inglés en 1998 y lo titula The Stories of Tata Mundo, transportando al campesino costarricense a la escena de habla inglesa. Se analizan las decisiones de la traductora sobre el tratamiento de las metáforas, teniendo en cuenta el lenguaje figurado como una herramienta empleada por el autor para caracterizar la vida rural del campesinado costarricense. Using traditional activities and regionalisms, Fabián Dobles reconstructed the image of the Costa Rican country folk of the mid-twentieth century in his literary work Historias de Tata Mundo. Joan Henry translated it in 1998, with the title The Stories of Tata Mundo, transporting the local peasant to the English-speaking scenario. The translator’s decisions are analyzed here regarding the translation of metaphors, taking into account figurative speech as a tool used by the author to characterize and depict the rural life of Costa Rican country folk.

  19. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene.

  20. Ultrastructural characterisation of Bacillus subtilis TatA complexes suggests they are too small to form homooligomeric translocation pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Daniel; Vasisht, Nishi; Baglieri, Jacopo; Monteferrante, Carmine G; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Robinson, Colin; Smith, Corinne J

    2013-08-01

    Tat-dependent protein transport permits the traffic of fully folded proteins across membranes in bacteria and chloroplasts. The mechanism by which this occurs is not understood. Current theories propose that a key step requires the coalescence of a substrate-binding TatC-containing complex with a TatA complex, which forms pores of varying sizes that could accommodate different substrates. We have studied the structure of the TatAd complex from Bacillus subtilis using electron microscopy to generate the first 3D model of a TatA complex from a Gram-positive bacterium. We observe that TatAd does not exhibit the remarkable heterogeneity of Escherichia coli TatA complexes but instead forms ring-shaped complexes of 7.5-9nm diameter with potential pores of 2.5-3nm diameter that are occluded at one end. Such structures are consistent with those seen for E. coli TatE complexes. Furthermore, the small diameter of the TatAd pore, and the homogeneous nature of the complexes, suggest that TatAd cannot form the translocation channel by itself. Biochemical data indicate that another B. subtilis TatA complex, TatAc, has similar properties, suggesting a common theme for TatA-type complexes from Bacillus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A conserved TATA-less proximal promoter drives basal transcription from the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soravia, E; Grebe, A; De Luca, P

    1995-01-01

    have cloned an uPAR DNA segment containing upstream regulatory sequences from both the human and murine genomes. We report that a proximal promoter, contained within 180 bp from the major transcription start sites of the human uPAR gene, drives basal transcription. This region lacks TATA and CAAT boxes...

  2. Prinsip Kehati-Hatian di Bidang Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup dalam Peraturan Daerah Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah Provinsi Maluku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Ode Angga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prinsip Kehati-Hatian di Bidang Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup dalamPeraturan Daerah Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah Provinsi Maluku bertujuan untuk mengetahui hakekat prinsip kehati-hatian dalam Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah di Provinsi Maluku.Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian yuridis normatif, yaitu penelitian yang dilakukan terhadap azas-azas hukum, kaedah-kaedah hukum dalam arti nilai (norma peraturan hukum konkrit dan sistem hukum.Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah pendekaan filosofis (philosophicalapproach, pendekatan konseptual (conseptual approach, pendekatan perundang-undangan (statute approach. Hasil yang diperoleh bahwa prinsip kehati-hatian dalam Perda RTRW Provinsi Maluku No. 16 Tahun 2013 dilakukan pencegahan secara dini, pencegahan antisipatif, kehati-hatian (Prudential Principles terhadap perlindungan dan pengelolaan sumber daya alam dan lingkungan hidup serta penataan ruang. Filosofis pengaturan prinsip kehati-hatian dalam Perda RTRW Provinsi Maluku bahwa mengingat fungsi ruang sebagai tempat manusia dan makhluk hidup lain, melakukan kegiatan, dan memelihara kelangsungan hidupnya, pada dasarnya ketersediaannya tidak tak terbatas. Berkaitan itu untuk mewujudkan rencana tata ruang wilayah Provinsi Maluku yang aman, nyaman, produktif, dan berkelanjutan perlu dilakukan rencana tata ruang wilayah yang dapat mengharmonisasi lingkungan alam dan lingkungan buatan  mampu mewujudkan keterpaduan penggunaan sumber daya alam dan sumber daya buatan, serta dapat memberikan perlindungan terhadap fungsi ruang dan pencegahan dampak negatif terhadap lingkungan hidup akibat pemanfaatan ruang. 

  3. Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer shows uniformity in TATA binding protein-induced DNA bending and heterogeneity in bending kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Rebecca H; Goodrich, James A; Kugel, Jennifer F

    2012-09-25

    TATA binding protein (TBP) is a key component of the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II transcription machinery that binds to TATA boxes located in the core promoter regions of many genes. Structural and biochemical studies have shown that when TBP binds DNA, it sharply bends the DNA. We used single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to study DNA bending by human TBP on consensus and mutant TATA boxes in the absence and presence of TFIIA. We found that the state of the bent DNA within populations of TBP-DNA complexes is homogeneous; partially bent intermediates were not observed. In contrast to the results of previous ensemble studies, TBP was found to bend a mutant TATA box to the same extent as the consensus TATA box. Moreover, in the presence of TFIIA, the extent of DNA bending was not significantly changed, although TFIIA did increase the fraction of DNA molecules bound by TBP. Analysis of the kinetics of DNA bending and unbending revealed that on the consensus TATA box two kinetically distinct populations of TBP-DNA complexes exist; however, the bent state of the DNA is the same in the two populations. Our smFRET studies reveal that human TBP bends DNA in a largely uniform manner under a variety of different conditions, which was unexpected given previous ensemble biochemical studies. Our new observations led to us to revise the model for the mechanism of DNA binding by TBP and for how DNA bending is affected by TATA sequence and TFIIA.

  4. Full trans-activation mediated by the immediate-early protein of equine herpesvirus 1 requires a consensus TATA box, but not its cognate binding sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong K; Shakya, Akhalesh K; O'Callaghan, Dennis J

    2016-01-04

    The immediate-early protein (IEP) of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) has extensive homology to the IEP of alphaherpesviruses and possesses domains essential for trans-activation, including an acidic trans-activation domain (TAD) and binding domains for DNA, TFIIB, and TBP. Our data showed that the IEP directly interacted with transcription factor TFIIA, which is known to stabilize the binding of TBP and TFIID to the TATA box of core promoters. When the TATA box of the EICP0 promoter was mutated to a nonfunctional TATA box, IEP-mediated trans-activation was reduced from 22-fold to 7-fold. The IEP trans-activated the viral promoters in a TATA motif-dependent manner. Our previous data showed that the IEP is able to repress its own promoter when the IEP-binding sequence (IEBS) is located within 26-bp from the TATA box. When the IEBS was located at 100 bp upstream of the TATA box, IEP-mediated trans-activation was very similar to that of the minimal IE(nt -89 to +73) promoter lacking the IEBS. As the distance from the IEBS to the TATA box decreased, IEP-mediated trans-activation progressively decreased, indicating that the IEBS located within 100 bp from the TATA box sequence functions as a distance-dependent repressive element. These results indicated that IEP-mediated full trans-activation requires a consensus TATA box of core promoters, but not its binding to the cognate sequence (IEBS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The TatA component of the twin-arginine translocation system locally weakens the cytoplasmic membrane ofEscherichia coliupon protein substrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Bo; Heidrich, Eyleen S; Mehner-Breitfeld, Denise; Brüser, Thomas

    2018-03-13

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system that comprises the TatA, TatB, and TatC components transports folded proteins across energized membranes of prokaryotes and plant plastids. It is not known, however, how the transport of this protein cargo is achieved. Favored models suggest that the TatA component supports transport by weakening the membrane upon full translocon assembly. Using Escherichia coli as model organism, we now demonstrate in vivo that the N-terminus of TatA can indeed destabilize the membrane, resulting in a lowered membrane energization in growing cells. We found that in full-length TatA, this effect is counterbalanced by its amphipathic helix. Consistent with these observations, the TatA N-terminus induced proton leakage in vitro , indicating membrane destabilization. Fluorescence quenching data revealed that substrate binding causes the TatA hinge region and the N-terminal part of the TatA amphipathic helix to move toward the membrane surface. In the presence of TatBC, substrate binding also reduced the exposure of a specific region in the amphipathic helix, indicating a participation of TatBC. Of note, the substrate-induced reorientation of the TatA amphipathic helix correlated with detectable membrane weakening. We therefore propose a two-state model in which membrane-destabilizing effects of the short TatA membrane anchor are compensated by the membrane-immersed N-terminal part of the amphipathic helix in a resting state. We conclude that substrate binding to TatABC complexes switches the position of the amphipathic helix, which locally weakens the membrane on demand to allow substrate translocation across the membrane. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Processing by rhomboid protease is required for Providencia stuartii TatA to interact with TatC and to form functional homo-oligomeric complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch, Maximilian J; Krehenbrink, Martin; Tarry, Michael J; Berks, Ben C; Palmer, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    The twin arginine transport (Tat) system transports folded proteins across the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane and the plant thylakoid membrane. In Escherichia coli three membrane proteins, TatA, TatB and TatC, are essential components of the machinery. TatA from Providencia stuartii is homologous to E. coli TatA but is synthesized as an inactive pre-protein with an N-terminal extension of eight amino acids. Removal of this extension by the rhomboid protease AarA is required to activate P. s...

  7. Variable stoichiometry of the TatA component of the twin-arginine protein transport system observed by in vivo single-molecule imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Leake, Mark C.; Greene, Nicholas P.; Godun, Rachel M.; Granjon, Thierry; Buchanan, Grant; Chen, Shuyun; Berry, Richard M.; Palmer, Tracy; Berks, Ben C.

    2008-01-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system transports folded proteins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. The essential components of the Tat pathway are the membrane proteins TatA, TatB, and TatC. TatA is thought to form the protein translocating element of the Tat system. Current models for Tat transport make predictions about the oligomeric state of TatA and whether, and how, this state changes during the transport cycle. We determi...

  8. Nano devices and sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Chung, Yung-Hui

    2016-01-01

    This volume on semiconductor devices focuses on such topics as nano-imprinting, lithography, nanowire charge-trapping, thermo-stability in nanowires, nano-electrodes, and voltage and materials used for fabricating and improving electrical characteristics of nano-materials.

  9. Chromatin interaction of TATA-binding protein is dynamically regulated in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Petra; Mousson, Florence; Geverts, Bart; Scheer, Elisabeth; Tora, Laszlo; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B; Timmers, H Th Marc

    2010-08-01

    Gene transcription in mammalian cells is a dynamic process involving regulated assembly of transcription complexes on chromatin in which the TATA-binding protein (TBP) plays a central role. Here, we investigate the dynamic behaviour of TBP by a combination of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and biochemical assays using human cell lines of different origin. The majority of nucleoplasmic TBP and other TFIID subunits associate with chromatin in a highly dynamic manner. TBP dynamics are regulated by the joint action of the SNF2-related BTAF1 protein and the NC2 complex. Strikingly, both BTAF1 and NC2 predominantly affect TBP dissociation rates, leaving the association rate unchanged. Chromatin immunoprecipitation shows that BTAF1 negatively regulates TBP and NC2 binding to active promoters. Our results support a model for a BTAF1-mediated release of TBP-NC2 complexes from chromatin.

  10. EFEKTIVITAS MODEL PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS KOMPETENSI DENGAN PENDEKATAN DUNIA KERJA PADA PROGRAM D3 TATA BOGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Febriana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Penelitian bertujuan untuk menghasilkan model pembelajaran berbasis kompetensi dengan pendekatan dunia kerja (model PKBK, rumusan kompetensi mahasiswa D3 Tata Boga, rancangan pembelajaran berbasis kompetensi, dan rubrik penilaian. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian dan pengembangan yang mengadopsi model prosedural Borg & Gall.Subjek penelitian adalah praktisi industri perhotelan, mahasiswa proram D3 Tata Boga dan dosen matakuliah praktik. Teknik pengumpulan data lewat FGD dan pemberian angket, sedang teknik analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif kualitatitif dan statistik deskriptif. Hasil penelitian ini adalah (1 model PKBK memiliki komponen: profil lulusan, learning outcomes, rumusan kompetensi, pengalaman pembelajaran, rancangan pembelajaran, dan evaluasi kompetensi, (2 rumusan kompetensi untuk lulusan terbagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu technical skills dan employability skills, (3 rancangan pembelajaran pada model PKBK terdiri dari: struktur kurikulum, materi dan bahan pembelajaran, diagram pencapaian kompetensi dan dokumen kurikulum, (4 rubrik penilaian berisi penilaian terhadap employability dan technical skills. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING MODEL USING WORLD OF WORK APPROACH AT D3 FOOD AND NUTRITION PROGRAMME Abstract: This research aims to produce a model of competence-based learning using the world of work approach (model PKBK, to formulate students’ competence, to design competence-based learning, and to develop evaluation rubric. This research adopted Research and Development model developed by Borg and Gall. The research subjects were hotel practitioners, students of D3 Food and Nutrition, and lechturers of practice courses. Data were collected through FGDs and questionnaires and analysed using descriptive qualitative and descriptive stastitics tecniques. The findings show that (1 the PKBK model comprises graduates’ profile, learning outcomes, competence formulation, learning design, and competence

  11. Construction of Hunveyor-9 and Experiments with its Magnetic Carpet Observing Dust Mixtures at Eötvös High School, Tata, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, I.; Varga, T.; Bérczi, Sz.; Hegyi, S.; Hudoba, Gy.; Almády, B.; Badics, A.; Bakonyi, I.; Franko, M.; Gyürky, A.; Héricz, M.; Ikonga, R.; Németh, A.; Pardy, T.; Varga, T.; Végh, Gy.

    2008-03-01

    We report about the construction of the ninth Hungarian University Surveyor (Hunveyor-9) and its experiment with magnetic dust observation by carpet containing small discs of magnets at Tata, Eötvös József High School, Hungary.

  12. Highly redundant function of multiple AT-rich sequences as core promoter elements in the TATA-less RPS5 promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Fuminori; Kasahara, Koji; Kokubo, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes, protein-coding genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase II (pol II) together with general transcription factors (GTFs). TFIID, the largest GTF composed of TATA element-binding protein (TBP) and 14 TBP-associated factors (TAFs), plays a critical role in transcription from TATA-less promoters. In metazoans, several core promoter elements other than the TATA element are thought to be recognition sites for TFIID. However, it is unclear whether functionally homologous elements also exist in TATA-less promoters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we identify the cis-elements required to support normal levels of transcription and accurate initiation from sites within the TATA-less and TFIID-dependent RPS5 core promoter. Systematic mutational analyses show that multiple AT-rich sequences are required for these activities and appear to function as recognition sites for TFIID. A single copy of these sequences can support accurate initiation from the endogenous promoter, indicating that they carry highly redundant functions. These results show a novel architecture of yeast TATA-less promoters and support a model in which pol II scans DNA downstream from a recruited site, while searching for appropriate initiation site(s).

  13. Book Review: Nano physics & Nano technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkhaled Zaree

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During last decades, there are a lot of emphases on studying material behavior in atomic scale. In most scientific and engineering fields, one can see the effect of nanotechnology. The aim of nanoscience is to design and fabrication of new and applicable materials. Nowadays, Nano is a popular science which chemists, physicist, doctors, engineers, financial managers and environment's fans for creating a good life via nanoscience have a great cooperation with each others. Materials in nano scale such as nanotubes and nanowires have extraordinary properties which by optimization of these properties in nano scale and then develop these properties to macro scale, they've been challenging issues. For instance, materials in nano scale improve mechanical properties of polymers and metallic materials via nano particles and on the other hand by producing a thin film on surfaces improve surface hardening. Besides, nanotechnology is in hi-tech industries such as magnetic devices, surface coating, and biomaterial, material having sensors, polymers, gels, ceramics and intelligent membrane. Nano-carbon tubes are considered intelligent due to the fact that they couple electrochemical and elastic properties simultaneously, hence have greater activation energy density in comparison with other intelligent materials. Studying nanoscience is important because it causes the life to be better. Future Materials and structures will have a lot of outstanding properties. Intelligent machines can repair, recycle and reconstruct themselves. All these features are only possible in nano zone. Nano in engineering science can provide the possibility of making light missiles for exploring space. The reduced weight can be achieved by replacing traditional materials with hybrid nanocomposites.

  14. Pembuatan Tata Kelola Keamanan Informasi Kontrol Akses Berbasis ISO/IEC 27001:2005 Pada Kantor Pelayanan Perbendaharaan Surabaya I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margo Utomo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi informasi yang pesat saat ini turut berimbas kepada penggunaan teknologi informasi di lingkungan pemerintahan. KPPN Surabaya I sebagai instansi vertikal dari Direktorat Jenderal Perbendaharaan juga menerapkan teknologi informasi dalam untuk mendukung kegiatan pelayanan terhadap satuan kerja yang berada di lingkup bayarnya. Sayangnya masalah keamanan informasi yang merupakan bagian penting dari teknologi informasi sering kali kurang mendapatkan perhatian. Tidak dapat dipungkiri bahwa munculnya ancaman ataupun kelemahan dalam teknologi informasi dapat menggangu jalannya kegiatan pelayanan yang menggunakan teknologi informasi. Oleh karena itu diperlukan pengelolaan teknologi informasi berbasis risiko yang dituangkan dalam tata kelola untuk mengelola ancaman ataupun kelemahan yang muncul. ISO/IEC 27001:2005 merupakan framework sistem manajemen keamanan informasi yang dapat dijadikan dasar dalam pengelolaan keamanan informasi. Tata kelola keamanan informasi yang dibuat ini menitikberatkan pada kontrol akses yang merupakan salah satu kotrol keamanan dari ISO/IEC 27001:2005

  15. Multimerization of the mouse TATA-binding protein (TBP) driven by its C-terminal conserved domain.

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, K; Makino, Y; Kishimoto, T; Yamauchi, J; Kato, S; Muramatsu, M; Tamura, T

    1994-01-01

    The conformational states of the mouse TATA-binding protein (TBP) in solution were studied. A histidine tag and a factor Xa recognition site-carrying mouse TBP was expressed in E. coli, highly purified, and its fundamental functions as a TBP were demonstrated. We analyzed the molecular states of mouse TBP by gel filtration and glycerol gradient sedimentation, and found that TBP forms heterogeneous multimers in solution. Direct binding of TBP molecules to each other was proven by the far-Weste...

  16. CMS delegation for MTB55 held at Tata Institute in Mumbai (Bombay) during CMS week 14 December 2000.

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Payn

    2000-01-01

    CMS delegation at MTB55 in Tata Institue Mumbai on 14 December 2000. From left to right Bertrand Blau/ETHZ, Stefania Farinon/INFN-Genova, Alain Hervé/CERN, Lucien Veillet/CERN, Jean-Paul Grillet/CERN, Yves Pabot/Saclay, Bruno Levesy/Saclay, Alain Payn/Saclay, François Kircher/Saclay, Benoît Curé/CERN.

  17. DESY NanoLab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stierle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The DESY NanoLab is a facility providing access to nano-characterization, nano-structuring and nano-synthesis techniques which are complementary to the advanced X-ray techniques available at DESY’s light sources. It comprises state-of-the art scanning probe microscopy and focused ion beam manufacturing, as well as surface sensitive spectroscopy techniques for chemical analysis. Specialized laboratory x-ray diffraction setups are available for a successful sample pre-characterization before the precious synchrotron beamtimes. Future upgrades will include as well characterization of magnetic properties.

  18. PERANCANGAN CASING DAN TATA LETAK KOMPONEN OZONIZER PENGAWET MAKANAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Fanani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini berisi tentang perancangan casing dan tata letak komponen ozonizer pengawet makanan. Proses perancangan produk dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode Quality Function Deployment (QFD pada fase perencanaan produk (Product Planning dan fase perencanaan disain (Design Planning. Pada fase perencanaan produk, dilakukan identifikasi kebutuhan konsumen terhadap ozonizer pengawet makanan. Pengumpulan data mengenai kebutuhan konsumen diperoleh dari penyebaran angket (kuisioner kepada pengguna produk, yaitu rumah makan dan industri makanan. Setelah diperoleh daftar kebutuhan konsumen, kebutuhan-kebutuhan tersebut kemudian diolah menggunakan metode QFD pada fase perencanaan produk hingga diperoleh spestifikasi teknis produk dan House of Quality (HOQ. Spesifikasi teknis produk ini akan digunakan sebagai acuan dalam menyusun fase kedua proses QFD, yaitu fase perencanaan disain. Pada fase perencanaan disain, dihasilkan beberapa sketsa alternatif solusi. Alternatif solusi disain tersebut kemudian dievaluasi dan dilakukan penilaian untuk memilih solusi disain produk ozonizer pengawet makanan. Setelah solusi disain produk ozonizer dipilih, alternatif solusi tersebut kemudian dirancang secara detail, dan kemudian dibuat prototype produk. Prototype produk  yang dibuat adalah prototype visual, yakni gambar disain yang dianimasi untuk melihat proses perakitan, penyusunan tata letak komponen penyusun produk dan penyusunan display dan panel operasi produk. Kata Kunci   :   Kebutuhan konsumen, Quality Function Deployment, Spesifikasi Teknis Produk, Solusi Disain, Prototype Disain Produk     This research contains about casing project and ozonizer component layout of food preservative. The project is practiced using Quality Function Deployment (QFD method on product planning and design planning phase. In product planning phase, there is identification about consumer needs in ozonizer food preservative. Collecting data about consumer needs are received

  19. Towards understanding the Tat translocation mechanism through structural and biophysical studies of the amphipathic region of TatA from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Catherine S; Haney, Evan F; Vogel, Hans J; Turner, Raymond J

    2011-09-01

    The twin-arginine translocase (Tat) system is used by many bacteria and plants to move folded proteins across the cytoplasmic or thylakoid membrane. In most bacteria, the TatA protein is believed to form a defined pore in the membrane through homo-oligomerization with other TatA protomers. The predicted secondary structure of TatA includes a transmembrane helix, an amphipathic helix, and an unstructured C-terminal region. Here biophysical and structural investigations were performed on a synthetic peptide representing the amphipathic region of TatA (residues 22 to 44, abbreviated TatAH2). The C-terminal region of TatA (residues 44-89) was previously shown to be accessible from both the cytoplasmic and periplasmic sides of the membrane only when the membrane potential was intact, suggesting dependence of its topology on an energized membrane (Chan et al. 2007 Biochemistry 46: 7396-404). Such observation suggests that the TatAH2 region would have unique lipid interactions that may be related to the function of TatA during translocation and thus warranted further investigations. NMR and CD spectroscopy of TatAH2 show that it adopts a predominantly helical structure in a membrane environment while remaining unstructured in aqueous solution. Differential scanning calorimetry studies also reveal that TatAH2 interacts with DPPG lipids but not with DPPC, suggesting that negatively charged phospholipid head groups contribute to the membrane interactions with TatA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A T9G mutation in the prototype TATA-box TCACTATATATAG determines nucleosome formation and synergy with upstream activator sequences in plant promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Amol; Ansari, Suraiya A; Srivastava, Rakesh; Mantri, Shrikant; Asif, Mehar H; Sawant, Samir V; Tuli, Rakesh

    2009-12-01

    We had earlier reported that mutations to G and C at the seventh and eighth positions in the prototype TATA-box TCACTATATATAG inhibited light-dependent activation of transcription from the promoter. In this study, we characterized mutations at the ninth position of the prototype TATA-box. Substitution of T at the ninth position with G or C enhanced transcription from the promoter in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. The effect of T9G/C mutations was not light dependent, although the 9G/C TATA-box showed synergy with the light-responsive element (lre). However, the 9G/C mutants in the presence of lre failed to respond to phytochromes, sugar, and calcium signaling, in contrast to the prototype TATA-box with lre. The 9G/C mutation shifted the point of initiation of transcription, and transcription activation was dependent upon the type of activating element present upstream. The synergy in activation was noticed with lre and legumin activators but not with rbcS, Pcec, and PR-1a activators. The 9G mutation resulted in a micrococcal nuclease-sensitive region over the TATA-box, suggesting a nucleosome-free region, in contrast to the prototype promoter, which had a distinct nucleosome on the TATA-box. Thus, the transcriptional augmentation with mutation at the ninth position might be because of the loss of a repressive nucleosomal structure on the TATA-box. In agreement with our findings, the promoters containing TATAGATA as identified by genome-wide analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) are not tightly repressed.

  1. Direct observation of preferential processing of clustered abasic DNA damages with APE1 in TATA box and CpG island by reaction kinetics and fluorescence dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Kumari, Bhavini; Maity, Banibrata; Seth, Debabrata; Das, Prolay

    2014-01-01

    Sequences like the core element of TATA box and CpG island are frequently encountered in the genome and related to transcription. The fate of repair of clustered abasic sites in such sequences of genomic importance is largely unknown. This prompted us to investigate the sequence dependence of cleavage efficiency of APE1 enzyme at abasic sites within the core sequences of TATA box and CpG island using fluorescence dynamics and reaction kinetics. Simultaneous molecular dynamics study through steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy using unique ethidium bromide dye release assay confirmed an elevated amount of abasic site cleavage of the TATA box sequence as compared to the core CpG island. Reaction kinetics showed that catalytic efficiency of APE1 for abasic site cleavage of core CpG island sequence was ∼4 times lower as compared to that of the TATA box. Higher value of Km was obtained from the core CpG island sequence than the TATA box sequence. This suggests a greater binding effect of APE1 enzyme on TATA sequence that signifies a prominent role of the sequence context of the DNA substrate. Evidently, a faster response from APE1 was obtained for clustered abasic damage repair of TATA box core sequences than CpG island consensus sequences. The neighboring bases of the abasic sites in the complementary DNA strand were found to have significant contribution in addition to the flanking bases in modulating APE1 activity. The repair refractivity of the bistranded clustered abasic sites arise from the slow processing of the second abasic site, consequently resulting in decreased overall production of potentially lethal double strand breaks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PENGEMBANGAN BUKU AJAR MATA PELAJARAN TATA HIDANG PAKET KEAHLIAN JASA BOGA SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEJURUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Astuti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Textbooks are the ingredients or the subject matter is arranged systematically used by students in the learning process. The purpose of this study was to develop teaching materials such as textbooks on the subjects of governance hidang class X SMK in Magetan consisting of 3 KD, namely, (1 The scope of food and beverage service, (2 Operating equipment food and beverage service, and (3 providing food and beverage service at the restaurant. The results show that the development of an overall assessment of the completeness of the presentation of the textbook of the development of criteria that are in "good", which means it does not need to be revised textbooks. Buku ajar adalah bahan-bahan atau materi pelajaran yang disusun secara sistematis yang digunakan oleh siswa dalam proses belajar mengajar. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengembangkan bahan ajar berupa buku ajar pada mata pelajaran tata hidang kelas X SMK di Kabupaten Magetan yang terdiri dari 3 KD yaitu, (1 Ruang lingkup pelayanan makanan dan minuman, (2 Mengoperasikan peralatan layanan makanan dan minuman, dan (3 menyediakan layanan makanan dan minuman di restoran. Hasil pengembangan menunjukkan bahwa secara keseluruhan penilaian tentang kelengkapan penyajian terhadap buku ajar hasil pengembangan berada pada kriteria “baik”, yang berarti buku ajar tidak perlu direvisi.

  3. Differential stability of TATA box binding proteins from archaea with different optimal growth temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopitz, Annette; Soppa, Jörg; Krejtschi, Carsten; Hauser, Karin

    2009-09-01

    The TATA box binding protein (TBP) is involved in promoter recognition, the first step of transcription initiation. TBP is universally conserved and essential in archaea and eukaryotes. In archaea, TBPs have to be stable and to function in species that cover an extremely wide range of optimal growth temperatures (OGTs), from below 0 °C to more than 100 °C. Thus, the archaeal TBP family is ideally suited to study the evolutionary adaptation of proteins to an extremely wide range of temperatures. We characterized the thermostability of one mesophilic and one thermophilic TBP by infrared spectroscopy. Transition temperatures ( Tms) of thermal unfolding have been determined using TBPs from Methanosarcina mazei (OGT 37 °C) and from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (OGT 65 °C). Furthermore, the influence of protein and salt concentration on thermostability has been characterized. Together with previous studies, our results reveal that the Tms of archaeal TBPs are closely correlated with the OGTs of the respective species. Noteworthy, this is also true for the TBP from M. mazei representing the first characterized TBP from a mesophilic archaeon. In contrast, the only characterized eukaryotic TBP of the mesophilic plant Arabidopsis thaliana has a Tm more than 40 °C above the OGT.

  4. PENGUNGKAPAN RISIKO FINANSIAL DAN TATA KELOLA PERUSAHAAN: STUDI EMPIRIS PERBANKAN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Suhardjanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of corporate governance to financial risk disclosures ofIndonesian banks. Corporate governance was identified as the board size, the number of board meetings, theproportion of independent commissioners, the proportion of independent audit committee members and numberof audit committee meetings. This study also used leverage and profitability as control variable. The levelof financial risk disclosure was measured based on identified items of a circular enclosure of Bank IndonesiaNo.5/21/DPNP/2003. Under purposive sampling, secondary data of 60 annual reports year 2007-2009 ofbanks in Indonesian Stock Exchange were selected. The average level of financial risk disclosures was at46.50%. It indicated that Indonesian’s banks were not fully compliance to regulations since financial riskdisclosures were as mandatory matters. The result of multiple regression showed that corporate governanceaffected the level of financial risk disclosure through the variable board size and the number of board meetings.The important role in implementing tata kelola perusahaan(company management was at the board of commissionerswho served as supervisors of activities and performance of banks as well as advisory directors inensuring that companies implemented good corporate governance, including financial risk disclosures (KomiteNasional Kebijakan Governance, 2006.

  5. Operation of Cryogenic Facility in e-way at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, K V

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt towards the development of modern, model and paperless cryogenic facility, the Low Temperature Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, at Mumbai, India; carried out many automation works using programmable logic controller (PLC) and other modern electronic tools, with the objective of bringing the entire plant operation to your palm whenever and wherever you are. Efficiency in the plant operation by keeping a watch on the plant healthiness, advance indication about the possible plant problem by means of pre-warning alarms, so that the remedial action can be taken well prior to the actual failure affects the plant operation, reduction in plant down time were achieved by the automation works. Large size in our cryogen production, controlling the complicated helium liquefier, meeting the uninterrupted supply of cryogen to the users on “any time availability basis,” safety in handling cryogens and high pressure gas, effective usage of limited skilled manpower etc., all these requirements call for the definite need of modern electronic gears and gadgets. This paper will describe in details about the automation works carried out at our cryogenic facility at TIFR.

  6. Karakteristik Perubahan Penggunaan Lahan yang Tidak Sesuai Rencana Tata Ruang Di Koridor Lingkar Timur Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathon Wira Ajimas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Untuk mempermudah akses, memecah kemacetan, serta pembangunan wilayah, Pemerintah Daerah Kabupaten Sidoarjo membangun Jalan Lingkar Timur Sidoarjo pada tahun 2006. Pembangunan jalan Lingkar Timur Sidoarjo dapat meningkatkan nilai lokasi dari lahan di sekitar koridor jalan tersebut karena adanya peningkatan aksesibilitas yang ada. Peningkatan nilai lokasi ini kemudian menyebabkan perubahan penggunaan lahan yang tidak sesuai rencana. Karakteristik perubahan penggunaan lahan di perlukan untuk menangani perubahan lahan di koridor Lingkar Timur Sidoarjo . Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi karakteristik perubahan penggunaan lahan yang tidak sesuai rencana tata ruang di koridor Lingkar Timur Sidoarjo. Untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut dilakukan dengan cara mengidentifikasi karakteristik perubahan penggunaan lahan berdasarkan jenis-jenis perubahan lahan, luas lahan, dan kecepatan perubahan lahan dengan menggunakan analisis deskriptif yaitu segmentasi wilayah. Berdasarkan hasil yang ditemukan pada segmen satu, perubahan lahan pertanian menjadi permuikiman adalah 1,3ha/th (lambat, Permukiman menjadi pergudangan adalah 0,7 ha/th (lambat, dan pertanian menjadi pergudangan adalah 5,9 ha/th (cepat. Perubahan . Perubahan lahan yang terjadi pada segmen 2, perubahan lahan pertanian menjadi permukiman adalah 4,4 ha/th sedang dan pertanian menjadi fasilitas umum 6,3 ha/th (cepat.

  7. Tolerance to acetic acid is improved by mutations of the TATA-binding protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jieun; Kwon, Hyeji; Kim, Eunjung; Lee, Young Mi; Ko, Hyeok Jin; Park, Hongjae; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-03-01

    Screening a library of overexpressing mutant alleles of the TATA-binding gene SPT15 yielded two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (MRRC 3252 and 3253) with enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. They were also tolerant to propionic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Transcriptome profile analysis identified 58 upregulated genes and 106 downregulated genes in MRRC 3252. Stress- and protein synthesis-related transcription factors were predominantly enriched in the upregulated and downregulated genes respectively. Eight deletion mutants for some of the highly downregulated genes were acetic acid-tolerant. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species was considerably lessened in MRRC 3252 and 3253 upon exposure to acetic acid. Metabolome profile analysis revealed that intracellular concentrations of 5 and 102 metabolites were increased and decreased, respectively, in MRRC 3252, featuring a large increase of urea and a significant decrease of amino acids. The dur1/2Δmutant, in which the urea degradation gene DUR1/2 is deleted, displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. Enhanced tolerance to acetic acid was also observed on the medium containing a low concentration of amino acids. Taken together, this study identified two SPT15 alleles, nine gene deletions and low concentration of amino acids in the medium that confer enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Elevated TATA-binding protein expression drives vascular endothelial growth factor expression in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sandra A S; Lin, Justin J; Walkey, Christopher J; Leathers, Michael P; Coarfa, Cristian; Johnson, Deborah L

    2017-07-25

    The TATA-binding protein (TBP) plays a central role in eukaryotic gene transcription. Given its key function in transcription initiation, TBP was initially thought to be an invariant protein. However, studies showed that TBP expression is upregulated by oncogenic signaling pathways. Furthermore, depending on the cell type, small increases in cellular TBP amounts can induce changes in cellular growth properties towards a transformed phenotype. Here we sought to identify the specific TBP-regulated gene targets that drive its ability to induce tumorigenesis. Using microarray analysis, our results reveal that increases in cellular TBP concentrations produce selective alterations in gene expression that include an enrichment for genes involved in angiogenesis. Accordingly, we find that TBP levels modulate VEGFA expression, the master regulator of angiogenesis. Increases in cellular TBP amounts induce VEGFA expression and secretion to enhance cell migration and tumor vascularization. TBP mediates changes in VEGFA transcription requiring its recruitment at a hypoxia-insensitive proximal TSS, revealing a mechanism for VEGF regulation under non-stress conditions. The results are clinically relevant as TBP expression is significantly increased in both colon adenocarcinomas as well as adenomas relative to normal tissue. Furthermore, TBP expression is positively correlated with VEGFA expression. Collectively, these studies support the idea that increases in TBP expression contribute to enhanced VEGFA transcription early in colorectal cancer development to drive tumorigenesis.

  9. Interconversion between active and inactive TATA-binding protein transcription complexes in the mouse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukrallah, Mohamed-Amin; Kobi, Dominique; Martianov, Igor; Pijnappel, W W M Pim; Mischerikow, Nikolai; Ye, Tao; Heck, Albert J R; Timmers, H Th Marc; Davidson, Irwin

    2012-02-01

    The TATA binding protein (TBP) plays a pivotal role in RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription through incorporation into the TFIID and B-TFIID complexes. The role of mammalian B-TFIID composed of TBP and B-TAF1 is poorly understood. Using a complementation system in genetically modified mouse cells where endogenous TBP can be conditionally inactivated and replaced by exogenous mutant TBP coupled to tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identify two TBP mutations, R188E and K243E, that disrupt the TBP-BTAF1 interaction and B-TFIID complex formation. Transcriptome and ChIP-seq analyses show that loss of B-TFIID does not generally alter gene expression or genomic distribution of TBP, but positively or negatively affects TBP and/or Pol II recruitment to a subset of promoters. We identify promoters where wild-type TBP assembles a partial inactive preinitiation complex comprising B-TFIID, TFIIB and Mediator complex, but lacking TFIID, TFIIE and Pol II. Exchange of B-TFIID in wild-type cells for TFIID in R188E and K243E mutant cells at these primed promoters completes preinitiation complex formation and recruits Pol II to activate their expression. We propose a novel regulatory mechanism involving formation of a partial preinitiation complex comprising B-TFIID that primes the promoter for productive preinitiation complex formation in mammalian cells.

  10. Operation of Cryogenic Facility in e-way at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K. V.

    2012-12-01

    In an attempt towards the development of modern, model and paperless cryogenic facility, the Low Temperature Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, at Mumbai, India; carried out many automation works using programmable logic controller (PLC) and other modern electronic tools, with the objective of bringing the entire plant operation to your palm whenever and wherever you are. Efficiency in the plant operation by keeping a watch on the plant healthiness, advance indication about the possible plant problem by means of pre-warning alarms, so that the remedial action can be taken well prior to the actual failure affects the plant operation, reduction in plant down time were achieved by the automation works. Large size in our cryogen production, controlling the complicated helium liquefier, meeting the uninterrupted supply of cryogen to the users on “any time availability basis,” safety in handling cryogens and high pressure gas, effective usage of limited skilled manpower etc., all these requirements call for the definite need of modern electronic gears and gadgets. This paper will describe in details about the automation works carried out at our cryogenic facility at TIFR.

  11. Sustainable nano-catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel nano-catalyst system which bridges the homogenous and heterogeneous system is described that is cheaper, easily accessible (sustainable) and requires no need of catalyst filtration during the work-up. Because of its nano-size, i.e. high surface area, the contact between r...

  12. The Nano Solar Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Lindgren, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ISO PAINT Nordic A/S produces roof coatings, facade painting as well as specialised products for surface treatments. The company decided that they would develop a nano solar ICT based project having the capacity to change the whole cost structure of a building, for example by a nano roof coating...

  13. The novel isotopically coded short-range photo-reactive crosslinker 2,4,6-triazido-1,3,5-triazine (TATA) for studying protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Nicholas I; Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V; Borchers, Christoph H

    2016-10-21

    Short-distance molecular-modeling constraints are advantageous for elucidating the structures of individual proteins and protein conformational changes. Commonly used amine-reactive crosslinks are relatively long (14Å), partly due to the length of the lysine side-chain, and are sparsely distributed throughout a protein. Short-distance non-specific crosslinkers can provide a larger number of tighter molecular-modeling constraints. Here we describe the use of a short-range homo-trifunctional isotopically-coded non-specific photo-reactive crosslinking reagent, 2,4,6-triazido-1,3,5-triazine (TATA)- 12 C 3 / 13 C 3 , for MS-based protein crosslinking studies. Upon activation by 254nm UV light, TATA- 12 C 3 / 13 C 3 generates up to three nitrene radicals capable of non-selective crosslinking at ~5Å. This reagent was validated using cyclohexane, several test peptides, and myoglobin, and was found to react with a large number of amino acids, forming multiple crosslinked products. The myoglobin crosslinks detected by MS agreed with the known structure of myoglobin; arranging the protein's secondary-structure motifs into their correct fold was possible based solely on the constraints imposed by the crosslinks. Finally, TATA was used to crosslink the α-synuclein monomer. The 10 short-distance constraints provided by TATA crosslinking led to an initial model of the molten-globule form of the native α-synuclein monomer; this provides a suggested structure for the precursor of the misfolded α-synuclein proteoforms involved in synucleopathies. The isotopically labeled short-range non-specific crosslinker TATA- 12 C 3 / 13 C 3 was characterized for use in crosslinking-based protein structural studies. The crosslinking products of TATA can provide a distance constraint of merely 5Ǻ between crosslinked residues. TATA- 12 C 3 / 13 C 3 had broad reactivity, crosslinking a wide variety of amino acids, including lysine, glutamic and aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamine, glycine

  14. Penilaian Tingkat Kemapanan Tata Kelola Teknologi Informasi Berbasis COBIT 4.1 Pada Layanan Portal Akademik Online (Studi Kasus : UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachrul Kurniawan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan TI dalam dunia pendidikan merupakan hal yang sangat penting untuk menunjang kegiatan akademiknya. Termasuk juga di Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang yang terkenal dengan sistem administrasi akademik online atau biasa disebut siakad. Namun dalam pemanfatan tersebut belum bisa diketahui sejauh mana TI yang digunakan bisa mendukung proses bisnis yang ada di universitas, khususnya yang terkait dengan layanan akademik online. Oleh karena itu perlu adanya penilaian resmi dan prosedural terkait kualitas tata kelola TI pada layanan portal akademik online. Proses penilaian tata kelola TI ini menggunakan framework COBIT 4.1. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Lembaga Pengembangan Sistem Informasi (LPSI. Dalam proses penilaian tata kelola TI tersebut COBIT 4.1 menggunakan sistem pemetaan proses bisnis sehingga terpilih proses TI terkait COBIT atau dengan diagram value chain. Hasil dari pemetaan proses bisnis berdasarkan COBIT 4.1 terpilih proses TI DS1 Define and manage service levels dan DS4 Ensure continuous service sebagai acuan penilaian dengan hasil perhitungan tingkat kemapanan kedua proses TI pada level 3 (Defined. Namun LPSI memiliki keinginan dan harapan besar dalam meningkatkan tingkat kemapanan TI yang semakin baik, yaitu tata kelola yang optimal. Hal ini ditunjukkan dari hasil perhitungan tingkat kemapanan yang diharapkan (to-be , yaitu berada pada level 5 (Optimised. Kata kunci : tingkat kemapanan, tata kelola ti, COBIT, portal akademik online.

  15. EVALUASI PENERAPAN ICT DALAM MENDUKUNG KETERAMPILAN SAINTIFIK PADA PEMBELAJARAN TATA SURYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septiana Indri Hapsari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui persentase penerapan ICT dalam mendukung keterampilan saintifik pada pembelajaran IPA tema tata surya. Pemilihan sampel dengan cara purpossive sampling, diperoleh guru IPA dan peserta didik kelas VIII di SMPN 5, 8, 15 Yogyakarta dan SMP Pangudi Luhur 1 Yogyakarta. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian Evaluasi dengan model yang digunakan adalah Countenance Stake. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah angket peserta didik, angket guru, serta observasi. Data diolah dengan menggunakan deskriptif.  Hasil penelitian ini adalah 77,54% peserta didik mengaku ICT membantu kegiatan mengamati, 57,97% ICT membantu kegiatan menanya, 75,36% ICT membantu kegiatan mengumpulkan informasi, 57,00% ICT membantu kegiatan mengasosiasi, dan 42,75% ICT membantu kegiatan mengkomunikasikan. Dengan demikian penerapan ICT cukup mendukung keterampilan saintifik, namun harus tetap perlu ditingkatkan. Abstract ___________________________________________________________________ The purpose of this study to determine the percentage of the application of ICT in supporting scientific skills in learning science theme of the solar system. Election sample by purposive sampling, obtained a science teacher and students in class VIII SMPN 5, 8, 15 and SMP Pangudi Luhur Yogyakarta 1 Yogyakarta. This study is evaluation of the model used is the Countenance Stake. The instrument used was a questionnaire the learner, teacher questionnaire, and observation. The data was processed using descriptive. The results of this study are 77,54% of students admitted to ICT helps the activity observed, 57,97% ICT help activities ask, 75,36% ICT help in gathering information, 57,00% ICT assist the associates, and 42,75% ICT help communicate the activities. Thus the application of ICT support enough scientific skills, but must still be improved.

  16. POTENSI PERKEMBANGAN WILAYAH DAN KAITANNYA DENGAN TATA RUANG DI KAWASAN LERENG MERAPI PROPINSI DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthfi Muta'ali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji potensi dan perkembangan wilayah kawasan lereng Merapi yang dikalikan dengan peruntukan fungsi tata ruang. Lingkup wilayah dan unit analisis adalah seluruh desa di kawasan pengembangan Lereng Merapi, yaitu sejumlah 206 desa yang tersebar di Kabupaten Sleman, Kota Yogyakarta, dan Kabupaten Banta Penelitian menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif analitis, dengan menggunakan data sekunder. Potensi perkembangan wilayah diidentifikasi dengan indikator demografis, karakteristik social ekonomi, penggunaan lahan dan infrastruktur, dan aksesibilitas. Sedangkan data peruntukan ruang dikelompokkan dalam peruntukan fungsi kawasan lindung dan kawasan budidaya. Teknik analisis yang digunakan antara lain stalistik deskriptip, penentuan tipologi wilayah, analisis deskriminan, shift analysis, dan pemetaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, pola perkembangan wilayah di kawasan lereng Merapi terkonsentrasi di bagian tengah (kota Yogyakarta dan pinggirannya dan menuju kearah lereng atas (Kabupaten Sleman. Pada fungsi budidaya, sebagian besar wilayah bertipe 1: (besar tumbuh berada di daerah perkotaan dan perluasannya, sedangkan wilayah ripe 1l (kecil tumbuh urnumnya berfungsi sebagai daerah pertanian lahan basah. Pada peruntukan fungsi lindung, khususnya lindung bawahan (resapan air, terdapat 36,7% (18 desa yang berpotensi berkembang pesat. Analisis basis ekonomi juga menunjukkan bahwa potensi perkembangan wilayah tinggi, akan diiringi oleh pergeseran menguatnya peran sektor non pertanian. Tipologi wilayah menurut fungsi kawasan dapat digunakan sebagai dasar dalam determinasi perkembangan wilayah, karena memiliki tingkat perbedaan yang signifikan antara fungsi lindung dan budidaya. Gejala potensi perkembangan wilayah yang tinggi di lereng bagian tengah dan atas yang berfungsi sebagai kawasan lindung dan resapan tidak menguntungkan dart sisi ekologis, dapat mengakibatkan kerusakan lingkungan. Oleh karena itu penelitian ini

  17. Optimizations of siRNA design for the activation of gene transcription by targeting the TATA-box motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Fan

    Full Text Available Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs are widely used to repress gene expression by targeting mRNAs. Some reports reveal that siRNAs can also activate or inhibit gene expression through targeting the gene promoters. Our group has found that microRNAs (miRNAs could activate gene transcription via interaction with the TATA-box motif in gene promoters. To investigate whether siRNA targeting the same region could upregulate the promoter activity, we test the activating efficiency of siRNAs targeting the TATA-box motif of 16 genes and perform a systematic analysis to identify the common features of the functional siRNAs for effective activation of gene promoters. Further, we try various modifications to improve the activating efficiency of siRNAs and find that it is quite useful to design the promoter-targeting activating siRNA by following several rules such as (a complementary to the TATA-box-centered region; (b UA usage at the first two bases of the antisense strand; (c twenty-three nucleotides (nts in length; (d 2'-O-Methyl (2'-OMe modification at the 3' terminus of the antisense strand; (e avoiding mismatches at the 3' end of the antisense strand. The optimized activating siRNAs potently enhance the expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2 gene in human and mouse primary CD4+ T cells with a long-time effect. Taken together, our study provides a guideline for rational design the promoter-targeting siRNA to sequence-specifically enhance gene expression.

  18. Optimizations of siRNA design for the activation of gene transcription by targeting the TATA-box motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Miaomiao; Zhang, Yijun; Huang, Zhuoqiong; Liu, Jun; Guo, Xuemin; Zhang, Hui; Luo, Haihua

    2014-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are widely used to repress gene expression by targeting mRNAs. Some reports reveal that siRNAs can also activate or inhibit gene expression through targeting the gene promoters. Our group has found that microRNAs (miRNAs) could activate gene transcription via interaction with the TATA-box motif in gene promoters. To investigate whether siRNA targeting the same region could upregulate the promoter activity, we test the activating efficiency of siRNAs targeting the TATA-box motif of 16 genes and perform a systematic analysis to identify the common features of the functional siRNAs for effective activation of gene promoters. Further, we try various modifications to improve the activating efficiency of siRNAs and find that it is quite useful to design the promoter-targeting activating siRNA by following several rules such as (a) complementary to the TATA-box-centered region; (b) UA usage at the first two bases of the antisense strand; (c) twenty-three nucleotides (nts) in length; (d) 2'-O-Methyl (2'-OMe) modification at the 3' terminus of the antisense strand; (e) avoiding mismatches at the 3' end of the antisense strand. The optimized activating siRNAs potently enhance the expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene in human and mouse primary CD4+ T cells with a long-time effect. Taken together, our study provides a guideline for rational design the promoter-targeting siRNA to sequence-specifically enhance gene expression.

  19. Optimizations of SiRNA Design for the Activation of Gene Transcription by Targeting the TATA-Box Motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhuoqiong; Liu, Jun; Guo, Xuemin; Zhang, Hui; Luo, Haihua

    2014-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are widely used to repress gene expression by targeting mRNAs. Some reports reveal that siRNAs can also activate or inhibit gene expression through targeting the gene promoters. Our group has found that microRNAs (miRNAs) could activate gene transcription via interaction with the TATA-box motif in gene promoters. To investigate whether siRNA targeting the same region could upregulate the promoter activity, we test the activating efficiency of siRNAs targeting the TATA-box motif of 16 genes and perform a systematic analysis to identify the common features of the functional siRNAs for effective activation of gene promoters. Further, we try various modifications to improve the activating efficiency of siRNAs and find that it is quite useful to design the promoter-targeting activating siRNA by following several rules such as (a) complementary to the TATA-box-centered region; (b) UA usage at the first two bases of the antisense strand; (c) twenty-three nucleotides (nts) in length; (d) 2′-O-Methyl (2′-OMe) modification at the 3′ terminus of the antisense strand; (e) avoiding mismatches at the 3′ end of the antisense strand. The optimized activating siRNAs potently enhance the expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene in human and mouse primary CD4+ T cells with a long-time effect. Taken together, our study provides a guideline for rational design the promoter-targeting siRNA to sequence-specifically enhance gene expression. PMID:25250958

  20. A conserved TATA-less proximal promoter drives basal transcription from the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soravia, E; Grebe, A; De Luca, P

    1995-01-01

    have cloned an uPAR DNA segment containing upstream regulatory sequences from both the human and murine genomes. We report that a proximal promoter, contained within 180 bp from the major transcription start sites of the human uPAR gene, drives basal transcription. This region lacks TATA and CAAT boxes...... and contains relatively GC-rich proximal sequences. A subregion of this sequence, highly conserved between human and murine genes, contains most of the promoter activity and is specifically bound by HeLa nuclear proteins, one of which belongs to the SP1 class....

  1. International Conference on Analytic and Algebraic Geometry held at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the University of Hyderabad

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Indranil; Morye, Archana; Parameswaran, A

    2017-01-01

    This volume is an outcome of the International conference held in Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the University of Hyderabad. There are fifteen articles in this volume. The main purpose of the articles is to introduce recent and advanced techniques in the area of analytic and algebraic geometry. This volume attempts to give recent developments in the area to target mainly young researchers who are new to this area. Also, some research articles have been added to give examples of how to use these techniques to prove new results.

  2. Nano-electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payán, María D Ramos; Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj J.

    2013-01-01

    The present work has for the first time described nano-electromembrane extraction (nano-EME). In nano-EME, five basic drugs substances were extracted as model analytes from 200 μL acidified sample solution, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE......), and into approximately 8 nL phosphate buffer (pH 2.7) as acceptor phase. The driving force for the extraction was an electrical potential sustained over the SLM. The acceptor phase was located inside a fused silica capillary, and this capillary was also used for the final analysis of the acceptor phase by capillary...... as extraction selectivity. Compared with conventional EME, the acceptor phase volume in nano-EME was down-scaled by a factor of more than 1000. This resulted in a very high enrichment capacity. With loperamide as an example, an enrichment factor exceeding 500 was obtained in only 5 min of extraction...

  3. NanoAODs

    CERN Document Server

    Husova, Lucia Anna

    2017-01-01

    The scientist on LHC experiment analyse a huge amount of data every day on the Grid. Thus new methods are requested, how to make the analysis more efficient. The NanoAOD is a derived dataset from AOD, where only information necessary for the analysis is stored. Thus the analysis can be more than two times faster, because of the smaller file size, which can be read faster on the Grid. The main goal of this summer student project was to help other users to start using NanoAODs by rewriting their user tasks. Two example users tasks were converted to NanoAODs and tested with the local train test. A speed up of 3.5 was reached. The results of the analysis tasks are identical independent if they use AODs or NanoAODs.

  4. Nano Dust Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a new highly sensitive instrument to confirm the existence of the so-called nano-dust particles, characterize their impact parameters, and...

  5. Carbon nano tubes embedded in polymer nano fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dror, Y.; Kedem, S.; Khalfin, R.L.; Paz, Y.; Cohenl, Y.; Salalha, Y.; Yarin, A.L.; Zussman, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text: The electro spinning process was used successfully to embed Multi-walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) and single-walled carbon nano tubes (SWCNTs) in a matrix of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) forming composite nano fibers. Initial dispersion of SWCNTs in water was achieved by the use of an amphphilic alternating copolymer of styrene and sodium maleate. MWNT dispersion was achieved by ionic and nonionic surfactants. The distribution and conformation of the nano tubes in the nano fibers were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Oxygen plasma etching was used to expose the nano tubes within the nano fibers to facilitate direct observation. Nano tube alignment within the nano fibers was shown to depend strongly on the quality of the initial dispersions. Well-dispersed and separated nano tubes were embedded in a straight and aligned form while entangled non-separated nano tubes were incorporated as dense aggregates. X-ray diffraction demonstrated a high degree of orientation of the PEO crystals in the electro spun nano fibers with embedded SWCNTs, whereas incorporation of MVCNTs had a detrimental effect on the polymer orientation. Composite polymer nano fibers containing dispersed phases of nanometric TiO 2 particles and MWCNTs were also prepared electro spinning. In this case, the polymer matrix was poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN). The morphology and possible applications of these composite nano fibers will be discussed

  6. Structure of TatA paralog, TatE, suggests a structurally homogeneous form of Tat protein translocase that transports folded proteins of differing diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglieri, Jacopo; Beck, Daniel; Vasisht, Nishi; Smith, Corinne J; Robinson, Colin

    2012-03-02

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system transports folded proteins across bacterial and plant thylakoid membranes. Most current models for the translocation mechanism propose the coalescence of a substrate-binding TatABC complex with a separate TatA complex. In Escherichia coli, TatA complexes are widely believed to form the translocation pore, and the size variation of TatA has been linked to the transport of differently sized substrates. Here, we show that the TatA paralog TatE can substitute for TatA and support translocation of Tat substrates including AmiA, AmiC, and TorA. However, TatE is found as much smaller, discrete complexes. Gel filtration and blue native electrophoresis suggest sizes between ∼50 and 110 kDa, and single-particle processing of electron micrographs gives size estimates of 70-90 kDa. Three-dimensional models of the two principal TatE complexes show estimated diameters of 6-8 nm and potential clefts or channels of up to 2.5 nm diameter. The ability of TatE to support translocation of the 90-kDa TorA protein suggests alternative translocation models in which single TatA/E complexes do not contribute the bulk of the translocation channel. The homogeneity of both the TatABC and the TatE complexes further suggests that a discrete Tat translocase can translocate a variety of substrates, presumably through the use of a flexible channel. The presence and possible significance of double- or triple-ring TatE forms is discussed.

  7. Nano-composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  8. Cancer Nano medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Pike, M.M.; Luo, X.; Liu, L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Bioengineered nano materials have inspired revolutionary imaging and drug delivery methods whose clinical application in cancer research has resulted in powerful medical devices for early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer. Recent advances in super imaging agents have resulted in improved resolution and sensitivity. For instance, fluorescent quantum dots with wavelength-tunable emissions, plasmon-resonant gold nano structures with shape-controlled near-infrared absorptions, and MRI-active iron oxide nanoparticles are well-established molecular imaging probes for noninvasive cancer imaging. Nano materials are also considered to be the most effective vectors that can break through transport bio barriers and deliver a constant dose of multiple therapeutic agents to tumors and intracellular endocytic compartments for cancer gene therapy, immunotherapy, or chemotherapy. Furthermore, nano wire- or nano tube-based electronic devices demonstrate extraordinary sensitivity capable of detection at the single molecule or protein level. It is anticipated that developing nano technology-driven imaging, sensing, and therapeutic systems will dramatically advance cancer research and clinical treatments.

  9. Makna dan Kriteria Diskresi Keputusan Dan/Atau Tindakan Pejabat Publik dalam Mewujudkan Tata Pemerintahan yang Baik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Budi Susilo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam rangka melakukan tindakan hukum, pejabat publik sering melakukan tindakan di luar ketentuan hukum tertulis. Keadaan ini sebagai suatu konsekuensi logis, bahwa Undang-Undang dan peraturan tertulis lainnya seringkali tertinggal dalam mengantisipasi perkembangan zaman, perubahan nilai, dan meningkatnya kebutuhan hidup manusia seiring dengan kemajuan yang dicapainya di bidang ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi. Oleh karena itu, agar prinsip legalitas pada tahap operasionalnya dapat dilaksanakan dengan sebaik-baiknya, maka diperlukan “diskresi” sebagai sarana pengembangannya. Ironisnya, tidak jarang penggunaan diskresi oleh pejabat publik dengan dalih untuk kepentingan umum dan kepastian hukum, justru mengorbankan hak-hak masyarakat baik secara individu pribadi, kelompok maupun badan hukum perdata. Untuk mengantisipasinya, perlu ada konsep lain yang mengendalikan diskresi keputusan dan/atau tindakan pejabat publik, dan konsep tersebut adalah good governance, yang sering diartikan tata pemerintahan yang baik. Dengan memahami prinsip-prinsip utama dari tata pemerintahan yang baik itu sendiri, diharapkan diskresi keputusan dan/atau tindakan pejabat publik dapat diterapkan sesuai rel hukum (rechtmatigheid van regering.

  10. Identification, cloning, and functional analysis of the TATA-less mouse FNDC5 promoter during neural differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Tahere; Ghaedi, Kamran; Tanhaei, Sommayeh; Karamali, Fereshteh; Kiani-Esfahani, Abbas; Peymani, Maryam; Baharvand, Hossein; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad-Hossein

    2014-07-01

    FNDC5 (also termed PEP) gene encodes a type I membrane protein which is cleaved and secreted as Irisin hormone. We have identified mouse putative core promoter of FNDC5 and characterized its activity. FNDC5 is located within mouse chromosome 4, spans about 7,534 bp, and consists of 6 exons. The mouse FNDC5 promoter is TATA-less and lacks a consensus initiator sequence. In silico analyses revealed that the core promoter (-561/+101 with respect to translation start site) is located in a GC-rich domain (approximately 70.01 %) with one CpG island as a promoter index and several GC box factors including GC/SP1 which is necessary for transcription of TATA-less promoters. The core promoter showed a lower activity than CMV promoter in CHO and P19 cell lines when located upstream of EGFP CDS in an appropriate expression vector. Data implicated that both exon 1 and intron 1 of the gene are included in the core promoter. Upon treating with retinoic acid, FNDC5 expression was upregulated during embryoid body formation and decreased slowly at final stage of neural differentiation when neurospheres emerged. However, Noggin induction induced up regulation of FNDC5 expression at final stage of neural differentiation. In conclusion, stage dependent expression of FNDC5 is affected by neural induction method used for neural differentiation.

  11. Nano surface generation of grinding process using carbon nano tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    holes need different processing techniques. Conventional finishing methods used so far become almost impossible or cumbersome. In this paper, a nano material especially multi wall carbon nano tube is used in the machining process like ...

  12. PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR POLA DASAR BUSANA WANITA PADA PROGRAM STUDI D3 TATA BUSANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idah Hadijah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching Materials Development of the Basic Pattern of Women's Clothing on Clothing Design Program. The purpose of this development is to pro­­duce teaching materials of archetypal body of woman fashion, whichis equipped with a Power Po­int in order to assist faculty and students on conducting learning ac­ti­vi­ty. The research development me­thod used was adapted from the instructional de­sign model of Dick and Carey. The results of the study in the form of assess­ment/feedback showed that the mean score reached 86.00%, which meant that the teaching materials categorized as well qualify­ed/ decent, the media has a very good Power Point as it re­ached 91.00%, the lecturers gui­de reached 92.00% and catehorized as ex­cell­ent/ve­ry decent, and the students guide achieved 83.00% and categorized as good/de­cent. Thus, the teaching material is feasible to be used as the instructional materials for learning on Clothing Design Program.   Tujuan pengembangan ini un­­­tuk menghasilkan produk bahan ajar po­­la dasar ba­dan busana wanita dilengkapi de­ngan Power Point, sehingga dapat membantu dosen dan mahasiswa dalam me­lak­sa­na­kan pembelajaran. Metode penelitian pengembangan yang digunakan diadaptasi dari ran­­­cangan pembelajaran model Dick dan Carey. Hasil pe­nelitian berupa penilaian/tanggapan menunjukan rerata skor bah­­wa bahan ajar mencapai 86,00% termasuk ke da­lam kualifikasi baik/layak, media Po­­wer Point termasuk sangat baik karena men­capai 91,00%, pan­­duan dosen mencapai 92,00% termasuk ke dalam kualifikasi sangat ba­ik/sa­­­­ngat layak, dan panduan ma­ha­siswa mencapai 83,00% termasuk kua­lifikasi ba­ik/la­yak, dengan demikian bahan ajar ter­­sebut layak digunakan untuk pem­­b­e­lajaran pada Program Studi D3Tata Busana.

  13. Dinamika Tata Kelola Kebijakan Industri Penyiaran dan Telekomunikasi Indonesia Menuju Konvergensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vience Mutiara Rumata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Konvergensi antara penyiaran dan telekomunikasi di Indonesia tidak terhindarkan seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi (TIK serta ketatnya persaingan dalam industri keduanya. Kedua industri telah mengintegrasi TIK sebagai nilai tambah dari layanan ataupun produk yang ditawarkannya. Meski demikian, tata kelola kedua industri ini masih terpisah yakni melalui UU Penyiaran tahun 2002 dan UU Telekomunikasi tahun 1999. Di saat RUU konvergensi telematika belum menemukan titik terang, regulator berupaya merevisi kedua UU tersebut. Studi ini bertujuan untuk memahami relasi kekuasaan serta pandangan para pemangku kebijakan dalam mengatur industri penyiaran dan telekomunikasi di era konvergensi. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara wawancara mendalam kepada narasumber yang dipilih secara purposif yakni Kemkominfo, KPI, BRTI, dan DPR, selama Januari-Februari 2015. Setiap institusi memiliki path dependence yang berbeda antar satu dengan yang lain, sehingga membentuk pola distribusi kekuasan berbeda dalam prosedur pembuatan kebijakan. Proposal revisi UU baik dari Kemkominfo dan KPI tidak mengatur hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan konvergensi. Akan tetapi, perebutan otoritas antar kedua institusi tersebut justru menjadi fokus dalam proposal tersebut. Kemkominfo, sebagai inisiator UU Telekomunikasi, berencana untuk mengubah revisi UU tersebut menjadi UU konvergensi.     Abstract The convergence between broadcasting and telecommunication in Indonesia is inevitable as the growing information and communication technology and competition within both industries. Nevertheless, the policy governance of these industries remains distinctively separated under the 2002 Broadcasting Law and the 1999 Telecommunication Law. Whilst the regulators failed to enact the convergence bill, the only way is to synergize the revision of both laws.. This study aims to understand the point of views as well as power relation among regulators in

  14. ON NANO Λg-CLOSED SETS

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekaran, Ilangovan; Nethaji, Ochanan

    2017-01-01

    Abstaract−In this paper, we introduce nano ∧g-closed sets in nano topological spaces. Some properties of nano ∧g-closed sets and nano ∧g-open sets are weaker forms of nano closed sets and nano open sets

  15. Environmental silicate nano-biocomposites

    CERN Document Server

    Pollet, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Silicate Nano-Biocomposites focuses on nano-biocomposites, which are obtained by the association of silicates such as bioclays with biopolymers. By highlighting recent developments and findings, green and biodegradable nano-composites from both renewable and biodegradable polymers are explored. This includes coverage of potential markets such as packaging, agricultures, leisure and the fast food industry. The knowledge and experience of more than twenty international experts in diverse fields, from chemical and biochemical engineering to applications, is brought together in four different sections covering: Biodegradable polymers and Silicates, Clay/Polyesters Nano-biocomposites, Clay/Agropolymers Nano-biocomposites, and Applications and biodegradation of Nano-biocomposites. By exploring the relationships between the biopolymer structures, the processes, and the final properties Environmental Silicate Nano-Biocomposites explains how to design nano-materials to develop new, valuable, environmenta...

  16. TATA-binding protein and the retinoblastoma gene product bind to overlapping epitopes on c-Myc and adenovirus E1A protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateboer, G.; Timmers, H.T.M.; Rustgi, A.K.; Billaud, Marc; Veer, L.J. Van 't; Bernards, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Using a protein binding assay, we show that the amino-teminal 204 amino acids of the c-Myc protein interact di y with a key component of the basal p tdon factor TFID, the TATA box-binding protein (TBP). Essentialy the same region of the c-Myc protein alo binds the product of the retinoblatoma

  17. TATA boxes in gene transcription and poly (A) tails in mRNA stability: New perspective on the effects of berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhi-Yi; Lu, Xi; Lei, Fan; Chai, Yu-Shuang; Wang, Yu-Gang; Jiang, Jing-Fei; Feng, Tian-Shi; Wang, Xin-Pei; Yu, Xuan; Yan, Xiao-Jin; Xing, Dong-Ming; Du, Li-Jun

    2015-12-16

    Berberine (BBR) is a natural compound with variable pharmacological effects and a broad panel of target genes. We investigated berberine's pharmacological activities from the perspective of its nucleotide-binding ability and discovered that BBR directly regulates gene expression by targeting TATA boxes in transcriptional regulatory regions as well as the poly adenine (poly (A)) tail at the mRNA terminus. BBR inhibits gene transcription by binding the TATA boxes in the transcriptional regulatory region, but it promotes higher levels of expression by targeting the poly (A) tails of mRNAs. The present study demonstrates that TATA boxes and poly (A) tails are the first and second primary targets by which BBR regulates gene expression. The final outcome of gene regulation by BBR depends on the structure of the individual gene. This is the first study to reveal that TATA boxes and poly (A) tails are direct targets for BBR in its regulation of gene expression. Our findings provide a novel explanation for the complex activities of a small molecule compound in a biological system and a novel horizon for small molecule-compound pharmacological studies.

  18. Asian-American Mental Health and Help-Seeking Behavior: Comment on Solberg et al. (1994), Tata and Leong (1994), and Lin (1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Derald Wing

    1994-01-01

    Comments on previous articles (this issue) by Solberg et al., Tata and Leong, and Lin on help-seeking behaviors of Asian Americans. Sees articles as dispelling false images and stereotypes about mental health needs of Asian Americans. Suggests that future research focus on diversity of Asian American population and development of theories and…

  19. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter contains a CATA box instead of a TATA box for optimal transcription and replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Opijnen, Tim; Kamoschinski, Joost; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Berkhout, Ben

    2004-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcriptional promoter contains a single polymorphism in the TATA box. Most subtypes contain the sequence TATAAGC, but subtype E and some recombinant AG strains have the sequence TA (A) under bar AAGC. Based on mutagenesis studies of cellular RNA

  20. Using FRET to Measure the Angle at Which a Protein Bends DNA: TBP Binding a TATA Box as a Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugel, Jennifer F.

    2008-01-01

    An undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment that will teach the technique of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) while analyzing protein-induced DNA bending is described. The experiment uses the protein TATA binding protein (TBP), which is a general transcription factor that recognizes and binds specific DNA sequences known as…

  1. Perturbation of discrete sites on a single protein domain with RNA aptamers: targeting of different sides of the TATA-binding protein (TBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmura, Ken I; Shi, Hua; Hirayoshi, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Control of interactions among proteins is critical in the treatment of diseases, but the specificity required is not easily incorporated into small molecules. Macromolecules could be more suitable as antagonists in this situation, and RNA aptamers have become particularly promising. Here we describe a novel selection procedure for RNA aptamers against a protein that constitutes a single structural domain, the Drosophila TATA-binding protein (TBP). In addition to the conventional filter partitioning method with free TBP as target, we performed another experiment, in which the TATA-bound form of TBP was targeted. Aptamers generated by both selections were able to bind specifically to TBP, but the two groups showed characteristics which were clearly different in terms of their capability to compete with TATA-DNA, their effects on the TATA-bound form of TBP, and their effects on in vitro transcription. The method used to generate these two groups of aptamers can be used with other targets to direct aptamer specificity to discrete sites on the surface of a protein.

  2. Nano technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriti, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nano technology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both works and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, nano technology refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete high performance products. Development of applications incorporating semiconductor nanoparticles to be used in the next generation of products, such as display technology, lighting, solar cells and biological imaging and others are widely progressives. Progress has been made in using medical applications (Nano medicine) which provided the possibility of delivering drugs to specific cells using nanoparticles. Otherwise, nanoparticles have high surface area to volume ratio, allowing many functional groups to be attached to a nanoparticle, which can seek out and bind to certain tumor cells (cancer). (author)

  3. ACCELERATING NANO-TECHNOLOGICAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which concludes...... of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support “incubation rooms” or marked niches in order...

  4. MANAJEMEN PERPUSTAKAAN SEKOLAH BERBASIS SISTEM INFORMASI GUNA MENINGKATKAN KEMANDIRIAN DAN OPTIMALISASI TATA KELOLA PERPUSTAKAAN SEKOLAH DASAR SE-KECAMATAN JATINANGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Silvana

    2014-11-01

    ABSTRAK Kegiatan Pengabdian Masyarakat ini dilaksanakan di Kecamatan Jatinangor dengan mengambil tempat pelaksanaan di Aula Kantor UPTD TK, SD dan PNF Kecamatan Jatinangor dan di Ruang Pertemuan GERKOPIN Kecamatan Jatinangor. Sebagai Masyarakat Mitra dalam PKM ini yakni Unit Pengelola Teknis Dinas TK, SD dan PNF Kecamatan Jatinangor. Pencapaian Sasaran PKM ini adalah para Pengelola Perpustakaan Sekolah Dasar Se-Kecamatan Jatinangor. Kegiatan PKM yang telah dilaksanakan yakni dimulai dari kegiatan FGD untuk mengetahui kebutuhan pencapaian sasaran, kemudian Seminar dan Workshop yang diikuti oleh para Kepala Sekolah Dasar serta para Pengelola Perpustakaan dari 29 SD Negeri maupun Swasta. Berikutnya kegiatan Monitoring dan Evaluasi Akhir. Tujuan dari Program PKM ini adalah agar pencapaian sasaran dapat memiliki pengetahuan dan keterampilan teknis dalam mengelola dan mengolah koleksi bahan pustaka maupun layanan perpustakaan sekolah dengan menggunakan sistem informasi perpustakaan yang lebih mudah digunakan. Dalam kegiatan FGD diketahui bahwa hampir semua pengelola perpustakaan sekolah belum dapat menangani pengolahan koleksi secara sistematis. Meskipun sebagian diantara mereka sudah mengetahui adanya sistem informasi yang dapat digunakan untuk mengolah dan mengelola koleksi, mereka belum mengetahui dan belum dapat memanfaatkan dan menggunakannya. Dalam sesi Seminar, para Kepala Sekolah mendapatkan pemahaman lebih lanjut tentang pentingnya mengelola perpustakaan sekolah secara lebih profesional. Terlebih lagi bahwa mereka saat ini mulai dituntut untuk selalu siap menyediakan data dan informasi tentang tata kelola perpustakaan baik untuk pelaporan dan evaluasi maupun untuk kepentingan akreditasi sekolah. Dalam sesi Workshop, para peserta yang umumnya para pelaksana pengelola perpustakaan mendapatkan pengetahuan dan keterampilan teknis tentang tata cara pengolahan koleksi yang terdiri dari inventarisasi, klasifikasi, katalogisasi, pelayanan serta administrasi perpustakaan

  5. PENGARUH DISIPLIN KERJA, MOTIVASI KERJA, DAN TATA RUANG KANTOR TERHADAP KINERJA PEGAWAI KELURAHAN KECAMATAN PURBALINGGA KABUPATEN PURBALINGGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masasti Suci

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Kinerja adalah suatu hasil kerja baik secara kualitas maupun kuantitas yang dicapai oleh seseorang untuk mencapai tujuan tertentu. Kinerja yang baik tentunya dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor, seperti disiplin kerja, motivasi kerja, dan tata ruang kantor yang ada di kantor Kelurahan Kecamatan Purbalingga Kabupaten Purbalingga. Permasalahan dalam penelitian ini yaitu kedisiplinan pegawai dalam jam kerja yang kurang baik, rendahnya semangat pegawai untuk memberikan pelayanan kepada masyarakat dengan maksimal, masih terdapat ketidakteraturan dalam hal penataan ruang kantor dan lingkungan fisik. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah metode angket dan dokumentasi. Uji keberartian persamaan regresi dilihat dari uji Fhitung = 49,993 dengan probabilitas sebesar 0,000 < 0,05 sehingga diperoleh hasil analisis regresi linear berganda dengan persamaan Y = 0,281 + 0,357X1 + 0,252X2 + 0,222X3. Besarnya pengaruh secara simultan antara disiplin kerja, motivasi kerja, dan tata ruang kantor terhadap kinerja pegawai yaitu 59,2%. Variabel yang memberikan pengaruh paling besar terhadap kinerja pegawai secara parsial adalah disiplin kerja yaitu sebesar 21,34%, sedangkan untuk motivasi kerja, dan tata ruang kantor berpengaruh lebih kecil yaitu masing-masing sebesar 19,53%, dan 9,18%. A performance is the work result either qualitatively or quantitatively achieved by a person to reach the certain goal. The good performance is influenced by some factors such as work discipline, work motivation, and office room arrangement in the village office. The problems of this reserach were the low disipline of civil servants’ in the work time, the low motivation of the civil servants to give the service for the guests, and the bad ordered office room arrangement and the physical environment. The data were colleted by questionnaire and documentation. The significance test of regression was found out from F test = 49.993 with probability was 0.000 < 0.05, therefore the

  6. Dinamika Tata Kelola Kebijakan Industri Penyiaran dan Telekomunikasi Indonesia Menuju Konvergensi: Sebuah Studi Paradigma Interpretatif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vience Mutiara Rumata

    2017-03-01

    Konvergensi antara penyiaran dan telekomunikasi di Indonesia tidak terhindarkan seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi (TIK serta ketatnya persaingan dalam industri keduanya. Kedua industri telah mengintegrasi TIK sebagai nilai tambah dari layanan ataupun produk yang ditawarkannya. Meski demikian, tata kelola kedua industri ini masih terpisah yakni melalui UU Penyiaran tahun 2002 dan UU Telekomunikasi tahun 1999. Di saat RUU konvergensi telematika belum menemukan titik terang, regulator berupaya merevisi kedua UU tersebut. Studi ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif kualitatif dengan kerangka paradigma interpretatif dengan berlandaskan teori neo-institusionalisme, yakni historical institutionalism. Studi ini bertujuan untuk memahami relasi kekuasaan serta pandangan para pemangku kebijakan dalam mengatur industri penyiaran dan telekomunikasi di era konvergensi. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara wawancara mendalam kepada narasumber yang dipilih secara purposif yakni Kemkominfo, KPI, BRTI, dan DPR, selama Januari-Februari 2015. Setiap institusi memiliki path dependence yang berbeda antar satu dengan yang lain, sehingga membentuk pola distribusi kekuasan berbeda dalam prosedur pembuatan kebijakan. Proposal revisi UU baik dari Kemkominfo dan KPI tidak mengatur hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan konvergensi. Akan tetapi, perebutan otoritas antar kedua institusi tersebut justru menjadi fokus dalam proposal tersebut. Kemkominfo, sebagai inisiator UU Telekomunikasi, berencana untuk mengubah revisi UU tersebut menjadi UU konvergensi. Fokus utama revisi tersebut adalah upaya untuk memfasilitasi interkoneksi dan internetworking dalam infrastruktur digital sebagai fondasi ekosistem konvergensi.     Abstract The convergence between broadcasting and telecommunication in Indonesia is envitable as the growing information and communication technology and the growing competition in both industries. These industries have integrated ICT as part of their

  7. Editorial Emerging Multifunctional Nano structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, H.; Lu, Y.; Ramanath, G.; Pomposo, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The interest in emerging nano structures is growing exponentially since they are promising building blocks for advanced multifunctional nano composites. In recent years, an evolution from the controlled synthesis of individual monodisperse nanoparticles to the tailored preparation of hybrid spherical and also unsymmetrical multiparticle nano structures is clearly observed. As a matter of fact, the field of nano structures built around a nano species such as inside, outside, and next to a nanoparticle is becoming a new evolving area of research and development with potential applications in improved drug delivery systems, innovative magnetic devices, biosensors, and highly efficient catalysts, among several others Emerging nano structures with improved magnetic, conducting and smart characteristics are currently based on the design, synthesis, characterization and modeling of multifunctional nano object-based materials. In fact, core-shell nanoparticles and other related complex nano architectures covering a broad spectrum of materials (from metal and metal oxide to fused carbon, synthetic polymer, and bio polymer structures) to nano structure morphologies (spherical, cylindrical, star-like, etc.) are becoming the main building blocks for next generation of drug delivery systems, advanced sensors and biosensors, or improved nano composites. The five papers presented in this special issue examine the preparation and characterization of emerging multifunctional materials, covering from hybrid asymmetric structures to engineering nano composites.

  8. Nano-Satellite Avionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Harry

    1999-01-01

    Abstract NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing a new class of satellites called the nano-satellite (nano-sat). A major objective of this development effort is to provide the technology required to enable a constellation of tens to hundreds of nano-satellites to make both remote and in-situ measurements from space. The Nano-sat will be a spacecraft weighing a maximum of 10 kg, including the propellant mass, and producing at least 5 Watts of power to operate the spacecraft. The electronics are required to survive a total radiation dose rate of 100 krads for a mission lifetime of two years. There are many unique challenges that must be met in order to develop the avionics for such a spacecraft. The first challenge is to develop an architecture that will operate on the allotted 5 Watts and meet the diverging requirements of multiple missions. This architecture will need to incorporate a multitude of new advanced microelectronic technologies. The microelectronics developed must be a modular and scalable packaging of technology to solve the problem of developing a solution to both reduce cost and meet the requirements of various missions. This development will utilize the most cost effective approach, whether infusing commercially driven semiconductor devices into spacecraft applications or partnering with industry to design and develop low cost, low power, low mass, and high capacity data processing devices. This paper will discuss the nano-sat architecture and the major technologies that will be developed. The major technologies that will be covered include: (1) Light weight Low Power Electronics Packaging, (2) Radiation Hard/Tolerant, Low Power Processing Platforms, (3) High capacity Low Power Memory Systems (4) Radiation Hard reconfiguragble field programmable gate array (rFPGA)

  9. PEMAHAMAN, SIKAP, DAN UNJUK KERJA HIGIENE-SANITASI SISWA DALAM PENGOLAHAN DAN PENYAJIAN MAKANAN DI SMK BIDANG KEAHLIAN TATA BOGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Masdarini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The gastronomy students’ hygiene-sanitation under standing, attitude and performance in SMK. This study aims at describing the gastronomy students’ hygiene-sanitation understanding, attitude and performance. This research is a des­crip­tive quantitative one with research subjects are the gastronomy students of SMKs in Bali with the total number of 198 students. The instruments used are skill test, questionnaire and observation sheet. Then, the data are analyzed descriptively by using percentage formula. The data analysis shows that: (1 the gastronomy students’ understanding over the hygiene-sanitation 82,89% is very good, (2 the gas­tronomy stu­dents’ attitude over the hygiene-sanitation 84,36% is very good, (3 the gastronomy students’ performance over the hygiene-sanitation 90,20% is very good. Pemahaman, Sikap, dan Unjuk Kerja Higiene-sanitasi Siswa dalam Peng­olahan dan Penyajian Makanan di SMK Bidang Keahlian Tata Boga. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendeskripsikan pemahaman, sikap, dan unjuk kerja higiene-sani­tasi siswa dalam pengolahan dan penyajian makanan. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan penelitian deskriptif kuantitatif dengan subjek penelitian siswa di SMK Bidang Keahlian Tata Boga di Bali yang berjumlah 198 orang. Instrumen penelitian yang digunakan adalah tes pengetahuan, angket, dan lembar observasi. Selanjutnya data dianalisis dengan teknik deskriptif dengan menggunakan formula persentase. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa: (1 pemahaman higiene-sanitasi siswa dalam pengolahan dan penyajian makanan 82,89% adalah sangat baik, (2 Sikap higiene-sanitasi siswa dalam pengolahan dan penyajian makanan 84,36% adalah sangat baik, (3 Unjuk kerja higiene-sanitasi siswa dalam pengolahan dan penyajian makanan 90,20% adalah sangat baik.

  10. Radiation induced nano structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimova, E.M.; Kalanov, M.U.; Khakimov, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Nanometer-size silicon clusters have been attracting much attention due to their technological importance, in particular, as promising building blocks for nano electronic and nano photonic systems. Particularly, silicon wires are of great of interest since they have potential for use in one-dimensional quantum wire high-speed field effect transistors and light-emitting devices with extremely low power consumption. Carbon and metal nano structures are studied very intensely due to wide possible applications. Radiation material sciences have been dealing with sub-micron objects for a long time. Under interaction of high energy particles and ionizing radiation with solids by elastic and inelastic mechanisms, at first point defects are created, then they form clusters, column defects, disordered regions (amorphous colloids) and finally precipitates of another crystal phase in the matrix. Such irradiation induced evolution of structure defects and phase transformations was observed by X-diffraction techniques in dielectric crystals of quartz and corundum, which exist in and crystal modifications. If there is no polymorphism, like in alkali halide crystals, then due to radiolysis halogen atoms are evaporated from the surface that results in non-stoichiometry or accumulated in the pores formed by metal vacancies in the sub-surface layer. Nano-pores are created by intensive high energy particles irradiation at first chaotically and then they are ordered and in part filled by inert gas. It is well-known mechanism of radiation induced swelling and embrittlement of metals and alloys, which is undesirable for construction materials for nuclear reactors. Possible solution of this problem may come from nano-structured materials, where there is neither swelling nor embrittlement at gas absorption due to very low density of the structure, while strength keeps high. This review considers experimental observations of radiation induced nano-inclusions in insulating

  11. Activin A induces ovine follicle stimulating hormone beta using -169/-58 bp of its promoter and a simple TATA box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller William L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activin A increases production of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH by inducing transcription of its beta subunit (FSHB. This induction has been studied here in LbetaT2 gonadotropes using transient expression of ovine FSHBLuc (-4741 bp of ovine FSHB promoter plus exon/intron 1 linked to Luc. Several sequences between -169/-58 bp of the ovine FSHB proximal promoter are necessary for induction by activin A in LbetaT2 cells, but deletions between -4741/-752 bp decrease induction > 70% suggesting the existence of other important 5' sequences. Induction disappears if a minimal T81 thymidine kinase promoter replaces the ovine FSHB TATA box and 3' exon/intron. The study reported here was designed to determine if sequences outside -169/-58 bp are important for induction of ovine FSHB by activin A. Methods Progressively longer deletions of ovine FSHBLuc were created between -4741/-195 bp. Deletions internal to this region were created also, but replaced with substitute DNA. The ovine FSHB TATA box region (-40/+3 bp was replaced by thymidine kinase and rat prolactin minimal promoters, and substitutions were made in 3' intron/exon sequences. All constructs were tested for basal and activin A-induced expression in LbetaT2 cells. Results Successive 5' deletions progressively lowered fold-induction by activin A from 9.5 to zero, but progressively increased basal expression. Replacing deletions with substitute DNA showed no changes in basal expression or fold-induction. Induction by activin A was supported by the minimal rat prolactin promoter (TATA box but not the thymidine kinase promoter (no TATA box. Replacement mutations in the 3' region did not decrease induction by activin A. Conclusion The data show that specific ovine FSHB sequences 5' to -175 bp or 3' of the transcription start site are not required for induction by activin A. A minimal TATA box promoter supports induction by activin A, but the sequence between the TATA box and

  12. Grill Nano topological spaces with grill Nano generalized closed sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Azzam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The grill Nano generalized closed sets is an expansion of Nano generalized closed sets in grill Nano topological spaces, which is the frame of reference measurement, inference and reasoning in many applications such as computer science and information systems. So, this paper aims to study and analyze this expansion through the topological structure via the concept of grill. Some important characteristics and main properties which are related with these sets are obtained.

  13. Nano semiconducting materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanan, R

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of the present book is the characterization of a number of nano-semiconducting materials, using such techniques as powder X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometry, Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The materials studied include ZnS, TiO2, NiO, Ga doped ZnO, Mn doped SnO2, Mn doped CeO2 and Mn doped ZrO2.

  14. Natural Nano-Machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    diation pressure of the laser light; this trap can grab a dielectric ob ject w hich then can be m anipulated just ... tures of the structure and dynam ics of biological nano- m achines. T hey also investigate the corresponding .... sum ing fuel w hereas rotary m otors are like A lice's hair dryer. A lex: C ould you please give m e exam ...

  15. Nano Manufacturing - Products and Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Alting, Leo

    2004-01-01

    The use of micro and nano technologies in components and products not only sets new demands to the manufacturing technologies. Product concepts have to be rethought and redefined in order to implement the micro and nano technologies into functional systems. Both a technology driven and a product...... driven approach can be used in this process. A framework for the product driven approach in nano manufacturing is presented and discussed. The general discussion will be supported by case studies covering polymers and metals....

  16. Nano technologies in food industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capuano, V.

    2007-01-01

    Nano technologies have high potential for useful applications in many sectors. Innovations now under development or already on the market address practically all aspects of the food-products industry, from farming to processing, quality control and smart packaging. Nano formulations of pesticides, advanced sensors networks, very sensitive contaminants monitoring, nano encapsulations of nutrients, interactive foods, new materials for packaging are among the innovations. The development of these technologies should be accompanied by a careful assessment of their risks and social implications

  17. PENGARUH KEPEMIMPINAN SENIOR, TATA KELOLA DAN TANGGUNG JAWAB SOSIAL TERHADAP KINERJA KEPALA RUANG RAWAT INAP RUMAH SAKIT KARYA BHAKTI KOTA BOGOR TAHUN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adila Kasni Astiena

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh Kepemimpinan Senior, Tata Kelola dan Tanggung Jawab Sosial Terhadap Kinerja Kepala Ruang Rawat Inap Rumah Sakit Karya Bhakti (RSKB Bogor Tahun 2008. Kerangka teori dari penelitian ini diambil dari Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence (MBCfPE bagi institusi kesehatan dalam Hertz (2008. Kriteria MBCfPE yang diambil adalah kepemimpinan (leadership yang dijabarkan menjadi variabel Kepemimpinan Senior, Tata Kelola Dan Tanggung Jawab Sosial. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian survei dengan pendekatan kuantitatif. Data yang dikumpulkan adalah data primer dengan menggunakan kuesioner dan diolah dengan menggunakan metode analisis jalur (Path Analysis. Responden penelitian ini adalah semua perawat ruang rawat inap Dahlia Anyelir RSKB tahun 2008. Hasil penelitian ditemukan bahwa Kepemimpinan Senior, Tata Kelola dan Tanggung Jawab Sosial mempengaruhi Kinerja Kepala Ruang sebesar 57.59% sedangkan sisanya 42.41% dipengaruhi oleh variabel yang tidak diteliti. Variabel yang paling besar mempengaruhi kinerja kepala ruang adalah kepemimpinan senior (30.44% disusul oleh variabel tata kelola (22.96% dan Tanggung Jawab Sosial (4.18%. Tanggung Jawab Sosial mempunyai koefisen jalur yang tidak bermakna dan sangat kecil, namun tetap dipertahankan dalam model akhir karena secara substantif, penting dalam menentukan kinerja kepala ruang. Berdasarkan penelitian ini disarankan untuk lebih memperhatikan dan meningkatkan kepemimpinan senior, tata kelola dan tanggung jawab sosial guna meningkatkan kinerja kepala ruang dengan cara (1 melakukan pembinaan dalam hal kepemimpinan mencakup kemampuan (ability, keterampilan (skill dan perilaku (behaviour. (2 Menciptakan kebijakan guna terciptanya kondisi peningkatan kemampuan kepemimpinan senior, tata kelola dan tanggung jawab sosial, termasuk memberikan kesempatan untuk menambah pengetahuan (3 Dalam pemilihan kepala ruang disarankan untuk memperhatikan

  18. Nano materials for Energy and Environmental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Kannan, A.M.; Kothurkar, N.; Khalil, Y.; Kuravi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nano materials enabled technologies have been seamlessly integrated into applications such as aviation and space, chemical industry, optics, solar hydrogen, fuel cell, batteries, sensors, power generation, aeronautic industry, building/construction industry, automotive engineering, consumer electronics, thermoelectric devices, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic industry. Clean energy and environmental applications often demand the development of novel nano materials that can provide shortest reaction pathways for the enhancement of reaction kinetics. Understanding the physicochemical, structural, microstructural, surface, and interface properties of nano materials is vital for achieving the required efficiency, cycle life, and sustain ability in various technological applications. Nano materials with specific size and shape such as nano tubes, nano fibers/nano wires, nano cones, nano composites, nano rods, nano islands, nanoparticles, nanospheres, and nano shells to provide unique properties can be synthesized by tuning the process conditions.

  19. Interaction between TATA-Binding Protein (TBP and Multiprotein Bridging Factor-1 (MBF1 from the Filamentous Insect Pathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Song

    Full Text Available TATA-binding protein (TBP is a ubiquitous component of eukaryotic transcription factors that acts to nucleate assembly and position pre-initiation complexes. Multiprotein bridging factor 1 (MBF1 is thought to interconnect TBP with gene specific transcriptional activators, modulating transcriptional networks in response to specific signal and developmental programs. The insect pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is a cosmopolitan fungus found in most ecosystems where it acts as an important regulator of insect populations and can form intimate associations with certain plants. In order to gain a better understanding of the function of MBF1 in filamentous fungi, its interaction with TBP was demonstrated. The MBF1 and TBP homologs in B. bassiana were cloned and purified from a heterologous E. coli expression system. Whereas purified BbTBP was shown to be able to bind oligonucleotide sequences containing the TATA-motif (Kd ≈ 1.3 nM including sequences derived from the promoters of the B. bassiana chitinase and protease genes. In contrast, BbMBF1 was unable to bind to these same target sequences. However, the formation of a ternary complex between BbMBF1, BbTBP, and a TATA-containing target DNA sequence was seen in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA. These data indicate that BbMBF1 forms direct interactions with BbTBP, and that the complex is capable of binding to DNA sequences containing TATA-motifs, confirming that BbTBP can link BbMBF1 to target sequences as part of the RNA transcriptional machinery in fungi.

  20. The cultivation of medicinal, aromatic and spice plants in South Marocco. Relation to a trip to the regions between Agadir - Marrakech - Ouarzazate and Tata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ait Chitt, M.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies about aromatic, medicinal and seasoning plants are integrated into activities of Department of "Vegetables Cultures" of the Section of Agadir (Agronomical and Veterinary Institute Hassan II. An explanatory mission has been carried out in the provinces of Agadir and Marrakech in semi-barren areas and of Ouarzazate and Tata in Saharan regions. The mean cultivated species are listed. A technical and economical approach is considered.

  1. Salt-Mediated Electrostatics in the Association of TATA Binding Proteins to DNA: A Combined Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bredenberg, Johan H.; Russo, Cristina; Fenley, Marcia O.

    2008-01-01

    The TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a key component of the archaea ternary preinitiation transcription assembly. The archaeon TBP, from the halophile/hyperthermophile organism Pyrococcus woesei, is adapted to high concentrations of salt and high-temperature environments. Although most eukaryotic TBPs are mesophilic and adapted to physiological conditions of temperature and salt, they are very similar to their halophilic counterparts in sequence and fold. However, whereas the binding affinity to...

  2. Interaction between TATA-Binding Protein (TBP) and Multiprotein Bridging Factor-1 (MBF1) from the Filamentous Insect Pathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chi; Ortiz-Urquiza, Almudena; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Jin-Xia; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2015-01-01

    TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a ubiquitous component of eukaryotic transcription factors that acts to nucleate assembly and position pre-initiation complexes. Multiprotein bridging factor 1 (MBF1) is thought to interconnect TBP with gene specific transcriptional activators, modulating transcriptional networks in response to specific signal and developmental programs. The insect pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is a cosmopolitan fungus found in most ecosystems where it acts as an important regulator of insect populations and can form intimate associations with certain plants. In order to gain a better understanding of the function of MBF1 in filamentous fungi, its interaction with TBP was demonstrated. The MBF1 and TBP homologs in B. bassiana were cloned and purified from a heterologous E. coli expression system. Whereas purified BbTBP was shown to be able to bind oligonucleotide sequences containing the TATA-motif (Kd ≈ 1.3 nM) including sequences derived from the promoters of the B. bassiana chitinase and protease genes. In contrast, BbMBF1 was unable to bind to these same target sequences. However, the formation of a ternary complex between BbMBF1, BbTBP, and a TATA-containing target DNA sequence was seen in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). These data indicate that BbMBF1 forms direct interactions with BbTBP, and that the complex is capable of binding to DNA sequences containing TATA-motifs, confirming that BbTBP can link BbMBF1 to target sequences as part of the RNA transcriptional machinery in fungi.

  3. Magnetic Nano-Materials: Truly Sustainable Green Chemistry Nano Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    We envisioned a novel nano-catalyst system, which can bridge the homogenous and heterogeneous system, and simultaneously be cheaper, easily accessible (sustainable) and possibly does not require elaborate work-up. Because of its nano-size, i.e. high surface area, the contact betw...

  4. Nano surface generation of grinding process using carbon nano tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nano surface finish has become an important parameter in the semiconductor, optical, electrical and mechanical industries. The materials used in these industries are classified as difficult to machine materials such as ceramics, glasses and silicon wafers. Machining of these materials up to nano accuracy is a great ...

  5. 1D Nano materials 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanqiu Zhu, Y.; Ma, R.; Whitby, R.; Acquah, S.

    2013-01-01

    We witnessed an initial hyped period and enthusiasm on carbon nano tubes in the 1990s later went through a significant expansion into nano tubes of other materials (metal di chalcogenides, boron nitride, etc.) as well as various nano wires and nano rods. While much of the hype might have gone, the research on one-dimensional (1D) nano materials has matured as one of the most active research areas within the nano science and nano technology community, flourishing with ample, exciting, and new research opportunities. Just like any other research frontier, researchers working in the 1D nano materials field are constantly striving to develop new fundamental science as well as potential applications. It remains a common belief that versatility and tunability of 1D nano materials would challenge many new rising tasks coming from our resource and energy demanding modern society. The traditional semiconductor industry has produced so many devices and systems from transistors, sensors, lasers, and LEDs to more sophisticated solar panels, which are now part of our daily lives. By down sizing the core components or parts to 1D form, one might wonder how fundamentally the dimensionality and morphology would impact the device performance, this is, as always, requiring us to fully understand the structure-property relationship in 1D nano materials. It may be equally crucial in connecting discovery-driven fundamental science to market-driven technology industry concerning potentially relevant findings derived from these novel materials. The importance of a platform that allows active researchers in this field to present their new development in a timely and efficient manner is therefore self-evident. Following the success of two early special issues devoted to 1D nano materials, this is the third one in a row organized by the same group of guest editors, attesting that such a platform has been well received by the readers

  6. PREFACE: Nano- and microfluidics Nano- and microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Karin

    2011-05-01

    The field of nano- and microfluidics emerged at the end of the 1990s parallel to the demand for smaller and smaller containers and channels for chemical, biochemical and medical applications such as blood and DNS analysis [1], gene sequencing or proteomics [2, 3]. Since then, new journals and conferences have been launched and meanwhile, about two decades later, a variety of microfluidic applications are on the market. Briefly, 'the small flow becomes mainstream' [4]. Nevertheless, research in nano- and microfluidics is more than downsizing the spatial dimensions. For liquids on the nanoscale, surface and interface phenomena grow in importance and may even dominate the behavior in some systems. The studies collected in this special issue all concentrate on these type of systems and were part ot the priority programme SPP1164 'Nano- and Microfluidics' of the German Science Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG). The priority programme was initiated in 2002 by Hendrik Kuhlmann and myself and was launched in 2004. Friction between a moving liquid and a solid wall may, for instance, play an important role so that the usual assumption of a no-slip boundary condition is no longer valid. Likewise, the dynamic deformations of soft objects like polymers, vesicles or capsules in flow arise from the subtle interplay between the (visco-)elasticity of the object and the viscous stresses in the surrounding fluid and, potentially, the presence of structures confining the flow like channels. Consequently, new theories were developed ( see articles in this issue by Münch and Wagner, Falk and Mecke, Bonthuis et al, Finken et al, Almenar and Rauscher, Straube) and experiments were set up to unambiguously demonstrate deviations from bulk, or 'macro', behavior (see articles in this issue by Wolff et al, Vinogradova and Belyaev, Hahn et al, Seemann et al, Grüner and Huber, Müller-Buschbaum et al, Gutsche et al, Braunmüller et al, Laube et al, Brücker, Nottebrock et al

  7. How to Use SNP_TATA_Comparator to Find a Significant Change in Gene Expression Caused by the Regulatory SNP of This Gene's Promoter via a Change in Affinity of the TATA-Binding Protein for This Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Mikhail; Rasskazov, Dmitry; Arkova, Olga; Ponomarenko, Petr; Suslov, Valentin; Savinkova, Ludmila; Kolchanov, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    The use of biomedical SNP markers of diseases can improve effectiveness of treatment. Genotyping of patients with subsequent searching for SNPs more frequent than in norm is the only commonly accepted method for identification of SNP markers within the framework of translational research. The bioinformatics applications aimed at millions of unannotated SNPs of the "1000 Genomes" can make this search for SNP markers more focused and less expensive. We used our Web service involving Fisher's Z-score for candidate SNP markers to find a significant change in a gene's expression. Here we analyzed the change caused by SNPs in the gene's promoter via a change in affinity of the TATA-binding protein for this promoter. We provide examples and discuss how to use this bioinformatics application in the course of practical analysis of unannotated SNPs from the "1000 Genomes" project. Using known biomedical SNP markers, we identified 17 novel candidate SNP markers nearby: rs549858786 (rheumatoid arthritis); rs72661131 (cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis); rs562962093 (stroke); rs563558831 (cyclophosphamide bioactivation); rs55878706 (malaria resistance, leukopenia), rs572527200 (asthma, systemic sclerosis, and psoriasis), rs371045754 (hemophilia B), rs587745372 (cardiovascular events); rs372329931, rs200209906, rs367732974, and rs549591993 (all four: cancer); rs17231520 and rs569033466 (both: atherosclerosis); rs63750953, rs281864525, and rs34166473 (all three: malaria resistance, thalassemia).

  8. Micro/Nano manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Micro- and nano-scale manufacturing has been the subject of an increasing amount of interest and research effort worldwide in both academia and industry over the past 10 years.Traditional (MEMS) manufacturing, but also precision manufacturing technologies have been developed to cover micro......-scale dimensions and accuracies. Furthermore, these fundamentally different technology ecosystems are currently combined in order to exploit strengths of both platforms. One example is the use of lithography-based technologies to establish nanostructures that are subsequently transferred to 3D geometries via...

  9. Reconfigurable Nano-Plasmonics Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    30 Sept. 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reconfigurable Nano-Plasmonics Holography 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...of plasmonic holography by Reconfigurable Surface Plasmon Phase Modulators from micro-electromechanical devices. High dielectric constant...Project Title: Reconfigurable Nano-Plasmonics Holography Award Number: FA9550-09-1-0698 Start Date: Sept. 30

  10. MiRNAs regulate oxidative stress related genes via binding to the 3' UTR and TATA-box regions: a new hypothesis for cataract pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changrui; Liu, Zhao; Ma, Le; Pei, Cheng; Qin, Li; Gao, Ning; Li, Jun; Yin, Yue

    2017-08-14

    Age-related cataracts are related to oxidative stress. However, the genome-wide screening of cataract related oxidative stress related genes are not thoroughly investigated. Our study aims to identify cataract regulated miRNA target genes that are related to oxidative stress and to propose a new possible mechanism for cataract formation. Microarrays were used to determine the mRNA expression profiles of both transparent and cataractous lenses. The results were analyzed by significance analyses performed by the microarray software, and bioinformatics analysis was further conducted using Molecular Annotation System. The Eukaryotic Promoter Database (EPD) was used to retrieve promoter sequences and identify TATA-box motifs. Online resource miRWalk was exploited to screen for validated miRNAs targeting mRNAs related to oxidative stress. RNAhybrid online tool was applied to predict the binding between significantly regulated miRNAs in cataract lenses and target mRNAs. Oxidative stress pathway was significantly regulated in cataractous lens samples. Pro-oxidative genes were half up-regulated (11/20), with a small number of genes down-regulated (4/20) and the rest of them with no significant change (5/20). Anti-oxidative genes were partly up-regulated (17/69) and partly down-regulated (17/69). Four down-regulated miRNAs (has-miR-1207-5p, has-miR-124-3p, has-miR-204-3p, has-miR-204-5p) were found to target 3' UTR of pro-oxidative genes and could also bind to the TATA-box regions of anti-oxidative genes (with the exception of has-miR-204-3p), whilst two up-regulated miRNAs (has-miR-222-3p, has-miR-378a-3p) were found to target 3' UTR of anti-oxidative genes and could simultaneously bind to the TATA-box regions of pro-oxidative genes. We propose for the first time a hypothesis that cataract regulated miRNAs could contribute to cataract formation not only by targeting 3' UTR but also by targeting TATA-box region of oxidative stress related genes. This results in the

  11. Democracy leadership (study approach of bureaucrats leadership at sub bagian tata usaha badan perencanaan pembangunan daerah, East Java province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Y.; Rosdiana, W.; Noviyanti

    2018-01-01

    The main key to organizational success depends on the success of a leadership. Each organization’s progress will require the ability of a leader to transformed the organization. The emergence of the democratic-leadership is one of the most humane style of leadership. Democratic leadership positioned people as the most important factor in the leadership exercised by the orientation and emphasis on relationships with members of the organization. This study raised that the democratic-leadership in government agencies to study the leadership approach of bureaucrats at Sub Bagian Tata Usaha Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah East Java Province. The data collection techniques used descriptive research with qualitative approach, then the techniques were interviews, observation and documentation. While, the research data analysis used interactive analysis model approach of Miles and Huberman, which includes: (1) data reduction; (2) the presentation of the data; and (3) conclusion. Based on Nawawi theory’s [1], this study showed that (1) Leaders are very obedient to the rules/procedures work, (2) Leaders look more autocratic, (3) leaders make familiarity with subordinates, (4) leaders develop kinship situation and teamwork, (5) the leaders seem monotonous work and do not like a modification, (6) Leaders seem slow in decision making, and (7) leaders are accustomed to low-risk jobs with less survival trends.

  12. Suppression of intragenic transcription requires the MOT1 and NC2 regulators of TATA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Maria J E; Yildirim, Asli D; Weil, P Anthony; Holstege, Frank C P; Timmers, H Th Marc

    2014-04-01

    Chromatin structure in transcribed regions poses a barrier for intragenic transcription. In a comprehensive study of the yeast chromatin remodelers and the Mot1p-NC2 regulators of TATA-binding protein (TBP), we detected synthetic genetic interactions indicative of suppression of intragenic transcription. Conditional depletion of Mot1p or NC2 in absence of the ISW1 remodeler, but not in the absence of other chromatin remodelers, activated the cryptic FLO8 promoter. Likewise, conditional depletion of Mot1p or NC2 in deletion backgrounds of the H3K36 methyltransferase Set2p or the Asf1p-Rtt106p histone H3-H4 chaperones, important factors involved in maintaining a repressive chromatin environment, resulted in increased intragenic FLO8 transcripts. Activity of the cryptic FLO8 promoter is associated with reduced H3 levels, increased TBP binding and tri-methylation of H3K4 and is independent of Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase function. These data reveal cooperation of negative regulation of TBP with specific chromatin regulators to inhibit intragenic transcription.

  13. EDITORIAL: Nano Meets Spectroscopy Nano Meets Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, David J. S.

    2012-08-01

    The multidisciplinary two-day Nano Meets Spectroscopy (NMS) event was held at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, UK, in September 2011. The event was planned from the outset to be at the interface of several areas—in particular, spectroscopy and nanoscience, and to bring together topics and people with different approaches to achieving common goals in biomolecular science. Hence the meeting cut across traditional boundaries and brought together researchers using diverse techniques, particularly fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. Despite engaging common problems, these techniques are frequently seen as mutually exclusive with the two communities rarely interacting at conferences. The meeting was widely seen to have lived up to its billing in good measure. It attracted the maximum capacity of ~120 participants, including 22 distinguished speakers (9 from outside the UK), over 50 posters and a vibrant corporate exhibition comprising 10 leading instrument companies and IOP Publishing. The organizers were Professor David Birch (Chair), Dr Karen Faulds and Professor Duncan Graham of the University of Strathclyde, Professor Cait MacPhee of the University of Edinburgh and Dr Alex Knight of NPL. The event was sponsored by the European Science Foundation, the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society of Chemistry, NPL and the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance. The full programme and abstracts are available at http://sensor.phys.strath.ac.uk/nms/program.php. The programme was quite ambitious in terms of the breadth and depth of scope. The interdisciplinary and synergistic concept of 'X meets Y' played well, cross-fertilization between different fields often being a source of inspiration and progress. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy provided the core, but the meeting had little repetition and also attracted contributions on more specialist techniques such as CARS, super-resolution, single molecule and chiral methods. In terms of application the

  14. Nano-ceramics and its molding technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jian; Xu Yunshu

    2007-01-01

    Nano-ceramics and its related knowledge were introduced. Fabrication of nano-ceramic powder, as well as the molding and sintering technologies of nano-ceramics were reviewed. Features of the present molding technologies were analyzed. The applications of nano-ceramics were prospected. (authors)

  15. PENGEMBANGAN PROGRAM VRML (VIRTUAL REALITY MODELLING LANGUAGE UNTUK E-LEARNING BERBASIS WEB TERINTEGRASI DALAM PHP-MySQL MATA KULIAH ILMU PENGETAHUAN BUMI DAN ANTARIKSA POKOK BAHASAN SISTEM TATA SURYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azwar Anas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemahaman tentang fenomena sistem tata surya  membutuhkan daya imaginasi yang cukup. Hal ini merupakan salah satu kesulitan dalam memahami materi tentang sistem tata surya, sehingga diperlukan adanya visualisasi untuk membantu mengatasi kesulitan tersebut. Salah satu visualisasi adalah dengan menggunakan program visualisasi 3D. Pembuatan program diawali dengan identifikasi masalah dan persiapan perangkat lunak. Dalam hal ini program yang digunakan adalah VRML(Virtual Reality Modelling Language. Pelaksanaan pembuatan program dimulai dengan memodelkan gejala-gejala fisis yang terkait dengan fenomena sistem tata surya. Bahasa pemrograman VRML hanya mampu melakukan perhitungan dasar yang sangat sederhana. Untuk perhitungan data yang kompleks digunakan bantuan Microsoft Office Excel. Data yang dihasilkan dari perhitungan menggunakan Microsoft Office Excel kemudian dimasukkan ke dalam list program VRML. Hasil penelitian berupa pemodelan sistem tata surya yang diintergrasikan dalam e-learning berbasis web. Untuk menampilkan hasil program ini digunakan browser Cortona VRML player. Tampilan 3D yang dihasilkan menarik dan interaktif. User dapat mengamati model 3D dari berbagai sudut pengamatan dengan menggunakan toolbar yang tersedia pada browser. Kata kunci : VRML, visualisasi 3D, sistem tata surya

  16. Neuronal expression of TATA box-binding protein containing expanded polyglutamine in knock-in mice reduces chaperone protein response by impairing the function of nuclear factor-Y transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shanshan; Ling, Joseph J; Yang, Su; Li, Xiao-Jiang; Li, Shihua

    2011-07-01

    The polyglutamine diseases consist of nine neurodegenerative disorders including spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 that is caused by a polyglutamine tract expansion in the TATA box-binding protein. In all polyglutamine diseases, polyglutamine-expanded proteins are ubiquitously expressed throughout the body but cause selective neurodegeneration. Understanding the specific effects of polyglutamine-expanded proteins, when expressed at the endogenous levels, in neurons is important for unravelling the pathogenesis of polyglutamine diseases. However, addressing this important issue using mouse models that either overly or ubiquitously express mutant polyglutamine proteins in the brain and body has proved difficult. To investigate the pathogenesis of spinocerebellar ataxia 17, we generated a conditional knock-in mouse model that expresses one copy of the mutant TATA box-binding protein gene, which encodes a 105-glutamine repeat, selectively in neuronal cells at the endogenous level. Neuronal expression of mutant TATA box-binding protein causes age-dependent neurological symptoms in mice and the degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Mutant TATA box-binding protein binds more tightly to the transcription factor nuclear factor-Y, inhibits its association with the chaperone protein promoter, as well as the promoter activity and reduces the expression of the chaperones Hsp70, Hsp25 and HspA5, and their response to stress. These findings demonstrate how mutant TATA box-binding protein at the endogenous level affects neuronal function, with important implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of polyglutamine diseases.

  17. The interaction of hyperthermophilic TATA-box binding protein with single-stranded DNA is entropically favorable and exhibits a large negative heat capacity change at high salt concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatoishi, Satoru; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Kudou, Motonori; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2009-09-01

    We have investigated the thermodynamics of the interaction between the TATA-box-binding protein from Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhoTBP) and its target DNA (TATA-1). The interaction between PhoTBP and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is entropically favorable and enthalpically unfavorable. The thermodynamic parameters for TATA-1 duplex formation in the presence of PhoTBP, that is, ternary PhoTBP-dsDNA complexation, are similar to those for TATA-1 duplex formation, which is enthalpically favorable. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicates that the interaction between PhoTBP and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) of TATA-1 is entropy driven and has a large negative heat capacity change (-1.19 kcal mol(-1) K(-1)) at high salt concentration (800 mM NaCl). These results suggest that the favorable entropic effect corresponding to the interaction between PhoTBP and dsDNA is due not to ternary complexation but to the interaction between PhoTBP and ssDNA. This report is the first to describe the thermodynamics of the interaction between TBP and ssDNA.

  18. Frontiers in nano-therapeutics

    CERN Document Server

    Tasnim, Nishat; Sai Krishna, Katla; Kalagara, Sudhakar; Narayan, Mahesh; Noveron, Juan C; Joddar, Binata

    2017-01-01

    This brief highlights recent research advances in the area of nano-therapeutics. Nanotechnology holds immense potential for application in a wide range of biological and engineering applications such as molecular sensors for disease diagnosis, therapeutic agents for the treatment of diseases, a vehicle for delivering therapeutics and imaging agents for theranostic applications, both in-vitro and in-vivo. The brief is grouped into the following sections namely, A) Discrete Nanosystems ; B) Anisotropic Nanoparticles; C) Nano-films/coated/layered and D) Nano-composites.

  19. Nano boron nitride flatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdel, Amir; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-02-07

    Recent years have witnessed many breakthroughs in research on two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, among which is hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), a layered material with a regular network of BN hexagons. This review provides an insight into the marvellous nano BN flatland, beginning with a concise introduction to BN and its low-dimensional nanostructures, followed by an overview of the past and current state of research on 2D BN nanostructures. A comprehensive review of the structural characteristics and synthetic routes of BN monolayers, multilayers, nanomeshes, nanowaves, nanoflakes, nanosheets and nanoribbons is presented. In addition, electronic, optical, thermal, mechanical, magnetic, piezoelectric, catalytic, ecological, biological and wetting properties, applications and research perspectives for these novel 2D nanomaterials are discussed.

  20. Nano threats and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Peter

    2003-07-01

    Worries in the science community about a public backlash against nanotechnology have been growing in recent months. Currently, public fears range from the reasonable, such as the unknown effects of nanoparticles on health and the environment, to what scientists consider to be the ridiculous - a world overrun by plagues of self-replicating nanorobots. This is the 'grey goo' scenario that looms large in Prey, the recent novel by Michael Crichton that seems to have kick-started this current bout of nano-angst. The nightmare scenario for scientists is that the public - egged on by various pressure groups - will reject nanotechnology in the same way that the UK and other countries have rejected genetically modified (GM) food. (U.K.)

  1. Nano-optomechanical transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakich, Peter T; El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Su, Mehmet Fatih; Reinke, Charles; Camacho, Ryan; Wang, Zheng; Davids, Paul

    2013-12-03

    A nano-optomechanical transducer provides ultrabroadband coherent optomechanical transduction based on Mach-wave emission that uses enhanced photon-phonon coupling efficiencies by low impedance effective phononic medium, both electrostriction and radiation pressure to boost and tailor optomechanical forces, and highly dispersive electromagnetic modes that amplify both electrostriction and radiation pressure. The optomechanical transducer provides a large operating bandwidth and high efficiency while simultaneously having a small size and minimal power consumption, enabling a host of transformative phonon and signal processing capabilities. These capabilities include optomechanical transduction via pulsed phonon emission and up-conversion, broadband stimulated phonon emission and amplification, picosecond pulsed phonon lasers, broadband phononic modulators, and ultrahigh bandwidth true time delay and signal processing technologies.

  2. Carbon nanotubes: from nano test tube to nano-reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlobystov, Andrei N

    2011-12-27

    Confinement of molecules and atoms inside carbon nanotubes provides a powerful strategy for studying structures and chemical properties of individual molecules at the nanoscale. In this issue of ACS Nano, Allen et al. explore the nanotube as a template leading to the formation of unusual supramolecular and covalent structures. The potential of carbon nanotubes as reactors for synthesis on the nano- and macroscales is discussed in light of recent studies.

  3. Facies volcánicas del depósito de avalancha de detritos del volcán Tata Sabaya, Andes Centrales Volcanic facies of the debris avalanche deposit of Tata Sabaya Volcano, Central Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benigno Godoy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Las avalanchas de detritos, asociadas a colapsos parciales de edificios volcánicos, son fenómenos comunes en la evolución de un volcán. Este tipo de flujos son por inestabilidades, que pueden deberse a factores tales como la existencia de zonas afectadas por alteración hidrotermal, cambios climáticos, terremotos, intrusión de magmas en zonas superficiales (criptodomos y/o diques y/o movimiento de fallas bajo el edificio volcánico o cercanas a él. El producto final de estos flujos -denominado depósito de avalancha de detritos (DAD- presenta morfologías típicas de cerrillos y drenajes cerrados. En los Andes Centrales se han reconocido, al menos, 14 centros volcánicos con depósitos de avalancha asociados, entre los que está el volcán Tata Sabaya (Bolivia. El colapso que ha dado origen a este depósito podría haberse generado por una combinación de actividad sísmica y magmática en el volcán. El depósito asociado al colapso parcial de este volcán se distribuye sobre la parte baja del flanco sur del volcán y sobre la parte noroccidental de la cuenca del salar de Coipasa. Cubre una superficie de más de 230 km² y tiene un volumen estimado de 6±1 km³. Sobre la base de las composiciones litológicas, se ha establecido que el depósito está constituido por 6 tipos distintos de cerrillos, los cuales son: lávicos, piroclásticos, sedimentarios mixtos, brecha piroclástica y andesítico-basálticos. Considerando el tipo predominante de cerrillos y su distribución espacial dentro del depósito, se ha definido 6 facies diferentes (Facies de Bloques Toreva, Facies de Cerrillos Volcánicos, Facies Central, Facies de Cerrillos Sedimentarios, Facies Mixta y Facies de Cerrillos de Brecha Piroclástica. Tomando en cuenta la distribución espacial de estas facies, se propone la estructura del paleovolcán previa a su colapso parcial.Debris avalanches associated with partial sector collapse of volcanic edifices are common phenomena in the

  4. Doubly Spliced RNA of Hepatitis B Virus Suppresses Viral Transcription via TATA-Binding Protein and Induces Stress Granule Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuen-Nan; Chong, Chin-Liew; Chou, Yu-Chi; Huang, Chien-Chiao; Wang, Yi-Ling; Wang, Shao-Win; Chen, Mong-Liang; Chen, Chun-Hong; Chang, Chungming

    2015-11-01

    The risk of liver cancer in patients infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and their clinical response to interferon alpha therapy vary based on the HBV genotype. The mechanisms underlying these differences in HBV pathogenesis remain unclear. In HepG2 cells transfected with a mutant HBV(G2335A) expression plasmid that does not transcribe the 2.2-kb doubly spliced RNA (2.2DS-RNA) expressed by wild-type HBV genotype A, the level of HBV pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) was higher than that in cells transfected with an HBV genotype A expression plasmid. By using cotransfection with HBV genotype D and 2.2DS-RNA expression plasmids, we found that a reduction of pgRNA was observed in the cells even in the presence of small amounts of the 2.2DS-RNA plasmid. Moreover, ectopic expression of 2.2DS-RNA in the HBV-producing cell line 1.3ES2 reduced the expression of pgRNA. Further analysis showed that exogenously transcribed 2.2DS-RNA inhibited a reconstituted transcription in vitro. In Huh7 cells ectopically expressing 2.2DS-RNA, RNA immunoprecipitation revealed that 2.2DS-RNA interacted with the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and that nucleotides 432 to 832 of 2.2DS-RNA were required for efficient TBP binding. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that 2.2DS-RNA colocalized with cytoplasmic TBP and the stress granule components, G3BP and poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABP1), in Huh7 cells. In conclusion, our study reveals that 2.2DS-RNA acts as a repressor of HBV transcription through an interaction with TBP that induces stress granule formation. The expression of 2.2DS-RNA may be one of the viral factors involved in viral replication, which may underlie differences in clinical outcomes of liver disease and responses to interferon alpha therapy between patients infected with different HBV genotypes. Patients infected with certain genotypes of HBV have a lower risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and exhibit a more favorable response to antiviral therapy than patients infected with other HBV

  5. TATA-binding protein-associated factor 7 regulates polyamine transport activity and polyamine analog-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Junichi; Hiipakka, Richard A; Kokontis, John M; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Kazuei; Liao, Shutsung

    2004-07-16

    Identification of the polyamine transporter gene will be useful for modulating polyamine accumulation in cells and should be a good target for controlling cell proliferation. Polyamine transport activity in mammalian cells is critical for accumulation of the polyamine analog methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) that induces apoptosis, although a gene responsible for transport activity has not been identified. Using a retroviral gene trap screen, we generated MGBG-resistant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to identify genes involved in polyamine transport activity. One gene identified by the method encodes TATA-binding protein-associated factor 7 (TAF7), which functions not only as one of the TAFs, but also a coactivator for c-Jun. TAF7-deficient cells had decreased capacity for polyamine uptake (20% of CHO cells), decreased AP-1 activation, as well as resistance to MGBG-induced apoptosis. Stable expression of TAF7 in TAF7-deficient cells restored transport activity (55% of CHO cells), AP-1 gene transactivation (100% of CHO cells), and sensitivity to MGBG-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of TAF7 in CHO cells did not increase transport activity, suggesting that TAF7 may be involved in the maintenance of basal activity. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitors blocked MGBG-induced apoptosis without alteration of polyamine transport. Decreased TAF7 expression, by RNA interference, in androgen-independent human prostate cancer LN-CaP104-R1 cells resulted in lower polyamine transport activity (25% of control) and resistance to MGBG-induced growth arrest. Taken together, these results reveal a physiological function of TAF7 as a basal regulator for mammalian polyamine transport activity and MGBG-induced apoptosis.

  6. Trinucleotide repeat expansion of TATA-binding protein gene associated with Parkinson's disease: A Thai multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubtum, Lulin; Witoonpanich, Pirada; Kulkantrakorn, Kongkiat; Hanchaiphiboolkul, Suchat; Pongpakdee, Sunsanee; Tiamkao, Somsak; Pulkes, Teeratorn

    2016-07-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is an inherited cerebellar degeneration associated with trinucleotide repeat expansions in the TATA-binding protein gene (TBP). Low-range expansions of TBP have recently been described in association with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, these low-range expansion alleles were also observed in healthy individuals. Prior distinct findings may result from reduced penetrance or age-dependent susceptibility, which may influence phenotypic expression. A case-control study of 456 PD patients and 374 control subjects was conducted. Data and blood samples were collected during 2008-2013. Control subjects were individuals over 65 years old without parkinsonism. Sizes of TBP trinucleotide repeats were analyzed. All available carriers of the TBP repeat of ≥40 repeats were re-examined. A high prevalence of carriers of TBP repeat expansion ≥41 developed PD, mainly at an advanced age. Half of these carriers had onset after 70 years of age (range 34-84). Seven participants carried expansion alleles of ≥42, and all had PD. Fourteen participants (six patients and eight controls) carried a heterozygous 41-repeat allele. At the current mean age of 79 years and mean follow-up period of 4 years, three out of the eight control carriers of the 41-repeat allele developed PD, while none of the thirteen asymptomatic carriers of the 40-repeat allele did. A high prevalence of PD was observed in carriers of low-range expansions of TBP (41-45 repeats), especially in elderly. This finding suggests that cut-off value for pathological TBP repeat expansion appear to be 41. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Cellular MicroRNA Facilitates Regulatory T Lymphocyte Development by Targeting the FOXP3 Promoter TATA-Box Motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiwen; Liu, Weiwei; Chen, Yingshi; Liu, Jun; Wu, Kang; Su, Lishi; Zhang, Wanying; Jiang, Yawen; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Chao; Tao, Liang; Liu, Bingfeng; Zhang, Hui

    2018-02-01

    The CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) mediate immunological self-tolerance and suppress various immune responses. FOXP3 is a key transcriptional factor for the generation and development of Tregs. Its expression is regulated by various cytokines including TGF-β, IL-2, and IL-10. It is important to further identify the regulatory factors for Tregs. Given that many microRNAs (miRNAs) could specifically interact with the core promoter region and specifically enhance the transcription of many target genes, we searched for any possible miRNA(s) targeting the core promoter region of the FOXP3 gene. We found that miR-4281, an miRNA specifically expressed in hominids, can potently and specifically upregulate FOXP3 expression by directly interacting with the TATA-box motif in the human FOXP3 promoter. Consequently, miR-4281 significantly accelerated the differentiation of human naive cells to induced Tregs (iTregs) that possess immune suppressor functions and weaken the development of graft-versus-host disease in a humanized mouse model. Interestingly, iTregs induced by the combination of TGF-β, IL-2, and chemically synthesized miR-4281 were more stable and functional than those induced by TGF-β and IL-2 alone. Moreover, we found that the IL-2/STAT5 signal transduction upregulates FOXP3 expression not only through the classical pathway, but also by enhancing the expression of the miR-4281 precursor gene ( SNCB ) and, correspondingly, miR-4281. This study reveals a novel mechanism regulating FOXP3 expression and human iTreg development and, therefore, offers a new therapeutic target to manipulate immunosuppressive system. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Chemical Functionalization, Self-Assembly, and Applications of Nano materials and Nano composites 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, X.; Jiao, T.; Balan, L.; Chen, X.; Hu, M.Z.; Liu, W.

    2014-01-01

    The growing interests in nano materials and nano composites call for the development of processing techniques to obtain multiple functionalization nano structures and achieve the tailoring of specific features of the nanometer size. Functional nano materials and nano composites will expand the applied range of the original material and at the same time promote the development of inter discipline. Thus, the chemical functionalization and bottom-up assemblies of nano materials and subsequent applications will accelerate the development of nano science and nano technology.

  9. Development of a system for the study of protein-protein interactions in planta: characterization of a TATA-box binding protein complex in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jingping; Haynes, Paul A; Zhang, Shiping; Yang, Xinping; Andon, Nancy L; Eckert, Donna; Yates, John R; Wang, Xun; Budworth, Paul

    2003-01-01

    We describe a simple, rapid method for protein complex purification in planta. Using a biotin peptide as an affinity tag with TATA-box binding protein (TBP), 86 unique proteins present in the purified complex were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. We identified proteins known to be associated with TBP, and many other proteins involved in pre-mRNA processing and chromatin remodeling. The identification of these novel protein-protein associations will upon further investigations provide new insights into the mechanisms of mRNA transcription and pre-mRNA processing.

  10. A real-time study of the interaction of TBP with a TATA box-containing duplex identical to an ancestral or minor allele of human gene LEP or TPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkova, Olga; Kuznetsov, Nikita; Fedorova, Olga; Savinkova, Ludmila

    2017-11-01

    It is known that only a single-nucleotide substitution (SNP: a single nucleotide polymorphism) in the sequence of a TATA box can influence the affinity of the interaction of TBP with the TATA box and contribute to the pathogenesis of complex hereditary human diseases and sometimes may be a cause of monogenic diseases (for instance, β-thalassemia). In the present work, we studied the interaction of human TBP with a double-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ODN) 15 or 26 bp long identical to a TATA box of promoters of a real-life human gene, TPI or LEP, and labeled with fluorophores TAMRA and FAM. To analyze the interaction of TBP with a TATA box of an ancestral or minor allele (SNP in the TATA box) in real time, we used the stopped-flow method with detection of a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) signal. The nature of the resulting kinetic curves reflecting changes in the FRET signal (and therefore of DNA conformation during the interaction with TBP) pointed to a multistage mechanism of the formation of the TBP complex with the TATA-containing ODN. The results showed that with the increasing concentration and length of the ODN, heterogeneity of conformational changes (taking place during the first second of the interaction with TBP) in DNA also increases. In contrast to the initial nonspecific interaction, the subsequent phases strictly depend on TBP concentration: at the TBP:ODN ratio of 10:1, the velocity of change of the FRET signal increases approximately 100-fold.

  11. Electrochemically synthesized Si nano wire arrays and thermoelectric nano structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuan, N.I.; Ying, K.K.; Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Foo, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    Thermoelectric nano structures hold great promise for capturing and directly converting into electricity some vast amount of low-grade waste heats now being lost to the environment (for example from nuclear power plant, fossil fuel burning, automotive and household appliances). In this study, large-area vertically-aligned silicon nano wire (SiNW) arrays were synthesized in an aqueous solution containing AgNO 3 and HF on p-type Si (100) substrate by self-selective electroless etching process. The etching conditions were systematically varied in order to achieve different stages of nano wire formation. Diameters of the SiNWs obtained varied from approximately 50 to 200 nm and their lengths ranged from several to a few tens of μm. Te/ Bi 2 Te 3 -Si thermoelectric core-shell nano structures were subsequently obtained via galvanic displacement of SiNWs in acidic HF electrolytes containing HTeO 2 + and Bi 3+ / HTeO 2 + ions. The reactions were basically a nano-electrochemical process due to the difference in redox potentials between the materials. the surface-modified SiNWs of core-shell structures had roughened surface morphologies and therefore, higher surface-t-bulk ratios compared to unmodified SiNWs. They have potential applications in sensors, photovoltaic and thermoelectric nano devices. Growth study on the SiNWs and core-shell nano structures produced is presented using various microscopy, diffraction and probe-based techniques for microstructural, morphological and chemical characterizations. (Author)

  12. Functional Nano fibers: Production and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatri, Z.; Kim, I.S.; Kim, S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Nano fibers are lighter material with higher surface area in comparison to polymeric film. The ease of producing functional nano fiber is another advantage over many nano materials. Functional nano fiber in particular has attained a greater interest in recent years. The applications of functional nano fibers are increasing in various technical fields such as water filter membranes, tissue engineering, biosensors, drug delivery systems, wound dressings, catalysis, antibacterial. This special issue is comprised of well-selective articles that discuss production of functional nano fibers their applications in different emerging fields. M. Zhang et al. have presented exciting work on drug delivery using nano fibers. They used collagen that was extracted from abandoned Rana chensinensis skin in northeastern China via an acid enzymatic extraction method. They demonstrated two different nano fiber-vancomycin (VCM) systems, that is, VCM blended nano fibers and core-shell nano fibers with VCM in the core, and both systems sustained control release for a period of 80 hours. Another work was presented by R. Takai et al. on blood purification using composite nano fibers. About 10% of the population worldwide is affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD). The authors developed nano fiber meshes zeolite-polymer composite nano fibers for efficient adsorption of creatinine, which is a simpler and more accessible method for hemodialysis (HD) patients.

  13. 3D nano-structures for laser nano-manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Seniutinas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The resputtering of gold films from nano-holes defined in a sacrificial PMMA mask, which was made by electron beam lithography, was carried out with a dry plasma etching tool in order to form well-like structures with a high aspect ratio (height/width ≈ 3–4 at the rims of the nano-holes. The extraordinary transmission through the patterns of such nano-wells was investigated experimentally and numerically. By doing numerical simulations of 50-nm and 100-nm diameter polystyrene beads in water and air, we show the potential of such patterns for self-induced back-action (SIBA trapping. The best trapping conditions were found to be a trapping force of 2 pN/W/μm2 (numerical result exerted on a 50-nm diameter bead in water. The simulations were based on the analytical Lorentz force model.

  14. Contribution of phenylalanine side chain intercalation to the TATA-box binding protein-DNA interaction: molecular dynamics and dispersion-corrected density functional theory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Manas; Mukherjee, Sanchita; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay

    2014-11-01

    Deformation of DNA takes place quite often due to binding of small molecules or proteins with DNA. Such deformation is significant due to minor groove binding and, besides electrostatic interactions, other non-covalent interactions may also play an important role in generating such deformation. TATA-box binding protein (TBP) binds to the minor groove of DNA at the TATA box sequence, producing a large-scale deformation in DNA and initiating transcription. In order to observe the interactions of protein residues with DNA in the minor groove that produce the deformation in the DNA structure, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations of the TBP-DNA system. The results reveal consistent partial intercalation of two Phe residues, distorting stacking interactions at two dinucleotide step sites. We carried out calculations based on dispersion-corrected density functional theory to understand the source of such stabilization. We observed favorable interaction energies between the Phe residues and the base pairs with which they interact. We suggest that salt-bridge interactions between the phosphate groups and Lys or Arg residues, along with the intercalation of Phe residues between two base pair stacks, stabilize the kinked and opened-up DNA conformation.

  15. Candidate SNP Markers of Chronopathologies Are Predicted by a Significant Change in the Affinity of TATA-Binding Protein for Human Gene Promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Petr; Rasskazov, Dmitry; Suslov, Valentin; Sharypova, Ekaterina; Savinkova, Ludmila; Podkolodnaya, Olga; Podkolodny, Nikolay L; Tverdokhleb, Natalya N; Chadaeva, Irina; Ponomarenko, Mikhail; Kolchanov, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    Variations in human genome (e.g., single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) may be associated with hereditary diseases, their complications, comorbidities, and drug responses. Using Web service SNP_TATA_Comparator presented in our previous paper, here we analyzed immediate surroundings of known SNP markers of diseases and identified several candidate SNP markers that can significantly change the affinity of TATA-binding protein for human gene promoters, with circadian consequences. For example, rs572527200 may be related to asthma, where symptoms are circadian (worse at night), and rs367732974 may be associated with heart attacks that are characterized by a circadian preference (early morning). By the same method, we analyzed the 90 bp proximal promoter region of each protein-coding transcript of each human gene of the circadian clock core. This analysis yielded 53 candidate SNP markers, such as rs181985043 (susceptibility to acute Q fever in male patients), rs192518038 (higher risk of a heart attack in patients with diabetes), and rs374778785 (emphysema and lung cancer in smokers). If they are properly validated according to clinical standards, these candidate SNP markers may turn out to be useful for physicians (to select optimal treatment for each patient) and for the general population (to choose a lifestyle preventing possible circadian complications of diseases).

  16. Metrology at the nano scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, B.; Cumpson, P.; Bailey, M.

    2006-01-01

    Progress in nano technology relies on ever more accurate measurements of quantities such as distance, force and current industry has long depended on accurate measurement. In the 19th century, for example, the performance of steam engines was seriously limited by inaccurately made components, a situation that was transformed by Henry Maudsley's screw micrometer calliper. And early in the 20th century, the development of telegraphy relied on improved standards of electrical resistance. Before this, each country had its own standards and cross border communication was difficult. The same is true today of nano technology if it is to be fully exploited by industry. Principles of measurement that work well at the macroscopic level often become completely unworkable at the nano metre scale - about 100 nm and below. Imaging, for example, is not possible on this scale using optical microscopes, and it is virtually impossible to weigh a nano metre-scale object with any accuracy. In addition to needing more accurate measurements, nano technology also often requires a greater variety of measurements than conventional technology. For example, standard techniques used to make microchips generally need accurate length measurements, but the manufacture of electronics at the molecular scale requires magnetic, electrical, mechanical and chemical measurements as well. (U.K.)

  17. Peluang dan Tantangan Undang-undang Desa dalam Upaya Demokratisasi Tata Kelola Sumber Daya Alam Desa: Perspektif Agraria Kritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Shohibuddin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Undang-undang Nomor 6 Tahun 2014 tentang Desa (UU Desa-terlepas dari terobosan politiknya dalam menggulirkan demokratisasi relasi negara-desa-memiliki keterbatasan mendasar terkait isu sumber daya alam di desa mengingat krisis agraria dan krisis ekologi yang terjadi di pedesaan. Selain tidak banyak mengelaborasi aspek-aspek penting dari isu sumber daya alam, UU Desa juga hanya memberikan kewenangan yang minim terhadap swakelola sumber daya alam desa oleh pemerintah desa serta tidak menyentuh ketimpangan akses warga desa terhadap sumber daya alam setempat. Dihadapkan pada tantangan struktural demikian, perjuangan "otonomi desa" akan sulit mendorong transformasi sosial yang berarti tanpa melibatkan upaya penataan sumber daya alam yang berkeadilan dan berkelanjutan. Pada saat yang sama, perjuangan "keadilan sosial-ekologis" akan sulit tampil sebagai agenda kolektif desa tanpa mengupayakan demokratisasi yang lebih dalam di internal desa sendiri. Tulisan ini menawarkan kerangka perjuangan "demokratisasi tata kelola sumber daya alam desa" sebagai konvergensi strategis dari dua perjuangan sebelumnya: "otonomi desa" dan "keadilan sosial-ekologis". Hal ini diupayakan melalui tiga agenda konkret yang saling terkait: penguatan kewenangan desa atas sumber daya alam setempat, demokratisasi relasi-relasi sosio-agraria di desa, dan pembalikan krisis pedesaan untuk merevitalisasi basis-basis produksi desa.Law Number 6 of 2014 on Village-apart from its political contribution in democratizing state-village relation-has a fundamental limitation on natural resource issues in the village in the light of agrarian and ecological crises. This Law offers a minor elaboration on natural resource issues and provides limited authority to the village on this field, while no reference is made to the problem of inequality in community's access to local natural resources. Confronted with such structural challenges, it is argued that "struggle for village autonomy" will

  18. Quantitative mass spectrometry of TATA binding protein-containing complexes and subunit phosphorylations during the cell cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltissen Marijke PA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progression through the cell cycle is accompanied by tightly controlled regulation of transcription. On one hand, a subset of genes is expressed in a cell cycle-dependent manner. On the other hand, a general inhibition of transcription occurs during mitosis. Genetic and genome-wide studies suggest cell cycle regulation at the level of transcription initiation by protein complexes containing the common DNA-binding subunit TATA binding protein (TBP. TBP is a key player in regulating transcription by all three nuclear RNA polymerases. It forms at least four distinct protein complexes with TBP-associated factors (TAFs: SL1, B-TFIID, TFIID, and TFIIIB. Some TAFs are known to remain associated with TBP during the cell cycle. Here we analyze all TAFs and their phosphorylation status during the cell cycle using a quantitative mass spectrometry approach. Results TBP protein complexes present in human cells at the G2/M and G1/S transitions were analyzed by combining affinity purification with quantitative mass spectrometry using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC. Phosphorylations were mapped and quantified after enrichment of tryptic peptides by titanium dioxide. This revealed that subunit stoichiometries of TBP complexes remained intact, but their relative abundances in nuclear extracts changed during the cell cycle. Several novel phosphorylations were detected on subunits of the TBP complexes TFIID and SL1. G2/M-specific phosphorylations were detected on TAF1, TAF4, TAF7, and TAFI41/TAF1D, and G1/S-specific dephosphorylations were detected on TAF3. Many phosphorylated residues were evolutionary conserved from human to zebrafish and/or drosophila, and were present in conserved regions suggesting important regulatory functions. Conclusions This study provides the first quantitative proteomic analysis of human TBP containing protein complexes at the G2/M and G1/S transitions, and identifies new cell cycle

  19. Nano structures for Medical Diagnostics Md

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellah, M.; Iqbal, S.M.; Bellah, M.; Iqbal, S.M.; Christensen, S.M.; Iqbal, S.M.; Iqbal, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Nano technology is the art of manipulating materials on atomic or molecular scales especially to build nano scale structures and devices. The field is expanding quickly, and a lot of work is ongoing in the design, characterization, synthesis, and application of materials, structures, devices, and systems by controlling shape and size at nanometer scale. In the last few years, much work has been focused on the use of nano structures toward problems of biology and medicine. In this paper, we focus on the application of various nano structures and nano devices in clinical diagnostics and detection of important biological molecules. The discussion starts by introducing some basic techniques of micro-/nano scale fabrication that have enabled reproducible production of nano structures. The prospects, benefits, and limitations of using these novel techniques in the fields of bio detection and medical diagnostics are then discussed. Finally, the challenges of mass production and acceptance of nano technology by the medical community are considered.

  20. Nano-particles;Les nanoparticules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuto, G. [Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Service de medecine nucleaire, 13 - Marseille (France); Chaumet-Riffaud, P. [CHU de Bicetre, Service de medecine nucleaire, 94 - Le Kremlin Bicetre (France)

    2010-06-15

    Nano-particles (N.P.) are structures comprising from some hundred to some thousand atoms. Owing to their size (1 to 100 nanometers), the physical and chemical properties of these nano-objects differ from those of classical materials. They cover a wide development area, which includes medical research: they can be classified into two major groups, organic N.P. (liposomes, polymers N.P., carbon nano tubes, fullerenes) and inorganic N.P. (quantum dots, magnetic N.P., Raman probes). N.P. can be conceived to act as a drug delivery system (therapeutic), imaging probe (diagnostic) or both (theranostic). We report recent data from scientific literature and describe main N.P. within medical area, their state of development, and the limited knowledge of their toxicity in human being. (author)

  1. Nano market and analysis of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This book gives descriptions of summary of nano technology with meaning, character and field, trend of technical development in domestic, current condition of nano basic research in domestic, trend of technical development in foreign country such as summary, trend of technology by industrial field, machine and metronics, material and process, standard of nano mechanism, scale of market and trend, competitiveness of nano technology of major country and research development system in Japan, Korean company and major countries.

  2. Fundamental Issues of Nano-fluid Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Wesley C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will elucidate some of the behaviors of nano-fluids other than the abnormal conductivity enhancement, which are of importance to the experimental and engineering use of nano-fluids. Nano-fluid is the common name of any sol colloid involving nano-scale (less than 100 nm) sized particles dispersed within a base fluid. It has been shown previously that the dispersion of nano-particulate metallic oxides into water can increase thermal conductivity up to 30-40% over that of the base fluid and anomalously more than the mere weighed average of the colloid. There is a great potential for the use of nano-fluids as a way to enhance fluid/thermal energy transfer systems. Due to the recentness of nano-fluid science, there are still many issues which have not been fully investigated. This paper should act as a primer for the basic understanding of nano-fluid behavior. Particle size and colloid stability are of key importance to the functionality of nano-fluids. The pH and concentration/loading of nano-fluids can alter the size of the nano-particles and also the stability of the fluids. It will be shown through experiment and colloid theory the importance of these parameters. Furthermore, most of the existing literature uses volume percentage as the measure of particle loading, which can often be misleading. There will be discussion of this and other misleading ideas in nano-fluid science. (author)

  3. Managing collaboration in the nanoManipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Thomas C.; Heiser, Aron T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    We designed, developed, deployed, and evaluated the Collaborative nanoManipulator (CnM), a system supporting remote collaboration between users of the nanoManipulator interface to atomic force microscopes. To be accepted by users, the shared nanoManipulator application had to have the same high...

  4. Dimensional micro and nano metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; da Costa Carneiro, Kim; Haitjema, Han

    2006-01-01

    The need for dimensional micro and nano metrology is evident, and as critical dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available technologies appear not sufficient. Major research and development efforts have to be undertaken in order to answer...... these challenges. The developments have to include new measuring principles and instrumentation, tolerancing rules and procedures as well as traceability and calibration. The current paper describes issues and challenges in dimensional micro and nano metrology by reviewing typical measurement tasks and available...

  5. Cardiotoxicity of nano-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Hasan Badie; Rezaee, Ramin; Valokala, Mahmoud Gorji; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Golokhvast, Kirill; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-11-15

    Nano-particles (NPs) are used in industrial and biomedical fields such as cosmetics, food additives and biosensors. Beside their favorable properties, nanoparticles are responsible for toxic effects. Local adverse effects and/or systemic toxicity are described with nanoparticle delivery to target organs of the human body. Animal studies provide evidence for the aforementioned toxicity. Cardiac function is a specific target of nanoparticles. Thus, reviewing the current bibliography on cardiotoxicity of nanoparticles and specifically of titanium, zinc, silver, carbon, silica and iron oxide nano-materials is the aim of this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. TatAc, the Third TatA Subunit of Bacillus subtilis, Can Form Active Twin-Arginine Translocases with the TatCd and TatCy Subunits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteferrante, Carmine G.; Baglieri, Jacopo; Robinson, Colin; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    Two independent twin-arginine translocases (Tat) for protein secretion were previously identified in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. These consist of the TatAd-TatCd and TatAy-TatCy subunits. The function of a third TatA subunit named TatAc was unknown. Here, we show that TatAc can

  7. Increasing Possibilities of Nano suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutradhar, K.B.; Khatun, S.; Luna, I.P.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, a very large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water insoluble and thus poorly bioavailable. To avoid this problem, nano technology for drug delivery has gained much interest as a way to improve the solubility problems. Nano refers to particles size range of 1-1000 nm. The reduction of drug particles into the submicron range leads to a significant increase in the dissolution rate and therefore enhances bioavailability. Nanosuspensions are part of nano technology. This interacts with the body at subcellular (i.e., molecular) scales with a high degree of specificity and can be potentially translated into targeted cellular and tissue-specific clinical applications designed to achieve maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects. Production of drugs as nanosuspensions can be developed for drug delivery systems as an oral formulation and no noral administration. Here, this review describes the methods of pharmaceutical nano suspension production including advantages and disadvantages, potential benefits, characterization tests, and pharmaceutical applications in drug delivery

  8. Seminar on Nano-biotechnology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 12. Seminar on Nano-biotechnology. Information and Announcements Volume 13 Issue 12 December 2008 pp 1191-1191. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/12/1191-1191 ...

  9. Nano materials for Cancer Phototheranostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, P.; Ling, D.; Song, J; Liu, G.; Xie, J.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of advanced nano technology promises the integration of multiple diagnostic/therapeutic modalities into one nano platform for cancer theranostics. This issue compiles 3 review articles and 7 high-quality original research articles related to the field of nano material-based cancer theranostics. Photo therapies, such as photothermal therapy (PTT), photodynamic therapy (PDT), or photo-triggered drug/gene delivery, have gained considerable attention because of specific spatiotemporal selectivity and minimal invasiveness. Considering the inherent biocompatibility and biodegradability of proteins and peptides, P. Huang and coworkers summarized recent advances in the development of protein/peptide-based photothermal cancer theranostics, using protein/peptide as delivery vehicles or synthesis bio templates of PTT agents. M. G. O∼Toole and coworkers developed a near-infrared (NIR) responsive oligonucleotide-coated (AS1411, hairpin, or both) gold nanoplate loaded with doxorubicin (DOX), which is demonstrated to be nontoxic to cells without triggered release, while being acutely toxic to cells after 5 minutes of laser exposure to trigger DOX release. K. Na and coworkers described an acidic tumor pH-responsive nanophotomedicine (pH-NanoPM), which was prepared by self-assembly of a pH-responsive polymeric photo sensitizer (pH-PPS) consisting of pH-cleavable methoxypolyethylene glycol (pH-C-mPEG), for targeted PDT

  10. Candidate SNP markers of reproductive potential are predicted by a significant change in the affinity of TATA-binding protein for human gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadaeva, Irina V; Ponomarenko, Petr M; Rasskazov, Dmitry A; Sharypova, Ekaterina B; Kashina, Elena V; Zhechev, Dmitry A; Drachkova, Irina A; Arkova, Olga V; Savinkova, Ludmila K; Ponomarenko, Mikhail P; Kolchanov, Nikolay A; Osadchuk, Ludmila V; Osadchuk, Alexandr V

    2018-02-09

    The progress of medicine, science, technology, education, and culture improves, year by year, quality of life and life expectancy of the populace. The modern human has a chance to further improve the quality and duration of his/her life and the lives of his/her loved ones by bringing their lifestyle in line with their sequenced individual genomes. With this in mind, one of genome-based developments at the junction of personalized medicine and bioinformatics will be considered in this work, where we used two Web services: (i) SNP_TATA_Comparator to search for alleles with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that alters the affinity of TATA-binding protein (TBP) for the TATA boxes of human gene promoters and (ii) PubMed to look for retrospective clinical reviews on changes in physiological indicators of reproductive potential in carriers of these alleles. A total of 126 SNP markers of female reproductive potential, capable of altering the affinity of TBP for gene promoters, were found using the two above-mentioned Web services. For example, 10 candidate SNP markers of thrombosis (e.g., rs563763767) can cause overproduction of coagulation inducers. In pregnant women, Hughes syndrome provokes thrombosis with a fatal outcome although this syndrome can be diagnosed and eliminated even at the earliest stages of its development. Thus, in women carrying any of the above SNPs, preventive treatment of this syndrome before a planned pregnancy can reduce the risk of death. Similarly, seven SNP markers predicted here (e.g., rs774688955) can elevate the risk of myocardial infarction. In line with Bowles' lifespan theory, women carrying any of these SNPs may modify their lifestyle to improve their longevity if they can take under advisement that risks of myocardial infarction increase with age of the mother, total number of pregnancies, in multiple pregnancies, pregnancies under the age of 20, hypertension, preeclampsia, menstrual cycle irregularity, and in women smokers

  11. Nano-JASMINE Data Analysis and Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Y.; Hara, T.; Yoshioka, S.; Kobayashi, Y.; Gouda, N.; Miyashita, H.; Hatsutori, Y.; Lammers, U.; Michalik, D.

    2012-09-01

    The core data reduction for the Nano-JASMINE mission is planned to be done with Gaia's Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS). A collaboration between the Gaia AGIS and Nano-JASMINE teams on the Nano-JASMINE data reduction started in 2007. The Nano-JASMINE team writes codes to generate AGIS input, and this is called Initial Data Treament (IDT). Identification of observed stars and their observed field of view, getting color index, are different from those of Gaia because Nano-JASMINE is ultra small satellite. For converting centroiding results on detector to the celestial sphere, orbit and attitude data of the satellite are used. In Nano-JASMINE, orbit information is derived from on board GPS data and attitude is processed from on-board star sensor data and on-ground Kalman filtering. We also show the Nano-JASMINE goals, status of the data publications and utilizations, and introduce the next Japanese space astrometric mission.

  12. Pharmaceutical Applications of Polymeric Nano materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L.; Sun, L.

    2011-01-01

    With significant attention focused on nano science and nano technology in recent years, nano materials have been used in a wide variety of applications such as automotive, environmental, energy, catalysis, biomedical, drug delivery, and polymeric industries. Among those fields, the application of nano materials with pharmaceutical science is an emerging and rapidly growing field and has drawn increasing attention recently. Research and development in this field is mainly focused on several aspects such as the discoveries of novel functional nano materials, exploration on nanoparticles with controlled and targeted drug delivery characteristics, and investigation of bio functionalized and diagnostic nano materials. In this special issue, we have invited a few papers related to recent advances in pharmaceutical application of polymeric nano materials

  13. From Gold Nano-particles through Nano-wire to Gold Nano-layers on Substrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švorčík, V.; Kolská, Z.; Slepička, P.; Siegel, J.; Hnatowicz, Vladimír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, G (2010), s. 1-57. ISBN 978-1-61668-009-1 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : thin films * Au nano layers * AFM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=12909

  14. Differential utilization of TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and TBP-related factor 1 (TRF1) at different classes of RNA polymerase III promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neha; Hung, Ko-Hsuan; Kang, Jin Joo; Barakat, Nermeen H; Stumph, William E

    2013-09-20

    In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, RNA polymerase III transcription was found to be dependent not upon the canonical TATA box-binding protein (TBP) but instead upon the TBP-related factor 1 (TRF1) (Takada, S., Lis, J. T., Zhou, S., and Tjian, R. (2000) Cell 101, 459-469). Here we confirm that transcription of fly tRNA genes requires TRF1. However, we unexpectedly find that U6 snRNA gene promoters are occupied primarily by TBP in cells and that knockdown of TBP, but not TRF1, inhibits U6 transcription in cells. Moreover, U6 transcription in vitro effectively utilizes TBP, whereas TBP cannot substitute for TRF1 to promote tRNA transcription in vitro. Thus, in fruit flies, different classes of RNA polymerase III promoters differentially utilize TBP and TRF1 for the initiation of transcription.

  15. ANALISIS TATA KELOLA OPTIMALISASI SUMBER DAYA SISTEM INFORMASI MANAJEMEN JEMBATAN TIMBANG (EDM04 BERDASARKAN KERANGKA KERJA COBIT 5 PADA DINAS PERHUBUNGAN KOMUNIKASI DAN INFORMATIKA PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudistira Dian Hastiti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dinas Perhubungan Komunikasi dan Informatika (Dinhubkominfo Provinsi Jawa tengah sebagai perumus dan pelaksana kebijakan teknis, fasilitator, dan evaluator terkait penyelengaraan kegiatan penimbangan kendaraan bermotor melalui 16 jembatan timbang yang tersebar di wilayah provinsi jawa tengah telah mengimplementasikan sebuah system yang dipergunakan untuk kemudahan dalam menimbang kendaraan dengan mendata setiap kendaraan pada suatu system yang disebut Sistem Informasi Manajemen Jembatan Timbang (SIM JT. Masalah yang ditemukan saat ini yaitu, melihat padatnya antrian panjang kendaraan yang akan ditimbang disebabkan karena SIM JT yang belum memiliki database identitas kendaraan dan tidak dapat terpantau secara real time yang terjadi saat local server dalam keadaan down. Berdasarkan hal tersebut Dinhubkominfo berupaya mengoptimalkan kinerja SIM JT baik dari segi sumber daya manajemen manusia, TI, serta keuangan untuk meminimalkan kesalahan serta meningkatkan efektifitas pelayanan. Dari hasil studi dokumen, wawancara, dan kuesioner  berdasarkan COBIT 5 menghasilkan tingkat kapabilitas tata kelola proses optimalisasi sumer daya (EDM04 pada Dinas Perhubungan Komunikasi dan Informatika Provinsi Jawa Tengah saat ini berada di level 3 dengan status pencapaian Largely Achieved sebesar 80,18% setara dengan 3,80 dimana level 0, 1, dan 2 mencapai status Fully Achieved. Hal ini menunjukan telah mengelola dengan baik proses optimalisasi sumber daya dan diimplementasikan untuk mendukung pengerjaan proses standar dan efektif. Untuk mencapai tingkat target, Dinhubkominfo dapat melakukan strategi perbaikan dengan memperhatikan secara bertahap dari proses atribut level 1 sampai 4 Kata Kunci: Analisis Tata Kelola TI, COBIT 5, Sistem Informasi Manajemen Jembatan Timbang, Analisis Tingkat Kapabilitas, Analisis Kesenjangan.

  16. Editorial Nano structures for Medicine and Pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing-Jie, L.; Kumar, A.; Donglu, S.; Daxiang, C.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid developments in nano structured materials and nano technology will have profound impact in many areas of biomedical applications including delivery of drugs and biomolecules, tissue engineering, detection of bio markers, cancer diagnosis, cancer therapy, and imaging. This field is expanding quickly, and a lot of work is ongoing in the design, characterization, synthesis, and application of materials, for controlling shape and size at nanometer scale to develop highly advanced materials for biomedical application and even to design better pharmaceutical products. In recent years, novel nano structure with multi functionalities has been focused on the use of nano structures toward solving problems of biology and medicine. The main scope of this special issue is to demonstrate the latest achievement of nano technology and its application in nano medicine particularly in new approaches for drug delivery such as targeted drug delivery system, nano structure for drug storage, nano materials for tissue engineering, medical diagnosis and treatment, and generation of new kinds of materials from biological sources. Therefore, many critical issues in nano structured materials, particularly their applications in biomedicine, must be addressed before clinical applications. This special issue devotes several review and research articles encompassing various aspects of nano materials for medicine and pharmaceuticals.

  17. Nano catalysis: Academic Discipline and Industrial Realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olveira, S.; Forster, S.P.; Seeger, S.

    2014-01-01

    Nano technology plays a central role in both academic research and industrial applications. Nano enabled products are not only found in consumer markets, but also importantly in business to business markets (B2B). One of the oldest application areas of nano technology is nano catalysis—an excellent example for such a B2 B market. Several existing reviews illustrate the scientific developments in the field of nano catalysis. The goal of the present review is to provide an up-to-date picture of academic research and to extend this picture by an industrial and economic perspective. We therefore conducted an extensive search on several scientific databases and we further analyzed more than 1,500 nano catalysis-related patents and numerous market studies. We found that scientists today are able to prepare nano catalysts with superior characteristics regarding activity, selectivity, durability, and recoverability, which will contribute to solve current environmental, social, and industrial problems. In industry, the potential of nano catalysis is recognized, clearly reflected by the increasing number of nano catalysis-related patents and products on the market. The current nano catalysis research in academic and industrial laboratories will therefore enable a wealth of future applications in the industry

  18. Nano- and micro-electromechanical systems fundamentals of nano- and microengineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lyshevski, Sergey Edward

    2005-01-01

    NANOTECHNOLOGY AND MICROTECHNOLOGY (NANO- AND MICRO- SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY), AND BEYOND Introduction and Overview: From Micro- to Nano- and Beyond to Stringo-Scale Introductory Definitions to the Subjects Current Developments and Needs for Coherent Revolutionary Developments Societal Challenges and Implications NANO- AND MICROSCALE SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND STRUCTURES Sizing Features: From Micro- to Nano-, and from Nano- to Stringo-Scale MEMS and NEMS Definitions Introduction to Taxonomy of Nano- and Microsystem Synthesis and Design Introduction to Design and Optimization of Nano- and Microsystems in the Behavioral Domain NANO- AND MICROSYSTEMS: CLASSIFICATION AND CONSIDERATION Biomimetics, Biological Analogies,and Design of NEMS and MEMS Micro- and Nanoelectromechanical Systems: Scaling Laws and Mathematical Modeling MEMS Examples and MEMS Architectures Introduction to Microfabrication and Micromachining FUNDAMENTALS OF MICROFABRICATION AND MEMS FABRICATION TECHNOLOGIES Introducti...

  19. The Effect of Nano seed Concentration on the Aspect Ratio of Gold Nano rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Nengsih; Akrajas Ali Umar; Muhammad Mat Salleh

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of gold nano rod with controlled aspect ratio prepared by varying the concentration of nano seed addition into the growth solution via the seed mediated growth method. In typical process, the gold nano rod with aspect ratio from ca. 2.2 to 4.2 can be successfully obtained. Owing to its simplicity, the present approach could be used to produce gold nano rod with special properties for SERS and catalyst application. (author)

  20. Effect of nano materials in geopolymer concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Naskar, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In general, cement based concrete can be replaced by low calcium fly-ash based geopolymer concrete regarding the adverse effect of the manufacture of ordinary Portland cement on environment. Nowadays, nano technology has an important role in the field of construction industries. It has been seen that several properties of cement based concrete are affected by different nano materials. As low calcium fly-ash based geopolymer concrete is an alternate option for cement based concrete, nano mater...

  1. GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANO PARTICLES

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Sharma; Valentina V Umrania

    2017-01-01

    The research was carried out to investigate the synthesis of silver nano particles. The silver nano particles have wide tremendous application in the therapeutics, antimicrobials, diagnostics, catalysis, micro-electronics and high sensitivity biomolecular detection. Silver nano particles grow in a single-step method, at room temperature, and with no addition of external energy. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized from silver nitrate aqueous solution through a simple, ecofriendly and cos...

  2. Nano materials for Medical and Dental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yub Kwon, T.; Oh, D.S.; Narayanan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Welcome to this special issue. Nano science and nano technology concepts are applicable across all fields of science and a more widespread application of nano materials and nano technologies is imminent or already occurring in many areas, including health care. Today is scientists take those cutting-edge technologies and concepts and apply them to medicine and dentistry. They are finding a wide variety of ways to make medical and dental materials at the nano scale to take advantage of their enhanced physical and biological properties.The purpose of this special issue is to publish high-quality research papers as well as review articles addressing recent advances in the field of nano materials for medical and dental applications. A particular interest is given to papers exploring or discussing nano materials and nano technologies related to delivery system, bonding substitutes, and surface modification techniques applicable in these areas. For this special issue, several investigators were invited to contribute original research findings that can stimulate continuing efforts to understand the cutting-edge applications of nano materials in medicine and dentistry.

  3. Bio/Nano Electronic Devices and Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, W. K

    2008-01-01

    .... Flexible micromanipulator probes developed for probing waveguides. (5) Doped nano-diamonds and nanoceramic lasers- optically transparent YAG were demonstrated, and yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP...

  4. Semiconductor Nano wires and Nano tubes: From Fundamentals to Diverse Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Q.; Grimes, C.A.; Zacharias, M.; Morral, A.F.; Hiruma, K.; Shen, G.

    2012-01-01

    Research in the field of semiconductor nano wires (SNWs) and nano tubes has been progressing into a mature subject with several highly interdisciplinary sub areas such as nano electronics, nano photonics, nano composites, bio sensing, optoelectronics, and solar cells. SNWs represent a unique system with novel properties associated to their one-dimensional (1D) structures. The fundamental physics concerning the formation of discrete 1D subbands, coulomb blockade effects, ballistic transport, and many-body phenomena in 1D nano wires and nano tubes provide a strong platform to explore the various scientific aspects in these nano structures. A rich variety of preparation methods have already been developed for generating well-controlled 1D nano structures and from a broad range of materials. The present special issue focuses on the recent development in the mechanistic understanding of the synthesis, the studies on electrical/optical properties of nano wires and their applications in nano electronics, nano photonics, and solar-energy harvesting. In this special issue, we have several invited review articles and contributed papers that are addressing current status of the fundamental issues related to synthesis and the diverse applications of semiconducting nano wires and nano tubes. One of the papers reviews the progress of the top-down approach of developing silicon-based vertically aligned nano wires to explore novel device architectures and integration schemes for nano electronics and clean energy applications. Another paper reviews the recent developments and experimental evidences of probing the confined optical and acoustic phonon in nonpolar semiconducting (Si and Ge) nano wires using Raman spectroscopy. The paper by K. Hiruma et al. spotlights the III semiconductor nano wires and demonstrates selective-area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy grown GaAs/In(Al)GaAs and InP/InAs/InP nano wires with heterojunctions along their axial and radial directions. The paper

  5. Application of targeting nano-drug for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yongzeng; Yuan Gengbiao

    2010-01-01

    With the rise of nano science and technology, more and more researchers will take attention to application of nano-drugs in the biomedical field. The current focus of concern is that a target of nano-drugs linked specificity immunoreactive substances combine to tumor cells for diagnosis and treatment by physical, chemical and biological synthesis methods in based on nano-drugs. This paper mainly reviewed the concept of nano-drug and development of nano-drug targeting research. (authors)

  6. Modelling the mechanical behaviour of heterogeneous Ta/TA6V welded joints: behaviour and failure criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, Th.

    2008-12-01

    As laser welding of two different materials (heterogeneous welding) leads to a joint having a characteristic size close to the millimetre, i.e. much smaller than that of a structure, and as such a junction displays completely different mechanical properties because of the metallurgical transformations induced by intense thermal loading, the aim of this research thesis is to develop a behaviour model, flexible and robust enough, to represent all together the mechanical behaviours of the Ta, the TA6V and the melted zone. This model must be able to take plasticity and visco-plasticity into account, and also to provide a failure criterion through damage mechanics and its coupling with the behaviour. The author first reports the experimental characterization of the base materials (Ta and TA6V) by using tensile tests under different strain rates and different directions, relaxation tests and fatigue shear tests. He also characterizes the melted zone by describing the influence of a thermal treatment (induced by welding) on the formation of the melted zone, and by using different tests: four point bending on notched specimens, nano-indentation test, and longitudinal tensile test. In a second part, the author develops the model within the framework of continuum thermodynamics, and explores the numerical issues. The last part deals with the validation of the model for the concerned materials (Ta and TA6V) and melted zone

  7. Metal Oxide Nano structures: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L. H.; Patil, D. S.; Yang, J.; Xiao, J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, nano structured materials have attracted wide attention due to their fascinating optical and electrical properties, which make these materials potentially suitable for applications in electronics, optics, photonics, and sensors. Some metal oxides show a wide variety of morphologies such as nano wires, nano rods, nano tubes, nano rings, and nano belts. Synthesis and investigation of these metal-oxide nano structures are beneficial not only for understanding the fundamental phenomena in low dimensional systems, but also for developing new-generation nano devices with high performance.

  8. Activity of the upstream TATA-less promoter of the p21(Waf1/Cip1) gene depends on transcription factor IIA (TFIIA) in addition to TFIIA-reactive TBP-like protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidefumi; Maeda, Ryo; Nakadai, Tomoyoshi; Tamura, Taka-aki

    2014-07-01

    TATA-binding protein-like protein (TLP) binds to transcription factor IIA (TFIIA) with high affinity, although the significance of this binding is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of TFIIA in transcriptional regulation of the p21(Waf1/Cip1) (p21) gene. It has been shown that TLP is indispensable for p53-activated transcription from an upstream TATA-less promoter of the p21 gene. We found that mutant TLPs having decreased TFIIA-binding ability exhibited weakened transcriptional activation function for the upstream promoter. Activity of the upstream promoter was enhanced considerably by an increased amount of TFIIA in a p53-dependent manner, whereas activity of the TATA-containing downstream promoter was enhanced only slightly. TFIIA potentiated the upstream promoter additively with TLP. Although TFIIA is recruited to both promoters, activity of the upstream promoter was much more dependent on TFIIA. Recruitment of TFIIA and TLP to the upstream promoter was augmented in etoposide-treated cells, in which the amount of TFIIA-TLP complex is increased, and TFIIA-reactive TLP was required for the recruitment of both factors. It was confirmed that etoposide-stimulated transcription depends on TLP. We also found that TFIIA-reactive TLP acts to decrease cell growth rate, which can be explained by interaction of the p21 promoter with the transcription factors that we examined. The results of the present study suggest that the upstream TATA-less promoter of p21 needs TFIIA and TFIIA-reactive TLP for p53-dependent transcriptional enhancement. © 2014 The Authors.FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. Villem Nano, pedagoog ja haritlane / Villem Normak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Normak, Villem

    2009-01-01

    Matemaatikaõpetaja, koolijuhi Villem Nano elust ja tegevusest. 1. juulil 1919 käivitas Villem Nano Tallinna õpetajate seminari, millest on läbi mitme nime- ja staatusemuudatuse kujunenud välja tänane Tallinna Ülikool

  10. Instrument platforms for nano liquid chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, Jozef; Moravcová, Dana; Kahle, Vladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1421, NOV (2015), s. 2-17 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : nano liquid chromatography * splitless gradient generation * nano LC platforms Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.926, year: 2015 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0250900

  11. Nano cobalt oxides for photocatalytic hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Mangrulkar, Priti A.

    2012-07-01

    Nano structured metal oxides including TiO 2, Co 3O 4 and Fe 3O 4 have been synthesized and evaluated for their photocatalytic activity for hydrogen generation. The photocatalytic activity of nano cobalt oxide was then compared with two other nano structured metal oxides namely TiO 2 and Fe 3O 4. The synthesized nano cobalt oxide was characterized thoroughly with respect to EDX and TEM. The yield of hydrogen was observed to be 900, 2000 and 8275 mmol h -1 g -1 of photocatalyst for TiO 2, Co 3O 4 and Fe 3O 4 respectively under visible light. It was observed that the hydrogen yield in case of nano cobalt oxide was more than twice to that of TiO 2 and the hydrogen yield of nano Fe 3O 4 was nearly four times as compared to nano Co 3O 4. The influence of various operating parameters in hydrogen generation by nano cobalt oxide was then studied in detail. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Generation and characterization of nano aluminium powder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Abstract. In the present study, nano aluminium particles were produced by wire explosion process (WEP) in nitrogen, argon and helium atmospheres. Thus produced nano particles were characterized through certain physico-chemical diagnostic studies using wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and by energy dispersive.

  13. Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Nano biomaterials 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Lee, S.Ch.; Zhang, Sh.; Akasaka, T.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that nano materials have developed rapidly over the past few decades. Based on their unique physicochemical properties and special mechanical properties, nano materials have provided application possibility in many different fields. Currently, as nano biomaterials, they are widely used in various biomedical applications, such as drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, dental/bone implant, and biosensors. For example, nano biomaterials have been used in tissue engineering because of their satisfactory bioactivity, high mechanical properties, and large surface area to adsorb specific proteins. Many kinds of nano biomaterials are used to prepare composite scaffolds to get better biocompatibility and higher ability in repairing specific tissues. Several antibacterial metallic nano biomaterials are used to coat implant surfaces to improve the speed of healing fractures. In addition, lots of nano biomaterials have the potential to break the limitations of the traditional delivery systems. They can load larger amount of drugs and provide stable drug release for long time at the targeted sites, such as tumors. Moreover, they can combine with polymers to furnish simultaneous drug delivery systems with the controllable release rate. Besides these applications, more and more nano biomaterials show great potential to be applied as highly sensitive biosensors because they have higher ability in loading firmly or interacting completely with recognition aptamers.

  14. CZT nanoRAIDER_VFG Factsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bolotnikov, A. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cui, Yonggang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is working with FLIR System Inc., the manufacturer of the nanoRAIDER, to design a handheld device based on a position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid (VFG) Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) detector array (with 1% or better energy resolution). The new device called nanoRAIDER VFG will be an improvement to the current nanoRAIDER, which is a compact gamma-ray detection instrument manufactured by FLIR Systems Inc. that employs relatively lower-performing CZT hemispheric detectors (i.e., 3%-FWHM CZT detectors). The nanoRAIDER will significantly improve the accuracy while maintaining similar efficiency, as compared to the nanoRAIDER, for in-field analysis of nuclear materials and detection of undeclared activities during inspections conducted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Since the nanoRAIDER is currently used by the IAEA as part of its Complementary Access toolkit, a relatively quick acceptance of the nanoRAIDER VFG for safeguards is anticipated. The nanoRAIDER VFG will help address several items listed in the IAEA’s Long-Term R&D Plan that could enhance the abilities to detect undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  15. Au-nano-delci in njihova uporaba

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf, Rebeka; Zorko, Lidija; Anžel, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Razvoj tehnik za sintezo Au-nano delcev z določeno velikostjo, obliko in sestavo je izziv in pomembno področje raziskav v nanotehnologiji. Zlati nanodelci so namreč atraktivni zaradi potencialne uporabe v elektrokemiji in medicini, kot tudi za proizvodnjo različnih nano-naprav.

  16. Influence of Hydroxyapatite Nano-particles on the Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Orthopedic Cement-Based Nano-composites Measured by Nano-indentation and Nano-scratch Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh Shirazi, H.; Ayatollahi, M. R.; Naimi-Jamal, M. R.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanical and tribological properties of a commercially available bone cement by incorporating nano-sized hydroxyapatite using nano-indentation and nano-scratch experiments. In order to achieve this goal, the nano-composite cement samples with different amounts of commercial nano-hydroxyapatite (HAc), as a bone compatible nano-filler, were prepared via vacuum mixing method. The results indicated that nano-indentation and nano-scratch experiments are acceptable methods for measuring the mechanical and tribological properties of orthopedic cement-based nano-composites. Moreover, it was found that the nano-composite of 10 wt.% HAc exhibits the optimum performance compared to the other nano-composite samples in terms of mechanical and tribological properties. These findings can play an important role in achieving the goal of clinical and biomechanical function optimization of bone cement, especially in the field of orthopedic surgery.

  17. Obesity-related known and candidate SNP markers can significantly change affinity of TATA-binding protein for human gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkova, Olga V; Ponomarenko, Mikhail P; Rasskazov, Dmitry A; Drachkova, Irina A; Arshinova, Tatjana V; Ponomarenko, Petr M; Savinkova, Ludmila K; Kolchanov, Nikolay A

    2015-01-01

    Obesity affects quality of life and life expectancy and is associated with cardiovascular disorders, cancer, diabetes, reproductive disorders in women, prostate diseases in men, and congenital anomalies in children. The use of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers of diseases and drug responses (i.e., significant differences of personal genomes of patients from the reference human genome) can help physicians to improve treatment. Clinical research can validate SNP markers via genotyping of patients and demonstration that SNP alleles are significantly more frequent in patients than in healthy people. The search for biomedical SNP markers of interest can be accelerated by computer-based analysis of hundreds of millions of SNPs in the 1000 Genomes project because of selection of the most meaningful candidate SNP markers and elimination of neutral SNPs. We cross-validated the output of two computer-based methods: DNA sequence analysis using Web service SNP_TATA_Comparator and keyword search for articles on comorbidities of obesity. Near the sites binding to TATA-binding protein (TBP) in human gene promoters, we found 22 obesity-related candidate SNP markers, including rs10895068 (male breast cancer in obesity); rs35036378 (reduced risk of obesity after ovariectomy); rs201739205 (reduced risk of obesity-related cancers due to weight loss by diet/exercise in obese postmenopausal women); rs183433761 (obesity resistance during a high-fat diet); rs367732974 and rs549591993 (both: cardiovascular complications in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus); rs200487063 and rs34104384 (both: obesity-caused hypertension); rs35518301, rs72661131, and rs562962093 (all: obesity); and rs397509430, rs33980857, rs34598529, rs33931746, rs33981098, rs34500389, rs63750953, rs281864525, rs35518301, and rs34166473 (all: chronic inflammation in comorbidities of obesity). Using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay under nonequilibrium conditions, we empirically validated the

  18. The nano-BIon in nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Alireza, E-mail: alireza.sepehri@uk.ac.ir [Nano Research Center of the Ferdowsi University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-01

    Recently, some authors have considered the superconductivity in nano-cubes and shown that by decreasing the size of these systems, superconductivity order parameter increases. In this research, we show that the same result can be obtained in a nano-BIon which is a configuration of two layers of cuprates connected by an electronic tube. This tube is a channel for transporting energy and matter inside a superconductor and acts as a wormhole in this system. This wormhole-like-tube is formed by decreasing the separation distance between layers of nano-cuprate and enhancing the cooper hopping pairing between layers. We estimate the critical temperature of superconductor and find that it depends on the size of nano-BIon and coupling between atoms in a layer. Also, we observe that external magnetic field generates a new tube which causes losing the energy density of nano-BIon between two layers and decreasing critical temperature of superconductor.

  19. nano-particles in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billotey, Claire; Bourhis, Jean; Levy, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    After a recall of the history of radiation therapy this article outlines that the presence of a high electronic density material within a tumour can artificially and locally increase the radiation absorption. It outlines the benefit of the elaboration of nano-particles from such a material for the case of external radiation therapy (increase of material density and bioavailability of nano-particles) where nano-particles can even be introduced by intravenous injection. It describes the various possibility of using nano-particles in the case of internal radiation therapy or Curie therapy. It allows a much less invasive process, the possibility of direct injection into a tumour or a cavity, and the possibility of an increase of the dose received by cells. Other topics are briefly evoked: subcellular targeting by high atomic number nano-particles, and the radiation therapy approach by Nanobiotix

  20. Issues in nano technologies for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegart, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Government in late 2005 created a National Nano technology Taskforce that produced a paper, 'Options for a National Nano technology Strategy', in November last year. As an input to the National Nano technology Strategy Taskforce, in early 2006 the National Academies Forum was contracted by the Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources to produce a report Environmental, Social, Legal and Ethical Aspects of the Development of Nano technologies in Australia (which is available at www.naf.org.au/symposia). The report drew on the expertise of Fellows from the four academies in workshops in Melbourne and Sydney and from discussions with other experts, and expressed its outcomes as a set of opinions to assist in developing guidelines for a National Nano technology Strategy

  1. Influence of Nano Silica on Alkyd Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Miroslav

    . The present work centers on the reinforcement of alkyd binders emulsified in water and used in exterior wood coatings with nano silica. Raman spectroscopy was used throughout the study to maintain the reproducibility of results as it was found that colloidal nano silica can increase or decrease the speed...... of alkyd curing affecting the tested mechanical properties. Hydrophilic, colloidal nano silica was seen to have limited effect in improving the mechanical properties due to problems in properly dispersing and attaining good surface interactions with the hydrophobic alkyd polymer. Efforts in increasing...... nano silica which was incorporated in the pure alkyd and then subsequently emulsified. When the change in the coating formulation increases the stiffness of the exterior wood coating, as happens with the addition of nano particles, there is a concern for the long term performance due to possibility...

  2. Analysis of polyglutamine-coding repeats in the TATA-binding protein in different human populations and in patients with schizophrenia an bipolar affective disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinsztein, D.C.; Leggo, J. [Addenbrooke`s National Health Service Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Crow, T.J. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-09-20

    A new class of disease (including Huntington disease, Kennedy disease, and spinocerebellar ataxias types 1 and 3) results from abnormal expansions of CAG trinucleotides in the coding regions of genes. In all of these diseases the CAG repeats are thought to be translated into polyglutamine tracts. There is accumulating evidence arguing for CAG trinucleotide expansions as one of the causative disease mutations in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. We and others believe that the TATA-binding protein (TBP) is an important candidate to investigate in these diseases as it contains a highly polymorphic stretch of glutamine codons, which are close to the threshold length where the polyglutamine tracts start to be associated with disease. Thus, we examined the lengths of this polyglutamine repeat in normal unrelated East Anglians, South African Blacks, sub-Saharan Africans mainly from Nigeria, and Asian Indians. We also examined 43 bipolar affective disorder patients and 65 schizophrenic patients. The range of polyglutamine tract-lengths that we found in humans was from 26-42 codons. No patients with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia had abnormal expansions at this locus. 22 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Cloning, expression, and characterization of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) promoter binding factor, a transcription activator of the Acanthamoeba TBP gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W; Bateman, E

    1995-12-01

    TATA-binding protein (TBP) gene promoter binding factor (TPBF) is a transactivator which binds to the TBP promoter element (TPE) sequence of the Acanthamoeba TBP gene promoter and stimulates transcription in vitro. We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding TPBF. TPBF is a polypeptide of 327 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 37 kDa. The predicted amino acid sequence of TPBF shows no significant homology to other proteins. TPBF has two potential coiled-coil regions, a basic region, a proline-rich region, a histidine-rich N terminus, and a nuclear targeting sequence. The recombinant protein has an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa, identical with that of TPBF purified from Acanthamoeba. Recombinant TPBF is able to bind DNA and activate transcription with the same specificity as natural Acanthamoeba TPBF, demonstrating the authenticity of the clone. Mobility shift assays of co-translated TPBF polypeptides and chemical cross-linking demonstrate that TPBF is tetrameric in solution and when bound to DNA. Analyses of TPBF mutants show that Coiled-coil II is essential for DNA binding, but Coiled-coil I and the basic region are also involved. TPBF is thus a novel DNA-binding protein with functional similarity to the tumor suppressor protein p53.

  4. Two-step mechanism for modifier of transcription 1 (Mot1) enzyme-catalyzed displacement of TATA-binding protein (TBP) from DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle-Heyrman, Georgette; Viswanathan, Ramya; Widom, Jonathan; Auble, David T

    2012-03-16

    The TATA box binding protein (TBP) is a central component of the transcription preinitiation complex, and its occupancy at a promoter is correlated with transcription levels. The TBP-promoter DNA complex contains sharply bent DNA and its interaction lifetime is limited by the ATP-dependent TBP displacement activity of the Snf2/Swi2 ATPase Mot1. Several mechanisms for Mot1 action have been proposed, but how it catalyzes TBP removal from DNA is unknown. To better understand the Mot1 mechanism, native gel electrophoresis and FRET were used to determine how Mot1 affects the trajectory of DNA in the TBP-DNA complex. Strikingly, in the absence of ATP, Mot1 acts to unbend DNA, whereas TBP remains closely associated with the DNA in a stable Mot1-TBP-DNA ternary complex. Interestingly, and in contrast to full-length Mot1, the isolated Mot1 ATPase domain binds DNA, and its affinity for DNA is nucleotide-dependent, suggesting parallels between the Mot1 mechanism and DNA translocation-based mechanisms of chromatin remodeling enzymes. Based on these findings, a model is presented for Mot1 that links a DNA conformational change with ATP-induced DNA translocation.

  5. Regulation of anti-sense transcription by Mot1p and NC2 via removal of TATA-binding protein (TBP) from the 3'-end of genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Maria J E; Timmers, H Th Marc

    2015-01-01

    The activity and dynamic nature of TATA-binding protein (TBP) crucial to RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription is under control of the Mot1p and NC2 complexes. Here we show that both TBP regulatory factors play 'hidden' roles in ensuring transcription fidelity by restricting anti-sense non-coding RNA (ncRNA) synthesis. Production of anti-sense ncRNA transcripts is suppressed by Mot1p- and NC2-mediated release of TBP from binding sites at the 3'-end of genes. In this, Mot1p and NC2 collaborate with the Nrd1p-Nab3p-Sen1p (NNS) complex that terminates the synthesis of anti-sense ncRNAs. In several cases anti-sense ncRNA expression interferes with expression of the cognate sense transcript. Our data reveal a novel regulatory mechanism to suppress anti-sense ncRNA expression and pre-initiation complex (PIC) formation at spurious sites. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Transcription factor IID in the Archaea: sequences in the Thermococcus celer genome would encode a product closely related to the TATA-binding protein of eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T. L.; Reich, C. I.; Whitelock, R. B.; Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The first step in transcription initiation in eukaryotes is mediated by the TATA-binding protein, a subunit of the transcription factor IID complex. We have cloned and sequenced the gene for a presumptive homolog of this eukaryotic protein from Thermococcus celer, a member of the Archaea (formerly archaebacteria). The protein encoded by the archaeal gene is a tandem repeat of a conserved domain, corresponding to the repeated domain in its eukaryotic counterparts. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the two halves of the repeat are consistent with the duplication occurring before the divergence of the archael and eukaryotic domains. In conjunction with previous observations of similarity in RNA polymerase subunit composition and sequences and the finding of a transcription factor IIB-like sequence in Pyrococcus woesei (a relative of T. celer) it appears that major features of the eukaryotic transcription apparatus were well-established before the origin of eukaryotic cellular organization. The divergence between the two halves of the archael protein is less than that between the halves of the individual eukaryotic sequences, indicating that the average rate of sequence change in the archael protein has been less than in its eukaryotic counterparts. To the extent that this lower rate applies to the genome as a whole, a clearer picture of the early genes (and gene families) that gave rise to present-day genomes is more apt to emerge from the study of sequences from the Archaea than from the corresponding sequences from eukaryotes.

  7. Laser nano-manufacturing: state of the art and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.; Hong, M.; Schmidt, M.; Zhong, M.; Mashe, A.; Huis in 't veld, A.J.; Kovalenko, V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of advances in laser based nano-manufacturing technologies including surface nano-structure manufacturing, production of nano materials (nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanowires) and 3D nano-structures manufacture through multiple layer additive techniques and

  8. Effect of nano materials in geopolymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Naskar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In general, cement based concrete can be replaced by low calcium fly-ash based geopolymer concrete regarding the adverse effect of the manufacture of ordinary Portland cement on environment. Nowadays, nano technology has an important role in the field of construction industries. It has been seen that several properties of cement based concrete are affected by different nano materials. As low calcium fly-ash based geopolymer concrete is an alternate option for cement based concrete, nano materials may also have some influence on it. An experimental program has been taken up on low calcium fly-ash based M25 grade geopolymer concrete having 16 (M concentration of activator liquid. Different percentage of nano materials viz. nano silica, carbon nano tube, titanium di-oxide were also used to investigate the effect of nano materials on geopolymer concrete. Geopolymer concrete with 1% titanium di-oxide shows appreciable improvement in compressive strength although pH remains almost same in all cases.

  9. Nano crystals for Electronic and Optoelectronic Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, T.; Cloutier, S.G.; Ivanov, I; Knappenberger Jr, K.L.; Robel, I.; Zhang, F

    2012-01-01

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, from computers and smart cell phones to solar cells, have become a part of our life. Currently, devices with featured circuits of 45 nm in size can be fabricated for commercial use. However, further development based on traditional semiconductor is hindered by the increasing thermal issues and the manufacturing cost. During the last decade, nano crystals have been widely adopted in various electronic and optoelectronic applications. They provide alternative options in terms of ease of processing, low cost, better flexibility, and superior electronic/optoelectronic properties. By taking advantage of solution-processing, self-assembly, and surface engineering, nano crystals could serve as new building blocks for low-cost manufacturing of flexible and large area devices. Tunable electronic structures combined with small exciton binding energy, high luminescence efficiency, and low thermal conductivity make nano crystals extremely attractive for FET, memory device, solar cell, solid-state lighting/display, photodetector, and lasing applications. Efforts to harness the nano crystal quantum tunability have led to the successful demonstration of many prototype devices, raising the public awareness to the wide range of solutions that nano technology can provide for an efficient energy economy. This special issue aims to provide the readers with the latest achievements of nano crystals in electronic and optoelectronic applications, including the synthesis and engineering of nano crystals towards the applications and the corresponding device fabrication, characterization and computer modeling.

  10. Phosphorylated nano-diamond/ Polyimide Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyler-Çiǧil, Asli; Çakmakçi, Emrah; Kahraman, Memet Vezir

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel route to synthesize polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond films with improved thermal and mechanical properties was developed. Surface phosphorylation of nano-diamond was performed in dichloromethane. Phosphorylation dramatically enhanced the thermal stability of nano-diamond. Poly(amic acid) (PAA), which is the precursor of PI, was successfully synthesized with 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (4,4'-ODA) in the solution of N,N- dimethylformamide (DMF). Pure BTDA-ODA polyimide films and phosphorylated nanodiamond containing BTDA-ODA PI films were prepared. The PAA displayed good compatibility with phosphorylated nano-diamond. The morphology of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structure of polyimide and polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by FTIR. SEM and FTIR results showed that the phosphorylated nano-diamond was successfully prepared. Thermal properties of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA results showed that the thermal stability of (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond film was increased

  11. SiGe nano-heteroepitaxy on Si and SiGe nano-pillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastari, Marouane; Charles, Matthew; Bogumilowicz, Yann; Thai, Quang Minh; Pimenta Barros, Patricia; Argoud, Maxime; Papon, Anne-Marie; Gergaud, Patrice; Landru, Didier; Kim, Youngpil; Hartmann, Jean Michel

    2018-04-12

    In this paper, SiGe nano-heteroepitaxy on Si and SiGe nano-pillars was investigated in a 300 mm industrial Reduced Pressure-Chemical Vapour Deposition tool. An integration scheme based on diblock copolymer patterning was used to fabricate nanometer-sized templates for the epitaxy of Si and SiGe nano-pillars. Results showed highly selective and uniform processes for the epitaxial growth of Si and SiGe nano-pillars. 200 nm thick SiGe layers were grown on Si and SiGe nano-pillars and characterized by AFM, XRD and TEM. Smooth SiGe surfaces and full strain relaxation were obtained in the 650-700°C range for 2D SiGe layers grown either on Si or SiGe nano-pillars. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Micro Nano Replication Processes and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Shinill

    2012-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the fundamentals and processes for micro and nano molding for plastic components. In addition to the basics, the book covers applications details and examples. The book helps both students and professionals to understand and work with the growing tools of molding and uses for micro and nano-sized plastic parts.Provides a comprehensive presentation on fundamentals and practices of manufacturing for micro / nano sized plastics partsCovers a relatively new but fast-growing field that is impacting any industry using plastic parts in their products (electronics, tele

  13. Managing collaboration in the nanoManipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Thomas C.; Helser, Aren T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2004-01-01

    We designed, developed, deployed, and evaluated the Collaborative nanoManipulator (CnM), a distributed, collaborative virtual environment system supporting remote scientific collaboration between users of the nanoManipulator interface to atomic force microscopes. This paper describes the entire...... collaboration system, but focuses on the shared nanoManipulator (nM) application. To be readily accepted by users, the shared nM application had to have the same high level of interactivity as the single-user system and include all the functions of the single-user system. In addition the application had...

  14. Environmental risk assessment of engineered nano-SiO2 , nano iron oxides, nano-CeO2 , nano-Al2 O3 , and quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Nowack, Bernd

    2018-01-09

    Many research studies have endeavored to investigate the ecotoxicological hazards of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). However, little is known regarding the actual environmental risks of ENMs, combining both hazard and exposure data. The aim of the present study was to quantify the environmental risks for nano-Al 2 O 3 , nano-SiO 2 , nano iron oxides, nano-CeO 2 , and quantum dots by comparing the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) with the predicted-no-effect concentrations (PNECs). The PEC values of these 5 ENMs in freshwaters in 2020 for northern Europe and southeastern Europe were taken from a published dynamic probabilistic material flow analysis model. The PNEC values were calculated using probabilistic species sensitivity distribution (SSD). The order of the PNEC values was quantum dots nano-CeO 2  nano iron oxides nano-Al 2 O 3  nano-SiO 2 . The risks posed by these 5 ENMs were demonstrated to be in the reverse order: nano-Al 2 O 3  > nano-SiO 2  > nano iron oxides > nano-CeO 2  > quantum dots. However, all risk characterization values are 4 to 8 orders of magnitude lower than 1, and no risk was therefore predicted for any of the investigated ENMs at the estimated release level in 2020. Compared to static models, the dynamic material flow model allowed us to use PEC values based on a more complex parameterization, considering a dynamic input over time and time-dependent release of ENMs. The probabilistic SSD approach makes it possible to include all available data to estimate hazards of ENMs by considering the whole range of variability between studies and material types. The risk-assessment approach is therefore able to handle the uncertainty and variability associated with the collected data. The results of the present study provide a scientific foundation for risk-based regulatory decisions of the investigated ENMs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;9999:1-9. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  15. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  16. VMESNIK ZA DALJINSKO VODENJE NANO-ROBOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Kocmut, Silvester

    2015-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je predstavljen programski uporabniški vmesnik za vodenje realnega nano-robota. Uporabniški vmesnik omogoča neposredno krmiljenje nano-robota. Realni nano-robot ima pet translacijskih osi, omogoča tudi montažo prijemala. Osi delujejo na osnovi piezoelektričnih aktuatorjev. Izhod iz inkrementalnih dajalnikov nam da povratno informacijo o gibanju. Uporabniški vmesnik omogoča ročno vodenje preko navideznih gumbov za vseh pet osi ter vodenje preko ročne ure EZ430-Chronos. Krmilj...

  17. Nano controllers characterization under radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, F.; Barde, S.; Carayon, J.L.; Sarthou, M.

    1999-01-01

    4 commercial nano-controllers (PIC16LC84, PIC16C73A, PIC16C76 and ST62E25) from MICROCHIP and SGS-Thomson have been characterized under heavy-ions, protons and total dose. The preliminary results show that PIC16LC84 has to be banned from the selection because it can not sustain high cumulated dose (its Idd begins to shift at 6 krads) and that its E 2 PROM code memory is too sensitive to SEU (single event upset). The 3 PICs have been tested with heavy-ions, the results show that they are sensible to upsets and latch-up, nevertheless no latch-up has been observed under proton irradiation. The sensitivity to latch-up does not matter a lot because PICs consume very little and it is planned to implement them in a tolerant design. (A.C.)

  18. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (plastics. One possible way of processing nanoceramic coatings at low temperatures (plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  19. Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio nano structures using a nano x-ray shadow mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Seung S

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method for the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio nano structures (HAR-nano structures) using a nano x-ray shadow mask and deep x-ray lithography (DXRL). The nano x-ray shadow mask is fabricated by depositing an x-ray absorber layer (Au, 3 µm) onto the back side of a nano shadow mask. The nano shadow mask is produced with nano-sized apertures whose dimensions are reduced to several tens of nanometers by the accumulation of low-stress silicon nitride (Si x N y ) using the LPCVD process on the shadow mask. A shadow mask containing apertures with a size of 1 µm is fabricated on a bulk micromachined Si x N y membrane. The thickness of an absorber layer must be in the range of several tens of micrometers in order to obtain a contrast of more than 100 for the conventional DXRL process at the Pohang Light Source (PLS). However, a 3 µm thick absorber layer can provide a sufficient contrast if the modified DXRL of the central beam-stop method is used, which blocks high-energy x-rays. A nano shadow mask with 30 nm sized apertures is fabricated and a nano x-ray shadow mask with 250 nm sized apertures is fabricated by depositing a 3 µm thick absorber layer on a nano shadow mask with 500 nm sized apertures. HAR-nano structures (circles with a diameter of 420 nm and lines with a width of 274 nm) with aspect ratios of over 10:1 on a 3.2 µm SU-8 are successfully fabricated by using the nano x-ray shadow mask and the central beam-stop method

  20. Application of emission CT on nano-robot radiation imaging tracing and isotope sign in nano-robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuewu; Cheng Jianping; Kang Kejun

    2000-01-01

    Nano-technology has been a scientific and technical frontier with major trends foreseen in several disciplines. Nano-robot is the most remarkable imagination of the application of nano-technology. And it should be concerned of tracing technology along with nano-robot. The character of nano-robot is deeply analyzed, the development status of emission CT is integrated, and the application of emission CT on nano-robot radiation imaging tracing is discussed. The isotope sign of nano-robot is especially calculated and analyzed

  1. Nano medicine in Action: An Overview of Cancer Nano medicine on the Market and in Clinical Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.; Billone, P.S.; Mullett, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nano medicine, defined as the application of nano technology in the medical field, has the potential to significantly change the course of diagnostics and treatment of life-threatening diseases, such as cancer. In comparison with traditional cancer diagnostics and therapy, cancer nano medicine provides sensitive cancer detection and/or enhances treatment efficacy with significantly minimized adverse effects associated with standard therapeutics. Cancer nano medicine has been increasingly applied in areas including nano drug delivery systems, nano pharmaceuticals, and nano analytical contrast reagents in laboratory and animal model research. In recent years, the successful introduction of several novel nano medicine products into clinical trials and even onto the commercial market has shown successful outcomes of fundamental research into clinics. This paper is intended to examine several nano medicines for cancer therapeutics and/or diagnostics-related applications, to analyze the trend of nano medicine development, future opportunities, and challenges of this fast-growing area.

  2. Nano-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Nano-MRI) Gives Personalized Medicine a New Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Lorenzo; Blackledge, Jonathan; Boretti, Albert

    2017-02-01

    This paper reviews some of the major and most recent advances in nanoscale-magnetic resonance imaging (nano-MRI) for personalized medicine (PM). Nano-MRI may drastically expand the capabilities of the traditional magnetic resonance images (MRI), down to the nanometer scale and possibly, in the near future, at the atomic scale. Nano-MRI is potentially able to observe structures which cannot be seen using today's molecular imaging, with sensitivities of many billions of times better than MRI as currently used in hospitals, for example. The paper briefly reports on the foremost research themes in nano-MRI.

  3. Indentation analysis of nano-particle using nano-contact mechanics models during nano-manipulation based on atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeinabi, Khadijeh; Korayem, Moharam Habibnejad

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy is applied to measure intermolecular forces and mechanical properties of materials, nano-particle manipulation, surface scanning and imaging with atomic accuracy in the nano-world. During nano-manipulation process, contact forces cause indentation in contact area between nano-particle and tip/substrate which is considerable at nano-scale and affects the nano-manipulation process. Several nano-contact mechanics models such as Hertz, Derjaguin–Muller–Toporov (DMT), Johnson–Kendall–Roberts–Sperling (JKRS), Burnham–Colton–Pollock (BCP), Maugis–Dugdale (MD), Carpick–Ogletree–Salmeron (COS), Pietrement–Troyon (PT), and Sun et al. have been applied as the continuum mechanics approaches at nano-scale. In this article, indentation depth and contact radius between tip and substrate with nano-particle for both spherical and conical tip shape during nano-manipulation process are analyzed and compared by applying theoretical, semiempirical, and empirical nano-contact mechanics models. The effects of adhesion force, as the main contrast point in different nano-contact mechanics models, on nano-manipulation analysis is investigated for different contact radius, and the critical point is discussed for mentioned models.

  4. DyNano-2010, Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoemeholm, O.; Boutu, W.; Gauthier, D.; Xunyou, Ge; Xiaochi, Liu; Carre, B.; Merdji, H.; Winkler, M.; Harnes, J.; Saethre, L.J.; Boerve, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    The amazing progresses made in the recent years by the instrumentation in terms of spectral brightness of the X-ray sources (new synchrotron radiation facilities, X-ray Free Electron Lasers etc.), detection schemes (multi-channel analysis due to intensive use of position sensitive detectors, time-resolved techniques etc.) and production sources of clusters (pure and mixed, atomic and molecular clusters) and nano-particles permit nowadays highly accurate spectroscopic studies of more and more complex objects. There were dedicated sessions on the following topics: 1) recent progress in Nano-object's investigations, 2) synchrotron radiation based spectroscopic investigations of clusters and nano-particles, 3) Structure and properties of size-selected clusters, 4) electronic and nuclear decay of clusters, 5) new insights in structure and dynamics of complex species, and 6) clusters and nano-particles and new light sources. This document gathers only the abstracts of the papers

  5. Green chemistry by nano-catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2010-01-01

    Nano-materials are important in many diverse areas, from basic research to various applications in electronics, biochemical sensors, catalysis and energy. They have emerged as sustainable alternatives to conventional materials, as robust high surface area heterogeneous catalysts and catalyst supports. The nano-sized particles increase the exposed surface area of the active component of the catalyst, thereby enhancing the contact between reactants and catalyst dramatically and mimicking the homogeneous catalysts. This review focuses on the use of nano-catalysis for green chemistry development including the strategy of using microwave heating with nano-catalysis in benign aqueous reaction media which offers an extraordinary synergistic effect with greater potential than these three components in isolation. To illustrate the proof-of-concept of this "green and sustainable" approach, representative examples are discussed in this article. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room is a state-of-the-art, 800 square foot, Class 1000-capable facility used for development of micro and sub-micro scale sensors...

  7. Nano Approaches to Modulate Host Cell Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Carolina Center of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence (CCNE) is an NCI-funded multidisciplinary collaboration among a range of disciplines using nano approaches for cancer disease management and treatment.

  8. High performance nano-composite technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Whung Whoe; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Park, S. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. K.; Jung, S. Y.; Ryu, H. J. [KRICT, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, S. S.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. M. [KIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chea, Y. B. [KIGAM, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C. H.; Kim, S. D. [ATS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, B. G.; Lee, S. H. [HGREC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    The trend of new material development are being to carried out not only high performance but also environmental attraction. Especially nano composite material which enhances the functional properties of components, extending the component life resulting to reduced the wastes and environmental contamination, has a great effect on various industrial area. The application of nano composite, depends on the polymer matrix and filler materials, has various application from semiconductor to medical field. In spite of nano composite merits, nano composite study are confined to a few special materials as a lab, scale because a few technical difficulties are still on hold. Therefore, the purpose of this study establishes the systematical planning to carried out the next generation projects on order to compete with other countries and overcome the protective policy of advanced countries with grasping over sea's development trends and our present status. (author).

  9. High performance nano-composite technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Whung Whoe; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Park, S. D.; Kim, E. K.; Jung, S. Y.; Ryu, H. J.; Hwang, S. S.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. M.; Chea, Y. B.; Choi, C. H.; Kim, S. D.; Cho, B. G.; Lee, S. H.

    1999-06-01

    The trend of new material development are being to carried out not only high performance but also environmental attraction. Especially nano composite material which enhances the functional properties of components, extending the component life resulting to reduced the wastes and environmental contamination, has a great effect on various industrial area. The application of nano composite, depends on the polymer matrix and filler materials, has various application from semiconductor to medical field. In spite of nano composite merits, nano composite study are confined to a few special materials as a lab, scale because a few technical difficulties are still on hold. Therefore, the purpose of this study establishes the systematical planning to carried out the next generation projects on order to compete with other countries and overcome the protective policy of advanced countries with grasping over sea's development trends and our present status. (author).

  10. Nano-drug for Pain Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh-Kiabi, Farshad

    2017-11-03

    Pain is commonly categorized into two diverse groups: acute pain, characterized by early onset and last for a very short time; while chronic pain, characterized by a prolonged pain for least 3 months' duration. Timely and immediate management of critical pain is critical in reducing its aggravation to chronic pain. There has been successful application of nano-technology, nano-medicine to the treatment and management of pain both in clinical and experimental studies like the fabrication of nano-formulated liposomes to deliver drugs for pain therapy, formulation of non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However safety issues related with NSAIDs have impelled the fabrication and the design of new drug formulations that reduces side effects and sustain efficacy. This review will give a concise summary on the available studies on the application of nano-formulated drugs designed for pain treatment and management. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. [Nano-safety science for sustainable nanotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, it is concerned that nanomaterials induce undesirable biological responses (NanoTox) which is different from conventional materials attributed to their unique physicochemical properties in the world. However, for our enjoying the benefits of nanomateirals, it is most important not to regulate nanomaterials in the blind way but to assure the security of nanomaterials and support the development of nanomaterial industries. These are duty of our country to be advanced country, technology-oriented nation and intellectual property nation. From these viewpoints, we are engaged on not NanoTox study but Nano-safety science study. In this review, we will introduce our Nano-safety science study using mainly silica nanoparticle.

  12. Bio/Nano Electronic Devices and Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, W. K

    2008-01-01

    ... based on capillary cooling.(3) CNT-based Bio-nano Sensor single walled CNT structures with FIB generated nanogaps have been used to probe single DNA strands, using DNA strands from known pathogens (4...

  13. Potential of magnetically responsive (nano)biocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Pospišková, K.; Horská, Kateřina; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 20 (2012), s. 5407-5413 ISSN 1744-683X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/2263; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/094; GA MŠk OC09052 Keywords : modified yeast-cells * modified microbial-cells * soluble organic-dyes * carbon nano tubes * biosorption * water * nano particles * adsorption * removal Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.909, year: 2012

  14. The nano-materials, at the heart of the nano galaxy; Les nano-materiaux, au coeur de la galaxie nano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Marois, G. [Direction Generale de l' Industrie, des Technologies de l' Information et des Postes, 75 - Paris (France); Carlac, D. [Societe Developpement et Conseil, 51 - Reims (France)

    2004-02-01

    The researches on nano-materials are continuously increasing in most of industrialized countries. Between 1998 and 2003, the corresponding investment has been multiplied by six in Europe, eight in Usa and in Japan, to reach 3 milliards of euros in the world. Based on the nano-technologies development, these materials would represent the main part of the market at short and middle dated. Many examples of utilization are presented. (A.L.B.)

  15. Olefin metathesis in nano-sized systems

    OpenAIRE

    Astruc, Didier; Diallo, Abdou K; Gatard, Sylvain; Liang, Liyuan; Ornelas, Cátia; Martinez, Victor; Méry, Denise; Ruiz, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The interplay between olefin metathesis and dendrimers and other nano systems is addressed in this mini review mostly based on the authors’ own contributions over the last decade. Two subjects are presented and discussed: (i) The catalysis of olefin metathesis by dendritic nano-catalysts via either covalent attachment (ROMP) or, more usefully, dendrimer encapsulation – ring closing metathesis (RCM), cross metathesis (CM), enyne metathesis reactions (EYM) – for reactions in w...

  16. Nano structural anodes for radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Serkiz, Steven M.; McWhorter, Christopher S.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-07-07

    Anodes for proportional radiation counters and a process of making the anodes is provided. The nano-sized anodes when present within an anode array provide: significantly higher detection efficiencies due to the inherently higher electric field, are amenable to miniaturization, have low power requirements, and exhibit a small electromagnetic field signal. The nano-sized anodes with the incorporation of neutron absorbing elements (e.g., .sup.10B) allow the use of neutron detectors that do not use .sup.3He.

  17. Nano-tribology and materials in MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Satyanarayana, N; Lim, Seh

    2013-01-01

    This book brings together recent developments in the areas of MEMS tribology, novel lubricants and coatings for nanotechnological applications, biomimetics in tribology and fundamentals of micro/nano-tribology. Tribology plays important roles in the functioning and durability of machines at small length scales because of the problems associated with strong surface adhesion, friction, wear etc. Recently, a number of studies have been conducted to understand tribological phenomena at nano/micro scales and many new tribological solutions for MEMS have been proposed.

  18. Oxide nano crystals for in vivo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, E.

    2005-01-01

    For small animal, fluorescence imaging is complementary with other techniques such as nuclear imaging (PET, SPECT). In vivo imaging studies imply the development of new luminescent probes, with a better sensitivity and a better biological targeting. These markers must filled biological and optical conditions. Our goal is to study new doped lanthanides oxide nano-crystals, their properties, their functionalization and their ability to target biological molecules. Characterizations of Y 2 O 3 :Eu and Y 2 SiO 5 :Eu nano-crystals (light diffusion, spectrometry, microscopy) allowed the determination of their size, their fluorescence properties but also their photo-bleaching. Means of stabilization of the nanoparticles were also studied in order to decrease their aggregation. Gd 2 O 3 :Eu nano-crystals were as well excited by X rays. Nano-crystals of Y 2 SiO 5 :Eu were functionalized, and organic ligands grafting evidenced by fluorescence and NMR. The functionalized nano-crystals could then recognized biological targets (streptavidin-biotin) and be incubated in the presence of HeLa cells. This report deals with the properties of these nano-crystals and their ability to meet the optical and biological conditions required for the application of in vivo imaging. (author)

  19. Development of nano SiO{sub 2} incorporated nano zinc phosphate coatings on mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamilselvi, M. [Department of Chemistry, Thiru Kolanjiappar Government Arts College, Virudhachalam 606001 (India); Kamaraj, P. [Department of Chemistry, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203 (India); Arthanareeswari, M., E-mail: arthanareeswari@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203 (India); Devikala, S.; Selvi, J. Arockia [Department of Chemistry, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203 (India)

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Nano SiO{sub 2} incorporated nano zinc phosphate coating on mild steel was developed. • Coatings showed enhanced corrosion resistance. • The nano SiO{sub 2} is adsorbed on mild steel surface and become nucleation sites. • The nano SiO{sub 2} accelerates the phosphating process. - Abstract: This paper reports the development of nano SiO{sub 2} incorporated nano zinc phosphate coatings on mild steel at low temperature for achieving better corrosion protection. A new formulation of phosphating bath at low temperature with nano SiO{sub 2} was attempted to explore the possibilities of development of nano zinc phosphate coatings on mild steel with improved corrosion resistance. The coatings developed were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electrochemical measurements. Significant variation in the coating weight, morphology and corrosion resistance was observed as nano SiO{sub 2} concentrations varied from 0.5–4 g/L. The results showed that, the nano SiO{sub 2} in the phosphating solution changed the initial potential of the interface between mild steel substrate and phosphating solution and reduce the activation energy of the phosphating process, increase the nucleation sites and yielded zinc phosphate coatings of higher coating weight, greater surface coverage and enhanced corrosion resistance. Better corrosion resistance was observed for coatings derived from phosphating bath containing 1.5 g/L nano SiO{sub 2}. The new formulation reported in the present study was free from Ni or Mn salts and had very low concentration of sodium nitrite (0.4 g/L) as accelerator.

  20. Characterization of nano oxaliplatin prepared by novel Fat Employing Supercritical Nano System, the FESNS®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Heon; Hahn, Mikyoung

    2012-01-01

    Oxaliplatin has long been used for the treatment of colorectal cancer via intra-venous infusion. In order to improve patient compliance, a solid dosage form for oral administration of oxaliplatin was prepared as nano-sized particles. Nano oxaliplatin was prepared employing Fat Employing Supercritical Nano System (FESNS(®)) with Supercritical Fluid (SCF) apparatus by using myristyl alcohol as solvent. Morphology of nano oxaliplatin was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and the particle size and zeta potential were confirmed with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). To characterize the nano oxaliplatin particles, solubility rate and in vitro efficacy study (MTS growth inhibition assay) were investigated compared to crude oxaliplatin as reference. FESNS(®) provided reproducible nano oxaliplatin with high manufacturing yield (> 95%). SEM images showed that the particle size distribution of nano oxaliplatin ranged between 20 and 400 nm with the medium particle sizes (d(50)) of about 164 nm determined by DLS. Pertaining to the long-term stability, no recrystallization of the nano oxaliplatin was observed with negative zeta potential in the state of solution. Nano oxaliplatin was completely dissolved within a couple of minutes in pH 4.0 and pH 6.8 buffer solutions while crude oxaliplatin took a couple of hours to go into solution. In case of MTS growth inhibition assay, the average concentration required to inhibit 50% of cell growth (GI(50)) of nano oxaliplatin was decreased by about 45% in comparison to the crude oxaliplatin. These results lead us to conclude that nano oxaliplatin would have a great potential for the improvement of efficacy and toxicity in human colorectal cancer treatment compared to the crude oxaliplatin. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

  1. Nonlinear super-resolution nano-optics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Jingsong

    2015-01-01

    This book covers many advances in the subjects of nano-optics and nano photonics. The author describes the principle and technical schematics of common methods for breaking through the optical diffraction limit and focuses on realizing optical super-resolution with nonlinear effects of thin film materials. The applications of nonlinear optical super-resolution effects in nano-data storage, nanolithography, and nano-imaging are also presented. This book is useful to graduate students majoring in optics and nano science and also serves as a reference book for academic researchers, engineers, technical professionals in the fields of super-resolution optics and laser techniques, nano-optics and nano photonics, nano-data storage, nano imaging, micro/nanofabrication and nanolithography and nonlinear optics.

  2. Genetic selection for context-dependent stochastic phenotypes: Sp1 and TATA mutations increase phenotypic noise in HIV-1 gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Miller-Jensen

    Full Text Available The sequence of a promoter within a genome does not uniquely determine gene expression levels and their variability; rather, promoter sequence can additionally interact with its location in the genome, or genomic context, to shape eukaryotic gene expression. Retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV, integrate their genomes into those of their host and thereby provide a biomedically-relevant model system to quantitatively explore the relationship between promoter sequence, genomic context, and noise-driven variability on viral gene expression. Using an in vitro model of the HIV Tat-mediated positive-feedback loop, we previously demonstrated that fluctuations in viral Tat-transactivating protein levels generate integration-site-dependent, stochastically-driven phenotypes, in which infected cells randomly 'switch' between high and low expressing states in a manner that may be related to viral latency. Here we extended this model and designed a forward genetic screen to systematically identify genetic elements in the HIV LTR promoter that modulate the fraction of genomic integrations that specify 'Switching' phenotypes. Our screen identified mutations in core promoter regions, including Sp1 and TATA transcription factor binding sites, which increased the Switching fraction several fold. By integrating single-cell experiments with computational modeling, we further investigated the mechanism of Switching-fraction enhancement for a selected Sp1 mutation. Our experimental observations demonstrated that the Sp1 mutation both impaired Tat-transactivated expression and also altered basal expression in the absence of Tat. Computational analysis demonstrated that the observed change in basal expression could contribute significantly to the observed increase in viral integrations that specify a Switching phenotype, provided that the selected mutation affected Tat-mediated noise amplification differentially across genomic contexts. Our study

  3. Alcohol induces RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription through c-Jun by co-regulating TATA-binding protein (TBP) and Brf1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuping; Machida, Keigo; Tsukamoto, Hide; Johnson, Deborah L

    2011-01-28

    Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with steatohepatitis and cirrhosis, enhancing the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. RNA polymerase (pol) III transcribes a variety of small, untranslated RNAs, including tRNAs and 5S rRNAs, which determine the biosynthetic capacity of cells. Increased RNA pol III-dependent transcription, observed in transformed cells and human tumors, is required for oncogenic transformation. Given that alcohol consumption increases risk for liver cancer, we examined whether alcohol regulates this class of genes. Ethanol induces RNA pol III-dependent transcription in both HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes in a manner that requires ethanol metabolism and the activation of JNK1. This regulatory event is mediated, at least in part, through the ability of ethanol to induce expression of the TFIIIB components, Brf1, and the TATA-binding protein (TBP). Induction of TBP, Brf1, and RNA pol III-dependent gene expression is driven by enhanced c-Jun expression. Ethanol promotes a marked increase in the direct recruitment of c-Jun to TBP, Brf1, and tRNA gene promoters. Chronic alcohol administration in mice leads to enhanced expression of TBP, Brf1, tRNA, and 5S rRNA gene transcription in the liver. These alcohol-dependent increases are more pronounced in transgenic animals that express the HCV NS5A protein that display increased incidence of liver tumors. Together, these results identify a new class of genes that are regulated by alcohol through the co-regulation of TFIIIB components and define a central role for c-Jun in this process.

  4. U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Paleoproterozoic Tagragra de Tata inlier and its Neoproterozoic cover, western Anti-Atlas, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, G.J.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Benziane, F.; Yazidi, A.; Armstrong, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    New U-Pb zircon data obtained by sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) from the Tagragra de Tata inlier in the western Anti-Atlas, Morocco establish Paleoproterozoic ages for the basement schists, granites, and metadolerites, and a Neoproterozoic age for an ignimbrite of the Ouarzazate Series in the cover sequence. The age of interbedded felsic metatuff in the metasedimentary and metavolcanic sequence of the basement schists is 2072 ?? 8 Ma. This date represents: (1) the first reliable age from the metasedimentary and metavolcanic sequence; (2) the oldest reliable age for the basement of the Anti-Atlas; (3) the first date on the timing of deposition of the sediments on the northern edge of the Paleoproterozoic West African craton; (4) a lower age limit on deformation during the Eburnean orogeny; and (5) the first date obtained from the non-granitic Paleoproterozoic basement of Morocco. Ages of 2046 ?? 7 Ma (Targant granite) and 2041 ?? 6 Ma (Oudad granite) support earlier interpretations of a Paleoproterozoic Eburnean igneous event in the Anti-Atlas. The granites post-date the Eburnean D1 deformation event in the Paleoproterozoic schist sequence, and place a ???2046 Ma limit on short-lived Eburnean deformation in the area. Cross-cutting metadolerite is 2040 ?? 6 Ma; this is the first date from a metadolerite in the western Anti-Atlas. All of the dolerites in the area post-date emplacement of the two granites and the new age constrains the onset of late- or post-Eburnean extension. Ignimbrite of the Ouarzazate Series, immediately above the Paleoproterozoic basement is 565 ?? 7 Ma. This Neoproterozoic age agrees with ages of similar volcanic rocks elsewhere from the Ouarzazate Series. The date also agrees with the ages of associated hypabyssal intrusions, and marks the second and final stage of Pan-African orogenic activity in the western Anti-Atlas. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Aluminum Templates of Different Sizes with Micro-, Nano- and Micro/Nano-Structures for Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Liang Yen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the results of cell cultures on aluminum (Al templates with flat-structures, micro-structures, nano-structures and micro/nano-structures. An Al template with flat-structure was obtained by electrolytic polishing; an Al template with micro-structure was obtained by micro-powder blasting; an Al template with nano-structure was obtained by aluminum anodization; and an Al template with micro/nano-structure was obtained by micro-powder blasting and then anodization. Osteoblast-like cells were cultured on aluminum templates with various structures. The microculture tetrazolium test assay was utilized to assess the adhesion, elongation, and proliferation behaviors of cultured osteoblast-like cells on aluminum templates with flat-structures, micro-structures, nano-structures, and micro/nano-structures. The results showed that the surface characterization of micro/nano-structure of aluminum templates had superhydrophilic property, and these also revealed that an aluminum template with micro/nano-structure could provide the most suitable growth situation for cell culture.

  6. NanoSAR – Case study of synthetic aperture radar for nano-satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, S.; Oever, M. van den; Mahapatra, P.S.; Sundaramoorthy, P.P.; Gill, E.K.A.; Meijer, R.J.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Nano-satellites have a cost advantage due to their low mass and usage of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies. However, the low mass also restricts the functionality of a nano-satellite’s payload. Typically, this would imply instruments with very low to low resolution and accuracy, essentially

  7. Respiring cellular nano-magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Ayesha; Khan, Zanib; Bokhari, Habib; Hidayathula, Syed; Jilani, Ghulam; Khan, Abid Ali

    2017-11-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria provide an interesting example for the biosynthesis of magnetic (Fe 3 O 4 or Fe 3 S 4 ) nanoparticles, synthesized through a process known as biologically controlled mineralization, resulting in complex monodispersed, and nanostructures with unique magnetic properties. In this work, we report a novel aerobic bacterial strain isolated from sludge of an oil refinery. Microscopic and staining analysis revealed that it was a gram positive rod with the capability to thrive in a medium (9K) supplemented, with Fe 2+ ions at an acidic pH (~3.2). The magnetic behaviour of these cells was tested by their alignment towards a permanent magnet, and later on confirmed by magnetometry analysis. The X-ray diffraction studies proved the cellular biosynthesis of magnetite nanoparticles inside the bacteria. This novel, bio-nano-magnet, could pave the way for green synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles to be used in industrial and medical applications such as MRI, magnetic hyperthermia and ferrofluids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent patents on nano flavor preparation and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2010-11-01

    Nano flavor preparation and its application have been reviewed in this paper. Nano flavor could be prepared by physical methods such as spray drying with microfluidization and ultrasonication, physical adsorption and so on, chemical methods such as complex formation, nano-sized self-structured liquid, and nano emulsification and so on. Different preparation technology could produce nano particles with different physical properties, thus they could be used in different occasions such as food, drug, cosmetics and so on. The article presents some promising patents on nano flavor preparation and its application.

  9. A Fabrication Technique for Nano-gap Electrodes by Atomic Force Microscopy Nano lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Rouhi; Shahrom Mahmud; Hutagalung, S.D.; Kakooei, S.

    2011-01-01

    A simple technique is introduced for fabrication of nano-gap electrodes by using nano-oxidation atomic force microscopy (AFM) lithography with a Cr/ Pt coated silicon tip. AFM local anodic oxidation was performed on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) surfaces by optimization of desired conditions to control process in contact mode. Silicon electrodes with gaps of sub 31 nm were fabricated by nano-oxidation method. This technique which is simple, controllable, inexpensive and fast is capable of fabricating nano-gap structures. The current-voltage measurements (I-V) of the electrodes demonstrated very good insulating characteristics. The results show that silicon electrodes have a great potential for fabrication of single molecule transistors (SMT), single electron transistors (SET) and the other nano electronic devices. (author)

  10. In situ microscopy of rapidly heated nano-Al and nano-Al/WO3 thermites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Kyle T.; Zachariah, Michael R.; Chiou, Wen-An; Fiore, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The initiation and reaction mechanism of nano-Al and nano-Al thermites in rapid heating environments is investigated in this work. A semiconductor-based grid/stage was used, capable of in situ heating of a sample from room temperature to 1473 K, and at a rate of 10 6 K/s, inside an electron microscope. Nano-Al was rapidly heated in a transmission electron microscope, and before and after images indicate that the aluminum migrates through the shell, consistent with a diffusion-based mechanism. A nano-Al/WO 3 composite was then heated in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that a reactive sintering mechanism is occurring for the nano-Al/WO 3 thermite, as the products are found to be in surface contact and significantly deformed after the heating pulse.

  11. Applications and Nano toxicity of Carbon Nano tubes and Graphene in Biomedicine Caitlin Fisher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rider, A.E.; Han, Z.J.; Kumar, S.; Levchenko, L.; Ostrikov, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their unique mechanical, electrical, optical, and thermal properties, carbon nano structures including carbon nano tubes and graphenes show great promise for advancing the fields of biology and medicine. Many reports have demonstrated the promise of these carbon nano structures and their hybrid structures (composites with polymers, ceramics, and metal nanoparticles, etc.) for a variety of biomedical areas ranging from bio sensing, drug delivery, and diagnostics, to cancer treatment, tissue engineering, and bio terrorism prevention. However, the issue of the safety and toxicity of these carbon nano structures, which is vital to their use as diagnostic and therapeutic tools in biomedical fields, has not been completely resolved. This paper aims to provide a summary of the features of carbon nano tube and graphene-based materials and current research progress in biomedical applications. We also highlight the current opinions within the scientific community on the toxicity and safety of these carbon structures

  12. Polymer/Layered Silicate Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhit, M.E.E.H.

    2012-01-01

    Polymer–clay nano composites have attracted the attention of many researchers and experimental results are presented in a large number of recent papers and patents because of the outstanding mechanical properties and low gas permeabilities that are achieved in many cases. Polymer-clay nano composites are a new class of mineral-field polymer that contain relatively small amounts (<10%) of nanometer-sized clay particles. Polymer/clay nano composites have their origin in the pioneering research conducted at Toyota Central Research Laboratories and the first historical record goes back to 1987. The matrix was nylon-6 and the filler MMT. Because of its many advantages such as high mechanical properties, good gas barrier, flame retardation, etc. polymer/clay nano composites have been intensely investigated and is currently the subject of many research programs. Nano composite materials are commercially important and several types of products with different shapes and applications including food packaging films and containers, engine parts, dental materials, etc. are now available in markets. A number of synthesis routes have been developed in the recent years to prepare these materials, which include intercalation of polymers or prepolymers from solution, in-situ polymerization, melt intercalation etc. In this study, new nano composite materials were produced from the components of rubber (Nbr, SBR and EPDM) as the polymeric matrix and organically modified quaternary alkylammonium montmorillonite in different contents (3, 5, 7, and 10 phr) as the filler by using an extruder then, the rubber nano composite sheets were irradiated at a dose of 0, 50, 75, 100 and 150 KGy using Electron beam Irradiation technique as a crosslinking agent. These new materials can be characterized by using various analytical techniques including X-ray diffractometer XRD, Thermogravimetric analyzer TGA, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM),Fourier transform

  13. Oxidation of nano-reinforced polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Castro, G.G.

    2010-11-01

    Nano-composite materials attract search due to their improvements on barrier properties by incorporating low level of nano-filler of 5%w. Nowadays, organically modified montmorillonite (MMT-O) is the most used filler due to its high aspect ratio which permits stronger clay/polymer interactions. If nano-reinforced materials are highly performing, the ways in which clay presence affects polyolefin durability have not being subject of a rigorous study, thus they are not yet clear. Our goal was to examine unstabilized clay polypropylene and unstabilized clay polyethylene nano composites to get a better comprehension of the clay effects on their thermo-oxidation process under low temperatures. The effects induced by a dual physic-chemical nature of the clay were explored. The problem was tackled from both experimental and theoretical point of views for degradation process not controlled and controlled by oxygen diffusion (homogenous and heterogeneous respectively). It seems that MMT-O speeds up oxidation. This phenomenon was modeled by adding a catalytic reaction between metallic particles initially present in the MMT-O and hydroperoxide groups (main responsible of oxidation). Regarding the oxygen permeability two situations were confronted: for the clay polypropylene system a decrease of 45% of oxygen permeability was measured. On the other hand, no variation was found for the polyethylene case. This effect was attributed to the fact that polyethylene nano-composite reached a blend morphology less developed than those of the polypropylene nano-composite. Kinetics and oxidation products profiles across the sample thickness were simulated for both systems by coupling oxidation reactions with oxygen diffusion equations. For the polyethylene case, the effects induced by oxidation on molar mass and crystalline morphology were also simulated. Finally, based on a structure-property relationship, simulations of mechanic modulus profiles were performed for the heterogeneous

  14. Nano-plastics in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, K; Hansson, L-A; Cedervall, T

    2015-10-01

    The amount of plastics released to the environment in modern days has increased substantially since the development of modern plastics in the early 1900s. As a result, concerns have been raised by the public about the impact of plastics on nature and on, specifically, aquatic wildlife. Lately, much attention has been paid to macro- and micro-sized plastics and their impact on aquatic organisms. However, micro-sized plastics degrade subsequently into nano-sizes whereas nano-sized particles may be released directly into nature. Such particles have a different impact on aquatic organisms than larger pieces of plastic due to their small size, high surface curvature, and large surface area. This review describes the possible sources of nano-sized plastic, its distribution and behavior in nature, the impact of nano-sized plastic on the well-being of aquatic organisms, and the difference of impact between nano- and micro-sized particles. We also identify research areas which urgently need more attention and suggest experimental methods to obtain useful data.

  15. Nano antibody therapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachallam, M.; Sivakumar, T.; Nazeema; Venkateswari, P.

    2011-01-01

    Nanomedicine, an offshoot of nanotechnology, refers to highly specific medical intervention at the molecular scale for curing disease or repairing damaged tissues, such as bone, muscle, or nerve. Nanotechnology can have an early, paradigm-changing impact on how clinicians will detect cancer in its earliest stages. Exquisitely sensitive devices constructed of nanoscale components-such as nanocantilevers, nanowires and nanochannels-offer the potential for detecting even the rarest molecular signals associated with malignancy. One of the most pressing needs in clinical oncology is for imaging agents that can identify tumors that are far smaller than is possible with today's technology, at a scale of 100,000 cells rather than 1,000,000,000 cells. A new approach in nanotechnology for treating cancer incorporates nano iron particles and attaches them to an antibody that has targets only cancer cells and not healthy cells. The treatment works in two steps. This treatment is an ingenious way to make localized tumor ablation a systemic treatment. The advantages are incredible. There are absolutely no side effects from this treatment. It is not painful or even uncomfortable. The iron particles get flushed harmlessly from the body. It is not a drug and so the cancer cannot build up a resistance to the treatment. It is a systematic treatment; even cancer cells and tumors that are not known about get heated up and ablated. This treatment can even be used to enhance imaging of the cancer because once the cancer cells are coated with the iron particles, they are easy to identify. Everything depends on how reliably the antibodies target cancer cells and not healthy cells. When used in conjunction with other systemic treatments, such as vaccine treatments, we could be looking at a time when even advanced cancers can be brought under control. (author)

  16. Assessing nano cellulose developments using science and technology indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanez, Douglas Henrique; Amaral, Roniberto Morato do; Faria, Leandro Innocentini Lopes de; Gregolin, Jose Angelo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to examine scientific and technological trends of developments in nano cellulose based on scientometric and patent indicators obtained from the Science Citation Index and Derwent Innovations Index in 2001-2010. The overall nano cellulose activity indicators were compared to nanotechnology and other selected nano materials. Scientific and technological future developments in nano cellulose were forecasted using extrapolation growth curves and the main countries were also mapped. The results showed that nano cellulose publications and patent documents have increased rapidly over the last five years with an average growth rate higher than that of nanotechnology and fullerene. The USA, Japan, France, Sweden and Finland all played a significant role in nano cellulose development and the extrapolation growth curves suggested that nano cellulose scientific and technological activities are still emerging. Finally, the evidence from this study recommends monitoring nano cellulose S and T advances in the coming years. (author)

  17. Assessing nano cellulose developments using science and technology indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanez, Douglas Henrique; Amaral, Roniberto Morato do; Faria, Leandro Innocentini Lopes de; Gregolin, Jose Angelo Rodrigues, E-mail: douglasmilanez@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Informacao Tecnologica em Materiais. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to examine scientific and technological trends of developments in nano cellulose based on scientometric and patent indicators obtained from the Science Citation Index and Derwent Innovations Index in 2001-2010. The overall nano cellulose activity indicators were compared to nanotechnology and other selected nano materials. Scientific and technological future developments in nano cellulose were forecasted using extrapolation growth curves and the main countries were also mapped. The results showed that nano cellulose publications and patent documents have increased rapidly over the last five years with an average growth rate higher than that of nanotechnology and fullerene. The USA, Japan, France, Sweden and Finland all played a significant role in nano cellulose development and the extrapolation growth curves suggested that nano cellulose scientific and technological activities are still emerging. Finally, the evidence from this study recommends monitoring nano cellulose S and T advances in the coming years. (author)

  18. From Nano Structure to Systems: Fabrication and Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the interest in nano technology research has been grown rapidly. With the latest technology, it is possible to arrange atoms into structures that are only a few nanometers in size. Dimension for nano structure is between 0.1 and 100nm where the actual size of 1nm is equal to 10-9 m or just about a few atoms thick. In other word, a nano structure is an object which it size is about four atom diameters or 1/50000 of a human hair. Due to the connecting of a patterned silicon substrate with biomolecules and the small size and large surface-to-volume ratio, it opens much new possibility for assembling nano structures.The ultimate goal is to fabricate devices that have every atom in the right place. Such technology would give the opportunity to minimize the size of a device and to reduce the material, energy and time necessary to perform its task. Potential applications include electrical circuits, mechanical devices and medical instruments. There are two most important nano structures that are extensively studied and researched in various organizations which are nano wire and nano gap. Nano wires is a new class of nano structure that have attracted attention and great research interest in the last few years because of their potential applications in nano technology such as nano electronic, nano mechanical and biomedical engineering. Fabrication of Nano wires is one of the great challenges today. Conventional lithography methods are not capable to produce Nano wires and even with advance nano lithography sizes below 100 nm may not easily be achieved. Nano wire can be produced in two approaches, which are top down and bottom-up method. Very small nano wires which can be produced by using top-down nano fabrication methods are Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) based Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) method, and Spacer Patterning Lithography (SPL) method. The top-down nano fabrication method based on EBL was the design of the Nano wires Pattern Design (NPD). The

  19. Nano-structural characteristics and optical properties of silver chiral nano-flower sculptured thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savaloni, Hadi; Haydari-Nasab, Fatemh; Malmir, Mariam

    2011-01-01

    Silver chiral nano-flowers with 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry were produced using oblique angle deposition method in conjunction with the rotation of sample holder with different speeds at different sectors of each revolution corresponding to symmetry order of the acquired nano-flower. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), were employed to obtain morphology and nano-structure of the films. Optical characteristics of silver chiral nano-flower thin films were obtained using single beam spectrophotometer with both s- and p-polarization incident light at 30 o and 70 o incidence angles and at different azimuthal angles (φ). Optical spectra showed both TM (TDM (transverse dipole mode) and TQM (transverse quadruple mode)) and LM (longitudinal mode) Plasmon resonance peaks. For 3- and 4-fold symmetry chiral nano-flowers the s-polarization extinction spectra obtained at different azimuthal angles did not show significant change in the Plasmon peak position while 5-fold symmetry chiral nano-flower showed a completely different behavior, which may be the result of increased surface anisotropy, so when the φ angle is changed the s-polarization response from the surface can change more significantly than that for lower symmetries. In general, for 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry chiral nano-flowers a sharp peak at lower wavelengths ( o incidence angle.

  20. Measurement capability overview in PolyNano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    requirements such as low uncertainty, high repeatability and resolution, adequate measuring range and availability among the different project partners. Based on the present measurement capability overview and in relation to the objective of PolyNano to “remove the technology barrier between lab‐scale proof...... of principle and high volume low cost production”, WP6 future work will be on standardizing new measuring methods through traceable procedures which will enable product quality control implemented in‐line with micro/nano manufacturing processing technologies.......A measurement capability overview has been conducted to evaluate, among the most used instruments in the field of nanometrology, where the PolyNano project should focus its research. The deliverable presents the most relevant instruments to achieve the best possible measurements accuracy matching...

  1. Replication of micro and nano surface geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hocken, R.J.; Tosello, Guido

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the state-of-the-art in replication of surface texture and topography at micro and nano scale. The description includes replication of surfaces in polymers, metals and glass. Three different main technological areas enabled by surface replication processes are presented......: manufacture of net-shape micro/nano surfaces, tooling (i.e. master making), and surface quality control (metrology, inspection). Replication processes and methods as well as the metrology of surfaces to determine the degree of replication are presented and classified. Examples from various application areas...... are given including replication for surface texture measurements, surface roughness standards, manufacture of micro and nano structured functional surfaces, replicated surfaces for optical applications (e.g. optical gratings), and process chains based on combinations of repeated surface replication steps....

  2. The nano spray dryer B-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Desmond; Lee, Sie Huey; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H

    2011-07-01

    Spray drying is an extremely well-established technology for the production of micro-particulate powders suited for a variety of drug delivery applications. In recent years, the rise in nanomedicine has placed increased pressure on the existing systems to produce nanoparticles in good yield and with a narrow size distribution. However, the separation and collection of nanoparticles with conventional spray dryer set ups is extremely challenging due to their typical low collection efficiency for fine particles spray drying technology is provided in this review with particular emphasis on the novel Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90. Readers will appreciate the limitations of conventional spray drying technology, understand the mechanisms of the Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90, and also learn about the strengths and shortcomings of the system. The Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple and alternative approach for the production of nanoparticles suited for a variety of drug delivery applications.

  3. Nano-Enabled Technologies for Naval Aviation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-05

    mechanical properties, e.g., increased ductility 2. Increased energy density 3. Increased corona resistance 4. Reduced size and weight for...scale features, micro/nano- textured fins to enhance convection and dissipate heat, identifying nano-composite materials comprised of low density and high...devices; radar applications, other power electronics 1. Micro/nano- textured fins to enhance convection surface area and turbulence 2. Nano

  4. KOMPETENSI ABSOLUT PENGADILAN TATA USAHA NEGARA DALAM KONTEKS UNDANG-UNDANG NOMOR 30 TAHUN 2014 TENTANG ADMINISTRASI PEMERINTAHAN (The Absolut Competence of Administrative Court Based on Law Number 30 of 2014 Concerning Government Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yodi Martono Wahyunadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam konteks Undang-Undang Nomor 30 Tahun 2014 tentang Administrasi Pemerintahan (UUAP kompetensi PTUN tidak hanya Keputusan Tata Usaha Negara akan tetapi mempunyai kompetensi mengadili Tindakan Administrasi. Selain itu pula PTUN mempunyai kompetensi memutus permohonan untuk menentukan penilaian ada tidaknya unsur penyalahgunaan wewenang serta permohonan keputusan fiktif positif. Sikap diam atau abainya Badan dan/atau Pejabat pemerintahan terhadap permohonan badan atau seseorang dianggap telah mengeluarkan keputusan. Kompetensi PTUN yang baru lainnya terhadap keputusan Badan atau Pejabat pemerintahan yaitu Upaya Administrasi. UUAP tidak hanya mengatur hukum materiil tetapi juga hukum formil (acara. Untuk itu UUAP harus diubah hanya memuat hukum materiil saja dan perlu adanya perubahan terhadap UU Peradilan Tata Usaha Negara untuk mengakomodir penegakan hukum materiil. In the context of Law Number 30 of 2014 concerning Government Administration the competence of administrative court was not only the decision of the Administration but also has the competence to judge the actions of Administration. In addition administrative court also have competence to decide an application for assessment to determine whether there are elements of authority abuse as well as the application for a fictitious positive decision. However to determine the application for approval of a person or body of civil law are not automatically, but must first be tested through administrative courts. The Government's Administration Law regulates the material law and formal law. For the Government's Administration Law should be amended to load any material law and the need for changes to the Administrative Law to accommodate the enforcement of material law.

  5. Nano materials Synthesis, Applications, and Toxicity 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadagouda, M.N.; Lytle, D.A.; Speth, Th.F.; Dionysiou, D.D.; Mukhopadhyay, Sh.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nano technology presents new opportunities to create better materials and products. Nano materials find wide applications in catalysis, energy production, medicine, environmental remediation, automotive industry, and other sectors of our society. Nano material-containing products are already available globally and include automotive parts, defense application, drug delivery devices, coatings, computers, clothing, cosmetics, sports equipment, and medical devices. This special issue includes emerging advances in the field, with a special emphasis given to nano material synthesis and applications. There is an increasing interest in identifying magnetically separable catalysts for the degradation of wastewater. In this issue, A. Perumal et al. report an investigation of temperature-dependent magnetic properties and photo catalytic activity of CoFe 2 O 4 -Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nano composites (MNCs) synthesized by hydrothermal processes. These MNCs have saturation magnetization of 90 emu/g and coercivity (HC) of 530 Oe. The photo catalytic activity of the MNCs has been examined on the reduction of methyl orange (MO), a colored compound used in dyeing and printing textiles. The MNCs act as an excellent photo catalyst on the degradation of organic contaminants and degrade 93% of MO in 5 hours of UV irradiation. The photo catalytic activity of MNCs is attributed to remarkably high band gap energy and small particle size. Also, the MNCs with reproducible photo catalytic activity are easily separated from water media by applying an external magnetic field and they act as a promising catalyst for the remediation of textile wastewater. Microwaves can play an important role in orchestrating nano materials for a wide range of technological applications

  6. Nano-Computed Tomography: Technique and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampschulte, M; Langheinirch, A C; Sender, J; Litzlbauer, H D; Althöhn, U; Schwab, J D; Alejandre-Lafont, E; Martels, G; Krombach, G A

    2016-02-01

    Nano-computed tomography (nano-CT) is an emerging, high-resolution cross-sectional imaging technique and represents a technical advancement of the established micro-CT technology. Based on the application of a transmission target X-ray tube, the focal spot size can be decreased down to diameters less than 400 nanometers (nm). Together with specific detectors and examination protocols, a superior spatial resolution up to 400 nm (10 % MTF) can be achieved, thereby exceeding the resolution capacity of typical micro-CT systems. The technical concept of nano-CT imaging as well as the basics of specimen preparation are demonstrated exemplarily. Characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques (intraplaque hemorrhage and calcifications) in a murine model of atherosclerosis (ApoE (-/-)/LDLR(-/-) double knockout mouse) are demonstrated in the context of superior spatial resolution in comparison to micro-CT. Furthermore, this article presents the application of nano-CT for imaging cerebral microcirculation (murine), lung structures (porcine), and trabecular microstructure (ovine) in contrast to micro-CT imaging. This review shows the potential of nano-CT as a radiological method in biomedical basic research and discusses the application of experimental, high resolution CT techniques in consideration of other high resolution cross-sectional imaging techniques. Nano-computed tomography is a high resolution CT-technology for 3D imaging at sub-micrometer resolution. The technical concept bases on a further development of the established ex-vivo-micro-CT technology. By improvement of the spatial resolution, structures at a cellular level become visible (e.g. osteocyte lacunae). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Nano-sensing of the orientation of fluorescing molecules with active coated nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    The potential of using active coated nano-particles to determine the orientation of fluorescing molecules is reported. By treating each fluorescing molecule as an electric Hertzian dipole, single and multiple fluorescing molecules emitting coherently and incoherently in various orientations...... are considered in the presence of active coated nano-particles. It is demonstrated that in addition to offering a means to determine the orientation of a single molecule or the over-all orientation of the molecules surrounding it, the nature of the far-field response from the active coated nano-particles...

  8. Nano-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Nano-MRI) Gives Personalized Medicine a New Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Rosa; Jonathan Blackledge; Albert Boretti

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the major and most recent advances in nanoscale-magnetic resonance imaging (nano-MRI) for personalized medicine (PM). Nano-MRI may drastically expand the capabilities of the traditional magnetic resonance images (MRI), down to the nanometer scale and possibly, in the near future, at the atomic scale. Nano-MRI is potentially able to observe structures which cannot be seen using today?s molecular imaging, with sensitivities of many billions of times better than MRI as...

  9. Selective and lithography-independent fabrication of 20 nm nano-gap electrodes and nano-channels for nanoelectrofluidics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J Y; Wang, X F; Wang, X D; Fan, Z C; Li, Y; Ji, An; Yang, F H

    2010-01-01

    A new method has been developed to selectively fabricate nano-gap electrodes and nano-channels by conventional lithography. Based on a sacrificial spacer process, we have successfully obtained sub-100-nm nano-gap electrodes and nano-channels and further reduced the dimensions to 20 nm by shrinking the sacrificial spacer size. Our method shows good selectivity between nano-gap electrodes and nano-channels due to different sacrificial spacer etch conditions. There is no length limit for the nano-gap electrode and the nano-channel. The method reported in this paper also allows for wafer scale fabrication, high throughput, low cost, and good compatibility with modern semiconductor technology.

  10. Rapid fabrication of an ordered nano-dot array by the combination of nano-plastic forming and annealing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Masahiko; Ohsawa, Hiroki; Yamanaka, Akinori

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new fabrication method for an ordered nano-dot array is developed. Combination of coating, nano-plastic forming and annealing processes is studied to produce uniformly sized and ordered gold nano-dot array on a quartz glass substrate. The experimental results reveal that patterning of a groove grid on the gold-coated substrate with NPF is effective to obtain the ordered gold nano-dot array. In the proposed fabrication process, the size of the gold nano-dot can be controlled by adjusting the groove grid size. A minimum gold nano-dot array fabricated on a quartz-glass substrate was 93 nm in diameter and 100 nm in pitch. Furthermore, the mechanism of nano-dot array generation by the presented process is investigated. Using a theoretical model it is revealed that the proposed method is capable of fabrication of smaller nano-dots than 10 nm by controlling process conditions adequately.

  11. Candidate SNP Markers of Familial and Sporadic Alzheimer's Diseases Are Predicted by a Significant Change in the Affinity of TATA-Binding Protein for Human Gene Promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Ponomarenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While year after year, conditions, quality, and duration of human lives have been improving due to the progress in science, technology, education, and medicine, only eight diseases have been increasing in prevalence and shortening human lives because of premature deaths according to the retrospective official review on the state of US health, 1990-2010. These diseases are kidney cancer, chronic kidney diseases, liver cancer, diabetes, drug addiction, poisoning cases, consequences of falls, and Alzheimer's disease (AD as one of the leading pathologies. There are familial AD of hereditary nature (~4% of cases and sporadic AD of unclear etiology (remaining ~96% of cases; i.e., non-familial AD. Therefore, sporadic AD is no longer a purely medical problem, but rather a social challenge when someone asks oneself: “What can I do in my own adulthood to reduce the risk of sporadic AD at my old age to save the years of my lifespan from the destruction caused by it?” Here, we combine two computational approaches for regulatory SNPs: Web service SNP_TATA_Comparator for sequence analysis and a PubMed-based keyword search for articles on the biochemical markers of diseases. Our purpose was to try to find answers to the question: “What can be done in adulthood to reduce the risk of sporadic AD in old age to prevent the lifespan reduction caused by it?” As a result, we found 89 candidate SNP markers of familial and sporadic AD (e.g., rs562962093 is associated with sporadic AD in the elderly as a complication of stroke in adulthood, where natural marine diets can reduce risks of both diseases in case of the minor allele of this SNP. In addition, rs768454929, and rs761695685 correlate with sporadic AD as a comorbidity of short stature, where maximizing stature in childhood and adolescence as an integral indicator of health can minimize (or even eliminate the risk of sporadic AD in the elderly. After validation by clinical protocols, these candidate SNP

  12. Recruitment of CBP/p300, TATA-binding protein, and S8 to distinct regions at the N terminus of adenovirus E1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasti, Mozhgan; Grand, Roger J A; Mymryk, Joe S; Gallimore, Phillip H; Turnell, Andrew S

    2005-05-01

    The N-terminal region of the adenovirus (Ad) 12S E1A gene product targets several cellular proteins that are essential for the induction of S phase, cellular immortalization, cellular transformation, transcriptional repression, and transcriptional activation. The precise binding sites for these proteins, however, remain to be resolved. We therefore undertook an extensive site-directed mutagenesis approach to generate specific point mutants and to precisely map the binding sites for CBP, p300, TATA-binding protein (TBP), S4, S8, hGcn5, P/CAF, and Ran within the first 30 amino acids of the Ad5 12S E1A protein. We determined that although common residues within the N-terminal region can form partial binding sites for these proteins, point mutants were also generated that could discriminate between binding sites. These data indicate that AdE1A can target each of these proteins individually through distinct binding sites. It was evident, however, that the mutation of specific hydrophobic residues typically had the greatest effect upon AdE1A's ability to bind individual partners. Indeed, the mutation of L at positions 19 and 20 eliminated the ability of AdE1A to interact with any of the N-terminal binding proteins studied here. Interestingly, although TBP and S8 or CBP/p300 can exist as functional complexes, RNA interference revealed that the recruitment of either TBP, S8, or CBP/p300 to AdE1A was not dependent upon the expression of the other proteins. These data further indicate that AdE1A can target individual partner proteins in vivo and that it does not necessarily recruit these proteins indirectly as components of larger macromolecular complexes. Finally, we took advantage of the fine-mapping data to ascertain which proteins were targeted during the transformation process. Consistent with previous studies, CBP/p300 was found to be targeted by AdE1A during this process, although our data suggest that binding to other N-terminal proteins is also important for

  13. Construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with enhanced ethanol tolerance by mutagenesis of the TATA-binding protein gene and identification of novel genes associated with ethanol tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jungwoo; Bae, Ju Yun; Lee, Young Mi; Kwon, Hyeji; Moon, Hye-Yun; Kang, Hyun Ah; Yee, Su-Bog; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2011-08-01

    Since elevated ethanol is a major stress during ethanol fermentation, yeast strains tolerant to ethanol are highly desirable for the industrial scale ethanol production. A technology called global transcriptional machinery engineering (gTME), which exploits a mutant library of SPT15 encoding the TATA-binding protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Alper et al., 2006; Science 314: 1565-1568), seems to a powerful tool for creating ethanol-tolerant strains. However, the ability of created strains to tolerate high ethanol on rich media remains unproven. In this study, a similar strategy was used to obtain five strains with enhanced ethanol tolerance (ETS1-5) of S. cerevisiae. Comparing global transcriptional profiles of two selected strains ETS2 and ETS3 with that of the control identified 42 genes that were commonly regulated with twofold change. Out of 34 deletion mutants available from a gene knockout library, 18 were ethanol sensitive, suggesting that these genes were closely associated with ethanol tolerance. Eight of them were novel with most being functionally unknown. To establish a basis for future industrial applications, strains iETS2 and iETS3 were created by integrating the SPT15 mutant alleles of ETS2 and ETS3 into the chromosomes, which also exhibited enhanced ethanol tolerance and survival upon ethanol shock on a rich medium. Fermentation with 20% glucose for 24 h in a bioreactor revealed that iETS2 and iETS3 grew better and produced approximately 25% more ethanol than a control strain. The ethanol yield and productivity were also substantially enhanced: 0.31 g/g and 2.6 g/L/h, respectively, for control and 0.39 g/g and 3.2 g/L/h, respectively, for iETS2 and iETS3. Thus, our study demonstrates the utility of gTME in generating strains with enhanced ethanol tolerance that resulted in increase of ethanol production. Strains with enhanced tolerance to other stresses such as heat, fermentation inhibitors, osmotic pressure, and so on, may be further created by

  14. Synergistic Toxicity of Polyglutamine-Expanded TATA-Binding Protein in Glia and Neuronal Cells: Therapeutic Implications for Spinocerebellar Ataxia 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Yang, Su; Guo, Jifeng; Cui, Yiting; Tang, Beisha; Li, Xiao-Jiang; Li, Shihua

    2017-09-20

    Spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA17) is caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansion in the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and is among a family of neurodegenerative diseases in which polyQ expansion leads to preferential neuronal loss in the brain. Although previous studies have demonstrated that expression of polyQ-expanded proteins in glial cells can cause neuronal injury via noncell-autonomous mechanisms, these studies investigated animal models that overexpress transgenic mutant proteins. Since glial cells are particularly reactive to overexpressed mutant proteins, it is important to investigate the in vivo role of glial dysfunction in neurodegeneration when mutant polyQ proteins are endogenously expressed. In the current study, we generated two conditional TBP-105Q knock-in mouse models that specifically express mutant TBP at the endogenous level in neurons or in astrocytes. We found that mutant TBP expression in neuronal cells or astrocytes alone only caused mild neurodegeneration, whereas severe neuronal toxicity requires the expression of mutant TBP in both neuronal and glial cells. Coculture of neurons and astrocytes further validated that mutant TBP in astrocytes promoted neuronal injury. We identified activated inflammatory signaling pathways in mutant TBP-expressing astrocytes, and blocking nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling in astrocytes ameliorated neurodegeneration. Our results indicate that the synergistic toxicity of mutant TBP in neuronal and glial cells plays a critical role in SCA17 pathogenesis and that targeting glial inflammation could be a potential therapeutic approach for SCA17 treatment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Mutant TBP with polyglutamine expansion preferentially affects neuronal viability in SCA17 patients. Whether glia, the cells that support and protect neurons, contribute to neurodegeneration in SCA17 remains mostly unexplored. In this study, we provide both in vivo and in vitro evidence arguing that endogenous expression of mutant

  15. Security in Nano Communication: Challenges and Open Research Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dressler, Falko; Kargl, Frank

    Nano communication is one of the fastest growing emerging research fields. In recent years, much progress has been achieved in developing nano machines supporting our needs in health care and other scenarios. However, experts agree that only the interaction among nano machines allows to address the

  16. Conservation of leather historical object by nano technology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the conservation of Antibacterial by Nano materials in the manufacture of leather and the implication of such a processes deteriorated of aging leather. As a sample study to ... Experimental methods are SEM EDX, Cultural Bacterial, Nano materials such as Nano silver and Zinc oxide. The experimental ...

  17. X-diffraction technique applied for nano system metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Alexei Yu.; Machado, Rogerio; Robertis, Eveline de; Campos, Andrea P.C.; Archanjo, Braulio S.; Gomes, Lincoln S.; Achete, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    The application of nano materials are fast growing in all industrial sectors, with a strong necessity in nano metrology and normalizing in the nano material area. The great potential of the X-ray diffraction technique in this field is illustrated at the example of metals, metal oxides and pharmaceuticals

  18. Synthesise of Zn O nano wires by direct oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbod, M.; Ahangarpour, A.

    2007-01-01

    Zn O is a semiconductor which has a direct and wide energy band which is about 3.37 eV at room temperature. It has various applications from UV lasers, sensitive sensors, solar cells to photo catalysis applications. Zn O has different nano structures such as nanoparticles, nano wires, nano rods, nano tubes and nano belts. The one dimensional Zn O nano structures such as nano wires are very important because of their applications in nano electronics and nano photonics so different methods have been proposed to synthesize them. In this work large scale of Zn O nano wires are produced by direct oxidation a Zn substrate (which was cleaned by chemical methods) in air or oxygen atmosphere at 400 d eg C . Nano wires were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray measurements. Their diameter is about 30-150 nanometer and their length is about several micrometer. This method which acts without any catalyst is a convenient method to synthesis semiconductor nano wires.

  19. Magnetic bead detection using nano-transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Kwon; Hwang, Jong Seung; Hwang, Sung Woo; Ahn, Doyeol

    2010-11-19

    A novel scheme to detect magnetic beads using a nano-scale transformer with a femtoweber resolution is reported. We have performed a Faraday's induction experiment with the nano-transformer at room temperature. The transformer shows the linear output voltage responses to the sinusoidal input current. When magnetic beads are placed on the transformer, the output responses are increased by an amount corresponding to the added magnetic flux from the beads when compared with the case of no beads on the transformer. In this way, we could determine whether magnetic beads are on top of the transformer in a single particle level.

  20. Electromagnetics of active coated nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel

    2013-01-01

    This work reviews the fundamental properties of several spherical and cylindrical active coated nano-particles excited by their respective single and/or multiple sources of radiation at optical frequencies. Particular attention is devoted to the influence of the source location and orientation......, the optical gain constant and the nano-particle material composition on the electric and magnetic near fields, the power flow density, the radiated power as well as the directivities. Resonant as well as quasi-transparent states will be emphasized in the discussion....

  1. Manufacture of Nano Structures in Polymer Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Pedersen, H.C.; Staun, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    The incorporation of micro and nano technology into the products of the future is an area of increasing interest. The ideas for new products based on this technology often take their starting point in specific scientific fields whereas the subsequent design and product development not necessarily...... is based on a systematic approach including manufacturing processes and production system capabilities. The process chain associated with micro and nano injection moulding usually comprises silicon or photoresist mastering, electroforming and polymer processing. Additionally, if the produced polymer...

  2. Topology optimization of nano-photonic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elesin, Yuriy; Wang, Fengwen; Andkjær, Jacob Anders

    2012-01-01

    We describe recent developments within nano-photonic systems design based on topology optimization. Applications include linear and non-linear optical waveguides, slow-light waveguides, as well as all-dielectric cloaks that minimize scattering or back-scattering from hard obstacles.......We describe recent developments within nano-photonic systems design based on topology optimization. Applications include linear and non-linear optical waveguides, slow-light waveguides, as well as all-dielectric cloaks that minimize scattering or back-scattering from hard obstacles....

  3. Emerging areas of Nano and Smart Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Partha Ghosal

    2016-01-01

    ‘There’s plenty of room at the bottom’ – In 1959, one of the most brilliant physicists the world has ever seen, Richard P. Feynmann, gave us a beautiful introduction to nano-science. Today, after almost seven decades, nano-materials and related technologies are not just a simple extension of regular research and miniaturisation of materials, but have become the prime driver of advancement in science and technology all over the world. Over the past few decades, new societal requirement haveeme...

  4. Nano-material and method of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A; Seals, Roland D; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-03

    A fluffy nano-material and method of manufacture are described. At 2000.times. magnification the fluffy nanomaterial has the appearance of raw, uncarded wool, with individual fiber lengths ranging from approximately four microns to twenty microns. Powder-based nanocatalysts are dispersed in the fluffy nanomaterial. The production of fluffy nanomaterial typically involves flowing about 125 cc/min of organic vapor at a pressure of about 400 torr over powder-based nano-catalysts for a period of time that may range from approximately thirty minutes to twenty-four hours.

  5. Olefin metathesis in nano-sized systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Méry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between olefin metathesis and dendrimers and other nano systems is addressed in this mini review mostly based on the authors’ own contributions over the last decade. Two subjects are presented and discussed: (i The catalysis of olefin metathesis by dendritic nano-catalysts via either covalent attachment (ROMP or, more usefully, dendrimer encapsulation – ring closing metathesis (RCM, cross metathesis (CM, enyne metathesis reactions (EYM – for reactions in water without a co-solvent and (ii construction and functionalization of dendrimers by CM reactions.

  6. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steelman, Ryan [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Clark, Billy [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Pantoya, Michelle L. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Heaps, Ronald J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Daniels, Michael A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  7. Investigation, evaluation and analysis of SiCp nano particle metal matrix nano composite using a hybrid process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Pradyut Kumar; Sahool, Ashok Kumar; Das, Ratnakar; Padhi, Payodhar

    2018-02-01

    The present study was performed on mixing of fine powder of aluminum and silicon carbide nano particles 25nm size each. In this process, aluminum works as matrix and silicon carbide works as reinforcement with volume fraction of 1, 1.5 and 2%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microscopy techniques were used for crystal structure and micro structural characterization of the nano composite material. The objective of study was to achieve uniform distribution of SiCp nano particles in the aluminum matrix. The effect of reinforcement of Silicon carbide nano particle size and its volume fraction with aluminum encouraged investigation of stress strain response, elastic modulus and yield strength of nano composite metal matrix. Nano indentation and compression test were performed to characterize the nano composite material. Yield strength, compressive strength and elastic modulus were obtained from the compression test. Whereas, nano indentation results gave the yield strength, maximum shear stress and elastic modulus. The tensile test was conducted to find out the ultimate tensile strength. FESEM and EDAX techniques were also used to evaluate the different elements and their properties of Aluminum and SiCp nano particle metal matrix nano composite. The study reveals that in the liquid metal nano particle were uniformly dispersed and the segregation of the particles near the grain boundaries is due to pushing of the nano particle during growth of grain.

  8. Electrode fabrication for Lithium-ion batteries by intercalating of carbon nano tubes inside nano metric pores of silver foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshnevisan, B.

    2011-01-01

    Here there is an on effort to improve working electrode (Ag + carbon nano tubes) preparation for Li-Ion batteries applications. Nano scaled silver foam with high specific area has been employed as a frame for loading carbon nano tubes by electrophoretic deposition method. In this ground, the prepared electrodes show a very good stability and also charge-discharge cycles reversibility.

  9. Plasmonic graded nano-disks as nano-optical conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhiwen; Lu, Haifei; Chen, Jiajie; Chen, Kun; Xu, Fang; Ho, Ho-Pui

    2014-08-11

    We propose a plasmonic system consisting of nano-disks (NDs) with graded diameters for the realization of nano-optical conveyor belt. The system contains a couple of NDs with individual elements coded with different resonant wavelengths. By sequentially switching the wavelength and polarization of the excitation source, optically trapped target nano-particle can be transferred from one ND to another. The feasibility of such function is verified based on the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain technique and the Maxwell stress tensor method. Our design may provide an alternative way to construct nano-optical conveyor belt with which target molecules can be delivered between trapping sites, thus enabling many on-chip optofluidic applications.

  10. Development, characterization and machining of Al and SiCp nano particles metal matrix nano composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Pradyut Kumar; Sahool, Ashok Kumar; Das, Ratnakar; Padhi, Payodhar

    2018-02-01

    The present study has been developed to ensure proper mixing of SiCp nano particle with powder of aluminum metal matrix. Different wt fraction of SiCp 1, 1.5 and 2% samples were prepared for characterization of nano composite material. The paper deals with the influence of different machining parameters at different wt fraction of SiCp in aluminum metal matrix. It was also observed that the cutting forces are affected by dry turning machining operation. As result, high cutting forces were required for machining of high percentage of SiCp nano particles. The study also deals with the dispersion of nano particle and segregation of the particles near the grain boundaries due to grain growth.

  11. From Nanostructure to Nano Biosensor: Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE, UniMAP Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Hashim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructure is defined as something that has a physical dimension smaller than 100 nanometers, ranging from clusters and/or to dimensional layers of atoms. There are three most important nanostructures that are extensively studied and researched in various organizations including Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE in UniMAP. These include quantum dot, nanowire, and nanogap, which have been successfully designed and fabricated using in-house facilities available. These are subsequently used as a main sensing component in nanostructures based biosensor. This fabrication, characterization and testing job were done within four main interlinked laboratories namely microfabrication cleanroom, nanofabrication cleanroom, failure analysis laboratory and nano biochip laboratory.  Currently, development of Nano Biosensor is the main research focus in INEE. In principle, biosensor is an analytical device which converts a biological response into an electrical signal.   Keywords: Nanostructure, INEE , nanowire , nanogap and Nano Biosensor

  12. TRANSFORMATIONS IN NANO-DIAMONDS WITH FORMATION OF NANO-POROUS SILICON CARBIDE AT HIGH PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kovalevsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains investigations on regularities of diamond - silicon carbide composite structure formation at impact-wave excitation. It has been determined that while squeezing a porous blank containing Si (SiC nano-diamond by explosive detonation products some processes are taking place such as diamond nano-particles consolidation, reverse diamond transition into graphite, fragments formation from silicon carbide. A method for obtaining high-porous composites with the presence of ultra-disperse diamond particles has been developed. Material with three-dimensional high-porous silicon-carbide structure has been received due to nano-diamond graphitation at impact wave transmission and plastic deformation. The paper reveals nano-diamonds inverse transformation into graphite and its subsequent interaction with the silicon accompanied by formation of silicon-carbide fragments with dimensions of up to 100 nm.

  13. Functionally Graded Materials using Plasma Spray with Nano Structured Ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioh, E L; Tok, A I Y

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, nano structured FGM was fabricated using DC plasma spray technique. Nano structured and micro structured powder were used as the feeding powder with steel substrate. The spray parameters was optimized and characterisation of nano-ceramic FGM and micro-ceramic FGM were done using bending test and micro-hardness test. Experimental results have shown that the nano-structured FGM exhibit 20% improvement flexure strength and 10% in hardness. A comparison was made between sintered micro ceramic tile and nano ceramic FGM using simple drop test method.

  14. Nano-scale Materials and Nano-technology Processes in Environmental Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissokov, Gh; Tzvetkoff, T.

    2003-01-01

    A number of environmental and energy technologies have benefited substantially from nano-scale technology: reduced waste and improved energy efficiency; environmentally friendly composite structures; waste remediation; energy conversion. In this report examples of current achievements and paradigm shifts are presented: from discovery to application; a nano structured materials; nanoparticles in the environment (plasma chemical preparation); nano-porous polymers and their applications in water purification; photo catalytic fluid purification; hierarchical self-assembled nano-structures for adsorption of heavy metals, etc. Several themes should be considered priorities in developing nano-scale processes related to environmental management: 1. To develop understanding and control of relevant processes, including protein precipitation and crystallisation, desorption of pollutants, stability of colloidal dispersion, micelle aggregation, microbe mobility, formation and mobility of nanoparticles, and tissue-nanoparticle interaction. Emphasis should be given to processes at phase boundaries (solid-liquid, solid-gas, liquid-gas) that involve mineral and organic soil components, aerosols, biomolecules (cells, microbes), bio tissues, derived components such as bio films and membranes, and anthropogenic additions (e.g. trace and heavy metals); 2. To carry out interdisciplinary research that initiates Noel approaches and adopts new methods for characterising surfaces and modelling complex systems to problems at interfaces and other nano-structures in the natural environment, including those involving biological or living systems. New technological advances such as optical traps, laser tweezers, and synchrotrons are extending examination of molecular and nano-scale processes to the single-molecule or single-cell level; 3. To integrate understanding of the roles of molecular and nano-scale phenomena and behaviour at the meso- and/or macro-scale over a period of time

  15. Sintering characteristics of nano-ceramic coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hosson, J.T.M.; Popma, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper concentrates on sintering characteristics of nano-sized ceramic SiO2 particles. The sintering process is studied as a function of temperature using a conventional furnace and using a laser beam. The underlying idea is to combine the nanoceramic sol-gel concept with inkjet technology and

  16. Metal nano-film resistivity chemical sensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podešva, Pavel; Foret, František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2016), s. 392-397 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : adsorption * chemiresistor * nano- film * thiol binding * thiol sensing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  17. Mechanics over micro and nano scales

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Suman

    2011-01-01

    Discusses the fundaments of mechanics over micro and nano scales in a level accessible to multi-disciplinary researchers, with a balance of mathematical details and physical principles Covers life sciences and chemistry for use in emerging applications related to mechanics over small scales Demonstrates the explicit interconnection between various scale issues and the mechanics of miniaturized systems

  18. A new nano-biophotonics toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin

    The science fiction inspired shrinking of macro-scale robotic manipulation and handling down to the micro- and nano-scale regime open new doors for exploiting the forces and torques of light for micro- and nanobiologic probing, actuation and control. A generic approach for optimizing light...

  19. Nano technologies for Biosensor and Bio chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.M.; Park, T.J.; Paskaleva, E.E.; Sun, F.; Seo, J.W.; Mehta, K.K.

    2015-01-01

    The bio sensing devices are characterized by their biological receptors, which have specificity to their corresponding analytes. These analytes are a vast and diverse group of biological molecules, DNAs, proteins (such as antibodies), fatty acids, or entire biological systems, such as pathogenic bacteria, viruses, cancerous cells, or other living organisms. A main challenge in the development of biosensor applications is the efficient recognition of a biological signal in a low signal-to-noise ratio environment, and its transduction into an electrochemical, optical, or other signals. The advent of nano material technology greatly increased the potential for achieving exquisite sensitivity of such devises, due to the innate high surface-to-volume ratio and high reactivity of the nano material. The second major challenge facing the biosensor application, that of sca lability, is addressed by multiplexing and miniaturizing of the biosensor devises into a bio chip. In recent years, biosensor and bio chip technologies have made significant progress by taking advantages of diverse kinds of nano materials that are derived from nano technology

  20. Electromagnetics of active coated nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel

    2013-01-01

    This work reviews the fundamental properties of several spherical and cylindrical active coated nano-particles excited by their respective single and/or multiple sources of radiation at optical frequencies. Particular attention is devoted to the influence of the source location and orientation, t...

  1. Comparison of Chemical Nano Structure, Rheological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, chemical nano structures, rheological and mechanical properties of long oil alkyd resin which was synthesized using different polybasic acid catalysts have been studied. These catalyst were phosphoric acid, 1,2,4-benzene tricarboxylic acid and succinic acid. The new compounds were compared with ...

  2. Quantum phenomena in magnetic nano clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While semiconductor structures have provided paradigms of nanosystems from the stand point of electronic phenomena, the synthesis of high nuclearity transition metal complexes have provided examples of nano magnets. The range and diversity of the properties exhibited by these systems rivals its electronic counterparts ...

  3. Metal nano-film resistivity chemical sensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podešva, Pavel; Foret, František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2016), s. 392-397 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : adsorption * chemiresistor * nano-film * thiol binding * thiol sensing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  4. Synthesis and characterization of struvite nano particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, K. R.; Jogiya, B. V.; Chauhan, C. K.; Joshi, M. J.

    2015-06-01

    Struvite, Ammonium Magnesium Phosphate Hexahydrate [(AMPH) - (NH4)MgPO4.6(H2O)], is one of the fascinating inorganic phosphate minerals. Struvite is one of the components of the urinary stones. Struvite occurs as crystallites in urine and grows as a type of kidney stone. In this study, struvite nano particles were synthesized by wet chemical technique. The aqueous solutions containing dissolved Mg(CH3COO)2.4H2O and (NH4)H2PO4 mixed at the Mg/P molar ratio of 1.00. The synthesized struvite nano particles were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, Thermal Analysis and TEM. From XRD, crystal structure of the nano particle was found to be orthorhombic and crystalline size was found to be within 11 to 26 nm. The FT-IR spectrum for the struvite nano particles confirmed the presence of a water molecule and metal-oxygen stretching vibration, O-H stretching and bending, N-H bending and stretching, P-O bending and stretching vibrations. The Thermal Analysis was carried out from room temperature to 900°C. From TEM analysis, particle size was 23 to 30 nm. All the results were compared with bulk struvite.

  5. Superconducting nano-strip particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Casaburi, A; Zen, N; Ohkubo, M

    2015-01-01

    We review progress in the development and applications of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors. Particle detectors based on superconducting nano-strips stem from the parent devices developed for single photon detection (SSPD) and share with them ultra-fast response times (sub-nanosecond) and the ability to operate at a relatively high temperature (2–5 K) compared with other cryogenic detectors. SSPDs have been used in the detection of electrons, neutral and charged ions, and biological macromolecules; nevertheless, the development of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors has mainly been driven by their use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) where the goal of 100% efficiency at large mass values can be achieved. Special emphasis will be given to this case, reporting on the great progress which has been achieved and which permits us to overcome the limitations of existing mass spectrometers represented by low detection efficiency at large masses and charge/mass ambiguity. Furthermore, such progress could represent a breakthrough in the field. In this review article we will introduce the device concept and detection principle, stressing the peculiarities of the nano-strip particle detector as well as its similarities with photon detectors. The development of parallel strip configuration is introduced and extensively discussed, since it has contributed to the significant progress of TOF-MS applications. (paper)

  6. We Scream for Nano Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Krebs, Denise L.; Banks, Alton J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a wide range of new products emerging from nanotechnology, and "nano ice cream" is an easy one that you can use to teach topics from surface area to volume applications. In this activity, students learn how ice cream can be made smoother and creamier tasting through nanoscience. By using liquid nitrogen to cool the cream mixture, students…

  7. Manipulation and functionalization of nano-tubes: application to boron nitride nano-tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguer, A.

    2007-01-01

    This PhD work is divided into two parts dealing with boron nitride (BNNT) and carbon nano-tubes. The first part is about synthesis, purification and chemical functionalization of BNNT. Single-walled BNNT are synthesized by LASER ablation of a hBN target. Improving the synthesis parameters first allowed us to limit the byproducts (hBN, boric acid). A specific purification process was then developed in order to enrich the samples in nano-tubes. Purified samples were then used to develop two new chemical functionalization methods. They both involve chemical molecules that present a high affinity towards the BN network. The use of long chain-substituted quinuclidines and borazines actually allowed the solubilization of BNNT in organic media. Purification and functionalization were developed for single-walled BNNT and were successfully applied to multi-walled BNNT. Sensibility of boron to thermic neutrons finally gave birth to a study about covalent functionalization possibilities of the network. The second part of the PhD work deals with separation of carbon nano-tubes depending on their properties. Microwave irradiation of carbon nano-tubes first allowed the enrichment of initially polydisperse samples in large diameter nano-tubes. A second strategy involving selective interaction between one type of tubes and fullerene micelles was finally envisaged to selectively solubilize carbon nano-tubes with specific electronic properties. (author) [fr

  8. Transferring metallic nano-island on hydrogen passivated silicon surface for nano-electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, J; Troadec, C; Joachim, C

    2009-01-01

    In a planar configuration, precise positioning of ultra-flat metallic nano-islands on semiconductor surface opens a way to construct nanostructures for atomic scale interconnects. Regular triangular Au nano-islands have been grown on atomically flat MoS 2 substrates and manipulated by STM to form nanometer gap metal-pads connector for single molecule electronics study. The direct assembly of regular shaped metal nano-islands on H-Si(100) is not achievable. Here we present how to transfer Au triangle nano-islands from MoS 2 onto H-Si(100) in a clean manner. In this experiment, clean MoS 2 substrates are patterned as array of MoS 2 pillars with height of 8 μm. The Au triangle nano-islands are grown on top of the pillars. Successful printing transfer of these Au nano-islands from the MoS 2 pillars to the H-Si(100) is demonstrated.

  9. Biomedical applications of nano-antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watal, Geeta; Watal, Aparna; Rai, Prashant Kumar; Rai, Devendra Kumar; Sharma, Gaurav; Sharma, Bechan

    2013-01-01

    For centuries now, antioxidants have been known to provide better health by neutralizing the free radicals which are continuously produced in the human body. In normal circumstances, self-antioxidant defense system of the human body is capable of quantitatively managing the free radicals. However, in certain cases, which are at the threshold of developing diseases like diabetes and Alzheimer's, the human body calls for an external source of antioxidants. Since orally delivered antioxidants are easily destroyed by acids and enzymes present in the human system, only a small portion of what is consumed actually gets absorbed. Hence, there is a recognized and urgent need to develop effective methods for efficiently delivering antioxidants to the required sites. This chapter provides an in-depth overview and analysis of two such methods and processes-nano-encapsulation and nano-dendrimers. Among the various nanoscale delivery mechanisms, nano-encapsulation has emerged as a key and efficient delivery process. Designed as a spongelike polymer, nano-encapsulated antioxidants provide a protective vehicle which keeps antioxidants from being destroyed in the human gut and ensures their better absorption in the digestive tract. In fact, the nano-capsules bind themselves to the intestinal walls and pour antioxidants directly into the intestinal cells, which allow them to be absorbed directly into the blood stream. Another distinguished and popular mode for delivering antioxidants is that of nano-polymers known as dendrimers. Dendrimers involve multiple branches and sub-branches of atoms radiating out from a central core. Dendrimers afford a high level of control over their architectural design, including their size, shape, branching length or density, and surface functionality. Such flexibility makes these nanostructures ideal carriers in biomedical applications such as drug delivery, gene transfection, and imaging. Antioxidant dendrimers, made out of numerous units of

  10. Nano materials for Renewable Energy Storage: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rather, S.U.; Zacharia, R.; Stephan, A.M.; Petrov, L.A.; Nair, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Nano technology and nano scale materials have been part of human history and in use since centuries. Staining of glass windows hundreds of years ago is one of the examples where people created beautiful works without knowing that they are using nano processing. The beginning of modern era of nano technology dates back to the talk of the Nobel laureate Professor Richard Feynman in There plenty of room at the bottom. Professor Feynman hypothesized that in near future scientists would be able to control and modulate individual molecules and atoms. After a decade, Professor Norio Taniguchi introduced the magical word nano technology. However, in 1981, the introduction of scanning tunnelling microscope enabled the scientists to see the materials in nano scale that propagated the new age of nano technology.

  11. Applying Nano technology to Human Health: Revolution in Biomedical Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, S.; Dash, D.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on bio systems at the nano scale has created one of the most dynamic science and technology domains at the confluence of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, biotechnology, and medicine. This domain includes better understanding of living and thinking systems, revolutionary biotechnology processes, synthesis of new drugs and their targeted delivery, regenerative medicine, necrophorum engineering, and developing a sustainable environment. Nano bio systems research is a priority in many countries and its relevance within nano technology is expected to increase in the future. The realisation that the nano scale has certain properties needed to solve important medical challenges and cater to unmet medical needs is driving nano medical research. The present review explores the significance of nano science and latest nano technologies for human health. Addressing the associated opportunities, the review also suggests how to manage far-reaching developments in these areas

  12. Nano-Fiber Reinforced Enhancements in Composite Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2009-01-01

    Nano-fibers are used to reinforce polymer matrices to enhance the matrix dependent properties that are subsequently used in conventional structural composites. A quasi isotropic configuration is used in arranging like nano-fibers through the thickness to ascertain equiaxial enhanced matrix behavior. The nano-fiber volume ratios are used to obtain the enhanced matrix strength properties for 0.01,0.03, and 0.05 nano-fiber volume rates. These enhanced nano-fiber matrices are used with conventional fiber volume ratios of 0.3 and 0.5 to obtain the composite properties. Results show that nano-fiber enhanced matrices of higher than 0.3 nano-fiber volume ratio are degrading the composite properties.

  13. Mass transfer in nano-fluids: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashrafmansouri, Seyedeh-Saba; Esfahany, Mohsen Nasr

    2014-01-01

    Growing attention has been recently paid to nano-fluids because of their potential for augmenting transfer processes - i.e., heat and mass transfer. Conflicting results have been reported in the literature on mass transfer in nano-fluids. The aim of this paper is to summarize the literature on mass transfer in nano-fluids stating the conflicts and possible reasons. Literature on mass transfer in nano-fluids has been reviewed in two sections. The first section concentrates on surveying mass diffusivity in nano-fluids while the second section focuses on convective mass transfer in nano-fluids. In each section, published articles, type of nano-fluids used, size and concentration range of nanoparticles, measurement methods, maximum observed enhancement, and suggested mass transport mechanisms are summarized. (authors)

  14. On some classes of nearly open sets in nano topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.  A. Nasef

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims of this paper is to study some near nano open sets in nano topological spaces. Secondly, some properties for near nano open (closed sets. Also, we introduce the notion of nano β-continuity and we study the relationships between some types of nano continuous functions between nano topological spaces. Finally, we introduce two application examples in nano topology.

  15. A Novel Silicon-based Wideband RF Nano Switch Matrix Cell and the Fabrication of RF Nano Switch Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xiu YANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of RF nano switch matrix cell and the fabrication of RF nano switch. The nano switch matrix cell can be implemented into complex switch matrix for signal routing. RF nano switch is the decision unit for the matrix cell; in this research, it is fabricated on a tri-layer high-resistivity-silicon substrate using surface micromachining approach. Electron beam lithography is introduced to define the pattern and IC compatible deposition process is used to construct the metal layers. Silicon-based nano switch fabricated by IC compatible process can lead to a high potential of system integration to perform a cost effective system-on-a-chip solution. In this paper, simulation results of the designed matrix cell are presented; followed by the details of the nano structure fabrication and fabrication challenges optimizations; finally, measurements of the fabricated nano structure along with analytical discussions are also discussed.

  16. The therapeutic effect of nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion forms of carvacrol on experimental liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Jihan; El-Banna, Mona; Mahmoud, Khaled F; Morsy, Safaa; Abdel Latif, Yasmin; Medhat, Dalia; Refaat, Eman; Farrag, Abdel Razik; El-Daly, Sherien M

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to compare the therapeutic efficiency of nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion carvacrol administration on liver injury in thioacetamide (TAA) treated rats. To fulfill our target, we used sixty male albino rats classified into six groups as follow: control, nano-encapsulated carvacrol, nano-emulsion carvacrol, thioacetamide, treated nano-encapsulated carvacrol and treated nano-emulsion carvacrol groups. Blood samples were collected from all groups and the separated serum was used for analysis of the following biochemical parameters; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), S100 B protein, alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and caspase-3. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) and hydroxyproline content were all evaluated in liver tissue homogenate. Histopathological examinations for liver tissues were also performed. Thioacetamide induced hepatic damage in rats as revealed by the significant increase in the levels of serum ALT, AST and produced oxidative stress as displayed by the significant elevation in the levels of hepatic MDA and NO concomitant with a significant decrease in GSH. In addition, thioacetamide significantly increased serum S100B protein, alpha fetoprotein and caspase-3 along with hepatic MCP-1 and hydroxyproline; these results were confirmed by the histopathological investigation. In contrast, nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion carvacrol were able to ameliorate these negative changes in the thioacetamide injected rats. However, the effect of the nano-encapsulated form of carvacrol was more prominent than the nano-emulsion form. Nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion carvacrol can ameliorate thioacetamide induced liver injury. These results could be attributed to the potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic activities of carvacrol in addition to the effectiveness of the encapsulation technique that can protect

  17. Nano-structural characteristics and optical properties of silver chiral nano-flower sculptured thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savaloni, Hadi, E-mail: savaloni@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, North-Kargar Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haydari-Nasab, Fatemh; Malmir, Mariam [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, North-Kargar Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Silver chiral nano-flowers with 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry were produced using oblique angle deposition method in conjunction with the rotation of sample holder with different speeds at different sectors of each revolution corresponding to symmetry order of the acquired nano-flower. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), were employed to obtain morphology and nano-structure of the films. Optical characteristics of silver chiral nano-flower thin films were obtained using single beam spectrophotometer with both s- and p-polarization incident light at 30{sup o} and 70{sup o} incidence angles and at different azimuthal angles ({phi}). Optical spectra showed both TM (TDM (transverse dipole mode) and TQM (transverse quadruple mode)) and LM (longitudinal mode) Plasmon resonance peaks. For 3- and 4-fold symmetry chiral nano-flowers the s-polarization extinction spectra obtained at different azimuthal angles did not show significant change in the Plasmon peak position while 5-fold symmetry chiral nano-flower showed a completely different behavior, which may be the result of increased surface anisotropy, so when the {phi} angle is changed the s-polarization response from the surface can change more significantly than that for lower symmetries. In general, for 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry chiral nano-flowers a sharp peak at lower wavelengths (<450 nm) is observed in the s-polarization spectra, while in addition to this peak a broad peak at longer wavelengths (i.e., LM) observed in the p-polarization spectra, which is more dominant for 70{sup o} incidence angle.

  18. The nano-science of C60 molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii-Tabar, H.

    2002-01-01

    Over the past few years, nano-science and its associated nano-technology have emerged into prominence in research institutions across the world. They have brought about new scientific and engineering paradigms, allowing for the manipulation of single atoms and molecules, designing and fabricating new materials, atom-by-atom, and devices that operate on significantly reduced time and length scales. One important area of research in nano-science and nano technology is carbon-based physics in the form of fullerene physics. The C 6 0 molecule, and other cage-like fullerenes, together with carbon nano tubes provide objects that can be combined to generate three-dimensional functional structures for use in the anticipated nano-technology of future. The unique properties of C 6 0 can also be exploited in designing nano-phase thin films with applications in nano-scope device technology and processes such as nano-lithography. This requires a deep understanding of the highly complex process of adsorption of this molecule on a variety of substrates. We review the field of nano-scale nucleation and growth of C 6 0 molecules on some of the technologically important substrates. In addition to experimental results, the results of a set of highly accurate computational simulations are also reported

  19. Effect of nano-SiO II on bismaleimide composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Dongbing; Zeng, Liming; Li, Yi; Fu, Qiuzhou; Hu, Bing

    2007-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the effect of nano-SiO II particles on the thermal stability and mechanical behavior of composite materials. A nano-composite of three components is prepared by polymerizing nano-SiO II, chopped carbon fiber and bismalemide resin. The investigation's basic approach involves a blend of experimental and analytical studies to determine structure/property relationship. Nano-composite structures are characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis, and contents of nano-SiO II are subsequently correlated with mechanical properties such as tensile and flexural strength also the modulus. The results indicate that the content of nano-SiO II exhibits significant improvement on glass transition temperature (Tg) with Tg elevation by increasing concentration of nano-SiO II. The higher Tg is the result of steric hindrance by nano-SiO II particles in the nano-composite. The mechanical properties of the tensile and flexural strength are raised at first and followed by decreasing as the amount of nano-SiO II particles increased. All the modulus values mimic the tensile and flexural strength.

  20. Flame Retardant Effect of Nano Fillers on Polydimethylsiloxane Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdale, Pravin; Salimpour, Samera; Islam, Md Hujjatul; Cuttica, Fabio; Hernandez, Francisco C Robles; Tagliaferro, Alberto; Frache, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane has exceptional fire retardancy characteristics, which make it a popular polymer in flame retardancy applications. Flame retardancy of polydimethylsiloxane with different nano fillers was studied. Polydimethylsiloxane composite fire property varies because of the shape, size, density, and chemical nature of nano fillers. In house made carbon and bismuth oxide nano fillers were used in polydimethylsiloxane composite. Carbon from biochar (carbonised bamboo) and a carbon by-product (carbon soot) were selected. For comparative study of nano fillers, standard commercial multiwall carbon nano tubes (functionalised, graphitised and pristine) as nano fillers were selected. Nano fillers in polydimethylsiloxane positively affects their fire retardant properties such as total smoke release, peak heat release rate, and time to ignition. Charring and surface ceramization are the main reasons for such improvement. Nano fillers in polydimethylsiloxane may affect the thermal mobility of polymer chains, which can directly affect the time to ignition. The study concludes that the addition of pristine multiwall carbon nano tubes and bismuth oxide nano particles as filler in polydimethylsiloxane composite improves the fire retardant property.

  1. Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Iti

    Thermoset polymer composites are increasingly important in high-performance engineering industries due to their light-weight and high specific strength, finding cutting-edge applications such as aircraft fuselage material and automobile parts. Epoxy is the most widely employed thermoset polymer, but is brittle due to extensive cross-linking and notch sensitivity, necessitating mechanical property studies especially fracture toughness and fatigue resistance, to ameliorate the low crack resistance. Towards this end, various nano and micro fillers have been used with epoxy to form composite materials. Particularly for nano-fillers, the 1-100 nm scale dimensions lead to fascinating mechanical properties, oftentimes proving superior to the epoxy matrix. The chemical nature, topology, mechanical properties and geometry of the nano-fillers have a profound influence on nano-composite behavior and hence are studied in the context of enhancing properties and understanding reinforcement mechanisms in polymer matrix nano-composites. Using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as polymer filler, uniquely results in both increased stiffness as well as toughness, leading to extensive research on their applications. Though CNTs-polymer nano-composites offer better mechanical properties, at high stress amplitude their fatigue resistance is lost. In this work covalent functionalization of CNTs has been found to have a profound impact on mechanical properties of the CNT-epoxy nano-composite. Amine treated CNTs were found to give rise to effective fatigue resistance throughout the whole range of stress intensity factor, in addition to significantly enhancing fracture toughness, ductility, Young's modulus and average hardness of the nano-composite by factors of 57%, 60%, 30% and 45% respectively over the matrix as a result of diminished localized cross-linking. Graphene, a one-atom-thick sheet of atoms is a carbon allotrope, which has garnered significant attention of the scientific community and is

  2. Comparative evaluation of hydroxyapatite and nano-bioglass in two forms of conventional micro- and nano-particles in repairing bone defects (an animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Nosouhian

    2015-01-01

    Results: After 15 days, the bone formation percentage showed a significant difference between HA and nano-HA and between HA and bioglass (P < 0.001. The nano-HA group showed the highest rate of bone formation after 15 days. Nano-bioglass and bioglass and nano-HA and nano-bioglass groups represented a significant difference and nano-bioglass showed the highest rate of bone formation after 30 days (P = 0.01. After 45 days, the bone formation percentage showed a significant difference between nano-bioglass and bioglass and between nano-HA and nano-bioglass groups (P = 0.01. Conclusions: Nano-HA and nano-bioglass biomaterials showed promising results when compared to conventional micro-particles in the repair of bone defects.

  3. IMPLEMENTASI ASAS-ASAS UMUM PEMERINTAHAN YANG BAIK TERHADAP KEPUTUSAN BERSIFAT BESCHIKKING DALAM TATA USAHA TENTARA NASIONAL INDONESIA / THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GOOD GOVERNANCE GENERAL ESTABLISHMENT AND APPLICATION IN THE FORMATION OF GOOD GOVERNANCE IMPLEMENTATION IN INDONESIAN NATIONAL ARMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djodi Suranto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Implementasi dan pemberlakuan Asas-Asas Umum Pemerintahan Yang Baik (AAUPB menjelmakan penyelenggaraan pemerintahan yang baik dalam Tata Usaha TNI di Pusat dan di Mabes TNI serta peranannya dalam melengkapi kekurangan, ketidakjelasan dan kekosongan peraturan perundang-undangan sebagai penemuan hukum. Implementasi beberapa asas bersifat formil yaitu asas kecermatan, motivasi dan larangan penyalahgunaan prosedur. Sedangkan asas bersifat materiil yaitu kepastian hukum, kepercayaan, larangan penyalahgunaan wewenang dan asas persamaan. Asas-asas tersebut berlaku karena implementasi sesuai dengan hukum kebiasaan yang hidup, tumbuh dan berkembang dalam praktik penyelenggaraan pemerintahan, juga sesuai dengan kaidah hukum yang lebih tinggi serta adanya hubungan antara suatu kondisi faktual dengan akibat-akibat yang ditimbulkannya dan memiliki peranan yang mengisi ketidaklengkapan dan ketidakjelasan, serta kekosongan peraturan perundang-undangan sebagai penemuan hukum demi terjelmanya penyelenggaraan pemerintahan yang baik (good governance dalam Tata Usaha TNI.  Implementation of good governance general establishment and application in the formation of good governance implementation in Indonesian National Army (TNI Administration in the Central Office and Base Office (Mabes TNI, and also its roles in equipping the weakness, ambiguities and lack of ordinance as a law finding. Results of this study find and reveal the implementation of several principles, having formal in character, they are: prudent preparation principle, motivation and prohibition in procedural abuse, and matrial character are: law certainty, trust and expectation, prohibition on authority abuse and equality principles. The principles are applied due to its formation is in accordance with prevailed, developed and grown custom law in governance implementation practice, and also because it is according to the higher law norms and also the existing relationship between factual conditions

  4. B1-induced caspase-independent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells is mediated by down-regulation of Bcl-2 via p53 binding to P2 promoter TATA box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xin; Xu Ke; Xu Yufang; Liu Jianwen; Qian Xuhong

    2011-01-01

    The Bcl-2 family contains a panel of proteins which are conserved regulators of apoptosis in mammalian cells, like the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. According to its significant role in altering susceptibility to apoptosis, the deciphering of the mechanism of Bcl-2 expression modulation may be crucial for identifying therapeutics strategies for cancer. Treatment with naphthalimide-based DNA intercalators, including M2-A and R16, generally leads to a decrease in Bcl-2 intracellular amounts. Whereas the interest for these chemotherapeutics is accompanied by advances in the fundamental understanding of their anticancer properties, the molecular mechanism underlying changes in Bcl-2 expression remains poorly understood. We report here that p53 contributes to Bcl-2 down-regulation induced by B1, a novel naphthalimide-based DNA intercalating agent. Indeed, the decrease in Bcl-2 protein levels observed during B1-induced apoptosis was correlated to the decrease in mRNA levels, as a result of the inhibition of Bcl-2 transcription and promoter activity. In this context, we evaluated p53 contribution in the Bcl-2 transcriptional down-regulation. We found a significant increase of p53 binding to P 2 promoter TATA box in MCF7 cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation. These data suggest that B1-induced caspase-independent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells is associated with the activation of p53 and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. Our study strengthens the links between p53 and Bcl-2 at a transcriptional level, upon naphthalimide-based DNA intercalator treatment. - Research highlights: → B1 induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, following a transcriptional decrease in Bcl-2. → B1 treatment triggered p53 activation and leads to a p53-dependent down-regulation of Bcl-2. → B1 induced significant increase of p53 binding to Bcl-2 P 2 promoter TATA box.

  5. Bioinspiration From Nano to Micro Scales

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Methods in bioinspiration and biomimicking have been around for a long time. However, due to current advances in modern physical, biological sciences, and technologies, our understanding of the methods have evolved to a new level. This is due not only to the identification of mysterious and fascinating phenomena but also to the understandings of the correlation between the structural factors and the performance based on the latest theoretical, modeling, and experimental technologies. Bioinspiration: From Nano to Micro Scale provides readers with a broad view of the frontiers of research in the area of bioinspiration from the nano to macroscopic scales, particularly in the areas of biomineralization, antifreeze protein, and antifreeze effect. It also covers such methods as the lotus effect and superhydrophobicity, structural colors in animal kingdom and beyond, as well as behavior in ion channels. A number of international experts in related fields have contributed to this book, which offers a comprehensive an...

  6. Method for producing nano-embedded microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    (EN)The present invention relates to a rapid, high-throughput and continuous method for producing nano-embedded microparticles in powder form, thereby providing a cost- effective process which can be performed aseptically. The invention further relates to an apparatus for performing the method...... of the invention. (FR)La présente invention concerne un procédé rapide, à haut rendement et continu de production de nano-microparticules intégrées sous forme de poudre, ce qui permet d'obtenir un procédé économique qui peut être mis en oeuvre de manière aseptique. L'invention concerne, en outre, un appareil pour...

  7. Nano-photonics: past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold

    2010-04-01

    Nanotech is at the scale of 10-9 meters, located at the mesocopic transition phase, which can take both classical mechanics (CM) and quantum mechanics (QM) descriptions bridging ten orders of magnitude phenomena, between the microscopic world of a single atom at 10-10 meters with the macroscopic world at meters. However, QM principles aid the understanding of any unusual property at the nanotech level. The other major difference between nano-photonics and other forms of optics is that the nano-scale is not very 'hands on'. For the most part, we will not be able to see the components with our naked eyes, but will be required to use some nanotech imaging tools, as follows:

  8. Heat Conduction of Air in Nano Spacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yao-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The scale effect of heat conduction of air in nano spacing (NS is very important for nanodevices to improve their life and efficiency. By constructing a special technique, the changes of heat conduction of air were studied by means of measuring the heat conduction with heat conduction instrument in NS between the hot plate and the cooling plate. Carbon nanotubes were used to produce the nano spacing. The results show that when the spacing is small down to nanometer scale, heat conduction plays a prominent role in NS. It was found that the thickness of air is a non-linear parameter for demarcating the heat conduction of air in NS and the rate of heat conduction in unit area could be regard as a typical parameter for the heat conduction characterization at nanometer scale.

  9. Effect of TMAH Etching Duration on the Formation of Silicon Nano wire Transistor Patterned by AFM Nano lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutagalung, S.D.; Lew, K.C.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) lithography was applied to produce nano scale pattern for silicon nano wire transistor fabrication. This technique takes advantage of imaging facility of AFM and the ability of probe movement controlling over the sample surface to create nano patterns. A conductive AFM tip was used to grow the silicon oxide nano patterns on silicon on insulator (SOI) wafer. The applied tip-sample voltage and writing speed were well controlled in order to form pre-designed silicon oxide nano wire transistor structures. The effect of tetra methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) etching duration on the oxide covered silicon nano wire transistor structure has been investigated. A completed silicon nano wire transistor was obtained by removing the oxide layer via hydrofluoric acid etching process. The fabricated silicon nano wire transistor consists of a silicon nano wire that acts as a channel with source and drain pads. A lateral gate pad with a nano wire head was fabricated very close to the channel in the formation of transistor structures. (author)

  10. Synthesis of Nano scale Heterostructures Comprised of Metal Nano wires, Carbon Nano tubes, and Metal Nanoparticles: Investigation of Their Structure and Electrochemical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, N.; Wu, J.; Chopra, N.; Agrawal, P.

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional nano scale heterostructures comprised of multi segment gold-nickel nano wires, carbon nano tube, and nickel nanoparticles were fabricated in a unique approach combining top-down and bottom-up assembly methods. Porous alumina template was utilized for sequential electrodeposition of gold and nickel nano wire segments. This was followed by chemical vapor deposition growth of carbon nano tubes on multi segment gold-nickel nano wires, where nickel segment also acted as a carbon nano tube growth catalyst. The aligned arrays of these gold-nickel-carbon nano tube heterostructures were released from porous alumina template and then subjected to wet-chemical process to be decorated with nickel/nickel oxide core/shell nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were utilized for morphology, interface, defect, and structure characterization. The electrochemical performance of these heterostructures was studied using cyclic voltammetry method and the specific capacitance of various heterostructures was estimated and compared.

  11. Asphaltenes-based polymer nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E

    2013-12-17

    Inventive composite materials are provided. The composite is preferably a nano-composite, and comprises an asphaltene, or a mixture of asphaltenes, blended with a polymer. The polymer can be any polymer in need of altered properties, including those selected from the group consisting of epoxies, acrylics, urethanes, silicones, cyanoacrylates, vulcanized rubber, phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, imides, esters, cyanate esters, allyl resins.

  12. Scaling Laws for NanoFET Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Fu-Shan; Wei, Qi-Huo

    2007-01-01

    The sensitive conductance change of semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes in response to binding of charged molecules provide a novel sensing modality which is generally denoted as nanoFET sensors. In this paper, we study the scaling laws of nanoplate FET sensors by simplifying nanoplates as random resistor networks with molecular receptors sitting on lattice sites. Nanowire/tube FETs are included as the limiting cases where the device width goes small. Computer simulations show that t...

  13. Nano metamaterials for ultrasensitive Terahertz biosensing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kang, Ji-Hun; Kwon, Junghoon; Lee, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deok Ha; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Chang-Seon; Park, Q-Han; Seo, Minah

    2017-01-01

    As a candidate for a rapid detection of biomaterials, terahertz (THz) spectroscopy system can be considered with some advantage in non-destructive, label-free, and non-contact manner. Because protein-ligand binding energy is in the THz range, especially, most important conformational information in molecular interactions can be captured by THz electromagnetic wave. Based on the THz time-domain spectroscopy system, THz nano-metamaterial sensing chips were prepared for great enhancing of detect...

  14. Crystalline Structure of Starch Based Nano Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Amidi Fazli; Afshin Babazadeh; Farnaz Amidi Fazli

    2015-01-01

    In contrast with literal meaning of nano, researchers have been achieved mega adventures in this area and every day more nanomaterials are being introduced to the market. After long time application of fossil-based plastics, nowadays accumulation of their waste seems to be a big problem to the environment. On the other hand, mankind has more attention to safety and living environment. Replacing common plastic packaging materials with degradable ones that degrade faster an...

  15. Multifunctional magnetic nano/microparticles for bioapplications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Daniel; Babič, Michal; Jendelová, Pavla; Herynek, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2010), s. 38 ISSN 0233-7657. [Bridges in Life Sciences, Annual Scientific Meeting Regional Cooperation for Health, Science and Technology /5./. 09.04.2010-11.04.2010, Lviv] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : magnetic * nano particle * microsphere Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  16. Interface Between Macro and Nano Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zapusek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a nanorobotic application which includes: nanorobotic arm, Akiyama sensor system, a vacuum chamber, and an interface tools for the nanorobotic hardware developed using C++ and VRML languages in order to create a desktop virtual-reality environment which improves visualisation and prevents collision of the nanomanipulator hardware with the associated workspace. The presented experiment shows how the used man-machine interface could be used for communication between macro and micro/nano worlds.

  17. Direct electrodeposition of aluminium nano-rods

    OpenAIRE

    Perre, Emilie; Nyholm, Leif; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Edström, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    Electrodeposition of aluminium within an alumina nano-structured template, for use as high surface area current collectors in Li-ion microbatteries, was investigated. The aluminium electrodeposition was carried out in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride:aluminium chloride (1:2 ratio). First the aluminium electrodeposition process was confirmed by combined cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance measurements. Then, aluminium was electrodeposit...

  18. Nano-education from a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malsch, I

    2008-01-01

    At a global level, educating the nanotechnology workforce has been discussed since the beginning of the new millennium. Scientists, engineers and technicians should be trained in nanotechnology. Most educators prefer training students first in their own discipline at the Bachelor level (physics, chemistry, biology, etc) followed by specialisation in nanoscience and technology at the Master's level. Some favour a broad interdisciplinary basic training in different nanosciences followed by specialisation in a particular application area. What constitutes a good nanoscience curriculum is also being discussed, as well as the application of e-learning methodologies. The European Union is stimulating the development of nanoscience education in universities. The Erasmus Mundus programme is funding nanoscience and nanotechnology education programmes involving universities in several European countries. The policy debate in Europe is moving towards vocational training in nanotechnology for educating the technicians needed in industry and research. The EU vocational training institute CEDEFOP published a report in 2005 The EU funded European gateway to nanotechnology Nanoforum has stimulated the accessibility of nano-education throughout Europe with reports and online databases of education courses and materials. For university education, they list courses at the Bachelor, Master's, and PhD level as well as short courses. The EU funded EuroIndiaNet project also reviewed Nano-education courses at the Master's level, short courses, e-learning programmes, summerschools and vocational training courses. In this presentation, I review Nanoforum and other publications on nano-education in Europe and highlight current trends and gaps

  19. Development of nano-roughness calibration standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baršić, Gorana; Mahović, Sanjin; Zorc, Hrvoje

    2012-01-01

    At the Laboratory for Precise Measurements of Length, currently the Croatian National Laboratory for Length, unique nano-roughness calibration standards were developed, which have been physically implemented in cooperation with the company MikroMasch Trading OU and the Ruđer Bošković Institute. In this paper, a new design for a calibration standard with two measuring surfaces is presented. One of the surfaces is for the reproduction of roughness parameters, while the other is for the traceability of length units below 50 nm. The nominal values of the groove depths on these measuring surfaces are the same. Thus, a link between the measuring surfaces has been ensured, which makes these standards unique. Furthermore, the calibration standards available on the market are generally designed specifically for individual groups of measuring instrumentation, such as interferometric microscopes, stylus instruments, scanning electron microscopes (SEM) or scanning probe microscopes. In this paper, a new design for nano-roughness standards has been proposed for use in the calibration of optical instruments, as well as for stylus instruments, SEM, atomic force microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes. Therefore, the development of these new nano-roughness calibration standards greatly contributes to the reproducibility of the results of groove depth measurement as well as the 2D and 3D roughness parameters obtained by various measuring methods. (paper)

  20. Gold nano-particles fixed on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worsch, Christian; Wisniewski, Wolfgang; Kracker, Michael; Rüssel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We produced wear resistant gold–ruby coatings on amorphous substrates. ► Thin sputtered gold layers were covered by or embedded in silica coatings. ► Annealing above T g of the substrate glass led to the formation of gold nano particles. ► A 1 1 1-texture of the gold particles is observed via XRD and EBSD. ► EBSD-patterns can be acquired from crystals covered by a thin layer of glass. - Abstract: A simple process for producing wear resistant gold nano-particle coatings on transparent substrates is proposed. Soda-lime-silica glasses were sputtered with gold and subsequently coated with SiO 2 using a combustion chemical vapor deposition technique. Some samples were first coated with silica, sputtered with gold and then coated with a second layer of silica. The samples were annealed for 20 min at either 550 or 600 °C. This resulted in the formation of round, well separated gold nano-particles with sizes from 15 to 200 nm. The color of the coated glass was equivalent to that of gold–ruby glasses. Silica/gold/silica coatings annealed at 600 °C for 20 min were strongly adherent and scratch resistant. X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were used to describe the crystal orientations of the embedded particles. The gold particles are preferably oriented with their (1 1 1) planes perpendicular to the surface.

  1. Nano-education from a European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsch, I.

    2008-03-01

    At a global level, educating the nanotechnology workforce has been discussed since the beginning of the new millennium. Scientists, engineers and technicians should be trained in nanotechnology. Most educators prefer training students first in their own discipline at the Bachelor level (physics, chemistry, biology, etc) followed by specialisation in nanoscience and technology at the Master's level. Some favour a broad interdisciplinary basic training in different nanosciences followed by specialisation in a particular application area. What constitutes a good nanoscience curriculum is also being discussed, as well as the application of e-learning methodologies. The European Union is stimulating the development of nanoscience education in universities. The Erasmus Mundus programme is funding nanoscience and nanotechnology education programmes involving universities in several European countries. The policy debate in Europe is moving towards vocational training in nanotechnology for educating the technicians needed in industry and research. The EU vocational training institute CEDEFOP published a report in 2005 The EU funded European gateway to nanotechnology Nanoforum has stimulated the accessibility of nano-education throughout Europe with reports and online databases of education courses and materials. For university education, they list courses at the Bachelor, Master's, and PhD level as well as short courses. The EU funded EuroIndiaNet project also reviewed Nano-education courses at the Master's level, short courses, e-learning programmes, summerschools and vocational training courses. In this presentation, I review Nanoforum and other publications on nano-education in Europe and highlight current trends and gaps.

  2. Computer simulations for the nano-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stich, I.

    2007-01-01

    A review of methods for computations for the nano-scale is presented. The paper should provide a convenient starting point into computations for the nano-scale as well as a more in depth presentation for those already working in the field of atomic/molecular-scale modeling. The argument is divided in chapters covering the methods for description of the (i) electrons, (ii) ions, and (iii) techniques for efficient solving of the underlying equations. A fairly broad view is taken covering the Hartree-Fock approximation, density functional techniques and quantum Monte-Carlo techniques for electrons. The customary quantum chemistry methods, such as post Hartree-Fock techniques, are only briefly mentioned. Description of both classical and quantum ions is presented. The techniques cover Ehrenfest, Born-Oppenheimer, and Car-Parrinello dynamics. The strong and weak points of both principal and technical nature are analyzed. In the second part we introduce a number of applications to demonstrate the different approximations and techniques introduced in the first part. They cover a wide range of applications such as non-simple liquids, surfaces, molecule-surface interactions, applications in nano technology, etc. These more in depth presentations, while certainly not exhaustive, should provide information on technical aspects of the simulations, typical parameters used, and ways of analysis of the huge amounts of data generated in these large-scale supercomputer simulations. (author)

  3. The Next Technology Revolution - Nano Electronic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlik, Iwona

    2004-03-01

    Nanotechnology is a revolutionary engine that will engender enormous changes in a vast majority of today's industries and markets, while potentially creating whole new industries. The impact of nanotechnology is particularly significant in the electronics industry, which is constantly driven by the need for higher performance, increased functionality, smaller size and lower cost. Nanotechnology can influence many of the hundreds of components that are typically assembled to manufacture modern electronic devices. Motorola manufactures electronics for a wide range of industries and communication products. In this presentation, the typical components of a cellular phone are outlined and technology requirements for future products, the customer benefits, and the potential impact of nanotechnology on many of the components are discussed. Technology needs include reliable materials supply, processes for high volume production, experimental and simulation tools, etc. For example, even routine procedures such as failure characterization may require the development of new tools for investigating nano-scale phenomena. Business needs include the development of an effective, high volume supply chain for nano-materials and devices, disruptive product platforms, and visible performance impact on the end consumer. An equally significant long-term industry need is the availability of science and engineering graduates with a multidisciplinary focus and a deep understanding of the fundamentals of nano-technology, that can harness the technology to create revolutionary products.

  4. Space Environmental NanoSat Experiment (SENSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamaroff, K. I.; Thompson, D. C.; Gentile, L. C.; Cooke, D. L.; Bonito, N.; La Tour, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Space Environmental NanoSat Experiment (SENSE) program is a rapid development effort of the USAF Space and Missiles Center Development Planning Directorate (SMC/XR) which will demonstrate the capability of NanoSats to perform space missions in an affordable and resilient manner. The three primary objectives for the SENSE mission are: 1) to develop best practices for operational CubeSat/NanoSat procurement, development, test, and operations; 2) to mature CubeSat bus and sensor component technology readiness levels; and 3) to demonstrate the operational utility of CubeSat measurements by flowing validated, low-latency data into operational space weather models. SENSE consists of two 3-U CubeSats scheduled for launch in summer 2013. Both satellites are 3-axis stabilized with star cameras for attitude determination and are equipped with a Compact Total Electron Density Sensor (CTECS) to provide radio occultation measurements of total electron content and L-band scintillation. One satellite has a Cubesat Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (CTIP) monitoring 135.6 nm photons produced by the recombination of O+ ions and electrons. The other satellite has a Wind Ion Neutral Composite Suite (WINCS) to acquire simultaneous co-located, in situ measurements of atmospheric and ionospheric density, composition, temperature and winds/drifts. Mission data will be used to improve current and future space weather models and demonstrate the utility of data from CubeSats for operational weather requirements.

  5. Electrochemical method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Joan; Jang, Bor Z.

    2013-09-03

    A method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets with an average thickness smaller than 30 nm from a layered graphite material. The method comprises (a) forming a carboxylic acid-intercalated graphite compound by an electrochemical reaction; (b) exposing the intercalated graphite compound to a thermal shock to produce exfoliated graphite; and (c) subjecting the exfoliated graphite to a mechanical shearing treatment to produce the nano-scaled graphene platelets. Preferred carboxylic acids are formic acid and acetic acid. The exfoliation step in the instant invention does not involve the evolution of undesirable species, such as NO.sub.x and SO.sub.x, which are common by-products of exfoliating conventional sulfuric or nitric acid-intercalated graphite compounds. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  6. Optical and Structural Characterizations of GaN Nano structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekari, L.; Abu Hassan, H.; Thahab, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    We have grown wurtzite GaN nano wires (NWs) on polished silicon (Si) either with or without Au as catalyst, using commercial GaN powder by thermal evaporation in an atmosphere of argon (Ar) gas. Structural and optical characterizations were performed using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) spectroscopy. Results indicate that the nano wires are of single-crystal hexagonal GaN and the nano wires on Si with Au catalyst are more oriented than those without Au catalyst; and using catalyst make the NWs grow much faster and quite well-ordered. The compositional quality of the grown nano wires on the substrates are mostly same, however the nano wires on the Au coated silicon are of low density, while the nano wires on the Si are of high density. (author)

  7. Drug Delivery Systems: A New Frontier in Nano-technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamindri Witharana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nano-technology is a recent advancement in science, defined as “Science, engineering, and technology conducted at the Nano scale” (National nanotechnology initiatives in USA. Applications of Nano-technology cover a vast range from basic material science, personal care applications, agriculture, and medicine. Nano-technology is used in field of medicine for treatment, diagnostic, monitoring, genetic engineering, and drug delivery. There are two main types of Nano Particles (NPs used in drug delivery; organic NPs and inorganic NPs. In drug delivery, the drug-Nano- Particle (NP conjugate should be able to deliver drugs to the target site without degradation in gastrointestinal track and without reducing drug activity. Further, it should attack to target cells without causing any adverse effects. The ultimate goal of NP drug delivery is to improve proper treatment, effectiveness, less side effects with safety and patient adherence as well as reduction in the cost.

  8. Analysis of Equation of State for Carbon Nano tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, J.; Bhatt, P.K.; Kholiya, K.

    2013-01-01

    Compression behavior of carbon nano tube bundles and individual carbon nano tubes within the bundle has been studied by using the Suzuki, Shanker, and usual Tait formulations. It is found that the Suzuki formulation is not capable of explaining the compression behavior of nano materials. Shanker formulation slightly improves the results obtained by the Suzuki formulation, but only usual Tait’s equation (UTE) of state gives results in agreement to the experimental data. The present study reveals that the product of bulk modules and the coefficient of volume thermal expansion remain constant for carbon nano tubes. It has also been found that the individual carbon nano tubes are less compressible than bundles of carbon nano tubes

  9. Toughening by nano-scaled twin boundaries in nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Haofei; Qu, Shaoxing; Yang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Joint enhancement on strength and toughness provides a cutting-edge research frontier for metals and alloys. Conventional strengthening methods typically lead to suppressed ductility and fracture toughness. In this study, large-scale atomic simulation on the fracture process is performed featuring nanocrystals embedded with nano-scaled twin boundaries (TBs). Four toughening mechanisms by nano-scaled TBs are identified: (i) crack blunting through dislocation accommodation along the nano-scaled TBs; (ii) crack deflection in a manner of intragranular propagation; (iii) daughter crack formation along the nano-scaled TBs that further enhances the toughness and (iv) curved TB planes owing to an excessive pileup of geometrically necessary dislocations. These toughening mechanisms jointly dictate the mechanical behavior of nano-structured materials, and provide insights into the application of nano-scaled TBs with an aim to simultaneously obtain enhanced strength and toughness. New approaches to introduce these coherent internal defects into the nanostructure of crystalline materials are also proposed

  10. Conductive nano composites based on cellulose nano fiber coated poly aniline via in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Michael J. da; Sanches, Alex O.; Malmonge, Luiz F.; Malmonge, Jose A.; Medeiros, Eliton S. de; Rosa, Morsyleide F.

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose nano fiber (CNF) was extracted by acid hydrolysis from cotton microfibril and nano composites of CNF/PANI-DBSA were obtained by in situ polymerization of aniline onto CNF. The ratios between DBSA/aniline and aniline/oxidant were varied and the nano composites were characterized by four probes direct current (dc) electrical conductivity, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis-NIR) and FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrical conductive about ∼10 -1 S/cm was research and was independent of DBSA/aniline molar ratio between 2-4 and the aniline/oxidant molar ratio between 1-5. X-ray patterns of the samples show crystalline peaks characteristic of cellulose I. The FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of PANI and CNF in all samples. (author)

  11. Nano-imaging and nano-spectroscopy of tunable surface phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Siyuan; Fei, Zhe; Ma, Qiong; Rodin, Aleksandr; Wagner, Martin; McLeod, Alexander; Liu, Mengkun; Gannett, Will; Regan, William; Thiemens, Mark; Dominguez, Gerardo; Castro Neto, Antonio; Zettl, Alex; Keilmann, Fritz; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Fogler, Michael; Basov, Dimitri

    2014-03-01

    Van der Waals crystals such as graphene, topological insulators, cuprate high-temperature superconductors, and many other layered structures reveal a rich variety of enigmatic electronic, photonic and magnetic properties. We report infrared (IR) nano-imaging of surface phonon polaritons in a prototypical van-der-Waals crystal: hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). In the setting of an antenna-based IR spectroscopic nanoscope, we accomplished launching, detecting, and real space imaging of the polaritonic waves. We were able to alter both the wavelength and the amplitude of such waves by varying the number of crystal layers in our specimens. We demonstrated a new nano-photonics method for mapping the polariton dispersion. The dispersion is shown to be governed by the crystal thickness according to a scaling law that persists down to a few monolayers. Our results point to novel functionalities of van-der-Waals crystals as reconfigurable nano-photonic materials.

  12. Data encoding using periodic nano-optical features

    OpenAIRE

    Vosoogh-Grayli, Siamack

    2012-01-01

    Successful trials have been made through a designed algorithm to quantize, compress and optically encode unsigned 8 bit integer values in the form of images using Nano optical features. The periodicity of the Nano-scale features (Nano-gratings) have been designed and investigated both theoretically and experimentally to create distinct states of variation (three on states and one off state). The use of easy to manufacture and machine readable encoded data in secured authentication media has b...

  13. Fabrication of Nano-pit Array Using Electron Beam Lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maryam Alsadat Rad; Kamarulazizi Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the fabrication of nano-pits array pattern using electron beam lithography (EBL). We investigated the effect of different electron beam dosage and acceleration voltage in fabrication nano-pits array pattern and effect of them on dimension of nano-pits. The SEM images have shown effect of the voltage and dosage variation on them and also the proximity effect. (author)

  14. Advanced vectorial simulation of VCSELs with nano structures invited paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    The single-mode properties and design issues of three vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structures incorporating nano structures are rigorously investigated. Nano structuring enables to deliver selective pumping or loss to the fundamental mode as well as stabilizing the output polari...... polarization state. Comparison of three vectorial simulation methods reveals that the modal expansion method is suitable for treating the nano structured VCSEL designs....

  15. NANO TECHNOLOGY: A NEW THERAPEUTIC APPROACH FOR DIABETES

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sai Sasank *1 , Dr. Greeshma Musunuru2 , Nalluri Kranthi Koushik 1 , Dr. R. Venkateswara Rao2 , Dr. Ramarao Nadendla3

    2017-01-01

    Nano technology an exciting area of scientific development offers ways to create smaller, cheaper, lighter devices that can help to do better. The current literature has recognized and reported many possibility and applications of nano technology. The medical applications of nano technology are tremendous and could give medicine including the treatment of diabetes a new therapeutic approach. The frequency of diabetes is growing rapidly all over the globe at an alarming rate. Hence, the applic...

  16. Preparation and application of functionalized nano drug carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Rudong; Chen, Gaimin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Targeting at category memory characteristics and preparation methods of functionalized nano drugs, preparation technology of functionalized nano drug carriers is studied, and then important role of functionalized nano drug carrier in preparation of medicine is studied. Methods: Carry out the relevant literature search with computer, change limited language in the paper to Chinese and necessarily remove repetitive studies. Results: After first review of 1260 retrieved literature, it...

  17. NANO TECHNOLOGY: A NEW THERAPEUTIC APPROACH FOR DIABETES

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sai Sasank * , Dr. Greeshma Musunuru , Nalluri Kranthi Koushik , Dr. R. Venkateswara Rao , Dr. Ramarao Nadendla

    2016-01-01

    Nano technology an exciting area of scientific development offers ways to create smaller, cheaper, lighter devices that can help to do better. The current literature has recognized and reported many possibility and applications of nano technology. The medical applications of nano technology are tremendous and could give medicine including the treatment of diabetes a new therapeutic approach. The frequency of diabetes is growing rapidly all over the globe at an alarming rate. Hence, the applic...

  18. Nano composite phase change materials microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingwen

    MicroPCMs with nano composite structures (NC-MicroPCMs) have been systematically studied. NC-MicroPCMs were fabricated by the in situ polymerization and addition of silver NPs into core-shell structures. A full factorial experiment was designed, including three factors of core/shell, molar ratio of formaldehyde/melamine and NPs addition. 12 MicroPCMs samples were prepared. The encapsulated efficiency is approximately 80% to 90%. The structural/morphological features of the NC-MicroPCMs were evaluated. The size was in a range of 3.4 mu m to 4.0 mu m. The coarse appearance is attributed to NPs and NPs are distributed on the surface, within the shell and core. The NC-MicroPCMs contain new chemical components and molecular groups, due to the formation of chemical bonds after the pretreatment of NPs. Extra X-ray diffraction peaks of silver were found indicating silver nano-particles were formed into an integral structure with the core/shell structure by means of chemical bonds and physical linkages. Extra functionalities were found, including: (1) enhancement of IR radiation properties; (2) depression of super-cooling, and (3) increase of thermal stabilities. The effects of SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy) arising from the silver nano-particles were observed. The Raman scattering intensity was magnified more than 100 times. These effects were also exhibited in macroscopic level in the fabric coatings as enhanced IR radiation properties were detected by the "Fabric Infrared Radiation Management Tester" (FRMT). "Degree of Crystallinity" (DOC) was measured and found the three factors have a strong influence on it. DOC is closely related to thermal stability and MicroPCMs with a higher DOC show better temperature resistance. The thermal regulating effects of the MicroPCMs coatings were studied. A "plateau regions" was detected around the temperature of phase change, showing the function of PCMs. Addition of silver nano-particles to the MicroPCMs has a positive

  19. Near Field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) of Nano Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Low, Chun H

    2008-01-01

    ...) to collect spatially resolved luminescence and image transport on nano-scale structures, particularly nanowires, will allow direct determination of transport parameters, such as minority carrier...

  20. The nano-science of C sub 6 0 molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Rafii-Tabar, H

    2002-01-01

    Over the past few years, nano-science and its associated nano-technology have emerged into prominence in research institutions across the world. They have brought about new scientific and engineering paradigms, allowing for the manipulation of single atoms and molecules, designing and fabricating new materials, atom-by-atom, and devices that operate on significantly reduced time and length scales. One important area of research in nano-science and nano technology is carbon-based physics in the form of fullerene physics. The C sub 6 0 molecule, and other cage-like fullerenes, together with carbon nano tubes provide objects that can be combined to generate three-dimensional functional structures for use in the anticipated nano-technology of future. The unique properties of C sub 6 0 can also be exploited in designing nano-phase thin films with applications in nano-scope device technology and processes such as nano-lithography. This requires a deep understanding of the highly complex process of adsorption of thi...

  1. Template-assisted growth of nano structured functional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, K.K.; Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Khuan, N.I.; Suhaila Hani Ilias; Foo, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    Template-assisted growth is an important nano electrochemical deposition technique for synthesizing one-dimensional (1-D) nano structures with uniformly well-controlled shapes and sizes. A good template with well-defined dimensions is imperative for realizing this task. Porous anodic alumina (PAA) has been a favorable candidate for this purpose as it can be tailor-made with precise pore geometries, such as pore length and diameter as well as inter-pore distances, via the anodization of pure aluminium. This paper reports the fabrication of PAA templates and electrochemical synthesis of functional nano structures in the form of nano wires using PAA templates as scaffolds. Axial heterostructure and homogeneous nano wires formed by engineering materials configuration via composition and/ or layer thickness variations were fabricated for different functionalities. X-ray diffraction and imaging techniques were used to alucidate the microstructures, morphologies and chemical compositions of the nano wires produced. Due to their large surface area-to-volume ratios, and therefore high sensitivities, these functional nano structures have useful applications as critical components in nano sensor devices and various areas of nano technology. Potential applications include as hydrogen gas sensors in nuclear power plant for monitoring structural integrity of reactor components and containment building, as well as environmental monitoring of air pollution and leakages of toxic gases and chemicals. (Author)

  2. Radiation synthesis of the nano-scale materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yonghong; Zhang Zhicheng; Ge Xuewu; Xu Xiangling

    2000-01-01

    Some recent research jobs on fabricating the nano-scale materials via γ-irradiation in our laboratory are simply summarized in this paper. The main contents contain four aspects: (1) the preparation of metal alloy - powders; (2) the fabrication of polymer -metal nano-composites in aqueous solution, micro-emulsion and emulsion systems; (3) the synthesis of metal sulfide nano-particles and (4) the preparation of the ordered nano-structure materials. The corresponding preparation processes are also simply described. (author)

  3. Recent Development of Nano-Materials Used in DNA Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Ying

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As knowledge of the structure and function of nucleic acid molecules has increased, sequence-specific DNA detection has gained increased importance. DNA biosensors based on nucleic acid hybridization have been actively developed because of their specificity, speed, portability, and low cost. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using nano-materials for DNA biosensors. Because of their high surface-to-volume ratios and excellent biological compatibilities, nano-materials could be used to increase the amount of DNA immobilization; moreover, DNA bound to nano-materials can maintain its biological activity. Alternatively, signal amplification by labeling a targeted analyte with nano-materials has also been reported for DNA biosensors in many papers. This review summarizes the applications of various nano-materials for DNA biosensors during past five years. We found that nano-materials of small sizes were advantageous as substrates for DNA attachment or as labels for signal amplification; and use of two or more types of nano-materials in the biosensors could improve their overall quality and to overcome the deficiencies of the individual nano-components. Most current DNA biosensors require the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR in their protocols. However, further development of nano-materials with smaller size and/or with improved biological and chemical properties would substantially enhance the accuracy, selectivity and sensitivity of DNA biosensors. Thus, DNA biosensors without PCR amplification may become a reality in the foreseeable future.

  4. Nano-based PCMs for building energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Thermal storage using phase change materials (PCMs) is seen as a viable method for improving the energy efficiency of buildings. PCMs have been used in building applications in various forms PCM slurries in heat exchangers, macro- or microencapsulated PCMs in building envelopes, bulk PCM for modulating photovoltaic temperatures, etc. In the last decade a new class of PCMs, called nano-enhanced PCM (or nanoPCM), has been extensively investigated with the goal of improving the heat transfer and thermal storage properties of PCMs. NanoPCMs can primarily be categorized as nano-encapsulated PCMs and nanoparticle-PCM composites. The former are nano-sized capsules in which the PCM forms the core and is surrounded by a high-conductivity membrane or shell. The latter consist of PCM supported within nanostructures or nanoparticles dispersed in PCMs. This article reviews the current state of nanoPCM synthesis and characterization of their heat transfer and thermal storage properties. Further, a critical review of nanoPCM applications and their potential energy benefits is performed. Nano-enhanced PCMs exhibit higher thermal conductivities than regular PCM. However, whether the higher conductivity is desirable in all applications and if the property enhancements are worth the cost and effort needed to create nanoPCMs are questions that still need to be answered.

  5. Effect of nanoTiO2 dopant on electrical properties of SR8100/nanoTiO2 PMNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Mohammed Mlkat Al-Mutoki

    Full Text Available SR 8100 epoxy was doped with nTiO2​ nano filler to produce a semiconducting PMNC. The specimen made of SR8100/nanoTiO2 PMNC with nanoTiO2 content ranges from 1 to 5 wt% with 1% step prepared by hot vibrate dispersion (HVD. Morphology changes in polymer were detected by XRD and it has been found that SR8100 begins to have a crystalline nature when nanoTiO2 concentration was 3%, 4% and 5%. Electrical resistivity increases from 1*10−9 Ω m for SR8100 up to 2.3*10−4 Ω m for SR8100/5% nanoTiO2 PMNC which means that the material turns from an insulator to a semiconductor. Keywords: PMNC, Hot vibrate dispersion, Electrical properties, Ceramic oxide nano fillers

  6. Ge nano-layer fabricated by high-fluence low-energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Tiecheng; Dun Shaobo; Hu Qiang; Zhang Songbao; An Zhu; Duan Yanmin; Zhu Sha; Wei Qiangmin; Wang Lumin

    2006-01-01

    A Ge nano-layer embedded in the surface layer of an amorphous SiO 2 film was fabricated by high-fluence low-energy ion implantation. The component, phase, nano-structure and luminescence properties of the nano-layer were studied by means of Rutherford backscattering, glancing incident X-ray diffraction, laser Raman scattering, transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence. The relation between nano-particle characteristics and ion fluence was also studied. The results indicate that nano-crystalline Ge and nano-amorphous Ge particles coexist in the nano-layer and the ratio of nano-crystalline Ge to nano-particle Ge increases with increasing ion fluence. The intensity of photoluminescence from the nano-layer increases with increasing ion fluence also. Prepared with certain ion fluences, high-density nano-layers composed of uniform-sized nano-particles can be observed

  7. The investigation of nano-monitoring technology and the probability analysis of application of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Kejun; Wang Xuewu; Gao Wenhuan

    1999-01-01

    After several-decade of development, nano science/nano technology has become a scientific and technical frontier that with major trends foreseen in several disciplines. By connecting with the development of nano science/nano technology and considering the human body environment that the nano system is applicable in, the author analyzes the probability of the present nuclear detection technologies integrating and application with the monitoring of nano system, and draws an analysis of optimality choice

  8. The effect of brushing with nano calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate toothpaste on the surface roughness of nano-ionomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisja, D. H.; Indrani, D. J.; Herda, E.

    2017-08-01

    Nanotechnology developments in dentistry have resulted in the development of nano-ionomer, a new restorative material. The surface roughness of restorative materials can increase bacteria adhesion and lead to poor oral hygiene. Abrasive agents in toothpaste can alter tooth and restorative material surfaces. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of brushing with nano calcium carbonate, and calcium carbonate toothpaste on surface roughness of nano-ionomer. Eighteen nano-ionomer specimens were brushed with Aquabidest (doubledistilled water), nano calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate toothpaste. Brushing lasted 30 minutes, and the roughness value (Ra) was measured after each 10 minute segment using a surface roughness tester. The data was analyzed using repeated ANOVA and one-way ANOVA test. The value of nano-ionomer surface roughness increased significantly (p<0.05) after 20 minutes of brushing with the nano calcium carbonate toothpaste. Brushing with calcium carbonate toothpaste leaves nano-ionomer surfaces more rugged than brushing with nano calcium carbonate toothpaste.

  9. Study the scratch resistance of UV-cured epoxy acrylate in the presence of nano alumina particles via nano indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastani, S.; Ebrahimi, M.; Kardar, P.

    2007-01-01

    In this research, an epoxy acrylate resin was synthesized, then the synthesized resin was used along with different multifunctional acrylate monomers and with a photoinitiator in different formulations and cured with UV radiation. The experiments were designed based on mixture method by using Design-Expert software. To investigate the effect of nano particles on the some of physical and mechanical properties of the UV cured resins, the suspension of nano alumina in TPGDA, was used in formulations. The hardness of prepared films was evaluated by using konig hardness tester and nano indentater. The scratch resistance and gloss of the films were also determined. The results showed that the visibility of scratch decreased when the nano particles were used. It seems that the self-healing property of the film improved in the presence of nano particles. The hardness of the samples with nano particles was found to be less than that the samples of without any nano particles. It was observed that the gloss of the films with the nano particles, almost was the same as the film without nano particles. (Author)

  10. Label it or ban it? Public perceptions of nano-food labels and propositions for banning nano-food applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Agnes S. F.; Leong, Alisius D.; Cummings, Christopher L.; Ho, Shirley S.

    2018-02-01

    The future of nano-food largely hinges on public perceptions and willingness to accept this novel technology. The present study utilizes the scientific literacy model and psychometric paradigm as the key theoretical frameworks to examine the factors influencing public support for labeling and banning of nano-food in Singapore. Using data collected from a nationally representative survey of 1001 respondents, the findings demonstrated that attitudes toward technology, preference for natural product, science knowledge, and risk perception were found to substantially affect public support for both labeling and banning of nano-food. Conversely, attention to food safety news on traditional media and attention to nano-news on new media were only associated with public support for labeling of nano-food. Similarly, benefit perception was only significantly associated with public support for banning of nano-food. Theoretically, these findings support the growing body of literature that argues for the significant role played by predispositions, media use, science knowledge, and risk and benefit perceptions on attitude formation toward nano-food. It serves as the pioneering piece to address the aspect of banning in the field of nano-food. Practically, insights drawn from this study could aid relevant stakeholders in enlisting effecting strategies to convey the benefits of nano-food while mitigating the risk perceptions among the public.

  11. EPR dosimetric properties of nano-barium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboelezz, E.; Hassan, G.M.; Sharaf, M.A.; El-Khodary, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nano/micro BaSO 4 were prepared through the co-precipitation method to measure ionizing radiation doses using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The nano-BaSO 4 sample was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The dose response and fading properties of nano- and micro-phase BaSO 4 were compared in EPR spectra. The prepared nano- and micro-BaSO 4 samples have the same hole and electron centers, which may be attributed to SO 4 − and SO 3 − , respectively. The dosimetric signals for prepared nano- and micro-BaSO 4 have spectroscopic splitting factor (g) with values 2.0025±0.0006 and 2.0027±0.0006, respectively. The nanocrystalline sample has a linear γ-ray dose response over the range 0.4 Gy–1 kGy. The performance parameters which including detection limit and critical level calculated from weighted and unweighted least-squares fitting. The sensitivity of nano-BaSO 4 to γ-ray is one and a half times more than alanine. The lifetime and activation energy for nano-BaSO 4 were estimated by conducting a thermal stability study, and were 5.7±1.1×10 4 years and 0.73±0.14 eV, respectively. The combined and expanded uncertainties accompanying measurements were ±3.89% and ±7.78%, respectively. - Highlights: • Preparation of nano-BaSO 4 using the co-precipitation method. • Study of the dosimetric properties of nano-barium sulfate using the EPR technique. • Comparison between a new EPR dosimeter using nano-materials and standard alanine. • Calculation of the uncertainty budget for nano-BaSO 4

  12. 6. international conference on Nano-technology in Carbon: from synthesis to applications of nano-structured carbon and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the sixth international conference sponsored this year by the French Carbon Group (GFEC), the European Research Group on Nano-tubes GDRE 'Nano-E', in collaboration with the British Carbon Group and the 'Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel' (local organizer). The aim of this conference is to promote carbon science in the nano-scale as, for example, nano-structured carbons, nano-tubes, nano-wires, fullerenes, etc. This conference is designed to introduce those with an interest in materials to current research in nano-technology and to bring together research scientists working in various disciplines in the broad area of nano-structured carbons, nano-tubes and fullerene-related nano-structures. Elemental carbon is the simplest exemplar of this nano-technology based on covalent bonding, however other systems (for example containing hetero-atoms) are becoming important from a research point of view, and provide alternative nano-materials with unique properties opening a broad field of applications. Nano-technology requires an understanding of these materials on a structural and textural point of view and this will be the central theme. This year the conference will feature sessions on: S1. Control and synthesis of nano-materials 1.1 Nano-structured carbons: pyrolysis of polymers, activation, templates,... 1.2 Nano-tubes: Catalytic method, HiPCO, graphite vaporization, electrolysis,... 1.3 Fullerenes S2. Chemistry of carbon nano-materials 2.1 Purification of carbon nano-tubes 2.2 Functionalization - Self-assembling S3. Structural characterization S4. Theory and modelling S5. Relationship between structure and properties S6. Applications Water and air purification, Gas and energy storage, Composite materials, Field emission, Nano-electronics, Biotechnology,... S7. Environmental impact. Only one paper concerning carbon under irradiation has been added to the INIS database. (authors)

  13. FeCl 3 .nano SiO 2 : An Efficient Heterogeneous Nano Catalyst for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes and 1,8-dioxo-octahydroxanthenes is described through one-pot condensation of 2-naphthol and dimedone with aryl aldehydes in the presence of nano silica-supported ferric chloride under solvent-free conditions.

  14. Incorporation of cobalt and nickel metal nano-particles in nano-grain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Precursor solutions of cobalt/nickel incorporated nano-grain zirconia films were prepared from aquo-organic solutions of zirconium oxychloride octahydrate and corresponding transition metal nitrate. The films were deposited onto silica glass substrate by the dipping technique. Annealing was made at different temperatures ...

  15. Incorporation of cobalt and nickel metal nano-particles in nano-grain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Precursor solutions of cobalt/nickel incorporated nano-grain zirconia films were prepared from aquo-organic solutions of zirconium oxychloride octahydrate and corresponding transition metal nitrate. The films were deposited onto silica glass substrate by the dipping technique. Annealing was made at different tem-.

  16. Outlook for NanoInside Theme "3D nano-structuring and metrology"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.; Kroon, M.G.M. de; Maas, D.J.; Baumer, S.M.B.; Spruit, W.E.T.

    2017-01-01

    Het vakgebied van 3D nano-structurering en metrologie ontwikkelt zich razendsnel, zowel in Nederland als in de rest van de wereld. Het niveau van de Nederlandse betrokken onderzoekers, kennisinstituten en bedrijven is van wereldklasse. Veel Nederlandse academische groepen, kennisinstituten en

  17. Bio-inspired nano tools for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suradip; Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Fawcett, James W; Bora, Utpal

    2016-07-01

    Research and treatment in the nervous system is challenged by many physiological barriers posing a major hurdle for neurologists. The CNS is protected by a formidable blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits surgical, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. The hostile environment created by reactive astrocytes in the CNS along with the limited regeneration capacity of the PNS makes functional recovery after tissue damage difficult and inefficient. Nanomaterials have the unique ability to interface with neural tissue in the nano-scale and are capable of influencing the function of a single neuron. The ability of nanoparticles to transcend the BBB through surface modifications has been exploited in various neuro-imaging techniques and for targeted drug delivery. The tunable topography of nanofibers provides accurate spatio-temporal guidance to regenerating axons. This review is an attempt to comprehend the progress in understanding the obstacles posed by the complex physiology of the nervous system and the innovations in design and fabrication of advanced nanomaterials drawing inspiration from natural phenomenon. We also discuss the development of nanomaterials for use in Neuro-diagnostics, Neuro-therapy and the fabrication of advanced nano-devices for use in opto-electronic and ultrasensitive electrophysiological applications. The energy efficient and parallel computing ability of the human brain has inspired the design of advanced nanotechnology based computational systems. However, extensive use of nanomaterials in neuroscience also raises serious toxicity issues as well as ethical concerns regarding nano implants in the brain. In conclusion we summarize these challenges and provide an insight into the huge potential of nanotechnology platforms in neuroscience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optical nano and micro actuator technology

    CERN Document Server

    Knopf, George K

    2012-01-01

    In Optical Nano and Micro Actuator Technology, leading engineers, material scientists, chemists, physicists, laser scientists, and manufacturing specialists offer an in-depth, wide-ranging look at the fundamental and unique characteristics of light-driven optical actuators. They discuss how light can initiate physical movement and control a variety of mechanisms that perform mechanical work at the micro- and nanoscale. The book begins with the scientific background necessary for understanding light-driven systems, discussing the nature of light and the interaction between light and NEMS/MEMS d

  19. Replication Fidelity Assessment in Nano Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido

    2015-01-01

    to remove technology barrier between lab-scale proof-of-principle and high-volume low-cost production of nanotechnology-based products. In the current study research work has been devoted to develop methods and approaches to process chain characterization for final polymer micro and nano structures......Innovations in nanotechnology propose applications integrating micro and nanometer structures fabricated as master geometries for final replication on polymer substrates. The possibility for polymer materials of being processed with technologies enabling large volume production introduces solutions...

  20. Current fluctuations across a nano-pore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorkot, Mira; Golestanian, Ramin

    2018-04-01

    The frequency-dependent spectrum of current fluctuations through nano-scale channels is studied using analytical and computational techniques. Using a stochastic Nernst-Planck description and neglecting the interactions between the ions inside the channel, an expression is derived for the current fluctuations, assuming that the geometry of the channel can be incorporated through the lower limits for various wave-vector modes. Since the resulting expression turns out to be quite complex, a number of further approximations are discussed such that relatively simple expressions can be used for practical purposes. The analytical results are validated using Langevin dynamics simulations.

  1. Nano-opto-electro-mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midolo, Leonardo; Schliesser, Albert; Fiore, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    A new class of hybrid systems that couple optical, electrical and mechanical degrees of freedom in nanoscale devices is under development in laboratories worldwide. These nano-opto-electro-mechanical systems (NOEMS) offer unprecedented opportunities to control the flow of light in nanophotonic structures, at high speed and low power consumption. Drawing on conceptual and technological advances from the field of optomechanics, they also bear the potential for highly efficient, low-noise transducers between microwave and optical signals, in both the classical and the quantum domains. This Perspective discusses the fundamental physical limits of NOEMS, reviews the recent progress in their implementation and suggests potential avenues for further developments in this field.

  2. Nano electro-mechanical optoelectronic tunable VCSEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Michael C Y; Zhou, Ye; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2007-02-05

    We report a novel electrostatic actuated nano-electromechanical optoelectronic (NEMO) tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) centered at 850 nm. By integrating a movable, single-layer (230 nm), high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) as the VCSEL top mirror, single mode emission (SMSR >40 dB) and continuous wavelength tuning (~2.5 nm) was obtained at room temperature under CW operation. The small footprint of HCG enables the scaling down of each of the cantilever dimensions by a factor of 10, leading to 1000 times reduction in mass, which potentially increases the mechanical resonant frequency and tuning speed.

  3. Characterization of nano structured metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin A, M.; Gutierrez W, C.; Cruz C, R.; Angeles C, C.

    1997-01-01

    Nowadays the search of new materials with specific optical properties has carried out to realize a series of experiments through the polymer synthesis [(C 3 N 3 ) 2 (NH) 3 ] n doped with gold metallic nanoparticles. The thermal stability of a polymer is due to the presence of tyazine rings contained in the structure. The samples were characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction by the Powder method, Ft-infrared and its thermal properties by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry (TGA). One of the purposes of this work is to obtain nano structured materials over a polymeric matrix. (Author)

  4. Progress in Nano-Electro-Optics V

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2006-01-01

    Focusing on nanophotonics, which has been proposed by M. Ohtsu in 1993, this volume begins with theories for operation principles of characteristic nanophotonic devices and continues with novel optical near field phenomena for fabricating nanophotonic devices. Further topics include: unique properties of optical near fields and their applications to operating nanophotonic devices; and nanophotonic information and communications systems that can overcome the integration-density limit with ultra-low-power operation as well as unique functionalities. Taken as a whole, this overview will be a valuable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nano-electro-optics.

  5. Nano-manipulation of single DNA molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jun; Shanghai Jiaotong Univ., Shanghai; Lv Junhong; Wang Guohua; Wang Ying; Li Minqian; Zhang Yi; Li Bin; Li Haikuo; An Hongjie

    2004-01-01

    Nano-manipulation of single atoms and molecules is a critical technique in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This review paper will focus on the recent development of the manipulation of single DNA molecules based on atomic force microscopy (AFM). Precise manipulation has been realized including varied manipulating modes such as 'cutting', 'pushing', 'folding', 'kneading', 'picking up', 'dipping', etc. The cutting accuracy is dominated by the size of the AFM tip, which is usually 10 nm or less. Single DNA fragments can be cut and picked up and then amplified by single molecule PCR. Thus positioning isolation and sequencing can be performed. (authors)

  6. PLA micro- and nano-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Kook; Yun, Yeonhee; Park, Kinam

    2016-12-15

    Poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PLA) has been widely used for various biomedical applications for its biodegradable, biocompatible, and nontoxic properties. Various methods, such as emulsion, salting out, and precipitation, have been used to make better PLA micro- and nano-particle formulations. They are widely used as controlled drug delivery systems of therapeutic molecules, including proteins, genes, vaccines, and anticancer drugs. Even though PLA-based particles have challenges to overcome, such as low drug loading capacity, low encapsulation efficiency, and terminal sterilization, continuous innovations in particulate formulations will lead to development of clinically useful formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. PYRIDINES USING NANO-CRYSTALLINE SOLID ACID CATALYST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    condensation of aromatic aldehydes with β-dicarbonyl compounds and ammonium acetate in the presence of nano-sulfated zirconia, nano-structured ZnO, ... this condensation reaction. Some of these methods include long ..... adsorption measurement to evacuate the physisorbed moisture. The detailed imaging information ...

  8. A reagentless amperometric immunosensor based on nano-au and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... In this paper, carboxyl-ferrocene (Fc-COOH) was explored to label alphafetoprotein antibody (anti-AFP), which was then mixed with AU nanoparticles (nano-Au) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) dispersed by chitosan (CS) to form the nano-Au/MWCNTs/anti-AFP-Fc chitosan composite.

  9. Coated nano-particle jamming of quantum emitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Spherical active coated nano-particles are examined analytically and numerically in the presence of one, two or four quantum emitters (electric Hertzian dipoles). The ability of the coated nano-particle to effectively cloak the emitters to a far-field observer is reported. This offers...

  10. Synthesis and characterization of nano silicon and titanium nitride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis and characterization of nano silicon and titanium nitride powders using atmospheric microwave plasma technique ... nucleation of silicon vapour produced by the radial injection of silicon tetrachloride vapour and nano titanium nitride was synthesized by using liquid titanium tetrachloride as the precursor.

  11. Interdisciplinarity of Nano Research Fields : A Keyword Mining Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Notten, A.; Surpatean, A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a keyword mining approach, this paper explores the interdisciplinary and integrative dynamics in five nano research fields. We argue that the general trend of integration in nano research fields is converging in the long run, although the degree of this convergence depends greatly on the

  12. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo, E-mail: francisco.rodriguez.m@usach.cl [Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA). Universidad de Santiago de Chile. Faculty of Technology. Department of Food Science and Technology. Food Packaging Laboratory. Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  13. Synthesis of nano structures for use as toxic gas adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez P, S.; Pacheco S, J.; Estrada M, N.; Vasquez N, C.; Garcia R, M.; Garduno A, M.; Torres R, C.; Garcia G, J.; Pacheco P, M.; Valdivia B, R.; Ramos F, F.; Cruz A, A.; Duran G, M.; Hidalgo P, M.

    2008-01-01

    The work described here is the study of adsorption of nitrogen oxides by carbon nano structures and its implementation in a plasma reactor used to treat toxic gases. By placing a bed of carbon nano structures to the plasma reactor outlet obtained and increase in the efficiency of degradation. (Author)

  14. Synthesis and characterization of nano silicon and titanium nitride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... nano titanium nitride was synthesized by using liquid titanium tetrachloride as the precursor. The synthesized nano silicon and titanium nitride powders were characterized by XRD, XPS, TEM, SEM and BET. The characterization techniques indicated that the synthesized powders were indeed crystalline nanomaterials.

  15. Plasmonic nano-antenna a-Si:H solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Vece, M.; Kuang, Y; Duren, S.; Charry, J.; van Dijk, L.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the effects of plasmonics, nano-focusing, and orthogonalization of carrier and photon pathways are simultaneously explored by measuring the photocurrents in an elongated nano-scale solar cell with a silver nanoneedle inside. The silver nanoneedles formed the support of a conformally

  16. Flexural Properties of Activated Carbon Filled Epoxy Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Alothman, O.Y.; Paridah, M.T.; Zainudin, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) filled epoxy nano composites obtained by mixing the desired amount of nano AC viz., bamboo stem, oil palm empty fruit bunch, and coconut shell from agricultural biomass with the epoxy resin. Flexural properties of activated carbons filled epoxy nano composites with 1 %, and 5 % filler loading were measured. In terms of flexural strength and modulus, a significant increment was observed with addition of 1 % vol and 5 % vol nano-activated carbon as compared to neat epoxy. The effect of activated carbon treated by two chemical agents (potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid) on the flexural properties of epoxy nano composites were also investigated. Flexural strength of activated carbon-bamboo stem, activated carbon-oil palm, and activated carbon-coconut shell reinforced epoxy nano composites showed almost same value in case of 5 % potassium hydroxide activated carbon. Flexural strength of potassium hydroxide activated carbon-based epoxy nano composites was higher than phosphoric acid activated carbon. The flexural toughness of both the potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid activated carbon reinforced composites range between 0.79 - 0.92 J. It attributed that developed activated carbon filled epoxy nano composites can be used in different applications. (author)

  17. [Preparation and spectra analysis of nano-ZnS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Ling; Wang, Yu-Hong; Jimmy, Yun

    2007-09-01

    The nano-zinc sulfide was prepared in RPBR (rotating packed bed reactor) using zinc nitrate and hydrogen sulfide as the raw materials. The size and morphology, crystal structure, composition and optical properties of the nano-zinc sulfide were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), UV-visible spectrophotometer and energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX). The results show that the nano-zinc sulfide particles are spherical and their average size is about 42 nm. The XRD pattern shows that the nano-zinc sulfide is in a good sphalerite crystal phase. The XPS spectra show that the binding energy of the S (2p) is 162.6 eV, while those of the Zn 2p3/2 and 2p1/2 are 1021.4 and 1044.6 eV respectively. The IR spectrum shows that the nano-zinc sulfide has good transmittance within the wavelength number range from 400 to 4000 cm(-1). The UV-Vis spectrum shows that the nano-zinc sulfide has strong absorption within the wavelength range from 200 to 340 nm. The optical gap of the nano-zinc sulfide is 3.57 eV by calculation. The EDX spectrum shows that the nano-zinc sulfide has high purity.

  18. Some Observations on Carbon Nano tubes Susceptibility to Cell Phagocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraczek-Szczypta, A.; Menaszek, E.; Blazewicz, S.; Menaszek, E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different types of carbon nano tubes (CNTs) on cell phagocytosis. Three kinds of carbon nano tubes: single-walled carbon nano horns (SWCNHs), multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs), and ultra-long single-walled carbon nano tubes (ULSWCNTs) before and after additional chemical functionalization were seeded with macrophage cell culture. Prior to biological testing, the CNTs were subjected to dispersion process with the use of phosphate buffered solution (PBS) and PBS containing surfactant (Tween 20) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The results indicate that the cells interaction with an individual nano tube is entirely different as compared to CNTs in the form of aggregate. The presence of the surfactant favors the CNTs dispersion in culture media and facilitates phagocytosis process, while it has disadvantageous influence on cells morphology. The cells phagocytosis is a more effective for MWCNTs and SWCNHs after their chemical functionalization. Moreover, these nano tubes were well dispersed in culture media without using DMSO or surfactant. The functionalized carbon nano tubes were easily dispersed in pure PBS and seeded with cells

  19. Fabrication of nano-structured UO2 fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kang, Ki Won; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Dong Joo; Kim, Jong Heon; Kim, Keon Sik; Song, Kun Woo

    2007-01-01

    Nano-structured materials have received much attention for their possibility for various functional materials. Ceramics with a nano-structured grain have some special properties such as super plasticity and a low sintering temperature. To reduce the fuel cycle costs and the total mass of spent LWR fuels, it is necessary to extend the fuel discharged burn-up. In order to increase the fuel burn-up, it is important to understand the fuel property of a highly irradiated fuel pellet. Especially, research has focused on the formation of a porous and small grained microstructure in the rim area of the fuel, called High Burn-up Structure (HBS). The average grain size of HBS is about 300nm. This paper deals with the feasibility study on the fabrication of nano-structured UO 2 pellets. The nano sized UO 2 particles are prepared by a combined process of a oxidation-reducing and a mechanical milling of UO 2 powder. Nano-structured UO 2 pellets (∼300nm) with a density of ∼93%TD can be obtained by sintering nano-sized UO 2 compacts. The SEM study reveals that the microstructure of the fabricated nano-structure UO 2 pellet is similar to that of HBS. Therefore, this bulk nano-structured UO 2 pellet can be used as a reference pellet for a measurement of the physical properties of HBS

  20. Nano copper ferrite: A reusable catalyst for the synthesis of , ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Copper ferrite nano material as reusable heterogeneous initiator in the synthesis of , -unsaturated ketones and allylation to acid chlorides are presented. The reaction of allylichalides with various acid chlorides is achieved in the presence of copper ferrite nano powders at room temperature in tetrahydrofuran (THF).

  1. Challenges in commercialization of nano and biotechnologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major purpose of this study was to determine challenges in commercialization of nano and biotechnologies in agicultural sector of Iran. The total population for this study was 50 participants who attended a workshop on commercialization of nano and biotechnologies in agriculture at biotech 2010 exhibition in Tehran.

  2. Synthesis of nano-textured biocompatible scaffolds from chicken eggshells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, Waseem; Ilyas, Azhar; Sankaran, Jeyantt; Wan Yuan; Iqbal, Samir M; Kim, Young-Tae

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion, morphology and growth are influenced by surface topography at nano and micrometer scales. Nano-textured surfaces are prepared using photolithography, plasma etching and long polymer chemical etching which are cost prohibitive and require specialized equipment. This article demonstrates a simple approach to synthesize nano-textured scaffolds from chicken eggshells. Varieties of pattern are made on the eggshells like micro-needle forests and nanopores, giving very uniform nano-textures to the surfaces. The surfaces are characterized for chemical composition and crystal phase. The novel patterns are transferred to PDMS surfaces and the nano-textured PDMS surfaces are used to study the effect of texturing on human fibroblast cell growth and attachment. The effects of surface topographies, along with laminin coating on cell cultures, are also studied. We find an exciting phenomenon that the initial seeding density of the fibroblast cells affects the influence of the nano-texturing on cell growth. These nano-textured surfaces give 16 times more fibroblast growth when compared to flat PDMS surfaces. The novel nano-textured patterns also double the laminin adsorption on PDMS. (paper)

  3. Positron annihilation and tribological studies of nano-embedded Al ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    However, the rapid solidification process is also used. This process allows to produce the micro- and nano-scaled dispersoids in the alloys. Bhattacharya et al3–6 established the good tribological properties under mild wear condition of the nano-embedded Al alloys obtained in such a process. The effect of particle's size on.

  4. Nano-Bio Quantum Technology for Device-Specific Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.

    2009-01-01

    The areas discussed are still under development: I. Nano structured materials for TE applications a) SiGe and Be.Te; b) Nano particles and nanoshells. II. Quantum technology for optical devices: a) Quantum apertures; b) Smart optical materials; c) Micro spectrometer. III. Bio-template oriented materials: a) Bionanobattery; b) Bio-fuel cells; c) Energetic materials.

  5. Dependence of thermal conductivity in micro to nano silica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work presents the measurement of thermal conductivity of nano-silica particles using needle probe method. The validation test of thermal probe was conducted on ice and THF hydrates using our experimental set up and the results are satisfactory when compared with the literature data. The nano silica used in this ...

  6. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  7. SNP typing on the NanoChip electronic microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Morling, Niels

    2005-01-01

    We describe a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing protocol developed for the NanoChip electronic microarray. The NanoChip array consists of 100 electrodes covered by a thin hydrogel layer containing streptavidin. An electric currency can be applied to one, several, or all electrodes...

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of spin transfer nano-oscillators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    oscillations, is termed as spin transfer torque nano-oscillator or simply spin transfer nano- oscillator (STNO). However, the above nanoscale level microwave source lacks efficiency on two counts: (1) low output power (∼ nW), (2) high signal-to-noise ratio. Both the issues can be handled by phase locking a large array of ...

  9. Optical materials based on molecular nano/microcrystals and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. Methodologies that we developed recently for the fabrication of molecular crystals with size varia- tion in the nano to micro regime and polyelectrolyte templated mono and multilayer Langmuir–Blodgett films, are reviewed. The electronic absorption and strong fluorescence in the molecular nano/microcrystals are.

  10. Modeling nano-scale grain growth of intermetallics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The Monte Carlo simulation is utilized to model the nano-scale grain growth of two nano- crystalline materials, Pd81Zr19 and RuAl. In this regard, the relationship between the real time and the time unit of simulation, i.e. Monte Carlo step (MCS), is determined. The results of modeling show that with increasing time ...

  11. XPS study of palladium sensitized nano porous silicon thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Nano porous silicon (PS) was formed on p-type monocrystalline silicon of 2–5 Ω cm resistivity and (100) orientation by electrochemical anodization method using HF and ethanol as the electrolytes. High density of surface states, arising due to its nano structure, is responsible for the uncontrolled oxidation in air and ...

  12. comparison of chemical nano structure, rheological and mechanical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    The FTIR spectra of long oil alkyd resins which identified chemical nano structures of resins show in Figure 1. FTIR method is a powerful method for quantitative and qualitative investigation on nano structure of materials. Actually, qualitative application of FTIR method is more useful for identification of products; especially.

  13. Nano Traditional Chinese Medicine: Current Progresses and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Zhao, Yinglan; Liu, Fang; Liu, Songqing

    2015-01-01

    Nano traditional Chinese medicine (nano TCM) refers to bioactive ingredients, bioactive parts, medicinal materials or complex prescription, being approximately 100 nm in size, which are processed by nanotechnology. Nano TCM is a product of the TCM modernization, and is an application of nanotechnology in the field of TCM. This article reviews literatures on researches of nano TCM, which were published in the past 15 years. Different nanotechnologies have been used in preparation of Nano TCM in view of the varying aims of the study. The mechanical crushing technology is the main approach for nanolization of TCM material and complex prescription, and nanoparticulate drug delivery systems is the main approach for nanolization of bioactive ingredients or bioactive parts in TCM. Nano TCM has a number of advantages, for example, enhancing the bioavailability of TCM, reducing the adverse effects of TCM, achieving sustained release, attaining targeted delivery, enhancing pharmacological effects and improving the administration route of TCM. However, there are still many problems that must be resolved in nano TCM research. The main challenges to nano TCM include the theory system of TCM modernization, preparation technology, safety and stability, etc.

  14. Investigation of superhydrophilic mechanism of titania nano layer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Investigation of superhydrophilic mechanism of titania nano layer thin film—Silica and indium oxide dopant effect. Akbar Eshaghi Ameneh Eshaghi. Volume 35 ... In this paper, TiO2–SiO2–In2O3 nano layer thin films were deposited on glass substrate using sol–gel dip coating method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ...

  15. A reagentless amperometric immunosensor based on nano-au and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, carboxyl-ferrocene (Fc-COOH) was explored to label alphafetoprotein antibody (anti-AFP), which was then mixed with AU nanoparticles (nano-Au) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) dispersed by chitosan (CS) to form the nano-Au/MWCNTs/anti-AFP-Fc chitosan composite. After that, the composite ...

  16. Current safety practices in nano-research laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Guoyu

    2014-06-01

    China has become a key player in the global nanotechnology field, however, no surveys have specifically examined safety practices in the Chinese nano-laboratories in depth. This study reports results of a survey of 300 professionals who work in research laboratories that handle nanomaterials in China. We recruited participants at three major nano-research laboratories (which carry out research in diverse fields such as chemistry, material science, and biology) and the nano-chemistry session of the national meeting of the Chinese Chemical Society. Results show that almost all nano-research laboratories surveyed had general safety regulations, whereas less than one third of respondents reported having nanospecific safety rules. General safety measures were in place in most surveyed nano-research laboratories, while nanospecific protective measures existed or were implemented less frequently. Several factors reported from the scientific literature including nanotoxicology knowledge gaps, technical limitations on estimating nano-exposure, and the lack of nano-occupational safety legislation may contribute to the current state of affairs. With these factors in mind and embracing the precautionary principle, we suggest strengthening or providing nanosafety training (including raising risk awareness) and establishing nanosafety guidelines in China, to better protect personnel in the nano-workplace.

  17. Silicon Nano wires with MoSx and Pt as Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.H.; Ho, S.T.; Chen, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    A convenient method was used for synthesizing Pt-nanoparticle//silicon nano wires nano composites. Obtained Pt-/silicon nano wires electrocatalysts were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hydrogen evolution reaction efficiency of the Pt-/silicon nano wire nano composite catalysts was assessed by examining polarization and electrolysis measurements under solar light irradiations. The electrochemical characterizations demonstrate that Pt-/silicon nano wire electrodes exhibited an excellent catalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction in an acidic electrolyte. The hydrogen production capability of Pt-/silicon nano wires is also comparable to /silicon nano wires and Pt/silicon nano wires. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments suggest that the enhanced performance of Pt-/silicon nano wires can be attributed to the fast electron transfer between Pt-/silicon nano wire electrodes and electrolyte interfaces.

  18. Effect of impurity on electronic properties of carbon nano tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalili, S.; Jafari, M.; Habibian, J.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effect of impurity on electronic properties of single-walled carbon nano tubes using Density Functional Theory. Electronic band structures and density of states of (4, 4) and (7, 0) carbon nano tubes in the presence of different amount of B and N impurities were calculated. It was found that these impurities have significant effect on the conductivity of carbon nano tubes. The metallic (4, 4) nano tube remains to be metallic after doping with B and N. The electronic properties of small gap semiconducting (7, 0) tube can extensively change in the presence of impurity. Our results indicate that B-doped and N-doped (7, 0) carbon nano tubes can be p-type and n-type semiconductors, respectively

  19. Photo-nano immunotherapy for metastatic cancers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feifan

    2016-03-01

    We constructed a multifunction nano system SWNT-GC and investigated the synergize photothermal and immunological effects. Here, we improve the SWNT-GC nano system and design a new synergistic nano-particle, both have the photothermal effects and immunological effects. We investigate the therapeutic effects and detect the immune response with metastatic mouse tumor models. We also study the therapeutic mechanism after treatment in vitro and in vivo. With the enhancement of nano-materials on photothermal effects, laser treatment could destroy primary tumor and protect normal tissue with low dose laser irradiation. With the immunological effects of nano-materials, the treatment could trigger specific antitumor immune response, to eliminate the metastasis tumor. It is providing a promising treatment modality for the metastatic cancers.

  20. Characterization of Kaolin as Nano Material for High Quality Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzil M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At the moment utilisation of nano technology in every aspect in human life were growing rapidly. In this research, a new nano material was produce from kaolin clay and compare to OPC in terms of surface analysis, particle sizing and micrograph image on new modification of kaolin clay particles. Kaolin clay was established in two processes which are before and after heat treatment. Apart from that, transformation of kaolin clay to nano material was monitor by using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM and new nano materials were formed. Those images were supported by X Ray Diffraction analysis (XRD, X Ray Fluorescence (XRF and laser particle analyser to see the chemical composition and particle size for all specimens. A combination of rough, smooth and long section can be analysed. From this analysis a new develops nano materials can be achieved and can be utilised especially for construction purposes.