Diaz, Arlhee, E-mail: email@example.com; Leon, Kalet [Department of Systems Biology, Center of Molecular Immunology, 216 Street, PO Box 16040, Atabey, Havana 11600 (Cuba)
The clinical relevance of cancer stem cells (CSC) remains a major challenge for current cancer therapies, but preliminary findings indicate that specific targeting may be possible. Recent studies have shown that these tumor subpopulations promote tumor angiogenesis through the increased production of VEGF, whereas the VEGF neutralizing antibody bevacizumab specifically inhibits CSC growth. Moreover, nimotuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with a potent antiangiogenic activity, has been shown by our group to reduce the frequency of CSC-like subpopulations in mouse models of brain tumors when combined with ionizing radiation. These studies and subsequent reports from other groups support the relevance of approaches based on molecular-targeted therapies to selectively attack CSC. This review discusses the relevance of targeting both the EGFR and angiogenic pathways as valid approaches to this aim. We discuss the relevance of identifying better molecular markers to develop drug screening strategies that selectively target CSC.
Diaz, Arlhee; Leon, Kalet
The clinical relevance of cancer stem cells (CSC) remains a major challenge for current cancer therapies, but preliminary findings indicate that specific targeting may be possible. Recent studies have shown that these tumor subpopulations promote tumor angiogenesis through the increased production of VEGF, whereas the VEGF neutralizing antibody bevacizumab specifically inhibits CSC growth. Moreover, nimotuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with a potent antiangiogenic activity, has been shown by our group to reduce the frequency of CSC-like subpopulations in mouse models of brain tumors when combined with ionizing radiation. These studies and subsequent reports from other groups support the relevance of approaches based on molecular-targeted therapies to selectively attack CSC. This review discusses the relevance of targeting both the EGFR and angiogenic pathways as valid approaches to this aim. We discuss the relevance of identifying better molecular markers to develop drug screening strategies that selectively target CSC
Harris, Pamela Jo; Bible, Keith C
Thyroid cancer is an emerging public health concern. In the USA, its incidence has doubled in the past decade, making it the eighth most commonly diagnosed neoplasm in 2010. Despite this alarming increase, most thyroid cancer patients benefit from conventional approaches (surgery, radioiodine, radiotherapy, TSH suppression with levothyroxine) and are often cured. Nevertheless, a minority have aggressive tumors resistant to cytotoxic and other historical therapies; these patients sorely need new treatment options. Herein the biology and molecular characteristics of the common histological types of thyroid cancer are reviewed to provide context for subsequent discussion of recent developments and emerging therapeutics for advanced thyroid cancers. Several kinase inhibitors, especially those targeting VEGFR and/or RET, have already demonstrated promising activity in differentiated and medullary thyroid cancers (DTC, MTC). Although of minimal benefit in DTC and MTC, cytotoxic chemotherapy with anti-microtubule agents and/or anthracyclines in combination with intensity-modulated radiation therapy appears to extend survival for patients with locoregionally confined anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), but to have only modest benefit in metastatic ATC. Further discovery and development of novel agents and combinations of agents will be critical to further progress in treating advanced thyroid cancers of all histotypes.
Cui, Qingbin; Wen, Shijun; Huang, Peng
Mitochondria play a key role in ATP generation, redox homeostasis and regulation of apoptosis. Due to the essential role of mitochondria in metabolism and cell survival, targeting mitochondria in cancer cells is considered as an attractive therapeutic strategy. However, metabolic flexibility in cancer cells may enable the upregulation of compensatory pathways, such as glycolysis to support cancer cell survival when mitochondrial metabolism is inhibited. Thus, compounds capable of both targeting mitochondria and inhibiting glycolysis may be particularly useful to overcome such drug-resistant mechanism. This review provides an update on recent development in the field of targeting mitochondria and novel compounds that impact mitochondria, glycolysis or both. Key challenges in this research area and potential solutions are also discussed.
Antônio Geraldo da Silva
Full Text Available The current considerations about completed suicides and suicide attempts in different cultures call the attention of professionals to this serious public health problem. Integrative approaches have shown that the confluence of multiple biological and social factors modulate various psychopathologies and dysfunctional behaviors, such as suicidal behavior. Considering the level of intermediate analysis, personality traits and cognitive functioning are also of great importance for understanding the suicide phenomenon. About cognitive factors, we can group them into cognitive schemas of reality interpretation and underlying cognitive processes. On the other hand, different types of primary cognitive alterations are related to suicidal behavior, especially those resulting from changes in frontostriatal circuits. Among such cognitive mechanisms can be highlighted the attentional bias for environmental cues related to suicide, impulsive behavior, verbal fluency deficits, non-adaptive decision-making, and reduced planning skills. Attentional bias consists in the effect of thoughts and emotions, frequently not conscious, about the perception of environmental stimuli. Suicidal ideation and hopelessness can make the patient unable to find alternative solutions to their problems other than suicide, biasing their attention to environmental cues related to such behavior. Recent research efforts are directed to assess the possible use of attention bias as a therapeutic target in patients presenting suicide behavior. The relationship between impulsivity and suicide has been largely investigated over the last decades, and there is still controversy about the theme. Although there is strong evidence linking impulsivity to suicide attempts. Effective interventions address to reduce impulsivity in clinical populations at higher risk for suicide could help in the prevention. Deficits in problem-solving ability also seem to be distorted in patients who attempt
Hande, Sneha; Goswami, Kalyan; Sharma, Richa; Bhoj, Priyanka; Jena, Lingaraj; Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami
Lymphatic filariasis, commonly called elephantiasis, poses a burden of estimated level of 5.09 million disability adjusted life year. Limitations of its sole drug, diethylcarbamazine (DEC) drive exploration of effective filarial target. A few plant extracts having polyphenolic ingredients and some synthetic compounds possess potential dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitory effect. Here, we postulated a plausible link between folates and polyphenolics based on their common precursor in shikimate metabolism. Considering its implication in structural resemblance based antagonism, we have attempted to validate parasitic DHFR protein as a target. The bioinformatics approach, in the absence of crystal structure of the proposed target, used to authenticate and for virtual docking with suitable tested compounds, showed remarkably lower thermodynamic parameters as opposed to the positive control. A comparative docking analysis between human and Brugia malayi DHFR also showed effective binding parameters with lower inhibition constants of these ligands with parasitic target, but not with human counterpart highlighting safety and efficacy. This study suggests that DHFR could be a valid drug target for lymphatic filariasis, and further reveal that bioinformatics may be an effective tool in reverse pharmacological approach for drug design.
Piperigkou, Zoi; Manou, Dimitra; Karamanou, Konstantina; Theocharis, Achilleas D
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are capable of degrading numerous extracellular matrix (ECM) components thus participating in physiological and pathological processes. Apart from the remodeling of ECM, they affect cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and are implicated in the development and progression of various diseases such as cancer. Numerous studies have demonstrated that MMPs evoke epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells and affect their signaling, adhesion, migration and invasion to promote cancer cell aggressiveness. Various studies have suggested MMPs as suitable targets for treatment of malignancies, and several MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) have been developed. Although initial trials have failed to establish MMPIs as anticancer agents due to lack of specificity and side effects, new MMPIs have been developed with improved action that are currently being investigated. Furthermore, novel strategies that target MMPs for improving drug delivery and regulating their activity in tumors are presented. This review summarizes the implication of MMPs in cancer progression and discusses the advancements in their targeting.
Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Hyo-Soo
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of death and physical disabilities in developed countries, even though efforts to identify and target causal factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia have brought tremendous improvements in prevention and treatment. A rapid advance in technology has unraveled new genetic variants associated with CAD and also provided great opportunities to identify novel pathogenic mechanisms and to develop new drugs with higher specificity. Whole-genome sequencing and whole-exome sequencing has made it possible to find rare alleles that are responsible for CAD in small, affected families and case-control studies in a very efficient manner. At present, genome-wide association studies have identified more than 50 loci that explain approximately 10% of the heritability of CAD, most of which is unrelated to traditional risk factors. Mendelian randomization studies enable identification of causal factors among numerous biomarkers and to narrow down promising therapeutic targets. This review highlights new genetic approaches and demonstrates the extent to which the outcome contributes to the finding of new therapeutic targets.
Syed Babar Jamal
Full Text Available Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd is a Gram-positive human pathogen responsible for diphtheria infection and once regarded for high mortalities worldwide. The fatality gradually decreased with improved living standards and further alleviated when many immunization programs were introduced. However, numerous drug-resistant strains emerged recently that consequently decreased the efficacy of current therapeutics and vaccines, thereby obliging the scientific community to start investigating new therapeutic targets in pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, our contributions include the prediction of modelome of 13 C. diphtheriae strains, using the MHOLline workflow. A set of 463 conserved proteins were identified by combining the results of pangenomics based core-genome and core-modelome analyses. Further, using subtractive proteomics and modelomics approaches for target identification, a set of 23 proteins was selected as essential for the bacteria. Considering human as a host, eight of these proteins (glpX, nusB, rpsH, hisE, smpB, bioB, DIP1084, and DIP0983 were considered as essential and non-host homologs, and have been subjected to virtual screening using four different compound libraries (extracted from the ZINC database, plant-derived natural compounds and Di-terpenoid Iso-steviol derivatives. The proposed ligand molecules showed favorable interactions, lowered energy values and high complementarity with the predicted targets. Our proposed approach expedites the selection of C. diphtheriae putative proteins for broad-spectrum development of novel drugs and vaccines, owing to the fact that some of these targets have already been identified and validated in other organisms.
Full Text Available Plants growing in the Judea region are widely used in traditional medicine of the Levant region. Nevertheless, they have not so far been sufficiently analyzed and their medicinal potential has not been evaluated. This study is the first attempt to fill the gap in the knowledge of the plants growing in the region. Comprehensive data mining of online botanical databases and peer-reviewed scientific literature including ethno-pharmacological surveys from the Levant region was applied to compile a full list of plants growing in the Judea region, with the focus on their medicinal applications. Around 1300 plants growing in the Judea region were identified. Of them, 25% have medicinal applications which were analyzed in this study. Screening for chemical-protein interactions, together with the network-based analysis of potential targets, will facilitate discovery and therapeutic applications of the Judea region plants. Such an approach could also be applied as an integrative platform for further searching the potential therapeutic targets of plants growing in other regions of the world.
Takahashi, Nagahide; Sakurai, Takeshi
Glial cells consisting of oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and NG2 positive cells are major cell populations in the central nervous system, number-wise. They function as effectors and modulators of neurodevelopment through a wide variety of neuron-glial cell interactions in brain development and functions. Glial cells can be affected by both genetic and environmental factors, leading to their dysfunctions in supporting neuronal development and functions. These in turn can affect neuronal cells, causing alterations at the circuitry level that manifest as behavioral characteristics associated with schizophrenia in late teens-early twenties. Glial cells are also involved in neuroinflammatory processes, which sometimes have deleterious effects on the normal brain development. If the glial involvement plays significant roles in schizophrenia, the processes involving glial cells can become possible therapeutic targets for schizophrenia. A number of known antipsychotics are shown to have beneficial effects on glial cells, but other drugs targeting glial cell functions may also have therapeutic effects on schizophrenia. The latter can be taken into consideration for future drug development for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jamal, Syed Babar; Hassan, Syed Shah; Tiwari, Sandeep
Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd) is a Gram-positive human pathogen responsible for diphtheria infection and once regarded for high mortalities worldwide. The fatality gradually decreased with improved living standards and further alleviated when many immunization programs were introduced. However...... of modelome of 13 C. diphtheriae strains, using the MHOLline workflow. A set of 463 conserved proteins were identified by combining the results of pangenomics based core-genome and core-modelome analyses. Further, using subtractive proteomics and modelomics approaches for target identification, a set of 23...... (extracted from the ZINC database, plant-derived natural compounds and Di-terpenoid Iso-steviol derivatives). The proposed ligand molecules showed favorable interactions, lowered energy values and high complementarity with the predicted targets. Our proposed approach expedites the selection of C. diphtheriae...
Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Nabipour, Iraj; Omrani, Abdolmajid; Alipour, Zeinab; Assadi, Majid
This paper presents a review of the importance and role of precision medicine and molecular imaging technologies in cancer diagnosis with therapeutics and diagnostics purposes. Precision medicine is progressively becoming a hot topic in all disciplines related to biomedical investigation and has the capacity to become the paradigm for clinical practice. The future of medicine lies in early diagnosis and individually appropriate treatments, a concept that has been named precision medicine, i.e. delivering the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. Molecular imaging is quickly being recognized as a tool with the potential to ameliorate every aspect of cancer treatment. On the other hand, emerging high-throughput technologies such as omics techniques and systems approaches have generated a paradigm shift for biological systems in advanced life science research. In this review, we describe the precision medicine, difference between precision medicine and personalized medicine, precision medicine initiative, systems biology/medicine approaches (such as genomics, radiogenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), P4 medicine, relationship between systems biology/medicine approaches and precision medicine, and molecular imaging modalities and their utility in cancer treatment and diagnosis. Accordingly, the precision medicine and molecular imaging will enable us to accelerate and improve cancer management in future medicine. PMID:28078184
Muñoz, Miguel; Coveñas, Rafael
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer related-deaths in both men and women, and the 1- and 5-year relative survival rates are 25% and 6%, respectively. It is known that smoking, alcoholism and psychological stress are risk factors that can promote PC and increase PC progression. To date, the prevention of PC is crucial because there is no curative treatment. After binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor (a receptor coupled to the stimulatory G-protein Gαs that activates adenylate cyclase), the peptide substance P (SP)—at high concentrations—is involved in many pathophysiological functions, such as depression, smoking, alcoholism, chronic inflammation and cancer. It is known that PC cells and samples express NK-1 receptors; that the NK-1 receptor is overexpressed in PC cells in comparison with non-tumor cells, and that nanomolar concentrations of SP induce PC cell proliferation. By contrast, NK-1 receptor antagonists exert antidepressive, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects and anti-alcohol addiction. These antagonists also exert an antitumor action since in vitro they inhibit PC cell proliferation (PC cells death by apoptosis), and in a xenograft PC mouse model they exert both antitumor and anti-angiogenic actions. NK-1 receptor antagonists could be used for the treatment of PC and hence the NK-1 receptor could be a new promising therapeutic target in PC
Muñoz, Miguel, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Research Laboratory on Neuropeptides (IBIS), Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Coveñas, Rafael [Laboratory of Neuroanatomy of the Peptidergic System (Lab. 14), Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla y León (INCYL), University of Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer related-deaths in both men and women, and the 1- and 5-year relative survival rates are 25% and 6%, respectively. It is known that smoking, alcoholism and psychological stress are risk factors that can promote PC and increase PC progression. To date, the prevention of PC is crucial because there is no curative treatment. After binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor (a receptor coupled to the stimulatory G-protein Gαs that activates adenylate cyclase), the peptide substance P (SP)—at high concentrations—is involved in many pathophysiological functions, such as depression, smoking, alcoholism, chronic inflammation and cancer. It is known that PC cells and samples express NK-1 receptors; that the NK-1 receptor is overexpressed in PC cells in comparison with non-tumor cells, and that nanomolar concentrations of SP induce PC cell proliferation. By contrast, NK-1 receptor antagonists exert antidepressive, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects and anti-alcohol addiction. These antagonists also exert an antitumor action since in vitro they inhibit PC cell proliferation (PC cells death by apoptosis), and in a xenograft PC mouse model they exert both antitumor and anti-angiogenic actions. NK-1 receptor antagonists could be used for the treatment of PC and hence the NK-1 receptor could be a new promising therapeutic target in PC.
Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer (PC is the fourth leading cause of cancer related-deaths in both men and women, and the 1- and 5-year relative survival rates are 25% and 6%, respectively. It is known that smoking, alcoholism and psychological stress are risk factors that can promote PC and increase PC progression. To date, the prevention of PC is crucial because there is no curative treatment. After binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptor (a receptor coupled to the stimulatory G-protein Gαs that activates adenylate cyclase, the peptide substance P (SP—at high concentrations—is involved in many pathophysiological functions, such as depression, smoking, alcoholism, chronic inflammation and cancer. It is known that PC cells and samples express NK-1 receptors; that the NK-1 receptor is overexpressed in PC cells in comparison with non-tumor cells, and that nanomolar concentrations of SP induce PC cell proliferation. By contrast, NK-1 receptor antagonists exert antidepressive, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects and anti-alcohol addiction. These antagonists also exert An antitumor action since in vitro they inhibit PC cell proliferation (PC cells death by apoptosis, and in a xenograft PC mouse model they exert both antitumor and anti-angiogenic actions. NK-1 receptor antagonists could be used for the treatment of PC and hence the NK-1 receptor could be a new promising therapeutic target in PC.
Fallowfield, Jonathan A
Detailed analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate liver fibrosis has provided a framework for therapeutic approaches to prevent, slow down, or even reverse fibrosis and cirrhosis. A pivotal event in the development of liver fibrosis is the activation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to scar-forming myofibroblast-like cells. Consequently, HSCs and the factors that regulate HSC activation, proliferation, and function represent important antifibrotic targets. Drugs currently licensed in the US and Europe for other indications target HSC-related components of the fibrotic cascade. Their deployment in the near future looks likely. Ultimately, treatment strategies for liver fibrosis may vary on an individual basis according to etiology, risk of fibrosis progression, and the prevailing pathogenic milieu, meaning that a multiagent approach could be required. The field continues to develop rapidly and starts to identify exciting potential targets in proof-of-concept preclinical studies. Despite this, no antifibrotics are currently licensed for use in humans. With epidemiological predictions for the future prevalence of viral, obesity-related, and alcohol-related cirrhosis painting an increasingly gloomy picture, and a shortfall in donors for liver transplantation, the clinical urgency for new therapies is high. There is growing interest from stakeholders keen to exploit the market potential for antifibrotics. However, the design of future trials for agents in the developmental pipeline will depend on strategies that enable equal patient stratification, techniques to reliably monitor changes in fibrosis over time, and the definition of clinically meaningful end points.
Lemos, A.; Melo, Rita; de Sousa Moreira, I.; Cordeiro, Maria Natália D S
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is one of the most common and complex age-related neurodegenerative disorders in elderly people. Currently there is no cure for AD, and available therapeutic alternatives only improve both cognitive and behavioral functions. For that reason, the search for anti-AD
Hong, Waun K; Herbst, Roy
.... These projects combine targeted approaches using molecular and imaging techniques to validate activity against a target and monitor response using imaging modalities specific to the receptor using...
Hong, Waun Ki; Herbst, Roy
.... These projects combine targeted approaches using molecular and imaging techniques to validate activity against a target and monitor response using imaging modalities specific to the receptor using...
Hong, Waun K; Herbst, Roy
.... These projects combine targeted approaches using molecular and imaging techniques to validate activity against a target and monitor response using imaging modalities specific to the receptor using...
Jensen, Bettina M; Metcalfe, Dean D; Gilfillan, Alasdair M
The prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing worldwide. Hence, there is continued need for novel pharmacological therapies for the treatment of these disorders. As the mast cell is one of the essential cells that contributes to the inflammation associated with allergic diseases, this cell type......E-receptor) on the cell surface. These mediators also contribute to the late and chronic stages of allergic inflammation. Thus, the IgE/antigen response has been a major focus in the development of new drugs targeting mast cells. The essential role that stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor, Kit, play in mast cell...... remains an attractive target for such pharmacological intervention. Mast cells are major players in the early phase of the allergic response since they generate and release a variety of inflammatory mediators following antigen-dependent aggregation of IgE-bound FcepsilonRI (high affinity Ig...
Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Non-small cell lung carcinomas (Non-SCLC account for almost 80% of lung cancers, of which 40% were adenocarcinomas. For a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the development and progression of lung cancer, particularly lung adenocarcinoma, we have used proteomics technology to search for candidate prognostic and therapeutic targets in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. The protein profile changes between human pulmonary adenocarcinoma tissue and paired surrounding normal tissue were analyzed using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE based approach. Differentially expressed protein-spots were identified with ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS instruments. As a result, thirty two differentially expressed proteins (over 2-fold, p<0.05 were identified in pulmonary adenocarcinoma compared to normal tissues. Among them, two proteins (PKM2 and cofilin-1, significantly up-regulated in adenocarcinoma, were selected for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemical examination indicated that enhanced expression of PKM2 and cofilin-1 were correlated with the severity of epithelial dysplasia, as well as a relatively poor prognosis. Knockdown of PKM2 expression by RNA interference led to a significant suppression of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in pulmonary adenocarcinoma SPC-A1 cells in vitro, and tumor growth inhibition in vivo xenograft model (P<0.05. In addition, the shRNA expressing plasmid targeting cofilin-1 significantly inhibited tumor metastases and prolonged survival in LL/2 metastatic model. While additional works are needed to elucidate the biological significance and molecular mechanisms of these altered proteins identified in this study, PKM2 and cofilin-1 may serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets for pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
Koo, Seok Hwee; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon
1. Pharmacogenetics refers to the study of genetically controlled variations in drug response. Functional variants caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding drug-metabolising enzymes, transporters, ion channels and drug receptors have been known to be associated with interindividual and interethnic variation in drug response. Genetic variations in these genes play a role in influencing the efficacy and toxicity of medications. 2. Rapid, precise and cost-effective high-throughput technological platforms are essential for performing large-scale mutational analysis of genetic markers involved in the aetiology of variable responses to drug therapy. 3. The application of a pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics in general clinical practice is still far from being achieved today owing to various constraints, such as limited accessibility of technology, inadequate knowledge, ambiguity of the role of variants and ethical concerns. 4. Drug actions are determined by the interplay of several genes encoding different proteins involved in various biochemical pathways. With rapidly emerging SNP discovery technological platforms and widespread knowledge on the role of SNPs in disease susceptibility and variability in drug response, the pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics is anticipated to take off in the not-too-distant future. This will present profound clinical, economic and social implications for health care.
Scott, Robert A.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Li, Li; Chu, Audrey Y.; Surendran, Praveen; Young, Robin; Grarup, Niels; Stancáková, Alena; Chen, Yuning; V.Varga, Tibor; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Luan, Jian'an; Zhao, Jing Hua; Willems, Sara M.; Wessel, Jennifer; Wang, Shuai; Maruthur, Nisa; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Pirie, Ailith; van der Lee, Sven J.; Gillson, Christopher; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Amouyel, Philippe; Arriola, Larraitz; Arveiler, Dominique; Aviles-Olmos, Iciar; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Barroso, Inês; Garcia, Sara Benlloch; Bis, Joshua C.; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boehnke, Michael; Boeing, Heiner; Boerwinkle, Eric; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Bowden, Sarah; Caldas, Carlos; Caslake, Muriel; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cruchaga, Carlos; Czajkowski, Jacek; den Hoed, Marcel; Dunn, Janet A.; Earl, Helena M.; Ehret, Georg B.; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrieres, Jean; Foltynie, Thomas; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gianfagna, Francesco; Gonzalez, Carlos; Grioni, Sara; Hiller, Louise; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kee, Frank; Kerrison, Nicola D.; Key, Timothy J.; Kontto, Jukka; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Chunyu; Marenne, Gaëlle; Mohlke, Karen L.; Morris, Andrew P.; Muir, Kenneth; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Munroe, Patricia B.; Navarro, Carmen; Nielsen, Sune F.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Packard, Chris J.; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Peloso, Gina M.; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Poole, Christopher J.; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Salomaa, Veikko; Sánchez, María-José; Sattar, Naveed; Sharp, Stephen J.; Sims, Rebecca; Slimani, Nadia; Smith, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Trompet, Stella; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Walker, Mark; Walter, Klaudia; Abraham, Jean E.; Amundadottir, Laufey T.; Aponte, Jennifer L.; Butterworth, Adam S.; Dupuis, Josée; Easton, Douglas F.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Franks, Paul W.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Hansen, Torben; Howson, Joanna M. M.; Jørgensen, Torben; Kooner, Jaspal; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; McCarthy, Mark I.; Pankow, James S.; Pedersen, Oluf; Riboli, Elio; Rotter, Jerome I.; Saleheen, Danish; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schunkert, Heribert; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Deloukas, Panos; Danesh, John; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Meigs, James B.; Ehm, Margaret G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Waterworth, Dawn M.
Regulatory authorities have indicated that new drugs to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D) should not be associated with an unacceptable increase in cardiovascular risk. Human genetics may be able to inform development of antidiabetic therapies by predicting cardiovascular and other health endpoints. We therefore investigated the association of variants in 6 genes that encode drug targets for obesity or T2D with a range of metabolic traits in up to 11,806 individuals by targeted exome sequencing, and follow-up in 39,979 individuals by targeted genotyping, with additional in silico follow up in consortia. We used these data to first compare associations of variants in genes encoding drug targets with the effects of pharmacological manipulation of those targets in clinical trials. We then tested the association those variants with disease outcomes, including coronary heart disease, to predict cardiovascular safety of these agents. A low-frequency missense variant (Ala316Thr;rs10305492) in the gene encoding glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R), the target of GLP1R agonists, was associated with lower fasting glucose and lower T2D risk, consistent with GLP1R agonist therapies. The minor allele was also associated with protection against heart disease, thus providing evidence that GLP1R agonists are not likely to be associated with an unacceptable increase in cardiovascular risk. Our results provide an encouraging signal that these agents may be associated with benefit, a question currently being addressed in randomised controlled trials. Genetic variants associated with metabolic traits and multiple disease outcomes can be used to validate therapeutic targets at an early stage in the drug development process. PMID:27252175
Rathore, Dharmendar [Blacksburg, VA; Jani, Dewal [Blacksburg, VA; Nagarkatti, Rana [Blacksburg, VA
A novel Fasciclin Related Adhesive Protein (FRAP) from Plasmodium and related parasites is provided as a target for therapeutic intervention in diseases caused by the parasites. FRAP has been shown to play a critical role in adhesion to, or invasion into, host cells by the parasite. Furthermore, FRAP catalyzes the neutralization of heme by the parasite, by promoting its polymerization into hemozoin. This invention provides methods and compositions for therapies based on the administration of protein, DNA or cell-based vaccines and/or antibodies based on FRAP, or antigenic epitopes of FRAP, either alone or in combination with other parasite antigens. Methods for the development of compounds that inhibit the catalytic activity of FRAP, and diagnostic and laboratory methods utilizing FRAP are also provided.
Sehgal, Alfica; Vaishnaw, Akshay; Fitzgerald, Kevin
Oligonucleotide-based therapeutics are an emerging class of drugs that hold the promise for silencing "un-druggable" targets,thus creating unique opportunities for innovative medicines. As opposed to gene therapy, oligonucleotides are considered to be more akin to small molecule therapeutics because they are small,completely synthetic in origin, do not integrate into the host genome,and have a defined duration of therapeutic activity after which effects recover to baseline. They offer a high degree of specificity at the genetic level, thereby reducing off-target effects.At the same time, they provide a strategy for targeting any gene in the genome, including transcripts that produce mutated proteins.Oligonucleotide-based therapeutics include short interfering RNA (siRNA), that degrade target mRNA through RISC mediated RNAi; anti-miRs, that target miRNAs; miRNA mimics, that regulate target mRNA; antisense oligonucleotides, that may be working through RNAseH mediated mRNA decay; mRNA upregulation,by targeting long non-coding RNAs; and oligonucleotides induced alternative splicing . All these approaches require some minimal degree of homology at the nucleic acid sequence level for them to be functional. The different mechanisms of action and their relevant activity are outlined in Fig. 1. Besides homology,RNA secondary structure has also been exploited in the case of ribozymes and aptamers, which act by binding to nucleic acids or proteins, respectively. While there have been many reports of gene knockdown and gene modulation in cell lines and mice with all these methods, very few have advanced to clinical stages.The main obstacle to date has been the safe and effective intracellular delivery of these compounds in higher species, including humans. Indeed, their action requires direct interaction with DNA/RNA within the target cell so even when one solves the issues of tissue and cellular access, intracellular/intranuclear location represents yet another barrier to
Kratimenos, Panagiotis; Koutroulis, Ioannis; Marconi, Dante; Syriopoulou, Vasiliki; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, Maria; Chrousos, George P; Theocharis, Stamatios
Nonreceptor tyrosine kinases play key roles in the integrin system. Located at the focal adhesions, they consist of large protein complexes through which the cytoskeleton connects to the extracellular matrix. The focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-Src-paxillin complex, a major mediator of the integrin pathway, contributes to cell migration and motility. Its overexpression is increased in children with advanced neuroblastoma (NB), one of the most common malignancies of childhood, with poor survival. We review the most recent data on FAK-Src-paxillin and their implications in NB, the molecular structure and the regulatory mechanisms of each molecule and their interactions and up-to-date information on their use as the newest biomarkers and their potential use as therapeutic targets in NB. Based on the current literature, we hypothesize that combined and concurrent inhibition of the FAK-Src-Paxillin system may result in significant tumor suppression and prevention or delay of metastasis.
Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease of aging and currently has no cure. Its onset and progression are influenced by multiple factors. There is growing consensus that successful treatment will rely on simultaneously targeting multiple pathological features of AD. Polyphenol compounds have many proven health benefits. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that combining three polyphenolic preparations (grape seed extract, resveratrol and Concord grape juice extract, with different polyphenolic compositions and partially redundant bioactivities, may simultaneously and synergistically mitigate amyloid-β (Aβ mediated neuropathology and cognitive impairments in a mouse model of AD. We found that administration of the polyphenols in combination did not alter the profile of bioactive polyphenol metabolites in the brain. We also found that combination treatment resulted in better protection against cognitive impairments compared to individual treatments, in J20 AD mice. Electrophysiological examination showed that acute treatment with select brain penetrating polyphenol metabolites, derived from these polyphenols, improved oligomeric Aβ (oAβ-induced long term potentiation (LTP deficits in hippocampal slices. Moreover, we found greatly reduced total amyloid content in the brain following combination treatment. Our studies provided experimental evidence that application of polyphenols targeting multiple disease-mechanisms may yield a greater likelihood of therapeutic efficacy.
Chade, Alejandro R; Kelsen, Silvia
Renal microvascular (MV) damage and loss contribute to the progression of renal injury in renovascular disease (RVD). Whether a targeted intervention in renal microcirculation could reverse renal damage is unknown. We hypothesized that intrarenal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy will reverse renal dysfunction and decrease renal injury in experimental RVD. Unilateral renal artery stenosis (RAS) was induced in 14 pigs, as a surrogate of chronic RVD. Six weeks later, renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were quantified in vivo in the stenotic kidney using multidetector computed tomography (CT). Then, intrarenal rhVEGF-165 or vehicle was randomly administered into the stenotic kidneys (n = 7/group), they were observed for 4 additional wk, in vivo studies were repeated, and then renal MV density was quantified by 3D micro-CT, and expression of angiogenic factors and fibrosis was determined. RBF and GFR, MV density, and renal expression of VEGF and downstream mediators such as p-ERK 1/2, Akt, and eNOS were significantly reduced after 6 and at 10 wk of untreated RAS compared with normal controls. Remarkably, administration of VEGF at 6 wk normalized RBF (from 393.6 ± 50.3 to 607.0 ± 45.33 ml/min, P < 0.05 vs. RAS) and GFR (from 43.4 ± 3.4 to 66.6 ± 10.3 ml/min, P < 0.05 vs. RAS) at 10 wk, accompanied by increased angiogenic signaling, augmented renal MV density, and attenuated renal scarring. This study shows promising therapeutic effects of a targeted renal intervention, using an established clinically relevant large-animal model of chronic RAS. It also implies that disruption of renal MV integrity and function plays a pivotal role in the progression of renal injury in the stenotic kidney. Furthermore, it shows a high level of plasticity of renal microvessels to a single-dose VEGF-targeted intervention after established renal injury, supporting promising renoprotective effects of a novel potential therapeutic intervention to
Full Text Available STAT3 activation is associated with poor prognosis in human colorectal cancer (CRC. Our previous data demonstrated that regorafenib (Stivarga is a pharmacological agonist of SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1 that enhances SHP-1 activity and induces apoptosis by targeting STAT3 signals in CRC. This study aimed to find a therapeutic drug that is more effective than regorafenib for CRC treatment. Here, we showed that SC-43 was more effective than regorafenib at inducing apoptosis in vitro and suppressing tumorigenesis in vivo. SC-43 significantly increased SHP-1 activity, downregulated p-STAT3Tyr705 level, and induced apoptosis in CRC cells. An SHP-1 inhibitor or knockdown of SHP-1 by siRNA both significantly rescued the SC-43–induced apoptosis and decreased p-STAT3Tyr705 level. Conversely, SHP-1 overexpression increased the effects of SC-43 on apoptosis and p-STAT3Tyr705 level. These data suggest that SC-43–induced apoptosis mediated through the loss of p-STAT3Tyr705 was dependent on SHP-1 function. Importantly, SC-43–enhanced SHP-1 activity was because of the docking potential of SC-43, which relieved the autoinhibited N-SH2 domain of SHP-1 and inhibited p-STAT3Tyr705 signals. Importantly, we observed that a significant negative correlation existed between SHP-1 and p-STAT3Tyr705expression in CRC patients (P = .038. Patients with strong SHP-1 and weak p-STAT3Tyr705 expression had significantly higher overall survival compared with patients with weak SHP-1 and strong p-STAT3Tyr705 expression (P = .029. In conclusion, SHP-1 is suitable to be a useful prognostic marker and a pharmacological target for CRC treatment. Targeting SHP-1-STAT3 signaling by SC-43 may serve as a promising pharmacotherapy for CRC.
Amirouchene-Angelozzi, Nabil; Swanton, Charles; Bardelli, Alberto
Recent technological advances in the field of molecular diagnostics (including blood-based tumor genotyping) allow the measurement of clonal evolution in patients with cancer, thus adding a new dimension to precision medicine: time. The translation of this new knowledge into clinical benefit implies rethinking therapeutic strategies. In essence, it means considering as a target not only individual oncogenes but also the evolving nature of human tumors. Here, we analyze the limitations of targeted therapies and propose approaches for treatment within an evolutionary framework. Significance: Precision cancer medicine relies on the possibility to match, in daily medical practice, detailed genomic profiles of a patient's disease with a portfolio of drugs targeted against tumor-specific alterations. Clinical blockade of oncogenes is effective but only transiently; an approach to monitor clonal evolution in patients and develop therapies that also evolve over time may result in improved therapeutic control and survival outcomes. Cancer Discov; 7(8); 1-13. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
Qureshi, Irfan A.; Mehler, Mark F.
The rapidly evolving science of epigenetics is transforming our understanding of the nervous system in health and disease and holds great promise for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches targeting neurological diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic factors and mechanisms serve as important mediators of the pathogenic processes that lead to irrevocable neural injury and of countervailing homeostatic and regenerative responses. Epigenetics is, therefore, of considerable translational significance to the field of neuroprotection. In this brief review, we provide an overview of epigenetic mechanisms and highlight the emerging roles played by epigenetic processes in neural cell dysfunction and death and in resultant neuroprotective responses. PMID:26236020
Viollet, B; Mounier, R; Leclerc, J; Yazigi, A; Foretz, M; Andreelli, F
In the light of recent studies in humans and rodents, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a phylogenetically conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, has been described as an integrator of regulatory signals monitoring systemic and cellular energy status. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been proposed to function as a 'fuel gauge' to monitor cellular energy status in response to nutritional environmental variations. Recently, it has been proposed that AMPK could provide a link in metabolic defects underlying progression to the metabolic syndrome. AMPK is a heterotrimeric enzyme complex consisting of a catalytic subunit alpha and two regulatory subunits beta and gamma. AMPK is activated by rising AMP and falling ATP. AMP activates the system by binding to the gamma subunit that triggers phosphorylation of the catalytic alpha subunit by the upstream kinases LKB1 and CaMKKbeta (calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase). AMPK system is a regulator of energy balance that, once activated by low energy status, switches on ATP-producing catabolic pathways (such as fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis), and switches off ATP-consuming anabolic pathways (such as lipogenesis), both by short-term effect on phosphorylation of regulatory proteins and by long-term effect on gene expression. As well as acting at the level of the individual cell, the system also regulates food intake and energy expenditure at the whole body level, in particular by mediating the effects of insulin sensitizing adipokines leptin and adiponectin. AMPK is robustly activated during skeletal muscle contraction and myocardial ischaemia playing a role in glucose transport and fatty acid oxidation. In liver, activation of AMPK results in enhanced fatty acid oxidation as well as decreased glucose production. Moreover, the AMPK system is one of the probable targets for the anti-diabetic drugs biguanides and thiazolidinediones. Thus, the relationship between AMPK activation and beneficial metabolic
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) exhibit procarcinogenic effects at multiple stages during multistep oncogenesis. As a hallmark of the transformed state, extracellular superoxide anions generated by NADPH oxidase1 (NOX1) are centrally involved in the control of the transformed state. These pro-carcinogenic effects of ROS are counterbalanced by specific ROS-dependent apoptosis induction in malignant cells, based on four interconnected signaling pathways. Tumor progression selects for a phenotype characterized by resistance to ROS-dependent apoptotic signaling. Resistance is based on membrane-associated catalase in tumor cells, which therefore represents a promising and unique target for specific tumor therapy. Novel approache, developed in vitro, utilize antibody-mediated inhibition of catalase or ROS-driven singlet oxygen generation and subsequent inactivation of tumor cell catalase as initial steps. As a consecutive step, malignant cell-generated superoxide anions then drive apoptotic signaling with high selectivity for malignant cells. We propose to translate this complex but well-established ROS-dependent signaling chemistry into novel approaches for experimental therapy in vivo.
Batarseh, Yazan S.
Amyloid-beta (Abeta) cascade hypothesis suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is related to an imbalance between the production and clearance of Abeta peptide. Sporadic AD has been related to faulty clearance of Abeta. Accumulation of Abeta oligomers (Abetao) has been linked to several downstream toxic effects including neuroinflammation, synaptic loss, and cellular death. Abeta transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is one of the primary pathways for reducing Abeta load in the brain, which work hand in hand with other parenchymal mechanisms to reduce Abeta levels including intra and extracellular degradation by a family of Abeta degrading enzymes. Established AD drugs, such as the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, have been reported to have several additional non-cholinergic effects that alter Abeta pathology; reduce Abeta load, anti-inflammatory response, and attenuate synaptic loss. However, their limited effect only lead to minor improvements in AD symptoms without improving the prognosis of the disease. The lack of effective medical treatment for AD led to several studies focusing on establishing new therapeutic approaches to reduce Abeta pathology. We aimed to identify and characterize natural products that are capable of enhancing the BBB clearance of Abeta in addition to reducing neuroinflammation. Our first project was to investigate the role of oleocanthal (one of the active ingredients in extra-virgin olive oil; EVOO) on attenuating Abeta toxic effects on neurons and astrocytes. We developed Abeta oligomers (Abetao) induced inflammatory environment by exposing neurons and astrocytes to accumulative doses of Abetao to investigate oleocanthal effect on modulating Abetao pathological changes in neurons and astrocytes. Our findings demonstrated oleocanthal prevented Abetao-induced synaptic proteins, SNAP-25 and PSD-95, down-regulation in neurons, attenuated Abetao-induced inflammation, and restored glutamine transporter (GLT1) and glucose
Green, Jeremy B; Cohen, Joel L; Kaufman, Joely; Metelitsa, Andrei I; Kaminer, Michael S
Cellulite is a condition that affects the vast majority of women. Although it is of no danger to one's overall health, cellulite can be psychosocially debilitating. Consequently, much research has been devoted to understanding cellulite and its etiopathogenesis. With additional insights into the underlying causes of its clinical presentation, therapeutic modalities have been developed that offer hope to cellulite sufferers. This review examines evidence for topical treatments, noninvasive energy-based devices, and recently developed minimally invasive interventions that may finally provide a solution. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.
Full Text Available G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs are popular biological targets for drug discovery and development. To date there are more than 140 orphan GPCRs, i.e. receptors whose endogenous ligands are unknown. Traditionally orphan GPCRs have been difficult to study and the development of therapeutic compounds targeting these receptors has been extremely slow although these GPCRs are considered important targets based on their distribution and behavioral phenotype revealed by animals lacking the receptor. Recent advances in several methods used to study orphan receptors, including protein crystallography and homology modeling are likely to be useful in the identification of therapeutics targeting these receptors. In the past 13 years, over a dozen different Class A GPCRs have been crystallized; this trend is exciting, since homology modeling of GPCRs has previously been limited by the availability of solved structures. As the number of solved GPCR structures continues to grow so does the number of templates that can be used to generate increasingly accurate models of phylogenetically-related orphan GPCRs. The availability of solved structures along with the advances in using multiple templates to build models (in combination with molecular dynamics simulations that reveal structural information not provided by crystallographic data and methods for modeling hard-to-predict flexible loop regions have improved the quality of GPCR homology models. This, in turn, has improved the success rates of virtual ligand screens that use homology models to identify potential receptor binding compounds. Experimental testing of the predicted hits and validation using traditional GPCR pharmacological approaches can be used to drive ligand-based efforts to probe orphan receptor biology as well as to define the chemotypes and chemical scaffolds important for binding. As a result of these advances, orphan GPCRs are emerging from relative obscurity as a new class of drug
Moghimi, Seyed Moien; Parhamifar, Ladan; Ahmadvand, Davoud
Particulate systems in the form of liposomes, polymeric micelles, polymeric nano- and microparticles, and many others offer a rational approach for selective delivery of therapeutic agents to the macrophage from different physiological portals of entry. Particulate targeting of macrophages and in...... at a particular subset of macrophages. Advances in basic and therapeutic concepts of particulate targeting of macrophages and related nanotechnology approaches for immune cell modifications are discussed.Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel...
Hong, Waun K; Herbst, Roy
The projects in this proposal specifically target several signal transduction pathways known to be critical for NSCLC pathogenesis including the EGFR pathway and the more downstream ras/raf/Mek/ERK pathway...
Hong, Waun Ki; Herbst, Roy
The projects in this proposal specifically target several signal transduction pathways known to be critical for NSCLC pathogenesis including the EGFR pathway and the more downstream ras/raf/Mek/ERK pathway...
Hong, Waun K; Herbst, Roy
The projects in this proposal specifically target several signal transduction pathways known to be critical for NSCLC pathogenesis including the EGFR pathway and the more downstream ras/raf/Mek/ERK pathway...
Kol, Arjan; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anton G T; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Lamberts, Laetitia E; Bensch, Frederike; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Schröder, Carolina P
The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family members are targeted by a growing numbers of small molecules and monoclonal antibodies. Resistance against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2-targeting agents is a clinically relevant problem forcing research on optimizing targeting of the HER family. In view of its overexpression in tumors, and compensatory role in HER signaling, HER3 has gained much interest as a potential additional target within the HER family. It is the only member of the HER family lacking intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and therefore its role in cancer has long been underestimated. Drugs that block HER3 or interfere with HER3 dimer signaling, including fully human anti-HER3 antibodies, bispecific antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), are currently becoming available. Several compounds have already entered clinical trial. In the meantime potential biomarkers are tested such as tumor analysis of HER3 expression, functional assays for downstream effector molecules and molecular imaging techniques. This review describes the biology and relevance of HER3 in cancer, agents targeting HER3 and potential biomarkers for effect of HER3-targeting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Benditt, David G; Nguyen, John T
Syncope is a common clinical problem characterized by transient, spontaneously self-terminating loss of consciousness with complete and prompt recovery; the cause is insufficiency of cerebral oxygen/nutrient supply most often due to a transient fall of systemic arterial pressure to levels below those tolerated by cerebrovascular autoregulation. Careful and thorough evaluation of the cause of syncope is warranted in all patients. Determining that certain individuals are at "low mortality risk" is inadequate; syncope, although often benign from a mortality perspective, tends to recur, is associated with risk of physical injury, diminishes quality-of-life, and might lead to restriction from employment or avocation. However, the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of syncope is challenging for many reasons. First, syncope is only 1 of many causes of transient loss of consciousness. Second, the patient's symptoms are fleeting, and the patient is generally fully recovered when seen in the clinic; only infrequently are there helpful physical findings. Third, spontaneous events are often unwitnessed by medical professionals; consequently, the medical history of symptom events is usually a "second-hand" or "third-hand" story. Finally, there is often an excessive sense of diagnostic "urgency" that tends to result in a rush to undertake multiple poorly considered "diagnostic" testing procedures; a deliberate approach based on initial risk stratification is more likely to reap the dual rewards of a correct diagnosis and initiation of effective treatment in a cost-effective manner.
Motoyama, Andrea B; Hynes, Nancy E
The major goal in cancer treatment is the eradication of tumor cells. Under stress conditions, normal cells undergo apoptosis; this property is fortunately conserved in some tumor cells, leading to their death as a result of chemotherapeutic and/or radiation-induced stress. Many malignant cells, however, have developed ways to subvert apoptosis, a characteristic that constitutes a major clinical problem. Gilmore et al. recently described the ability of ZD1839, a small-molecule inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), to induce apoptosis of mammary cells that are dependent upon growth factors for survival. Furthermore, they showed that the major effector of the EGFR-targeted therapy is BAD, a widely expressed BCL-2 family member. These results are promising in light of the role of the EGFR in breast cancer development
Hagel, Isabel; Giusti, Tatiana
A. lumbricoides is the largest of the common nematode parasites of man and has been associated with intestinal pathology, respiratory symptoms and malnutrition in children from endemic areas. Current anthelmintic treatments have proven to be safe. However, a reduced efficacy of single dose drugs has been reported. In veterinary practice, anthelmintic drug resistance is an irreversible problem. Thus, research and development of sensitive tools for early detection of drug resistance as well as new anthelmintic approaches are urgently needed. In this review, we summarized data providing information about current drug therapy against A. lumbricoides and other intestinal helminths, new drugs in experimental trials, future drugs perspectives and the identification of immunogenic parasite molecules that may be suitable vaccine targets. In addition to the WHO recommended drugs (albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate), new anthelmintic alternatives such as tribendimidine and Nitazoxanide have proved to be safe and effective against A. lumbricoides and other soil-transmitted helminthiases in human trials. Also, some new drugs for veterinary use, monepantel and cyclooctadepsipeptides (e.g., PF1022A), will probably expand future drug spectrum for human treatments. The development of genomic technology has provided a great amount of available nematode DNA sequences, coupled with new gene function data that may lead to the identification of new drug targets through efficient mining of nematode genomic databases. On the other hand, the identification of nematode antigens involved in different parasite vital functions as well as immunomodulatory molecules in animals and humans may contribute to future studies of new therapeutic approaches.
BMTP-11 and BMTP-78. We have two GMP grade drugs geared for IND filing with the FDA. They are targeted to the interleukin 11 receptor (IL-11R) and...Adults Acquiring Lung Cancer Knowledge (P young adults tobacco use remains a major public health problem in spite of the rec in factors of smoking...initiation among ad onsiderable volume of literature is currently avac designing tobacco prevention and cessation among youth. Focusing on this major
Pan-Genome Analysis of Human Gastric Pathogen H. pylori: Comparative Genomics and Pathogenomics Approaches to Identify Regions Associated with Pathogenicity and Prediction of Potential Core Therapeutic Targets
Ali, Amjad; Naz, Anam; Soares, Siomar C.
Helicobacter pylori is a human gastric pathogen implicated as the major cause of peptic ulcer and second leading cause of gastric cancer (similar to 70%) around the world. Conversely, an increased resistance to antibiotics and hindrances in the development of vaccines against H. pylori are observed......-genome approach; the predicted conserved gene families (1,193) constitute similar to 77% of the average H. pylori genome and 45% of the global gene repertoire of the species. Reverse vaccinology strategies have been adopted to identify and narrow down the potential core-immunogenic candidates. Total of 28 nonhost...... homolog proteins were characterized as universal therapeutic targets against H. pylori based on their functional annotation and protein-protein interaction. Finally, pathogenomics and genome plasticity analysis revealed 3 highly conserved and 2 highly variable putative pathogenicity islands in all...
Magnaghi, Paola; Salom, Barbara; Cozzi, Liviana; Amboldi, Nadia; Ballinari, Dario; Tamborini, Elena; Gasparri, Fabio; Montagnoli, Alessia; Raddrizzani, Laura; Somaschini, Alessio; Bosotti, Roberta; Orrenius, Christian; Bozzi, Fabio; Pilotti, Silvana; Galvani, Arturo; Sommer, Josh; Stacchiotti, Silvia; Isacchi, Antonella
Chordomas are rare bone tumors with no approved therapy. These tumors express several activated tyrosine kinase receptors, which prompted attempts to treat patients with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Although clinical benefit was observed in Phase II clinical trials with imatinib and sorafenib, and sporadically also with EGFR inhibitors, therapies evaluated to date have shown modest activity. With the goal of identifying new drugs with immediate therapeutic potential for chordoma patients, we collected clinically approved drugs and other advanced inhibitors of MET, PDGFRβ and EGFR tyrosine kinases, and assessed their anti-proliferative activity against a panel of chordoma cell lines. Chordoma cell lines were not responsive to MET and PDGFRβ inhibitors. U-CH1 and UM-Chor1 were sensitive to all EGFR inhibitors, while the remaining cell lines were generally insensitive to these drugs. Afatinib was the only EGFR inhibitor with activity across the chordoma panel. We then investigated the molecular mechanisms behind the responses observed and found that the anti-proliferative IC50s correlate with the unique ability of afatinib to promote degradation of EGFR and brachyury, an embryonic transcription factor considered a key driver of chordoma. Afatinib displayed potent antitumor efficacy in U-CH1, SF8894, CF322 and CF365 chordoma tumor models in vivo. In the panel analyzed, high EGFR phosphorylation and low AXL and STK33 expression correlated with higher sensitivity to afatinib and deserve further investigation as potential biomarkers of response. These data support the use of afatinib in clinical trials and provide the rationale for the upcoming European phase II study on afatinib in advanced chordoma. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.
Dayan, Dan; Salo, Tuula; Salo, Sirpa; Nyberg, Pia; Nurmenniemi, Sini; Costea, Daniela Elena; Vered, Marilena
We characterized tumor microenvironment (TME) components of mobile tongue (MT) cancer patients in terms of overall inflammatory infiltrate, focusing on the protumorigenic/anti-inflammatory phenotypes and on cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in order to determine their interrelations and associations with clinical outcomes. In addition, by culturing tongue carcinoma cells (HSC-3) on a three-dimensional myoma organotypic model that mimics TME, we attempted to investigate the possible existence of a molecular crosstalk between cancer cells and TME components. Analysis of 64 cases of MT cancer patients revealed that the overall density of the inflammatory infiltrate was inversely correlated to the density of CAFs (P = 0.01), but that the cumulative density of the protumorigenic/anti-inflammatory phenotypes, including regulatory T cells (Tregs, Foxp3+), tumor-associated macrophages (TAM2, CD163+), and potentially Tregs-inducing immune cells (CD80+), was directly correlated with the density of CAFs (P = 0.01). The hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence in a TME rich in CD163+ Foxp3+ CD80+ was 2.9 (95% CI 1.03–8.6, P = 0.043 compared with low in CD163+ Foxp3+ CD80+). The HR for recurrence in a TME rich in CAFs was 4.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–12.8, P = 0.012 compared with low in CAFs). In vitro studies showed cancer-derived exosomes, epithelial–mesenchymal transition process, fibroblast-to-CAF-like cell transdifferentiation, and reciprocal interrelations between different cytokines suggesting the presence of molecular crosstalk between cancer cells and TME components. Collectively, these results highlighted the emerging need of new therapies targeting this crosstalk between the cancer cells and TME components in MT cancer
Cássia G T Silveira
Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: The neural cell adhesion molecule L1CAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein abnormally expressed in tumors and previously associated with cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion, as well as neurite outgrowth in endometriosis. Being an attractive target molecule for antibody-based therapy, the present study assessed the ability of the monoclonal anti-L1 antibody (anti-L1 mAb to impair the development of endometriotic lesions in vivo and endometriosis-associated nerve fiber growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: Endometriosis was experimentally induced in sexually mature B6C3F1 (n=34 and CD-1 nude (n=21 mice by autologous and heterologous transplantation, respectively, of endometrial fragments into the peritoneal cavity. Transplantation was confirmed four weeks post-surgery by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and laparotomy, respectively. Mice were then intraperitoneally injected with anti-L1 mAb or an IgG isotype control antibody twice weekly, over a period of four weeks. Upon treatment completion, mice were sacrificed and endometrial implants were excised, measured and fixed. Endometriosis was histologically confirmed and L1CAM was detected by immunohistochemistry. Endometriotic lesion size was significantly reduced in anti-L1-treated B6C3F1 and CD-1 nude mice compared to mice treated with control antibody (P<0.05. Accordingly, a decreased number of PCNA positive epithelial and stromal cells was detected in autologously and heterologously induced endometriotic lesions exposed to anti-L1 mAb treatment. Anti-L1-treated mice also presented a diminished number of intraperitoneal adhesions at implantation sites compared with controls. Furthermore, a double-blind counting of anti-neurofilament L stained nerves revealed significantly reduced nerve density within peritoneal lesions in anti-L1 treated B6C3F1 mice (P=0.0039. CONCLUSIONS: Local anti-L1 mAb treatment suppressed endometriosis growth in B6C3F1 and CD-1 nude mice and exerted a potent
Full Text Available Junko H Ohyashiki1, Ryoko Hamamura2, Chiaki Kobayashi2, Yu Zhang2, Kazuma Ohyashiki21Intractable Immune System Disease Research Center, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan; 2First Department of Internal Medicine, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: There is a need to identify the regulatory gene interaction of anticancer drugs on target cancer cells. Whole genome expression profiling offers promise in this regard, but can be complicated by the challenge of identifying the genes affected by hundreds to thousands of genes that induce changes in expression. A proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, could be a potential therapeutic agent in treating adult T-cell leukemia (ATL patients, however, the underlying mechanism by which bortezomib induces cell death in ATL cells via gene regulatory network has not been fully elucidated. Here we show that a Bayesian statistical framework by VoyaGene® identified a secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC gene, a tumor-invasiveness related gene, as a possible modulator of bortezomib-induced cell death in ATL cells. Functional analysis using RNAi experiments revealed that inhibition of the expression SPARC by siRNA enhanced the apoptotic effect of bortezomib on ATL cells in accordance with an increase of cleaved caspase 3. Targeting SPARC may help to treat ATL patients in combination with bortezomib. This work shows that a network biology approach can be used advantageously to identify the genetic interaction related to anticancer effects.Keywords: network biology, adult T cell leukemia, bortezomib, SPARC
Plugis, Nicholas M.; Khosla, Chaitan
Celiac disease is a common, lifelong autoimmune disorder for which dietary control is the only accepted form of therapy. A strict gluten-free diet is burdensome to patients and can be limited in efficacy, indicating there is an unmet need for novel therapeutic approaches to supplement or supplant dietary therapy. Many molecular events required for disease pathogenesis have been recently characterized and inspire most current and emerging drug-discovery efforts. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) confirm the importance of human leukocyte antigen genes in our pathogenic model and identify a number of new risk loci in this complex disease. Here, we review the status of both emerging and potential therapeutic strategies in the context of disease pathophysiology. We conclude with a discussion of how genes identified during GWAS and follow-up studies that enhance susceptibility may offer insight into developing novel therapies. PMID:26060114
Greven, Dorothee; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard
Areas covered in this review: Our aim is to discuss MIF-directed therapies as a novel therapeutic approach. The review covers literature from the past 10 years. What the reader will gain: MIF inhibition has been shown to be efficacious in many experimental and pre-clinical studies of autoimmune
Kedmi, Ranit; Veiga, Nuphar; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Goldsmith, Meir; Rosenblum, Daniel; Dammes, Niels; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Nahary, Limor; Leviatan-Ben-Arye, Shani; Harlev, Michael; Behlke, Mark; Benhar, Itai; Lieberman, Judy; Peer, Dan
Previous studies have identified relevant genes and signalling pathways that are hampered in human disorders as potential candidates for therapeutics. Developing nucleic acid-based tools to manipulate gene expression, such as short interfering RNAs1-3 (siRNAs), opens up opportunities for personalized medicine. Yet, although major progress has been made in developing siRNA targeted delivery carriers, mainly by utilizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for targeting4-8, their clinical translation has not occurred. This is in part because of the massive development and production requirements and the high batch-to-batch variability of current technologies, which rely on chemical conjugation. Here we present a self-assembled modular platform that enables the construction of a theoretically unlimited repertoire of siRNA targeted carriers. The self-assembly of the platform is based on a membrane-anchored lipoprotein that is incorporated into siRNA-loaded lipid nanoparticles that interact with the antibody crystallizable fragment (Fc) domain. We show that a simple switch of eight different mAbs redirects the specific uptake of siRNAs by diverse leukocyte subsets in vivo. The therapeutic potential of the platform is demonstrated in an inflammatory bowel disease model by targeting colon macrophages to reduce inflammatory symptoms, and in a Mantle Cell Lymphoma xenograft model by targeting cancer cells to induce cell death and improve survival. This modular delivery platform represents a milestone in the development of precision medicine.
experiments using rat model of human Mesothelioma should also provide leads into the immuno-preventive and immuno- therapeutic approaches to treatments ...experiments involving injection of rat Mesothelioma cells and treatments of the resulting tumors. These experiments will begin as soon as we have...Targets of Mesothelioma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Harvey Pass, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: New York University School of Medicine
Sheikh Tasnim Jahan
Full Text Available In nanomedicine, targeted therapeutic nanoparticle (NP is a virtual outcome of nanotechnology taking the advantage of cancer propagation pattern. Tying up all elements such as therapeutic or imaging agent, targeting ligand, and cross-linking agent with the NPs is the key concept to deliver the payload selectively where it intends to reach. The microenvironment of tumor tissues in lymphatic vessels can also help targeted NPs to achieve their anticipated accumulation depending on the formulation objectives. This review accumulates the application of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA and polyethylene glycol (PEG based NP systems, with a specific perspective in cancer. Nowadays, PLGA, PEG, or their combinations are the mostly used polymers to serve the purpose of targeted therapeutic NPs. Their unique physicochemical properties along with their biological activities are also discussed. Depending on the biological effects from parameters associated with existing NPs, several advantages and limitations have been explored in teaming up all the essential facts to give birth to targeted therapeutic NPs. Therefore, the current article will provide a comprehensive review of various approaches to fabricate a targeted system to achieve appropriate physicochemical properties. Based on such findings, researchers can realize the benefits and challenges for the next generation of delivery systems.
Full Text Available Due to the prominent angiogenesis that occurs in malignant glioma, antiangiogenic therapy has been attempted. There have been several molecular targets that are specific to malignant gliomas, as well as more broadly in systemic cancers. In this review, I will focus on some topics related to molecular therapeutic targets for glioma angiogenesis. First, important angiogenic factors that could be considered molecular targets are VEGF, VEGF-induced proteins on endothelial cells, tissue factor, osteopontin, v3 integrin, and thymidine phosphorylase as well as endogenous inhibitors, soluble Flt1, and thrombospondin 1. Second, hypoxic areas are also decreased by metronomic CPT11 treatment as well as temozolomide. Third, glioma-derived endothelial cells that are genetically and functionally distinct from normal endothelial cells should be targeted, for example, with SDF-1 and CXCR7 chemokine. Fourth, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs likely contribute towards glioma angiogenesis in the brain and could be useful as a drug delivery tool. Finally, blockade of delta-like 4 (Dll4 results in a nonfunctioning vasculature and could be another important target distinct from VEGF.
Florez, Jose C
Current pharmacological options for type 2 diabetes do not cure the disease. Despite the availability of multiple drug classes that modulate glycemia effectively and minimize long-term complications, these agents do not reverse pathogenesis, and in practice they are not selected to correct the molecular profile specific to the patient. Pharmaceutical companies find drug development programs increasingly costly and burdensome, and many promising compounds fail before launch to market. Human genetics can help advance the therapeutic enterprise. Genomic discovery that is agnostic to preexisting knowledge has uncovered dozens of loci that influence glycemic dysregulation. Physiological investigation has begun to define disease subtypes, clarifying heterogeneity and suggesting molecular pathways for intervention. Convincing genetic associations have paved the way for the identification of effector transcripts that underlie the phenotype, and genetic or experimental proof of gain or loss of function in select cases has clarified the direction of effect to guide therapeutic development. Genetic studies can also examine off-target effects and furnish causal inference. As this information is curated and made widely available to all stakeholders, it is hoped that it will enhance therapeutic development pipelines by accelerating efficiency, maximizing cost-effectiveness, and raising ultimate success rates. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.
Léveillé, Nicolas; Melo, Carlos A; Agami, Reuven
Regulation of gene expression involves a variety of mechanisms driven by a complex regulatory network of factors. Control of transcription is an important step in gene expression regulation, which integrates the function of cis-acting and trans-acting elements. Among cis-regulatory elements, enhancer RNA (eRNA)-producing domains recently emerged as widespread and potent regulators of transcription and cell fate decision. Thus, manipulation of eRNA levels becomes a novel and appealing avenue for the design of new therapeutic treatments. In this review, we focus on eRNA-producing domains. We describe mechanisms involved in their cell-type specific selection and activation as well as their epigenetic features. In addition, we present their function and the growing evidences of their deregulation in human diseases. Finally, we discuss eRNAs as potential therapeutic targets. As key factors in the control of transcription, eRNAs appear to possess a great potential for the establishment of new therapy options. However, thorough testing as well as providing the genetic toolbox to target eRNAs will be needed to fully assess the practical and clinical possibilities.
Full Text Available FacioScapuloHumeral muscular Dystrophy (FSHD is one of the most prevalent hereditary myopathies and is generally characterized by progressive muscle atrophy affecting the face, scapular fixators; upper arms and distal lower legs. The FSHD locus maps to a macrosatellite D4Z4 repeat array on chromosome 4q35. Each D4Z4 unit contains a DUX4 gene; the most distal of which is flanked by a polyadenylation site on FSHD-permissive alleles, which allows for production of stable DUX4 mRNAs. In addition, an open chromatin structure is required for DUX4 gene transcription. FSHD thus results from a gain of function of the toxic DUX4 protein that normally is only expressed in germ line and stem cells. Therapeutic strategies are emerging that aim to decrease DUX4 expression or toxicity in FSHD muscle cells. We review here the heterogeneity of DUX4 mRNAs observed in muscle and stem cells; and the use of antisense oligonucleotides (AOs targeting the DUX4 mRNA to interfere either with transcript cleavage/polyadenylation or intron splicing. We show in primary cultures that DUX4-targeted AOs suppress the atrophic FSHD myotube phenotype; but do not improve the disorganized FSHD myotube phenotype which could be caused by DUX4c over-expression. Thus; DUX4c might constitute another therapeutic target in FSHD.
Lopez Sanchez, M I G; Crowston, J G; Mackey, D A; Trounce, I A
Optic neuropathies are an important cause of blindness worldwide. The study of the most common inherited mitochondrial optic neuropathies, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) has highlighted a fundamental role for mitochondrial function in the survival of the affected neuron-the retinal ganglion cell. A picture is now emerging that links mitochondrial dysfunction to optic nerve disease and other neurodegenerative processes. Insights gained from the peculiar susceptibility of retinal ganglion cells to mitochondrial dysfunction are likely to inform therapeutic development for glaucoma and other common neurodegenerative diseases of aging. Despite it being a fast-evolving field of research, a lack of access to human ocular tissues and limited animal models of mitochondrial disease have prevented direct retinal ganglion cell experimentation and delayed the development of efficient therapeutic strategies to prevent vision loss. Currently, there are no approved treatments for mitochondrial disease, including optic neuropathies caused by primary or secondary mitochondrial dysfunction. Recent advances in eye research have provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms that mediate pathogenesis, and new therapeutic strategies including gene correction approaches are currently being investigated. Here, we review the general principles of mitochondrial biology relevant to retinal ganglion cell function and provide an overview of the major optic neuropathies with mitochondrial involvement, LHON and ADOA, whilst highlighting the emerging link between mitochondrial dysfunction and glaucoma. The pharmacological strategies currently being trialed to improve mitochondrial dysfunction in these optic neuropathies are discussed in addition to emerging therapeutic approaches to preserve retinal ganglion cell function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Demicco, Elizabeth G; Maki, Robert G; Lev, Dina C.; Lazar, Alexander J
Soft tissue sarcomas are an uncommon and diverse group of more than 50 mesenchymal malignancies. The pathogenesis of many of these is poorly understood, but others have begun to reveal the secrets of their inner workings. With considerable effort over recent years, soft tissue sarcomas have increasingly been classified on the basis of underlying molecular alterations. In turn, this has allowed the development and application of targeted agents in several specific, molecularly defined, sarcoma subtypes. This review will focus the rationale for targeted therapy in sarcoma, with emphasis on the relevance of specific molecular factors and pathways in both translocation-associated sarcomas and in genetically complex tumors. In addition, we will address some of the early successes in sarcoma targeted therapy as well as a few challenges and disappointments in this field. Finally we will discuss several possible opportunities represented by poorly understood, but potentially promising new therapeutic targets, as well as several novel biologic agents currently in preclinical and early phase I/II trials. This will provide the reader with context for understanding the current state this field and a sense of where it may be headed in the coming years. PMID:22498582
Shane V Hegarty
Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common, progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, aggregation of α-synuclein and motor symptoms. Current dopamine-replacement strategies provide symptomatic relief, however their effectiveness wear off over time and their prolonged use leads to disabling side-effects in PD patients. There is therefore a critical need to develop new drugs and drug targets to protect dopaminergic neurons and their axons from degeneration in PD. Over recent years, there has been robust evidence generated showing that epigenetic dysregulation occurs in PD patients, and that epigenetic modulation is a promising therapeutic approach for PD. This article first discusses the present evidence implicating global, and dopaminergic neuron-specific, alterations in the methylome in PD, and the therapeutic potential of pharmacologically targeting the methylome. It then focuses on another mechanism of epigenetic regulation, histone acetylation, and describes how the histone acetyltransferase (HAT and histone deacetylase (HDAC enzymes that mediate this process are attractive therapeutic targets for PD. It discusses the use of activators and/or inhibitors of HDACs and HATs in models of PD, and how these approaches for the selective modulation of histone acetylation elicit neuroprotective effects. Finally, it outlines the potential of employing small molecule epigenetic modulators as neuroprotective therapies for PD, and the future research that will be required to determine and realise this therapeutic potential.
Vigevano, Federico; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Plouin, Perrine; Specchio, Nicola
Epileptic encephalopathies (EEs) are electroclinical entities with a peculiar course of disease; seizures and electroencephalographic (EEG) epileptiform abnormalities, ictal and interictal, contribute to progressive disturbance of cerebral functions. Frequently EEs are drug resistant, and consequences may be catastrophic. The main goal of treatment is to stop the peculiar course of epilepsy, operating on three parameters: seizure control, reduction of EEG abnormalities, and developmental outcome. For a correct therapeutic approach it is mandatory to have an as accurate as possible syndromic and etiologic diagnosis. Given the poor efficacy of conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the use of specific drugs for EEs, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosteroids or stiripentol is suggested. In some cases the choice of treatment is strictly related to the etiology: vigabatrin in tuberous sclerosis, ketogenic diet in glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) deficiency, and pyridoxine in pyridoxine deficiency. Some AEDs combinations, such as sodium valproate with lamotrigine, have also provided interesting results, for example, in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, although controlled studies are lacking. Finally, early surgery can be an option in children with focal structural abnormalities responsible for EEs preferably before irreversible damage on developmental outcome. Multispecialist support is recommended in EE. Management should be global from the onset, integrating not only seizure control but also all issues related to comorbidities, particularly neuropsychological and psychiatric. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.
Bi, Xiaoning; Sun, Jiandong; Ji, Angela X; Baudry, Michel
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by deficiency of maternally inherited UBE3A, an ubiquitin E3 ligase. Despite recent progress in understanding the mechanism underlying UBE3A imprinting, there is no effective treatment. Further investigation of the roles played by UBE3A in the central nervous system (CNS) is needed for developing effective therapies. This review covers the literature related to genetic classifications of AS, recent discoveries regarding the regulation of UBE3A imprinting, alterations in cell signaling in various brain regions and potential therapeutic approaches. Since a large proportion of AS patients exhibit comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD), potential common molecular bases are discussed. Advances in understanding UBE3A imprinting provide a unique opportunity to induce paternal UBE3A expression, thus targeting the syndrome at its 'root.' However, such efforts have yielded less-than-expected rescue effects in AS mouse models, raising the concern that activation of paternal UBE3A after a critical period cannot correct all the CNS defects that developed in a UBE3A-deficient environment. On the other hand, targeting abnormal downstream cell signaling pathways has provided promising rescue effects in preclinical research. Thus, combined reinstatement of paternal UBE3A expression with targeting abnormal signaling pathways should provide better therapeutic effects.
Full Text Available Integrins are transmembrane receptors that are central to the biology of many human pathologies. Classically mediating cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interaction, and with an emerging role as local activators of TGFβ, they influence cancer, fibrosis, thrombosis and inflammation. Their ligand binding and some regulatory sites are extracellular and sensitive to pharmacological intervention, as proven by the clinical success of seven drugs targeting them. The six drugs on the market in 2016 generated revenues of some US$3.5 billion, mainly from inhibitors of α4-series integrins. In this review we examine the current developments in integrin therapeutics, especially in cancer, and comment on the health economic implications of these developments.
Collins, Ian; Workman, Paul
Cancer drug development is leading the way in exploiting molecular biological and genetic information to develop "personalized" medicine. The new paradigm is to develop agents that target the precise molecular pathology driving the progression of individual cancers. Drug developers have benefited from decades of academic cancer research and from investment in genomics, genetics and automation; their success is exemplified by high-profile drugs such as Herceptin (trastuzumab), Gleevec (imatinib), Tarceva (erlotinib) and Avastin (bevacizumab). However, only 5% of cancer drugs entering clinical trials reach marketing approval. Cancer remains a high unmet medical need, and many potential cancer targets remain undrugged. In this review we assess the status of the discovery and development of small-molecule cancer therapeutics. We show how chemical biology approaches offer techniques for interconnecting elements of the traditional linear progression from gene to drug, thereby providing a basis for increasing speed and success in cancer drug discovery.
Parayath, Neha N; Amiji, Mansoor M
Targeted drug delivery has become extremely important in enhancing efficacy and reducing the toxicity of therapeutics in the treatment of various disease conditions. Current approaches include passive targeting, which relies on naturally occurring differences between healthy and diseased tissues, and active targeting, which utilizes various ligands that can recognize targets expressed preferentially at the diseased site. Clinical translation of these mechanisms faces many challenges including the immunogenic and toxic effects of these non-natural systems. Thus, use of endogenous targeting systems is increasingly gaining momentum. This review is focused on strategies for employing endogenous moieties, which could serve as safe and efficient carriers for targeted drug delivery. The first part of the review involves cells and cellular components as endogenous carriers for therapeutics in multiple disease states, while the second part discusses the use of endogenous plasma components as endogenous carriers. Further understanding of the biological tropism with cells and proteins and the newer generation of delivery strategies that exploits these endogenous approaches promises to provide better solutions for site-specific delivery and could further facilitate clinical translations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
clinical studies for a novel PET imaging tracer in the development process is to evaluate the tracer in nonhuman primates. During this study, the...recruitment process at Fifth Ward Enrichment Center was assisted by the program’s Executive Director; a school counselor at M.R. Wood assisted in...Award Number: W81XWH-05-2-0027 TITLE: IMPACT: Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets
Shtivelman, Emma; Davies, Michael A.; Hwu, Patrick; Yang, James; Lotem, Michal; Oren, Moshe; Flaherty, Keith T.; Fisher, David E.
This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of molecular pathways and their clinical relevance in melanoma. Metastatic melanoma was a grim diagnosis, but in recent years tremendous advances have been made in treatments. Chemotherapy provided little benefit in these patients, but development of targeted and new immune approaches made radical changes in prognosis. This would not have happened without remarkable advances in understanding the biology of disease and tremendous progress in the genomic (and other “omics”) scale analyses of tumors. The big problems facing the field are no longer focused exclusively on the development of new treatment modalities, though this is a very busy area of clinical research. The focus shifted now to understanding and overcoming resistance to targeted therapies, and understanding the underlying causes of the heterogeneous responses to immune therapy. PMID:24743024
Batra, Surabhi; Adekola, Kehinde U A; Rosen, Steven T; Shanmugam, Mala
Cancer is now recognized to be a disease arising from both genetic and metabolic abnormalities. In the mid-1900s, Otto Warburg described the phenomenon of elevated glucose consumption and aerobic glycolysis, and the dependence of cancer cells on this phenomenon for proliferation and growth. The Warburg effect has formed the basis of such diagnostic and prognostic imaging modalities as positron emission tomography (PET); however, we have not yet capitalized on this phenomenon for therapy. Several mechanisms have now been shown to contribute to the Warburg effect.Ongoing studies are attempting to understand the reasons that tumor cells engage in aerobic glycolysis in lieu of oxidative phosphorylation, and the advantages that accrue to them as a result. In this review, we discuss known benefits to tumor cells from this metabolic switch, and we highlight key enzymes that play a role in aerobic glycolysis. We also describe novel therapeutic options targeting glucose metabolism and the importance of continuing to understand the metabolic plasticity of cancer.
Kamat, Pradip K; Kalani, Anuradha; Kyles, Philip; Tyagi, Suresh C; Tyagi, Neetu
The autophagic process is the only known mechanism for mitochondrial turnover and it has been speculated that dysfunction of autophagy may result in mitochondrial error and cellular stress. Emerging investigations have provided new understanding of how autophagy of mitochondria (also known as mitophagy) is associated with cellular oxidative stress and its impact on neurodegeneration. This impaired autophagic function may be considered as a possible mechanism in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington disease. It can be suggested that autophagy dysfunction along with oxidative stress is considered main events in neurodegenerative disorders. New therapeutic approaches have now begun to target mitochondria as a potential drug target. This review discusses evidence supporting the notion that oxidative stress and autophagy are intimately associated with neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis. This review also explores new approaches that can prevent mitochondrial dysfunction, improve neurodegenerative etiology, and also offer possible cures to the aforementioned neurodegenerative diseases.
Grupe, Morten; Grunnet, Morten; Bastlund, Jesper F.
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels broadly involved in regulating neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS) by conducting cation currents through the membrane of neurons. Many different nAChR subtypes exist with each their functional character...... clinical advantages and concerns of PAMs are discussed in the light of the role of α4β2 nAChRs as key regulators of fast synaptic transmission.......The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels broadly involved in regulating neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS) by conducting cation currents through the membrane of neurons. Many different nAChR subtypes exist with each their functional...... be used as a treatment approach in various CNS disorders. As subtype-selective agonists and other cholinergic ligands have only shown limited therapeutic success, the focus of recent drug development endeavours has largely shifted to positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). By potentiating the action...
Donald R. Branch
Full Text Available The vasoactive intestinal peptide/pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypepetide (VPAC receptors are important for many physiologic functions, including glucose homeostasis, neuroprotection, memory, gut function, modulation of the immune system and circadian function. In addition, VPAC receptors have been shown to function in vitro to modulate the infection of HIV by a signal transduction pathway that appears to regulate viral integration. In this article, the affects of VPAC stimulation on HIV infection will be reviewed and approaches for the development of HIV/AIDS therapeutics that target these receptors will be described. Novel HIV/AIDS therapeutics are urgently required to stem the continued spread of this disease, particularly in underdeveloped countries. Drug design to inhibit signaling through VPAC1 and stimulate signaling through VPAC2 could lead to alternative therapies for the treatment and/or prevention of HIV/AIDS.
Dillon, Lloye M.; Miller, Todd W.
Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is one of the most frequently disrupted tumor suppressors in cancer. The lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN antagonizes the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR pathway to repress tumor cell growth and survival. In the nucleus, PTEN promotes chromosome stability and DNA repair. Consequently, loss of PTEN function increases genomic instability. PTEN deficiency is caused by inherited germline mutations, somatic mutations, epigenetic and transcriptional silencing, post-translational modifications, and protein-protein interactions. Given the high frequency of PTEN deficiency across cancer subtypes, therapeutic approaches that exploit PTEN loss-of-function could provide effective treatment strategies. Herein, we discuss therapeutic strategies aimed at cancers with loss of PTEN function, and the challenges involved in treating patients afflicted with such cancers. We review preclinical and clinical findings, and highlight novel strategies under development to target PTEN-deficient cancers. PMID:24387334
Thakur, Roshan Singh; Desingu, Ambika; Basavaraju, Shivakumar; Subramanya, Shreelakshmi; Rao, Desirazu N; Nagaraju, Ganesh
The significance of G-quadruplexes and the helicases that resolve G4 structures in prokaryotes is poorly understood. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is GC-rich and contains >10,000 sequences that have the potential to form G4 structures. In Escherichia coli, RecQ helicase unwinds G4 structures. However, RecQ is absent in M. tuberculosis, and the helicase that participates in G4 resolution in M. tuberculosis is obscure. Here, we show that M. tuberculosis DinG (MtDinG) exhibits high affinity for ssDNA and ssDNA translocation with a 5' → 3' polarity. Interestingly, MtDinG unwinds overhangs, flap structures, and forked duplexes but fails to unwind linear duplex DNA. Our data with DNase I footprinting provide mechanistic insights and suggest that MtDinG is a 5' → 3' polarity helicase. Notably, in contrast to E. coli DinG, MtDinG catalyzes unwinding of replication fork and Holliday junction structures. Strikingly, we find that MtDinG resolves intermolecular G4 structures. These data suggest that MtDinG is a multifunctional structure-specific helicase that unwinds model structures of DNA replication, repair, and recombination as well as G4 structures. We finally demonstrate that promoter sequences of M. tuberculosis PE_PGRS2, mce1R, and moeB1 genes contain G4 structures, implying that G4 structures may regulate gene expression in M. tuberculosis. We discuss these data and implicate targeting G4 structures and DinG helicase in M. tuberculosis could be a novel therapeutic strategy for culminating the infection with this pathogen. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Tomasetti, M.; Amati, M.; Santarelli, L.; Alleva, R.; Neužil, Jiří
Roč. 2, č. 2 (2009), s. 190-206 ISSN 1874-4672 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : malignant mesothelioma * biology * diagnosis and therapeutic approaches Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology
Austermann, Judith; Zenker, Stefanie; Roth, Johannes
In arthritis, inflammatory processes are triggered by numerous factors that are released from joint tissues, promoting joint destruction and pathological progression. During inflammation, a novel family of pro-inflammatory molecules called alarmins is released, amplifying inflammation and joint damage. Areas covered: With regard to the role of the alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 in the pathogenesis of arthritis, recent advances and the future prospects in terms of therapeutic implications are considered. Expert opinion: There is still an urgent need for novel treatment strategies addressing the local mechanisms of joint inflammation and tissue destruction, offering promising therapeutic alternatives. S100A8 and S100A9, which are the most up-regulated alarmins during arthritis, are endogenous triggers of inflammation, defining these proteins as promising targets for local suppression of arthritis. In murine models, the blockade of S100A8/S100A9 ameliorates inflammatory processes, including arthritis, and there are several lines of evidence that S100-alarmins may already be targeted in therapeutic approaches in man.
Colldén, Gustav; Tschöp, Matthias H; Müller, Timo D
Ghrelin was discovered in 1999 as the endogenous ligand of the growth-hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a). Since then, ghrelin has been found to exert a plethora of physiological effects that go far beyond its initial characterization as a growth hormone (GH) secretagogue. Among the numerous well-established effects of ghrelin are the stimulation of appetite and lipid accumulation, the modulation of immunity and inflammation, the stimulation of gastric motility, the improvement of cardiac performance, the modulation of stress, anxiety, taste sensation and reward-seeking behavior, as well as the regulation of glucose metabolism and thermogenesis. Due to a variety of beneficial effects on systems' metabolism, pharmacological targeting of the endogenous ghrelin system is widely considered a valuable approach to treat metabolic complications, such as chronic inflammation, gastroparesis or cancer-associated anorexia and cachexia. The aim of this review is to discuss and highlight the broad pharmacological potential of ghrelin pathway modulation for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia, sarcopenia, cardiopathy, neurodegenerative disorders, renal and pulmonary disease, gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, inflammatory disorders and metabolic syndrome.
Full Text Available Drug medications inevitably affect not only their intended protein targets but also other proteins as well. In this study we examined the hypothesis that drugs that share the same therapeutic effect also share a common therapeutic mechanism by targeting not only known drug targets, but also by interacting unexpectedly on the same cryptic targets. By constructing and mining an Alzheimer's disease (AD drug-oriented chemical-protein interactome (CPI using a matrix of 10 drug molecules known to treat AD towards 401 human protein pockets, we found that such cryptic targets exist. We recovered from CPI the only validated therapeutic target of AD, acetylcholinesterase (ACHE, and highlighted several other putative targets. For example, we discovered that estrogen receptor (ER and histone deacetylase (HDAC, which have recently been identified as two new therapeutic targets of AD, might already have been targeted by the marketed AD drugs. We further established that the CPI profile of a drug can reflect its interacting character towards multi-protein sets, and that drugs with the same therapeutic attribute will share a similar interacting profile. These findings indicate that the CPI could represent the landscape of chemical-protein interactions and uncover "behind-the-scenes" aspects of the therapeutic mechanisms of existing drugs, providing testable hypotheses of the key nodes for network pharmacology or brand new drug targets for one-target pharmacology paradigm.
Di Meco, Antonio; Praticò, Domenico
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. With increasing longevity and the absence of a cure, AD has become not only a major health problem but also a heavy social and economic burden worldwide. Given this public health challenge, and that the current approved therapy for AD is limited to symptomatic treatment (i.e., cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA receptor antagonists), exploration of new molecular pathways as novel therapeutic targets remains an attractive option for disease modifying drug development. microRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA that control gene expression at the post-translational level by inhibiting translation of specific mRNAs or degrading them. Dysregulation of several miRNAs has been described in AD brains. Interestingly, their molecular targets are pathways that are well-established functional players in the onset and development of AD pathogenesis. Today several molecular tools have been developed to modulate miRNA levels in vitro and in vivo. These scientific advancements are affording us for the first time with the real possibility of targeting in vivo these dysregulated miRNAs as a novel therapeutic approach against AD.
Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Elezgarai, Izaskun; Rico-Barrio, Irantzu; Zarandona, Iratxe; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in many physiological regulation pathways in the human body, which makes this system the target of many drugs and therapies. In this review, we highlight the latest studies regarding the role of the ECS and the drugs that target it, with a particular
Full Text Available There is an immense clinical need for novel therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms such as osteosarcomas and bone metastases. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target bone metastases and calcified neoplasms using combined polymer-bound angiogenesis inhibitors. Using an advanced "living polymerization" technique, the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT, we conjugated the aminobisphosphonate alendronate (ALN, and the potent anti-angiogenic agent TNP-470 with N-(2-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA copolymer through a Glycine-Glycine-Proline-Norleucine linker, cleaved by cathepsin K, a cysteine protease overexpressed at resorption sites in bone tissues. In this approach, dual targeting is achieved. Passive accumulation is possible due to the increase in molecular weight following polymer conjugation of the drugs, thus extravasating from the tumor leaky vessels and not from normal healthy vessels. Active targeting to the calcified tissues is achieved by ALN's affinity to bone mineral.The anti-angiogenic and antitumor potency of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We show that free and conjugated ALN-TNP-470 have synergistic anti-angiogenic and antitumor activity by inhibiting proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial and human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Evaluation of anti-angiogenic, antitumor activity and body distribution of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was performed on severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID male mice inoculated with mCherry-labeled MG-63-Ras human osteosarcoma and by modified Miles permeability assay. Our targeted bi-specific conjugate reduced VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability by 92% and remarkably inhibited osteosarcoma growth in mice by 96%.This is the first report to describe a new concept of a narrowly-dispersed combined polymer therapeutic designed to target both tumor and
Byrne, A T
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality for a range of diseases including cancer. The BF(2)-chelated tetraaryl-azadipyrromethenes (ADPMs) are an emerging class of non-porphyrin PDT agent, which have previously shown excellent photochemical and photophysical properties for therapeutic application. Herein, in vivo efficacy and mechanism of action studies have been completed for the lead agent, ADMP06.
Mujić-Delić, A.; de Wit, R.H.; Verkaar, F.; Smit, M.J.
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a major therapeutic target class. A large proportion of marketed drugs exert their effect through modulation of GPCR function, and GPCRs have been successfully targeted with small molecules. Yet, the number of small new molecular entities targeting GPCRs
.... Our approach initially involves investigation of EBV sequences in breast cancer cell lines and specimens, determination of whether treatment with Arginine Butyrate will induce the viral thymidine...
Full Text Available Recent breakthroughs in translational oncology are opening new perspectives for the treatment of cancer. The advent of targeted therapies has provided the proof-of-concept to selectively turn-off deregulated oncogenic proteins, while the identification and validation of predictive biomarkers of response has allowed to improve, at least in some cases, their performance. Moreover, a subpopulation of tumor-propagating cells has been identified from many solid and hematological tumors. These cells share functional properties of normal stem cells, and are commonly referred to as cancer stem cells (CSCs. It is emerging that CSCs are defended against broadly-used anticancer agents by means of different, partly interconnected, mechanisms. However, CSCs rely on specific pathways involved in self-renewal that can be pharmacologically antagonized by experimental molecular targeted agents, some of which have recently entered early phases of clinical development. Here, we discuss the spectrum of pharmacological strategies under clinical or preclinical development for CSCs targeting.
De novo protein design holds promise for creating small stable proteins with shapes customized to bind therapeutic targets. We describe a massively parallel approach for designing, manufacturing and screening mini-protein binders, integrating large-scale computational design, oligonucleotide synthesis, yeast display screening and next-generation sequencing. We designed and tested 22,660 mini-proteins of 37-43 residues that target influenza haemagglutinin and botulinum neurotoxin B, along with 6,286 control sequences to probe contributions to folding and binding, and identified 2,618 high-affinity binders. Comparison of the binding and non-binding design sets, which are two orders of magnitude larger than any previously investigated, enabled the evaluation and improvement of the computational model. Biophysical characterization of a subset of the binder designs showed that they are extremely stable and, unlike antibodies, do not lose activity after exposure to high temperatures. The designs elicit little or no immune response and provide potent prophylactic and therapeutic protection against influenza, even after extensive repeated dosing.
Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder in which the death of brain cells causes memory loss and cognitive decline, i.e., dementia. The disease starts with mild symptoms and gradually becomes severe. AD is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Several different hallmarks of the disease have been reported such as deposits of β-amyloid around neurons, hyperphosphorylated tau protein, oxidative stress, dyshomeostasis of bio-metals, low levels of acetylcholine, etc. AD is not simple to diagnose since there is no single diagnostic test for it. Pharmacotherapy for AD currently provides only symptomatic relief and mostly targets cognitive revival. Computational biology approaches have proved to be reliable tools for the selection of novel targets and therapeutic ligands. Molecular docking is a key tool in computer-assisted drug design and development. Docking has been utilized to perform virtual screening on large libraries of compounds, and propose structural hypotheses of how the ligands bind with the target with lead optimization. Another potential application of docking is optimization stages of the drug-discovery cycle. This review summarizes the known drug targets of AD, in vivo active agents against AD, state-of-the-art docking studies done in AD, and future prospects of the docking with particular emphasis on AD.
Stenvang, Jan; Lindow, Morten; Kauppinen, Sakari
miRNAs (microRNAs) comprise a class of small endogenous non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally repress gene expression by base-pairing with their target mRNAs. Recent evidence has shown that miRNAs play important roles in a wide variety of human diseases, such as viral infections, cancer...
Full Text Available Existing pharmacological treatments for bipolar disorder (BPD and major depressive disorder (MDD are often insufficient for many patients. Here we describe a number of targets/compounds that clinical and preclinical studies suggest could result in putative novel treatments for mood disorders. These include: (1 glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 and protein kinase C (PKC, (2 the purinergic system, (3 histone deacetylases (HDACs, (4 the melatonergic system, (5 the tachykinin neuropeptides system, (6 the glutamatergic system, and (7 oxidative stress and bioenergetics. The paper reviews data on new compounds that have shown antimanic or antidepressant effects in subjects with mood disorders, or similar effects in preclinical animal models. Overall, an improved understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of mood disorders is critical in order to develop targeted treatments that are more effective, act more rapidly, and are better tolerated than currently available therapies.
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0205 TITLE: Novel Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Lupus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lisa Laury-Kleintop...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Novel Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Lupus 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0205 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Systemic lupus erythematosus, autoantibodies. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 7 19a. NAME OF
Waldburger, Jean M; Firestein, Gary S
Advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms in rheumatic disease fostered the advent of the targeted therapeutics era. Intense research activity continues to increase the number of potential targets at an accelerated pace. In this review, examples of promising targets and agents that are at various stages of clinical development are described. Cytokine inhibition remains at the forefront with the success of tumor necrosis factor blockers, and biologics that block interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-17, IL-12, and IL-23 and other cytokines are on the horizon. After the success of rituximab and abatacept, other cell-targeted approaches that inhibit or deplete lymphocytes have moved forward, such as blocking BAFF/BLyS (B-cell activation factor of the tumor necrosis factor family/B-lymphocyte stimulator) and APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand) or suppressing T-cell activation with costimulation molecule blockers. Small-molecule inhibitors might eventually challenge the dominance of biologics in the future. In addition to plasma membrane G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, small molecules can be designed to block intracellular enzymes that control signaling pathways. Inhibitors of tyrosine kinases expressed in lymphocytes, such as spleen tyrosine kinase and Janus kinase, are being tested in autoimmune diseases. Inactivation of the more broadly expressed mitogen-activated protein kinases could suppress inflammation driven by macrophages and mesenchymal cells. Targeting tyrosine kinases downstream of growth factor receptors might also reduce fibrosis in conditions like systemic sclerosis. The abundance of potential targets suggests that new and creative ways of evaluating safety and efficacy are needed.
Simon A. Young
Full Text Available Sphingolipids are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells where they have been attributed a plethora of functions from the formation of structural domains to polarized cellular trafficking and signal transduction. Recent research has identified and characterised many of the key enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism and this has led to a heightened interest in the possibility of targeting these processes for therapies against cancers, Alzheimer's disease, and numerous important human pathogens. In this paper we outline the major pathways in eukaryotic sphingolipid metabolism and discuss these in relation to disease and therapy for both chronic and infectious conditions.
Lee-Ann H Allen
Full Text Available The central role of neutrophils in innate immunity and host defense has long been recognized, and the ability of these cells to efficiently engulf and kill invading bacteria has been extensively studied, as has the role of neutrophil apoptosis in resolution of the inflammatory response. In the past few years additional immunoregulatory properties of neutrophils were discovered, and it is now clear that these cells play a much greater role in control of the immune response than was previously appreciated. In this regard, it is noteworthy that Francisella tularensis is one of relatively few pathogens that can successfully parasitize neutrophils as well as macrophages, DC and epithelial cells. Herein we will review the mechanisms used by F. tularensis to evade elimination by neutrophils. We will also reprise effects of this pathogen on neutrophil migration and lifespan as compared with other infectious and inflammatory disease states. In addition, we will discuss the evidence which suggests that neutrophils contribute to disease progression rather than effective defense during tularemia, and consider whether manipulation of neutrophil migration or turnover may be suitable adjunctive therapeutic strategies.
Is it possible to approach quantum theory in a 'therapeutic' vein that sees its foundational problems as arising from mistaken conceptual presuppositions? The book explores the prospects for this project and, in doing so, discusses such fascinating issues as the nature of quantum states, explanation in quantum theory, and 'quantum non-locality'.
Gennaro Daniele, Fortunato Ciardiello, Giampaolo Tortora : Rational combination of targeted therapies as a strategy to overcome the mechanisms of...16. Ciardiello F, Tortora G. EGFR antagonists in cancer treatment. NEnglJMed 2008;358:1160^74. 17.Cappuzzo F, Ardizzoni A, Soto-Parra H, et al. Epider
Ko, Kichul; Wang, Jianing; Perper, Stuart; Jiang, Yulei; Yanez, Denisse; Kaverina, Natalya; Ai, Junting; Liarski, Vladimir M.; Chang, Anthony; Peng, Yahui; Lan, Li; Westmoreland, Susan; Olson, Lisa; Giger, Maryellen L.; Wang, Li Chun; Clark, Marcus R.
Objective In lupus nephritis (LuN), tubulointerstitial inflammation (TII) is associated with in situ adaptive immune cell networks that amplify local tissue damage. As patients with severe TII often fail conventional therapy and develop renal failure, understanding these in situ mechanisms might reveal new therapeutic targets. We hypothesized that in TII, dysregulated apoptotic regulators maintain local adaptive immunity and drive inflammation. Methods We developed novel computational approaches that, when applied to multicolor confocal images, quantified apoptotic regulator protein expression in selected lymphocyte subsets. This approach was validated using laser capture microdissection (LCM) coupled to qPCR. Furthermore, we explored the consequences of dysregulated apoptotic mediator expression in a murine model of LuN. Results Analyses of renal biopsies from LuN and mixed cellular allograft rejection patients revealed that BCL-2 was frequently expressed in infiltrating lymphocytes while expression of MCL-1 was low. In contrast, the reciprocal pattern of expression was observed in tonsil germinal centers. These results were consistent with RNA expression data obtained using LCM and qPCR. BCL-2 was also highly expressed in tubulointerstitial infiltrates of NZB/W F1 mice. Furthermore, treatment of NZB/W F1 mice with ABT-199, a selective oral inhibitor of BCL-2, prolonged survival and prevented proteinuria and development of TII in a prevention model. Interestingly, glomerular immune complexes were partially ameliorated by ABT-199 and serum anti-dsDNA antibody titers were unaffected. Conclusion These data demonstrate BCL-2 as an attractive therapeutic target in LuN manifesting TII. PMID:27159593
Ralph A. Tripp
Full Text Available Bridging high-throughput screening (HTS with RNA interference (RNAi has allowed for rapid discovery of the molecular basis of many diseases, and identification of potential pathways for developing safe and effective treatments. These features have identified new host gene targets for existing drugs paving the pathway for therapeutic drug repositioning. Using RNAi to discover and help validate new drug targets has also provided a means to filter and prioritize promising therapeutics. This review summarizes these approaches across a spectrum of methods and targets in the host response to pathogens. Particular attention is given to the utility of drug repurposing utilizing the promiscuous nature of some drugs that affect multiple molecules or pathways, and how these biological pathways can be targeted to regulate disease outcome.
Huizing, A.G.; Groen, F.C.A.
Abstract: This chapter describes an alternative to the Bayesian approach to target classification that is based on possibility theory. A possibilistic classifier minimizes the maximum cost of the classification decision taking into account the a posteriori possibilities of the target classes given
Dang, Chi V; Hamaker, Max; Sun, Peng; Le, Anne; Gao, Ping
In 1927, Otto Warburg and coworkers reported the increased uptake of glucose and production of lactate by tumors in vivo as compared with normal tissues. This phenomenon, now known as the Warburg effect, was recapitulated in vitro with cancer tissue slices exhibiting excessive lactate production even with adequate oxygen. Warburg's in vivo studies of tumors further suggest that the dependency of tumors in vivo on glucose could be exploited for therapy, because reduction of arterial glucose by half resulted in a four-fold reduction in tumor fermentation. Recent work in cancer metabolism indicates that the Warburg effect or aerobic glycolysis contributes to redox balance and lipid synthesis, but glycolysis is insufficient to sustain a growing and dividing cancer cell. In this regard, glutamine, which contributes its carbons to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, has been re-discovered as an essential bioenergetic and anabolic substrate for many cancer cell types. Could alterations in cancer metabolism be exploited for therapy? Here, we address this question by reviewing current concepts of normal metabolism and altered metabolism in cancer cells with specific emphasis on molecular targets involved directly in glycolysis or glutamine metabolism.
Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is a highly aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. Current treatment is rarely curative, thus novel meaningful therapies are urgently needed. Inhibition of Hedgehog (Hh signaling at the cell membrane level in several cancers has shown anti-cancer activity in recent clinical studies. Evidence of Hh-independent Gli activation suggests Gli as a more potent therapeutic target. The current study is aimed to evaluate the potential of Gli as a therapeutic target to treat MPM. The expression profiles of Gli factors and other Hh signaling components were characterized in 46 MPM patient tissue samples by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Cultured cell lines were employed to investigate the requirement of Gli activation in tumor cell growth by inhibiting Gli through siRNA or a novel small molecule Gli inhibitor (Gli-I. A xenograft model was used to evaluate Gli-I in vivo. In addition, a side by side comparison between Gli and Smoothened (Smo inhibition was conducted in vitro using siRNA and small molecule inhibitors. Our study reported aberrant Gli1 and Gli2 activation in a large majority of tissues. Inhibition of Gli by siRNAs or Gli-I suppressed cell growth dramatically both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of Gli exhibited better cytotoxicity than that of Smo by siRNA and small molecule inhibitors vismodegib and cyclopamine. Combination of Gli-I and pemetrexed, as well as Gli-I and vismodegib demonstrated synergistic effects in suppression of MPM proliferation in vitro. In summary, Gli activation plays a critical role in MPM. Inhibition of Gli function holds strong potential to become a novel, clinically effective approach to treat MPM.
Gottschalk, Timothy A.; Tsantikos, Evelyn; Hibbs, Margaret L.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, lupus) is a highly complex and heterogeneous autoimmune disease that most often afflicts women in their child-bearing years. It is characterized by circulating self-reactive antibodies that deposit in tissues, including skin, kidneys, and brain, and the ensuing inflammatory response can lead to irreparable tissue damage. Over many years, clinical trials in SLE have focused on agents that control B- and T-lymphocyte activation, and, with the single exception of an agent known as belimumab which targets the B-cell survival factor BAFF, they have been disappointing. At present, standard therapy for SLE with mild disease is the agent hydroxychloroquine. During disease flares, steroids are often used, while the more severe manifestations with major organ involvement warrant potent, broad-spectrum immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate. Current treatments have severe and dose-limiting toxicities and thus a more specific therapy targeting a causative factor or signaling pathway would be greatly beneficial in SLE treatment. Moreover, the ability to control inflammation alongside B-cell activation may be a superior approach for disease control. There has been a recent focus on the innate immune system and associated inflammation, which has uncovered key players in driving the pathogenesis of SLE. Delineating some of these intricate inflammatory mechanisms has been possible with studies using spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice. These strains, to varying degrees, exhibit hallmarks of the human disease and therefore have been utilized to model human SLE and to test new drugs. Developing a better understanding of the initiation and perpetuation of disease in SLE may uncover suitable novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we discuss the involvement of inflammation in SLE disease pathogenesis, with a focus on several key proinflammatory cytokines and myeloid growth factors, and review the known
Timothy Andrew Gottschalk
Full Text Available Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE, lupus is a highly complex and heterogeneous autoimmune disease that most often afflicts women in their child-bearing years. It is characterized by circulating self-reactive antibodies that deposit in tissues including skin, kidneys and brain, and the ensuing inflammatory response can lead to irreparable tissue damage. Over many years, clinical trials in SLE have focused on agents that control B and T lymphocyte activation, and, with the single exception of an agent known as Belimumab which targets the B cell survival factor BAFF, they have been disappointing. At present, standard therapy for SLE with mild disease is the agent hydroxychloroquine. During disease flares, steroids are often used, while the more severe manifestations with major organ involvement warrant potent, broad-spectrum immuno-suppression with cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate. Current treatments have severe and dose-limiting toxicities and thus a more specific therapy targeting a causative factor or signaling pathway would be greatly beneficial in SLE treatment. Moreover, the ability to control inflammation alongside B cell activation may be a superior approach for disease control. There has been a recent focus on the innate immune system and associated inflammation, which has uncovered key players in driving the pathogenesis of SLE. Delineating some of these intricate inflammatory mechanisms has been possible with studies using spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice. These strains, to varying degrees, exhibit hallmarks of the human disease and therefore have been utilized to model human SLE and to test new drugs. Developing a better understanding of the initiation and perpetuation of disease in SLE may uncover suitable novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we discuss the involvement of inflammation in SLE disease pathogenesis, with a focus on several key proinflammatory cytokines and myeloid growth factors, and
A combinatorial relative mass value evaluation of endogenous bioactive proteins in three-dimensional cultured nucleus pulposus cells of herniated intervertebral discs: identification of potential target proteins for gene therapeutic approaches.
Demissew S Mern
Full Text Available Painful degenerative disc diseases have been targeted by different biological treatment approaches. Nucleus pulposus (NP cells play a central role in intervertebral disc (IVD maintenance by orchestrating catabolic, anabolic and inflammatory factors that affect the extracellular matrix. IVD degeneration is associated with imbalances of these factors, resulting in a catabolic inflammatory metabolism. Therefore, accurate knowledge about their quantity and quality with regard to matrix synthesis is vital for a rational gene therapeutic approach. NP cells were isolated from 63 patients operated due to lumbar disc herniation (mean age 56 / range 29 - 84 years. Then, three-dimensional culture with low-glucose was completed in a collagen type I scaffold for four weeks. Subsequently cell proliferation evaluation was performed using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and intracellular concentration of 28 endogenously expressed anabolic, catabolic, inflammatory factors and relevant matrix proteins was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Specimen-related grades of degeneration were confirmed by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Independent from gender, age and grade of degeneration proliferation rates remained similar in all groups of NP cells. Progressive grades of degeneration, however, showed a significant influence on accumulation of selective groups of factors such as disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4 and 5, matrix metalloproteinase 3, metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 and 2, interleukin-1β and interleukin-1 receptor. Along with these changes, the key NP matrix proteins aggrecan and collagen II decreased significantly. The concentration of anabolic factors bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4, 6 and 7, insulin-like growth factor 1, transforming growth factor beta 1 and 3, however, remained below the minimal detectable quantities. These findings indicate that progressive degenerative
Abstract Mitochondrial function and specifically its implication in cellular redox/oxidative balance is fundamental in controlling the life and death of cells, and has been implicated in a wide range of human pathologies. In this context, mitochondrial therapeutics, particularly those involving mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, have attracted increasing interest as potentially effective therapies for several human diseases. For the past 10 years, great progress has been made in the development and functional testing of molecules that specifically target mitochondria, and there has been special focus on compounds with antioxidant properties. In this review, we will discuss several such strategies, including molecules conjugated with lipophilic cations (e.g., triphenylphosphonium) or rhodamine, conjugates of plant alkaloids, amino-acid- and peptide-based compounds, and liposomes. This area has several major challenges that need to be confronted. Apart from antioxidants and other redox active molecules, current research aims at developing compounds that are capable of modulating other mitochondria-controlled processes, such as apoptosis and autophagy. Multiple chemically different molecular strategies have been developed as delivery tools that offer broad opportunities for mitochondrial manipulation. Additional studies, and particularly in vivo approaches under physiologically relevant conditions, are necessary to confirm the clinical usefulness of these molecules. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 686–729. PMID:25546574
Plotkin, Lilian I; Bellido, Teresita
Osteocytes are differentiated osteoblasts that become surrounded by matrix during the process of bone formation. Acquisition of the osteocyte phenotype is achieved by profound changes in gene expression that facilitate adaptation to the changing cellular environment and constitute the molecular signature of osteocytes. During osteocytogenesis, the expression of genes that are characteristic of the osteoblast are altered and the expression of genes and/or proteins that impart dendritic cellular morphology, regulate matrix mineralization and control the function of cells at the bone surface are ordely modulated. The discovery of mutations in human osteocytic genes has contributed, in a large part, to our understanding of the role of osteocytes in bone homeostasis. Osteocytes are targets of the mechanical force imposed on the skeleton and have a critical role in integrating mechanosensory pathways with the action of hormones, which thereby leads to the orchestrated response of bone to environmental cues. Current, therapeutic approaches harness this accumulating knowledge by targeting osteocytic signalling pathways and messengers to improve skeletal health.
Shen, Gengyang; Ren, Hui; Qiu, Ting; Zhang, Zhida; Zhao, Wenhua; Yu, Xiang; Huang, Jinjing; Tang, Jingjing; Liang, De; Yao, Zhensong; Yang, Zhidong; Jiang, Xiaobing
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a key role in sensing and integrating large amounts of environmental cues to regulate organismal growth, homeostasis, and many major cellular processes. Recently, mounting evidences highlight its roles in regulating bone homeostasis, which sheds light on the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. The activation/inhibition of mTOR signaling is reported to positively/negatively regulate bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)/osteoblasts-mediated bone formation, adipogenic differentiation, osteocytes homeostasis, and osteoclasts-mediated bone resorption, which result in the changes of bone homeostasis, thereby resulting in or protect against osteoporosis. Given the likely importance of mTOR signaling in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, here we discuss the detailed mechanisms in mTOR machinery and its association with osteoporosis therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yang, Shikun; Han, Yachun; Liu, Jun; Song, Panai; Xu, Xiaoxuan; Zhao, Li; Hu, Chun; Xiao, Li; Liu, Fuyou; Zhang, Hao; Sun, Lin
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is an important diabetic microvascular complication, and it is becoming the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Unfortunately, there are no effective therapies to treat established DN. Therefore, new therapeutic targets are urgently required. Accumulating studies indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of DN, and therapies targeted mitochondria might effectively delay the progression of DN. A structured search of previously research literature about mitochondrial structure and function, mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial dynamics change, mitophagy, mitochondrial ROS, mitochondrial apoptosis and therapies targeted mitochondria has been performed in several databases. 176 papers were included in this review, the results from these papers indicated that mitochondrial dysfunction is a pivotal issue for the development of DN, such as elevated oxidative stress induced by disorders of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex and mitochondrial dynamic disorders, mutation of mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial abnormal biogenesis, mitochondrial excessive fission, mitochondrial ROS overproduction. In addition, several therapeutic agents targeting the mitochondria (e.g mitochondrial ROS modulators, mitochondrial fragmentation inhibitors and mitochondrial biogenesis activators) have shown perfect therapeutic effect and security for DN. The finding of this review has further confirmed the vital role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the progression of DN, management strategies for recovering the normal mitochondrial function will offer potential novel therapeutic targets for DN. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Pacheco, Ivan; Buzea, Cristina; Tron, Victor
Recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the initiation and progression of melanoma has created new opportunities for developing novel therapeutic modalities to manage this potentially lethal disease. Although at first glance, melanoma carcinogenesis appears to be a chaotic system, it is indeed, arguably, a deterministic multistep process involving sequential alterations of proto-oncogenes, tumour suppressors and miRNA genes. The scope of this article is to discuss the most recent and significant advances in melanoma molecular therapeutics. It is apparent that using single agents targeting solely individual melanoma pathways might be insufficient for long-term survival. However, the outstanding results on melanoma survival observed with novel selective inhibitors of B-RAF, such as PLX4032 give hope that melanoma can be cured. The fact that melanoma develops acquired resistance to PLX4032 emphasises the importance of simultaneously targeting several pathways. Because the most striking feature of melanoma is its unsurpassed ability to metastasise, it is important to implement newer systems for drug delivery adapted from research on stem cells and nanotechnology.
Ho, Mingqian Feng, Mitchell
Glypican-3 (GPC3) is an emerging therapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), even though the biological function of GPC3 remains elusive. Currently human (MDX-1414 and HN3) and humanized mouse (GC33 and YP7) antibodies that target GPC3 for HCC treatment are under different stages of preclinical or clinical development. Humanized mouse antibody GC33 is being evaluated in a phase II clinical trial. Human antibodies MDX-1414 and HN3 are under different stages of preclinical evaluation....
Mak, Lung-Yi; Wong, Danny Ka-Ho; Seto, Wai-Kay; Lai, Ching-Lung; Yuen, Man Fung
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is difficult to cure, due to the presence of covalently-closed-circular DNA and virus-mediated blunting of host immune response. Existing therapies with nucleos(t)ide analogue or pegylated-interferon are not sufficient to achieve a high rate of HBV surface antigen seroclearance, a more desirable treatment outcome. Novel therapeutic agents targeting alternative viral replication steps are being developed. In this review, we will discuss the hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) as a therapeutic target. Areas covered: The basic structure and fundamental functions of HBcAg including nucleocapsid assembly, pre-genomic RNA encapsidation, reverse transcription, virion formation, cccDNA amplification, immune response regulation, and HBx protein interaction will be reviewed. Most of these are identified as therapeutic targets and tested in in vitro and in vivo studies, although clinical trials are scanty. Among the different components, the core protein allosteric modulators (CpAM) have been most widely investigated and appear promising in clinical trials. Expert opinion: The multiple and essential functions of HBcAg for HBV life cycle are important and attractive targets for HBV therapeutic interventions. Controlled trials involving CpAM are awaited. Apart from CpAM, drugs directed against different functions of HBcAg may be further explored to maximize the chance of cure.
Wilken Jason A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early studies have demonstrated comparable levels of HER2/ErbB2 expression in both breast and ovarian cancer. Trastuzumab (Herceptin, a therapeutic monoclonal antibody directed against HER2, is FDA-approved for the treatment of both early and late stage breast cancer. However, clinical studies of trastuzumab in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC patients have not met the same level of success. Surprisingly, however, no reports have examined either the basis for primary trastuzumab resistance in ovarian cancer or potential ways of salvaging trastuzumab as a potential ovarian cancer therapeutic. Methods An in vitro model of primary trastuzumab-resistant ovarian cancer was created by long-term culture of HER2-positive ovarian carcinoma-derived cell lines with trastuzumab. Trastuzumab treated vs. untreated parental cells were compared for HER receptor expression, trastuzumab sensitivity, and sensitivity to other HER-targeted therapeutics. Results In contrast to widely held assumptions, here we show that ovarian cancer cells that are not growth inhibited by trastuzumab are still responsive to trastuzumab. Specifically, we show that responsiveness to alternative HER-targeted inhibitors, such as gefitinib and cetuximab, is dramatically potentiated by long-term trastuzumab treatment of ovarian cancer cells. HER2-positive ovarian carcinoma-derived cells are, therefore, not "unresponsive" to trastuzumab as previously assumed, even when they not growth inhibited by this drug. Conclusions Given the recent success of EGFR-targeted therapeutics for the treatment of other solid tumors, and the well-established safety profile of trastuzumab, results presented here provide a rationale for re-evaluation of trastuzumab as an experimental ovarian cancer therapeutic, either in concert with, or perhaps as a "primer" for EGFR-targeted therapeutics.
Anliker, Brigitte; Renner, Matthias; Schweizer, Matthias
Medicinal products containing genetically modified cells are, in most cases, classified as gene therapy and cell therapy medicinal products. Although no medicinal product containing genetically modified cells has been licensed in Europe yet, a variety of therapeutic strategies using genetically modified cells are in different stages of clinical development for the treatment of acquired and inherited diseases. In this chapter, several examples of promising approaches are presented, with an emphasis on gene therapy for inherited immunodeficiencies and on tumour immunotherapy with genetically modified T-cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor or a recombinant T-cell receptor.
Sabrina Daniela Silva
Full Text Available Oral cancer cavity (OCC is associated with high incidence of loco-regional recurrences, which account for the majority of treatment failures post-surgery and radiotherapy. The time-course of relapse manifestation and metastasis are unpredictable. Relapsed OCC represents a major clinical challenge in part due to their aggressive and invasive behaviors. Chemotherapy remains the only option for advanced OCC whenever salvage surgery or re-irradiation is not feasible, but its efficacy is limited as a result of the drug resistance development. Alternatives to use of different permutations of standard cytotoxic drugs or combinations with modulators of drug resistance have led to incremental therapeutic benefits. The introduction of targeted agents and biologics against selective targets that drive cancer progression has opened-up optimism to achieve superior therapeutic activity and overcome drug resistance because, unlike the non-selective cytotoxic, the target can be monitored at molecular levels to identify patients who can benefit from the drug. This review discusses the multifactorial aspects of clinical drug resistance and emerging therapeutic approaches in recurrent OCC, emphasizing recent advances in targeted therapies, immunotherapy, and potential relevance of new concepts such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell hypothesis to drug resistance.
Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is the most common malignancy in children. Although it is now curable in 80-90% of cases, patients with T-ALL experience a higher frequency of induction failure and early relapse. Despite aggressive treatment approaches, including transplantation and new salvage regimens, most children with relapsed T-ALL will not be cured. As such, we are in need of new targeted therapies for the disease. Recent advances in the molecular characterization of T-ALL have uncovered a number of new therapeutic targets. This review will summarize recent advancements in the study of inhibiting the NOTCH1, PI3K-AKT and Cyclin D3:CDK4/6 pathways as therapeutic strategies for T-ALL. We will focus on preclinical studies supporting the testing of small-molecule inhibitors targeting these proteins and the rationale of combination therapies. Moreover, epigenetic approaches to modulate T-ALL are rapidly emerging. Here we will discuss the data supporting the role of BET bromodomain inhibitors in human T-ALL.
Jhanwar-Uniyal, Meena, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Labagnara, Michael; Friedman, Marissa; Kwasnicki, Amanda; Murali, Raj [Department of Neurosurgery, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States)
Glioblastoma (GBM), a WHO-defined Grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common and aggressive CNS malignancy. Despite current treatment modalities, the survival time remains dismal. The main cause of mortality in patients with this disease is reoccurrence of the malignancy, which is attributed to treatment-resistant cancer stem cells within and surrounding the primary tumor. Inclusion of novel therapies, such as immuno- and DNA-based therapy, may provide better means of treating GBM. Furthermore, manipulation of recently discovered non-coding microRNAs, some of which regulate tumor growth through the development and maintenance of GBM stem cells, could provide new prospective therapies. Studies conducted by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) also demonstrate the role of molecular pathways, specifically the activated PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, in GBM tumorigenesis. Inhibition of the aforementioned pathway may provide a more direct and targeted method to GBM treatment. The combination of these treatment modalities may provide an innovative therapeutic approach for the management of GBM.
Liu, Zhongwu; Chopp, Michael
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type within the central nervous system. They play essential roles in maintaining normal brain function, as they are a critical structural and functional part of the tripartite synapses and the neurovascular unit, and communicate with neurons, oligodendrocytes and endothelial cells. After an ischemic stroke, astrocytes perform multiple functions both detrimental and beneficial, for neuronal survival during the acute phase. Aspects of the astrocytic inflammatory response to stroke may aggravate the ischemic lesion, but astrocytes also provide benefit for neuroprotection, by limiting lesion extension via anti-excitotoxicity effects and releasing neurotrophins. Similarly, during the late recovery phase after stroke, the glial scar may obstruct axonal regeneration and subsequently reduce the functional outcome; however, astrocytes also contribute to angiogenesis, neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, and axonal remodeling, and thereby promote neurological recovery. Thus, the pivotal involvement of astrocytes in normal brain function and responses to an ischemic lesion designates them as excellent therapeutic targets to improve functional outcome following stroke. In this review, we will focus on functions of astrocytes and astrocyte-mediated events during stroke and recovery. We will provide an overview of approaches on how to reduce the detrimental effects and amplify the beneficial effects of astrocytes on neuroprotection and on neurorestoration post stroke, which may lead to novel and clinically relevant therapies for stroke. PMID:26455456
Kotiyal, Srishti; Bhattacharya, Susinjan, E-mail: email@example.com
Highlights: • Therapeutic targeting or inhibition of the key molecules of signaling pathways can control growth of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). • Development of BCSCs also involves miRNA interactions. • Therapeutic achievement can be done by targeting identified targets in the BCSC pathways. - Abstract: A small heterogeneous population of breast cancer cells acts as seeds to induce new tumor growth. These seeds or breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) exhibit great phenotypical plasticity which allows them to undergo “epithelial to mesenchymal transition” (EMT) at the site of primary tumor and a future reverse transition. Apart from metastasis they are also responsible for maintaining the tumor and conferring it with drug and radiation resistance and a tendency for post-treatment relapse. Many of the signaling pathways involved in induction of EMT are involved in CSC generation and regulation. Here we are briefly reviewing the mechanism of TGF-β, Wnt, Notch, TNF-α, NF-κB, RTK signalling pathways which are involved in EMT as well as BCSCs maintenance. Therapeutic targeting or inhibition of the key/accessory players of these pathways could control growth of BCSCs and hence malignant cancer. Additionally several miRNAs are dysregulated in cancer stem cells indicating their roles as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. This review also lists the miRNA interactions identified in BCSCs and discusses on some newly identified targets in the BCSC regulatory pathways like SHIP2, nicastrin, Pin 1, IGF-1R, pro-inflammatory cytokines and syndecan which can be targeted for therapeutic achievements.
Kotiyal, Srishti; Bhattacharya, Susinjan
Highlights: • Therapeutic targeting or inhibition of the key molecules of signaling pathways can control growth of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). • Development of BCSCs also involves miRNA interactions. • Therapeutic achievement can be done by targeting identified targets in the BCSC pathways. - Abstract: A small heterogeneous population of breast cancer cells acts as seeds to induce new tumor growth. These seeds or breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) exhibit great phenotypical plasticity which allows them to undergo “epithelial to mesenchymal transition” (EMT) at the site of primary tumor and a future reverse transition. Apart from metastasis they are also responsible for maintaining the tumor and conferring it with drug and radiation resistance and a tendency for post-treatment relapse. Many of the signaling pathways involved in induction of EMT are involved in CSC generation and regulation. Here we are briefly reviewing the mechanism of TGF-β, Wnt, Notch, TNF-α, NF-κB, RTK signalling pathways which are involved in EMT as well as BCSCs maintenance. Therapeutic targeting or inhibition of the key/accessory players of these pathways could control growth of BCSCs and hence malignant cancer. Additionally several miRNAs are dysregulated in cancer stem cells indicating their roles as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. This review also lists the miRNA interactions identified in BCSCs and discusses on some newly identified targets in the BCSC regulatory pathways like SHIP2, nicastrin, Pin 1, IGF-1R, pro-inflammatory cytokines and syndecan which can be targeted for therapeutic achievements
Alsharif, Naser Z.; And Others
Explains structurally based therapeutic evaluation of drugs, which uses seven therapeutic criteria in translating chemical and structural knowledge into therapeutic decision making in pharmaceutical care. In a Creighton University (Nebraska) medicinal chemistry course, students apply the approach to solve patient-related therapeutic problems in…
Sima, Corneliu; Van Dyke, Thomas E.
The increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic periodontitis (CP) worldwide imposes a rethinking of individualized therapy for patients with both conditions. Central to bidirectional links between DM and CP is deregulated systemic inflammation and dysfunctional immune responses to altered-self and non-self. Control of blood glucose levels and metabolic imbalances associated with hyperglycemia in DM, and disruption of pathogenic subgingival biofilms in CP are currently the main therapeutic approaches for these conditions. Mounting evidence suggests the need to integrate immune modulatory therapeutics in treatment regimens that address the unresolved inflammation associated with DM and CP. The current review discusses the pathogenesis of DM and CP with emphasis on deregulated inflammation, current therapeutic approaches and the novel pro-resolution lipid mediators derived from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26881443
Alexandre Fogaça Cristante
Full Text Available This study reviews the literature concerning possible therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a disabling and irreversible condition that has high economic and social costs. There are both primary and secondary mechanisms of damage to the spinal cord. The primary lesion is the mechanical injury itself. The secondary lesion results from one or more biochemical and cellular processes that are triggered by the primary lesion. The frustration of health professionals in treating a severe spinal cord injury was described in 1700 BC in an Egyptian surgical papyrus that was translated by Edwin Smith; the papyrus reported spinal fractures as a ''disease that should not be treated.'' Over the last biological or pharmacological treatment method. Science is unraveling the mechanisms of cell protection and neuroregeneration, but clinically, we only provide supportive care for patients with spinal cord injuries. By combining these treatments, researchers attempt to enhance the functional recovery of patients with spinal cord injuries. Advances in the last decade have allowed us to encourage the development of experimental studies in the field of spinal cord regeneration. The combination of several therapeutic strategies should, at minimum, allow for partial functional recoveries for these patients, which could improve their quality of life.
Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins are overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. Therefore, they are considered as promising targets for the design of therapeutic strategies. Smac mimetics mimic the endogenous mitochondrial protein Smac that antagonizes IAP proteins upon its release into the cytosol. Multiple preclinical studies have documented the ability of Smac mimetics to either directly induce cell death of cancer cells or to prime them to agents that trigger cell death. At present, several Smac mimetics are being evaluated in early clinical trials. The current review provides an overview on the potential of Smac mimetics as cancer therapeutics to target IAP proteins for cancer therapy. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bauer, Robert C; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Hand, Nicholas J; Rader, Daniel J
Human genetics has contributed to the development of multiple drugs to treat hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease (CAD), most recently including antibodies targeting PCSK9 to reduce LDL cholesterol. Despite these successes, a large burden of CAD remains. Genetic and epidemiological studies have suggested that circulating triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are a causal risk factor for CAD, presenting an opportunity for novel therapeutic strategies. We discuss recent unbiased human genetics testing, including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and whole-genome or -exome sequencing, that have identified the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipogenesis pathways as important mechanisms in the regulation of circulating TRLs. Further strengthening the causal relationship between TRLs and CAD, findings such as these may provide novel targets for much-needed potential therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Sladojevic, Nikola; Yu, Brian; Liao, James K
Stroke is a major cause of disability and the fifth leading cause of death. Currently, the only approved acute medical treatment of ischemic stroke is tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), but its effectiveness is greatly predicated upon early administration of the drug. There is, therefore, an urgent need to find new therapeutic options for acute stroke. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize the role of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinase (ROCK) and its potential as a therapeutic target in stroke pathophysiology. ROCK is a major regulator of cell contractility, motility, and proliferation. Many of these ROCK-mediated processes in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, astrocytes, glia, neurons, leukocytes, and platelets are important in stroke pathophysiology, and the inhibition of such processes could improve stroke outcome. Expert commentary: ROCK is a potential therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease and ROCK inhibitors have already been approved for human use in Japan and China for the treatment of acute stroke. Further studies are needed to determine the role of ROCK isoforms in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia and whether there are further therapeutic benefits with selective ROCK inhibitors.
Krishnan, Harini; Rayes, Julie; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Ishii, Genichiro; Retzbach, Edward P; Sheehan, Stephanie A; Takemoto, Ai; Chang, Yao-Wen; Yoneda, Kazue; Asai, Jun; Jensen, Lasse; Chalise, Lushun; Natsume, Atsushi; Goldberg, Gary S
Podoplanin (PDPN) is a transmembrane receptor glycoprotein that is upregulated on transformed cells, cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and inflammatory macrophages that contribute to cancer progression. In particular, PDPN increases tumor cell clonal capacity, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration, invasion, metastasis, and inflammation. Antibodies, CAR-T cells, biologics, and synthetic compounds that target PDPN can inhibit cancer progression and septic inflammation in preclinical models. This review describes recent advances in how PDPN may be used as a biomarker and therapeutic target for many types of cancer including glioma, squamous cell carcinoma, mesothelioma, and melanoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Ligand-gated ion channels (LGIC play a central role in inter-cellular communication. This key function has two consequences: (i these receptor channels are major targets for drug discovery because of their potential involvement in numerous human brain diseases; (ii they are often found to be the target of plant and animal toxins. Together this makes toxin/receptor interactions important to drug discovery projects. Therefore, toxins acting on LGIC are presented and their current/potential therapeutic uses highlighted.
Zarrabi, Kevin; Wu, Shenhong
The treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma has evolved dramatically over recent years. In this review, we will summarize current and emerging therapies based on molecular targets and provide insight into treatment strategy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We have witnessed a paradigm shift in the therapeutic landscape as treatment was formerly reliant on cytokine-based agents which have now been replaced with therapies targeting angiogenesis, mammalian target of rapamycin pathways, and immune responses. These dramatic changes are primarily due to our improved understanding of the underlying mutations and molecular mechanisms leading to tumorigenesis and progression. We now have targeted agents in the form of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and mTOR inhibitors. Moreover, immunotherapy-targeting checkpoints of T-lymphocyte activity has provided increased overall survival and a new class of agents with potential to radically change the treatment options. With these agents and their combination, durable responses are increasingly seen even though treatment resistance remains a huge challenge. New treatment strategies are rapidly developing and the therapeutic landscape is expected for further evolution.
Sarrouilhe, D; Dejean, C
Major depressive disorder is a multifactorial chronic and debilitating mood disease with high lifetime prevalence and is associated with excess mortality, especially from cardiovascular diseases and through suicide. The treatments of this disease with tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors are poorly tolerated and those that selectively target serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake are not effective in all patients, showing the need to find new therapeutic targets. Post-mortem studies of brains from patients with major depressive disorders described a reduced expression of the gap junction-forming membrane proteins connexin 30 and connexin 43 in the prefrontal cortex and the locus coeruleus. The use of chronic unpredictable stress, a rodent model of depression, suggests that astrocytic gap junction dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Chronic treatments of rats with fluoxetine and of rat cultured cortical astrocytes with amitriptyline support the hypothesis that the upregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication between brain astrocytes could be a novel mechanism for the therapeutic effect of antidepressants. In conclusion, astrocytic gap junctions are emerging as a new potential therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Chang Ho; Lee, Seong-Wook
Gene therapy strategies have been developed, which can tissue or disease specifically regulate expression of exogenous transgenes by means of endogenous microRNA (miRNA) activity. However, the use of an endogenous guide strand to regulate an exogenous transgene could affect expression of endogenous miRNA target genes. In this study, we developed a new regulatory system of exogenous transgene expression by targeting the passenger strand. We constructed reporter constructs harboring miRNA-122 guide or passenger target sites with perfect or imperfect complementarity. We observed downregulation of an exogenous transgene harboring the miRNA-122 target sites against either the guide or passenger strand in cells expressing the cognate miRNA or cells stably expressing the miRNA target site. Moreover, the transgene activity as well as the gene expression level increased specifically by intracellular introduction of the antisense RNA against the corresponding strand. Endogenous target gene expression was induced by the transgene construct harboring the miRNA guide strand target sites, but not the passenger strand target sites. Importantly, the therapeutic transgene activity was efficiently regulated by targeting the passenger strand. These results suggested that an approach to passenger strand-regulated expression of therapeutic transgenes could be applied more safely as a therapeutic tool.
Shannan, Batool; Watters, Andrea; Chen, Quan; Mollin, Stefan; Dörr, Markus; Meggers, Eric; Xu, Xiaowei; Gimotty, Phyllis A.; Perego, Michela; Li, Ling; Benci, Joseph; Krepler, Clemens; Brafford, Patricia; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Zhi; Zhang, Gao; Liu, Qin; Yin, Xiangfan; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Herlyn, Meenhard; Vultur, Adina
Therapeutic strategies for the treatment of metastatic melanoma show encouraging results in the clinic; however, not all patients respond equally and tumor resistance still poses a challenge. To identify novel therapeutic targets for melanoma, we screened a panel of structurally diverse organometallic inhibitors against human-derived normal and melanoma cells. We observed that a compound that targets PIM kinases (a family of Ser/Thr kinases) preferentially inhibited melanoma cell proliferation, invasion, and viability in adherent and three-dimensional (3D) melanoma models. Assessment of tumor tissue from melanoma patients showed that PIM kinases are expressed in pre- and post-treatment tumors, suggesting PIM kinases as promising targets in the clinic. Using knockdown studies, we showed that PIM1 contributes to melanoma cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo; however, the presence of PIM2 and PIM3 could also influence the outcome. The inhibition of all PIM isoforms using SGI-1776 (a clinically-available PIM inhibitor) reduced melanoma proliferation and survival in preclinical models of melanoma. This was potentiated in the presence of the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 and in the presence of PI3K inhibitors. Our findings suggest that PIM inhibitors provide promising additions to the targeted therapies available to melanoma patients. PMID:27448973
Full Text Available Maria G Cortiguera,1 Ana Batlle-López,1,2 Marta Albajar,1,2 M Dolores Delgado,1,3 Javier León1,3 1Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology of Cantabria (IBBTEC, CSIC-University of Cantabria, 2Department of Hemathology, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, 3Department of Molecular Biology, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain Abstract: MYC is a transcription factor that is involved in the expression of many genes. Deregulated MYC is found in about half of human tumors, being more prevalent in hematological neoplasms. Deregulation mechanisms include chromosomal translocation (particularly in lymphoma, amplification, and hyperactivation of MYC transcription. Here we review MYC involvement in the major types of leukemia and lymphoma. MYC rearrangements appear in all Burkitt lymphomas and are common in other lymphoma types, whereas in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, lymphoproliferative, and myeloproferative diseases, they are less frequent. However, MYC overexpression is present in all types of hematological malignancies and often correlates with a worse prognosis. Data in leukemia-derived cells and in animal models of lymphomagenesis and leukemogenesis suggest that MYC would be a good therapeutic target. Several MYC-directed therapies have been assayed in preclinical settings and even in clinical trials. First, peptides and small molecules that interrupt the MYC–MAX interaction impair MYC-mediated tumorogenesis in several mouse models of solid tumors, although not yet in lymphoma and leukemia models. Second, there are a number of small molecules inhibiting the interaction of MYC–MAX heterodimers with DNA, still in the preclinical research phase. Third, inhibitors of MYC expression via the inhibition of BRD4 (a reader of acetylated histones have been shown to control the growth of MYC-transformed leukemia and lymphoma cells and are being used in clinic trials. Finally, we review a number of promising MYC
Ferrero, Enrico; Dunham, Ian; Sanseau, Philippe
Target identification and validation is a pressing challenge in the pharmaceutical industry, with many of the programmes that fail for efficacy reasons showing poor association between the drug target and the disease. Computational prediction of successful targets could have a considerable impact on attrition rates in the drug discovery pipeline by significantly reducing the initial search space. Here, we explore whether gene-disease association data from the Open Targets platform is sufficient to predict therapeutic targets that are actively being pursued by pharmaceutical companies or are already on the market. To test our hypothesis, we train four different classifiers (a random forest, a support vector machine, a neural network and a gradient boosting machine) on partially labelled data and evaluate their performance using nested cross-validation and testing on an independent set. We then select the best performing model and use it to make predictions on more than 15,000 genes. Finally, we validate our predictions by mining the scientific literature for proposed therapeutic targets. We observe that the data types with the best predictive power are animal models showing a disease-relevant phenotype, differential expression in diseased tissue and genetic association with the disease under investigation. On a test set, the neural network classifier achieves over 71% accuracy with an AUC of 0.76 when predicting therapeutic targets in a semi-supervised learning setting. We use this model to gain insights into current and failed programmes and to predict 1431 novel targets, of which a highly significant proportion has been independently proposed in the literature. Our in silico approach shows that data linking genes and diseases is sufficient to predict novel therapeutic targets effectively and confirms that this type of evidence is essential for formulating or strengthening hypotheses in the target discovery process. Ultimately, more rapid and automated target
Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus, and its prevalence has been increasing worldwide. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify a new therapeutic target to prevent diabetic nephropathy. Autophagy is a major catabolic pathway involved in degrading and recycling macromolecules and damaged organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis. The study of autophagy in mammalian systems is advancing rapidly and has revealed that it is involved in the pathogenesis of various metabolic or age-related diseases. The functional role of autophagy in the kidneys is also currently under intense investigation although, until recently, evidence showing the involvement of autophagy in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy has been limited. We provide a systematic review of autophagy and discuss the therapeutic potential of autophagy in diabetic nephropathy to help future investigations in this field.
Sparrow, Janet R
Although currently available treatment options for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are limited, particularly for atrophic AMD, the identification of predisposing genetic variations has informed clinical studies addressing therapeutic options such as complement inhibitors and anti-inflammatory agents. To lower risk of early AMD, recommended lifestyle interventions such as the avoidance of smoking and the intake of low glycemic antioxidant-rich diets have largely followed from the identification of nongenetic modifiable factors. On the other hand, the challenge of understanding the complex relationship between aging and cumulative damage leading to AMD has fueled investigations of the visual cycle adducts that accumulate in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and are a hallmark of aging retina. These studies have revealed properties of these compounds that provide insights into processes that may compromise RPE and could contribute to disease mechanisms in AMD. This work has also led to the design of targeted therapeutics that are currently under investigation.
Greene, Catherine M
Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that act as a first-line of defence in the innate immune response by recognising and responding to conserved molecular patterns in microbial factors and endogenous danger signals. Cystic fibrosis (CF)-affected airways represent a milieu potentially rich in TLR agonists and the chronic inflammatory phenotype evident in CF airway epithelial cells is probably due in large part to activation of TLRs. Objective\\/methods: To examine the prospects of developing novel therapies for CF by targeting TLRs. We outline the expression and function of TLRs and explore the therapeutic potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic TLR inhibitors for CF. Results\\/conclusion: Modulation of TLRs has therapeutic potential for the inflammatory lung manifestations of CF.
Gao, Peng; Seebacher, Nicole A; Hornicek, Francis; Guo, Zheng; Duan, Zhenfeng
Sarcomas are rare and complex malignancies that have been associated with a poor prognostic outcome. Over the last few decades, traditional treatment with surgery and/or chemotherapy has not significantly improved outcomes for most types of sarcomas. In recent years, there have been significant advances in the understanding of specific gene mutations that are important in driving the pathogenesis and progression of sarcomas. Identification of these new gene mutations, using next-generation sequencing and advanced molecular techniques, has revealed a range of potential therapeutic targets. This, in turn, may lead to the development of novel agents targeted to different sarcoma subtypes. In this review, we highlight the advances made in identifying sarcoma gene mutations, including those of p53, RB, PI3K and IDH genes, as well as novel therapeutic strategies aimed at utilizing these mutant genes. In addition, we discuss a number of preclinical studies and ongoing early clinical trials in sarcoma targeting therapies, as well as gene editing technology, which may provide a better choice for sarcoma patient management. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Rehni, Ashish K; Jaggi, Amteshwar S; Singh, Nirmal
Opioid withdrawal syndrome is a debilitating manifestation of opioid dependence and responds poorly to the available clinical therapies. Studies from various in vivo and in vitro animal models of opioid withdrawal syndrome have led to understanding of its pathobiology which includes complex interrelated pathways leading to adenylyl cyclase superactivation based central excitation. Advancements in the elucidation of opioid withdrawal syndrome mechanisms have revealed a number of key targets that have been hypothesized to modulate clinical status. The present review discusses the neurobiology of opioid withdrawal syndrome and its therapeutic target recptors like calcitonin gene related peptide receptors (CGRP), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, gamma aminobutyric acid receptors (GABA), G-proteingated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels and calcium channels. The present review further details the potential role of second messengers like calcium (Ca2+) / calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII), nitric oxide synthase, cytokines, arachidonic acid metabolites, corticotropin releasing factor, fos and src kinases in causing opioid withdrawal syndrome. The exploitation of these targets may provide effective therapeutic agents for the management of opioid dependence-induced abstinence syndrome.
Sharma, Amol; Rao, Satish
Chronic constipation is a common, persistent condition affecting many patients worldwide, presenting significant economic burden and resulting in substantial healthcare utilization. In addition to infrequent bowel movements, the definition of constipation includes excessive straining, a sense of incomplete evacuation, failed or lengthy attempts to defecate, use of digital manoeuvres for evacuation of stool, abdominal bloating, and hard consistency of stools. After excluding secondary causes of constipation, chronic idiopathic or primary constipation can be classified as functional defecation disorder, slow-transit constipation (STC), and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). These classifications are not mutually exclusive and significant overlap exists. Initial therapeutic approach to primary constipation, regardless of aetiology, consists of diet and lifestyle changes such as encouraging adequate fluid and fibre intake, regular exercise, and dietary modification. Laxatives are the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment for potential long-term therapy in patients who do not respond to lifestyle or dietary modification. After a failed empiric trial of laxatives, diagnostic testing is necessary to understand underlying anorectal and/or colonic pathophysiology. No single test provides a comprehensive assessment for primary constipation; therefore, multiple tests are used to provide complementary information to one another. Dyssynergic defecation, a functional defecation disorder, is an acquired behavioural disorder of defecation present in two-thirds of adult patients, where an inability to coordinate the abdominal, recto-anal, and pelvic floor muscles during attempted defecation exists. Biofeedback therapy is the mainstay treatment for dyssynergic defecation aimed at improving coordination of abdominal and anorectal muscles. A large percentage of patients with dyssynergic defecation also exhibit rectal hyposensitivity and may benefit from the
Meena K. Sakharkar
Full Text Available PPARs are ligand activated transcription factors. PPARγ agonists have been reported as a new and potentially efficacious treatment of inflammation, diabetes, obesity, cancer, AD, and schizophrenia. Since cancer cells show dysregulation of glycolysis they are potentially manageable through changes in metabolic environment. Interestingly, several of the genes involved in maintaining the metabolic environment and the central energy generation pathway are regulated or predicted to be regulated by PPARγ. The use of synthetic PPARγ ligands as drugs and their recent withdrawal/restricted usage highlight the lack of understanding of the molecular basis of these drugs, their off-target effects, and their network. These data further underscores the complexity of nuclear receptor signalling mechanisms. This paper will discuss the function and role of PPARγ in energy metabolism and cancer biology in general and its emergence as a promising therapeutic target in breast cancer.
Full Text Available Most of the available non-invasive medical therapies for obesity are non-efficient in a long-term evaluation; therefore there is a constant need for new methods of treatment. Research on calorie restriction has led to the discovery of sirtuins (silent information regulators, SIRTs, enzymes regulating different cellular pathways that may constitute potential targets in the treatment of obesity. This review paper presents the role of SIRTs in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as in the differentiation of adipocytes. How disturbances of SIRTs’ expression and activity may lead to the development of obesity and related complications is discussed. A special emphasis is placed on polymorphisms in genes encoding SIRTs and their possible association with susceptibility to obesity and metabolic complications, as well as on data regarding altered expression of SIRTs in human obesity. Finally, the therapeutic potential of SIRTs-targeted strategies in the treatment of obesity and related disorders is discussed.
Full Text Available Katelin F Hansen, Karl Obrietan Department of Neuroscience, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Depression is a potentially life-threatening mental disorder affecting approximately 300 million people worldwide. Despite much effort, the molecular underpinnings of clinical depression remain poorly defined, and current treatments carry limited therapeutic efficacy and potentially burdensome side effects. Recently, small noncoding RNA molecules known as microRNA (miRNA have gained prominence as a target for therapeutic intervention, given their capacity to regulate neuronal physiology. Further, mounting evidence suggests a prominent role for miRNA in depressive molecular signaling. Recent studies have demonstrated that dysregulation of miRNA expression occurs in animal models of depression, and in the post-mortem tissue of clinically depressed patients. Investigations into depression-associated miRNA disruption reveals dramatic effects on downstream targets, many of which are thought to contribute to depressive symptoms. Furthermore, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, as well as other antidepressant drugs, have the capacity to reverse aberrant depressive miRNA expression and their downstream targets. Given the powerful effects that miRNA have on the central nervous system transcriptome, and the aforementioned studies, there is a compelling rationale to begin to assess the potential contribution of miRNA to depressive etiology. Here, we review the molecular biology of miRNA, our current understanding of miRNA in relation to clinical depression, and the utility of targeting miRNA for antidepressant treatment. Keywords: depression, microRNA, miRNA, BDNF, Dicer, serotonin
Liu, Ren; Ferguson, Benjamin D; Zhou, Yue; Naga, Kranthi; Salgia, Ravi; Gill, Parkash S; Krasnoperov, Valery
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) often develops decades following exposure to asbestos. Current best therapy produces a response in only half of patients, and the median survival with this therapy remains under a year. A search for novel targets and therapeutics is underway, and recently identified targets include VEGF, Notch, and EphB4-Ephrin-B2. Each of these targets has dual activity, promoting tumor cell growth as well as tumor angiogenesis. We investigated EphB4 expression in 39 human mesothelioma tissues by immunohistochemistry. Xenograft tumors established with human mesothelioma cells were treated with an EphB4 inhibitor (monomeric soluble EphB4 fused to human serum albumin, or sEphB4-HSA). The combinatorial effect of sEphB4-HSA and biologic agent was also studied. EphB4 was overexpressed in 72% of mesothelioma tissues evaluated, with 85% of epithelioid and 38% of sarcomatoid subtypes demonstrating overexpression. The EphB4 inhibitor sEphB4-HSA was highly active as a single agent to inhibit tumor growth, accompanied by tumor cell apoptosis and inhibition of PI3K and Src signaling. Combination of sEphB4-HSA and the anti-VEGF antibody (Bevacizumab) was superior to each agent alone and led to complete tumor regression. EphB4 is a potential therapeutic target in mesothelioma. Clinical investigation of sEphB4-HSA as a single agent and in combination with VEGF inhibitors is warranted
Kaur, Rimplejeet; Ambwani, Sneha R; Singh, Surjit
the therapeutic targets for both cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists. One challenge is to develop drugs that target only cannabinoid receptors in a particular tissue and another is to invent drugs that act selectively on cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood brain barrier. Besides this, development of the suitable dosage forms with maximum efficacy and minimum adverse effects is also warranted. Another angle to be introspected for therapeutic abilities of this group of drugs is non-CB1 and non-CB2 receptor targets for cannabinoids. In order to successfully exploit the therapeutic potential of endocannabinoid system, it is imperative to further characterize the endocannabinoid system in terms of identification of the exact cellular location of cannabinoid receptors and their role as "protective" and "disease inducing substance", time-dependent changes in the expression of cannabinoid receptors.
Winkler, Gian C; Barle, Ester Lovsin; Galati, Giuseppe; Kluwe, William M
There is no nationally or internationally binding definition of the term "cytotoxic drug" although this term is used in a variety of regulations for pharmaceutical development and manufacturing of drugs as well as in regulations for protecting medical personnel from occupational exposure in pharmacy, hospital, and other healthcare settings. The term "cytotoxic drug" is frequently used as a synonym for any and all oncology or antineoplastic drugs. Pharmaceutical companies generate and receive requests for assessments of the potential hazards of drugs regularly - including cytotoxicity. This publication is intended to provide functional definitions that help to differentiate between generically-cytotoxic cancer drugs of significant risk to normal human tissues, and targeted cancer therapeutics that pose much lesser risks. Together with specific assessments, it provides comprehensible guidance on how to assess the relevant properties of cancer drugs, and how targeted therapeutics discriminate between cancer and normal cells. The position of several regulatory agencies in the long-term is clearly to regulate all drugs regardless of classification, according to scientific risk based data. Despite ongoing discussions on how to replace the term "cytotoxic drugs" in current regulations, it is expected that its use will continue for the near future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Momtaz, Saeideh; Niaz, Kamal; Maqbool, Faheem; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rastrelli, Luca; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad
Melanoma or malignant melanocytes appear with the low incidence rate, but very high mortality rate worldwide. Epidemiological studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds contribute for prevention or treatment of several cancers particularly melanoma. Such findings motivate to dig out novel therapeutic strategies against melanoma, including research toward the development of new chemotherapeutic and biologic agents that can target the tumor cells by different mechanisms. Recently, it has been found that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is activated in many cancer cases surprisingly. Different evidences supply the aspect that STAT3 activation plays a vital role in the metastasis, including proliferation of cells, survival, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. This significant feature plays a vital role in various cellular processes, such as cell proliferation and survival. Here, we reviewed the mechanisms of the STAT3 pathway regulation and their role in promoting melanoma. Also, we have evaluated the emerging data on polyphenols (PPs) specifically their contribution in melanoma therapies with an emphasis on their regulatory/inhibitory actions in relation to STAT3 pathway and current progress in the development of phytochemical therapeutic techniques. An understanding of targeting STAT3 by PPs brings an opportunity to melanoma therapy. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(3):347-370, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Myers, Kenneth A; Scheffer, Ingrid E
Dishevelled, Egl-10 and Pleckstrin (DEP) domain-containing protein 5 (DEPDC5) is a protein subunit of the GTPase-activating proteins towards Rags 1 (GATOR1) complex. GATOR1 is a recently identified modulator of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity. mTOR is a key regulator of cell proliferation and metabolism; disruption of the mTOR pathway is implicated in focal epilepsy, both acquired and genetic. Tuberous sclerosis is the prototypic mTOR genetic syndrome with epilepsy, however GATOR1 gene mutations have recently been shown to cause lesional and non-lesional focal epilepsy. Areas covered: This review summarizes the mTOR pathway, including regulators and downstream effectors, emphasizing recent developments in the understanding of the complex role of the GATOR1 complex. We review the epilepsy types associated with mTOR overactivity, including tuberous sclerosis, polyhydramnios megalencephaly symptomatic epilepsy, cortical dysplasia, non-lesional focal epilepsy and post-traumatic epilepsy. Currently available mTOR inhibitors are discussed, primarily rapamycin analogs and ATP competitive mTOR inhibitors. Expert opinion: DEPDC5 is an attractive therapeutic target in focal epilepsy, as effects of DEPDC5 agonists would likely be anti-epileptogenic and more selective than currently available mTOR inhibitors. Therapeutic effects might be synergistic with certain existing dietary therapies, including the ketogenic diet.
Xu, Bo; Harb, Serge C; Cremer, Paul C
This review article aims to provide a contemporary insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms of and therapeutic targets for pericarditis, drawing distinction between autoinflammatory and autoimmune pericarditis. Recent research has focused on the distinction between autoinflammatory and autoimmune pericarditis. In autoinflammatory pericarditis, viruses can activate the sensor molecule of the inflammasome, which results in downstream release of cytokines, such as interleukin-1, that recruit neutrophils and macrophages to the site of injury. Conversely, in autoimmune pericarditis, a type I interferon signature predominates, and pericardial manifestations coincide with the severity of the underlying systemic autoimmune disease. In addition, autoimmune pericarditis can also develop after cardiac injury syndromes. With either type of pericarditis, imaging can help stage the inflammatory state. Prominent pericardial delayed hyperenhancement on magnetic resonance imaging suggests ongoing inflammation whereas calcium on computed tomography suggests a completed inflammatory cascade. In patients with ongoing pericarditis, treatments that converge on the inflammasome, such as colchicine and anakinra, have proved effective in recurrent autoinflammatory pericarditis, though further clinical trials with anakinra are warranted. An improved understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of pericarditis helps unravel effective therapeutic targets for this condition.
Devi, Kasi Pandima; Shanmuganathan, Balakrishnan; Manayi, Azadeh; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating brain disorder characterized by an increased level of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide deposition and neuronal cell death leading to an impairment of learning and thinking skills. The Aβ deposition is a key factor in senile plaques of the AD brain which cause the elevation of intracellular calcium ions and the production of formidable free radicals, both of which greatly contribute to the AD-associated cascade, leading to unstoppable neuronal loss in the hippocampal region of the brain. Natural products are currently considered as an alternative strategy for the discovery of novel multipotent drugs against AD. They include the naturally occurring dietary soy isoflavone genistein which has been recognized to possess several health-promoting effects. Genistein has been mainly focused because of its potential on amelioration of Aβ-induced impairment and its antioxidant capacity to scavenge the free radicals produced in AD. It can also directly interact with the targeted signaling proteins and stabilize their activity to prevent AD. An improved understanding of the direct interactions between genistein and target proteins would contribute to the further development of AD treatment. This review mainly focuses on molecular targets and the therapeutic effects regulated by genistein, which has the ability to directly target the Aβ peptide and to control its activity involved in intracellular signaling pathways, which otherwise would lead to neuronal death in the hippocampal region of the AD brain.
, Snijders and Mao described that and “when the selection pressure is removed, amplifications are not maintained and eventually disappear. Thus, amplifications focus on those genes that are important for tumor development,” they said. Their analysis showed that, as tumorous cells progress toward malignancy, the DNA copy number plays a major role in the mechanism of increased expression levels for the 18-gene signature on chromosome 20q. “Strong associations between the DNA copy number and gene expression were observed in the majority of tumor types,” the researchers said. “For example, the RAE1 expression was found to be significantly associated with DNA copy number in 20 tumor types,” the study reported. “Elevated DNA copy numbers of MMP9 and SULF2 were associated with increased gene expressions in only two and seven tumor types, respectively,” it added. With their integrated multi-omics analysis of genes on chromosome 20q, Snijders and Mao believed that the 18-gene signature could become new molecular targets for cancer therapy. “Gene ontology analysis revealed significant enrichment of cell cycle and mitosis-related biological processes in our 18-gene, suggesting that a cluster of functionally related genes localize to chromosome 20q,” they said. The identification of good targets such as theirs is a critical step for the development of targeted therapies for cancer treatment, according to the researchers. Microarray and next generation sequencing technologies have become invaluable tools in cataloging genomic abnormalities in human cancers and identifying new potential therapeutic targets, in addition to the availability of large cancer genomic data sets which allows for unbiased approaches to identify genes that are important in tumor progression, the research study noted. “Here, we aggregated available cancer databases to identify cancer driver genes across tumor types by combining gene transcript and DNA copy number across chromosome 20q to
Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma is the second most common pediatric bone tumor, with three cases per million worldwide. In clinical terms, ES is an aggressive, rapidly fatal malignancy that mainly develops in osseous sites (85%, but also in extraskeletal soft tissue. It spreads naturally to the lungs, bones and bone marrow with poor prognosis in the two latter cases. Bone lesions from primary or secondary (metastases tumors are characterized by extensive bone remodeling, more often due to osteolysis. Osteoclast activation and subsequent bone resorption is responsible for the clinical features of bone tumors including pain, vertebral collapse and spinal cord compression. Based on the vicious cycle concept of tumor cells and bone resorbing cells, drugs which target osteoclasts may be promising agents as adjuvant setting for treating bone tumors, including Ewing sarcoma. There is also increasing evidence that cellular and molecular protagonists present in the bone microenvironment play a part in establishing a favorable niche for tumor initiation and progression. The purpose of this review is to discuss the potential therapeutic value of drugs targeting the bone tumor microenvironment in Ewing Sarcoma. The first part of the review will focus on targeting the bone resorbing function of osteoclasts by means of bisphosphonates (BPs or drugs blocking the pro-resorbing cytokine Receptor Activator of NF-kappa B Ligand (RANKL. Second, the role of this peculiar hypoxic microenvironment will be discussed in the context of resistance to chemotherapy, escape from the immune system, or neo-angiogenesis. Therapeutic interventions based on these specificities could be then proposed in the context of Ewing sarcoma.
Jung, Jinmyung; Kwon, Mijin; Bae, Sunghwa; Yim, Soorin; Lee, Doheon
Muscle atrophy, an involuntary loss of muscle mass, is involved in various diseases and sometimes leads to mortality. However, therapeutics for muscle atrophy thus far have had limited effects. Here, we present a new approach for therapeutic target prediction using Petri net simulation of the status of phosphorylation, with a reasonable assumption that the recovery of abnormally phosphorylated proteins can be a treatment for muscle atrophy. The Petri net model was employed to simulate phosphorylation status in three states, i.e. reference, atrophic and each gene-inhibited state based on the myocyte-specific phosphorylation network. Here, we newly devised a phosphorylation specific Petri net that involves two types of transitions (phosphorylation or de-phosphorylation) and two types of places (activation with or without phosphorylation). Before predicting therapeutic targets, the simulation results in reference and atrophic states were validated by Western blotting experiments detecting five marker proteins, i.e. RELA, SMAD2, SMAD3, FOXO1 and FOXO3. Finally, we determined 37 potential therapeutic targets whose inhibition recovers the phosphorylation status from an atrophic state as indicated by the five validated marker proteins. In the evaluation, we confirmed that the 37 potential targets were enriched for muscle atrophy-related terms such as actin and muscle contraction processes, and they were also significantly overlapping with the genes associated with muscle atrophy reported in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (p-value net. We generated a list of the potential therapeutic targets whose inhibition recovers abnormally phosphorylated proteins in an atrophic state. They were evaluated by various approaches, such as Western blotting, GO terms, literature, known muscle atrophy-related genes and shortest path analysis. We expect the new proposed strategy to provide an understanding of phosphorylation status in muscle atrophy and to provide assistance towards
Full Text Available Considerable evidence indicates that eosinophils are important effectors of ocular allergy. Increased worldwide prevalence of allergic eye pathologies has stimulated the identification of novel drug targets, including eosinophils and adhesion molecules.Accumulation of eosinophils in the eye is a key event in the onset and maintenance of allergic inflammation and is mediated by different adhesion molecules. Antihistamines with multiple mechanisms of action can be effective during the early and late phases of allergic conjunctivitis by blocking the interaction between β1 integrins and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1. Small molecule antagonists that target key elements in the process of eosinophil recruitment have been identified and reinforce the validity of α4β1 integrin as a therapeutic target.Glucocorticoids are among the most effective drugs for ocular allergy, but their use is limited by adverse effects. Novel dissociated glucocorticoids can prevent eosinophil accumulation and induce apoptosis of eosinophils, making them promising candidates for ophthalmic drugs.This article reviews recent understanding of the role of adhesion molecules in eosinophil recruitment in the inflamed conjunctiva along with effective treatments for allergic conjunctivitis.
Ononye, S N; Shi, W; Wali, V B; Aktas, B; Jiang, T; Hatzis, C; Pusztai, L
The functional redundancy of metabolic enzyme expression may present a new strategy for developing targeted therapies in cancer. To satisfy the increased metabolic demand required during neoplastic transformations and proliferation, cancer cells may rely on additional isoforms of a metabolic enzyme to satisfy the increased demand for metabolic precursors, which could subsequently render cancer cells more vulnerable to isoform-specific inhibitors. In this review, we provide a survey of common isoenzyme shifts that have been reported to be important in cancer metabolism and link those to metabolic pathways that currently have drugs in various stages of development. This phenomenon suggests a potentially new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer by identifying shifts in the expression of metabolic isoenzymes between cancer and normal cells. We also delineate other putative metabolic isoenzymes that could be targets for novel targeted therapies for cancer. Changes in isoenzyme expression that occur during neoplastic transformations or in response to environmental pressure in cancer cells may result in isoenzyme diversity that may subsequently render cancer cells more vulnerable to isoform-specific inhibitors due to reliance on a single isoform to perform a vital enzymatic function.
Wyatt, Christina M; Schlondorff, Detlef
The goal of "precision medicine" is to characterize diseases based on the underlying molecular biology, in order to identify specific biomarkers and therapeutic targets that will ultimately improve clinical outcomes. The nephrology research community has developed a strong foundation for precision medicine, and recent publications demonstrate the feasibility of this approach to identify potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
pathophysiology and new therapeutic targets for PAH. Our approach is to isolate PASMCs from PAH subjects and controls, to define the expression and function of...their complement of GPCRs, with the goal of identifying GPCRs that have known physiologic agonists and are uniquely expressed and/or prominently up...regulated in PAH-PASMCs and to define their potential as novel therapeutic targets for PAH. 15. SUBJECT TERMS - 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17
Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta
The review summarizes the current understanding of the role of hepcidin and ferroportin in normal iron homeostasis and its disorders. The various approaches to therapeutic targeting of hepcidin and ferroportin in iron-overload disorders (mainly hereditary hemochromatosis and β-thalassemia) and iron-restrictive anemias (anemias associated with infections, inflammatory disorders, and certain malignancies, anemia of chronic kidney diseases, and iron-refractory iron-deficiency anemia) are also discussed.
Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia among older people. There are no effective medications currently available to prevent and treat AD and halt disease progression. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL is the primary enzyme metabolizing the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the brain. We show here that inactivation of MAGL robustly suppressed production and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ associated with reduced expression of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 in a mouse model of AD. MAGL inhibition also prevented neuroinflammation, decreased neurodegeneration, maintained integrity of hippocampal synaptic structure and function, and improved long-term synaptic plasticity, spatial learning, and memory in AD animals. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects produced by MAGL inhibition remain to be determined, our results suggest that MAGL, which regulates endocannabinoid and prostaglandin signaling, contributes to pathogenesis and neuropathology of AD, and thus is a promising therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of AD.
Nemchenko, Andriy; Chiong, Mario; Turer, Aslan; Lavandero, Sergio; Hill, Joseph A.
The epidemic of heart failure continues apace, and development of novel therapies with clinical efficacy has lagged. Now, important insights into the molecular circuitry of cardiovascular autophagy have raised the prospect that this cellular pathway of protein quality control may be a target of clinical relevance. Whereas basal levels of autophagy are required for cell survival, excessive levels – or perhaps distinct forms of autophagic flux – contribute to disease pathogenesis. Our challenge will be to distinguish mechanisms that drive adaptive versus maladaptive autophagy and to manipulate those pathways for therapeutic gain. Recent evidence suggests this may be possible. Here, we review the fundamental biology of autophagy and its role in a variety of forms of cardiovascular disease. We discuss ways in which this evolutionarily conserved catabolic mechanism can be manipulated, discuss studies presently underway in heart disease, and provide our perspective on where this exciting field may lead in the future. PMID:21723289
Es-Saad, Salwa; Tremblay, Nicolas; Baril, Martin; Lamarre, Daniel
Interferons (IFNs) have long been used as an immunomodulatory therapy for a large array of acute and chronic viral infections. However, IFN therapies have been plagued by severe side effects. The discovery of pathogen recognition receptors (PRR) rejuvenated the interest for immunomodulatory therapies. The successes obtained with Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in activating immune cells and as adjuvant for prophylactic vaccines against different viruses paved the way to targeted immunomodulatory therapy. Better characterization of pathogen-induced immune disorders and newly discovered regulators of innate immunity have now the potential to specifically withdraw prevailing subversion mechanisms and to transform antiviral treatments by introducing panviral therapeutics with less adverse effects than IFN therapies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moss, Joe W. E.; Ramji, Dipak P.
Atherosclerosis, the primary cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is a chronic inflammatory disorder in the walls of medium and large arteries. CVD is currently responsible for about one in three global deaths and this is expected to rise in the future due to an increase in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Current therapies for atherosclerosis mainly modulate lipid homeostasis and whilst successful at reducing the risk of a CVD-related death, they are associated with considerable residual risk and various side effects. There is therefore a need for alternative therapies aimed at regulating inflammation in order to reduce atherogenesis. This review will highlight the key role cytokines play during disease progression as well as potential therapeutic strategies to target them. PMID:27357616
Alamodi, Abdulhadi A; Eshaq, Abdulaziz M; Hassan, Sofie-Yasmin; Al Hmada, Youssef; El Jamal, Siraj M; Fothan, Ahmed M; Arain, Omair M; Hassan, Sarah-Lilly; Haikel, Youssef; Megahed, Mosaad; Hassan, Mohamed
Human malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive skin tumor that is characterized by its extraordinary heterogeneity, propensity for dissemination to distant organs and resistance to cytotoxic agents. Although chemo- and immune-based therapies have been evaluated in clinical trials, most of these therapeutics do not show significant benefit for patients with advanced disease. Treatment failure in melanoma patients is attributed mainly to the development of tumor heterogeneity resulting from the formation of genetically divergent subpopulations. These subpopulations are composed of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) as a small fraction and non-cancer stem cells that form the majority of the tumor mass. In recent years, CSCs gained more attention and suggested as valuable experimental model system for tumor study. In melanoma, intratumoral heterogeneity, progression and drug resistance result from the unique characteristics of melanoma stem cells (MSCs). These MSCs are characterized by their distinct protein signature and tumor growth-driving pathways, whose activation is mediated by driver mutation-dependent signal. The molecular features of MSCs are either in a causal or consequential relationship to melanoma progression, drug resistance and relapse. Here, we review the current scientific evidence that supports CSC hypothesis and the validity of MSCs-dependent pathways and their key molecules as potential therapeutic target for melanoma treatment.
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of short non-coding RNAs with posttranscriptional regulatory functions. To date, more than 600 human miRNAs have been experimentally identified, and estimated to regulate more than one third of cellular messenger RNAs. Accumulating evidence has linked the dysregulated expression patterns of miRNAs to a variety of diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases and viral infections. MiRNAs provide its particular layer of network for gene regulation, thus possessing the great potential both as a novel class of therapeutic targets and as a powerful intervention tool. In this regard, synthetic RNAs that contain the binding sites of miRNA have been shown to work as a Ã¢Â€ÂœdecoyÃ¢Â€Â or Ã¢Â€ÂœmiRNA spongeÃ¢Â€Â to inhibit the function of specific miRNAs. On the other hand, miRNA expression vectors have been used to restore or overexpress specific miRNAs to achieve a long-term effect. Further, double-stranded miRNA mimetics for transient replacement have been experimentally validated. Endogenous precursor miRNAs have also been used as scaffolds for the induction of RNA interference. This article reviews the recent progress on this emerging technology as a powerful tool for gene regulation studies and particularly as a rationale strategy for design of therapeutics.
Köhler, Cristiano A.; Carvalho, André F.; Alves, Gilberto S.; McIntyre, Roger S.; Hyphantis, Thomas N.; Cammarota, Martín
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by a dysfunctional processing of autobiographical memories. We review the following core domains of deficit: systematic biases favoring materials of negative emotional valence; diminished access and response to positive memories; a recollection of overgeneral memories in detriment of specific autobiographical memories; and the role of ruminative processes and avoidance when dealing with autobiographical memories. Furthermore, we review evidence from functional neuroimaging studies of neural circuits activated by the recollection of autobiographical memories in both healthy and depressive individuals. Disruptions in autobiographical memories predispose and portend onset and maintenance of depression. Thus, we discuss emerging therapeutics that target memory difficulties in those with depression. We review strategies for this clinical domain, including memory specificity training, method-of-loci, memory rescripting, and real-time fMRI neurofeedback training of amygdala activity in depression. We propose that the manipulation of the reconsolidation of autobiographical memories in depression might represent a novel yet largely unexplored, domain-specific, therapeutic opportunity for depression treatment. PMID:26380121
Sarah K Tasian
Full Text Available Approximately two thirds of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML are cured with intensive multi-agent chemotherapy. However, primary chemorefractory and relapsed AML remains a significant source of childhood cancer mortality, highlighting the need for new therapies. Further therapy intensification with traditional cytotoxic agents is not feasible given the potential for significant toxicity to normal tissues with conventional chemotherapy and the risk for long-term end-organ dysfunction. Significant emphasis has been placed upon the development of molecularly targeted therapeutic approaches for adults and children with high-risk subtypes of AML with the goal of improving remission induction and minimizing relapse. Several promising agents are currently in clinical testing or late preclinical development for AML, including monoclonal antibodies against leukemia cell surface proteins, kinase inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors, epigenetic agents, and chimeric antigen receptor engineered T cell immunotherapies. Many of these therapies have been specifically tested in children with relapsed/refractory AML via phase 1 and 2 trials with a smaller number of new agents under phase 3 evaluation for children with de novo AML. Although successful identification and implementation of new drugs for children with AML remains a formidable challenge, enthusiasm for novel molecular therapeutic approaches is great given the potential for significant clinical benefit for children who will otherwise fail standard therapy.
Shtivelman, Emma; Hensing, Thomas; Simon, George R.; Dennis, Phillip A.; Otterson, Gregory A.; Bueno, Raphael; Salgia, Ravi
Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Both histologically and molecularly lung cancer is heterogeneous. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the pathways involved in the various types of lung cancer with an emphasis on the clinical implications of the increasing number of actionable molecular targets. It describes the major pathways and molecular alterations implicated in the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (adenocarcinoma and squamous cancer), and of small cell carcinoma, emphasizing the molecular alterations comprising the specific blueprints in each group. The approved and investigational targeted therapies as well as the immune therapies, and clinical trials exploring the variety of targeted approaches to treatment of lung cancer are the main focus of this review. PMID:24722523
Tateishi, Kensuke; Iafrate, A John; Ho, Quan; Curry, William T; Batchelor, Tracy T; Flaherty, Keith T; Onozato, Maristela L; Lelic, Nina; Sundaram, Sudhandra; Cahill, Daniel P; Chi, Andrew S; Wakimoto, Hiroaki
Deregulated Myc drives an oncogenic metabolic state, including pseudohypoxic glycolysis, adapted for the constitutive production of biomolecular precursors to feed rapid tumor cell growth. In glioblastoma, Myc facilitates renewal of the tumor-initiating cell reservoir contributing to tumor maintenance. We investigated whether targeting the Myc-driven metabolic state could be a selectively toxic therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma. The glycolytic dependency of Myc-driven glioblastoma was tested using (13)C metabolic flux analysis, glucose-limiting culture assays, and glycolysis inhibitors, including inhibitors of the NAD(+) salvage enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase (NAMPT), in MYC and MYCN shRNA knockdown and lentivirus overexpression systems and in patient-derived glioblastoma tumorspheres with and without MYC/MYCN amplification. The in vivo efficacy of glycolyic inhibition was tested using NAMPT inhibitors in MYCN-amplified patient-derived glioblastoma orthotopic xenograft mouse models. Enforced Myc overexpression increased glucose flux and expression of glycolytic enzymes in glioblastoma cells. Myc and N-Myc knockdown and Myc overexpression systems demonstrated that Myc activity determined sensitivity and resistance to inhibition of glycolysis. Small-molecule inhibitors of glycolysis, particularly NAMPT inhibitors, were selectively toxic to MYC/MYCN-amplified patient-derived glioblastoma tumorspheres. NAMPT inhibitors were potently cytotoxic, inducing apoptosis and significantly extended the survival of mice bearing MYCN-amplified patient-derived glioblastoma orthotopic xenografts. Myc activation in glioblastoma generates a dependency on glycolysis and an addiction to metabolites required for glycolysis. Glycolytic inhibition via NAMPT inhibition represents a novel metabolically targeted therapeutic strategy for MYC or MYCN-amplified glioblastoma and potentially other cancers genetically driven by Myc. Clin Cancer Res; 22(17); 4452-65. ©2016 AACR
Ralph A. Tripp; S. Mark Tompkins; Olivia Perwitasari; Abhijeet Bakre
Bridging high-throughput screening (HTS) with RNA interference (RNAi) has allowed for rapid discovery of the molecular basis of many diseases, and identification of potential pathways for developing safe and effective treatments. These features have identified new host gene targets for existing drugs paving the pathway for therapeutic drug repositioning. Using RNAi to discover and help validate new drug targets has also provided a means to filter and prioritize promising therapeutics. This re...
Zulkifli, Ahmad A; Tan, Fiona H; Putoczki, Tracy L; Stylli, Stanley S; Luwor, Rodney B
Several EGFR inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical assessment or are approved for the clinical management of patients with varying tumour types. However, treatment often results in a lack of response in many patients. The majority of patients that initially respond eventually present with tumours that display acquired resistance to the original therapy. A large number of receptor tyrosine and intracellular kinases have been implicated in driving signaling that mediates this tumour resistance to anti-EGFR targeted therapy, and in a few cases these discoveries have led to overall changes in prospective tumour screening and clinical practice (K-RAS in mCRC and EGFR T790M in NSCLC). In this mini-review, we specifically focus on the role of the STAT3 signaling axis in providing both intrinsic and acquired resistance to inhibitors of the EGFR. We also focus on STAT3 pathway targeting in an attempt to overcome resistance to anti-EGFR therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dimitar B. Nikolov
Full Text Available The Paramyxoviridae genus Henipavirus is presently represented by the type species Hendra and Nipah viruses which are both recently emerged zoonotic viral pathogens responsible for repeated outbreaks associated with high morbidity and mortality in Australia, Southeast Asia, India and Bangladesh. These enveloped viruses bind and enter host target cells through the coordinated activities of their attachment (G and class I fusion (F envelope glycoproteins. The henipavirus G glycoprotein interacts with host cellular B class ephrins, triggering conformational alterations in G that lead to the activation of the F glycoprotein, which facilitates the membrane fusion process. Using the recently published structures of HeV-G and NiV-G and other paramyxovirus glycoproteins, we review the features of the henipavirus envelope glycoproteins that appear essential for mediating the viral fusion process, including receptor binding, G-F interaction, F activation, with an emphasis on G and the mutations that disrupt viral infectivity. Finally, recent candidate therapeutics for henipavirus-mediated disease are summarized in light of their ability to inhibit HeV and NiV entry by targeting their G and F glycoproteins.
Glickson, Jerry D; Lund-Katz, Sissel; Zhou, Rong; Choi, Hoon; Chen, I-Wei; Li, Hui; Corbin, Ian; Popov, Anatoliy V; Cao, Weiguo; Song, Liping; Qi, Chenze; Marotta, Diane; Nelson, David S; Chen, Juan; Chance, Britton; Zheng, Gang
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) provides a highly versatile natural nanoplatform for delivery of optical and MRI contrast agents, photodynamic therapy agents and chemotherapeutic agents to normal and neoplastic cells that over express LDL receptors (LDLR). Extension to other lipoproteins ranging in diameter from approximately 5-10 nm (high density lipoprotein, HDL) to over a micron (chilomicrons) is feasible. Loading of contrast or therapeutic agents has been achieved by covalent attachment to protein side chains, intercalation into the phospholipid monolayer and extraction and reconstitution of the triglyceride/cholesterol ester core. Covalent attachment of folate to the lysine side chain amino groups was used to reroute the LDL from its natural receptor (LDLR) to folate receptors and could be utilized to target other receptors. A semi-synthetic nanoparticle has been constructed by coating magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) with carboxylated cholesterol and overlaying a monolayer ofphospholipid to which Apo A1, Apo E or synthetic amphoteric alpha-helical polypeptides were adsorbed for targeting HDL, LDL or folate receptors, respectively. These particles can be utilized for in situ loading of magnetite into cells for MRI monitored cell tracking or gene therapy.
Eidem, Tess M; Roux, Christelle M; Dunman, Paul M
The need for novel antibiotics is greater now than perhaps any time since the pre-antibiotic era. Indeed, the recent collapse of most pharmaceutical antibacterial groups, combined with the emergence of hypervirulent and pan-antibiotic-resistant bacteria have, in effect, created a 'perfect storm' that has severely compromised infection treatment options and led to dramatic increases in the incidence and severity of bacterial infections. To put simply, it is imperative that we develop new classes of antibiotics for the therapeutic intervention of bacterial infections. In that regard, RNA degradation is an essential biological process that has not been exploited for antibiotic development. Herein we discuss the factors that govern bacterial RNA degradation, highlight members of this machinery that represent attractive antimicrobial drug development targets and describe the use of high-throughput screening as a means of developing antimicrobials that target these enzymes. Such agents would represent first-in-class antibiotics that would be less apt to inactivation by currently encountered enzymatic antibiotic-resistance determinants. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Stamberger, Hannah; Weckhuysen, Sarah; De Jonghe, Peter
STXBP1 is an essential protein for presynaptic vesicle release. Mutations in STXBP1 have been associated with a series of (epileptic) neurodevelopmental disorders collectively referred to as STXBP1-encephalopathy (STXBP1-E). In this review we hypothesize about the potential of STXBP1 as a therapeutic target in the field of epileptic encephalopathies. Areas covered: A state of the art overview on current understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying STXBP1-E is presented. Possibilities of different treatment modalities are discussed including unbiased compound screening, specific protein-protein interaction inhibition and gene therapy, consisting either of gene suppletion or upregulation of gene expression. Expert opinion: Current treatment for STXBP1-E is largely limited to seizure control and future therapies will need to target the developmental aspects of the disease as well. Both in vitro- and animal models used to study the pathophysiology of STXBP1-E could be further optimized as a model for compound screening. They should reflect both the hyper excitable state and the psychomotor delay of STXBP1-E. Specific protein-protein interaction and gene therapy are promising future treatment options that need to be investigated further. We suggest a parallel research strategy on basic pathophysiology and compound development with both fields working in close collaboration with the patient/clinical community.
Full Text Available Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a particular form of intestinal ischemia related to high mortality. The lack of a characteristic clinical picture often leads to a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic classification. We report the case of a young woman, using estrogenic and progestinic oral therapy, affected by a severe form of mesenteric thrombosis and complicated by segmental post ischemic stenosis of small intestine.
Full Text Available The Grb-2 associated binder (Gab family of scaffolding/adaptor/docking proteins is a group of three molecules with significant roles in cytokine receptor signaling. Gabs possess structural motifs for phosphorylation-dependent receptor recruitment, Grb2 binding, and activation of downstream signaling pathways through p85 and SHP-2. In addition, Gabs participate in hematopoiesis and regulation of immune response which can be aberrantly activated in cancer and inflammation. The multifunctionality of Gab adapters might suggest that they would be too difficult to consider as candidates for “targeted” therapy. However, the one drug/one target approach is giving way to the concept of one drug/multiple target approach since few cancers are addicted to a single signaling molecule for survival and combination drug therapies can be problematic. In this paper, we cover recent findings on Gab multi-functionality, binding partners, and their role in hematological malignancy and examine the concept of Gab-targeted therapy.
Full Text Available On the one hand, Wittgenstein considers philosophy as a generator of mental confusion, but on the other hand, he desires philosopher as a therapist. This two-sided attitude to philosophy begins with Tractatus and then admitting the various therapeutic methods, reaches to the second period of his life. Recently, the origins of Wittgenstein's therapeutic approach in Tractatus are neglected by most of his positivist commentators, instead, this approach have been followed in the second period of his thought, especially in Philosophical Investigations. In this essay, we have tried to clarify this obscurity and to indicate the roots of Wittgenstein's therapeutic approach in Tractatus. Since mentioning the "symptom" or symptoms of mental confusion resulting from philosophical thinking and stage of its "diagnosis" is considered as preparations of therapy, we, by emphasizing on the therapeutic value of clarity, will survey "symptom", "diagnosis" and finally Wittgenstein's therapeutic approach toward philosophy in Tractatus, and then we will point out some reasons causing negligence to Tractatus therapeutic approach. In this way, we will show that Wittgenstein, from the beginning of his philosophical thinking, has believed in this approach and in Philosophical Investigations he has just declared it in the everyday language. Here, we will also unveil restriction of Wittgenstein's therapeutic approach to philosophy.
This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The last part of the book will focus on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction.
Luk, Brian Tsengchi
interactions between membranes and synthetic nanoparticles, and how the membrane coating technique faithfully translates the complexities of natural cellular membranes to the nanoscale. The following three sections explore potential therapeutic applications of membrane-coated nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery, biodetoxification, and immunomodulation. Ultimately, cell membrane-cloaked nanoparticles have the potential to significantly change the landscape of nanomedicine. The novel applications presented in this thesis are just a few of many examples currently being researched, with countless more avenues waiting to be explored.
Sharma, Drista; Soni, Rani; Rai, Praveen; Sharma, Bhaskar; Bhatt, Tarun Kumar
The alignment of the evolutionary history of parasites with that of plants provides a different panorama in the drug development process. The housing of different metabolic processes, essential for parasite survival, adds to the indispensability of the apicoplast. The different pathways responsible for fueling the apicoplast and parasite offer a myriad of proteins responsible for the apicoplast function. The studies emphasizing the target-based approaches might help in the discovery of antimalarials. The different putative drug targets and their roles are highlighted. In addition, the origin of the apicoplast and metabolic processes are reviewed and the different drugs acting upon the enzymes of the apicoplast are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ghanghoria, Raksha; Kesharwani, Prashant; Tekade, Rakesh K; Jain, Narendra K
Cancer is a prime healthcare problem that is significantly responsible for universal mortality. Despite distinguished advancements in medical field, chemotherapy is still the mainstay for the treatment of cancers. During chemotherapy, approximately 90% of the administered dose goes to normal tissues, with mere 2-5% precisely reaching the cancerous tissues. Subsequently, the resultant side effects and associated complications lead to dose reduction or even discontinuance of the therapy. Tumor directed therapy therefore, represents a fascinating approach to augment the therapeutic potential of anticancer bioactives as well as overcomes its side effects. The selective overexpression of LHRH receptors on human tumors compared to normal tissues makes them a suitable marker for diagnostics, molecular probes and targeted therapeutics. These understanding enabled the rational to conjugate LHRH with various cytotoxic drugs (doxorubicin, DOX; camptothecin etc.), cytotoxic genes [small interfering RNA (siRNA), micro RNA (miRNA)], as well as therapeutic nanocarriers (nanoparticles, liposomes or dendrimers) to facilitate their tumor specific delivery. LHRH conjugation enhances their delivery via LHRH receptor mediated endocytosis. Numerous cytotoxic analogs of LHRH were developed over the past two decades to target various types of cancers. The potency of LHRH compound were reported to be as high as 5,00-10,00 folds compared to parent molecules. The objective of this review article is to discuss reports on various LHRH analogs with special emphasis on their prospective application in the medical field. The article also focuses on the attributes that must be taken into account while designing a LHRH therapeutics with special account to the biochemistry and applications of these conjugates. The record on various cytotoxic analogs of LHRH are also discussed. It is anticipated that the knowledge of therapeutic and toxicological aspects of LHRH compounds will facilitate the
Schick, Markus; Habringer, Stefan; Nilsson, Jonas A; Keller, Ulrich
Identifying and therapeutically targeting cancer cell liabilities is of utmost importance in order to improve the treatment of patients with malignancies of poor prognosis. The MYC family genes (MYC, MYCN and MYCL) are among the most deregulated proto-oncogenes in human cancer. Aberrant MYC expression is frequently associated with poor prognosis. Although many aspects of MYC-mediated tumour biology are well characterized, there are currently no effective means for targeting MYC in a specific manner that have been established for clinical use. This review first discusses the role of MYC in the pathogenesis of haematopoietic malignancies, and secondly summarizes how insight into MYC functions could be translated into therapeutic approaches. In particular, we will address the possibilities of taking advantage of MYC-induced cancer cell vulnerabilities that could be exploited in terms of synthetic lethal interactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Shanchun Guo,1 Jin Zou,2 Guangdi Wang3 1Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry, and Immunology, Morehouse School of Medicine, 2Center for Cancer Research and Therapeutic Development, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Research Centers in Minority Institutions Cancer Research Program, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Proteomic approaches are continuing to make headways in cancer research by helping to elucidate complex signaling networks that underlie tumorigenesis and disease progression. This review describes recent advances made in the proteomic discovery of drug targets for therapeutic development. A variety of technical and methodological advances are overviewed with a critical assessment of challenges and potentials. A number of potential drug targets, such as baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis protein repeat-containing protein 6, macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1, phosphoglycerate mutase 1, prohibitin 1, fascin, and pyruvate kinase isozyme 2 were identified in the proteomic analysis of drug-resistant cancer cells, drug action, and differential disease state tissues. Future directions for proteomics-based target identification and validation to be more translation efficient are also discussed. Keywords: proteomics, cancer, therapeutic target, signaling network, tumorigenesis
Mimeault, Murielle; Batra, Surinder K
Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer with an extremely poor survival rate for the patients diagnosed with locally invasive and metastatic disease states. Intensive research has led in last few years to an improvement of the early detection and curative treatment of primary cutaneous melanomas that are confined to the skin by tumor surgical resection. However, locally advanced and disseminated melanomas are generally resistant to conventional treatments, including ionizing radiation, systemic chemotherapy, immunotherapy and/or adjuvant stem cell-based therapies, and result in the death of patients. The rapid progression of primary melanomas to locally invasive and/or metastatic disease states remains a major obstacle for an early effective diagnosis and a curative therapeutic intervention for melanoma patients. Importantly, recent advances in the melanoma research have led to the identification of different gene products that are often implicated in the malignant transformation of melanocytic cells into melanoma cells, including melanoma stem/progenitor cells, during melanoma initiation and progression to locally advanced and metastatic disease states. The frequent deregulated genes products encompass the oncogenic B-RafV600E and N-RasQ61R mutants, different receptor tyrosine kinases and developmental pathways such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), stem cell-like factor (SCF) receptor KIT, hedgehog, Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGFR receptor. These growth factors can cooperate to activate distinct tumorigenic downstream signaling elements and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated molecules, including phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/ molecular target of rapamycin (mTOR), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), vimentin, snail and twist. Of therapeutic
Samineni, Divya; Girish, Sandhya; Li, Chunze
Suboptimal treatment for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against endogenous circulating soluble targets and the shed extracellular domains (ECD) of the membrane-bound targets is an important clinical concern due to the potential impact of mAbs on the in vivo efficacy and safety. Consequently, there are considerable challenges in the determination of an optimal dose and/or dosing regimen. Areas covered: This review outlines the impact of shed antigen targets from membrane-bound proteins and soluble targets on the PK and/or PD of therapeutic mAbs that have been approved in the last decade. We discuss various bioanalytical techniques that have facilitated the interpretation of the PK/PD properties of therapeutic mAbs and also considered the factors that may impact such measurements. Quantitative approaches include target-mediated PK models and bi- or tri-molecular interaction PK/PD models that describe the relationships between the antibody PK and the ensuing effects on PD biomarkers, to facilitate the mAb PK/PD characterization. Expert commentary: The proper interpretation of PK/PD relationships through the integrated PK/PD modeling and bioanalytical strategy facilitates a mechanistic understanding of the disease processes and dosing regimen optimization, thereby offering insights into developing effective therapeutic regimens. This review provides an overview of the impact of soluble targets or shed ECD on mAb PK/PD properties. We provide examples of quantitative approaches that facilitate the characterization of mAb PK/PD characteristics and their corresponding bioanalytical strategies.
In this review, efforts have been made to present some of the latest knowledge about novel tumor gatekeepers and new therapeutic strategies to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy and give new hope to cancer patients to fight against cancer. Keywords: Cancer, Potent inhibitors, Gatekeepers, Therapeutic approaches, ...
Jerry D. Glickson
Full Text Available Low-density lipoprotein (LDL provides a highly versatile natural nanoplatform for delivery of visible or near-infrared fluorescent optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents and photodynamic therapy and chemotherapeutic agents to normal and neoplastic cells that overexpress low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs. Extension to other lipoproteins ranging in diameter from about 10 nm (high-density lipoprotein [HDL] to over a micron (chylomicrons is feasible. Loading of contrast or therapeutic agents onto or into these particles has been achieved by protein loading (covalent attachment to protein side chains, surface loading (intercalation into the phospholipid monolayer, and core loading (extraction and reconstitution of the triglyceride/cholesterol ester core. Core and surface loading of LDL have been used for delivery of optical imaging agents to tumor cells in vivo and in culture. Surface loading was used for delivery of gadolinium-bis-stearylamide contrast agents for in vivo MRI detection in tumor-bearing mice. Chlorin and phthalocyanine near-infrared photodynamic therapy agents (≤ 400/LDL have been attached by core loading. Protein loading was used to reroute the LDL from its natural receptor (LDLR to folate receptors and could be used to target other receptors. A semisynthetic nanoparticle has been constructed by coating magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles with carboxylated cholesterol and overlaying a monolayer of phospholipid to which apolipoprotein A1 or E was adsorbed for targeting HDL or adsorbing synthetic amphipathic helical peptides ltargeting LDL or folate receptors. These particles can be used for in situ loading of magnetite into cells for MRI-monitored cell tracking or gene expression.
Craig, Vanessa J; Zhang, Li; Hagood, James S; Owen, Caroline A
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a restrictive lung disease that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Current medical therapies are not fully effective at limiting mortality in patients with IPF, and new therapies are urgently needed. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteinases that, together, can degrade all components of the extracellular matrix and numerous nonmatrix proteins. MMPs and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of IPF based upon the results of clinical studies reporting elevated levels of MMPs (including MMP-1, MMP-7, MMP-8, and MMP-9) in IPF blood and/or lung samples. Surprisingly, studies of gene-targeted mice in murine models of pulmonary fibrosis (PF) have demonstrated that most MMPs promote (rather than inhibit) the development of PF and have identified diverse mechanisms involved. These mechanisms include MMPs: (1) promoting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (MMP-3 and MMP-7); (2) increasing lung levels or activity of profibrotic mediators or reducing lung levels of antifibrotic mediators (MMP-3, MMP-7, and MMP-8); (3) promoting abnormal epithelial cell migration and other aberrant repair processes (MMP-3 and MMP-9); (4) inducing the switching of lung macrophage phenotypes from M1 to M2 types (MMP-10 and MMP-28); and (5) promoting fibrocyte migration (MMP-8). Two MMPs, MMP-13 and MMP-19, have antifibrotic activities in murine models of PF, and two MMPs, MMP-1 and MMP-10, have the potential to limit fibrotic responses to injury. Herein, we review what is known about the contributions of MMPs and TIMPs to the pathogenesis of IPF and discuss their potential as therapeutic targets for IPF.
networking may emerge as new therapeutic targets in neurological and psychiatric disorders.
Full Text Available Current drug development in oncology is non-selective as it typically focuses on pathways essential for the survival of all dividing cells. The unique metabolic profile of cancer, which is characterized by increased glycolysis and suppressed mitochondrial glucose oxidation provides cancer cells with a proliferative advantage, conducive with apoptosis resistance and even increased angiogenesis. Recent evidence suggests that targeting the cancer-specific metabolic and mitochondrial remodeling may offer selectivity in cancer treatment. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK is a mitochondrial enzyme that is activated in a variety of cancers and results in the selective inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH, a complex of enzymes that converts cytosolic pyruvate to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA, the substrate for the Krebs’ cycle. Inhibition of PDK with either small interfering RNAs or the orphan drug dichloroacetate (DCA shifts the metabolism of cancer cells from glycolysis to glucose oxidation and reverses the suppression of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. In addition, this therapeutic strategy increases the production of diffusible Krebs’ cycle intermediates and mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS, activating p53 or inhibiting pro-proliferative and pro-angiogenic transcription factors like nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α. These effects result in decreased tumor growth and angiogenesis in a variety of cancers with high selectivity. In a small but mechanistic clinical trial in patients with glioblastoma, a highly aggressive and vascular form of brain cancer, DCA decreased tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth, suggesting that metabolic targeting therapies can be translated directly to patients. Therefore, reversing the mitochondrial suppression with metabolic-modulating drugs, like PDK inhibitors holds promise in the rapidly expanding field of metabolic oncology.
Kumer Biswas, Amit; Reazul Islam, Md; Sadek Choudhury, Zahid; Mostafa, Asif; Fahim Kadir, Mohammad
The current decades are marked not by the development of new molecules for the cure of various diseases but rather the development of new delivery methods for optimum treatment outcome. Nanomedicine is perhaps playing the biggest role in this concern. Nanomedicine offers numerous advantages over conventional drug delivery approaches and is particularly the hot topic in anticancer research. Nanoparticles (NPs) have many unique criteria that enable them to be incorporated in anticancer therapy. This topical review aims to look at the properties and various forms of NPs and their use in anticancer treatment, recent development of the process of identifying new delivery approaches as well as progress in clinical trials with these newer approaches. Although the outcome of cancer therapy can be increased using nanomedicine there are still many disadvantages of using this approach. We aim to discuss all these issues in this review.
Biswas, Amit Kumer; Islam, Md Reazul; Choudhury, Zahid Sadek; Kadir, Mohammad Fahim; Mostafa, Asif
The current decades are marked not by the development of new molecules for the cure of various diseases but rather the development of new delivery methods for optimum treatment outcome. Nanomedicine is perhaps playing the biggest role in this concern. Nanomedicine offers numerous advantages over conventional drug delivery approaches and is particularly the hot topic in anticancer research. Nanoparticles (NPs) have many unique criteria that enable them to be incorporated in anticancer therapy. This topical review aims to look at the properties and various forms of NPs and their use in anticancer treatment, recent development of the process of identifying new delivery approaches as well as progress in clinical trials with these newer approaches. Although the outcome of cancer therapy can be increased using nanomedicine there are still many disadvantages of using this approach. We aim to discuss all these issues in this review. (review)
Knight, Jason S.; Meng, He; Coit, Patrick; Yalavarthi, Srilakshmi; Sule, Gautam; Gandhi, Alex A.; Grenn, Robert C.; Mazza, Levi F.; Ali, Ramadan A.; Renauer, Paul; Wren, Jonathan D.; Bockenstedt, Paula L.; Wang, Hui; Eitzman, Daniel T.; Sawalha, Amr H.
Antiphospholipid antibodies, present in one-third of lupus patients, increase the risk of thrombosis. We recently reported a key role for neutrophils — neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), in particular — in the thrombotic events that define antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). To further elucidate the role of neutrophils in APS, we performed a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of neutrophils isolated from patients with primary APS. Moreover, APS-associated venous thrombosis was modeled by treating mice with IgG prepared from APS patients, followed by partial restriction of blood flow through the inferior vena cava. In patients, APS neutrophils demonstrated a proinflammatory signature with overexpression of genes relevant to IFN signaling, cellular defense, and intercellular adhesion. For in vivo studies, we focused on P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), a key adhesion molecule overexpressed in APS neutrophils. The introduction of APS IgG (as compared with control IgG) markedly potentiated thrombosis in WT mice, but not PSGL-1–KOs. PSGL-1 deficiency was also associated with reduced leukocyte vessel wall adhesion and NET formation. The thrombosis phenotype was restored in PSGL-1–deficient mice by infusion of WT neutrophils, while an anti–PSGL-1 monoclonal antibody inhibited APS IgG–mediated thrombosis in WT mice. PSGL-1 represents a potential therapeutic target in APS. PMID:28931754
Mulholland, Eoghan J; Dunne, Nicholas; McCarthy, Helen O
Wound healing is a highly complex biological process composed of three overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Impairments at any one or more of these stages can lead to compromised healing. MicroRNAs (miRs) are non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional regulators of multiple proteins and associated pathways. Thus, identification of the appropriate miR involved in the different phases of wound healing could reveal an effective third-generation genetic therapy in chronic wound care. Several miRs have been shown to be upregulated or downregulated during the wound healing process. This article examines the biological processes involved in wound healing, the miR involved at each stage, and how expression levels are modulated in the chronic wound environment. Key miRs are highlighted as possible therapeutic targets, either through underexpression or overexpression, and the healing benefits are interrogated. These are prime miR candidates that could be considered as a gene therapy option for patients suffering from chronic wounds. The success of miR as a gene therapy, however, is reliant on the development of an appropriate delivery system that must be designed to overcome both extracellular and intracellular barriers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eoghan J. Mulholland
Full Text Available Wound healing is a highly complex biological process composed of three overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Impairments at any one or more of these stages can lead to compromised healing. MicroRNAs (miRs are non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional regulators of multiple proteins and associated pathways. Thus, identification of the appropriate miR involved in the different phases of wound healing could reveal an effective third-generation genetic therapy in chronic wound care. Several miRs have been shown to be upregulated or downregulated during the wound healing process. This article examines the biological processes involved in wound healing, the miR involved at each stage, and how expression levels are modulated in the chronic wound environment. Key miRs are highlighted as possible therapeutic targets, either through underexpression or overexpression, and the healing benefits are interrogated. These are prime miR candidates that could be considered as a gene therapy option for patients suffering from chronic wounds. The success of miR as a gene therapy, however, is reliant on the development of an appropriate delivery system that must be designed to overcome both extracellular and intracellular barriers.
Hou, Jianglong; Kang, Y. James
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a key risk factor for heart failure. It is associated with increased interstitial fibrosis, cell death and cardiac dysfunction. The progression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy has long been considered as irreversible. However, recent clinical observations and experimental studies have produced evidence showing the reversal of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Left ventricle assist devices used in heart failure patients for bridging to transplantation not only improve peripheral circulation but also often cause reverse remodeling of the geometry and recovery of the function of the heart. Dietary supplementation with physiologically relevant levels of copper can reverse pathological cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Angiogenesis is essential and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a constitutive factor for the regression. The action of VEGF is mediated by VEGF receptor-1, whose activation is linked to cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase-1 (PKG-1) signaling pathways, and inhibition of cyclic GMP degradation leads to regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Most of these pathways are regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor. Potential therapeutic targets for promoting the regression include: promotion of angiogenesis, selective enhancement of VEGF receptor-1 signaling pathways, stimulation of PKG-1 pathways, and sustention of hypoxia-inducible factor transcriptional activity. More exciting insights into the regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy are emerging. The time of translating the concept of regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy to clinical practice is coming. PMID:22750195
Smallwood, Heather S.; Duan, Susu; Morfouace, Marie; Rezinciuc, Svetlana; Shulkin, Barry L.; Shelat, Anang; Zink, Erika E.; Milasta, Sandra; Bajracharya, Resha; Oluwaseum, Ajayi J.; Roussel, Martine F.; Green, Douglas R.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Thomas, Paul G.
Influenza is a worldwide health and financial burden posing a significant risk to the immune-compromised, obese, diabetic, elderly, and pediatric populations. We identified increases in glucose metabolism in the lungs of pediatric patients infected with respiratory pathogens. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we found metabolic changes occurring after influenza infection in primary human respiratory cells and validated infection-associated increases in c-Myc, glycolysis, and glutaminolysis. We confirmed these findings with a metabolic drug screen that identified the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 as a regulator of infectious virus production. BEZ235 treatment ablated the transient induction of c-Myc, restored PI3K/mTOR pathway homeostasis measured by 4E-BP1 and p85 phosphorylation, and reversed infection-induced changes in metabolism. Importantly, BEZ235 reduced infectious progeny but had no effect on the early stages of viral replication. BEZ235 significantly increased survival in mice, while reducing viral titer. We show metabolic reprogramming of host cells by influenza virus exposes targets for therapeutic intervention.
Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has indicated that oxidative stress (OS is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Normally, OS occurs when the body receives any danger signal—from either an internal or external source—and further induces DNA oxidative damage and abnormal protein expression, placing the body into a state of vulnerability to the development of various diseases such as cancer. There are many factors involved in liver carcinogenesis, including hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, alcohol abuse, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The relationship between OS and HCC has recently been attracting increasing attention. Therefore, elucidation of the impact of OS on the development of liver carcinogenesis is very important for the prevention and treatment of liver cancer. This review focuses mainly on the relationship between OS and the development of HCC from the perspective of cellular and molecular mechanisms and the etiology and therapeutic targets of HCC.
Hou, Jianglong; Kang, Y James
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a key risk factor for heart failure. It is associated with increased interstitial fibrosis, cell death and cardiac dysfunction. The progression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy has long been considered as irreversible. However, recent clinical observations and experimental studies have produced evidence showing the reversal of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Left ventricle assist devices used in heart failure patients for bridging to transplantation not only improve peripheral circulation but also often cause reverse remodeling of the geometry and recovery of the function of the heart. Dietary supplementation with physiologically relevant levels of copper can reverse pathological cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Angiogenesis is essential and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a constitutive factor for the regression. The action of VEGF is mediated by VEGF receptor-1, whose activation is linked to cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase-1 (PKG-1) signaling pathways, and inhibition of cyclic GMP degradation leads to regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Most of these pathways are regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor. Potential therapeutic targets for promoting the regression include: promotion of angiogenesis, selective enhancement of VEGF receptor-1 signaling pathways, stimulation of PKG-1 pathways, and sustention of hypoxia-inducible factor transcriptional activity. More exciting insights into the regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy are emerging. The time of translating the concept of regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy to clinical practice is coming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Zhentao; Xie, Manling; Ye, Keqiang
Asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) is a pH-dependent endolysosomal cysteine protease that cleaves its substrates after asparagine residues. Our most recent study identifies that it possesses the delta-secretase activity, and that it is implicated in numerous neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and stroke. Accumulating evidence supports that the inhibition of AEP exhibits beneficial effects for treating these devastating diseases. Based on recent evidence, it is clear that AEP cleaves its substrate, such as amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau and SET, and plays a critical role in neuronal cell death in various neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. In this article, the basic biology of AEP, its knockout phenotypes in mouse models, its substrates in neurodegenerative diseases, and its small peptidyl inhibitors and prodrugs are discussed. In addition, we discuss the potential of AEP as a novel therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases. AEP plays a unique role in numerous biological processes, depending on both pH and context. Most striking is our most recent finding; that AEP is activated in an age-dependent manner and simultaneously cleaves both APP and tau, thereby unifying both major pathological events in AD. Thus, AEP acts as an innovative trigger for neurodegenerative diseases. Inhibition of AEP will provide a disease-modifying treatment for neurodegenerative diseases including AD.
Manns, Michael P
Over the past 50 years significant progress has been made in the whole field of hepatology. Part of this is translation of basic research (biochemistry, immunology, virology, molecular biology and others) into clinical hepatology. This enabled us to understand more about the pathogenesis of liver diseases and led to the discovery of the five major hepatotropic viruses, the identification of hepatocellular autoantigens, and to the development of specific therapies for chronic hepatitis B, C and D. In addition, the molecular basis of most genetic liver diseases has been identified. Significant progress was made in the development of medical therapies for various liver diseases with different underlying etiologies. Surgery significantly contributed to the progress in the management of liver diseases; examples are laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the development of liver transplantation. A multimodal therapeutic algorithm has been established for the therapy of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC); with Sorafenib "targeted therapy" has entered the area of HCC. The progress made over the last 50 years not only led to an aetiological differentiation of acute and chronic liver diseases but also to specific therapies based on the identification and understanding of the underlying etiology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Heather S. Smallwood
Full Text Available Influenza is a worldwide health and financial burden posing a significant risk to the immune-compromised, obese, diabetic, elderly, and pediatric populations. We identified increases in glucose metabolism in the lungs of pediatric patients infected with respiratory pathogens. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we found metabolic changes occurring after influenza infection in primary human respiratory cells and validated infection-associated increases in c-Myc, glycolysis, and glutaminolysis. We confirmed these findings with a metabolic drug screen that identified the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 as a regulator of infectious virus production. BEZ235 treatment ablated the transient induction of c-Myc, restored PI3K/mTOR pathway homeostasis measured by 4E-BP1 and p85 phosphorylation, and reversed infection-induced changes in metabolism. Importantly, BEZ235 reduced infectious progeny but had no effect on the early stages of viral replication. BEZ235 significantly increased survival in mice, while reducing viral titer. We show metabolic reprogramming of host cells by influenza virus exposes targets for therapeutic intervention.
Kozel, Thomas R
Once an infection by a toxin-producing bacterium is well established, therapies such as antibiotics that target bacterial growth may have little impact on the ultimate patient outcome. In such cases, toxin-neutralizing antibodies offer an opportunity to block key virulence factors. New work by A. K. Varshney, X. Wang, J. L. Aguilar, M. D. Scharff, and B. C. Fries [mBio 5(3):e01007-14, 2014, doi:10.1128/mBio.01007-14] highlights the role of the antibody isotype in determining the efficacy of toxin-neutralizing antibodies in vivo. Varshney et al. examined the role of antibody isotype for protection in murine models of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-induced lethal shock and sepsis produced by SEB-producing Staphylococcus aureus. Murine antibodies of the IgG2a isotype were more protective than antibodies of the IgG1 and IgG2b isotypes that have identical variable regions and binding activity. These results add to the complexity inherent in the selection and optimization of antibodies for anti-infective passive immunization and emphasize the need to use relevant in vivo models to evaluate potential therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Copyright © 2014 Kozel.
Bravo, Javier A
Schizophrenia is one of the most disabling psychiatric conditions. Current treatments target monoamine receptors but this approach does not address the full complexity of the disorder. Here we explore the possibility of developing new anti-psychotics by targeting microRNAs (miRNAs), single stranded RNA molecules, 21-23 nucleotides in length that are not translated into proteins and regulate gene expression. The present review reveals that research involving schizophrenia and miRNA is very recent (the earliest report from 2007) and miRNAs add a significant layer of complexity to the pathophysiology of the disorder. However, miRNAs offer an exciting potential not only to understand the underlying mechanisms of schizophrenia, but also for the future development of antipsychotics, as the human miRNA system provides a rich and diverse opportunity for pharmacological targeting. However, technology is still developing in order to produce effective strategies to modulate specific and localized changes in miRNA, particularly in relation to the central nervous system and schizophrenia.
Pichai, Madharasi V A; Ferguson, Lynnette R
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as Crohn's disease are highly debilitating. There are inconsistencies in response to and side effects in the current conventional medications, failures in adequate drug delivery, and the lack of therapeutics to offer complete remission in the presently available treatments of IBD. This suggests the need to explore beyond the horizons of conventional approaches in IBD therapeutics. This review examines the arena of the evolving IBD nanomedicine, studied so far in animal and in vitro models, before comprehensive clinical testing in humans. The investigations carried out so far in IBD models have provided substantial evidence of the nanotherapeutic approach as having the potential to overcome some of the current drawbacks to conventional IBD therapy. We analyze the pros and cons of nanotechnology in IBD therapies studied in different models, aimed at different targets and mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis, in an attempt to predict its possible impact in humans.
or acting in concert regulate different biological processes and under what cellular circumstances. The question of the activity of Pim iso - forms...Gibbons JJ, Abraham RT, Yu K (2009) Mammalian target of rapamycin: Discovery of rapamydn reveals a signaling pathway important for norma ! and cancer cell...Cells were harvested in lysis buffer A consisting of 50 mmol/L Tris, pH 7.4, ISO mmoi/L NaCI, I% NP-40, aad 5 mmoi/L EDTA. Protein concentrations
Escobar Castro, H; García Novo, Ma D; Olivares, P
Until recently, biliary lithiasis was considered infrequent in childhood. According to their composition, gallstones can be classified into cholesterol stones and pigment stones. The latter are mainly composed of calcium salts of unconjugated bilirubin and are divided into hard black and soft brown stones. In children, up to 75 % of gallstones are pigment stones. Their etiology is often unknown. Biliary lithiasis in children differs from that in adults and there is very little scientific evidence on the most suitable therapeutic procedures. Symptom-free stones usually have a benign course and do not require medical or surgical treatment. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include dyspepsia and chronic abdominal pain. These symptoms are an indication for ultrasonographic scan to rule out the presence of gallstones. Cholecystectomy is the definitive treatment for gallstones but is not always indicated. Medical treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid is indicated in oligosymptomatic and asymptomatic lithiasis with transparent, soft, cholesterol-rich stones and a functional bladder and in patients with a high surgical risk.
Full Text Available Abstract An understanding of how the brain changes in chronic pain or responds to pharmacological or other therapeutic interventions has been significantly changed as a result of developments in neuroimaging of the CNS. These developments have occurred in 3 domains : (1 Anatomical Imaging which has demonstrated changes in brain volume in chronic pain; (2 Functional Imaging (fMRI that has demonstrated an altered state in the brain in chronic pain conditions including back pain, neuropathic pain, and complex regional pain syndromes. In addition the response of the brain to drugs has provided new insights into how these may modify normal and abnormal circuits (phMRI or pharmacological MRI; (3 Chemical Imaging (Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy or MRS has helped our understanding of measures of chemical changes in chronic pain. Taken together these three domains have already changed the way in which we think of pain – it should now be considered an altered brain state in which there may be altered functional connections or systems and a state that has components of degenerative aspects of the CNS.
Spinazzola, Janelle M.; Kunkel, Louis M.
Introduction Since the identification of the dystrophin gene in 1986, a cure for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has yet to be discovered. Presently, there are a number of genetic-based therapies in development aimed at restoration and/or repair of the primary defect. However, growing understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of dystrophin absence has revealed several promising downstream targets for the development of therapeutics. Areas covered In this review, we discuss various strategies for DMD therapy targeting downstream consequences of dystrophin absence including loss of muscle mass, inflammation, fibrosis, calcium overload, oxidative stress, and ischemia. The rationale of each approach and the efficacy of drugs in preclinical and clinical studies are discussed. Expert opinion For the last 30 years, effective DMD drug therapy has been limited to corticosteroids, which are associated with a number of negative side effects. Our knowledge of the consequences of dystrophin absence that contribute to DMD pathology has revealed several potential therapeutic targets. Some of these approaches may have potential to improve or slow disease progression independently or in combination with genetic-based approaches. The applicability of these pharmacological therapies to DMD patients irrespective of their genetic mutation, as well as the potential benefits even for advanced stage patients warrants their continued investigation. PMID:28670506
Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed an evolution of our understanding of the biology of the metastatic cascade. Recent insights into the metastatic process show that it is complex, dynamic and multi-directional. This process starts at a very early stage in the natural history of solid tumor growth leading to early development of metastases that grow in parallel with the primary tumor. The role of stem cells in perpetuating cancer metastases is increasingly becoming more evident. At the same time, there is a growing recognition of the crucial role circulating tumor cells (CTCs play in the development of metastases. These insights have laid the biological foundations for therapeutic targeting of CTCs, a promising area of research that aims to reduce cancer morbidity and mortality by preventing the development of metastases at a very early stage. The hematogenous transport phase of the metastatic cascade provides critical access to CTCs for therapeutic targeting aiming to interrupt the metastatic process. Recent advances in the fields of nanotechnology and micro-fluidics have led to the development of several devices for in-vivo targeting of CTC during transit in the circulation. Selectin-coated tubes that target cell adhesion molecules, immuno-magnetic separators and in-vivo photoacoustic flow cytometers are currently being developed for this purpose. On the pharmacological front, several pharmacological and immunological agents targeting cancer stem cells are currently being developed. Such agents may ultimately prove to be effective against circulating tumor stem cells (CTSCs. Although still in its infancy, therapeutic targeting of CTCs and CTSCs offers an unprecedented opportunity to prevent the development of metastasis and potentially alter the natural history of cancer. By rendering cancer a local disease, these approaches could lead to major reductions in metastasis-related morbidity and mortality.
Viganò, Marco; Sansone, Valerio; d'Agostino, Maria Cristina; Romeo, Pietro; Perucca Orfei, Carlotta; de Girolamo, Laura
Musculoskeletal disorders are regarded as a major cause of worldwide morbidity and disability, and they result in huge costs for national health care systems. Traditional therapies frequently turned out to be poorly effective in treating bone, cartilage, and tendon disorders or joint degeneration. As a consequence, the development of novel biological therapies that can treat more effectively these conditions should be the highest priority in regenerative medicine. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent one of the most promising tools in musculoskeletal tissue regenerative medicine, thanks to their proliferation and differentiation potential and their immunomodulatory and trophic ability. Indeed, MSC-based approaches have been proposed for the treatment of almost all orthopedic conditions, starting from different cell sources, alone or in combination with scaffolds and growth factors, and in one-step or two-step procedures. While all these approaches would require cell harvesting and transplantation, the possibility to stimulate the endogenous MSCs to enhance their tissue homeostasis activity represents a less-invasive and cost-effective therapeutic strategy. Nowadays, the role of tissue-specific resident stem cells as possible therapeutic target in degenerative pathologies is underinvestigated. Biophysical stimulations, and in particular extracorporeal shock waves treatment and pulsed electromagnetic fields, are able to induce proliferation and support differentiation of MSCs from different origins and affect their paracrine production of growth factors and cytokines. The present review reports the attempts to exploit the resident stem cell potential in musculoskeletal pathologies, highlighting the role of MSCs as therapeutic target of currently applied biophysical treatments.
Weyand, Cornelia M; Goronzy, Jörg J
Beginning with the sixth decade of life, the human immune system undergoes dramatic aging-related changes, which continuously progress to a state of immunosenescence. The aging immune system loses the ability to protect against infections and cancer and fails to support appropriate wound healing. Vaccine responses are typically impaired in older individuals. Conversely, inflammatory responses mediated by the innate immune system gain in intensity and duration, rendering older individuals susceptible to tissue-damaging immunity and inflammatory disease. Immune system aging functions as an accelerator for other age-related pathologies. It occurs prematurely in some clinical conditions, most prominently in patients with the autoimmune syndrome rheumatoid arthritis (RA); and such patients serve as an informative model system to study molecular mechanisms of immune aging. T cells from patients with RA are prone to differentiate into proinflammatory effector cells, sustaining chronic-persistent inflammatory lesions in the joints and many other organ systems. RA T cells have several hallmarks of cellular aging; most importantly, they accumulate damaged DNA. Because of deficiency of the DNA repair kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated, RA T cells carry a higher burden of DNA double-strand breaks, triggering cell-indigenous stress signals that shift the cell's survival potential and differentiation pattern. Immune aging in RA T cells is also associated with metabolic reprogramming; specifically, with reduced glycolytic flux and diminished ATP production. Chronic energy stress affects the longevity and the functional differentiation of older T cells. Altered metabolic patterns provide opportunities to therapeutically target the immune aging process through metabolic interference.
Full Text Available GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, early in postnatal life exerts a depolarizing and excitatory action. This depends on accumulation of chloride inside the cell via the cation-chloride importer NKCC1, being the expression of the chloride exporter KCC2 very low at birth. The developmentally regulated expression of KCC2 results in extrusion of chloride with age and a shift of GABA from the depolarizing to the hyperpolarizing direction. The depolarizing action of GABA leads to intracellular calcium rise through voltage-dependent calcium channels and/or NMDA receptors. GABA-mediated calcium signals regulate a variety of developmental processes from cell proliferation migration, differentiation, synapse maturation and neuronal wiring. Therefore, it is not surprising that some forms of neuro-developmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs are associated with alterations of GABAergic signaling and impairment of the excitatory/inhibitory balance in selective neuronal circuits. In this review we will discuss how changes of GABAA-mediated neurotransmission affect several forms of ASDs including the Fragile X, the Angelman and Rett syndromes. Then, we will describe various animal models of ASDs with GABAergic dysfunctions, highlighting their behavioral deficits and the possibility to rescue them by targeting selective components of the GABAergic synapse. In particular, we will discuss how in some cases, reverting the polarity of GABA responses from the depolarizing to the hyperpolarizing direction with the diuretic bumetanide, a selective blocker of NKCC1, may have beneficial effects on ASDs, thus opening new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of these devastating disorders.
Molli Poonam R
therapeutic target in CML.
Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Rizwan, Mohsin; Abbas, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad; Boyang, Yu; Naeem, Muhammad Ahsan; Khan, Sara; Yuan, Shengtao; Baig, Mirza Muhammad Faran Ashraf; Sun, Li
DT-13 is an isolated compound from Dwarf lillytruf tuber and currently among active research drugs by National Natural Science foundation of China for its several potential effects. The drug has been reported for its multiple pharmacological actions however no thorough review studies are available on it. Our present study is highlighting the pros and cons of DT-13 focusing on its potential pharmacological actions, therapeutic utilization and further exploration for novel targets. The drug possesses very low toxicity profile, quick onset and long duration of action with slow elimination that combinely makes it favorable for the clinical studies. In vivo and in vitro studies show that the drug regulates multiple cellular functions for its several pharmacological effects including, anti-adhesive effects via regulation of tissue factor and transforming growth factor; anti-migratory effects through indirect regulation of NM-IIA in the tumor microenvironment, Tissue factor, down-regulation of CCR5-CCL5 axis and MMP-2/9 inhibition; anti-metastatic effects via regulation of MMPs and tissue factor; pro-apoptotic effects by modulation of endocytosis of EGF receptor; anti-angiogenic effects via regulation of HIF-1α,ERK, Akt signalling and autophagy inducing characteristics by regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway. In addition to anti-tumor activities, DT-13 has significant anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective and immunomodulating effects. Pharmaceutical dosage form and targeted drug delivery system for DT-13 has not been established yet. Moreover, DT-13, has not been studied for its action on brain, colorectal, hepatic, pancreatic, prostate and blood cancers. Similarly the effects of drug on carbohydrate and glucose metabolism is another niche yet to be explored. In some traditional therapies, crude drug from the plant is used against diabetic and neurological disorders that are not reported in scientific literature, however due to profound effects of
Full Text Available The key cytopathologies in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD patients include mitochondrial dysfunction and energy hypometabolism, which are likely caused by the accumulation of small aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ peptides. Thus, targeting these two abnormalities of the AD brain may hold promising therapeutic value for delaying the onset of AD. In his paper, we discuss two potential approaches to delay the onset of AD. The first is the use of low dose of diaminophenothiazins (redox active agents to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and to attenuate energy hypometabolism. Diaminophenothiazines enhance mitochondrial metabolic activity and heme synthesis, both key factors in intermediary metabolism of the AD brain.The second is to use the naturally occurring osmolytes to prevent the formation of toxic forms of Aβ and prevent oxidative stress. Scientific evidence suggests that both approaches may change course of the basic mechanism of neurodegeneration in AD. Osmolytes are brain metabolites which accumulate in tissues at relatively high concentrations following stress conditions. Osmolytes enhance thermodynamic stability of proteins by stabilizing natively-folded protein conformation, thus preventing aggregation without perturbing other cellular processes. Osmolytes may inhibit the formation of Aβ oligomers in vivo, thus preventing the formation of soluble oligomers. The potential significance of combining diaminophenothiazins and osmolytes to treat AD is discussed.
Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among American women, and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death for female in the United States. It has been known that several signaling pathways and various factors play critical roles in the development and progression of breast cancer, such as estrogen receptor, Notch, PTEN, Her2, PI3K/Akt, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Emerging evidence has shown that the F-box protein Skp2 (S-phase kinase associated protein 2 also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Therefore, in this brief review, we summarize the novel functions of Skp2 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Moreover, we provide further evidence regarding the state of our knowledge toward the development of novel Skp2 inhibitors especially natural chemopreventive agents as targeted approach for the prevention and/or treatment of breast cancer.
Full Text Available The practice of liquid biopsy (LB has revolutionized the care of patients with metastatic lung cancer. Many oncologists now use this approach in daily practice, applying precise procedures for the detection of activating or resistance mutations in EGFR. These tests are performed with plasma DNA and have been approved as companion diagnostic test for patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. ALK is another important target in lung cancer since it leads to treatment of patients who are positive for a rearrangement in ALK identified with tumor tissue. By analogy with EGFR, LB for detection of genomic alterations in ALK (rearrangements or mutations has been rapidly adopted in the clinic. However, this promising approach has some limitations and has not yet been disseminated as much as the blood test targeting EGFR. In addition to these two therapeutic targets LB can be used for evaluation of the genomic status of other genes of interest of patients with lung cancer (ROS1, RET, NTRK MET, BRAF, HER2, etc.. LB can be performed to evaluate a specific target or for a more or less complex panel of genes. Considering the number of potential targets for clinical trials, techniques of next-generation sequencing of circulating DNA are on the rise. This review will provide an update on the contribution of LB to care of patients with metastatic lung cancer, including the present limits of this approach, and will consider certain perspectives.
...) . A number of promising therapeutic targets for androgen-independent and metastatic prostate cancers are contained within the signaling cascades downstream of the ECM-binding Integrin molecules...
Full Text Available Einar F Sverrisson, Patrick N Espiritu, Philippe E SpiessDepartment of Genitourinary Oncology, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, despite the myriad of treatment approaches and our progressively increasing knowledge into its disease processes, remains one of the most clinically challenging problems in modern urological clinical practice. New therapies target biomolecular pathways and cellular mediators responsible for regulating cell growth and metabolism, both of which are frequently overexpressed in malignant urothelial cells, with the intent of inducing cell death by limiting cellular metabolism and growth, creating an immune response, or selectively delivering or activating a cytotoxic agent. These new and novel therapies may offer a potential for reduced toxicity and an encouraging hope for better treatment outcomes, particularly for a disease often refractory or not amenable to the current therapeutic approaches.Keywords: targeted therapy, intravesical agents, systemic therapies
Zielonka, Jacek; Joseph, Joy; Sikora, Adam; Hardy, Micael; Ouari, Olivier; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette; Cheng, Gang; Lopez, Marcos; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman
Mitochondria are recognized as one of the most important targets for new drug design in cancer, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. Currently, the most effective way to deliver drugs specifically to mitochondria is by covalent linking a lipophilic cation such as an alkyltriphenylphosphonium moiety to a pharmacophore of interest. Other delocalized lipophilic cations, such as rhodamine, natural and synthetic mitochondria-targeting peptides, and nanoparticle vehicles, have also been used for mitochondrial delivery of small molecules. Depending on the approach used, and the cell and mitochondrial membrane potentials, more than 1000-fold higher mitochondrial concentration can be achieved. Mitochondrial targeting has been developed to study mitochondrial physiology and dysfunction and the interaction between mitochondria and other subcellular organelles and for treatment of a variety of diseases such as neurodegeneration and cancer. In this Review, we discuss efforts to target small-molecule compounds to mitochondria for probing mitochondria function, as diagnostic tools and potential therapeutics. We describe the physicochemical basis for mitochondrial accumulation of lipophilic cations, synthetic chemistry strategies to target compounds to mitochondria, mitochondrial probes, and sensors, and examples of mitochondrial targeting of bioactive compounds. Finally, we review published attempts to apply mitochondria-targeted agents for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.
Choi, Yeon Su; Kwon, Kiyoon; Yoon, Kwonhyeok; Huh, Kang Moo; Kang, Han Chang
Mitochondria-targeting drug carriers have considerable potential because of the presence of many molecular drug targets in the mitochondria and their pivotal roles in cellular viability, metabolism, maintenance, and death. To compare the mitochondria-targeting abilities of triphenylphosphonium (TPP) and pheophorbide a (PhA) in nanoparticles (NPs), this study prepared mitochondria-targeting NPs using mixtures of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-(SS-PhA) 2 [mPEG-(SS-PhA) 2 or PPA] and TPP-b-poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-TPP [TPP-b-PCL-b-TPP or TPCL], which were designated PPA n -TPCL 4-n (0≤n≤4) NPs. With increasing TPCL content, the formed PPA n -TPCL 4-n NPs decreased in size from 33nm to 18nm and increased in terms of positive zeta-potentials from -12mV to 33mV. Although the increased TPCL content caused some dark toxicity of the PPA n -TPCL 4-n NPs due to the intrinsic positive character of TPCL, the NPs showed strong light-induced killing effects in tumor cells. In addition, the mitochondrial distribution of the PPA n -TPCL 4-n NPs was analyzed and imaged by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, respectively. Thus, the PhA-containing NPs specifically targeted the mitochondria, and light stimulation caused PhA-mediated therapeutic effects and imaging functions. Expanding the capabilities of these nanocarriers by incorporating other drugs should enable multiple potential applications (e.g., targeting, therapy, and imaging) for combination and synergistic treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bucher, R E; Costa, P F
Difficulties of biological, psychological, social and legal nature may be seen involved in the treatment of drug-addict persons. In this study, the major models used in the treatment are analysed, so as so one may arrived at a new model which will better integrate the various factors involved. The major models may be brought down to three: the medical psychiatric model which emphasizes the biological dependency on drugs and which equates drug addiction and "mental illness"; the behavioristic model which utilizes directive conditioning and desensitizing techniques, as well as educational and suggestional means, in order to determine new kinds of behavior; the relational model which takes origin from psychoanalysis and the systemic approach and sponsors a non-directive treatment of the drug-addict through the exploration and work on his personal and social unconscious conflicts, drive and desires, as well as his self-destructive tendencies. To assure the drug-addict a way to assume responsibility for his own behavior and to be free by respecting other people's rights, it is necessary to elaborate an integrative model of treatment which will consider also the anthropological specificity of the problems, referring also to the Brazilian society.
Welch, Ryan D.; Flaveny, Colin A.
Muscle is primarily known for its mechanical roles in locomotion, maintenance of posture, and regulation of cardiac and respiratory function. There are numerous medical conditions that adversely affect muscle, myopathies that disrupt muscle development, regeneration and protein turnover to detrimental effect. Skeletal muscle is also a vital secretory organ that regulates thermogenesis, inflammatory signaling and directs context specific global metabolic changes in energy substrate preference on a daily basis. Myopathies differ in the causative factors that drive them but share common features including severe reduction in quality of life and significantly increased mortality all due irrefutably to the loss of muscle mass. Thus far clinically viable approaches for preserving muscle proteins and stimulating new muscle growth without unwanted side effects or limited efficacy has been elusive. Over the last few decades, evidence has emerged through in vitro and in vivo studies that suggest the nuclear receptors REV-ERB and ROR might modulate pathways involved in myogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. Hinting that REV-ERB and ROR might be targeted to treat myopathies. However there is still a need for substantial investigation into the roles of these nuclear receptors in in vivo rodent models of degenerative muscle diseases and acute injury. Although exciting, REV-ERB and ROR have somewhat confounding roles in muscle physiology and therefore more studies utilizing in vivo models of skeletal muscle myopathies are needed. In this review we highlight the molecular forces driving some of the major degenerative muscular diseases and showcase two promising molecular targets that may have the potential to treat myopathies: ROR and REV-ERB.
RNA-Periostin LNCap cells growed slowly in vitro and in vivo. The tissues of xenografts as PCa were verificated by HE staining. Additionally, the weak positive Periostin expressed tumor cells could be seen in the tissues of 6 xenografts from the group of down-regulated Periostin LNCap cells which had a significant decrease of the amount of Periostin compared to the other two group. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that sliencing Periostin could inhibit migration of LNCap cells in vitro. Conclusions Our data indicates that Periostin as an up-regulated protein in PCa may be a promising target of therapeutical intervention for PCa in future.
Kameda, Yusuke; Takahata, Masahiko; Mikuni, Shintaro; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Hamano, Hiroki; Angata, Takashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu; Kinjo, Masataka; Iwasaki, Norimasa
organization of osteoclasts in both RANKL and TNF-α induced osteoclastogenesis. The present findings indicate that Siglec-15 is involved in estrogen deficiency-induced differentiation of osteoclasts and is thus a potential therapeutic target for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Merkelbach, S.; Koelmel, C.; Schimrigk, K.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered as a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease. Caused by central nervous system demyelination and axonal damage varying clinical signs do occur either with relapsing-remitting or with chronic progressive course. Based on pathogenetic considerations immunomodulative and immunosuppressive therapeutical approaches are used to limit the disease progression. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic criteria, pathogenetical considerations, and consecutive therapeutical interventions are summarized. (orig.) [de
Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Rodriguez, Angel M V; Khandia, Rekha; Munjal, Ashok; Dhama, Kuldeep
In the recent past, a wider spectrum of nanotechnologybased drugs or drug-loaded devices and systems has been engineered and investigated with high interests. The key objective is to help for an enhanced/better quality of patient life in a secure way by avoiding/limiting drug abuse, or severe adverse effects of some in practice traditional therapies. Various methodological approaches including in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo techniques have been exploited, so far. Among them, nanoparticles-based therapeutic agents are of supreme interests for an enhanced and efficient delivery in the current biomedical sector of the modern world. The development of new types of novel, effective and highly reliable therapeutic drug delivery system (DDS) for multipurpose applications is essential and a core demand to tackle many human health related diseases. In this context, nanotechnology-based several advanced DDS have been engineered with novel characteristics for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical applications that include but not limited to the enhanced/improved bioactivity, bioavailability, drug efficacy, targeted delivery, and therapeutically safer with an extra advantage of overcoming demerits of traditional drug formulations/designs. This review work is focused on recent trends/advances in nanotechnology-based drugs and formulations designed for targeted therapeutic delivery. Moreover, information is also reviewed and given from recent patents and summarized or illustrated diagrammatically to depict a better understanding. Recent patents covering various nanotechnology-based approaches for several applications have also been reviewed. The drug-loaded nanoparticles are among versatile candidates with multifunctional characteristics for potential applications in biomedical, and tissue engineering sector. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lettner, Thomas; Lang, Roland; Klausegger, Alfred; Hainzl, Stefan
Epidermolysis bullosa refers to a group of genodermatoses that affects the integrity of epithelial layers, phenotypically resulting in severe skin blistering. Dowling-Meara, the major subtype of epidermolysis bullosa simplex, is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and can be caused by mutations in either the keratin-5 (K5) or the keratin-14 (K14) gene. Currently, no therapeutic approach is known, and the main objective of this study was to identify novel therapeutic targets. We used microarray analysis, semi-quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and ELISA to identify differentially regulated genes in two K14 mutant cell lines carrying the mutations K14 R125P and K14 R125H, respectively. We found kallikrein-related peptidases and matrix metalloproteinases to be upregulated. We also found elevated expression of chemokines, and we observed deregulation of the Cdc42 pathway as well as aberrant expression of cytokeratins and junction proteins. We further demonstrated, that expression of these genes is dependent on interleukin-1 β signaling. To evaluate these data in vivo we analysed the blister fluids of epidermolysis bullosa simplex patients vs. healthy controls and identified matrix metalloproteinase-9 and the chemokine CXCL8/IL-8 as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:23894602
Philip J. Barter
Full Text Available High density lipoproteins (HDLs have a number of properties that have the potential to inhibit the development of atherosclerosis and thus reduce the risk of having a cardiovascular event. These protective effects of HDLs may be reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes, a condition in which the concentration of HDL cholesterol is frequently low. In addition to their potential cardioprotective properties, HDLs also increase the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle and stimulate the synthesis and secretion of insulin from pancreatic β cells and may thus have a beneficial effect on glycemic control. This raises the possibility that a low HDL concentration in type 2 diabetes may contribute to a worsening of diabetic control. Thus, there is a double case for targeting HDLs in patients with type 2 diabetes: to reduce cardiovascular risk and also to improve glycemic control. Approaches to raising HDL levels include lifestyle factors such as weight reduction, increased physical activity and stopping smoking. There is an ongoing search for HDL-raising drugs as agents to use in patients with type 2 diabetes in whom the HDL level remains low despite lifestyle interventions.
Full Text Available Osteoporosis is the most frequent systemic disease of the bone, that affects elderly, mainly women in menopause. It can be defined by lowering of bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of the bone tissue, resulting in an increased bone fragility. Main complications of osteoporosis are fractures of the vertebrae, hips and forearm. In view of its large variety of causes and manifestations, diagnostic and therapeutical approach in osteoporosis represents a multidisciplinary issue. The accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on a method that measures the bone mineral density, expressed by the T-score, using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, so called DXA. Lately, in practice in order for establishing the risk of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture the FRAX tool is increasingly used (The Fracture Risk Assessment. Treatment of osteoporosis is complex involving non-pharmacological and pharmacological measures. Non-pharmacological methods include preventive measures like exercise, external hip protectors, increase of dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D and proteins, especially in elderly, over 65 years. Pharmacological measures are represented by different types of drugs, including biphosphonates, bone formation stimulatory drugs, agents with new mechanisms of action, hormone replacement therapy and they will be indicated only after a detailed clinical and paraclinical examination of the patient. Regardless of the chosen pharmacological measure, periodical follow-up of efficacy, side-effects and complications of antiosteoporotic treatment, by clinical examination and laboratory investigations targeting bone remodelling, is strongly indicated.
Mario Stampanoni Bassi
Full Text Available Neurons in the central nervous system are organized in functional units interconnected to form complex networks. Acute and chronic brain damage disrupts brain connectivity producing neurological signs and/or symptoms. In several neurological diseases, particularly in Multiple Sclerosis (MS, structural imaging studies cannot always demonstrate a clear association between lesion site and clinical disability, originating the “clinico-radiological paradox.” The discrepancy between structural damage and disability can be explained by a complex network perspective. Both brain networks architecture and synaptic plasticity may play important roles in modulating brain networks efficiency after brain damage. In particular, long-term potentiation (LTP may occur in surviving neurons to compensate network disconnection. In MS, inflammatory cytokines dramatically interfere with synaptic transmission and plasticity. Importantly, in addition to acute and chronic structural damage, inflammation could contribute to reduce brain networks efficiency in MS leading to worse clinical recovery after a relapse and worse disease progression. These evidence suggest that removing inflammation should represent the main therapeutic target in MS; moreover, as synaptic plasticity is particularly altered by inflammation, specific strategies aimed at promoting LTP mechanisms could be effective for enhancing clinical recovery. Modulation of plasticity with different non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS techniques has been used to promote recovery of MS symptoms. Better knowledge of features inducing brain disconnection in MS is crucial to design specific strategies to promote recovery and use NIBS with an increasingly tailored approach.
Yang, Yongliang; Adelstein, S James; Kassis, Amin I
Data mining of available biomedical data and information has greatly boosted target discovery in the 'omics' era. Target discovery is the key step in the biomarker and drug discovery pipeline to diagnose and fight human diseases. In biomedical science, the 'target' is a broad concept ranging from molecular entities (such as genes, proteins and miRNAs) to biological phenomena (such as molecular functions, pathways and phenotypes). Within the context of biomedical science, data mining refers to a bioinformatics approach that combines biological concepts with computer tools or statistical methods that are mainly used to discover, select and prioritize targets. In response to the huge demand of data mining for target discovery in the 'omics' era, this review explicates various data mining approaches and their applications to target discovery with emphasis on text and microarray data analysis. Two emerging data mining approaches, chemogenomic data mining and proteomic data mining, are briefly introduced. Also discussed are the limitations of various data mining approaches found in the level of database integration, the quality of data annotation, sample heterogeneity and the performance of analytical and mining tools. Tentative strategies of integrating different data sources for target discovery, such as integrated text mining with high-throughput data analysis and integrated mining with pathway databases, are introduced. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lekic, Tim; Klebe, Damon; Pichon, Pilar; Brankov, Katarina; Sultan, Sally; McBride, Devin; Casel, Darlene; Al-Bayati, Alhamza; Ding, Yan; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H
Germinal matrix hemorrhage is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity from prematurity. This brain region is vulnerable to bleeding and re-bleeding within the first 72 hours of preterm life. Cerebroventricular expansion of blood products contributes to the mechanisms of brain injury. Consequences include lifelong hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, and intellectual disability. Unfortunately little is known about the therapeutic needs of this patient population. This review discusses the mechanisms of germinal matrix hemorrhage, the animal models utilized, and the potential therapeutic targets. Potential therapeutic approaches identified in pre-clinical investigations include corticosteroid therapy, iron chelator administration, and transforming growth factor-β pathway modulation, which all warrant further investigation. Thus, effective preclinical modeling is essential for elucidating and evaluating novel therapeutic approaches, ahead of clinical consideration. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Luck, Marisa E; Muljo, Stefan A; Collins, Colm B
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous oligoribonucleotides with exciting therapeutic potential. Early studies established a clear role for miRNAs in leukocyte biology. The first miRNA-based therapy, miravirsen, is now in phase 2 clinical trials, making the reality of these therapies undeniable. The capacity for miRNAs to fine-tune inflammatory signaling make them attractive treatment targets for immunological diseases. Nonetheless, the degree of redundancy among miRNAs, coupled with the promiscuity of miRNA binding sites in the transcriptome, require consideration when designing miRNA-directed interventions. Altered miRNA expression occurs across a range of inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, arthritis, and diabetes. However, very few studies successfully treated murine models of immunological diseases with miRNA-based approaches. While discussing recent studies targeting miRNAs to treat immunological conditions, we also reflect on the risks of miRNA targeting and showcase some newer delivery systems that may improve the pharmacological profile of this class of therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
The serine hydrolase butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), like the related enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), co-regulates metabolism of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. In the human brain BChE is mainly expressed in white matter and glia and in distinct populations of neurons in regions that are important in cognition and behavior, functions compromised in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia with no cure nor means for definitive diagnosis during life. In AD, BChE is found in association with pathology, such as β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, particularly in the cerebral cortex where BChE is not normally found in quantity. Up to 30% of cognitively normal older adults have abundant Aβ deposition in the brain. We have designed an imaging agent that can detect, through autoradiography, BChE-associated Aβ plaques in the cerebral cortex of AD brains, but does not visualize Aβ plaques in brains of cognitively normal individuals. Furthermore, in an AD mouse model with BChE gene knocked out, there are up to 70% fewer fibrillar Aβ brain plaques, suggesting diminished BChE activity could prove beneficial as a curative approach to AD. To that end, we have examined numerous N-10-carbonyl phenothiazines that are specific inhibitors of human BChE, revealing important details of the enzyme's active site gorge. These phenothiazines can be designed without potential side effects caused by neurotransmitter receptor interactions. In conclusion, BChE is potentially an important target for diagnosis and treatment of AD.
Full Text Available Although cannabis has been used for pain management for millennia, very few approved cannabinoids are indicated for the treatment of pain and other medical symptoms. Cannabinoid therapy re-gained attention only after the discovery of endocannabinoids and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL, the enzymes playing a role in endocannabinoid metabolism. Nowadays, research has focused on the inhibition of these degradative enzymes and the elevation of endocannabinoid tonus locally; special emphasis is given on multi-target analgesia compounds, where one of the targets is the endocannabinoid degrading enzyme. In this review, I provide an overview of the current understanding about the processes accounting for the biosynthesis, transport and metabolism of endocannabinoids, and pharmacological approaches and potential therapeutic applications in this area, regarding the use of drugs elevating endocannabinoid levels in pain conditions.
Full Text Available The microarray dataset attached to this report is related to the research article with the title: “A genomic approach to susceptibility and pathogenesis leads to identifying potential novel therapeutic targets in androgenetic alopecia” (Dey-Rao and Sinha, 2017 . Male-pattern hair loss that is induced by androgens (testosterone in genetically predisposed individuals is known as androgenetic alopecia (AGA. The raw dataset is being made publicly available to enable critical and/or extended analyses. Our related research paper utilizes the attached raw dataset, for genome-wide gene-expression associated investigations. Combined with several in silico bioinformatics-based analyses we were able to delineate five strategic molecular elements as potential novel targets towards future AGA-therapy.
Norris-Shortle, Carole; Melley, Alison H.; Kiser, Laurel J.; Levey, Eric; Cosgrove, Kim; Leviton, Audrey
PACT: Helping Children with Special Needs, an affiliate of the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, operates a therapeutic nursery that serves families who have at least one child from birth to 3 years of age, and who are living in a Baltimore City homeless shelter. In partnership with the Martin Luther King Early Head Start Program…
A therapeutic jurisprudence approach, combined with appropriate teaching and learning methods, will enhance the student's interpersonal skills and writing and reading skills. The teaching methods invoked include role-play to transform formal knowledge into living knowledge, thereby stimulating students' natural practical ...
Pena, Camilo; Mirandola, Leonardo; Figueroa, Jose A; Hosiriluck, Nattamol; Suvorava, Natallia; Trotter, Kayley; Reidy, Adair; Rakhshanda, Rahman; Payne, Drew; Jenkins, Marjorie; Grizzi, Fabio; Littlefield, Lauren; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Cobos, Everardo
Galectins are family of galactose-binding proteins known to play critical roles in inflammation and neoplastic progression. Galectins facilitate the growth and survival of neoplastic cells by regulating their cross-talk with the extracellular microenvironment and hampering anti-neoplastic immunity. Here, we review the role of galectins in the biology of hematological malignancies and their promise as potential therapeutic agents in these diseases.
Sverrisson, Einar F; Espiritu, Patrick N; Spiess, Philippe E
Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, despite the myriad of treatment approaches and our progressively increasing knowledge into its disease processes, remains one of the most clinically challenging problems in modern urological clinical practice. New therapies target biomolecular pathways and cellular mediators responsible for regulating cell growth and metabolism, both of which are frequently overexpressed in malignant urothelial cells, with the intent of inducing cell death by limiting cellular metabolism and growth, creating an immune response, or selectively delivering or activating a cytotoxic agent. These new and novel therapies may offer a potential for reduced toxicity and an encouraging hope for better treatment outcomes, particularly for a disease often refractory or not amenable to the current therapeutic approaches. PMID:24400235
Full Text Available Phu N Tran,1* Sarmen Sarkissian,1* Joseph Chao,2 Samuel J Klempner3,4 1Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, 2Department of Medical Oncology and Developmental Therapeutics, City of Hope, Duarte, 3Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 4The Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Gastric adenocarcinoma is a leading cause of global cancer-related morbidity and mortality, and new therapeutic approaches are needed. Despite the improved outcomes with monoclonal antibodies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, durable responses are uncommon. Targeting immune checkpoints including PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA-4 have led to improved survival across several tumor types, frequently characterized by prolonged benefit in responding patients. Tumoral and lymphocyte-derived immunohistochemical staining for PD-1, PD-L1, and tumor mutational burden have shown potential as predictive response biomarkers in several tumor types. Optimal incorporation of immune-mediated therapies into gastric cancer (GC is an area of intense ongoing investigation and benefit has been demonstrated in smaller studies of advanced patients. Important questions of biomarker selection, roles for molecular characterization, optimal combinatorial approaches, and therapeutic sequencing remain. In this study, current data are reviewed for immune checkpoint inhibitors in GC, and putative biomarkers, ongoing trials, and future considerations are discussed. Keywords: immunotherapy, stomach cancer, checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, tumor mutational burden
Advances in optics technology, synthetic photochemistry, and the science of photobiology make it possible to think beyond phototherapy and photochemotherapy which is dependent on direct photochemical alteration of metabolites or direct phototoxic insult to cells. This report discusses another gender of photomedicine therapy which includes in vivo photoactivation of medicines, photon-dependent drug delivery, and manipulation of host and exposure source to maximize therapeutic index. These therapeutic manipulations are made possible because the skin is highly overperfused and because non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation that enters skin and blood has adequate photon energy to cause electronic excitation. Radiation of 320-800 nm is not very directly phototoxic, is absorbed by a variety of relatively nontoxic photolabile molecules and has an internal dosimetric depth profile. This radiation can therefore be used to activate, deactivate, bind, release or biotransform medications in vivo in skin or other organs. The photochemist, synthetic chemist and photobiologist can collaborate to significantly increase therapeutic possibilities
Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Xia, Harry-Hua-Xiang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and accounts for 80%-90% of this class of malignancy. So far, understanding of its pathogenesis and effective therapeutic methods are rather limited. In this issue, 11 invited review articles are published to address current advance of underlying molecular mechanisms for the development of HCC, and novel therapeutic approaches for HCC. This series of review articles provide an in-depth unders-tanding of HCC that has led to or may lead to the development of novel therapies for HCC.
Viktoriia A. Lykova
Full Text Available The article analyses mechanisms of realization of the competence approach in education. Its therapeutic support actualizes factors of nonlinearity, processuality, subjectivity, conformity with nature, feedback in the educational environment. Behind each person there is a variety of tendencies, therefore to foresee or plan, «limit by standards» what exactly will be personally significant for a particular student in pedagogical interaction, is impossible. Therapeutic competence of teachers allows to realize individual learning pathways with support on a «fan of indicators» within a circle of competences.
Lund, E L; Spang-Thomsen, M; Skovgaard-Poulsen, H
Tumor growth is critically dependent on angiogenesis, which is sprouting of new vessels from pre-existing vasculature. This process is regulated by inducers and inhibitors released from tumor cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages. Brain tumors, especially glioblastoma multiforme, have...... significant angiogenic activity primarily by the expression of the angiogenic factor VEGF Anti-angiogenic therapy represents a new promising therapeutic modality in solid tumors. Several agents are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. The present review describes the principal inducers...... and inhibitors of angiogenesis in tumors and summarizes what is known about their mechanisms of action in relation to CNS tumors. Potential areas for clinical use are also discussed....
Kim, Chang Min; Kwon, Hee Chung
We applied HSV-tk/GCV strategy to orthotopic rat hepatoma model and showed anticancer effects of hepatoma. The increased expression of Lac Z gene after adenovirus-mediated gene delivery throughout hepatic artery was thought that is increased the possibility of gene therapy for curing hepatoma. With the construction of kGLP-laboratory, it is possible to produce a good quantity and quality of adenovirus in lage-scale production and purification of adenovirus vector. Also, the analysis of hepatoma related genes by PCR-LOH could be used for the diagnosis of patients and the development of therapeutic gene.
Serakinci, Nedime; Christensen, Rikke; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt
better understanding and in vivo supporting data. The homing ability of hMSCs was investigated by creating a human xenograft model by transplanting an ovarian cancer cell line into immunocompromised mice. Then, genetically engineered hMSC-telo1 cells were injected through the tail vein......The field of stem cell biology continues to evolve by characterization of further types of stem cells and by exploring their therapeutic potential for experimental and clinical applications. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are one of the most promising candidates simply because...
Kim, Chang Min; Kwon, Hee Chung
We applied HSV-tk/GCV strategy to orthotopic rat hepatoma model and showed anticancer effects of hepatoma. The increased expression of Lac Z gene after adenovirus-mediated gene delivery throughout hepatic artery was thought that is increased the possibility of gene therapy for curing hepatoma. With the construction of kGLP-laboratory, it is possible to produce a good quantity and quality of adenovirus in lage-scale production and purification of adenovirus vector. Also, the analysis of hepatoma related genes by PCR-LOH could be used for the diagnosis of patients and the development of therapeutic gene
Karachaliou, Niki; Lazzari, Chiara; Verlicchi, Alberto; Sosa, Aaron E; Rosell, Rafael
Targeting members of the human epidermal growth factor receptor family, especially EGFR and HER2, has been an established strategy for the treatment of tumors with abnormally activated receptors due to overexpression, mutation, ligand-dependent receptor dimerization and ligand-independent activation. Less attention has been paid to the oncogenic activity of HER3, although there is growing evidence that it mediates resistance to EGFR and HER2 pathway directed therapies. The main caveat for the development of effective HER3 targeted therapies is the absence of a strong enzymatic activity to target, as well as the limited potential for single-agent activity. In this review, we highlight the role of HER3 in cancer and, more specifically, in lung cancer. The basis for HER3 involvement in HER2 resistance and EGFR inhibition is discussed, as well as current pharmacologic strategies to combat HER3 inhibition.
Yellen, Benjamin B.; Forbes, Zachary G.; Halverson, Derek S.; Fridman, Gregory; Barbee, Kenneth A.; Chorny, Michael; Levy, Robert; Friedman, Gary
A new method for locally targeted drug delivery is proposed that employs magnetic implants placed directly in the cardiovascular system to attract injected magnetic carriers. Theoretical simulations and experimental results support the assumption that using magnetic implants in combination with externally applied magnetic field will optimize the delivery of magnetic drug to selected sites within a subject
Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a biochemical state of imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and antioxidant defenses. It is involved in the physiopathology of degenerative and chronic neuronal disorders, such as epilepsy. Experimental evidence in humans and animals support the involvement of oxidative stress before and after seizures. In the past few years, research has increasingly focused on the molecular pathways of this process, such as that involving transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, which plays a central role in the regulation of antioxidant response elements (ARE and modulates cellular redox status. The aim of this review is to present experimental evidence on the role of Nrf2 in this neurological disorder and to further determine the therapeutic impact of Nrf2 in epilepsy.
Ebner, Karl; Sartori, Simone B; Singewald, Nicolas
The first report demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy of an orally applied neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist in depression was published 10 years ago. Although there were difficulties to reproduce this particular finding, a huge amount of data has been published since this time, supporting the potential therapeutic value of various tachykinin ligands as promising novel tools for the management of stress-related disorders including anxiety disorders, schizophrenia and depression. The present review summarizes evidence derived from anatomical, neurochemical, pharmacological and behavioral studies demonstrating the localization of tachykinin neuropeptides including substance P (SP), neurokinin A, neurokinin B and their receptors (NK1, NK2, NK3) in brain areas known to be implicated in stress-mechanisms, mood/anxiety regulation and emotion-processing; their role as neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators within these structures and their interactions with other neurotransmitter systems including dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). Finally, there is clear functional evidence from animal and human studies that interference with tachykinin transmission can modulate emotional behavior. Based on these findings and on evidence of upregulated tachykinin transmission in individuals suffering from stress-related disorders, several diverse tachykinin receptor antagonists, as well as compounds with combined antagonist profile have been developed and are currently under clinical investigation revealing evidence for anxiolytic, antidepressant and antipsychotic efficacy, seemingly characterized by a low side effect profile. However, substantial work remains to be done to clarify the precise mechanism of action of these compounds, as well as the potential of combining them with established and experimental therapies in order to boost efficacy.
Hahn, Cynthia K.; Berchuck, Jacob E.; Ross, Kenneth N.; Kakoza, Rose M.; Clauser, Karl; Schinzel, Anna C.; Ross, Linda; Galinsky, Ilene; Davis, Tina N.; Silver, Serena J.; Root, David E.; Stone, Richard M.; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Carroll, Martin; Hahn, William C.; Carr, Steven A.; Golub, Todd R.; Kung, Andrew L.; Stegmaier, Kimberly
SUMMARY Cell-based screening can facilitate rapid identification of compounds inducing complex cellular phenotypes. Advancing a compound toward the clinic, however, generally requires identification of precise mechanisms of action. We previously found that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors induce acute myeloid leukemia (AML) differentiation via a non-EGFR mechanism. In this report, we integrated proteomic and RNAi-based strategies to identify their off-target anti-AML mechanism. These orthogonal approaches identified Syk as a target in AML. Genetic and pharmacological inactivation of Syk with a drug in clinical trial for other indications promoted differentiation of AML cells and attenuated leukemia growth in vivo. These results demonstrate the power of integrating diverse chemical, proteomic, and genomic screening approaches to identify therapeutic strategies for cancer. PMID:19800574
Vinod K. Ravikumar
Full Text Available Tremulous voice is characteristically associated with essential tremor, and is referred to as essential vocal tremor (EVT. Current estimates suggest that up to 40% of individuals diagnosed with essential tremor also present with EVT, which is associated with an impaired quality of life. Traditional EVT treatments have demonstrated limited success in long-term management of symptoms. However, voice tremor has been noted to decrease in patients receiving deep brain stimulation (DBS with the targeting of thalamic nuclei. In this study, we describe our multidisciplinary procedure for awake, frameless DBS with optimal stimulation targets as well as acoustic analysis and laryngoscopic assessment to quantify tremor reduction. Finally, we investigate the most recent clinical evidence regarding the procedure.
Kim eDe Veirman
Full Text Available Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that accumulate during pathological conditions such as cancer and are associated with a poor clinical outcome. MDSC expansion hampers the host anti-tumor immune response by inhibition of T cell proliferation, cytokine secretion and recruitment of regulatory T cells. In addition, MDSC exert non-immunological functions including the promotion of angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis. Recent years, MDSC are considered as a potential target in solid tumors and hematological malignancies to enhance the effects of currently used immune modulating agents. This review focuses on the characteristics, distribution, functions, cell-cell interactions and targeting of MDSC in hematological malignancies including multiple myeloma, lymphoma and leukemia.
Cairns, Elizabeth A.; Baldridge, William H.; Kelly, Melanie E. M.
Glaucoma is an irreversible blinding eye disease which produces progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is currently the only modifiable risk factor, and lowering IOP results in reduced risk of progression of the disorder. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has attracted considerable attention as a potential target for the treatment of glaucoma, largely due to the observed IOP lowering effects seen after administration of exogenous cannabinoids. However, recent evidence has suggested that modulation of the ECS may also be neuroprotective. This paper will review the use of cannabinoids in glaucoma, presenting pertinent information regarding the pathophysiology of glaucoma and how alterations in cannabinoid signalling may contribute to glaucoma pathology. Additionally, the mechanisms and potential for the use of cannabinoids and other novel agents that target the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of glaucoma will be discussed. PMID:26881140
Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, a neurodegenerative disorder, has been determined as an outcome of genetic as well as behavioral conditions. The complete understanding of its generation and progress is yet to be understood. However, there has been a significant progress in the diagnosis and identification of the associated risk factors of AD. Several of the risk factors were found connected with cholesterol. Scientists are mainly focusing on the reduction of amyloid β and stabilization of tau protein towards the development of its drugs. To modulate amyloid β, the key components of cholesterol metabolism have been attractive targets and the enzymes involved in the phosphorylation of tau have been tried to stabilize tau protein. This review article briefly highlights the symptoms, risk factors, and drug targets of AD.
Elizabeth A. Cairns
Full Text Available Glaucoma is an irreversible blinding eye disease which produces progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC loss. Intraocular pressure (IOP is currently the only modifiable risk factor, and lowering IOP results in reduced risk of progression of the disorder. The endocannabinoid system (ECS has attracted considerable attention as a potential target for the treatment of glaucoma, largely due to the observed IOP lowering effects seen after administration of exogenous cannabinoids. However, recent evidence has suggested that modulation of the ECS may also be neuroprotective. This paper will review the use of cannabinoids in glaucoma, presenting pertinent information regarding the pathophysiology of glaucoma and how alterations in cannabinoid signalling may contribute to glaucoma pathology. Additionally, the mechanisms and potential for the use of cannabinoids and other novel agents that target the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of glaucoma will be discussed.
Conniot, João; Silva, Joana; Fernandes, Joana; Silva, Liana; Gaspar, Rogério; Brocchini, Steve; Florindo, Helena; Barata, Teresa
Cancer is one of the most common diseases afflicting people globally. New therapeutic approaches are needed due to the complexity of cancer as a disease. Many current treatments are very toxic and have modest efficacy at best. Increased understanding of tumor biology and immunology has allowed the development of specific immunotherapies with minimal toxicity. It is important to highlight the performance of monoclonal antibodies, immune adjuvants, vaccines and cell-based treatments. Although these approaches have shown varying degrees of clinical efficacy, they illustrate the potential to develop new strategies. Targeted immunotherapy is being explored to overcome the heterogeneity of malignant cells and the immune suppression induced by both the tumor and its microenvironment. Nanodelivery strategies seek to minimize systemic exposure to target therapy to malignant tissue and cells. Intracellular penetration has been examined through the use of functionalized particulates. These nano-particulate associated medicines are being developed for use in imaging, diagnostics and cancer targeting. Although nano-particulates are inherently complex medicines, the ability to confer, at least in principle, different types of functionality allows for the plausible consideration these nanodelivery strategies can be exploited for use as combination medicines. The development of targeted nanodelivery systems in which therapeutic and imaging agents are merged into a single platform is an attractive strategy. Currently, several nanoplatform-based formulations, such as polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, liposomes and dendrimers are in preclinical and clinical stages of development. Herein, nanodelivery strategies presently investigated for cancer immunotherapy, cancer targeting mechanisms and nanocarrier functionalization methods will be described. We also intend to discuss the emerging nano-based approaches suitable to be used as imaging techniques and as cancer treatment options.
Full Text Available Human gastric cancer (GC is characterized by a high incidence and mortality rate, largely because it is normally not identified until a relatively advanced stage owing to a lack of early diagnostic biomarkers. Gastroscopy with biopsy is the routine method for screening, and gastrectomy is the major therapeutic strategy for GC. However, in more than 30% of GC surgical patients, cancer has progressed too far for effective medical resection. Thus, useful biomarkers for early screening or detection of GC are essential for improving patients’ survival rate. MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in tumorigenesis. They contribute to gastric carcinogenesis by altering the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Because of their stability in tissues, serum/plasma and other body fluids, miRNAs have been suggested as novel tumor biomarkers with suitable clinical potential. Recently, aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been identified and tested for clinical application in the management of GC. Aberrant miRNA expression profiles determined with miRNA microarrays, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing approaches could be used to establish sample specificity and to identify tumor type. Here, we provide an up-to-date summary of tissue-based GC-associated miRNAs, describing their involvement and that of their downstream targets in tumorigenic and biological processes. We examine correlations among significant clinical parameters and prognostic indicators, and discuss recurrence monitoring and therapeutic options in GC. We also review plasma/serum-based, GC-associated, circulating miRNAs and their clinical applications, focusing especially on early diagnosis. By providing insights into the mechanisms of miRNA-related tumor progression, this review will hopefully aid in the identification of novel potential therapeutic targets.
Cycoloxygenase-2 (COX-2) induction is prevalent in a variety of (brain and peripheral) injury models where COX-2 levels correlate with disease progression. Thus, COX-2 has been widely explored for anti-inflammatory therapy with COX-2 inhibitors, which proved to be effective in reducing the pain and inflammation in patients with arthritis and menstrual cramps, but they have not provided any benefit to patients with chronic inflammatory neurodegenerative disease. Recently, two COX-2 drugs, rofecoxib and valdecoxib, were withdrawn from the United States market due to cardiovascular side effects. Thus, future anti-inflammatory therapy could be targeted through a specific prostanoid receptor downstream of COX-2. The PGE2 receptor EP2 is emerging as a pro-inflammatory target in a variety of CNS and peripheral diseases. Here we highlight the latest developments on the role of EP2 in diseases, mechanism of activation, and small molecule discovery targeted either to enhance or to block the function of this receptor.
Le Borgne, Marc; Haidar, Samer; Duval, Olivier; Wünsch, Bernhard; Jose, Joachim
The European Conference on Therapeutic Targets and Medicinal Chemistry is a new two-day meeting on drug discovery that is focused on therapeutic targets and the use of tools to explore all fields of drug discovery and drug design such as molecular modelling, bioorganic chemistry, NMR studies, fragment screening, in vitro assays, in vivo assays, structure activity relationships, autodisplay. Abstracts of keynote lectures, plenary lectures, junior lectures, flash presentations, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:26712767
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0609 TITLE: Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Tyk2: Lucrative Therapeutic Target in Lupus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Aug 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Tyk2: Lucrative Therapeutic Target in Lupus 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...use of small molecule inhibitors of Tyk2 and Jak1 aimed at ameliorating the chronic inflammatory milieu and high titers of auto-antibodies in lupus
K. Sai Sasank *1 , Dr. Greeshma Musunuru2 , Nalluri Kranthi Koushik 1 , Dr. R. Venkateswara Rao2 , Dr. Ramarao Nadendla3
Nano technology an exciting area of scientific development offers ways to create smaller, cheaper, lighter devices that can help to do better. The current literature has recognized and reported many possibility and applications of nano technology. The medical applications of nano technology are tremendous and could give medicine including the treatment of diabetes a new therapeutic approach. The frequency of diabetes is growing rapidly all over the globe at an alarming rate. Hence, the applic...
K. Sai Sasank * , Dr. Greeshma Musunuru , Nalluri Kranthi Koushik , Dr. R. Venkateswara Rao , Dr. Ramarao Nadendla
Nano technology an exciting area of scientific development offers ways to create smaller, cheaper, lighter devices that can help to do better. The current literature has recognized and reported many possibility and applications of nano technology. The medical applications of nano technology are tremendous and could give medicine including the treatment of diabetes a new therapeutic approach. The frequency of diabetes is growing rapidly all over the globe at an alarming rate. Hence, the applic...
Robbins, Matthew S; Robertson, Carrie E; Kaplan, Eugene; Ailani, Jessica; Charleston, Larry; Kuruvilla, Deena; Blumenfeld, Andrew; Berliner, Randall; Rosen, Noah L; Duarte, Robert; Vidwan, Jaskiran; Halker, Rashmi B; Gill, Nicole; Ashkenazi, Avi
The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) has attracted the interest of practitioners treating head and face pain for over a century because of its anatomical connections and role in the trigemino-autonomic reflex. In this review, we discuss the anatomy of the SPG, as well as what is known about its role in the pathophysiology of headache disorders, including cluster headache and migraine. We then address various therapies that target the SPG, including intranasal medication delivery, new SPG blocking catheter devices, neurostimulation, chemical neurolysis, and ablation procedures. © 2015 American Headache Society.
H Rashed, Mohammed; Bayraktar, Emine; K Helal, Gouda; Abd-Ellah, Mohamed F; Amero, Paola; Chavez-Reyes, Arturo; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian
Intercellular communication via cell-released vesicles is a very important process for both normal and tumor cells. Cell communication may involve exosomes, small vesicles of endocytic origin that are released by all types of cells and are found in abundance in body fluids, including blood, saliva, urine, and breast milk. Exosomes have been shown to carry lipids, proteins, mRNAs, non-coding RNAs, and even DNA out of cells. They are more than simply molecular garbage bins, however, in that the molecules they carry can be taken up by other cells. Thus, exosomes transfer biological information to neighboring cells and through this cell-to-cell communication are involved not only in physiological functions such as cell-to-cell communication, but also in the pathogenesis of some diseases, including tumors and neurodegenerative conditions. Our increasing understanding of why cells release exosomes and their role in intercellular communication has revealed the very complex and sophisticated contribution of exosomes to health and disease. The aim of this review is to reveal the emerging roles of exosomes in normal and pathological conditions and describe the controversial biological role of exosomes, as it is now understood, in carcinogenesis. We also summarize what is known about exosome biogenesis, composition, functions, and pathways and discuss the potential clinical applications of exosomes, especially as biomarkers and novel therapeutic agents.
Jose Luis Martin-Ventura
Full Text Available Atherothrombosis remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The underlying pathology is a chronic pathological vascular remodeling of the arterial wall involving several pathways, including oxidative stress. Cellular and animal studies have provided compelling evidence of the direct role of oxidative stress in atherothrombosis, but such a relationship is not clearly established in humans and, to date, clinical trials on the possible beneficial effects of antioxidant therapy have provided equivocal results. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase is one of the main sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS in human atherothrombosis. Moreover, leukocyte-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO and red blood cell-derived iron could be involved in the oxidative modification of lipids/lipoproteins (LDL/HDL in the arterial wall. Interestingly, oxidized lipoproteins, and antioxidants, have been analyzed as potential markers of oxidative stress in the plasma of patients with atherothrombosis. In this review, we will revise sources of ROS, focusing on NADPH oxidase, but also on MPO and iron. We will also discuss the impact of these oxidative systems on LDL and HDL, as well as the value of these modified lipoproteins as circulating markers of oxidative stress in atherothrombosis. We will finish by reviewing some antioxidant systems and compounds as therapeutic strategies to prevent pathological vascular remodeling.
de la Monte, Suzanne M
Alzheimer's disease [AD] is the most common cause of dementia in North America. Despite 30+ years of intense investigation, the field lacks consensus regarding the etiology and pathogenesis of sporadic AD, and therefore we still do not know the best strategies for treating and preventing this debilitating and costly disease. However, growing evidence supports the concept that AD is fundamentally a metabolic disease with substantial and progressive derangements in brain glucose utilization and responsiveness to insulin and insulin-like growth factor [IGF] stimulation. Moreover, AD is now recognized to be heterogeneous in nature, and not solely the end-product of aberrantly processed, misfolded, and aggregated oligomeric amyloid-beta peptides and hyperphosphorylated tau. Other factors, including impairments in energy metabolism, increased oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin and IGF resistance, and insulin/IGF deficiency in the brain should be incorporated into all equations used to develop diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to AD. Herein, the contributions of impaired insulin and IGF signaling to AD-associated neuronal loss, synaptic disconnection, tau hyperphosphorylation, amyloid-beta accumulation, and impaired energy metabolism are reviewed. In addition, we discuss current therapeutic strategies and suggest additional approaches based on the hypothesis that AD is principally a metabolic disease similar to diabetes mellitus. Ultimately, our ability to effectively detect, monitor, treat, and prevent AD will require more efficient, accurate and integrative diagnostic tools that utilize clinical, neuroimaging, biochemical, and molecular biomarker data. Finally, it is imperative that future therapeutic strategies for AD abandon the concept of uni-modal therapy in favor of multi-modal treatments that target distinct impairments at different levels within the brain insulin/IGF signaling cascades. PMID:22329651
Full Text Available Cannabidiol (CBD, a major phytocannabinoid constituent of cannabis, is attracting growing attention in medicine for its anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, up to this point, a comprehensive literature review of the effects of CBD in humans is lacking. The aim of the present systematic review is to examine the randomized and crossover studies that administered CBD to healthy controls and to clinical patients. A systematic search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE using the key word “cannabidiol”. Both monotherapy and combination studies (e.g., CBD + ∆9-THC were included. A total of 34 studies were identified: 16 of these were experimental studies, conducted in healthy subjects, and 18 were conducted in clinical populations, including multiple sclerosis (six studies, schizophrenia and bipolar mania (four studies, social anxiety disorder (two studies, neuropathic and cancer pain (two studies, cancer anorexia (one study, Huntington’s disease (one study, insomnia (one study, and epilepsy (one study. Experimental studies indicate that a high-dose of inhaled/intravenous CBD is required to inhibit the effects of a lower dose of ∆9-THC. Moreover, some experimental and clinical studies suggest that oral/oromucosal CBD may prolong and/or intensify ∆9-THC-induced effects, whereas others suggest that it may inhibit ∆9-THC-induced effects. Finally, preliminary clinical trials suggest that high-dose oral CBD (150–600 mg/d may exert a therapeutic effect for social anxiety disorder, insomnia and epilepsy, but also that it may cause mental sedation. Potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic explanations for these results are discussed.
WANG, MIN-CONG; LI, CHUN-LI; CUI, JIE; JIAO, MIN; WU, TAO; JING, LI; NAN, KE-JUN
BMI-1 oncogene is a member of the polycomb-group gene family and a transcriptional repressor. Overexpression of BMI-1 has been identified in various human cancer tissues and is known to be involved in cancer cell proliferation, cell invasion, distant metastasis, chemosensitivity and patient survival. Accumulating evidence has revealed that BMI-1 is also involved in the regulation of self-renewal, differentiation and tumor initiation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these biological processes remain unclear. The present review summarized the function of BMI-1 in different human cancer types and CSCs, and discussed the signaling pathways in which BMI-1 is potentially involved. In conclusion, BMI-1 may represent a promising target for the prevention and therapy of various cancer types. PMID:26622537
D'Auria, Enza; Banderali, Giuseppe; Barberi, Salvatore; Gualandri, Lorenzo; Pietra, Benedetta; Riva, Enrica; Cerri, Amilcare
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. It affects infancy, but it is also highly prevalent in adults and it is one of the disease burdens for the patients and their families. Nowadays, AD is recognized as a heterogenous disease with different subtypes with variable clinical manifestations which is affected by the impairments of the skin barrier. The severity of AD dictates the level of treatment. Current AD treatment focuses on restoration of the barrier function, mainly through the use of moisturizers and corticosteroids to control the inflammation, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and immunosuppresive drugs in the most severe cases. However, targeted disease-modifying therapies are under investigation. The most recent findings on the skin microbial dysbiosis is a promising future direction for the development of new treatments. We need to improve the understanding of the complex microbiome-host interactions, the role of autoimmunity, the comparative effectiveness of therapies and the ways to appropriately implement the educational strategies.
Dang, C V
Studies from many laboratories document that the MYC oncogene produces a pleiotropic transcription factor, Myc, which influences genes driven by all three RNA polymerases to orchestrate nutrient import with biomass accumulation for cell division. Myc has been shown to activate genes involved in glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and mitochondrial biogenesis to provide ATP and anabolic substrates for cell mass accumulation. Myc stimulates ribosome biogenesis and orchestrates the energetic demand for biomass accumulation through its regulation of glucose and glutamine import and metabolism. When normal cells are deprived of nutrients, endogenous MYC expression diminishes and cells withdraw from the cell cycle. However, ectopic MYC-driven cancer cells are locked in a state of deregulated biomass accumulation, which renders them addicted to glucose and glutamine. This addictive state can be exploited for cancer therapy, because nutrient deprivation kills Myc-driven cells and inhibition of the Myc targets, lactate dehydrogenase A or glutaminase, diminishes tumor xenograft growth in vivo.
Cheong, Heesun; Lu, Chao; Lindsten, Tullia; Thompson, Craig B.
The metabolism of cancer cells is reprogrammed by oncogene signaling and/or mutations in metabolic enzymes. These metabolic alterations support cell proliferation and survival, but leave cancer cells dependent on continuous support of the nutrients that fuel their altered metabolism. Thus, in addition to core oncogenic pathways, many metabolic enzymes have become targets for novel therapies. Two novel processes- isoform-specific expression of metabolic enzymes and autophagy- have recently been shown to play critical roles in the adaptation of tumor cells to changes in nutrient availability and the cell's ability to sense and adapt to depletion of critical nutrients. These findings suggest that a better understanding of the molecular basis of cancer-associated metabolic changes has the potential to provide insights to enhance cancer therapy. PMID:22781696
Full Text Available Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs and regulatory T cells (Tregs are significant components of the microenvironment of solid tumors in the majority of cancers. TAMs sequentially develop from monocytes into functional macrophages. In each differentiation stage, TAMs obtain various immunosuppressive functions to maintain the tumor microenvironment (e.g., expression of immune checkpoint molecules, production of Treg-related chemokines and cytokines, production of arginase I. Although the main population of TAMs is immunosuppressive M2 macrophages, TAMs can be modulated into M1-type macrophages in each differential stage, leading to the suppression of tumor growth. Because the administration of certain drugs or stromal factors can stimulate TAMs to produce specific chemokines, leading to the recruitment of various tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, TAMs can serve as targets for cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss the differentiation, activation, and immunosuppressive function of TAMs, as well as their benefits in cancer immunotherapy.
Tokuzen, Norihiko; Nakashiro, Koh-ichi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Kazuki; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki
Molecularly targeted drugs are used in the treatment of a variety of malignant tumors, but this approach to developing novel therapies for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has lagged behind the progress seen for other cancers. We have attempted to find appropriate molecular targets for OSCC and identified cell division cycle associated 5 (CDCA5) as a cancer-related gene which was overexpressed in all the human OSCC cells tested by microarray analysis. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of CDCA5 in OSCC. First, we confirmed that CDCA5 was overexpressed in 4 human OSCC cell lines by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. We then tested the effect of synthetic small interfering RNAs specific for CDCA5 on the growth and invasion of human OSCC cells. Knockdown of CDCA5 markedly inhibited the growth of OSCC cells in vitro and in vivo. We also examined the expression of CDCA5 protein in 80 cases of OSCC immunohistochemically and found a significant association between CDCA5 expression levels and overall survival. These results suggest that CDCA5 functions as a critical gene supporting OSCC progression and that targeting CDCA5 may be a useful therapeutic strategy for OSCC.
Bugde, Piyush; Biswas, Riya; Merien, Fabrice; Lu, Jun; Liu, Dong-Xu; Chen, Mingwei; Zhou, Shufeng; Li, Yan
Most disseminated cancers remain fatal despite the availability of a variety of conventional and novel treatments including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and biologically targeted therapy. A major factor responsible for the failure of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). The overexpression of various ABC transporters in cancer cells can efficiently remove the anticancer drug from the cell, thus causing the drug to lose its effect. Areas covered: In this review, we summarised the ongoing research related to the mechanism, function, and regulation of ABC transporters. We integrated our current knowledge at different levels from molecular biology to clinical trials. We also discussed potential therapeutic strategies of targeting ABC transporters to reverse MDR in cancer cells. Expert opinion: Involvement of various ABC transporters to cancer MDR lays the foundation for developing tailored therapies that can overcome MDR. An ideal MDR reversal agent should have broad-spectrum ABC-transporter inhibitory activity, be potent, have good pharmacokinetics, have no trans-stimulation effects, and have low or no toxicity. Alternatively, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems containing both the cytotoxic drug and reversing agent may represent a useful approach to reversing MDR with minimal off-target toxicity.
Full Text Available José Juan Escobar-Chávez1, Clara Luisa Domínguez-Delgado2, Isabel Marlen Rodríguez-Cruz21Unidad de Investigación Multidisciplinaria, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuautitlán Izcalli, Estado de México, México; 2División de Estudios de Posgrado (Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuautitlán Izcalli, Estado de México, MéxicoAbstract: Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases, reproductive disorders, and delayed wound healing all over the world. The goals of smoking cessation are both to reduce health risks and to improve quality of life. The development of novel and more effective medications for smoking cessation is crucial in the treatment of nicotine dependence. Currently, first-line smoking cessation therapies include nicotine replacement products and bupropion. The partial nicotinic receptor agonist, varenicline, has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for smoking cessation. Clonidine and nortriptyline have demonstrated some efficacy, but side effects may limit their use to second-line treatment products. Other therapeutic drugs that are under development include rimonabant, mecamylamine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and dopamine D3 receptor antagonists. Nicotine vaccines are among newer products seeking approval from the FDA. Antidrug vaccines are irreversible, provide protection over years and need booster injections far beyond the critical phase of acute withdrawal symptoms. Interacting with the drug in the blood rather than with a receptor in the brain, the vaccines are free of side effects due to central interaction. For drugs like nicotine, which interacts with different types of receptors in many organs, this is a further advantage. Three anti-nicotine vaccines are today in an advanced stage of clinical evaluation. Results
Boia-Ferreira, M; Basílio, A B; Hamasaki, A E; Matsubara, F H; Appel, M H; Da Costa, C R V; Amson, R; Telerman, A; Chaim, O M; Veiga, S S; Senff-Ribeiro, A
Translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) is an antiapoptotic protein highly conserved through phylogeny. Translationally controlled tumour protein overexpression was detected in several tumour types. Silencing TCTP was shown to induce tumour reversion. There is a reciprocal repression between TCTP and P53. Sertraline interacts with TCTP and decreases its cellular levels. We evaluate the role of TCTP in melanoma using sertraline and siRNA. Cell viability, migration, and clonogenicity were assessed in human and murine melanoma cells in vitro. Sertraline was evaluated in a murine melanoma model and was compared with dacarbazine, a major chemotherapeutic agent used in melanoma treatment. Inhibition of TCTP levels decreases melanoma cell viability, migration, clonogenicity, and in vivo tumour growth. Human melanoma cells treated with sertraline show diminished migration properties and capacity to form colonies. Sertraline was effective in inhibiting tumour growth in a murine melanoma model; its effect was stronger when compared with dacarbazine. Altogether, these results indicate that sertraline could be effective against melanoma and TCTP can be a target for melanoma therapy.
Dineley, Kelly T; Pandya, Anshul A; Yakel, Jerrel L
The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) can regulate neuronal excitability by acting on the cys-loop cation-conducting ligand-gated nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) channels. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS), being expressed on neurons and non-neuronal cells, where they participate in a variety of physiological responses such as anxiety, the central processing of pain, food intake, nicotine seeking behavior, and cognitive functions. In the mammalian brain, nine different subunits have been found thus far, which assemble into pentameric complexes with much subunit diversity; however, the α7 and α4β2 subtypes predominate in the CNS. Neuronal nAChR dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders. Here we will briefly discuss the functional makeup and expression of the nAChRs in mammalian brain, and their role as targets in neurodegenerative diseases (in particular Alzheimer's disease, AD), neurodevelopmental disorders (in particular autism and schizophrenia), and neuropathic pain. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Michelle Barbi de Moura
Full Text Available The importance of mitochondria as oxygen sensors as well as producers of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS has recently become a focal point of cancer research. However, in the case of melanoma, little information is available to what extent cellular bioenergetics processes contribute to the progression of the disease and related to it, whether oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS has a prominent role in advanced melanoma. In this study we demonstrate that compared to melanocytes, metastatic melanoma cells have elevated levels of OXPHOS. Furthermore, treating metastatic melanoma cells with the drug, Elesclomol, which induces cancer cell apoptosis through oxidative stress, we document by way of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC that proteins participating in OXPHOS are downregulated. We also provide evidence that melanoma cells with high levels of glycolysis are more resistant to Elesclomol. We further show that Elesclomol upregulates hypoxia inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α, and that prolonged exposure of melanoma cells to this drug leads to selection of melanoma cells with high levels of glycolysis. Taken together, our findings suggest that molecular targeting of OXPHOS may have efficacy for advanced melanoma.
Hernández, Cristina; Simó, Rafael
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a multifactorial progressive disease of the retina and a leading cause of vision loss. DR has long been regarded as a vascular disorder, although neuronal death and visual impairment appear before vascular lesions, suggesting an important role played by neurodegeneration in DR and the appropriateness of neuroprotective strategies. Upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the main target of current therapies, is likely to be one of the first responses to retinal hyperglycemic stress and VEGF may represent an important survival factor in early phases of DR. Of central importance for clinical trials is the detection of retinal neurodegeneration in the clinical setting, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography seems the most indicated technique. Many substances have been tested in animal studies for their neuroprotective properties and for possible use in humans. Perhaps, the most intriguing perspective is the use of endogenous neuroprotective substances or nutraceuticals. Together, the data point to the central role of neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of DR and indicate neuroprotection as an effective strategy for treating this disease. However, clinical trials to determine not only the effectiveness and safety but also the compliance of a noninvasive route of drug administration are needed. PMID:27123463
Tang, Guanghui; Yang, Guo-Yuan
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a family member of water-channel proteins and is dominantly expressed in the foot process of glial cells surrounding capillaries. The predominant expression at the boundaries between cerebral parenchyma and major fluid compartments suggests the function of aquaporin-4 in water transfer into and out of the brain parenchyma. Accumulating evidences have suggested that the dysregulation of aquaporin-4 relates to the brain edema resulting from a variety of neuro-disorders, such as ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, trauma, etc. During edema formation in the brain, aquaporin-4 has been shown to contribute to the astrocytic swelling, while in the resolution phase, it has been seen to facilitate the reabsorption of extracellular fluid. In addition, aquaporin-4-deficient mice are protected from cytotoxic edema produced by water intoxication and brain ischemia. However, aquaporin-4 deletion exacerbates vasogenic edema in the brain of different pathological disorders. Recently, our published data showed that the upregulation of aquaporin-4 in astrocytes probably contributes to the transition from cytotoxic edema to vasogenic edema. In this review, apart from the traditional knowledge, we also introduce our latest findings about the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and microRNA-29b on aquaporin-4, which could provide powerful intervention tools targeting aquaporin-4. PMID:27690011
Full Text Available Trypanosomatid parasites are the causative agents of many neglected tropical diseases and there is currently considerable interest in targeting endogenous sterol biosynthesis in these organisms as a route to the development of novel anti-infective drugs. Here, we report the first x-ray crystallographic structures of the enzyme squalene synthase (SQS from a trypanosomatid parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We obtained five structures of T. cruzi SQS and eight structures of human SQS with four classes of inhibitors: the substrate-analog S-thiolo-farnesyl diphosphate, the quinuclidines E5700 and ER119884, several lipophilic bisphosphonates, and the thiocyanate WC-9, with the structures of the two very potent quinuclidines suggesting strategies for selective inhibitor development. We also show that the lipophilic bisphosphonates have low nM activity against T. cruzi and inhibit endogenous sterol biosynthesis and that E5700 acts synergistically with the azole drug, posaconazole. The determination of the structures of trypanosomatid and human SQS enzymes with a diverse set of inhibitors active in cells provides insights into SQS inhibition, of interest in the context of the development of drugs against Chagas disease.
Goldsmith, Edie C; Bradshaw, Amy D; Zile, Michael R; Spinale, Francis G
The cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic structure, adapting to physiological and pathological stresses placed on the myocardium. Deposition and organization of the matrix fall under the purview of cardiac fibroblasts. While often overlooked compared to myocytes, fibroblasts play a critical role in maintaining ECM homeostasis under normal conditions and in response to pathological stimuli assume an activated, myofibroblast phenotype associated with excessive collagen accumulation contributing to impaired cardiac function. Complete appreciation of fibroblast function is hampered by the lack of fibroblast-specific reagents and the heterogeneity of fibroblast precursors. This is further complicated by our ability to dissect the role of myofibroblasts versus fibroblasts in myocardial in remodeling. This review highlights critical points in the regulation of collagen deposition by fibroblasts, the current panel of molecular tools used to identify fibroblasts and the role of fibroblast-matrix interactions in fibroblast function and differentiation into the myofibroblast phenotype. The clinical potential of exploiting differences between fibroblasts and myofibroblasts and using them to target specific fibroblast populations is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Myocyte-Fibroblast Signalling in Myocardium." Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dabir, Snehal; Kresak, Adam; Yang, Michael; Fu, Pingfu; Wildey, Gary; Dowlati, Afshin
CD30 is a cytokine receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFRSF8) that acts as a regulator of apoptosis. The presence of CD30 antigen is important in the diagnosis of Hodgkin’s disease and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. There have been sporadic reports of CD30 expression in non-lymphoid tumors, including malignant mesothelioma. Given the remarkable success of brentuximab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate directed against CD30 antigen, in lymphoid malignancies, we undertook a study to examine the incidence of CD30 in mesothelioma and to investigate the ability to target CD30 antigen in mesothelioma. Mesothelioma tumor specimens (N = 83) were examined for CD30 expression by immunohistochemistry. Positive CD30 expression was noted in 13 mesothelioma specimens, primarily those of epithelial histology. There was no significant correlation of CD30 positivity with either tumor grade, stage or survival. Examination of four mesothelioma cell lines (H28, H2052, H2452, and 211H) for CD30 expression by both FACS analysis and confocal microscopy showed that CD30 antigen localized to the cell membrane. Brentuximab vedotin treatment of cultured mesothelioma cells produced a dose-dependent decrease in cell growth and viability at clinically relevant concentrations. Our studies validate the presence of CD30 antigen in a subgroup of epithelial-type mesothelioma tumors and indicate that selected mesothelioma patients may derive benefit from brentuximab vedotin treatment. PMID:25589494
Hendriksen, Erik; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald S
The development of new pharmacological therapies starts with target discovery. Finding new therapeutic targets for anxiety disorders is a difficult process. Most of the currently described drugs for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are based on the inhibition of serotonin reuptake. The
Full Text Available With accumulating public omics data, great efforts have been made to characterize the genetic heterogeneity of breast cancer. However, identifying novel targets and selecting the best from the sizeable lists of candidate targets is still a key challenge for targeted therapy, largely owing to the lack of economical, efficient and systematic discovery and assessment to prioritize potential therapeutic targets. Here, we describe an approach that combines the computational evaluation and objective, multifaceted assessment to systematically identify and prioritize targets for biological validation and therapeutic exploration. We first establish the reference gene expression profiles from breast cancer cell line MCF7 upon genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi of a total of 3689 genes, and the breast cancer query signatures using RNA-seq data generated from tissue samples of clinical breast cancer patients in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. Based on gene set enrichment analysis, we identified a set of 510 genes that when knocked down could significantly reverse the transcriptome of breast cancer state. We then perform multifaceted assessment to analyze the gene set to prioritize potential targets for gene therapy. We also propose drug repurposing opportunities and identify potentially druggable proteins that have been poorly explored with regard to the discovery of small-molecule modulators. Finally, we obtained a small list of candidate therapeutic targets for four major breast cancer subtypes, i.e., luminal A, luminal B, HER2+ and triple negative breast cancer. This RNAi transcriptome-based approach can be a helpful paradigm for relevant researches to identify and prioritize candidate targets for experimental validation.
Hong Im Kim
Full Text Available Ornithine Decarboxylase (ODC a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis is often overexpressed in cancers and contributes to polyamine-induced cell proliferation. We noted ubiquitous expression of ODC1 in our published endometrial cancer gene array data and confirmed this in the cancer genome atlas (TCGA with highest expression in non-endometrioid, high grade, and copy number high cancers, which have the worst clinical outcomes. ODC1 expression was associated with worse overall survival and increased recurrence in three endometrial cancer gene expression datasets. Importantly, we confirmed these findings using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR in a validation cohort of 60 endometrial cancers and found that endometrial cancers with elevated ODC1 had significantly shorter recurrence-free intervals (KM log-rank p = 0.0312, Wald test p = 5.59e-05. Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO a specific inhibitor of ODC significantly reduced cell proliferation, cell viability, and colony formation in cell line models derived from undifferentiated, endometrioid, serous, carcinosarcoma (mixed mesodermal tumor; MMT and clear cell endometrial cancers. DFMO also significantly reduced human endometrial cancer ACI-98 tumor burden in mice compared to controls (p = 0.0023. ODC-regulated polyamines (putrescine [Put] and/or spermidine [Spd] known activators of cell proliferation were strongly decreased in response to DFMO, in both tumor tissue ([Put] (p = 0.0006, [Spd] (p<0.0001 and blood plasma ([Put] (p<0.0001, [Spd] (p = 0.0049 of treated mice. Our study indicates that some endometrial cancers appear particularly sensitive to DFMO and that the polyamine pathway in endometrial cancers in general and specifically those most likely to suffer adverse clinical outcomes could be targeted for effective treatment, chemoprevention or chemoprevention of recurrence.
The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...
Henriques, Bárbara J; Lucas, Tânia G; Gomes, Cláudio M
Riboflavin, or vitamin B2, plays an important role in the cell as biological precursor of FAD and FMN, two important flavin cofactors which are essential for the structure and function of flavoproteins. Riboflavin has been used in therapeutic approaches of various inborn errors of metabolism, notably in metabolic disorders resulting either from defects in proteins involved in riboflavin metabolism and transport or from defects in flavoenzymes. The scope of this review is to provide an updated perspective of clinical cases in which riboflavin was used as a potential therapeutic agent in disorders affecting mitochondrial energy metabolism. In particular, we discuss available mechanistic insights on the role of riboflavin as a pharmacological chaperone for the recovery of misfolded metabolic flavoenzymes.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent hereditary neuromuscular disorder in childhood. Over the past 30 years, increasingly better standards of care have considerably improved the quality of life as well as the life expectancy of DMD patients. Despite such progress in disease management, DMD remains a devastating disorder with continuous decline of motor and cardiac function. Until recently, corticosteroids were the only treatment available to slow down, however modestly, disease progression. Importantly, novel innovative therapeutic approaches are currently being developed. This review discusses the rational and underlying molecular mechanism of these novel strategies as well as the progress made by recent clinical trials. Importantly, these new therapeutic advances bear the potential to profoundly modify the disease course of DMD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Sudhakar R. Subramaniam
Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic and progressive disorder characterized neuropathologically by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, intracellular proteinaceous inclusions, reduction of dopaminergic terminals in the striatum, and increased neuroinflammatory cells. The consequent reduction of dopamine in the basal ganglia results in the classical parkinsonian motor phenotype. A growing body of evidence suggest that neuroinflammation mediated by microglia, the resident macrophage-like immune cells in the brain, play a contributory role in PD pathogenesis. Microglia participate in both physiological and pathological conditions. In the former, microglia restore the integrity of the central nervous system and, in the latter, they promote disease progression. Microglia acquire different activation states to modulate these cellular functions. Upon activation to the M1 phenotype, microglia elaborate pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic molecules promoting inflammation and cytotoxic responses. In contrast, when adopting the M2 phenotype microglia secrete anti-inflammatory gene products and trophic factors that promote repair, regeneration, and restore homeostasis. Relatively little is known about the different microglial activation states in PD and a better understanding is essential for developing putative neuroprotective agents. Targeting microglial activation states by suppressing their deleterious pro-inflammatory neurotoxicity and/or simultaneously enhancing their beneficial anti-inflammatory protective functions appear as a valid therapeutic approach for PD treatment. In this review, we summarize microglial functions and, their dual neurotoxic and neuroprotective role in PD. We also review molecules that modulate microglial activation states as a therapeutic option for PD treatment.
Roberto Antonio Fuentealba Leyton
Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is produced not only by a sedentary lifestyle and nutritional disorders but also due to genetic factors that result in elevated serum lipids, mainly low-density lipoproteins associated cholesterol (LDL-C, contributing as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. A therapeutic diet and statins are the first line strategies aimed to reduce the levels of LDL-C in hypercholesterolemic patients. Nevertheless, statins are not devoid of side effects, or a lack of efficiency in some patients. The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9, a serine protease has been described recently to play an important role in the metabolism of LDL-C, favoring the degradation of its membrane receptor (LDLR in the hepatocyte. This makes PCSK9 an excellent therapeutic target for the control of LDL-C in hypercholesterolemic patients, reducing their cardiovascular risks. The best-characterized approach so far to control the activity PCSK9 has been the use of monoclonal antibodies. There have been several clinical trials that tested the use of anti-PCSK antibodies showing high effectivity in the control of serum LDL-C and minimal side effects. This review describes part of those studies and their results with the use of this new pharmaceutical that is still in development but shows tremendous potential
Berner, Andre K; Kleinman, Mark E
Recent data have revealed epigenetic derangements and subsequent chromatin remodeling as a potent biologic switch for chronic inflammation and cell survival which are important therapeutic targets in the pathogenesis of several retinal degenerations. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a major component of this system and serve as a unique control of the chromatin remodeling process. With a multitude of targeted HDAC inhibitors now available, their use in both basic science and clinical studies has widened substantially. In the field of ocular biology, there are data to suggest that HDAC inhibition may suppress neovascularization and may be a possible treatment for retinitis pigmentosa and dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, the effects of these inhibitors on cell survival and chemokine expression in the chorioretinal tissues remain very unclear. Here, we review the multifaceted biology of HDAC activity and pharmacologic inhibition while offering further insight into the importance of this epigenetic pathway in retinal degenerations. Our laboratory investigations aim to open translational avenues to advance dry AMD therapeutics while exploring the role of acetylation on inflammatory gene expression in the aging and degenerating retina.
Jackson Robert C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical models of cancer relevant processes are being developed at an increasing rate. Conceptual frameworks are needed to support new treatment designs based on such models. Methods A modern control perspective is used to formulate two therapeutic gain strategies. Results Two conceptually distinct therapeutic gain strategies are provided. The first is direct in that its goal is to kill cancer cells more so than normal cells, the second is indirect in that its goal is to achieve implicit therapeutic gains by transferring states of cancer cells of non-curable cases to a target state defined by the cancer cells of curable cases. The direct strategy requires models that connect anti-cancer agents to an endpoint that is modulated by the cause of the cancer and that correlates with cell death. It is an abstraction of a strategy for treating mismatch repair (MMR deficient cancers with iodinated uridine (IUdR; IU-DNA correlates with radiation induced cell killing and MMR modulates the relationship between IUdR and IU-DNA because loss of MMR decreases the removal of IU from the DNA. The second strategy is indirect. It assumes that non-curable patient outcomes will improve if the states of their malignant cells are first transferred toward a state that is similar to that of a curable patient. This strategy is difficult to employ because it requires a model that relates drugs to determinants of differences in patient survival times. It is an abstraction of a strategy for treating BCR-ABL pro-B cell childhood leukemia patients using curable cases as the guides. Conclusion Cancer therapeutic gain problem formulations define the purpose, and thus the scope, of cancer process modeling. Their abstractions facilitate considerations of alternative treatment strategies and support syntheses of learning experiences across different cancers.
Ryningen, Anita; Bruserud, Øystein
Flow cytometric techniques have emerged as a powerful tool in hematology allowing fast, sensitive and reproducible multi-parametric analyses at the single cell level of heterogeneous samples. Small subsets of cells can be studied with high degree of accuracy, and a broad and constantly increasing specter of antibodies is available. Flow cytometry has therefore become the method of choice for evaluation of therapeutic effects at single cell level. These methodological approaches can easily be used to study hematological malignancies, and the future use of this strategy in other malignancies will depend on the development of laboratory techniques to prepare suspensions of viable cells also from tumor biopsies. The selection of biological parameters for evaluation of treatment effects should probably be based on (i) molecular markers involved in cancer-associated genetic abnormalities; (ii) other molecular markers showing altered expression in the malignant cells and thought to be involved in leukemogenesis or having a prognostic impact; (ii) functional assays known to reflect biological characteristics that are important in carcinogenesis (e.g. cell cycle distribution, functional evaluation of apoptosis regulation). These molecules will in addition often represent the therapeutic targets when new anticancer drugs are developed. In this review we use treatment of acute myeloid leukemia with histone deacetylase inhibitors as an example. Based on the criteria mentioned above we suggest that the monitoring of therapeutic effects on the cancer cells in these patients should include differentiation status, histone acetylation, cell cycle distribution, pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling balance and intracellular levels of various transcription factors.
Bagci-Onder, Tugba; Du, Wanlu; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Martinez-Quintanilla, Jordi; Shah, Khalid
Characterizing clinically relevant brain metastasis models and assessing the therapeutic efficacy in such models are fundamental for the development of novel therapies for metastatic brain cancers. In this study, we have developed an in vivo imageable breast-to-brain metastasis mouse model. Using real time in vivo imaging and subsequent composite fluorescence imaging, we show a widespread distribution of micro- and macro-metastasis in different stages of metastatic progression. We also show extravasation of tumour cells and the close association of tumour cells with blood vessels in the brain thus mimicking the multi-foci metastases observed in the clinics. Next, we explored the ability of engineered adult stem cells to track metastatic deposits in this model and show that engineered stem cells either implanted or injected via circulation efficiently home to metastatic tumour deposits in the brain. Based on the recent findings that metastatic tumour cells adopt unique mechanisms of evading apoptosis to successfully colonize in the brain, we reasoned that TNF receptor superfamily member 10A/10B apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) based pro-apoptotic therapies that induce death receptor signalling within the metastatic tumour cells might be a favourable therapeutic approach. We engineered stem cells to express a tumour selective, potent and secretable variant of a TRAIL, S-TRAIL, and show that these cells significantly suppressed metastatic tumour growth and prolonged the survival of mice bearing metastatic breast tumours. Furthermore, the incorporation of pro-drug converting enzyme, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, into therapeutic S-TRAIL secreting stem cells allowed their eradication post-tumour treatment. These studies are the first of their kind that provide insight into targeting brain metastasis with stem-cell mediated delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands and have important clinical implications. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on
Bonafede, Roberta; Mariotti, Raffaella
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscle paralysis determined by the degeneration of motoneurons in the motor cortex brainstem and spinal cord. The ALS pathogenetic mechanisms are still unclear, despite the wealth of studies demonstrating the involvement of several altered signaling pathways, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. To date, the proposed therapeutic strategies are targeted to one or a few of these alterations, resulting in only a minimal effect on disease course and survival of ALS patients. The involvement of different mechanisms in ALS pathogenesis underlines the need for a therapeutic approach targeted to multiple aspects. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can support motoneurons and surrounding cells, reduce inflammation, stimulate tissue regeneration and release growth factors. On this basis, MSC have been proposed as promising candidates to treat ALS. However, due to the drawbacks of cell therapy, the possible therapeutic use of extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by stem cells is raising increasing interest. The present review summarizes the main pathological mechanisms involved in ALS and the related therapeutic approaches proposed to date, focusing on MSC therapy and their preclinical and clinical applications. Moreover, the nature and characteristics of EVs and their role in recapitulating the effect of stem cells are discussed, elucidating how and why these vesicles could provide novel opportunities for ALS treatment.
Full Text Available Teodora-Ecaterina M Manuc,1 Mircea M Manuc,2 Mircea M Diculescu2 1Fundeni Clinical Institute, 2University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Carol Davila", Bucharest, Romania Abstract: Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs are a subject of great interest in gastroenterology, due to a pathological mechanism that is difficult to explain and an optimal therapeutic approach still undiscovered. Crohn's disease (CD is one of the main entities in IBD, characterized by clinical polymorphism and great variability in the treatment response. Modern theories on the pathogenesis of CD have proven that gut microbiome and environmental factors lead to an abnormal immune response in a genetically predisposed patient. Genome-wide association studies in patients with CD worldwide revealed several genetic mutations that increase the risk of IBD and that predispose to a more severe course of disease. Gut microbiota is considered a compulsory and an essential part in the pathogenesis of CD. Intestinal dysmicrobism with excessive amounts of different bacterial strains can be found in all patients with IBD. The discovery of Escherichia coli entero-invasive on resection pieces in patients with CD now increases the likelihood of antimicrobial or vaccine-type treatments. Recent studies targeting intestinal immunology and its molecular activation pathways provide new possibilities for therapeutics. In addition to antitumor necrosis factor molecules, which were a breakthrough in IBD, improving mucosal healing and resection-free survival rate, other classes of therapeutic agents come to focus. Leukocyte adhesion inhibitors block the leukocyte homing mechanism and prevent cellular immune response. In addition to anti-integrin antibodies, chemokine receptor antagonists and SMAD7 antisense oligonucleotides have shown encouraging results in clinical trials. Micro-RNAs have demonstrated their role as disease biomarkers but it could also become useful for the treatment of IBD
Zuber, Johannes; Shi, Junwei; Wang, Eric; Rappaport, Amy R; Herrmann, Harald; Sison, Edward A; Magoon, Daniel; Qi, Jun; Blatt, Katharina; Wunderlich, Mark; Taylor, Meredith J; Johns, Christopher; Chicas, Agustin; Mulloy, James C; Kogan, Scott C; Brown, Patrick; Valent, Peter; Bradner, James E; Lowe, Scott W; Vakoc, Christopher R
Epigenetic pathways can regulate gene expression by controlling and interpreting chromatin modifications. Cancer cells are characterized by altered epigenetic landscapes, and commonly exploit the chromatin regulatory machinery to enforce oncogenic gene expression programs. Although chromatin alterations are, in principle, reversible and often amenable to drug intervention, the promise of targeting such pathways therapeutically has been limited by an incomplete understanding of cancer-specific dependencies on epigenetic regulators. Here we describe a non-biased approach to probe epigenetic vulnerabilities in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), an aggressive haematopoietic malignancy that is often associated with aberrant chromatin states. By screening a custom library of small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting known chromatin regulators in a genetically defined AML mouse model, we identify the protein bromodomain-containing 4 (Brd4) as being critically required for disease maintenance. Suppression of Brd4 using shRNAs or the small-molecule inhibitor JQ1 led to robust antileukaemic effects in vitro and in vivo, accompanied by terminal myeloid differentiation and elimination of leukaemia stem cells. Similar sensitivities were observed in a variety of human AML cell lines and primary patient samples, revealing that JQ1 has broad activity in diverse AML subtypes. The effects of Brd4 suppression are, at least in part, due to its role in sustaining Myc expression to promote aberrant self-renewal, which implicates JQ1 as a pharmacological means to suppress MYC in cancer. Our results establish small-molecule inhibition of Brd4 as a promising therapeutic strategy in AML and, potentially, other cancers, and highlight the utility of RNA interference (RNAi) screening for revealing epigenetic vulnerabilities that can be exploited for direct pharmacological intervention.
Jandial, Danielle D.; Blair, Christopher A.; Zhang, Saiyang; Krill, Lauren S.; Zhang, Yan-Bing; Zi, Xiaolin
There is an emerging paradigm shift in oncology that seeks to emphasize molecularly targeted approaches for cancer prevention and therapy. Chalcones (1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-ones), naturally-occurring compounds with widespread distribution in spices, tea, beer, fruits and vegetables, consist of open-chain flavonoids in which the two aromatic rings are joined by a three-carbon α, β-unsaturated carbonyl system. Due to their structural diversity, relative ease of chemical manipulation and reaction of α, β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety with cysteine residues in proteins, some lead chalcones from both natural products and synthesis have been identified in a variety of screening assays for modulating important pathways or molecular targets in cancers. These pathways and targets that are affected by chalcones include MDM2/p53, tubulin, proteasome, NF-kappa B, TRIAL/death receptors and mitochondria mediated apoptotic pathways, cell cycle, STAT3, AP-1, NRF2, AR, ER, PPAR-γ and β-catenin/Wnt. Compared to current cancer targeted therapeutic drugs, chalcones have the advantages of being inexpensive, easily available and less toxic; the ease of synthesis of chalcones from substituted benzaldehydes and acetophenones also makes them an attractive drug scaffold. Therefore, this review is focused on molecular targets of chalcones and their potential implications in cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:24467530
Martina Victoria Schmidt
Full Text Available The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and regulates gene expression upon heterodimerization with the retinoid X receptor by ligating to peroxisome proliferator response elements (PPREs in the promoter region of target genes. Originally, PPARγ was identified as being essential for glucose metabolism. Thus, synthetic PPARγ agonists, the thiazolidinediones (TZDs, are used in type 2 diabetes therapy as insulin sensitizers. More recent evidence implied an important role for the nuclear hormone receptor PPARγ in controlling various diseases based on its anti-inflammatory, cell cycle arresting, and proapoptotic properties. In this regard, expression of PPARγ is not restricted to adipocytes, but is also found in immune cells, such as B and T lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. The expression of PPARγ in lymphoid organs and its modulation of macrophage inflammatory responses, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production, and apoptosis underscore its immune regulating functions. Moreover, PPARγ expression is found in tumor cells, where its activation facilitates antitumorigenic actions. This review provides an overview about the role of PPARγ as a possible therapeutic target approaching major, severe diseases, such as sepsis, cancer, and atherosclerosis.
Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E.; Valladares, Basilio; Maciver, Sutherland K.
Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. We have targeted myosin-IC by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing as a therapeutic approach, since it is known that the function of this protein is vital for the amoeba. In this work, specific siRNAs against the Acanthamoeba myosin-IC gene were developed. Treated and control amoebae were cultured in growth and encystment media to evaluate the induced effects after myosin-IC gene knockdown, as we have anticipated that cyst formation may be impaired. The effects of myosin-IC gene silencing were inhibition of cyst formation, inhibition of completion of cytokinesis, inhibition of osmoregulation under osmotic stress conditions, and death of the amoebae. The finding that myosin-IC silencing caused incompletion of cytokinesis is in agreement with earlier suggestions that the protein plays a role in cell locomotion, which is necessary to pull daughter cells apart after mitosis in a process known as “traction-mediated cytokinesis”. We conclude that myosin-IC is a very promising potential drug target for the development of much-needed antiamoebal drugs and that it should be further exploited for Acanthamoeba therapy. PMID:24468784
Zhu, Jinqiang; Song, Wanshan; Li, Lin; Fan, Xiang
Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) is a significant signaling molecule that regulates cerebral blood flow (CBF), playing a pivotal role in the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. However, achieving the expected therapeutic efficacy is difficult using direct administration of NO donors. Therefore, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) becomes a potential therapeutic target for cerebrovascular diseases. This review summarizes the current evidence supporting the importance of CBF to cerebrovascular function, and the roles of NO and eNOS in CBF regulation.
Roy, Priti Kumar
The book discusses different therapeutic approaches based on different mathematical models to control the HIV/AIDS disease transmission. It uses clinical data, collected from different cited sources, to formulate the deterministic as well as stochastic mathematical models of HIV/AIDS. It provides complementary approaches, from deterministic and stochastic points of view, to optimal control strategy with perfect drug adherence and also tries to seek viewpoints of the same issue from different angles with various mathematical models to computer simulations. The book presents essential methods and techniques for students who are interested in designing epidemiological models on HIV/AIDS. It also guides research scientists, working in the periphery of mathematical modeling, and helps them to explore a hypothetical method by examining its consequences in the form of a mathematical modelling and making some scientific predictions. The model equations, mathematical analysis and several numerical simulations that are...
Hajishengallis, George; Maekawa, Tomoki; Abe, Toshiharu; Hajishengallis, Evlambia; Lambris, John D.
The complement system is a network of interacting fluid-phase and cell surface-associated molecules that trigger, amplify, and regulate immune and inflammatory signaling pathways. Dysregulation of this finely balanced network can destabilize host-microbe homeostasis and cause inflammatory tissue damage. Evidence from clinical and animal model-based studies suggests that complement is implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, a polymicrobial community-induced chronic inflammatory disease that destroys the tooth-supporting tissues. This review discusses molecular mechanisms of complement involvement in the dysbiotic transformation of the periodontal microbiome and the resulting destructive inflammation, culminating in loss of periodontal bone support. These mechanistic studies have additionally identified potential therapeutic targets. In this regard, interventional studies in preclinical models have provided proof-of-concept for using complement inhibitors for the treatment of human periodontitis. PMID:26306443
Bahia, Maria Terezinha; Diniz, Lívia de Figueiredo; Mosqueira, Vanessa Carla Furtado
A century after its discovery, American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease remains a serious health problem in Latin America, where it affects around 7 - 8 million people. The prevalence of Chagas disease in the poorer parts of the world has meant that it has largely been neglected with limited progress that made in identifying new drugs for the treatment. The nitroheterocyclic drugs nifurtimox and benznidazole are first-line drugs available for Chagas disease with limitations that include variable efficacy, long treatment courses and toxicity. This review focuses on different therapeutic strategies that have been used for the discovery of new treatments for Chagas disease. These include combination chemotherapy, drug repositioning, re-dosing regimens for current drugs and the identification of new drugs with specified target profiles. There are currently several reasons for a more optimistic view about chemotherapy with Chagas disease. However, despite some progress being made in preclinical studies, there is yet to be an ideal drug or formulation for human treatment. One major drawback in the evaluation of potential Chagas disease therapeutics is the lack of tools available to perform the said evaluation. Indeed, there is a great need to discover a better biomarker that could determine the efficacy of potential chemotherapeutics in treated patients.
Raza, Muhammad Hassan; Siraj, Sami; Arshad, Abida; Waheed, Usman; Aldakheel, Fahad; Alduraywish, Shatha; Arshad, Muhammad
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in cancer cells as a result of increased metabolic rate, dysfunction of mitochondria, elevated cell signaling, expression of oncogenes and increased peroxisome activities. Certain level of ROS is required by cancer cells, above or below which lead to cytotoxicity in cancer cells. This biochemical aspect can be exploited to develop novel therapeutic agents to preferentially and selectively target cancer cells. We searched various electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed english-language articles. Selected articles ranging from research papers, clinical studies, and review articles on the ROS production in living systems, its role in cancer development and cancer treatment, and the role of microbiota in ROS-dependent cancer therapy were analyzed. This review highlights oxidative stress in tumors, underlying mechanisms of different relationships of ROS and cancer cells, different ROS-mediated therapeutic strategies and the emerging role of microbiota in cancer therapy. Cancer cells exhibit increased ROS stress and disturbed redox homeostasis which lead to ROS adaptations. ROS-dependent anticancer therapies including ROS scavenging anticancer therapy and ROS boosting anticancer therapy have shown promising results in vitro as well as in vivo. In addition, response to cancer therapy is modulated by the human microbiota which plays a critical role in systemic body functions.
Jaehee V. Shim
Full Text Available Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs are highly potent cancer therapeutics that have been linked with serious cardiotoxicity, including left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, and QT prolongation. TKI-induced cardiotoxicity is thought to result from interference with tyrosine kinase activity in cardiomyocytes, where these signaling pathways help to control critical processes such as survival signaling, energy homeostasis, and excitation–contraction coupling. However, mechanistic understanding is limited at present due to the complexities of tyrosine kinase signaling, and the wide range of targets inhibited by TKIs. Here, we review the use of TKIs in cancer and the cardiotoxicities that have been reported, discuss potential mechanisms underlying cardiotoxicity, and describe recent progress in achieving a more systematic understanding of cardiotoxicity via the use of mechanistic models. In particular, we argue that future advances are likely to be enabled by studies that combine large-scale experimental measurements with Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP models describing biological mechanisms and dynamics. As such approaches have proven extremely valuable for understanding and predicting other drug toxicities, it is likely that QSP modeling can be successfully applied to cardiotoxicity induced by TKIs. We conclude by discussing a potential strategy for integrating genome-wide expression measurements with models, illustrate initial advances in applying this approach to cardiotoxicity, and describe challenges that must be overcome to truly develop a mechanistic and systematic understanding of cardiotoxicity caused by TKIs.
Winkler, Ethan A; Minter, Daniel; Yue, John K; Manley, Geoffrey T
Traumatic brain injury is a heterogeneous disorder resulting from an external force applied to the head. The development of cerebral edema plays a central role in the evolution of injury following brain trauma and is closely associated with neurologic outcomes. Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular and cellular pathways contributing to the posttraumatic development of cerebral edema have led to the identification of multiple prospective therapeutic targets. The authors summarize the pathogenic mechanisms underlying cerebral edema and highlight the molecular pathways that may be therapeutically targeted to mitigate cerebral edema and associated sequelae following traumatic brain injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pedersen, Peter L
This introductory article to the review series entitled "The Cancer Cell's Power Plants as Promising Therapeutic Targets" is written while more than 20 million people suffer from cancer. It summarizes strategies to destroy or prevent cancers by targeting their energy production factories, i.e., "power plants." All nucleated animal/human cells have two types of power plants, i.e., systems that make the "high energy" compound ATP from ADP and P( i ). One type is "glycolysis," the other the "mitochondria." In contrast to most normal cells where the mitochondria are the major ATP producers (>90%) in fueling growth, human cancers detected via Positron Emission Tomography (PET) rely on both types of power plants. In such cancers, glycolysis may contribute nearly half the ATP even in the presence of oxygen ("Warburg effect"). Based solely on cell energetics, this presents a challenge to identify curative agents that destroy only cancer cells as they must destroy both of their power plants causing "necrotic cell death" and leave normal cells alone. One such agent, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), a lactic acid analog, has been shown to inhibit both glycolytic and mitochondrial ATP production in rapidly growing cancers (Ko et al., Cancer Letts., 173, 83-91, 2001), leave normal cells alone, and eradicate advanced cancers (19 of 19) in a rodent model (Ko et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 324, 269-275, 2004). A second approach is to induce only cancer cells to undergo "apoptotic cell death." Here, mitochondria release cell death inducing factors (e.g., cytochrome c). In a third approach, cancer cells are induced to die by both apoptotic and necrotic events. In summary, much effort is being focused on identifying agents that induce "necrotic," "apoptotic" or apoptotic plus necrotic cell death only in cancer cells. Regardless how death is inflicted, every cancer cell must die, be it fast or slow.
Fernández-Matarrubia, M; Matías-Guiu, J A; Moreno-Ramos, T; Matías-Guiu, J
Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is the most frequent presentation in the clinical spectrum of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and it is characterised by progressive changes in personality and conduct. Major breakthroughs in molecular biology and genetics made during the last two decades have lent us a better understanding of this syndrome, which may be the first manifestation in many different neurodegenerative diseases. We reviewed the main epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of bvFTD. Most cases manifest sporadically and the average age of onset is 58 years. Current criteria for bvFTD propose three levels of diagnostic certainty: possible, probable, and definite. Clinical diagnosis is based on a detailed medical history provided by family members and caregivers, in conjunction with neuropsychological testing. Treatments which have been used in bvFDT to date are all symptomatic and their effectiveness is debatable. New drugs designed for specific molecular targets that are implicated in frontotemporal lobar degeneration are being developed. BvFDT is a frequent cause of dementia. It is a non-specific syndrome associated with heterogeneous histopathological and biomolecular findings. The definition of clinical subtypes complemented by biomarker identification may help predict the underlying pathology. This knowledge, along with the development of drugs designed for molecular targets, will offer new treatment possibilities. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0311 TITLE: TNK2 Tyrosine Kinase as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Triple- Negative Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) represent only 10%-15% of all breast cancers ; however... cancers (TNBC) represent 10-15% of all breast cancers . While significant advances have been made for targeted therapy of ER and HER2-positive breast
c) HL60 cells were treated with either DMSO, 20 µM of the anti-inflammatory compound ICT for 4 days prior to addition of BI 836858 (2 µg/ml) or...cells we pretreated HL60 with ICT , a compound that reduces MDSC and the S100A9/ CD33 axis,37 and show that pretreatment with ICT reduced the ...Public Release; Distribution Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be
1.5h with 5% BSA or 5% non-fat dry milk in TBS-T (10mM Tris [pH 7.5], 100mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween 20) and probed with the appropriate primary antibodies...decided therefore to examine the sensitivity of another epithelial cell line derived from a hormone responsive tissue, the breast epithelial cell line...blocked at RT for 1-1.5 hr with 5% BSA or 5% non-fat dry milk in TBS-T (10 mM Tris [pH 7.5], 100 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween 20) and probed with the appropriate
hematopoiesis and a propensity for progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). MDS are senescence-dependent myeloid malignancies with a rising prevalence owing...STATEMENT 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 17. LIMITATION OF... myeloid -derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a heterogeneous group of immature myeloid cells, which play a critical role in MDS pathogenesis. A key
Motor neuron diseases are neurological disorders characterized primarily by the degeneration of spinal motor neurons, skeletal muscle atrophy, and debilitating and often fatal motor dysfunction. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive motor neuron disease of high incidence and severity and the most common genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is caused by homozygous mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene and retention of at least one copy of the hypomorphic gene paralog SMN2. Early studies established a loss-of-function disease mechanism involving ubiquitous SMN deficiency and suggested SMN upregulation as a possible therapeutic approach. In recent years, greater knowledge of the central role of SMN in RNA processing combined with deep characterization of animal models of SMA has significantly advanced our understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of the disease. SMA is emerging as an RNA disease not limited to motor neurons, but one that involves dysfunction of motor circuits that comprise multiple neuronal subpopulations and possibly other cell types. Advances in SMA research have also led to the development of several potential therapeutics shown to be effective in animal models of SMA that are now in clinical trials. These agents offer unprecedented promise for the treatment of this still incurable neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26063904
Monaco, Annalisa; Streni, Oriana; Marci, Maria Chiara; Marzo, Giuseppe; Gatto, Roberto; Giannoni, Mario
In the analysis of the characteristics of a pleasant smile, a gummy smile has negative components, which most affect the esthetics of non-verbal communication. For this purpose a proposed classification based upon etiopathogenetic criteria as useful indications for a therapeutical approach is given. The nature of a high smile line can be: dento-gingival, connected to an abnormal dental eruption, which is revealed by a short clinic crown; muscular, caused by an hyperactivity of the elevator muscle of the upper lip; dento-alveolar (skeletal), due to an excessive protuberance or vertical growth of the jawbone (maxillary); lastly, a mixed nature, in the presence of more than one of the above described factors The diagnosis of gummy smile must be precocious and based, with reference to specific parameters, upon a careful analysis of the etiopathogenetic factors and the degree of seriousness of the alteration. A correct treatment plan must contemplate the possibility of an orthognatodontic, orthopedic and/or surgical therapeutic resolution considering the seriousness and complexity of the gums exposures (high smile line) in connection with the age of the subject.
Sortino, Maria A.; Salomone, Salvatore; Carruba, Michele O.; Drago, Filippo
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hormonal abnormalities that cause menstrual irregularity and reduce ovulation rate and fertility, associated to insulin resistance. Myo-inositol (cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-cyclohexanehexol, MI) and D-chiro-inositol (cis-1,2,4-trans-3,5,6-cyclohexanehexol, DCI) represent promising treatments for PCOS, having shown some therapeutic benefits without substantial side effects. Because the use of inositols for treating PCOS is widespread, a deep understanding of this treatment option is needed, both in terms of potential mechanisms and efficacy. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the biological effects of MI and DCI and the results obtained from relevant intervention studies with inositols in PCOS. Based on the published results, both MI and DCI represent potential valid therapeutic approaches for the treatment of insulin resistance and its associated metabolic and reproductive disorders, such as those occurring in women affected by PCOS. Furthermore, the combination MI/DCI seems also effective and might be even superior to either inositol species alone. However, based on available data, a particular MI:DCI ratio to be administered to PCOS patients cannot be established. Further studies are then necessary to understand the real contents of MI or DCI uptaken by the ovary following oral administration in order to identify optimal doses and/or combination ratios. PMID:28642705
Maria A. Sortino
Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is characterized by hormonal abnormalities that cause menstrual irregularity and reduce ovulation rate and fertility, associated to insulin resistance. Myo-inositol (cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-cyclohexanehexol, MI and D-chiro-inositol (cis-1,2,4-trans-3,5,6-cyclohexanehexol, DCI represent promising treatments for PCOS, having shown some therapeutic benefits without substantial side effects. Because the use of inositols for treating PCOS is widespread, a deep understanding of this treatment option is needed, both in terms of potential mechanisms and efficacy. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the biological effects of MI and DCI and the results obtained from relevant intervention studies with inositols in PCOS. Based on the published results, both MI and DCI represent potential valid therapeutic approaches for the treatment of insulin resistance and its associated metabolic and reproductive disorders, such as those occurring in women affected by PCOS. Furthermore, the combination MI/DCI seems also effective and might be even superior to either inositol species alone. However, based on available data, a particular MI:DCI ratio to be administered to PCOS patients cannot be established. Further studies are then necessary to understand the real contents of MI or DCI uptaken by the ovary following oral administration in order to identify optimal doses and/or combination ratios.
Kopf, G S
The control of fertility constitutes a global health issue, since overpopulation and unintended pregnancy have both major personal and societal impact. Although some regions of the world are seeing neutral or negative population growth, many developing countries are seeing explosive growth of their populations and these population changes will affect the entire globe. It is estimated that in a decade, the largest cohort of young women worldwide in human history will reach adolescence thus necessitating the need for a wide range of contraceptive options that can be used by both females and males. The contraceptive revolution that occurred in the 1960s with the development of the hormonal-based oral contraceptive for women has subsequently made a significant impact on societal dynamics in several cultures, yet there has been virtually no innovation in this field since that time. This lack of innovation contrasts dramatically with the vast enhancement of our knowledge base of the basic processes of reproduction. The genomic and proteomic revolutions have provided new tools and new targets for contraceptive development, and the results of such approaches have identified gene products that play critical roles in female and male reproduction, thus expanding the array of targets for novel and innovative female- and male-based contraceptives. This normally would herald a renaissance in contraceptive development, yet the commitment of industry to this endeavor is limited to a few firms due to the economics of contraceptive development. This chapter will consider the types of targets being considered in the development of new generations of contraceptives and will also focus on the challenges that industry has in meeting these goals.
Dey-Rao, Rama; Sinha, Animesh A
Significant gaps remain regarding the pathomechanisms underlying the autoimmune response in vitiligo (VL), where the loss of self-tolerance leads to the targeted killing of melanocytes. Specifically, there is incomplete information regarding alterations in the systemic environment that are relevant to the disease state. We undertook a genome-wide profiling approach to examine gene expression in the peripheral blood of VL patients and healthy controls in the context of our previously published VL-skin gene expression profile. We used several in silico bioinformatics-based analyses to provide new insights into disease mechanisms and suggest novel targets for future therapy. Unsupervised clustering methods of the VL-blood dataset demonstrate a "disease-state"-specific set of co-expressed genes. Ontology enrichment analysis of 99 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) uncovers a down-regulated immune/inflammatory response, B-Cell antigen receptor (BCR) pathways, apoptosis and catabolic processes in VL-blood. There is evidence for both type I and II interferon (IFN) playing a role in VL pathogenesis. We used interactome analysis to identify several key blood associated transcriptional factors (TFs) from within (STAT1, STAT6 and NF-kB), as well as "hidden" (CREB1, MYC, IRF4, IRF1, and TP53) from the dataset that potentially affect disease pathogenesis. The TFs overlap with our reported lesional-skin transcriptional circuitry, underscoring their potential importance to the disease. We also identify a shared VL-blood and -skin transcriptional "hot spot" that maps to chromosome 6, and includes three VL-blood dysregulated genes (PSMB8, PSMB9 and TAP1) described as potential VL-associated genetic susceptibility loci. Finally, we provide bioinformatics-based support for prioritizing dysregulated genes in VL-blood or skin as potential therapeutic targets. We examined the VL-blood transcriptome in context with our (previously published) VL-skin transcriptional profile to address
A. E. Karateev
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a trend toward changing the clinical concept of osteoarthritis (OA. This disease has been considered as an age-related disease and the long-term result of a current pathological process for a very long time. However, many experts are now inclined to consider it necessary to identify the early, pre-X-ray stage of OA, when adequate treatment may not only halt the progression, but also achieve the regression of joint structural changes. This review deals with a number of pathogenetic and clinical aspects of the early stages of OA, which are important for timely diagnosis and pathogenetic therapy choice. It also considers some therapeutic approaches, both a "classic" and recently actively discussed methods for using platelet-rich plasma and autologous chondrocyte transplantation.
Gomes, Fernanda; Henriques, Mariana
Mastitis is defined as the inflammatory response resulting of the infection of the udder tissue and it is reported in numerous species, namely in domestic dairy animals. This pathology is the most frequent disease of dairy cattle and can be potentially fatal. Mastitis is an economically important pathology associated with reduced milk production, changes in milk composition and quality, being considered one of the most costly to dairy industry. Therefore, the majority of research in the field has focused on control of bovine mastitis and many efforts are being made for the development of new and effective anti-mastitis drugs. Antibiotic treatment is an established component of mastitis control programs; however, the continuous search for new therapeutic alternatives, effective in the control and treatment of bovine mastitis, is urgent. This review will provide an overview of some conventional and emerging approaches in the management of bovine mastitis' infections.
Martín Giménez, V M; Kassuha, D; Manucha, W
Hypertension is a medical condition considered one of the most important public health problems in developed countries, affecting around one billion people. Therefore, the study of its mechanisms, development and treatment is a priority. Of particular interest are the multiple contributing factors, and efforts by experts to fully understand it are also important. However, studies are currently insufficient and consequently, attention is focused on the exploration of new therapeutic approaches. This raises a growing interest in nanotechnology given the ability of certain structures to mimic the behavior of extracellular matrices. This opens a promising field in the treatment of diseases such as hypertension, where it stands to tissue engineering and its potential applications incorporating concepts such as controlled release drug, reduced side effects and receptor activation locally. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Bracke, S.; Desmet, E.; Guerrero-Aspizua, S.; Tjabringa, S.; Schalkwijk, J.; Gele, M. Van; Carretero, M.; Lambert, J.
Diseases of the skin are amenable to RNAi-based therapies and targeting key components in the pathophysiology of psoriasis using RNAi may represent a successful new therapeutic strategy. We aimed to develop a straightforward and highly reproducible in vitro psoriasis model useful to study the
Purpose: To investigate microRNA-181 (miR-181) as a potential therapeutic target in osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: MiR-181 expression was evaluated in articular cartilage samples obtained from OA patients undergoing knee arthroplasty and non-OA (control) patients undergoing other orthopedic procedures. Following the ...
The ability to manipulate the genome with precise spatial and nucleotide resolution (genome editing) has been a powerful research tool. In the past decade, the tools and expertise for using genome editing in human somatic cells and pluripotent cells have increased to such an extent that the approach is now being developed widely as a strategy to treat human disease. The fundamental process depends on creating a site-specific DNA double-strand break (DSB) in the genome and then allowing the cell's endogenous DSB repair machinery to fix the break such that precise nucleotide changes are made to the DNA sequence. With the development and discovery of several different nuclease platforms and increasing knowledge of the parameters affecting different genome editing outcomes, genome editing frequencies now reach therapeutic relevance for a wide variety of diseases. Moreover, there is a series of complementary approaches to assessing the safety and toxicity of any genome editing process, irrespective of the underlying nuclease used. Finally, the development of genome editing has raised the issue of whether it should be used to engineer the human germline. Although such an approach could clearly prevent the birth of people with devastating and destructive genetic diseases, questions remain about whether human society is morally responsible enough to use this tool.
Full Text Available More than 40% of the body mass is represented by muscle tissue, which possesses the innate ability to regenerate after damage through the activation of muscle specific stem cell, namely satellite cells. Muscle diseases, in particular chronic degenerative state of skeletal muscle such as dystrophies, lead to a perturbation of the regenerative process, which causes the premature exhaustion of satellite cell reservoir due to continue cycles of degeneration/regeneration. Nowadays, the research is focused on different therapeutic approaches, ranging from gene and cell to pharmacological therapy, but still there is not a definitive cure in particular for genetic muscle disease. Taking this in mind, in this article we will give special consideration to muscle diseases and the use of fetal derived stem cells as new approach for therapy. Cells of fetal origin, from cord blood to placenta and amniotic fluid, can be easily obtained without ethical concern, expanded and differentiated in culture, and possess immunemodulatory properties. The in vivo approach in animal models can be helpful to study the mechanism underneath the operating principle of the stem cell reservoir, namely the niche, which holds great potential to understand the onset of muscle pathologies.
Pichai, Madharasi VA; Ferguson, Lynnette R
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as Crohn’s disease are highly debilitating. There are inconsistencies in response to and side effects in the current conventional medications, failures in adequate drug delivery, and the lack of therapeutics to offer complete remission in the presently available treatments of IBD. This suggests the need to explore beyond the horizons of conventional approaches in IBD therapeutics. This review examines the arena of the evolving IBD nanomedicine, studied ...
Dwivedi, Upendra N; Tiwari, Sameeksha; Singh, Priyanka; Singh, Swati; Awasthi, Manika; Pandey, Veda P
Syphilis, a slow progressive and the third most common sexually transmitted disease found worldwide, is caused by a spirochete gram negative bacteria Treponema pallidum. Emergence of antibiotic resistant T. pallidum has led to a search for novel drugs and their targets. Subtractive genomics analyses of pathogen T. pallidum and host Homo sapiens resulted in identification of 126 proteins essential for survival and viability of the pathogen. Metabolic pathway analyses of these essential proteins led to discovery of nineteen proteins distributed among six metabolic pathways unique to T. pallidum. One hundred plant-derived terpenoids, as potential therapeutic molecules against T. pallidum, were screened for their drug likeness and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and toxicity) properties. Subsequently the resulting nine terpenoids were docked with five unique T. pallidum targets through molecular modeling approaches. Out of five targets analyzed, D-alanine:D-alanine ligase was found to be the most promising target, while terpenoid salvicine was the most potent inhibitor. A comparison of the inhibitory potential of the best docked readily available natural compound, namely pomiferin (flavonoid) with that of the best docked terpenoid salvicine, revealed that salvicine was a more potent inhibitor than that of pomiferin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a terpenoid as a potential therapeutic molecule against T. pallidum with D-alanine:D-alanine ligase as a novel target. Further studies are warranted to evaluate and explore the potential clinical ramifications of these findings in relation to syphilis that has public health importance worldwide.
Bolós, Victoria; Gasent, Joan Manuel; López-Tarruella, Sara; Grande, Enrique
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and steroid receptor coactivator (Src) are intracellular (nonreceptor) tyrosine kinases that physically and functionally interact to promote a variety of cellular responses. Plenty of reports have already suggested an additional central role for this complex in cancer through its ability to promote proliferation and anoikis resistance in tumor cells. An important role for the FAK/Src complex in tumor angiogenesis has also been established. Furthermore, FAK and Src have been associated with solid tumor metastasis through their ability to promote the epithelial mesenchymal transition. In fact, a strong correlation between increased FAK/Src expression/phosphorylation and the invasive phenotype in human tumors has been found. Additionally, an association for FAK/Src with resistances to the current anticancer therapies has already been established. Currently, novel anticancer agents that target FAK or Src are under development in a broad variety of solid tumors. In this article we will review the normal cellular functions of the FAK/Src complex as an effector of integrin and/or tyrosine kinase receptor signaling. We will also collect data about their role in cancer and we will summarize the most recent data from the FAK and Src inhibitors under clinical and preclinical development. Furthermore, the association of both these proteins with chemotherapy and hormonal therapy resistances, as a rationale for new combined therapeutic approaches with these novel agents, to abrogate treatment associated resistances, will also be reviewed. PMID:20616959
Full Text Available Resistance to cytotoxic drugs is thought to be a major cause of treatment failure in childhood neuroblastoma, and members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter superfamily may contribute to this phenomenon by active efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from cancer cells. As a member of the C subfamily of ABC transporters, multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP4/ABCC4 has the ability to export a variety of endogenous and exogenous substances across the plasma membrane. In light of its capacity for chemotherapeutic drug efflux, MRP4 has been studied in the context of drug resistance in a number of cancer cell types. However, MRP4 also influences cancer cell biology independently of chemotherapeutic drug exposure, which highlights the potential importance of endogenous MRP4 substrates in cancer biology. Furthermore, MRP4 is a direct transcriptional target of Myc family oncoproteins and expression of this transporter is a powerful independent predictor of clinical outcome in neuroblastoma. Together these features suggest that inhibition of MRP4 may be an attractive therapeutic approach for neuroblastoma and other cancers that rely on MRP4. In this respect, existing options for MRP4 inhibition are relatively non-selective and thus development of more specific anti-MRP4 compounds should be a major focus of future work in this area.
Bonelli, Stefano; Geeraerts, Xenia; Bolli, Evangelia; Keirsse, Jiri; Kiss, Mate; Pombo Antunes, Ana Rita; Van Damme, Helena; De Vlaminck, Karen; Movahedi, Kiavash; Laoui, Damya; Raes, Geert; Van Ginderachter, Jo A
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are by now established as important regulators of tumor progression by impacting on tumor immunity, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Hence, a multitude of approaches are currently pursued to intervene with TAM's protumor activities, the most advanced of which being a blockade of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF)/M-CSF receptor (M-CSFR) signaling. M-CSFR signaling largely impacts on the differentiation of macrophages, including TAM, and hence strongly influences the numbers of these cells in tumors. However, a repolarization of TAM toward a more antitumor phenotype may be more elegant and may yield stronger effects on tumor growth. In this respect, several aspects of TAM behavior could be altered, such as their intratumoral localization, metabolism and regulatory pathways. Intervention strategies could include the use of small molecules but also new generations of biologicals which may complement the current success of immune checkpoint blockers. This review highlights current work on the search for new therapeutic targets in TAM. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
Sharma, Om Prakash; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh
Lymphatic filariasis (Lf) is one of the oldest and most debilitating tropical diseases. Millions of people are suffering from this prevalent disease. It is estimated to infect over 120 million people in at least 80 nations of the world through the tropical and subtropical regions. More than one billion people are in danger of getting affected with this life-threatening disease. Several studies were suggested its emerging limitations and resistance towards the available drugs and therapeutic targets for Lf. Therefore, better medicine and drug targets are in demand. We took an initiative to identify the essential proteins of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi, which are indispensable for their survival and non-homologous to human host proteins. In this current study, we have used proteome subtractive approach to screen the possible therapeutic targets for wBm. In addition, numerous literatures were mined in the hunt for potential drug targets, drugs, epitopes, crystal structures, and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences for filarial causing nematodes. Data obtained from our study were presented in a user friendly database named FiloBase. We hope that information stored in this database may be used for further research and drug development process against filariasis. URL: http://filobase.bicpu.edu.in.
Marei, Hadir; Malliri, Angeliki
Abnormal Rac1 signaling is linked to a number of debilitating human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. As such, Rac1 represents an attractive therapeutic target, yet the search for effective Rac1 inhibitors is still underway. Given the adverse effects associated with Rac1 signaling perturbation, cells have evolved several mechanisms to ensure the tight regulation of Rac1 signaling. Thus, characterizing these mechanisms can provide invaluable information regarding major cellular events that lead to aberrant Rac1 signaling. Importantly, this information can be utilized to further facilitate the development of effective pharmacological modulators that can restore normal Rac1 signaling. In this review, we focus on the pathological role of Rac1 signaling, highlighting the benefits and potential drawbacks of targeting Rac1 in a clinical setting. Additionally, we provide an overview of available compounds that target key Rac1 regulatory mechanisms and discuss future therapeutic avenues arising from our understanding of these mechanisms.
Shepard, H. Michael; Brdlik, Cathleen M.; Schreiber, Hans
The human EGFR (HER) family is essential for communication between many epithelial cancer cell types and the tumor microenvironment. Therapeutics targeting the HER family have demonstrated clinical success in the treatment of diverse epithelial cancers. Here we propose that the success of HER family–targeted monoclonal antibodies in cancer results from their ability to interfere with HER family consolidation of signals initiated by a multitude of other receptor systems. Ligand/receptor systems that initiate these signals include cytokine receptors, chemokine receptors, TLRs, GPCRs, and integrins. We further extrapolate that improvements in cancer therapeutics targeting the HER family are likely to incorporate mechanisms that block or reverse stromal support of malignant progression by isolating the HER family from autocrine and stromal influences. PMID:18982164
Full Text Available Victoria Bolós1,*, Joan Manuel Gasent2,*, Sara López-Tarruella3, Enrique Grande1,#1Pfizer Oncology, Madrid, Spain; 2Hospital Gral. Universitario Marina Alta, Oncology Department, Denia Alicante, 3,#Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Oncology Department, ∗These authors contributed equally to this work, #Center affiliated to the Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa (RD06/0020/0021. Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII, Spanish Ministry of Science and InnovationAbstract: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK and steroid receptor coactivator (Src are intracellular (nonreceptor tyrosine kinases that physically and functionally interact to promote a variety of cellular responses. Plenty of reports have already suggested an additional central role for this complex in cancer through its ability to promote proliferation and anoikis resistance in tumor cells. An important role for the FAK/Src complex in tumor angiogenesis has also been established. Furthermore, FAK and Src have been associated with solid tumor metastasis through their ability to promote the epithelial mesenchymal transition. In fact, a strong correlation between increased FAK/Src expression/phosphorylation and the invasive phenotype in human tumors has been found. Additionally, an association for FAK/Src with resistances to the current anticancer therapies has already been established. Currently, novel anticancer agents that target FAK or Src are under development in a broad variety of solid tumors. In this article we will review the normal cellular functions of the FAK/Src complex as an effector of integrin and/or tyrosine kinase receptor signaling. We will also collect data about their role in cancer and we will summarize the most recent data from the FAK and Src inhibitors under clinical and preclinical development. Furthermore, the association of both these proteins with chemotherapy and hormonal therapy resistances, as a rationale for new combined therapeutic approaches with these novel
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of diabetes and predisposes individuals to hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Together these pathologies increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the major cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Worsening trends in obesity and T2DM raise a serious conundrum, namely, how to control blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipids when many antidiabetic agents cause weight gain and thereby exacerbate other cardiovascular risk factors associated with T2DM. Further, evidence suggests that some established antihypertensive agents may worsen glucose intolerance. Many patients who are obese, hypertensive, and/or hyperlipidaemic fail to achieve blood pressure, lipid and glycaemic goals, and this failure may in part be explained by physician reluctance to utilize complex combination regimens for fear of off-target effects. Thus, a clear need exists for clinicians to understand the risks and benefits of different pharmacologic, and indeed non-pharmacologic, options in order to maximize treatment outcomes. While intensive lifestyle modification remains an elusive gold standard, newer diabetes targets, including the incretin axis, may offer greater cardiovascular risk reduction than other antidiabetes therapies, although definitive clinical trial data are needed. The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists exenatide and liraglutide and the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors sitagliptin and vildagliptin effectively lower HbA1c; exenatide and liraglutide reduce weight and blood pressure and improve lipid profiles. Sitagliptin and vildagliptin are weight neutral but also appear to improve lipid profiles. Integration of incretin therapies into the therapeutic armamentarium is a promising approach to improving outcomes in T2DM, and perhaps even in reducing complications of T2DM, such as co-morbid hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Additional long-term studies, including CVD end
Falagan-Lotsch, Priscila; Grzincic, Elissa M; Murphy, Catherine J
Breast cancer is a major cause of suffering and mortality among women. Limitations in the current diagnostic methods and treatment approaches have led to new strategies to positively impact the survival rates and quality of life of breast cancer patients. Nanotechnology offers a real possibility of mitigating breast cancer mortality by early-stage cancer detection and more precise diagnosis as well as more effective treatments with minimal side effects. The current nanoplatforms approved for breast cancer therapeutics are based on passive tumor targeting using organic nanoparticles and have not provided the expected significant improvements in the clinic. In this review, we present the emerging approaches in breast cancer nanomedicine based on active targeting using versatile inorganic nanoplatforms with biomedical relevance, such as gold, silica, and iron oxide nanoparticles, as well as their efficacy in breast cancer imaging, drug and gene delivery, thermal therapy, combinational therapy, and theranostics in preclinical studies. The main challenges for clinical translation and perspectives are discussed.
Ali, Liaqat; Goraya, Mohsan Ullah; Arafat, Yasir; Ajmal, Muhammad; Chen, Ji-Long; Yu, Daojin
Quorum-sensing systems control major virulence determinants in Enterococcus faecalis , which causes nosocomial infections. The E . faecalis quorum-sensing systems include several virulence factors that are regulated by the cytolysin operon, which encodes the cytolysin toxin. In addition, the E . faecalis Fsr regulator system controls the expression of gelatinase, serine protease, and enterocin O16. The cytolysin and Fsr virulence factor systems are linked to enterococcal diseases that affect the health of humans and other host models. Therefore, there is substantial interest in understanding and targeting these regulatory pathways to develop novel therapies for enterococcal infection control. Quorum-sensing inhibitors could be potential therapeutic agents for attenuating the pathogenic effects of E . faecalis . Here, we discuss the regulation of cytolysin, the LuxS system, and the Fsr system, their role in E . faecalis -mediated infections, and possible therapeutic approaches to prevent E . faecalis infection.
Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases (GM2 gangliosidoses) are autosomal recessive lysosomal storage diseases caused by gene mutations in HEXA and HEXB, each encoding human lysosomal β-hexosaminidase α-subunits and β-subunits, respectively. In Tay-Sachs disease, excessive accumulation of GM2 ganglioside (GM2), mainly in the central nervous system, is caused by a deficiency of the HexA isozyme (αβ heterodimer), resulting in progressive neurologic disorders. In Sandhoff disease, combined deficiencies of HexA and HexB (ββ homodimer) cause not only the accumulation of GM2 but also of oligosaccharides carrying terminal N-acetylhexosamine residues (GlcNAc-oligosaccharides), resulting in systemic manifestations including hepatosplenomegaly as well as neurologic symptoms. Hence there is little clinically effective treatment for these GM2 gangliosidoses. Recent studies on the molecular pathogenesis in Sandhoff disease patients and disease model mice have shown the involvement of microglial activation and chemokine induction in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in this disease. Experimental and therapeutic approaches, including recombinant enzyme replacement, have been performed using Sandhoff disease model mice, suggesting the future application of novel techniques to treat GM2 gangliosidoses (Hex deficiencies), including Sandhoff disease as well as Tay-Sachs disease. In this study, we isolated astrocytes and microglia from the neonatal brain of Sandhoff disease model mice and demonstrated abnormalities of glial cells. Moreover, we demonstrated the therapeutic effect of an intracerebroventricular administration of novel recombinant human HexA carrying a high content of M6P residue in Sandhoff disease model mice.
Hu, Zhi [El Cerrito, CA; Kuo, Wen-Lin [San Ramon, CA; Neve, Richard M [San Mateo, CA; Gray, Joe W [San Francisco, CA
Amplification of the ANXA9 gene in human chromosomal region 1q21 in epithelial cancers indicates a likelihood of both in vivo drug resistance and metastasis, and serves as a biomarker indicating these aspects of the disease. ANXA9 can also serve as a therapeutic target. Interfering RNAs (iRNAs) (such as siRNA and miRNA) and shRNA adapted to inhibit ANXA9 expression, when formulated in a therapeutic composition, and delivered to cells of the tumor, function to treat the epithelial cancer.
Pagan, Jonathan; Przybyla, Beata; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Gupta, Kalpna; Griffin, Robert J.
Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was investigated and the role of these cells as a therapeutic target or in determining treatment sensitivity was tested. After isolation from human blood and expansion in vitro, actively growing cells with verified endothelial phenotype (Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cell, BOEC) were injected i.v. into tumor bearing mice for three consecutive days. The growth rate was significantly enhanced in relatively small RERF human lung tumors (i.e., less than 150 mm 3 ) grown in immunocompromised mice by an average of 1.5-fold while it had no effect when injections were given to animals bearing larger tumors. There were no signs of toxicity or unwanted systemic effects. We also observed evidence of increased perfusion, vessel number, response to 15 Gy radiation and oxygenation in RERF tumors of animals injected with BOECs compared to control tumors. In addition, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma tumors were found to grow faster upon injection of BOECs. When FSaII tumors were subjected to a partial thermal ablation treatment using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) there was consistently elevated detection of fluorescently labeled and i.v. injected endothelial precursors in the tumor when analyzed with optical imaging and/or histological preparations. Importantly, we also observed that BOECs treated with the novel anti-angiogenic peptide anginex in-vitro, show decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to radiation. In vivo, the normal increase in FSaII tumor growth induced by injected BOECs was blunted by the addition of anginex treatment. It appears that endothelial precursors may significantly contribute to tumor vessel growth, tumor progression and/or repair of tumor damage and may improve the
Korf, Bruce; Ahmadian, Reza; Allanson, Judith; Aoki, Yoko; Bakker, Annette; Wright, Emma Burkitt; Denger, Brian; Elgersma, Ype; Gelb, Bruce D; Gripp, Karen W; Kerr, Bronwyn; Kontaridis, Maria; Lazaro, Conxi; Linardic, Corinne; Lozano, Reymundo; MacRae, Calum A; Messiaen, Ludwine; Mulero-Navarro, Sonia; Neel, Benjamin; Plotkin, Scott; Rauen, Katherine A; Roberts, Amy; Silva, Alcino J; Sittampalam, Sitta G; Zhang, Chao; Schoyer, Lisa
"The Third International Meeting on Genetic Disorders in the RAS/MAPK Pathway: Towards a Therapeutic Approach" was held at the Renaissance Orlando at SeaWorld Hotel (August 2-4, 2013). Seventy-one physicians and scientists attended the meeting, and parallel meetings were held by patient advocacy groups (CFC International, Costello Syndrome Family Network, NF Network and Noonan Syndrome Foundation). Parent and patient advocates opened the meeting with a panel discussion to set the stage regarding their hopes and expectations for therapeutic advances. In keeping with the theme on therapeutic development, the sessions followed a progression from description of the phenotype and definition of therapeutic endpoints, to definition of genomic changes, to identification of therapeutic targets in the RAS/MAPK pathway, to preclinical drug development and testing, to clinical trials. These proceedings will review the major points of discussion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ree, Anne Hansen; Hollywood, Donal
New strategies to facilitate the improvement of physical and integrated biological optimization of high-precision treatment protocols are an important priority for modern radiation oncology. From a clinical perspective, as knowledge accumulates from molecular radiobiology, there is a complex and exciting opportunity to investigate novel approaches to rational patient treatment stratification based on actionable tumor targets, together with the appropriate design of next-generation early-phase radiotherapy trials utilizing targeted therapeutics, to formally evaluate relevant clinical and biomarker endpoints. A unique aspect in the development pathway of systemic agents with presumed radiosensitizing activity will also be the need for special attention on patient eligibility and the rigorous definition of radiation dose-volume relationships and potential dose-limiting toxicities. Based on recent experience from systematically investigating histone deacetylase inhibitors as radiosensitizing agents, from initial studies in preclinical tumor models through the conduct of a phase I clinical study to evaluate tumor activity of the targeted agent as well as patient safety and tumor response to the combined treatment modality, this communication will summarize principles relating to early clinical evaluation of combining radiotherapy and targeted therapeutics. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Drug discovery and its methodologies have been very effective in terms of treating cancers and immunological disorders but have not been able to stop genetic diseases as most of the drugs target at the protein level. They merely mitigate the symptoms of the disease. Spinocerebellar ataxia is a neurological genetic disorder that is caused by the formation of an abnormal protein. There have been several reports on ataxic drug development but actual clinical treatment is yet to be achieved. Oligonucleotide therapy called sequence specific siRNA mediated gene silencing has evolved with promising results. This approach emphasizes on suppressing the expression of the diseased gene at mRNA level. However, there is a limitation in delivery of siRNA to the target site. Several methods have been developed over the last decade to enhance the target specific delivery of DNA, siRNA, protein and small drug molecules for therapeutic purpose with less or no side effects. This review discusses the latest upcoming technologies in the field that focus on a number of nonviral nanocarriers for targeted delivery. In this review, we explore the promise and potential of novel therapeutics with interest on ataxia therapy.
Mitroulis, Ioannis; Alexaki, Vasileia I; Kourtzelis, Ioannis; Ziogas, Athanassios; Hajishengallis, George; Chavakis, Triantafyllos
Infection or sterile inflammation triggers site-specific attraction of leukocytes. Leukocyte recruitment is a process comprising several steps orchestrated by adhesion molecules, chemokines, cytokines and endogenous regulatory molecules. Distinct adhesive interactions between endothelial cells and leukocytes and signaling mechanisms contribute to the temporal and spatial fine-tuning of the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Central players in the leukocyte adhesion cascade include the leukocyte adhesion receptors of the β2-integrin family, such as the αLβ2 and αMβ2 integrins, or of the β1-integrin family, such as the α4β1-integrin. Given the central involvement of leukocyte recruitment in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, the leukocyte adhesion cascade in general, and leukocyte integrins in particular, represent key therapeutic targets. In this context, the present review focuses on the role of leukocyte integrins in the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Experimental evidence that has implicated leukocyte integrins as targets in animal models of inflammatory disorders, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, psoriasis, inflammatory bone loss and inflammatory bowel disease as well as preclinical and clinical therapeutic applications of antibodies that target leukocyte integrins in various inflammatory disorders are presented. Finally, we review recent findings on endogenous inhibitors that modify leukocyte integrin function, which could emerge as promising therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Bladder cancer represents the ninth most widespread malignancy throughout the world. It is characterized by the presence of two different clinical and prognostic subtypes: non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs and muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs. MIBCs have a poor outcome with a common progression to metastasis. Despite improvements in knowledge, treatment has not advanced significantly in recent years, with the absence of new therapeutic targets. Because of the limitations of current therapeutic options, the greater challenge will be to identify biomarkers for clinical application. For this reason, we compared our array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH results with those reported in literature for invasive bladder tumors and, in particular, we focused on the evaluation of copy number alterations (CNAs present in biopsies and retained in the corresponding cancer stem cell (CSC subpopulations that should be the main target of therapy. According to our data, CCNE1, MYC, MDM2 and PPARG genes could be interesting therapeutic targets for bladder CSC subpopulations. Surprisingly, HER2 copy number gains are not retained in bladder CSCs, making the gene-targeted therapy less interesting than the others. These results provide precious advice for further study on bladder therapy; however, the clinical importance of these results should be explored.
Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common inherited muscle disease, leading to severe disability and death in young men. Death is caused by the progressive degeneration of striated muscles aggravated by sterile inflammation. The pleiotropic effects of the mutant gene also include cognitive and behavioral impairments and low bone density. Current interventions in DMD are palliative only as no treatment improves the long-term outcome. Therefore, approaches with a translational potential should be investigated, and key abnormalities downstream from the absence of the DMD product, dystrophin, appear to be strong therapeutic targets. We and others have demonstrated that DMD mutations alter ATP signaling and have identified P2RX7 purinoceptor up-regulation as being responsible for the death of muscles in the mdx mouse model of DMD and human DMD lymphoblasts. Moreover, the ATP-P2RX7 axis, being a crucial activator of innate immune responses, can contribute to DMD pathology by stimulating chronic inflammation. We investigated whether ablation of P2RX7 attenuates the DMD model mouse phenotype to assess receptor suitability as a therapeutic target.Using a combination of molecular, histological, and biochemical methods and behavioral analyses in vivo we demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that genetic ablation of P2RX7 in the DMD model mouse produces a widespread functional attenuation of both muscle and non-muscle symptoms. In dystrophic muscles at 4 wk there was an evident recovery in key functional and molecular parameters such as improved muscle structure (minimum Feret diameter, p < 0.001, increased muscle strength in vitro (p < 0.001 and in vivo (p = 0.012, and pro-fibrotic molecular signatures. Serum creatine kinase (CK levels were lower (p = 0.025, and reduced cognitive impairment (p = 0.006 and bone structure alterations (p < 0.001 were also apparent. Reduction of inflammation and fibrosis persisted at 20 mo in leg (p = 0
Full Text Available Leukemia is the most common pediatric malignancy, constituting more than 30% of all childhood cancers. Although cure rates have improved greatly, approximately one in five children relapse and poor survival rates post relapse remain a challenge. Given this, more effective and innovative therapeutic strategies are needed in order to improve prognosis. Aurora kinases, a family of serine/threonine kinases essential for the regulation of several mitotic processes, have been identified as potential targets for cancer therapeutics. Elevated expression of Aurora kinases has been demonstrated in several malignancies and is associated with aberrant mitotic activity, aneuploidy and alterations in chromosomal structure and genome instability. Based on this rationale, a number of small molecule inhibitors have been formulated and advanced to human studies in the recent past. A comparative analysis of these agents in cytotoxicity and target modulation analyses against a panel of leukemia cells provides novel insights into the unique mechanisms and codependent activity pathways involved in targeting Aurora kinases, constituting a distinctive preclinical experimental framework to identify appropriate agents and combinations in future clinical studies.
de Seta Federica
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchiolitis guidelines suggest that neither bronchodilators nor corticosteroids, antiviral and antibacterial agents should be routinely used. Although recommendations, many clinicians persistently prescribe drugs for bronchiolitis. Aim of the study To unravel main reasons of pediatricians in prescribing drugs to infants with bronchiolitis, and to possibly correlate therapeutic choices to the severity of clinical presentation. Also possible influence of socially deprived condition on therapeutic choices is analyzed. Methods Patients admitted to Pediatric Division of 2 main Hospitals of Naples because of bronchiolitis in winter season 2008-2009 were prospectively analyzed. An RDAI (Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score was assessed at different times from admission. Enrolment criteria were: age 1-12 months; 1st lower respiratory infection with cough and rhinitis with/without fever, wheezing, crackles, tachypnea, use of accessory muscles, and/or nasal flaring, low oxygen saturation, cyanosis. Social deprivation status was assessed by evaluating school graduation level of the origin area of the patients. A specific questionnaire was submitted to clinicians to unravel reasons of their therapeutic behavior. Results Eighty-four children were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 3.5 months. Forty-four per cent of patients presented with increased respiratory rate, 70.2% with chest retractions, and 7.1% with low SaO2. Mean starting RDAI score was 8. Lung consolidation was found in 3.5% on chest roentgenogram. Data analysis also unraveled that 64.2% matched clinical admission criteria. Social deprivation status analysis revealed that 72.6% of patients were from areas "at social risk". Evaluation of length of stay vs. social deprivation status evidenced no difference between "at social risk" and "not at social risk" patients. Following therapeutic interventions were prescribed: nasal suction (64.2%, oxygen administration (7
Developing personalized cancer therapies based on cancer genomics methodologies forms the basis for future cancer therapeutics. A genomics platform was developed based on canine cancer to produce a proof-of-concept for personalized genomics led therapeutic choices but also developing personalized therapeutics for canine cancer patients themselves. The platform identified the genetic state of a canine cancer patient within two drugable pathways; p53 and HSP90/IRF1. The former ge...
Full Text Available Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology radically changed the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases in all aspects of human life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in biomedical applications. AgNPs play an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, particularly in nanomedicine. Although several noble metals have been used for various purposes, AgNPs have been focused on potential applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we discuss the synthesis of AgNPs using physical, chemical, and biological methods. We also discuss the properties of AgNPs and methods for their characterization. More importantly, we extensively discuss the multifunctional bio-applications of AgNPs; for example, as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer agents, and the mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of AgNPs. In addition, we discuss therapeutic approaches and challenges for cancer therapy using AgNPs. Finally, we conclude by discussing the future perspective of AgNPs.
Zhang, Xi-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Shen, Wei; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi
Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology radically changed the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases in all aspects of human life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in biomedical applications. AgNPs play an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, particularly in nanomedicine. Although several noble metals have been used for various purposes, AgNPs have been focused on potential applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we discuss the synthesis of AgNPs using physical, chemical, and biological methods. We also discuss the properties of AgNPs and methods for their characterization. More importantly, we extensively discuss the multifunctional bio-applications of AgNPs; for example, as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer agents, and the mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of AgNPs. In addition, we discuss therapeutic approaches and challenges for cancer therapy using AgNPs. Finally, we conclude by discussing the future perspective of AgNPs. PMID:27649147
Wang, Yun-Hsin; Cheng, Tsung-Yen; Chen, Ta-Yuan; Chang, Kai-Ming; Chuang, Vincent P; Kao, Kuo-Jang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignancy with poor survival outcome. New treatment options for the disease are needed. In this study, we identified and evaluated tumor vascular PLVAP as a therapeutic target for treatment of HCC. Genes showing extreme differential expression between paired human HCC and adjacent non-tumorous liver tissue were investigated. PLVAP was identified as one of such genes with potential to serve as a therapeutic target for treatment of HCC. A recombinant monoclonal anti-PLVAP Fab fragment co-expressing extracellular domain of human tissue factor (TF) was developed. The potential therapeutic effect and toxicity to treat HCC were studied using a Hep3B HCC xenograft model in SCID mice. PLVAP was identified as a gene specifically expressed in vascular endothelial cells of HCC but not in non-tumorous liver tissues. This finding was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of micro-dissected cells and immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections. Infusion of recombinant monoclonal anti-PLVAP Fab-TF into the main tumor feeding artery induced tumor vascular thrombosis and extensive tumor necrosis at doses between 2.5 μg and 12 μg. Tumor growth was suppressed for 40 days after a single treatment. Systemic administration did not induce tumor necrosis. Little systemic toxicity was noted for this therapeutic agent. The results of this study suggest that anti-PLVAP Fab-TF may be used to treat HCC cases for which transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is currently used and potentially avoid the drawback of high viscosity of chemoembolic emulsion for TACE to improve therapeutic outcome. Anti-PLVAP Fab-TF may become a viable therapeutic agent in patients with advanced disease and compromised liver function.
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) once considered a rare disorder emerges as a major health concern in recent times. The disease pathogenesis is very complex and yet to be understood completely. However, "Amyloid Cascade" is the central event in disease pathogenesis. Several proteins of the amyloid cascade are currently being considered as potential targets for AD therapeutics discovery. Many potential compounds are in clinical trials, but till now there is no known cure for the disease. Recent years have witnessed remarkable research interest in the search of novel concepts in drug designing for AD. Multi-targeted ligand design is a paradigm shift in conventional drug discovery. In this process rather than designing ligands targeting a single receptor, novel ligands have been designed/ synthesized that can simultaneously target many pathways involved in disease pathogenesis. Here, recent developments in computational drug designing protocols to identify multi-targeted ligand for AD have been discussed. Therapeutic potential of different multi-potent compounds also has been discussed briefly. Prime emphasis has been given to multi-potent ligand from natural resources. Polyphenols are an interesting group of compounds which show efficacy against a wide range of disease and have the property to exhibit multi-potency. Several groups attempted to identify novel multi-potent phytochemicals for AD therapy. Multi-potency of several polyphenols or compounds synthesized using the poly-phenolic scaffolds have been briefly discussed here. However, the multi-targeted drug designing for AD is still in early stages, more advancement in drug designing method/algorithm developments is urgently required to discover more efficient compounds for AD therapeutics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mostafa Wanees Ahmed El husseny
Full Text Available Adipokines are bioactive molecules that regulate several physiological functions such as energy balance, insulin sensitization, appetite regulation, inflammatory response, and vascular homeostasis. They include proinflammatory cytokines such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as adiponectin, as well as vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules. In obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (DM, insulin resistance causes impairment of the endocrine function of the perivascular adipose tissue, an imbalance in the secretion of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator molecules, and an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Recent studies have shown that targeting plasma levels of adipokines or the expression of their receptors can increase insulin sensitivity, improve vascular function, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several reviews have discussed the potential of adipokines as therapeutic targets for type II DM and obesity; however, this review is the first to focus on their therapeutic potential for vascular dysfunction in type II DM and obesity.
Adachi, Mami; Hoshino, Yuki; Izumi, Yusuke; Takagi, Satoshi
Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm of dogs for which there is currently no effective treatment. A recent study suggested that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR and MAPK pathways are all activated in canine and human HSA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the overexpression of these proteins by immunohistochemistry in canine splenic HSA to identify potential molecular therapeutic targets. A total of 10 splenic HSAs and two normal splenic samples surgically resected from dogs were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological diagnosis or analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The expression of RTKs, c-kit, VEGFR-2 and PDGFR-2, as well as PI3K/Akt/m-TOR and MEK was higher in canine splenic HSAs compared to normal spleens. These proteins may therefore be potential therapeutic targets in canine splenic HSA.
Chen, Xing-miao; Chen, Han-sen; Xu, Ming-jing; Shen, Jian-gang
Ischemic stroke accounts for nearly 80% of stroke cases. Recanalization with thrombolysis is a currently crucial therapeutic strategy for re-building blood supply, but the thrombolytic therapy often companies with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, which are mediated by free radicals. As an important component of free radicals, reactive nitrogen species (RNS), including nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), play important roles in the process of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Ischemia-reperfusion results in the production of nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) in ischemic brain, which trigger numerous molecular cascades and lead to disruption of the blood brain barrier and exacerbate brain damage. There are few therapeutic strategies available for saving ischemic brains and preventing the subsequent brain damage. Recent evidence suggests that RNS could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Herein, we reviewed the recent progress regarding the roles of RNS in the process of cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury and discussed the potentials of drug development that target NO and ONOO(-) to treat ischemic stroke. We conclude that modulation for RNS level could be an important therapeutic strategy for preventing cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Full Text Available Therapeutic outcome in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is poor in most advanced cases. To improve therapeutic efficiency, novel therapeutic targets and prognostic factors must be discovered. Our studies have identified several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs as promising candidates. Significant epigenetic silencing of GPCR expression occurs in HNSCC compared with normal tissue, and is significantly correlated with clinical behavior. Together with the finding that GPCR activity can suppress tumor cell growth, this indicates that GPCR expression has potential utility as a prognostic factor. In this review, we discuss the roles that galanin receptor type 1 (GALR1 and type 2 (GALR2, tachykinin receptor type 1 (TACR1, and somatostatin receptor type 1 (SST1 play in HNSCC. GALR1 inhibits proliferation of HNSCC cells though ERK1/2-mediated effects on cell cycle control proteins such as p27, p57, and cyclin D1, whereas GALR2 inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in HNSCC cells. Hypermethylation of GALR1, GALR2, TACR1, and SST1 is associated with significantly reduced disease-free survival and a higher recurrence rate. Although their overall activities varies, each of these GPCRs has value as both a prognostic factor and a therapeutic target. These data indicate that further study of GPCRs is a promising strategy that will enrich pharmacogenomics and prognostic research in HNSCC.
Bailey, Sean T; Zhou, Bing; Damrauer, Jeffrey S; Krishnan, Bhavani; Wilson, Harper L; Smith, Aleisha M; Li, Mingqing; Yeh, Jen Jen; Kim, William Y
Rapamycin derivatives allosterically targeting mTOR are currently FDA approved to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and catalytic inhibitors of mTOR/PI3K are now in clinical trials for treating various solid tumors. We sought to investigate the relative efficacy of allosteric versus catalytic mTOR inhibition, evaluate the crosstalk between the mTOR and MEK/ERK pathways, as well as the therapeutic potential of dual mTOR and MEK inhibition in RCC. Pharmacologic (rapamycin and BEZ235) and genetic manipulation of the mTOR pathway were evaluated by in vitro assays as monotherapy as well as in combination with MEK inhibition (GSK1120212). Catalytic mTOR inhibition with BEZ235 decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis better than allosteric mTOR inhibition with rapamycin. While mTOR inhibition upregulated MEK/ERK signaling, concurrent inhibition of both pathways had enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Finally, primary RCC tumors could be classified into subgroups [(I) MEK activated, (II) Dual MEK and mTOR activated, (III) Not activated, and (IV) mTOR activated] based on their relative activation of the PI3K/mTOR and MEK pathways. Patients with mTOR only activated tumors had the worst prognosis. In summary, dual targeting of the mTOR and MEK pathways in RCC can enhance therapeutic efficacy and primary RCC can be subclassified based on their relative levels of mTOR and MEK activation with potential therapeutic implications.
Huang, Zheyong; Pei, Ning; Wang, Yanyan; Xie, Xinxing; Sun, Aijun; Shen, Li; Zhang, Shuning; Liu, Xuebo; Zou, Yunzeng; Qian, Juying; Ge, Junbo
Magnetic targeting has recently demonstrated potential in promoting magnetically loaded cell delivery to target lesion, but its application is limited by magnetic attenuation. For deep magnetic capture of cells for spatial targeting therapeutics, we designed a magnetic pole, in which the magnetic field density can be focused at a distance from the pole. As flowing through a tube served as a model of blood vessels, the magnetically loaded mesenchymal stem cells (MagMSCs) were highly enriched at the site distance from the magnetic pole. The cell capture efficiency was positively influenced by the magnetic flux density, and inversely influenced by the flow velocity, and well-fitted with the deductive value by theoretical considerations. It appeared to us that the spatially-focused property of the magnetic apparatus promises a new deep targeting strategy to promote homing and engraftment for cellular therapy. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Berger, Michael; VON Schweinitz, Dietrich
Neuroblastoma is the most common solid extracranial malignant tumor in children. Despite recent advances in the treatment of this heterogenous tumor with surgery and chemotherapy, the prognosis in advanced stages remains poor. Interestingly, neuroblastoma is one of the few solid tumors, to date, in which an effect for targeted immunotherapy has been proven in controlled clinical trials, giving hope for further advances in the treatment of this and other tumors by targeted therapy. A large array of novel therapeutic options for targeted therapy of neuroblastoma is on the horizon. To this repεrtoirε, the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) system was recently added. The present article explores the most recent developments in targeting neuroblastoma cells via the NK1R and how this new knowledge could be helpful to create new anticancer therapies agains neuroblastoma and other cancers. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
Machutta, Carl A.; Kollmann, Christopher S.; Lind, Kenneth E.; Bai, Xiaopeng; Chan, Pan F.; Huang, Jianzhong; Ballell, Lluis; Belyanskaya, Svetlana; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Barros-Aguirre, David; Bates, Robert H.; Centrella, Paolo A.; Chang, Sandy S.; Chai, Jing; Choudhry, Anthony E.; Coffin, Aaron; Davie, Christopher P.; Deng, Hongfeng; Deng, Jianghe; Ding, Yun; Dodson, Jason W.; Fosbenner, David T.; Gao, Enoch N.; Graham, Taylor L.; Graybill, Todd L.; Ingraham, Karen; Johnson, Walter P.; King, Bryan W.; Kwiatkowski, Christopher R.; Lelièvre, Joël; Li, Yue; Liu, Xiaorong; Lu, Quinn; Lehr, Ruth; Mendoza-Losana, Alfonso; Martin, John; McCloskey, Lynn; McCormick, Patti; O'Keefe, Heather P.; O'Keeffe, Thomas; Pao, Christina; Phelps, Christopher B.; Qi, Hongwei; Rafferty, Keith; Scavello, Genaro S.; Steiginga, Matt S.; Sundersingh, Flora S.; Sweitzer, Sharon M.; Szewczuk, Lawrence M.; Taylor, Amy; Toh, May Fern; Wang, Juan; Wang, Minghui; Wilkins, Devan J.; Xia, Bing; Yao, Gang; Zhang, Jean; Zhou, Jingye; Donahue, Christine P.; Messer, Jeffrey A.; Holmes, David; Arico-Muendel, Christopher C.; Pope, Andrew J.; Gross, Jeffrey W.; Evindar, Ghotas
The identification and prioritization of chemically tractable therapeutic targets is a significant challenge in the discovery of new medicines. We have developed a novel method that rapidly screens multiple proteins in parallel using DNA-encoded library technology (ELT). Initial efforts were focused on the efficient discovery of antibacterial leads against 119 targets from Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus. The success of this effort led to the hypothesis that the relative number of ELT binders alone could be used to assess the ligandability of large sets of proteins. This concept was further explored by screening 42 targets from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Active chemical series for six targets from our initial effort as well as three chemotypes for DHFR from M. tuberculosis are reported. The findings demonstrate that parallel ELT selections can be used to assess ligandability and highlight opportunities for successful lead and tool discovery.
Kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (KLK4) is a rational therapeutic target for prostate cancer (PCa) as it is up-regulated in both localised and bone...both localised and bone metastatic cancerous tissue, and is an independent biomarker discriminating between benign and malignant prostate tissue [1,2...cellular function . siKLK4(A), siKLK4(B) and siControl are currently being conjugated onto HBP-peptide by collaborators from AIBN. siRNA sequences are
Karagonlar, Zeynep F; Korhan, Peyda; Atabey, Neşe
Preclinical Research Cancer is one of the world's deadliest diseases, with very low survival rates and increased occurrence in the future. Successfully developed target-based therapies have significantly changed cancer treatment. However, primary and/or acquired resistance in the tumor is a major challenge in current therapies and novel combinational therapies are required. RNA interference-mediated gene inactivation, alone or in combination with other current therapies, provides novel promising therapeutics that can improve cure rate and overcome resistance mechanisms to conventional therapeutics. Hepatocyte Growth Factor/c-Met signaling is one of the most frequently dysregulated pathways in human cancers and abnormal c-Met activation is correlated with poor clinical outcomes and drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In recent years, a growing number of studies have identified several inhibitors and microRNAs (miRNAs), specifically targeting c-Met in various cancers, including HCC. In this review, we discuss current knowledge regarding miRNAs, focusing on their involvement in cancer and their potential as research tools and therapeutics. Then, we focus on the potential use of c-Met targeting miRNAs for suppressing aberrant c-Met signaling in HCC treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sadri, Navid; Zhang, Paul J.
Soft-tissue sarcomas remain aggressive tumors that result in death in greater than a third of patients due to either loco-regional recurrence or distant metastasis. Surgical resection remains the main choice of treatment for soft tissue sarcomas with pre- and/or post-operational radiation and neoadjuvant chemotherapy employed in more advanced stage disease. However, in recent decades, there has been little progress in the average five-year survival for the majority of patients with high-grade soft tissue sarcomas, highlighting the need for improved targeted therapeutic agents. Clinical and preclinical studies demonstrate that tumor hypoxia and up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) is associated with decreased survival, increased metastasis, and resistance to therapy in soft tissue sarcomas. HIF-mediated gene expression regulates many critical aspects of tumor biology, including cell survival, metabolic programming, angiogenesis, metastasis, and therapy resistance. In this review, we discuss HIFs and HIF-mediated genes as potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in sarcomas. Many pharmacological agents targeting hypoxia-related pathways are in development that may hold therapeutic potential for treating both primary and metastatic sarcomas that demonstrate increased HIF expression
Liscic, Rajka M
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are neurodegenerative disorders, related by signs of deteriorating motor and cognitive functions, and short survival. The causes are still largely unknown and no effective treatment currently exists. It has been shown that FTLD may coexist with ALS. The overlap between ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), the clinical syndrome associated with FTLD, occurs at clinical, genetic, and pathological levels. The hallmark proteins of the pathognomonic inclusions are SOD-1, TDP-43 or FUS, rarely the disease is caused by mutations in the respective genes. Frontotemporal lobar degenerations (FTLD) is genetically, neuropathologically and clinically heterogeneous and may present with behavioural, language and occasionally motor disorder, respectively. Almost all cases of ALS, as well as tau-negative FTLD share a common neuropathology, neuronal and glial inclusion bodies containing abnormal TDP-43 protein, collectively called TDP-43 proteinopathy. Recent discoveries in genetics (e.g. C9orf72 hexanucleotide expansion) and the subsequent neuropathological characterization have revealed remarkable overlap between ALS and FTLD-TDP indicating common pathways in pathogenesis. For ALS, an anti-glutamate agent riluzole may be offered to slow disease progression (Level A), and a promising molecule, arimoclomol, is currently in clinical trials. Other compounds, however, are being trailed and some have shown encouraging results. As new therapeutic approaches continue to emerge by targeting SOD1, TDP-43, or GRN, we present some advances that are being made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of these diseases, which together with gene and stem cell therapies may translate into new treatment options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dandekar, Manoj P; Valvassori, Samira S; Dal-Pont, Gustavo Colombo; Quevedo, Joao
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating mental ailment characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. Primary mood-stabilizing drugs like lithium and valproate alleviate the hypomanic or mild to moderate manic episodes in patients with BD. One of the extensively studied underlying mechanisms for these pharmacological interventions is inhibition of intracellular signaling cascades associated with glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β), a multi-functional serine-threonine kinase. To summarize the different mechanistic aspects associated with GSK-3β signaling involved in the pathophysiology of BD and highlights drug discovery approaches pursued for the development of GSK-3β inhibition with detailed strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat (SWOT) analysis. In this review, we endeavor to establish the correlation between neuronal GSK-3β inhibition and anti-manic response of different therapeutics used for the treatment of patients with BD. The gene depletion or pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3β reproduces some of the behavioral effects of lithium including reduction of depression- and manic-like behaviors in rodents, which attested the intracellular GSK-3β inhibition as one of the critical steps in mediating behavioral effect of mood-stabilizers. Furthermore, converging evidence supported the participation of GSK-3β in the regulation of various neurobehavioral functions governed by neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. Apart from its crucial involvement in the mechanism of action of mood stabilizers, GSK-3β signaling pathways have also received attention for their role in the effects of psychoactive therapies like antidepressants, antipsychotics, and neurotrophic factors. We anticipate that the GSK-3β could be a druggable target for several incurable neuropsychiatric disorders including BD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Yeh, Chun-Nan; Chang, Yu-Chan; Su, Yeu; Shin-Shian Hsu, Dennis; Cheng, Chi-Tung; Wu, Ren-Chin; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Lu, Meng-Lun; Liu, Chun-Yu; Mu-Hsin Chang, Peter; Chen, Ming-Han; Huang, Chi-Ying F; Hsiao, Michael; Chen, Ming-Huang
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive cancer that lacks an effective targeted therapy. Here, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of regorafenib in CCA, as well as elucidated its underlying mechanism. We first demonstrated that regorafenib not only inhibited growth but also induced apoptosis in human CCA cells. Subsequently, we used in silico approaches to identify MALT1 (Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue protein 1), which plays an important role in activating NF-κB, as a potential target of regorafenib. Overexpression of Elk-1, but not Ets-1, in HuCCT1 cells markedly reduced their sensitivity to regorafenib, which might be attributed to a significant increase in MALT1 levels. Our results further demonstrated that this drug drastically inhibited MALT1 expression by suppressing the Raf/Erk/Elk-1 pathway. The efficacy of regorafenib in decreasing in vivo CCA growth was confirmed in animal models. Regorafenib efficacy was observed in two MALT1-positive CCA patients who failed to respond to several other lines of therapy. Finally, MALT1 was also identified as an independent poor prognostic factor for patients with intrahepatic CCA. In conclusion, our study identified MALT1 to be a downstream mediator of the Raf/Erk/Elk-1 pathway and suggested that MALT1 may be a new therapeutic target for successful treatment of CCA by regorafenib.
The translational potential of this article: This paper reviews recent progress on stem cell-based therapeutic approaches for tendon repair, which highlights its translational potential and challenges.
Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick; Yekkirala, Ajay; Yaksh, Tony L
Opioids represent an efficacious therapeutic modality for some, but not all pain states. Singular reliance on opioid therapy for pain management has limitations, and abuse potential has deleterious consequences for patient and society. Our understanding of pain biology has yielded insights and opportunities for alternatives to conventional opioid agonists. The aim is to have efficacious therapies, with acceptable side effect profiles and minimal abuse potential, which is to say an absence of reinforcing activity in the absence of a pain state. The present work provides a nonexclusive overview of current drug targets and potential future directions of research and development. We discuss channel activators and blockers, including sodium channel blockers, potassium channel activators, and calcium channel blockers; glutamate receptor-targeted agents, including N-methyl-D-aspartate, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid, and metabotropic receptors. Furthermore, we discuss therapeutics targeted at γ-aminobutyric acid, α2-adrenergic, and opioid receptors. We also considered antagonists of angiotensin 2 and Toll receptors and agonists/antagonists of adenosine, purine receptors, and cannabinoids. Novel targets considered are those focusing on lipid mediators and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Of interest is development of novel targeting strategies, which produce long-term alterations in pain signaling, including viral transfection and toxins. We consider issues in the development of druggable molecules, including preclinical screening. While there are examples of successful translation, mechanistically promising preclinical candidates may unexpectedly fail during clinical trials because the preclinical models may not recapitulate the particular human pain condition being addressed. Molecular target characterization can diminish the disconnect between preclinical and humans' targets, which should assist in developing nonaddictive analgesics.
William J. Allen
Full Text Available Virus-cell fusion is the primary means by which the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV delivers its genetic material into the human T-cell host. Fusion is mediated in large part by the viral glycoprotein 41 (gp41 which advances through four distinct conformational states: (i native, (ii pre-hairpin intermediate, (iii fusion active (fusogenic, and (iv post-fusion. The pre-hairpin intermediate is a particularly attractive step for therapeutic intervention given that gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR and C‑terminal heptad repeat (CHR domains are transiently exposed prior to the formation of a six-helix bundle required for fusion. Most peptide-based inhibitors, including the FDA‑approved drug T20, target the intermediate and there are significant efforts to develop small molecule alternatives. Here, we review current approaches to studying interactions of inhibitors with gp41 with an emphasis on atomic-level computer modeling methods including molecular dynamics, free energy analysis, and docking. Atomistic modeling yields a unique level of structural and energetic detail, complementary to experimental approaches, which will be important for the design of improved next generation anti-HIV drugs.
Karimi, Mahdi; Mirshekari, Hamed; Moosavi Basri, Seyed Masoud; Bahrami, Sajad; Moghoofei, Mohsen; Hamblin, Michael R
The main goal of drug delivery systems is to target therapeutic cargoes to desired cells and to ensure their efficient uptake. Recently a number of studies have focused on designing bio-inspired nanocarriers, such as bacteriophages, and synthetic carriers based on the bacteriophage structure. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically recognize their bacterial hosts. They can replicate only inside their host cell and can act as natural gene carriers. Each type of phage has a particular shape, a different capacity for loading cargo, a specific production time, and their own mechanisms of supramolecular assembly, that have enabled them to act as tunable carriers. New phage-based technologies have led to the construction of different peptide libraries, and recognition abilities provided by novel targeting ligands. Phage hybridization with non-organic compounds introduces new properties to phages and could be a suitable strategy for construction of bio-inorganic carriers. In this review we try to cover the major phage species that have been used in drug and gene delivery systems, and the biological application of phages as novel targeting ligands and targeted therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
MOTIVATION: The need for new drugs and new targets is particularly compelling in an era that is witnessing an alarming increase of drug resistance in human pathogens. The identification of new targets of known drugs is a promising approach, which has proven successful in several cases. Here, we describe a database that includes information on 5153 putative drug-target pairs for 150 human pathogens derived from available drug-target crystallographic complexes. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The TiPs database is freely available at http://biocomputing.it/tips. CONTACT: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Zhou, Feng; Shimoda, Michiko; Olney, Laura; Lyu, Yuanzhi; Tran, Khiem; Jiang, Guochun; Nakano, Kazushi; Davis, Ryan R; Tepper, Clifford G; Maverakis, Emanual; Campbell, Mel; Li, Yuanpei; Dandekar, Satya; Izumiya, Yoshihiro
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection. Currently, treatment options for patients with PEL are limited. Oncolytic viruses have been engineered as anticancer agents and have recently shown increased therapeutic promise. Similarly, lytic activation of endogenous viruses from latently infected tumor cells can also be applied as a cancer therapy. In theory, such a therapeutic strategy would induce oncolysis by viral replication, while simultaneously stimulating an immune response to viral lytic cycle antigens. We examined the combination of the FDA-approved drug ingenol-3-angelate (PEP005) with epigenetic drugs as a rational therapeutic approach for KSHV-mediated malignancies. JQ1, a bromodomain and extra terminal (BET) protein inhibitor, in combination with PEP005, not only robustly induced KSHV lytic replication, but also inhibited IL6 production from PEL cells. Using the dosages of these agents that were found to be effective in reactivating HIV (as a means to clear latent virus with highly active antiretroviral therapy), we were able to inhibit PEL growth in vitro and delay tumor growth in a PEL xenograft tumor model. KSHV reactivation was mediated by activation of the NF-κB pathway by PEP005, which led to increased occupancy of RNA polymerase II onto the KSHV genome. RNA-sequencing analysis further revealed cellular targets of PEP005, JQ1, and the synergistic effects of both. Thus, combination of PEP005 with a BET inhibitor may be considered as a rational therapeutic approach for the treatment of PEL. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(11); 2627-38. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
Thaiz F. Borin
Full Text Available Metastatic breast cancer (BC (also referred to as stage IV spreads beyond the breast to the bones, lungs, liver, or brain and is a major contributor to the deaths of cancer patients. Interestingly, metastasis is a result of stroma-coordinated hallmarks such as invasion and migration of the tumor cells from the primary niche, regrowth of the invading tumor cells in the distant organs, proliferation, vascularization, and immune suppression. Targeted therapies, when used as monotherapies or combination therapies, have shown limited success in decreasing the established metastatic growth and improving survival. Thus, novel therapeutic targets are warranted to improve the metastasis outcomes. We have been actively investigating the cytochrome P450 4 (CYP4 family of enzymes that can biosynthesize 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE, an important signaling eicosanoid involved in the regulation of vascular tone and angiogenesis. We have shown that 20-HETE can activate several intracellular protein kinases, pro-inflammatory mediators, and chemokines in cancer. This review article is focused on understanding the role of the arachidonic acid metabolic pathway in BC metastasis with an emphasis on 20-HETE as a novel therapeutic target to decrease BC metastasis. We have discussed all the significant investigational mechanisms and put forward studies showing how 20-HETE can promote angiogenesis and metastasis, and how its inhibition could affect the metastatic niches. Potential adjuvant therapies targeting the tumor microenvironment showing anti-tumor properties against BC and its lung metastasis are discussed at the end. This review will highlight the importance of exploring tumor-inherent and stromal-inherent metabolic pathways in the development of novel therapeutics for treating BC metastasis.
Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is an aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis, for which mainstream treatments have not changed for decades. To identify additional therapeutic targets in AML, we optimize a genome-wide clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR screening platform and use it to identify genetic vulnerabilities in AML cells. We identify 492 AML-specific cell-essential genes, including several established therapeutic targets such as DOT1L, BCL2, and MEN1, and many other genes including clinically actionable candidates. We validate selected genes using genetic and pharmacological inhibition, and chose KAT2A as a candidate for downstream study. KAT2A inhibition demonstrated anti-AML activity by inducing myeloid differentiation and apoptosis, and suppressed the growth of primary human AMLs of diverse genotypes while sparing normal hemopoietic stem-progenitor cells. Our results propose that KAT2A inhibition should be investigated as a therapeutic strategy in AML and provide a large number of genetic vulnerabilities of this leukemia that can be pursued in downstream studies.
Guerram, Mounia; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Jiang, Zhen-Zhou
Neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases are frequent in elderly populations and comprise primarily of dementia (mainly Alzheimer's disease) Parkinson's disease and stroke. These neurological disorders (NDs) occur as a result of neurodegenerative processes and represent one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide with a significant clinical and socio-economic impact. Although NDs have been characterized for many years, the exact molecular mechanisms that govern these pathologies or why they target specific individuals and specific neuronal populations remain unclear. As research progresses, many similarities appear which relate these diseases to one another on a subcellular level. Discovering these similarities offers hope for therapeutic advances that could ameliorate the conditions of many diseases simultaneously. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most abundant receptor type in the central nervous system and are linked to complex downstream pathways, manipulation of which may have therapeutic application in many NDs. This review will highlight the potential use of neurotransmitter GPCRs as emerging therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy in children and adolescents. Although improvements in therapeutic strategies were achieved, the outcome remains poor for most patients with metastatic or recurrent osteosarcoma. Therefore, it is imperative to identify novel and effective prognostic biomarker and therapeutic targets for the disease. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are a novel class of RNA molecules defined as transcripts >200 nucleotides that lack protein coding potential. Many lncRNAs are deregulated in cancer and are important regulators for malignancies. Nine lncRNAs (91H, BCAR4, FGFR3-AS1, HIF2PUT, HOTTIP, HULC, MALAT-1, TUG1, UCA1 are upregulated and considered oncogenic for osteosarcoma. Loc285194 and MEG3 are two lncRNAs downregulated and as tumor suppressor for the disease. Moreover, the expressions of LINC00161 and ODRUL are associated with chemo-resistance of osteosarcoma. The mechanisms for these lncRNAs in regulating development of osteosarcoma are diverse, e.g. ceRNA, Wnt/β-catenin pathway, etc. The lncRNAs identified may serve as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for osteosarcoma.
Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Disney, Matthew D
RNA has become an increasingly important target for therapeutic interventions and for chemical probes that dissect and manipulate its cellular function. Emerging targets include human RNAs that have been shown to directly cause cancer, metabolic disorders, and genetic disease. In this review, we describe various routes to obtain bioactive compounds that target RNA, with a particular emphasis on the development of small molecules. We use these cases to describe approaches that are being developed for target validation, which include target-directed cleavage, classic pull-down experiments, and covalent cross-linking. Thus, tools are available to design small molecules to target RNA and to identify the cellular RNAs that are their targets.
Full Text Available Of the various derivatives of caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE is a hydrophobic, bioactive polyphenolic ester obtained from propolis extract. The objective in writing this review article was to summarize all published studies on therapeutics of CAPE in inflammation and cancer to extract direction for future research. The possible molecular targets for the action of CAPE, include various transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB, tissue necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, Nrf2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor of activated T cells, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and signal transducers and activators of transcription. Based on the valuable data on its therapeutics in inflammation and cancer, clinical studies of CAPE should also be conducted to explore its toxicities, if any.
Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system (ECS is involved in many physiological processes and has been suggested to play critical roles in the immune response and the central nervous system (CNS. Therefore, ECS modulation has potential therapeutic effects on immune dysfunctional disorders, such as sepsis and CNS injury-induced immunodeficiency syndrome (CIDS. In sepsis, excessive release of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators results in multi-organ dysfunction/failure and death. In CIDS, an acute CNS injury dysregulates a normally well-balanced interplay between the CNS and immune system, leading to increased patients’ susceptibility to infections. In this review, we will discuss potential therapeutic modulation of the immune response in sepsis and CNS injury by manipulation of the ECS representing a novel target for immunotherapy.
Giaginis, Constantinos; Lakiotaki, Eleftheria; Korkolopoulou, Penelope; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios
The therapeutic properties of cannabinoids are well-known since ancient years. Growing evidence exist on endocannabinoid system (ECS) modulation related with human tumorigenesis. Taking into account the substantial role of ECS on immune cell regulation, the present review is aimed to summarize the emerging evidence concerning cannabinoid receptor (CBR) expression and cannabinoid ligand effects on haematological malignancies. Most of cannabinoid actions, mainly CB2R-mediated against haematopoietic malignant cells, seem promising, as inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis and paraptosis induction have been documented. Cannabinoid ligands appear to activate rudimentary pathways for cell survival, such as ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK, and to induce caspase synthesis, in vitro. Such data are strongly recommended to be confirmed by in vivo experiments with emphasis on cannabinoid ligands' bioavailability and phytocannabinoid psychotropic properties. The preliminary antitumoral ECS effects and their relative lack of important side effects render ECS a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of haematological malignancies.
Schaffner, Florence; Ray, Anne Marie; Dontenwill, Monique, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [UMR 7213 CNRS, Laboratoire de Biophotonique et Pharmacologie, Tumoral signaling and therapeutic targets, Université de Strasbourg, Faculté de Pharmacie, 67401 Illkirch (France)
Integrins are transmembrane heterodimeric proteins sensing the cell microenvironment and modulating numerous signalling pathways. Changes in integrin expression between normal and tumoral cells support involvement of specific integrins in tumor progression and aggressiveness. This review highlights the current knowledge about α5β1 integrin, also called the fibronectin receptor, in solid tumors. We summarize data showing that α5β1 integrin is a pertinent therapeutic target expressed by tumoral neovessels and tumoral cells. Although mainly evaluated in preclinical models, α5β1 integrin merits interest in particular in colon, breast, ovarian, lung and brain tumors where its overexpression is associated with a poor prognosis for patients. Specific α5β1 integrin antagonists will be listed that may represent new potential therapeutic agents to fight defined subpopulations of particularly aggressive tumors.
Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali
Full Text Available Advances in high-throughput genomic-scanning have expanded the repertory of genetic variations in DNA sequences encoding ErbB tyrosine kinase receptors in humans, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, polymorphic repetitive elements, microsatellite variations, small-scale insertions and deletions. The ErbB family members: EGFR, ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 receptors are established as drivers of many aspects of tumor initiation and progression to metastasis. This knowledge has provided rationales for the development of an arsenal of anti-ErbB therapeutics, ranging from small molecule kinase inhibitors to monoclonal antibodies. Anti-ErbB agents are becoming the cornerstone therapeutics for the management of cancers that overexpress hyperactive variants of ErbB receptors, in particular ErbB2-positive breast cancer and non-small cell lung carcinomas. However, their clinical benefit has been limited to a subset of patients due to a wide heterogeneity in drug response despite the expression of the ErbB targets, attributed to intrinsic (primary and to acquired (secondary resistance. Somatic mutations in ErbB tyrosine kinase domains have been extensively investigated in preclinical and clinical setting as determinants for either high sensitivity or resistance to anti-ErbB therapeutics. In contrast, only scant information is available on the impact of SNPs, which are widespread in genes encoding ErbB receptors, on receptor structure and activity, and their predictive values for drug susceptibility. This review aims to briefly update polymorphic variations in genes encoding ErbB receptors based on recent advances in deep sequencing technologies, and to address challenging issues for a better understanding of the functional impact of single versus combined SNPs in ErbB genes to receptor topology, receptor-drug interaction, and drug susceptibility. The potential of exploiting SNPs in the era of stratified targeted therapeutics is discussed.
Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Yu, Zhi-Hong; Zeng, Lifan; Zhang, Sheng; Bai, Yunpeng; Miao, Jinmin; Chen, Lan; Xie, Jingwu; Zhang, Zhong-Yin
Melanoma ranks among the most aggressive and deadly human cancers. Although a number of targeted therapies are available, they are effective only in a subset of patients and the emergence of drug resistance often reduces durable responses. Thus there is an urgent need to identify new therapeutic targets and develop more potent pharmacological agents for melanoma treatment. Herein we report that SHP2 levels are frequently elevated in melanoma, and high SHP2 expression is significantly associated with more metastatic phenotype and poorer prognosis. We show that SHP2 promotes melanoma cell viability, motility, and anchorage-independent growth, through activation of both ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways. We demonstrate that SHP2 inhibitor 11a-1 effectively blocks SHP2-mediated ERK1/2 and AKT activation and attenuates melanoma cell viability, migration and colony formation. Most importantly, SHP2 inhibitor 11a-1 suppresses xenografted melanoma tumor growth, as a result of reduced tumor cell proliferation and enhanced tumor cell apoptosis. Taken together, our data reveal SHP2 as a novel target for melanoma and suggest SHP2 inhibitors as potential novel therapeutic agents for melanoma treatment.
Hendriksen, Hendrikus; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald S
The development of new pharmacological therapies starts with target discovery. Finding new therapeutic targets for anxiety disorders is a difficult process. Most of the currently described drugs for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are based on the inhibition of serotonin reuptake. The mechanism of action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors was already described in 1977 (Benkert et al., 1977). Now, almost 40 years later, we still rely on the same mechanism of action and more effective pharmacological therapies, based on other working mechanisms, are not on the market yet. Finding new molecular switches that upon modulation cure or alleviate the disorder is hampered by a lack of valid animal models. Many of the characteristics of psychiatric disorders are typically human and hence animal models feature only part of the underlying pathology. In this review we define a set of criteria for animal models of PTSD. First, we describe the symptomatology and pathology of PTSD and the current pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options. Next, we compare three often-used animal models and analyze how these models comply with the set of criteria. Finally, we discuss how resolving the underlying mechanisms of effective non-pharmacological treatments (environmental enrichment, re-exposure) may aid therapeutic target discovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, C-H; Fong, L W R; Yu, E; Wu, R; Trott, J F; Weiss, R H
Targeted therapeutics, such as those abrogating hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)/vascular endothelial growth factor signaling, are initially effective against kidney cancer (or renal cell carcinoma, RCC); however, drug resistance frequently occurs via subsequent activation of alternative pathways. Through genome-scale integrated analysis of the HIF-α network, we identified the major protein kinase C substrate MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate) as a potential target molecule for kidney cancer. In a screen of nephrectomy samples from 56 patients with RCC, we found that MARCKS expression and its phosphorylation are increased and positively correlate with tumor grade. Genetic and pharmacologic suppression of MARCKS in high-grade RCC cell lines in vitro led to a decrease in cell proliferation and migration. We further demonstrated that higher MARCKS expression promotes growth and angiogenesis in vivo in an RCC xenograft tumor. MARCKS acted upstream of the AKT/mTOR pathway, activating HIF-target genes, notably vascular endothelial growth factor-A. Following knockdown of MARCKS in RCC cells, the IC50 of the multikinase inhibitor regorafenib was reduced. Surprisingly, attenuation of MARCKS using the MPS (MARCKS phosphorylation site domain) peptide synergistically interacted with regorafenib treatment and decreased survival of kidney cancer cells through inactivation of AKT and mTOR. Our data suggest a major contribution of MARCKS to kidney cancer growth and provide an alternative therapeutic strategy of improving the efficacy of multikinase inhibitors.
Full Text Available Genetic risk factors for major psychiatric disorders play key roles in neurodevelopment. Thus, exploring the molecular pathways of risk genes is important not only for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying brain development, but also to decipher how genetic disturbances affect brain maturation and functioning relevant to major mental illnesses. During the last decade, there has been significant progress in determining the mechanisms whereby risk genes impact brain development. Nonetheless, given that the majority of psychiatric disorders have etiological complexities encompassing multiple risk genes and environmental factors, the biological mechanisms of these diseases remain poorly understood. How can we move forward in our research for discovery of the biological markers and novel therapeutic targets for major mental disorders? Here we review recent progress in the neurobiology of Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1, a major risk gene for major mental disorders, with a particular focus on its roles in cerebral cortex development. Convergent findings implicate DISC1 as part of a large, multi-step pathway implicated in various cellular processes and signal transduction. We discuss links between the DISC1 pathway and environmental factors, such as immune/inflammatory responses, which may suggest novel therapeutic targets. Existing treatments for major mental disorders are hampered by a limited number of pharmacological targets. Consequently, elucidation of the DISC1 pathway, and its association with neuropsychiatric disorders, may offer hope for novel treatment interventions.
Akoumianakis, Ioannis; Tarun, Akansha; Antoniades, Charalambos
Adipose tissue (AT) is an active endocrine organ with the ability to dynamically secrete a wide range of adipocytokines. Importantly, its secretory profile is altered in various cardiovascular disease states. AT surrounding vessels, or perivascular AT (PVAT), is recognized in particular as an important local regulator of vascular function and dysfunction. Specifically, PVAT has the ability to sense vascular paracrine signals and respond by secreting a variety of vasoactive adipocytokines. Due to the crucial role of PVAT in regulating many aspects of vascular biology, it may constitute a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of vascular disease pathogenesis. Signalling pathways in PVAT, such as those using adiponectin, H 2 S, glucagon-like peptide 1 or pro-inflammatory cytokines, are among the potential novel pharmacological therapeutic targets of PVAT. This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Perivascular Adipose Tissue - Potential Pharmacological Targets? To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.20/issuetoc. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) constitutes a very aggressive tumor that arises from the pleural or peritoneal cavities and is highly refractory to conventional therapies. Several key genetic alterations are associated with the development and progression of MM including mutations of the CDKN2A/ARF , NF2 , and BAP1 tumor-suppressor genes. Notably, activating oncogene mutations are very rare; thus, it is difficult to develop effective inhibitors to treat MM. The NF2 gene encodes merlin, a protein that regulates multiple cell-signaling cascades including the Hippo pathway. MMs also exhibit inactivation of Hippo pathway components including LATS1/2, strongly suggesting that merlin-Hippo pathway dysregulation plays a key role in the development and progression of MM. Furthermore, Hippo pathway inactivation has been shown to result in constitutive activation of the YAP1/TAZ transcriptional coactivators, thereby conferring malignant phenotypes to mesothelial cells. Critical YAP1/TAZ target genes, including prooncogenic CCDN1 and CTGF , have also been shown to enhance the malignant phenotypes of MM cells. Together, these data indicate the Hippo pathway as a therapeutic target for the treatment of MM, and support the development of new strategies to effectively target the activation status of YAP1/TAZ as a promising therapeutic modality for this formidable disease.
Ko, Joshua K; Auyeung, Kathy K
A prominent group of effective cancer chemopreventive drugs has been derived from natural products having low toxicity while possessing apparent benefit in the disease process. It is plausible that there are multiple target molecules critical to cancer cell survival. Herbal terpenoids have demonstrated excellent target-specific anti-neoplastic functions by suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Transcriptional molecules in the NF-κB, MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways are important molecular targets of chemotherapy that play distinctive roles in modulating the apoptosis cascades. It is recently suggested that NSAID-activated gene (NAG-1), a novel proapoptotic protein, is the upstream anti-carcinogenic target of NSAIDs, PPAR ligands and herbal chemotherapeutic agents that triggers some of the events mentioned above. Besides, angiogenesis, oxidative stress as well as inflammation are important factors that contribute to the development and metastasis of cancer, which could be actively modulated by novel agents of plant origin. The aim of the present review is to discuss and summarize the contemporary use of herbal therapeutics and phytochemicals in the treatment of human cancers, in particular that of the colon. The major events and signaling pathways in the carcinogenesis process being potentially modulated by natural products and novel herbal compounds will be evaluated, with emphasis on some terpenoids. Advances in eliciting the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms during the anti-tumorigenic process of novel herbal therapeutics will be of imperative clinical significance to increase the efficacy and reduce prominent adverse drug effects in cancer patients through target-specific therapy.
Full Text Available Mikito Inokuchi,1 Keiji Kato,1 Kazuyuki Kojima,2 Kenichi Sugihara1 1Department of Surgical Oncology, 2Department of Minimally Invasive Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Multidisciplinary treatment including chemotherapy has become the global standard of care for patients with metastatic gastric cancer (mGC; nonetheless, survival remains poor. Although many molecular-targeted therapies have been developed for various cancers, only anti-HER2 treatment has produced promising results in patients with mGC. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR plays a key role in cell proliferation, antiapoptosis, and metastasis in signaling pathways from the tyrosine kinase receptor, and its activation has been demonstrated in gastric cancer (GC cells. This review discusses the clinical relevance of mTOR in GC and examines its potential as a therapeutic target in patients with mGC. Preclinical studies in animal models suggest that suppression of the mTOR pathway inhibits the proliferation of GC cells and delays tumor progression. The mTOR inhibitor everolimus has been evaluated as second- or third-line treatment in clinical trials. Adverse events were well tolerated although the effectiveness of everolimus alone was limited. Everolimus is now being evaluated in combination with chemotherapy in Phase III clinical studies in this subgroup of patients. Two Phase III studies include exploratory biomarker research designed to evaluate the predictive value of the expression or mutation of molecules related to the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. These biomarker studies may lead to the realization of targeted therapy for selected patients with mGC in the future. Keywords: gastric cancer, mTOR, everolimus
Wang, Jigang; Gao, Liqian; Lee, Yew Mun; Kalesh, Karunakaran A; Ong, Yong Siang; Lim, Jaehong; Jee, Joo-Eun; Sun, Hongyan; Lee, Su Seong; Hua, Zi-Chun; Lin, Qingsong
Natural and traditional medicines, being a great source of drugs and drug leads, have regained wide interests due to the limited success of high-throughput screening of compound libraries in the past few decades and the recent technology advancement. Many drugs/bioactive compounds exert their functions through interaction with their protein targets, with more and more drugs showing their ability to target multiple proteins, thus target identification has an important role in drug discovery and biomedical research fields. Identifying drug targets not only furthers the understanding of the mechanism of action (MOA) of a drug but also reveals its potential therapeutic applications and adverse side effects. Chemical proteomics makes use of affinity chromatography approaches coupled with mass spectrometry to systematically identify small molecule-protein interactions. Although traditional affinity-based chemical proteomics approaches have made great progress in the identification of cellular targets and elucidation of MOAs of many bioactive molecules, nonspecific binding remains a major issue which may reduce the accuracy of target identification and may hamper the drug development process. Recently, quantitative proteomics approaches, namely, metabolic labeling, chemical labeling, or label-free approaches, have been implemented in target identification to overcome such limitations. In this review, we will summarize and discuss the recent advances in the application of various quantitative chemical proteomics approaches for the identification of targets of natural and traditional medicines. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
This review considers the expression and roles of P2X receptors in the cardiovascular system in health and disease and their potential as therapeutic targets. P2X receptors are ligand gated ion channels which are activated by the endogenous ligand ATP. They are formed from the assembly of three P2X subunit proteins from the complement of seven (P2X1-7), which can associate to form homomeric or heteromeric P2X receptors. The P2X1 receptor is widely expressed in the cardiovascular system, being located in the heart, in the smooth muscle of the majority of blood vessels and in platelets. P2X1 receptors expressed in blood vessels can be activated by ATP coreleased with noradrenaline as a sympathetic neurotransmitter, leading to smooth muscle depolarisation and contraction. There is evidence that the purinergic component of sympathetic neurotransmission is increased in hypertension, identifying P2X1 receptors as a possible therapeutic target in this disorder. P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors are expressed on cardiac sympathetic neurones and may, through positive feedback of neuronal ATP at this prejunctional site, amplify sympathetic neurotransmission. Activation of P2X receptors expressed in the heart increases cardiac myocyte contractility, and an important role of the P2X4 receptor in this has been identified. Deletion of P2X4 receptors in the heart depresses contractile performance in models of heart failure, while overexpression of P2X4 receptors has been shown to be cardioprotective, thus P2X4 receptors may be therapeutic targets in the treatment of heart disease. P2X receptors have been identified on endothelial cells. Although immunoreactivity for all P2X1-7 receptor proteins has been shown on the endothelium, relatively little is known about their function, with the exception of the endothelial P2X4 receptor, which has been shown to mediate endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to ATP released during shear stress. The potential of P2X receptors as therapeutic targets
Gao, Yan; Shen, Jacson K; Milane, Lara; Hornicek, Francis J; Amiji, Mansoor M; Duan, Zhenfeng
Recent advances in cancer molecular biology have resulted in parallel and unprecedented progress in the development of targeted cancer therapy. Targeted therapy can provide higher efficacy and lower toxicity than conventional chemotherapy for cancer. However, like traditional chemotherapy, molecularly targeted cancer therapy also faces the challenge of drug resistance. Multiple mechanisms are responsible for chemotherapy resistance in tumors, including over-expression of efflux transporters, somatic alterations of drug targets, deregulation of apoptosis, and numerous pharmacokinetic issues. Nanotechnology based approaches are proving to be efficacious in overcoming drug resistance in cancer. Combination of targeted therapies with nanotechnology approaches is a promising strategy to overcome targeted therapy drug resistance in cancer treatment. This review discusses the mechanisms of targeted drug resistance in cancer and discusses nanotechnology approaches to circumvent this resistance.
Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infection is initiated by the binding of gp120 envelope glyco-protein to its cell receptor (CD4 and a coreceptor (CXCR4 or CCR5, followed by a series of conformational changes in the gp41 transmembrane subunit. These changes include insertion of fusion peptide into the target cell membrane and association of C-heptad repeat (CHR peptide with the N-heptad repeat (NHR trimer, a pre-hairpin fusion intermediate. A stable six-helix bundle core is then formed, bringing the viral envelope and target cell membrane into close proximity for fusion. Peptides derived from the CHR region, such as T20 and C34, inhibit HIV-1 fusion by interacting with the gp41 fusion intermediate. A number of anti-HIV-1 peptides and small molecule compounds targeting the gp41 NHR-trimer have been identified. By combining HIV fusion/entry inhibitors targeting different sites in the gp41 fusion intermediate, a potent synergistic effect takes place, resulting in a potential new therapeutic strategy for the HIV infection/AIDS. Here, we present an overview of the current development of anti-HIV drugs, particularly those targeting the gp41 fusion intermediate.
Full Text Available Microglia are macrophage-like resident immune cells that contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS. Abnormal activation of microglia can cause damage in the CNS, and accumulation of activated microglia is a characteristic pathological observation in neurologic conditions such as trauma, stroke, inflammation, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases. Activated microglia secrete high levels of glutamate, which damages CNS cells and has been implicated as a major cause of neurodegeneration in these conditions. Glutamate-receptor blockers and microglia inhibitors (e.g. minocycline have been examined as therapeutic candidates for several neurodegenerative diseases; however, these compounds exerted little therapeutic benefit because they either perturbed physiological glutamate signals or suppressed the actions of protective microglia. The ideal therapeutic approach would hamper the deleterious roles of activated microglia without diminishing their protective effects. We recently found that abnormally activated microglia secrete glutamate via gap-junction hemichannels on the cell surface. Moreover, administration of gap-junction inhibitors significantly suppressed excessive microglial glutamate release and improved disease symptoms in animal models of neurologic conditions such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent evidence also suggests that neuronal and glial communication via gap junctions amplifies neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Elucidation of the precise pathologic roles of gap junctions and hemichannels may lead to a novel therapeutic strategies that can slow and halt the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.
Layek, Buddhadev; Sadhukha, Tanmoy; Panyam, Jayanth; Prabha, Swayam
Tumor-targeted drug delivery has the potential to improve therapeutic efficacy and mitigate non-specific toxicity of anticancer drugs. However, current drug delivery approaches rely on inefficient passive accumulation of the drug carrier in the tumor. We have developed a unique, truly active tumor targeting strategy that relies on engineering mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with drug-loaded nanoparticles. Our studies using the A549 orthotopic lung tumor model show that nano-engineered MSCs carrying the anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) home to tumors and create cellular drug depots that release the drug payload over several days. Despite significantly lower doses of PTX, nano-engineered MSCs resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth and superior survival. Anticancer efficacy of nano-engineered MSCs was confirmed in immunocompetent C57BL/6 albino female mice bearing orthotopic Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LL/2-luc) tumors. Further, at doses that resulted in equivalent therapeutic efficacy, nano-engineered MSCs had no effect on white blood cell count whereas PTX solution and PTX nanoparticle treatments caused leukopenia. Biodistribution studies showed that nano-engineered MSCs resulted in greater than 9-fold higher AUClung of PTX (1.5 µg.day/g) than PTX solution and nanoparticles (0.2 and 0.1 µg.day/g tissue, respectively) in the target lung tumors. Furthermore, the lung-to-liver and the lung-to-spleen ratios of PTX were several folds higher for nano-engineered MSCs relative to those for PTX solution and nanoparticle groups, suggesting that nano-engineered MSCs demonstrate significantly less off-target deposition. In summary, our results demonstrate that nano-engineered MSCs can serve as an efficient carrier for tumor specific drug delivery and significantly improved anti-cancer efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.
Background The demand for novel molecularly targeted drugs will continue to rise as we move forward toward the goal of personalizing cancer treatment to the molecular signature of individual tumors. However, the identification of targets and combinations of targets that can be safely and effectively modulated is one of the greatest challenges facing the drug discovery process. A promising approach is to use biological networks to prioritize targets based on their relative positions to one another, a property that affects their ability to maintain network integrity and propagate information-flow. Here, we introduce influence networks and demonstrate how they can be used to generate influence scores as a network-based metric to rank genes as potential drug targets. Results We use this approach to prioritize genes as drug target candidates in a set of ER + breast tumor samples collected during the course of neoadjuvant treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. We show that influential genes, those with high influence scores, tend to be essential and include a higher proportion of essential genes than those prioritized based on their position (i.e. hubs or bottlenecks) within the same network. Additionally, we show that influential genes represent novel biologically relevant drug targets for the treatment of ER + breast cancers. Moreover, we demonstrate that gene influence differs between untreated tumors and residual tumors that have adapted to drug treatment. In this way, influence scores capture the context-dependent functions of genes and present the opportunity to design combination treatment strategies that take advantage of the tumor adaptation process. Conclusions Influence networks efficiently find essential genes as promising drug targets and combinations of targets to inform the development of molecularly targeted drugs and their use. PMID:24495353
Wilderman, Andrea; Zambon, Alexander C.; Snead, Aaron N.; Murray, Fiona; Aroonsakool, Nakon; McDonald, Daniel S.; Zhou, Shu; McCann, Thalia; Zhang, Lingzhi; Sriram, Krishna; Chinn, Amy M.; Michkov, Alexander V.; Lynch, Rebecca M.; Overland, Aaron C.; Corriden, Ross
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), the largest family of signaling receptors in the human genome, are also the largest class of targets of approved drugs. Are the optimal GPCRs (in terms of efficacy and safety) currently targeted therapeutically? Especially given the large number (∼120) of orphan GPCRs (which lack known physiologic agonists), it is likely that previously unrecognized GPCRs, especially orphan receptors, regulate cell function and can be therapeutic targets. Knowledge is limited regarding the diversity and identity of GPCRs that are activated by endogenous ligands and that native cells express. Here, we review approaches to define GPCR expression in tissues and cells and results from studies using these approaches. We identify problems with the available data and suggest future ways to identify and validate the physiologic and therapeutic roles of previously unrecognized GPCRs. We propose that a particularly useful approach to identify functionally important GPCRs with therapeutic potential will be to focus on receptors that show selective increases in expression in diseased cells from patients and experimental animals. PMID:25737495
Full Text Available Bone is one of the most preferential target site for cancer metastases, particularly for prostate, breast, kidney, lung and thyroid primary tumours. Indeed, numerous chemical signals and growth factors produced by the bone microenvironment constitute factors promoting cancer cell invasion and aggression. After reviewing the different theories proposed to provide mechanism for metastatic progression, we report on the gene expression profile of bone-seeking cancer cells. We also discuss the cross-talk between the bone microenvironment and invading cells, which impacts on the tumour actions on surrounding bone tissue. Lastly, we detail therapies for bone metastases. Due to poor prognosis for patients, the strategies mainly aim at reducing the impact of skeletal-related events on patients’ quality of life. However, recent advances have led to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying bone metastases progression, and therefore of novel therapeutic targets.
Janus, A; Szahidewicz-Krupska, E; Mazur, G; Doroszko, A
Insulin resistance and other risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, promote endothelial dysfunction and lead to development of metabolic syndrome which constitutes an introduction to cardiovascular disease. The insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction cross talk between each other by numerous metabolic pathways. Hence, targeting one of these pathologies with pleiotropic treatment exerts beneficial effect on another one. Combined and expletive treatment of hypertension, lipid disorders, and insulin resistance with nonpharmacological interventions and conventional pharmacotherapy may inhibit the transformation of metabolic disturbances to fully developed cardiovascular disease. This paper summarises the common therapeutic targets for insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular inflammatory reaction at molecular level and analyses the potential pleiotropic effects of drugs used currently in management of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes.
Wenandy, L.; Sorensen, R.B.; Straten, P.T.
moving forward in multiple areas, including the adoptive transfer of anti-tumor-reactive T cells and the use of "therapeutic" vaccines. The over-expression of RhoC in cancer and the fact that immune escape by down regulation or loss of expression of this protein would reduce the morbidity and mortality......Most cancer deaths are due to the development of metastases. Increased expression of RhoC is linked to enhanced metastatic potential in multiple cancers. Consequently, the RhoC protein is an attractive target for drug design. The clinical application of immunotherapy against cancer is rapidly...... of cancer makes RhoC a very attractive target for anti-cancer immunotherapy. Herein, we describe an HLA-A3 restricted epitope from RhoC, which is recognized by cytotoxic T cells. Moreover, RhoC-specific T cells show cytotoxic potential against HLA-matched cancer cells of different origin. Thus, RhoC may...
Full Text Available Steroid-insensitive asthma is an infrequent but problematic airway disease that presents with persistent symptoms, airflow limitation, or recurrent exacerbations even when treated with steroid-based therapies. Because of unsatisfactory results obtained from currently available therapies for steroid-insensitive asthma, a better understanding of its pathogenesis and the development of new targeted molecular therapies are warranted. Recent studies indicated that levels of interleukin (IL-17 are increased and both eosinophils and neutrophils infiltrate the airways of severe asthmatics. IL-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine mainly secreted from helper T (Th 17 cells and is important for the induction of neutrophil recruitment and migration at sites of inflammation. This review focuses on the pathogenetic role of Th17 cells and their associated cytokines in steroid-insensitive asthma and discusses the prospects of novel therapeutic options targeting the Th17 signaling pathway.
De Vlieghere, Elly; Verset, Laurine; Demetter, Pieter; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are drivers of tumour progression and are considered as a target and a tool in cancer diagnostic and therapeutic applications. An increased abundance of CAFs or CAF signatures are recognized as a bad prognostic marker in several cancer types. Tumour-environment biomimetics strongly improve our understanding of the communication between CAFs, cancer cells and other host cells. Several experimental drugs targeting CAFs are in clinical trials for multiple tumour entities; alternatively, CAFs can be exploited as a tool to characterize the functionality of circulating tumour cells or to capture them as a tool to prevent metastasis. The continuous interaction between tissue engineers, biomaterial experts and cancer researchers creates the possibility to biomimic the tumour-environment and provides new opportunities in cancer diagnostics and management.
Full Text Available Insulin resistance and other risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, promote endothelial dysfunction and lead to development of metabolic syndrome which constitutes an introduction to cardiovascular disease. The insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction cross talk between each other by numerous metabolic pathways. Hence, targeting one of these pathologies with pleiotropic treatment exerts beneficial effect on another one. Combined and expletive treatment of hypertension, lipid disorders, and insulin resistance with nonpharmacological interventions and conventional pharmacotherapy may inhibit the transformation of metabolic disturbances to fully developed cardiovascular disease. This paper summarises the common therapeutic targets for insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular inflammatory reaction at molecular level and analyses the potential pleiotropic effects of drugs used currently in management of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes.
Full Text Available Gordana Maric,1,2 April AN Rose,3 Matthew G Annis,1,2 Peter M Siegel1,2,4,5 1Goodman Cancer Research Centre, 2Department of Medicine, 3Faculty of Medicine, 4Department of Biochemistry, 5Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada Abstract: Molecularly targeted therapies are rapidly growing with respect to their clinical development and impact on cancer treatment due to their highly selective anti-tumor action. However, many aggressive cancers such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC currently lack well-defined therapeutic targets against which such agents can be developed. The identification of tumor-associated antigens and the generation of antibody drug-conjugates represent an emerging area of intense interest and growth in the field of cancer therapeutics. Glycoprotein non-metastatic b (GPNMB has recently been identified as a gene that is over-expressed in numerous cancers, including TNBC, and often correlates with the metastatic phenotype. In breast cancer, GPNMB expression in the tumor epithelium is associated with a reduction in disease-free and overall survival. Based on these findings, glembatumumab vedotin (CDX-011, an antibody-drug conjugate that selectively targets GPNMB, is currently being investigated in clinical trials for patients with metastatic breast cancer and unresectable melanoma. This review discusses the physiological and potential pathological roles of GPNMB in normal and cancer tissues, respectively, and details the clinical advances and challenges in targeting GPNMB-expressing malignancies. Keywords: GPNMB, osteoactivin, breast cancer, antibody-drug conjugates, CDX-011
Kankeu Fonkoua, Lionel; Yee, Nelson S
Palliative chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment of advanced gastric carcinoma (GC). Monoclonal antibodies including trastuzumab, ramucirumab, and pembrolizumab have been shown to provide additional benefits. However, the clinical outcomes are often unpredictable and they can vary widely among patients. Currently, no biomarker is available for predicting treatment response in the individual patient except human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression for effectiveness of trastuzumab and pembrolizumab, respectively. Multi-platform molecular analysis of cancer, including GC, may help identify predictive biomarkers to guide selection of therapeutic agents. Molecular classification of GC by The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network and the Asian Cancer Research Group is expected to identify therapeutic targets and predictive biomarkers. Complementary to molecular characterization of GC is molecular profiling by expression analysis and genomic sequencing of tumor DNA. Initial analysis of patients with gastroesophageal carcinoma demonstrates that the ratio of progression-free survival (PFS) on molecular profile (MP)-based treatment to PFS on treatment prior to molecular profiling exceeds 1.3, suggesting the potential value of MP in guiding selection of individualized therapy. Future strategies aiming to integrate molecular classification and profiling of tumors with therapeutic agents for achieving the goal of personalized treatment of GC are indicated.
Gordeev, I G; Averkov, O V; Mishchenko, L N; Levchuk, N N; Vechorko, V I
To perform a randomized, open-label comparison of average time in therapeutic range (TTR) of international normalized ratio (INR) using two approaches to initial warfarin dosing during hospitalization: the standard method and the one using individual patient characteristics (clinical algorithm - the studied approach). We randomly assigned 60 patients with different indications for vitamin K antagonist therapy to the studied approach (n=31, intervention group) or to the standard method (n=29, control group). А target INR range for all patients was 2.0 to 3.0. The average TTR and portions of INR values within target range during the whole time of drug dosing turned out to be small. TTR was 22.4% with standard method and 21.4% with clinical algorithm, which was well below desired 60%. The opportunities for achieving target INR in inpatient settings, regardless of warfarin dosing regimen, are limited.
Hong, Waun K; Stewart, David J
We will develop a high throughput therapeutic-target focused (TTF) profiling platform and will combine this with tumor genome wide mRNA profiling and with serum or plasma profiling of phosphopeptides and DNA...
Bischoff, Rainer; Kolbe, Hanno; Schughart, Klaus; Transgene, S.A.
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To obtain the subject composition used for transferring a therapeutically active substance into mammalian cells, and useful for preparing a vector intended to transfer a polynucleotide into targeted cells, by including..
Heidegger, Isabel; Massoner, Petra; Eder, Iris E; Pircher, Andreas; Pichler, Renate; Aigner, Friedrich; Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang; Klocker, Helmut
Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in men in developed countries. Once the tumor has achieved a castration-refractory metastatic stage, treatment options are limited with the average survival of patients ranging from two to three years only. Recently, new drugs for treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have been approved, and others are in an advanced stage of clinical testing. In this review we provide an overview of the new therapeutic agents that arrived in the clinical praxis or are tested in clinical studies and their mode of action including hormone synthesis inhibitors, new androgen receptor blockers, bone targeting and antiangiogenic agents, endothelin receptor antagonists, growth factor inhibitors, novel radiotherapeutics and taxanes, and immunotherapeutic approaches. Results and limitations from clinical studies as well as future needs for improvement of CRPC treatments are critically discussed. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Szucs, Zoltan; Thway, Khin; Fisher, Cyril; Bulusu, Ramesh; Constantinidou, Anastasia; Benson, Charlotte; van der Graaf, Winette Ta; Jones, Robin L
Primary and secondary resistance to currently available licensed tyrosine kinase inhibitors poses a real clinical challenge in the management of advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Within the frame of early phase clinical trials novel systemic treatments are currently being evaluated to target both the well explored and novel emerging downstream effectors of KIT and PDGFRA signaling. Alternative therapeutic approaches also include exploring novel inhibitors of the KIT/PDGFRA receptors, immune checkpoint and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. The final clinical trial outcome data for these agents are highly anticipated. Integration of new diagnostic techniques into routine clinical practice can potentially guide tailored delivery of agents in the treatment of a highly polyclonal, heterogeneous disease such as heavily pretreated advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
João Antonio Chaves de Souza
Full Text Available Recently, new treatment approaches have been developed to target the host component of periodontal disease. This review aims at providing updated information on host-modulating therapies, focusing on treatment strategies for inhibiting signal transduction pathways involved in inflammation. Pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK, NFκB and JAK/STAT pathways are being developed to manage rheumatoid arthritis, periodontal disease and other inflammatory diseases. Through these agents, inflammatory mediators can be inhibited at cell signaling level, interfering on transcription factors activation and inflammatory gene expression. Although these drugs offer great potential to modulate host response, their main limitations are lack of specificity and developments of side effects. After overcoming these limitations, adjunctive host modulating drugs will provide new therapeutic strategies for periodontal treatment.
Full Text Available In dental practice there is an increasing need for predictable therapeutic protocols able to regenerate tissues that, due to inflammatory or traumatic events, may suffer from loss of their function. One of the topics arising major interest in the research applied to regenerative medicine is represented by tissue engineering and, in particular, by stem cells. The study of stem cells in dentistry over the years has shown an exponential increase in literature. Adult mesenchymal stem cells have recently been isolated and characterized from tooth-related tissues and they might represent, in the near future, a new gold standard in the regeneration of all oral tissues. The aim of our review is to provide an overview on the topic reporting the current knowledge for each class of dental stem cells and to identify their potential clinical applications as therapeutic tool in various branches of dentistry.
Miao, Benchun; Ji, Zhenyu; Tan, Li; Taylor, Michael; Zhang, Jianming; Choi, Hwan Geun; Frederick, Dennie T; Kumar, Raj; Wargo, Jennifer A; Flaherty, Keith T; Gray, Nathanael S; Tsao, Hensin
BRAF(V600E) is the most common oncogenic lesion in melanoma and results in constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway and uncontrolled cell growth. Selective BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib have been shown to neutralize oncogenic signaling, restrain cellular growth, and improve patient outcome. Although several mechanisms of vemurafenib resistance have been described, directed solutions to overcome these resistance lesions are still lacking. Herein, we found that vemurafenib resistance can be (i) mediated by EPHA2, a member of the largest receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) subfamily erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular (EPH) receptors, and (ii) associated with a greater phenotypic dependence on EPHA2. Furthermore, we developed a series of first-in-class EPHA2 inhibitors and show that these new compounds potently induce apoptosis, suppress viability, and abrogate tumorigenic growth of melanoma cells, including those that are resistant to vemurafenib. These results provide proof of concept that RTK-guided growth, and therapeutic resistance, can be prospectively defined and selectively targeted. In this study, we show that resistance to selective BRAF inhibitors can be mediated by the RTK EPHA2. Furthermore, direct targeting of EPHA2 can successfully suppress melanoma growth and mitigate therapeutic resistance. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Wang, Shu-Na; Xu, Tian-Ying; Li, Wen-Lin; Miao, Chao-Yu
Adult neurogenesis is the process of generating new neurons throughout life in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus of most mammalian species, which is closely related to aging and disease. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), also an adipokine known as visfatin, is the rate-limiting enzyme for mammalian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) salvage synthesis by generating nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide. Recent findings from our laboratory and other laboratories have provided much evidence that NAMPT might serve as a therapeutic target to restore adult neurogenesis. NAMPT-mediated NAD biosynthesis in neural stem/progenitor cells is important for their proliferation, self-renewal, and formation of oligodendrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Therapeutic interventions by the administration of NMN, NAD, or recombinant NAMPT are effective for restoring adult neurogenesis in several neurological diseases. We summarize adult neurogenesis in aging, ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative disease and review the advances of targeting NAMPT in restoring neurogenesis. Specifically, we provide emphasis on the P7C3 family, a class of proneurogenic compounds that are potential NAMPT activators, which might shed light on future drug development in neurogenesis restoration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL is a common clinical condition resulting from dysfunction in one or more parts in the auditory pathway between the inner ear and auditory cortex. Despite the prevalence of SNHL, little is known about its etiopathology, although several mechanisms have been postulated including ischemia, viral infection or reactivation, and microtrauma. Immune-mediated inner ear disease has been introduced and accepted as one SNHL pathophysiology; it responds to immunosuppressive therapy and is one of the few reversible forms of bilateral SNHL. The concept of immune-mediated inner ear disease is straightforward and comprehensible, but criteria for clinical diagnosis and the precise mechanism of hearing loss have not been determined. Moreover, the therapeutic mechanisms of corticosteroids are unclear, leading to several misconceptions by both clinicians and investigators concerning corticosteroid therapy. This review addresses our current understanding of the immune system in the inner ear and its involvement in the pathophysiology in SNHL. Treatment of SNHL, including immune-mediated inner ear disorder, will be discussed with a focus on the immune mechanism and immunocompetent cells as therapeutic targets. Finally, possible interventions modulating the immune system in the inner ear to repair the tissue organization and improve hearing in patients with SNHL will be discussed. Tissue macrophages in the inner ear appear to be a potential target for modulating the immune response in the inner ear in the pathophysiology of SNHL.
Full Text Available Terika P Smith,1 Tami Haymond,1 Sherika N Smith,1 Sarah M Sweitzer1,2 1Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neuroscience, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA; 2Department of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences, Presbyterian College School of Pharmacy, Clinton, SC, USA Abstract: Many people worldwide suffer from pain and a portion of these sufferers are diagnosed with a chronic pain condition. The management of chronic pain continues to be a challenge, and despite taking prescribed medication for pain, patients continue to have pain of moderate severity. Current pain therapies are often inadequate, with side effects that limit medication adherence. There is a need to identify novel therapeutic targets for the management of chronic pain. One potential candidate for the treatment of chronic pain is therapies aimed at modulating the vasoactive peptide endothelin-1. In addition to vasoactive properties, endothelin-1 has been implicated in pain transmission in both humans and animal models of nociception. Endothelin-1 directly activates nociceptors and potentiates the effect of other algogens, including capsaicin, formalin, and arachidonic acid. In addition, endothelin-1 has been shown to be involved in inflammatory pain, cancer pain, neuropathic pain, diabetic neuropathy, and pain associated with sickle cell disease. Therefore, endothelin-1 may prove a novel therapeutic target for the relief of many types of chronic pain. Keywords: endothelin-1, acute pain, chronic pain, endothelin receptor antagonists
Deacon, R M J; Hurley, M J; Rebolledo, C M; Snape, M; Altimiras, F J; Farías, L; Pino, M; Biekofsky, R; Glass, L; Cogram, P
Retraction: "Nrf2: a novel therapeutic target in fragile X syndrome is modulated by NNZ2566" by R. M. J. Deacon, M. J. Hurley, C. M. Rebolledo, M. Snape, F. J. Altimiras, L. Farías, M. Pino, R. Biekofsky, L. Glass and P. Cogram. The above article, from Genes, Brain and Behavior, published online on 12th May 2017 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Andrew Holmes and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed as all authors cannot agree on a revised author order, and at least one author continues to dispute the original order. In this case, the original article is being retracted on the grounds that the journal does not have permission to publish. Reference: Deacon, R. M. J., Hurley, M. J., Rebolledo, C. M., Snape, M., Altimiras, F. J., Farías, L., Pino, M., Biekofsky, R., Glass, L. and Cogram, P. (2017), Nrf2: a novel therapeutic target in fragile X syndrome is modulated by NNZ2566. Genes, Brain and Behavior. doi:10.1111/gbb.12373. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.
Giotopoulos, George; van der Weyden, Louise; Osaki, Hikari; Rust, Alistair G.; Gallipoli, Paolo; Meduri, Eshwar; Horton, Sarah J.; Chan, Wai-In; Foster, Donna; Prinjha, Rab K.; Pimanda, John E.; Tenen, Daniel G.; Vassiliou, George S.; Koschmieder, Steffen; Adams, David J.
The introduction of highly selective ABL-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has revolutionized therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, TKIs are only efficacious in the chronic phase of the disease and effective therapies for TKI-refractory CML, or after progression to blast crisis (BC), are lacking. Whereas the chronic phase of CML is dependent on BCR-ABL, additional mutations are required for progression to BC. However, the identity of these mutations and the pathways they affect are poorly understood, hampering our ability to identify therapeutic targets and improve outcomes. Here, we describe a novel mouse model that allows identification of mechanisms of BC progression in an unbiased and tractable manner, using transposon-based insertional mutagenesis on the background of chronic phase CML. Our BC model is the first to faithfully recapitulate the phenotype, cellular and molecular biology of human CML progression. We report a heterogeneous and unique pattern of insertions identifying known and novel candidate genes and demonstrate that these pathways drive disease progression and provide potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies. Our model greatly informs the biology of CML progression and provides a potent resource for the development of candidate therapies to improve the dismal outcomes in this highly aggressive disease. PMID:26304963
Richard K Plemper
Full Text Available The paramyxovirus family includes major human and animal pathogens, including measles virus, mumps virus, and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, as well as the emerging zoonotic Hendra and Nipah viruses. In the United States, RSV is the leading cause of infant hospitalizations due to viral infectious disease. Despite their clinical significance, effective drugs for the improved management of paramyxovirus disease are lacking. The development of novel anti-paramyxovirus therapeutics is therefore urgently needed. Paramyxoviruses contain RNA genomes of negative polarity, necessitating a virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp complex for replication and transcription. Since an equivalent enzymatic activity is absent in host cells, the RdRp complex represents an attractive druggable target, although structure-guided drug development campaigns are hampered by the lack of high-resolution RdRp crystal structures. Here, we review the current structural and functional insight into the paramyxovirus polymerase complex in conjunction with an evaluation of the mechanism of activity and developmental status of available experimental RdRp inhibitors. Our assessment spotlights the importance of the RdRp complex as a premier target for therapeutic intervention and examines how high-resolution insight into the organization of the complex will pave the path towards the structure-guided design and optimization of much-needed next-generation paramyxovirus RdRp blockers.
Eira, Jessica; Silva, Catarina Santos; Sousa, Mónica Mendes; Liz, Márcia Almeida
Cytoskeleton defects, including alterations in microtubule stability, in axonal transport as well as in actin dynamics, have been characterized in several unrelated neurodegenerative conditions. These observations suggest that defects of cytoskeleton organization may be a common feature contributing to neurodegeneration. In line with this hypothesis, drugs targeting the cytoskeleton are currently being tested in animal models and in human clinical trials, showing promising effects. Drugs that modulate microtubule stability, inhibitors of posttranslational modifications of cytoskeletal components, specifically compounds affecting the levels of tubulin acetylation, and compounds targeting signaling molecules which regulate cytoskeleton dynamics, constitute the mostly addressed therapeutic interventions aiming at preventing cytoskeleton damage in neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we will discuss in a critical perspective the current knowledge on cytoskeleton damage pathways as well as therapeutic strategies designed to revert cytoskeleton-related defects mainly focusing on the following neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Imbrici, Paola; Liantonio, Antonella; Camerino, Giulia M.; De Bellis, Michela; Camerino, Claudia; Mele, Antonietta; Giustino, Arcangela; Pierno, Sabata; De Luca, Annamaria; Tricarico, Domenico; Desaphy, Jean-Francois; Conte, Diana
In the human genome more than 400 genes encode ion channels, which are transmembrane proteins mediating ion fluxes across membranes. Being expressed in all cell types, they are involved in almost all physiological processes, including sense perception, neurotransmission, muscle contraction, secretion, immune response, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Due to the widespread tissue distribution of ion channels and their physiological functions, mutations in genes encoding ion channel subunits, or their interacting proteins, are responsible for inherited ion channelopathies. These diseases can range from common to very rare disorders and their severity can be mild, disabling, or life-threatening. In spite of this, ion channels are the primary target of only about 5% of the marketed drugs suggesting their potential in drug discovery. The current review summarizes the therapeutic management of the principal ion channelopathies of central and peripheral nervous system, heart, kidney, bone, skeletal muscle and pancreas, resulting from mutations in calcium, sodium, potassium, and chloride ion channels. For most channelopathies the therapy is mainly empirical and symptomatic, often limited by lack of efficacy and tolerability for a significant number of patients. Other channelopathies can exploit ion channel targeted drugs, such as marketed sodium channel blockers. Developing new and more specific therapeutic approaches is therefore required. To this aim, a major advancement in the pharmacotherapy of channelopathies has been the discovery that ion channel mutations lead to change in biophysics that can in turn specifically modify the sensitivity to drugs: this opens the way to a pharmacogenetics strategy, allowing the development of a personalized therapy with increased efficacy and reduced side effects. In addition, the identification of disease modifiers in ion channelopathies appears an alternative strategy to discover novel druggable targets. PMID:27242528
Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, the predominant histological subtype of esophageal cancer, is characterized by high mortality. Previous work identified important mRNA expression differences between normal and tumor cells; however, to date there are limited ex vivo studies examining expression changes occurring during normal esophageal squamous cell differentiation versus those associated with tumorigenesis. In this study, we used a unique tissue microdissection strategy and microarrays to measure gene expression profiles associated with cell differentiation versus tumorigenesis in twelve cases of patient-matched normal basal squamous epithelial cells (NB, normal differentiated squamous epithelium (ND, and squamous cell cancer. Class comparison and pathway analysis were used to compare NB versus tumor in a search for unique therapeutic targets. Results As a first step towards this goal, gene expression profiles and pathways were evaluated. Overall, ND expression patterns were markedly different from NB and tumor; whereas, tumor and NB were more closely related. Tumor showed a general decrease in differentially expressed genes relative to NB as opposed to ND that exhibited the opposite trend. FSH and IgG networks were most highly dysregulated in normal differentiation and tumorigenesis, respectively. DNA repair pathways were generally elevated in NB and tumor relative to ND indicating involvement in both normal and pathological growth. PDGF signaling pathway and 12 individual genes unique to the tumor/NB comparison were identified as therapeutic targets, and 10 associated ESCC gene-drug pairs were identified. We further examined the protein expression level and the distribution patterns of four genes: ODC1, POSTN, ASPA and IGF2BP3. Ultimately, three genes (ODC1, POSTN, ASPA were verified to be dysregulated in the same pattern at both the mRNA and protein levels. Conclusions These data reveal insight into genes and
Basu, P P; Aloysius, M M; Shah, N J; Brown, R S
Endocannabinoids are a family of potent lipid-soluble molecules, acting on the cannabinoid (CB) receptors that mediate the effects of marijuana. The CB receptors, endocannabinoids and the enzymes involved in their synthesis and degradation are located in the brain and peripheral tissues, including the liver. To review the current understanding of the role of the endocannabinoid system in liver disease-associated pathophysiological conditions, and drugs targeting the endocannabinoid system as therapy for liver disease. Original articles and reviews were used to summarise the relevant pre-clinical and clinical research findings relating to this topic. The endocannabinoid system as a whole plays an important role in liver diseases (i.e. non-alcoholic liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, hepatic encephalopathy and autoimmune hepatitis) and related pathophysiological conditions (i.e. altered hepatic haemodynamics, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, metabolic syndrome and ischaemia/reperfusion disease). Pharmacological targeting of the endocannabinoid system has had success as treatment for patients with liver disease, but adverse events led to withdrawal of marketing approval. However, there is optimism over novel therapeutics targeting the endocannabinoid system currently in the pre-clinical stage of development. The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of liver disease and its associated conditions. While some drugs targeting the endocannabinoid system have deleterious neurological adverse events, there is promise for a newer generation of therapies that do not cross the blood-brain barrier. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Irving, Stephen L.; Brown, David G.; Anderson, Marie; Bazin, Richard; Cao, Joan; Ciaramella, Giuseppe; Isaacson, Jason; Jackson, Lynn; Hunt, Rachael; Kjerrstrom, Anne; Nieman, James A.; Patick, Amy K.; Perros, Manos; Scott, Andrew D.; Whitby, Kevin; Wu, Hua; Butler, Scott L.
Despite a high current standard of care in antiretroviral therapy for HIV, multidrug-resistant strains continue to emerge, underscoring the need for additional novel mechanism inhibitors that will offer expanded therapeutic options in the clinic. We report a new class of small molecule antiretroviral compounds that directly target HIV-1 capsid (CA) via a novel mechanism of action. The compounds exhibit potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 laboratory strains, clinical isolates, and HIV-2, and inhibit both early and late events in the viral replication cycle. We present mechanistic studies indicating that these early and late activities result from the compound affecting viral uncoating and assembly, respectively. We show that amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 CA are sufficient to confer resistance to this class of compounds, identifying CA as the target in infected cells. A high-resolution co-crystal structure of the compound bound to HIV-1 CA reveals a novel binding pocket in the N-terminal domain of the protein. Our data demonstrate that broad-spectrum antiviral activity can be achieved by targeting this new binding site and reveal HIV CA as a tractable drug target for HIV therapy. PMID:21170360
Weß, Ludger; Schnieders, Frank
Cancer therapy is once again experiencing a paradigm shift. This shift is based on extensive clinical experience demonstrating that cancer cannot be successfully fought by addressing only single targets or pathways. Even the combination of several neo-antigens in cancer vaccines is not sufficient for successful, lasting tumor eradication. The focus has therefore shifted to the immune system's role in cancer and the striking abilities of cancer cells to manipulate and/or deactivate the immune system. Researchers and pharma companies have started to target the processes and cells known to support immune surveillance and the elimination of tumor cells. Immune processes, however, require novel concepts beyond the traditional "single-target-single drug" paradigm and need parallel targeting of diverse cells and mechanisms. This review gives a perspective on the role of gene therapy technologies in the evolving immuno-oncology space and identifies gene therapy as a major driver in the development and regulation of effective cancer immunotherapy. Present challenges and breakthroughs ranging from chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, gene-modified oncolytic viruses, combination cancer vaccines, to RNA therapeutics are spotlighted. Gene therapy is recognized as the most prominent technology enabling effective immuno-oncology strategies.
Thomas, Thommey P.; Joice, Melvin; Sumit, Madhuresh; Silpe, Justin E.; Kotlyar, Alina; Bharathi, Sophia; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta; Baker, James R.; Choi, Seok Ki
Design of cancer-targeting nanotherapeutics relies on a pair of two functionally orthogonal molecules, one serving as a cancer cell-specific targeting ligand, and the other as a therapeutic cytotoxic agent. The present study investigates the validity of an alternative simplified strategy where a dual-acting molecule which bears both targeting and cytotoxic activity is conjugated to the nanoparticle as cancer-targeting nanotherapeutics. Herein we demonstrate that methotrexate is applicable for this dual-acting strategy due to its reasonable affinity to folic acid receptor (FAR) as a tumor biomarker, and cytotoxic inhibitory activity of cytosolic dihydrofolate reductase. This article describes design of new methotrexate-conjugated poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers, each carrying multiple copies of methotrexate attached through a stable amide linker. We evaluated their dual biological activities by performing surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, a cell-free enzyme assay and cell-based experiments in FAR-overexpressing cells. This study identifies the combination of an optimal linker framework and multivalency as the two key design elements that contribute to achieving potent dual activity. PMID:23621534
DNA topoisomerases are ubiquitous enzymes needed to overcome topological problems encountered during DNA replication, transcription, recombination and maintenance of genomic stability. They have proved to be valuable targets for therapy, in part because some anti-topoisomerase agents act as poisons. Bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV (type IIA topoisomerases) are targets of fluoroquinolones while human topoisomerase I (a type IB topoisomerase) and topoisomerase II are targets of various anticancer drugs. Bacterial type IA topoisomerase share little sequence homology to type IB or type IIA topoisomerases, but all topoisomerases have the potential of having the covalent phosphotyrosine DNA cleavage intermediate trapped by drug action. Recent studies have demonstrated that stabilization of the covalent complex formed by bacterial topoisomerase I and cleaved DNA can lead to bacterial cell death, supporting bacterial topoisomerase I as a promising target for the development of novel antibiotics. For current antibacterial therapy, the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant bacterial pathogens has become a major public health concern, and efforts are directed towards identifying novel inhibitors of bacterial type IIA topoisomerases that are not affected by fluoroquinolone resistant mutations on the gyrase or topoisomerase IV genes. For anti-viral therapy, poxviruses encode their own type IB topoisomerases; these enzymes differ in drug sensitivity from human topoisomerase I. To confront potential threat of small pox as a weapon in terrorist attacks, vaccinia virus topoisomerase I has been targeted for discovery of anti-viral agents. These new developments of DNA topoisomerases as targets of novel therapeutic agents being reviewed here represent excellent opportunities for drug discovery in the treatment of infectious diseases.
Metastasis is a highly complicated and sequential process in which primary cancer spreads to secondary organic sites. Liver is a well-known metastatic organ from colorectal cancer. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is expressed in most gastrointestinal, breast, and lung cancer cells. Overexpression of CEA is closely associated with liver metastasis, which is the main cause of death from colorectal cancer. CEA is widely used as a diagnostic and prognostic tumor marker in cancer patients. It affects many steps of liver metastasis from colorectal cancer cells. CEA inhibits circulating cancer cell death. CEA also binds to heterogeneous nuclear RNA binding protein M4 (hnRNP M4), a Kupffer cell receptor protein, and activates Kupffer cells to secrete various cytokines that change the microenvironments for the survival of colorectal cancer cells in the liver. CEA also activates cell adhesion-related molecules. The close correlation between CEA and cancer has spurred the exploration of many CEA-targeted approaches as anticancer therapeutics. Understanding the detailed functions and mechanisms of CEA in liver metastasis will provide great opportunities for the improvement of anticancer approaches against colorectal cancers. In this report, the roles of CEA in liver metastasis and CEA-targeting anticancer modalities are reviewed. PMID:28588612
Bayraktar, Recep; Van Roosbroeck, Katrien
Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are instrumental in physiological processes, such as proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and differentiation, processes which are often disrupted in diseases like cancer. miR-155 is one of the best conserved and multifunctional miRNAs, which is mainly characterized by overexpression in multiple diseases including malignant tumors. Altered expression of miR-155 is found to be associated with various physiological and pathological processes, including hematopoietic lineage differentiation, immune response, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, miR-155 drives therapy resistance mechanisms in various tumor types. Therefore, miR-155-mediated signaling pathways became a potential target for the molecular treatment of cancer. In this review, we summarize the current findings of miR-155 in hematopoietic lineage differentiation, the immune response, inflammation, and cancer therapy resistance. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of miR-155-based therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cancer.
Full Text Available Preclinical models based on patient-derived xenografts have remarkable specificity in distinguishing transformed human tumor cells from non-transformed murine stromal cells computationally. We obtained 29 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC xenografts from either resectable or non-resectable patients (surgery and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirate, respectively. Extensive multiomic profiling revealed two subtypes with distinct clinical outcomes. These subtypes uncovered specific alterations in DNA methylation and transcription as well as in signaling pathways involved in tumor-stromal cross-talk. The analysis of these pathways indicates therapeutic opportunities for targeting both compartments and their interactions. In particular, we show that inhibiting NPC1L1 with Ezetimibe, a clinically available drug, might be an efficient approach for treating pancreatic cancers. These findings uncover the complex and diverse interplay between PDAC tumors and the stroma and demonstrate the pivotal role of xenografts for drug discovery and relevance to PDAC.
Mastri, Michalis; Shah, Zaeem; Hsieh, Karin; Wang, Xiaowen; Wooldridge, Bailey; Martin, Sean; Suzuki, Gen; Lee, Techung
Progressive fibrosis is a pathological hallmark of many chronic diseases responsible for organ failure. Although there is currently no therapy on the market that specifically targets fibrosis, the dynamic fibrogenic process is known to be regulated by multiple soluble mediators that may be therapeutically intervened. The failing hamster heart exhibits marked fibrosis and increased expression of secreted Frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) amenable to reversal by mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy. Given the previous demonstration that sFRP2-null mice subjected to myocardial infarction exhibited reduced fibrosis and improved function, we tested whether antibody-based sFRP2 blockade might counteract the fibrogenic pathway and repair cardiac injury. Cardiomyopathic hamsters were injected intraperitoneally twice a week each with 20 μg of sFRP2 antibody. Echocardiography, histology, and biochemical analyses were performed after 1 mo. sFRP2 antibody increased left ventricular ejection fraction from 40 ± 1.2 to 49 ± 6.5%, whereas saline and IgG control exhibited a further decline to 37 ± 0.9 and 31 ± 3.2%, respectively. Functional improvement is associated with a ∼ 50% reduction in myocardial fibrosis, ∼ 65% decrease in apoptosis, and ∼ 75% increase in wall thickness. Consistent with attenuated fibrosis, both MSC therapy and sFRP2 antibody administration significantly increased the activity of myocardial matrix metalloproteinase-2. Gene expression analysis of the hamster heart and cultured fibroblasts identified Axin2 as a downstream target, the expression of which was activated by sFRP2 but inhibited by therapeutic intervention. sFRP2 blockade also increased myocardial levels of VEGF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) along with increased angiogenesis. These findings highlight the pathogenic effect of dysregulated sFRP2, which may be specifically targeted for antifibrotic therapy.
Tan, Wan Shun Daniel; Liao, Wupeng; Zhou, Shuo; Mei, Dan; Wong, Wai-Shiu Fred
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in regulating electrolyte balance and blood pressure. RAS has also been implicated in the regulation of inflammation, proliferation and fibrosis in pulmonary diseases such as asthma, acute lung injury (ALI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Current therapeutics suffer from some drawbacks like steroid resistance, limited efficacies and side effects. Novel intervention is definitely needed to offer optimal therapeutic strategy and clinical outcome. This review compiles and analyses recent investigations targeting RAS for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases. Inhibition of the upstream angiotensin (Ang) I/Ang II/angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT 1 R) pathway and activation of the downstream angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/Ang (1-7)/Mas receptor pathway are two feasible strategies demonstrating efficacies in various pulmonary disease models. More recent studies favor the development of targeting the downstream ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas receptor pathway, in which diminazene aceturate, an ACE2 activator, GSK2586881, a recombinant ACE2, and AV0991, a Mas receptor agonist, showed much potential for further development. As the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases is so complex that RAS modulation may be used alone or in combination with existing drugs like corticosteroids, pirfenidone/nintedanib or endothelin receptor antagonists for different pulmonary diseases. Personalized medicine through genetic screening and phenotyping for angiotensinogen or ACE would aid treatment especially for non-responsive patients. This review serves to provide an update on the latest development in the field of RAS targeting for pulmonary diseases, and offer some insights into future direction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Garmpis, Nikolaos; Damaskos, Christos; Garmpi, Anna; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Margonis, Georgios-Antonios; Schizas, Dimitrios; Deskou, Irini; Doula, Chrysoula; Magkouti, Eleni; Andreatos, Nikolaos; Antoniou, Efstathios A; Nonni, Afroditi; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Mantas, Dimitrios
Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, with increasing frequency and mortality. Melanoma is characterized by rapid proliferation and metastases. Malignant transformation of normal melanocytes is associated with imbalance between oncogenes' action and tumor suppressor genes. Mutations or inactivation of these genes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. Many target-specific agents improved progression-free survival but unfortunately metastatic melanoma remains incurable, so new therapeutic strategies are needed. The balance of histones' acetylation affects cell cycle progression, differentiation and apoptosis. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are associated with different types of cancer. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) are enzymes that inhibit the action of HDAC, resulting in block of tumor cell proliferation. A small number of these enzymes has been studied regarding their anticancer effects in melanoma. The purpose of this article was to review the therapeutic effect of HDACI against malignant melanoma, enlightening the molecular mechanisms of their action. The MEDLINE database was used. The keywords/ phrases were; HDACI, melanoma, targeted therapies for melanoma. Our final conclusions were based on studies that didn't refer solely to melanoma due to their wider experimental data. Thirty-two articles were selected from the total number of the search's results. Only English articles published until March 2017 were used. Molecules, such as valproid acid (VPA), LBH589, LAQ824 (dacinostat), vorinostat, tubacin, sirtinol and tx-527, suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid (SBHA), depsipeptide and Trichostatin A (TSA) have shown promising antineoplastic effects against melanoma. HDACI represent a promising agent for targeted therapy. More trials are required. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is characterized by primary damage to the brain from the external mechanical force and by subsequent secondary injury due to various molecular and pathophysiological responses that eventually lead to neuronal cell death. Secondary brain injury events may occur minutes, hours, or even days after the trauma, and provide valuable therapeutic targets to prevent further neuronal degeneration. At the present time, there is no effective treatment for TBI due, in part, to the widespread impact of numerous complex secondary biochemical and pathophysiological events occurring at different time points following the initial injury. MicroRNAs control a range of physiological and pathological functions such as development, differentiation, apoptosis and metabolism, and may serve as potential targets for progress assessment and intervention against TBI to mitigate secondary damage to the brain. This has implications regarding improving the diagnostic accuracy of brain impairment and long-term outcomes as well as potential novel treatments. Recent human studies have identified specific microRNAs in serum/plasma (miR-425-p, -21, -93, -191 and -499 and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF (miR-328, -362-3p, -451, -486a as possible indicators of the diagnosis, severity, and prognosis of TBI. Experimental animal studies have examined specific microRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for moderate and mild TBI (e.g., miR-21, miR-23b. MicroRNA profiling was altered by voluntary exercise. Differences in basal microRNA expression in the brain of adult and aged animals and alterations in response to TBI (e.g., miR-21 have also been reported. Further large-scale studies with TBI patients are needed to provide more information on the changes in microRNA profiles in different age groups (children, adults, and elderly.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with poor prognosis due to resistance to conventional chemotherapy and limited efficacy of radiotherapy. There is an urgent need to develop novel biomarkers for early diagnosis, as well as to identify new drug targets for therapeutic interventions. Patients and methods 54 paired HCC samples and 21 normal liver tissues were obtained from West China Hospital of Sichuan University. Informed consent was obtained from all the patients or their relatives prior to analysis, and the project was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Sichuan University. Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC-based proteomics was employed to profile the differentially expressed proteins between a HepG2 human hepatoma cell line and an immortal hepatic cell line L02. Validation of PGAM1 expression was performed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblot and immunohistochemistry using clinical samples. shRNA expressing plasmids specifically targeting PGAM1 were designed and constructed by GenePharma Corporation (Shanghai, China, and were utilized to silence expression of PGAM1 in vitro and in vivo. Cell proliferation was measured by a combination of colony formation assay and Ki67 staining. Apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. Results A total of 63 dysregulated proteins were identified, including 51 up-regulated proteins, and 12 down-regulated proteins (over 2-fold, p p in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Our studies suggested that PGAM1 plays an important role in hepatocarcinogenesis, and should be a potential diagnostic biomarker, as well as an attractive therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Fernando, Deepani D; Marr, Edward J; Zakrzewski, Martha; Reynolds, Simone L; Burgess, Stewart T G; Fischer, Katja
Scabies is one of the most common and widespread parasitic skin infections globally, affecting a large range of mammals including humans, yet the molecular biology of Sarcoptes scabiei is astonishingly understudied. Research has been hampered primarily due to the difficulty of sampling or culturing these obligatory parasitic mites. A further and major impediment to identify and functionally analyse potential therapeutic targets from the recently emerging molecular databases is the lack of appropriate molecular tools. We performed standard BLAST based searches of the existing S. scabiei genome databases using sequences of genes described to be involved in RNA interference in Drosophila and the mite model organism Tetranychus urticae. Experimenting with the S. scabiei mu-class glutathione S-transferase (SsGST-mu1) as a candidate gene we explored the feasibility of gene knockdown in S. scabiei by double-stranded RNA-interference (dsRNAi). We provide here an analysis of the existing S. scabiei draft genomes, confirming the presence of a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) - mediated silencing machinery. We report for the first time experimental gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in S. scabiei. Non-invasive immersion of S. scabiei in dsRNA encoding an S. scabiei glutathione S-transferase mu-class 1 enzyme (SsGST-mu1) resulted in a 35% reduction in the transcription of the target gene compared to controls. A series of experiments identified the optimal conditions allowing systemic experimental RNAi without detrimental side effects on mite viability. This technique can now be used to address the key questions on the fundamental aspects of mite biology and pathogenesis, and to assess the potential therapeutic benefits of silencing S. scabiei target genes.
Diez Cabezas, B.
targeting efficiency, due to the toxicity associated with the nucleofection of cells treated with these nanoparticles. In our next step, we moved from healthy donor HSCs to FA hematopoietic cells. Using a therapeutic donor vector carrying the FANCA gene, we demonstrated that gene targeting can correct the phenotype in a FA-A LCL. This was deduced from the restoration of FANCD2 foci formation and the reversion of the sensitivity of FA-A cells to interstrand cross linkers, such as mitomycin C (MMC). To improve the gene targeting efficiency in FA-A hematopoietic cells, we also investigated the effects mediated by the transient inhibition of anti-recombinase PARI. Although the inhibition of PARI increased RAD51 foci, no significant increase of homology directed repair efficiency was observed. In a final set of experiments we demonstrated that our gene targeting approach has also taken place in hematopoietic progenitor cells from FA-A patients, leading to a partial reversion in their hyper-sensitivity to MMC. Our study demonstrates for the first time that gene targeting in the AAVS1 safe harbor locus is feasible in hematopoietic cells from Fanconi anemia-A patients, opening up new perspectives for the future gene therapy of this and other monogenic diseases of the hematopoietic system.(Author)
Diez Cabezas, B.
targeting efficiency, due to the toxicity associated with the nucleofection of cells treated with these nanoparticles. In our next step, we moved from healthy donor HSCs to FA hematopoietic cells. Using a therapeutic donor vector carrying the FANCA gene, we demonstrated that gene targeting can correct the phenotype in a FA-A LCL. This was deduced from the restoration of FANCD2 foci formation and the reversion of the sensitivity of FA-A cells to interstrand cross linkers, such as mitomycin C (MMC). To improve the gene targeting efficiency in FA-A hematopoietic cells, we also investigated the effects mediated by the transient inhibition of anti-recombinase PARI. Although the inhibition of PARI increased RAD51 foci, no significant increase of homology directed repair efficiency was observed. In a final set of experiments we demonstrated that our gene targeting approach has also taken place in hematopoietic progenitor cells from FA-A patients, leading to a partial reversion in their hyper-sensitivity to MMC. Our study demonstrates for the first time that gene targeting in the AAVS1 safe harbor locus is feasible in hematopoietic cells from Fanconi anemia-A patients, opening up new perspectives for the future gene therapy of this and other monogenic diseases of the hematopoietic system.(Author)
Holers, V. Michael; Tomlinson, Stephen; Kulik, Liudmila; Atkinson, Carl; Rohrer, Bärbel; Banda, Nirmal; Thurman, Joshua M.
Despite substantial opportunity and commercial interest in developing drugs that modulate the complement system in a broad range of non-orphan indications, several obstacles remain to be overcome. Among these issues is the biophysical nature of complement proteins, whose circulating levels are typically very high and whose turnover rates are relatively rapid, especially in the setting of chronic inflammatory conditions. This situation necessitates the use of very high levels of therapeutic compounds in order to achieve both multi-pathway and multiple effector mechanism inhibition. In addition, one must avoid infectious complications or the systemic impairment of the other important physiological functions of complement. Herein we focus on the development of a novel therapeutic strategy based on injured tissue-specific targeting of complement inhibitors using the antigen-combining domains of a small subset of natural IgM antibodies, which as endogenous antibodies specifically recognize sites of local damage across a broad range of tissues and locally activate complement C3, resulting in C3 fragment covalent fixation. Because the use of such recombinant tissue-targeting inhibitors precludes the utility of measuring systemic levels of complement biomarkers or function, since a goal of this targeting strategy is to leave those processes intact and unimpeded, we also briefly describe a new method designed to quantitatively measure using imaging modalities the inhibition of generation of fixed C3 fragments at sites of inflammation/injury. In addition to the ability to determine whether complement activation is locally constrained with the use of inhibitors, there is also a broader application of this imaging approach to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases characterized by local complement activation. PMID:27282113
Full Text Available The best therapeutic strategy in virus-induced vasculitides should take into account the etiology of the disease and be adapted to the pathogenesis. The combination of antiviral treatments and plasma exchanges has been proven effective in polyarteritis nodosa (PAN. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-related vasculitis this strategy is also effective and does not jeopardize, like cytotoxic agents, the outcome of AIDS. In vasculitis related to HCV-associated cryoglobulinemia, plasma exchanges improve the outcome but the poor effectiveness of antiviral drugs is not able to favor, usually, a definite recovery of the patients and relapses are frequent.
M V Putilina
Full Text Available The concept of cervicogenic headache (CGH comprises the types of headaches having different origins, which are associated with pathology in the cervical spine and its other structural areas. CGH is induced by diverse pathogenetic mechanisms and has different clinical manifestations so it is referred to different classification categories. The anatomic and pathophysiological causes of CGH, its clinical picture, and therapeutic principles are discussed. In clinical practice, more and more preference has been recently given to combined analgesics, ketorolac and nimesulide in particular.
Full Text Available In the past decade, it was observed that the relationship between the emerging New Molecular Entities and the quantum of R&D investment has not been favorable. There might be numerous reasons but few studies stress the introduction of target based drug discovery approach as one of the factors. Although a number of drugs have been developed with an emphasis on a single protein target, yet identification of valid target is complex. The approach focuses on an in vitro single target, which overlooks the complexity of cell and makes process of validation drug targets uncertain. Thus, it is imperative to search for alternatives rather than looking at success stories of target-based drug discovery. It would be beneficial if the drugs were developed to target multiple components. New approaches like reverse engineering and translational research need to take into account both system and target-based approach. This review evaluates the strengths and limitations of known drug discovery approaches and proposes alternative approaches for increasing efficiency against treatment.
Akram, Khondoker M; Patel, Neil; Spiteri, Monica A; Forsyth, Nicholas R
The tissue turnover of unperturbed adult lung is remarkably slow. However, after injury or insult, a specialised group of facultative lung progenitors become activated to replenish damaged tissue through a reparative process called regeneration. Disruption in this process results in healing by fibrosis causing aberrant lung remodelling and organ dysfunction. Post-insult failure of regeneration leads to various incurable lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, identification of true endogenous lung progenitors/stem cells, and their regenerative pathway are crucial for next-generation therapeutic development. Recent studies provide exciting and novel insights into postnatal lung development and post-injury lung regeneration by native lung progenitors. Furthermore, exogenous application of bone marrow stem cells, embryonic stem cells and inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) show evidences of their regenerative capacity in the repair of injured and diseased lungs. With the advent of modern tissue engineering techniques, whole lung regeneration in the lab using de-cellularised tissue scaffold and stem cells is now becoming reality. In this review, we will highlight the advancement of our understanding in lung regeneration and development of stem cell mediated therapeutic strategies in combating incurable lung diseases.
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is an uncommon autoantibody-mediated immune disorder that affects both children and adults. The diagnosis of AIHA relies mainly on the direct antiglobulin test, which is a highly sensitive and relatively specific test. The classification of AIHA is based on the pattern of the direct antiglobulin test and on the immunochemical properties of the autoantibody (warm or cold type), but also on the presence or absence of an underlying condition or disease (secondary vs primary AIHAs) that may have an impact on treatment and outcome. The distinction between AIHAs due to warm antibody (wAIHA) and AIHAs due to cold antibody is a crucial step of the diagnostic procedure as it influences the therapeutic strategy. Whereas corticosteroids are the cornerstone of treatment in wAIHA, they have no or little efficacy in cold AIHA. In wAIHA that is refractory or dependent to corticosteroids, splenectomy and rituximab are both good alternatives and the benefit?risk ratio of each option must be discussed on an individual basis. In chronic agglutinin disease, the most common variety of cold AIHA in adults, beyond supportive measures, rituximab given either alone or in combination with chemotherapy may be helpful. In this article, the classification of AIHA and the recent progress in therapeutics are discussed.
Salahuddin, Parveen; Siddiqi, Mohammad Khursheed; Khan, Sanaullah; Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Khan, Rizwan Hasan
In protein misfolding, protein molecule acquires wrong tertiary structure, thereby induces protein misfolding diseases. Protein misfolding can occur through various mechanisms. For instance, changes in environmental conditions, oxidative stress, dominant negative mutations, error in post-translational modifications, increase in degradation rate and trafficking error. All of these factors cause protein misfolding thereby leading to diseases conditions. Both in vitro and in vivo observations suggest that partially unfolded or misfolded intermediates are particularly prone to aggregation. These partially misfolded intermediates aggregate via the interaction with the complementary intermediates and consequently enhance oligomers formation that grows into fibrils and proto-fibrils. The amyloid fibrils for example, accumulate in the brain and central nervous system (CNS) as amyloid deposits in the Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Prion disease and Amylo lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Furthermore, tau protein shows intrinsically disorder conformation; therefore its interaction with microtubule is impaired and this protein undergoes aggregation. This is also underlying cause of Alzheimers and other neurodegenerative diseases. Treatment of such misfolding maladies is considered as one of the most important challenges of the 21st century. Currently, several treatments strategies have been and are being discovered. These therapeutic interventions partly reversed or prevented the pathological state. More recently, a new approach was discovered, which employs nanobodies that targets multisteps in fibril formation pathway that may possibly completely cure these misfolding diseases. Keeping the above views in mind in the current review, we have comprehensively discussed the different mechanisms underlying protein misfolding thereby leading to diseases conditions and their therapeutic interventions.
Sharma, Rishi; Kim, Soo-Young; Sharma, Anjali; Zhang, Zhi; Kambhampati, Siva Pramodh; Kannan, Sujatha; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M
Brain-related disorders have outmatched cancer and cardiovascular diseases worldwide as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The lack of effective therapies and the relatively dry central nervous system (CNS) drug pipeline pose formidable challenge. Superior, targeted delivery of current clinically approved drugs may offer significant potential. Minocycline has shown promise for the treatment of neurological diseases owing to its ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and potency. Despite its potential in the clinic and in preclinical models, the high doses needed to affect a positive therapeutic response have led to side effects. Targeted delivery of minocycline to the injured site and injured cells in the brain can be highly beneficial. Systemically administered hydroxyl poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) generation-6 (G6) dendrimers have a longer blood circulation time and have been shown to cross the impaired BBB. We have successfully prepared and characterized the in vitro efficacy and in vivo targeting ability of hydroxyl-G6 PAMAM dendrimer-9-amino-minocycline conjugate (D-mino). Minocycline is a challenging drug to carry out chemical transformations due to its inherent instability. We used a combination of a highly efficient and mild copper catalyzed azide-alkyne click reaction (CuAAC) along with microwave energy to conjugate 9-amino-minocycline (mino) to the dendrimer surface via enzyme responsive linkages. D-mino was further evaluated for anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity in lipopolysaccharides-activated murine microglial cells. D-mino conjugates enhanced the intracellular availability of the drug due to their rapid uptake, suppressed inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production, and reduced oxidative stress by suppressing nitric oxide production, all significantly better than the free drug. Fluorescently labeled dendrimer conjugate (Cy5-D-mino) was systematically administered (intravenous, 55 mg/kg) on postnatal
Makvandi, Mehran; Tilahun, Estifanos D.; Lieberman, Brian P.; Anderson, Redmond-Craig; Zeng, Chenbo; Xu, Kuiying; Hou, Catherine; McDonald, Elizabeth S.; Pryma, Daniel A.; Mach, Robert H., E-mail: email@example.com
Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with high relapse rates and increased mortality when compared with other breast cancer subtypes. In contrast to receptor positive breast cancers, there are no approved targeted therapies for TNBC. Identifying biomarkers for TNBC is of high importance for the advancement of patient care. The sigma-2 receptor has been shown to be overexpressed in triple negative breast cancer in vivo and has been characterized as a marker of proliferation. The aim of the present study was to define the sigma-2 receptor as a target for therapeutic drug delivery and biomarker in TNBC. Methods: Three TNBC cell lines were evaluated: MDA-MB-231, HCC1937 and HCC1806. Sigma-2 compounds were tested for pharmacological properties specific to the sigma-2 receptor through competitive inhibition assays. Sigma-2 receptor expression was measured through radioligand receptor saturation studies. Drug sensitivity for taxol was compared to a sigma-2 targeting compound conjugated to a cytotoxic payload, SW IV-134. Cell viability was assessed after treatments for 2 or 48 h. Sigma-2 blockade was assessed to define sigma-2 mediated cytotoxicity of SW IV-134. Caspase 3/7 activation induced by SW IV-134 was measured at corresponding treatment time points. Results: SW IV-134 was the most potent compound tested in two of the three cell lines and was similarly effective in all three. MDA-MB-231 displayed a statistically significant higher sigma-2 receptor expression and also was the most sensitive cell line evaluated to SW IV-134. Conclusion: Targeting the sigma-2 receptor with a cytotoxic payload was effective in all the three cell lines evaluated and provides the proof of concept for future development of a therapeutic platform for the treatment of TNBC. - Highlights: • TNBC cells are sensitive to sigma-2 receptor targeted drug conjugate SW IV-134. • MDA-MB-231 displayed the highest amount of sigma-2 receptors and corresponded well with
Candolfi, Marianela; Xiong, Weidong; Yagiz, Kader; Liu, Chunyan; Muhammad, A K M G; Puntel, Mariana; Foulad, David; Zadmehr, Ali; Ahlzadeh, Gabrielle E; Kroeger, Kurt M; Tesarfreund, Matthew; Lee, Sharon; Debinski, Waldemar; Sareen, Dhruv; Svendsen, Clive N; Rodriguez, Ron; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G
Restricting the cytotoxicity of anticancer agents by targeting receptors exclusively expressed on tumor cells is critical when treating infiltrative brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBMs express an IL-13 receptor (IL13Rα2) that differs from the physiological IL4R/IL13R receptor. We developed a regulatable adenoviral vector (Ad.mhIL-4.TRE.mhIL-13-PE) encoding a mutated human IL-13 fused to Pseudomonas exotoxin (mhIL-13-PE) that specifically binds to IL13Rα2 to provide sustained expression, effective anti-GBM cytotoxicity, and minimal neurotoxicity. The therapeutic Ad also encodes mutated human IL-4 that binds to the physiological IL4R/IL13R without interacting with IL13Rα2, thus inhibiting potential binding of mhIL-13-PE to normal brain cells. Using intracranial GBM xenografts and syngeneic mouse models, we tested the Ad.mhIL-4.TRE.mhIL-13-PE and two protein formulations, hIL-13-PE used in clinical trials (Cintredekin Besudotox) and a second-generation mhIL-13-PE. Cintredekin Besudotox doubled median survival without eliciting long-term survival and caused severe neurotoxicity; mhIL-13-PE led to ∼40% long-term survival, eliciting severe neurological toxicity at the high dose tested. In contrast, Ad-mediated delivery of mhIL-13-PE led to tumor regression and long-term survival in over 70% of the animals, without causing apparent neurotoxicity. Although Cintredekin Besudotox was originally developed to target GBM, when tested in a phase III trial it failed to achieve clinical endpoints and revealed neurotoxicity. Limitations of Cintredekin Besudotox include its short half-life, which demanded frequent or continued administration, and binding to IL4R/IL13R, present in normal brain cells. These shortcomings were overcome by our therapeutic Ad, thus representing a significant advance in the development of targeted therapeutics for GBM.
Ning, Hanna; Mitsui, Hiroshi; Wang, Claire Q F; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Gonzalez, Juana; Shah, Kejal R; Chen, Jie; Coats, Israel; Felsen, Diane; Carucci, John A; Krueger, James G
The pathogenesis of BCC is associated with sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling. Vismodegib, a smoothened inhibitor that targets this pathway, is now in clinical use for advanced BCC patients, but its efficacy is limited. Therefore, new therapeutic options for this cancer are required. We studied gene expression profiling of BCC tumour tissues coupled with laser capture microdissection to identify tumour specific receptor tyrosine kinase expression that can be targeted by small molecule inhibitors. We found a >250 fold increase (FDRskin was observed by immunohistochemistry. Crizotinib, an FDA-approved ALK inhibitor, reduced keratinocyte proliferation in culture, whereas a c-Met inhibitor did not. Crizotinib significantly reduced the expression of GLI1 and CCND2 (members of SHH-pathway) mRNA by approximately 60% and 20%, respectively (p<0.01). Our data suggest that ALK may increase GLI1 expression in parallel with the conventional SHH-pathway and promote keratinocyte proliferation. Hence, an ALK inhibitor alone or in combination with targeting SHH-pathway molecules may be a potential treatment for BCC patients.
Darton, N. J.; Hallmark, B.; Han, X.; Palit, S.; Mackley, M. R.; Slater, N. K. H.; Darling, D.; Farzaneh, F.
Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesised and used for in-flow capture experiments in vitro to provide a better understanding of the physical principles that underlie magnetic directed therapy. Experimental observations and modeling work have enabled initial refinement of magnetic targeting strategies and superparamagnetic nanoparticle properties for different therapeutic targeting requirements. It has been discovered that 330 nm and 580 nm agglomerates of 10 nm magnetite cores can be captured with a 0.5 T magnet in flows of up to 0.35 mlmin -1 in 410 μm diameter microcapillaries. These flows are typical of blood flow rates found in venules and arterioles in the human cardiovascular system. Further analysis of the data obtained from in-flow capture of superparamagnetic nanoparticles has enabled an initial model to be created, which can be used to estimate the steady state layer thickness of captured superparamagnetic nanoparticles and therefore capillary occlusion at the target site. This work provides the basis for future optimisation of a completely in vitro system for testing magnetic directed therapy, enabling data to be provided for preclinical trials
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most frequent inherited monogenic demyelinating disease. It is often lethal and currently lacks a satisfactory therapy. The disease is caused by loss of function of the ABCD1 gene, a peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter, resulting in the accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in organs and plasma. Recent findings on pathomechanisms of the peroxisomal neurometabolic disease X-ALD have provided important clues on therapeutic targets. Here we describe the impact of chronic redox imbalance caused by the excess VLCFA on mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration, and explore the consequences on the protein quality control systems essential for cell survival, such as the proteasome and autophagic flux. Defective proteostasis, together with mitochondrial malfunction, is a hallmark of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, and of the aging process. Thus, we discuss molecular targets and emerging treatment options that may be common to both multifactorial neurodegenerative disorders and X-ALD. New-generation antioxidants, some of them mitochondrial targeted, mitochondrial biogenesis boosters such as pioglitazone and resveratrol, and the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus hold promise as disease-modifying therapies. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Tabatabai, Roya; Linhares, Yuliya; Bolos, David; Mita, Monica; Mita, Alain
Wnt signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that controls cell-to-cell interactions during embryogenesis. In adults, Wnt signaling plays a role in tissue homeostasis in almost every organ system. Aberrations within this pathway are implicated in a spectrum of human diseases. A variety of perturbations have been described in both solid and hematologic malignancies, lending way to Wnt signaling as a target for anti-cancer therapy. Of particular interest is the role of Wnt signaling in the development and maintenance of cancer stem cells, a rare population of cells that are able to maintain a tumor via self-renewal and thought to be more resistant to chemotherapy than bulk tumor cells. The ability to eradicate cancer stem cells may decrease the risk of cancer relapse and metastasis. A number of therapeutic agents specifically targeting the Wnt pathway have entered clinical trials, either as monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy. We will provide an overview of agents that have been developed to target the Wnt pathways and a summary of pre-clinical and clinical trials.
Palmer, R Kyle; Lunn, Charles A
The disease of obesity is one of the greatest healthcare challenges of our time. The increasing urgency for effective treatment is driving an intensive search for new targets for anti-obesity drug discovery. The TRP channel super family represents a class of proteins now recognized to serve many functions in physiology related to maintenance of health and the development of diseases. A few of these might offer new potential for therapeutic intervention in obesity. Among the TRP channels, TRPV1 appears most closely associated with body weight homeostasis through its influence on energy expenditure. TRPM5 has been thoroughly characterized as a critical component of taste signaling and recently has been implicated in insulin release. Because of its role in taste signaling, we argue that drugs designed to modulate TRPM5 could be useful in controlling energy consumption by impacting taste sensory signals. As drug targets for obesity, both TRPV1 and TRPM5 offer the advantage of operating in compartments that could limit drug distribution to the site of action. The potential for other TRP channels as anti-obesity drug targets also is discussed.
will interact with the target. Abbreviations: DB number, Drug Bank number; ATC, anatomical therapeutic chemical classification; AMPC, AmpC β- lactamase ...receptor 2; ALR2, aldose reductase 2; AmpC, AmpC β- lactamase ; AUC, area under the curve. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling Article dx.doi.org...Fluanisone, and (C) Fluoxetine. Abbreviations: ALPHA, α adrenergic receptor; D, dopamine receptor; BETA , β adrenergic receptor; H1, histamine H1 receptor
May 1, 2017 ... Keywords: Social Protection, Cash Transfers, Targeting Approach, Challenges, Livelihood ..... Methodology. A qualitative case study design was implemented within the Wa Municipality of the. Upper West Region (UWR), the youngest and ..... Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Method.
Divisia, A; Girard-Madoux, M
The therapeutic action of Tiapridal appeared to the authors particularly precious and constant in delirium tremens, senile agitation and turbulence, whatever the origin, and bucco-linguo-facial dyskinesia, whether the latter were linked to age or whether they formed part of a neuroleptic syndrome. Their experience does not permit them to have any opinion concerning the use of this drug in tremor and chorea, the patients seem to respond favourably to treatment but in an erratic manner. On the other hand the drug was totally inefficacious in patients suffering from spasmodic torticollis and writer's cramp. Finally, it seemed to them useful to emphasise the improvement in comfort in patients suffering from various pains when given Tiapridal. This justifies the place given to Tiapridal among drugs necessary for the daily practice of neurology.
Full Text Available The infective endocarditis is an uncommon disease in the Emergency Department. Anyway, the emergency physician may be in front of the complications of this disease. A case of a patient with fever, laboratory signs of infection and an acute heart failure is described in this article. The final diagnosis was infective endocarditis with vegetations on the aortic valve and severe valvular regurgitation. The definition of infective endocarditis according to the major and minor criteria for the diagnosis is discussed. The echocardiography is central in the diagnosis and management of patients with infective endocarditis in the emergency setting, even if the clinical suspicion is very important. The main available therapeutic options in according to the Internation Guidelines are evaluated. The possible complications are also discussed. Several clinical and echocardiographic features identify patients at high risk for a complicated course or with a need for surgery.
Bueno Muñoz, M J
Over the past few decades, we have been witnessing that increasing fewer people pass away at home and increasing more do so within the hospital. More specifically, 20% of deaths now occur in an intensive care unit (ICU). However, death in the ICU has become a highly technical process. This sometimes originates excesses because the resources used are not proportionate related to the purposes pursued (futility). It may create situations that do not respect the person's dignity throughout the death process. It is within this context that the situation of the clinical procedure called "limitation of the therapeutic effort" (LTE) is reviewed. This has become a true bridge between Intensive Care and Palliative Care. Its final goal is to guarantee a dignified and painless death for the terminally ill. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.
Kasuda, Shogo; Tatsumi, Kohei; Sakurai, Yoshihiko; Shima, Midori; Hatake, Katsuhiko
Hemophilia A is an X-linked rescessive bleeding disorder that results from F8 gene aberrations. Previously, we established embryonic stem (ES) cells (tet-226aa/N6-Ainv18) that secrete human factor VIII (hFVIII) by introducing the human F8 gene in mouse Ainv18 ES cells. Here, we explored the potential of cell transplantation therapy for hemophilia A using the ES cells. Transplant tet-226aa/N6-Ainv18 ES cells were injected into the spleens of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-pretreated wild-type mice, and CCl4-pretreated hemophilia A mice. F8 expression was induced by doxycycline in drinking water, and hFVIII-antigen production was assessed in all cell transplantation experiments. Injecting the ES cells into SCID mice resulted in an enhanced expression of the hFVIII antigen; however, teratoma generation was confirmed in the spleen. Transplantation of ES cells into wild-type mice after CCl4-induced liver injury facilitated survival and engraftment of transplanted cells without teratoma formation, resulting in hFVIII production in the plasma. Although CCl4 was lethal to most hemophilia A mice, therapeutic levels of FVIII activity, as well as the hFVIII antigen, were detected in surviving hemophilia A mice after cell transplantation. Immunolocalization results for hFVIII suggested that transplanted ES cells might be engrafted at the periportal area in the liver. Although the development of a safer induction method for liver regeneration is required, our results suggested the potential for developing an effective ES-cell transplantation therapeutic model for treating hemophilia A in the future. Copyright © 2016 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Global debates on social protection have raised concerns about the appropriateness of the targeting approach for better inclusion. This study contributes to these debates by exploring the specific challenges associated with the targeting mechanism adopted by the Ghana Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty (LEAP) ...
Sheila K. Pirooznia
Full Text Available Dynamic epigenetic regulation of neurons is emerging as a fundamental mechanism by which neurons adapt their transcriptional responses to specific developmental and environmental cues. While defects within the neural epigenome have traditionally been studied in the context of early developmental and heritable cognitive disorders, recent studies point to aberrant histone acetylation status as a key mechanism underlying acquired inappropriate alterations of genome structure and function in post-mitotic neurons during the aging process. Indeed, it is becoming increasingly evident that chromatin acetylation status can be impaired during the lifetime of neurons through mechanisms related to loss of function of histone acetyltransferase (HATs activity. Several HATs have been shown to participate in vital neuronal functions such as regulation of neuronal plasticity and memory formation. As such, dysregulation of such HATs has been implicated in the pathogenesis associated with age-associated neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In order to counteract the loss of HAT function in neurodegenerative diseases, the current therapeutic strategies involve the use of small molecules called histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors that antagonize HDAC activity and thus enhance acetylation levels. Although this strategy has displayed promising therapeutic effects, currently used HDAC inhibitors lack target specificity, raising concerns about their applicability. With rapidly evolving literature on HATs and their respective functions in mediating neuronal survival and higher order brain function such as learning and memory, modulating the function of specific HATs holds new promises as a therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we focus on the recent progress in research regarding epigenetic histone acetylation mechanisms underlying neuronal activity and cognitive function. We discuss the current understanding of specific HDACs and
Benoy, Veronick; Van Helleputte, Lawrence; Prior, Robert; d'Ydewalle, Constantin; Haeck, Wanda; Geens, Natasja; Scheveneels, Wendy; Schevenels, Begga; Cader, M Zameel; Talbot, Kevin; Kozikowski, Alan P; Vanden Berghe, Pieter; Van Damme, Philip; Robberecht, Wim; Van Den Bosch, Ludo
Peripheral nerve axons require a well-organized axonal microtubule network for efficient transport to ensure the constant crosstalk between soma and synapse. Mutations in more than 80 different genes cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, which is the most common inherited disorder affecting peripheral nerves. This genetic heterogeneity has hampered the development of therapeutics for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. The aim of this study was to explore whether histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) can serve as a therapeutic target focusing on the mutant glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS/GARS)-induced peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral nerves and dorsal root ganglia from the C201R mutant Gars mouse model showed reduced acetylated α-tubulin levels. In primary dorsal root ganglion neurons, mutant GlyRS affected neurite length and disrupted normal mitochondrial transport. We demonstrated that GlyRS co-immunoprecipitated with HDAC6 and that this interaction was blocked by tubastatin A, a selective inhibitor of the deacetylating function of HDAC6. Moreover, HDAC6 inhibition restored mitochondrial axonal transport in mutant GlyRS-expressing neurons. Systemic delivery of a specific HDAC6 inhibitor increased α-tubulin acetylation in peripheral nerves and partially restored nerve conduction and motor behaviour in mutant Gars mice. Our study demonstrates that α-tubulin deacetylation and disrupted axonal transport may represent a common pathogenic mechanism underlying Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and it broadens the therapeutic potential of selective HDAC6 inhibition to other genetic forms of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. © The Author(s) (2018). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.
Full Text Available The function of the nuclear receptor (NR in breast cancer progression has been investigated for decades. The majority of the nuclear receptors have well characterized natural ligands, but a few of them are orphan receptors for which no ligand has been identified. RORα, one member of the retinoid orphan nuclear receptor (ROR subfamily of orphan receptors, regulates various cellular and pathological activities. RORα is commonly down-regulated and/or hypoactivated in breast cancer compared to normal mammary tissue. Expression of RORα suppresses malignant phenotypes in breast cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo. Activity of RORα can be categorized into the canonical and non-canonical nuclear receptor pathways, which in turn regulate various breast cancer cellular function, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion. This information suggests that RORα is a potent tumor suppressor and a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer.
Wee, Zhen Ning; Yatim, Siti Maryam J M; Kohlbauer, Vera K
it acts to drive aggressive growth, metastasis and acquired resistance to paclitaxel treatment. We show that IRAK1 overexpression confers TNBC growth advantage through NF-κB-related cytokine secretion and metastatic TNBC cells exhibit gain of IRAK1 dependency, resulting in high susceptibility to genetic...... and pharmacologic inhibition of IRAK1. Importantly, paclitaxel treatment induces strong IRAK1 phosphorylation, an increase in inflammatory cytokine expression, enrichment of cancer stem cells and acquired resistance to paclitaxel treatment. Pharmacologic inhibition of IRAK1 is able to reverse paclitaxel resistance...... by triggering massive apoptosis at least in part through inhibiting p38-MCL1 pro-survival pathway. Our study thus demonstrates IRAK1 as a promising therapeutic target for TNBC metastasis and paclitaxel resistance....
Ray, Balmiki; Lahiri, Debomoy K
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly. Deposition of amyloid beta plaque and associated neuroinflammation are the major hallmarks of AD. Whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activated microglial cells contribute to neuronal loss, nuclear factor kappaB and apolipoprotein E participate in inflammatory process of AD. Current FDA approved drugs provide only symptomatic relief in AD. For broad spectrum of activity, some natural products are also being tested. Turmeric is used as an anti-inflammatory medicine in various regions of Asia. Curcumin, which is a yellow colored polyphenol compound present in turmeric, showed anti-inflammatory properties. Herein, we discuss the neurobiological and neuroinflammatory pathways of AD, evaluate different molecular targets and potential therapeutic agents, including curcumin, for the treatment of AD.
Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour of childhood. Despite significant advances, it currently still remains one of the most difficult childhood cancers to cure, with less than 40% of patients with high-risk disease being long-term survivors. MYCN is a proto-oncogene implicated to be directly involved in neuroblastoma development. Amplification of MYCN is associated with rapid tumour progression and poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic strategies which can improve the survival rates whilst reducing the toxicity in these patients are therefore required. Here we discuss genes regulated by MYCN in neuroblastoma, with particular reference to p53, SKP2 and DKK3 and strategies that may be employed to target them.
Full Text Available Decades of research dedicated towards Alzheimer's disease (AD has culminated in much of the current understanding of the neurodegeneration associated with disease. However, delineating the pathophysiology and finding a possible cure for the disease is still wanting. This is in part due to the lack of knowledge pertaining to the connecting link between neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory pathways. Consequently, the inefficacy and ill-effects of the drugs currently available for AD encourage the need for alternative and safe therapeutic intervention. In this review we highlight the potential of mGluR5, a metabotropic glutamatergic receptor, in understanding the mechanism underlying the neuronal death and neuroinflammation in AD. We also discuss the role of mGlu5 receptor in mediating the neuron-glia interaction in the disease. Finally, we discuss the potential of mGluR5 as target for treating AD.
Full Text Available Sarcoma includes some of the most heterogeneous tumors, which make the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of these rare yet diverse neoplasms especially challenging. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are important regulators of cancer initiation and progression, which implies their potential as neoteric prognostic and diagnostic markers in cancer, including sarcoma. A relationship between lncRNAs and sarcoma pathogenesis and progression is emerging. Recent studies demonstrate that lncRNAs influence sarcoma cell proliferation, metastasis, and drug resistance. Additionally, lncRNA expression profiles are predictive of sarcoma prognosis. In this review, we summarize contemporary advances in the research of lncRNA biogenesis and functions in sarcoma. We also highlight the potential for lncRNAs to become innovative diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets in sarcoma.
Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most frequent cancers and is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Treatments used for CRC may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. The current standard drugs used in chemotherapy are 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in combination with irinotecan and/or oxaliplatin. Most recently, biologic agents have been proven to have therapeutic benefits in metastatic CRC alone or in association with standard chemotherapy. However, patients present different treatment responses, in terms of efficacy and toxicity; therefore, it is important to identify biological markers that can predict the response to therapy and help select patients that would benefit from specific regimens. In this paper, authors review CRC genetic markers that could be useful in predicting the sensitivity/resistance to chemotherapy.
Full Text Available Galectins are a family of lectins characterized by an affinity for β – galactosides through the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD. The extracellular and intracellular presence of Galectins has been described. Their activity and functions are mainly attributed to cell type. The tumor microenviroment is a complex milieu connected with immunosupression, angiogenesis and hypoxic compartments. The studies of interactions between Glycans – Lectins are highly advanced and promising. We are not able to explain the pathogenesis of many diseases only by protein – protein interactions, that is why in these studies is a chance to find a new therapeutic targets. Galectins play a fundametal functions in tumor growth and progression, angiogenesis, adhesion, tumor immune – escape. They are also active in inflammation, fibrosis, organogenesis and immunological functions. The most known Galectin is Gal-3. Depending on the localization Gal-3 may exhibit either pro – apoptotic or anti – apoptotic activity. This publication presents role of Galectins in hematological malignancies and shows potencial prognostoic value and new therapeutic possibilities.
Full Text Available Neuropathic pain (NPP is intolerable, persistent, and specific type of long-term pain. It is considered to be a direct consequence of pathological changes affecting the somatosensory system and can be debilitating for affected patients. Despite recent progress and growing interest in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease, NPP still presents a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 mediates inflammatory and immune reactions in nervous system and emerging evidence reveals that HMGB1 plays an essential role in neuroinflammation through receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLR, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, C-X-X motif chemokines receptor 4 (CXCR4, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor. In this review, we present evidence from studies that address the role of HMGB1 in NPP. First, we review studies aimed at determining the role of HMGB1 in NPP and discuss the possible mechanisms underlying HMGB1-mediated NPP progression where receptors for HMGB1 are involved. Then we review studies that address HMGB1 as a potential therapeutic target for NPP.
Cekanova, Maria; Rathore, Kusum
Cancer is the term used to describe over 100 diseases that share several common hallmarks. Despite prevention, early detection, and novel therapies, cancer is still the second leading cause of death in the USA. Successful bench-to-bedside translation of basic scientific findings about cancer into therapeutic interventions for patients depends on the selection of appropriate animal experimental models. Cancer research uses animal and human cancer cell lines in vitro to study biochemical pathways in these cancer cells. In this review, we summarize the important animal models of cancer with focus on their advantages and limitations. Mouse cancer models are well known, and are frequently used for cancer research. Rodent models have revolutionized our ability to study gene and protein functions in vivo and to better understand their molecular pathways and mechanisms. Xenograft and chemically or genetically induced mouse cancers are the most commonly used rodent cancer models. Companion animals with spontaneous neoplasms are still an underexploited tool for making rapid advances in human and veterinary cancer therapies by testing new drugs and delivery systems that have shown promise in vitro and in vivo in mouse models. Companion animals have a relatively high incidence of cancers, with biological behavior, response to therapy, and response to cytotoxic agents similar to those in humans. Shorter overall lifespan and more rapid disease progression are factors contributing to the advantages of a companion animal model. In addition, the current focus is on discovering molecular targets for new therapeutic drugs to improve survival and quality of life in cancer patients.
Jo, Dong-Gyu; Park, Daeui; Chung, Hae Young
During the past 5 decades, it has been widely promulgated that the chemicals in plants that are good for health act as direct scavengers of free radicals. Here we review evidence that favors a different hypothesis for the health benefits of plant consumption, namely, that some phytochemicals exert disease-preventive and therapeutic actions by engaging one or more adaptive cellular response pathways in cells. The evolutionary basis for the latter mechanism is grounded in the fact that plants produce natural antifeedant/noxious chemicals that discourage insects and other organisms from eating them. However, in the amounts typically consumed by humans, the phytochemicals activate one or more conserved adaptive cellular stress response pathways and thereby enhance the ability of cells to resist injury and disease. Examplesof such pathways include those involving the transcription factors nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, nuclear factor-κB, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and forkhead box subgroup O, as well as the production and action of trophic factors and hormones. Translational research to develop interventions that target these pathways may lead to new classes of therapeutic agents that act by stimulating adaptive stress response pathways to bolster endogenous defenses against tissue injury and disease. Because neurons are particularly sensitive to potentially noxious phytochemicals, we focus on the nervous system but also include findings from other cell types in which actions of phytochemicals on specific signal transduction pathways have been more thoroughly studied. PMID:24958636
Liu, Wensheng; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Peng, Zhihai; Jin, Runsen; Wang, Puxiongzhi; Yue, Fei; Zheng, Minhua; Huang, Michael L-H.; Jansson, Patric J.; Richardson, Vera; Kalinowski, Danuta S.; Lane, Darius J.R.; Merlot, Angelica M.; Sahni, Sumit; Richardson, Des R.
A major problem for cancer patients is the metastasis of cancer cells from the primary tumor. This involves: (1) migration through the basement membrane; (2) dissemination via the circulatory system; and (3) invasion into a secondary site. Metastasis suppressors, by definition, inhibit metastasis at any step of the metastatic cascade. Notably, Src is a non-receptor, cytoplasmic, tyrosine kinase, which becomes aberrantly activated in many cancer-types following stimulation of plasma membrane receptors (e.g., receptor tyrosine kinases and integrins). There is evidence of a prominent role of Src in tumor progression-related events such as the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the development of metastasis. However, the precise molecular interactions of Src with metastasis suppressors remain unclear. Herein, we review known metastasis suppressors and summarize recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of how these proteins inhibit metastasis through modulation of Src. Particular emphasis is bestowed on the potent metastasis suppressor, N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) and its interactions with the Src signaling cascade. Recent studies demonstrated a novel mechanism through which NDRG1 plays a significant role in regulating cancer cell migration by inhibiting Src activity. Moreover, we discuss the rationale for targeting metastasis suppressor genes as a sound therapeutic modality, and we review several examples from the literature where such strategies show promise. Collectively, this review summarizes the essential interactions of metastasis suppressors with Src and their effects on progression of cancer metastasis. Moreover, interesting unresolved issues regarding these proteins as well as their potential as therapeutic targets are also discussed. PMID:26431493
Full Text Available Maria Cekanova, Kusum Rathore Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA Abstract: Cancer is the term used to describe over 100 diseases that share several common hallmarks. Despite prevention, early detection, and novel therapies, cancer is still the second leading cause of death in the USA. Successful bench-to-bedside translation of basic scientific findings about cancer into therapeutic interventions for patients depends on the selection of appropriate animal experimental models. Cancer research uses animal and human cancer cell lines in vitro to study biochemical pathways in these cancer cells. In this review, we summarize the important animal models of cancer with focus on their advantages and limitations. Mouse cancer models are well known, and are frequently used for cancer research. Rodent models have revolutionized our ability to study gene and protein functions in vivo and to better understand their molecular pathways and mechanisms. Xenograft and chemically or genetically induced mouse cancers are the most commonly used rodent cancer models. Companion animals with spontaneous neoplasms are still an underexploited tool for making rapid advances in human and veterinary cancer therapies by testing new drugs and delivery systems that have shown promise in vitro and in vivo in mouse models. Companion animals have a relatively high incidence of cancers, with biological behavior, response to therapy, and response to cytotoxic agents similar to those in humans. Shorter overall lifespan and more rapid disease progression are factors contributing to the advantages of a companion animal model. In addition, the current focus is on discovering molecular targets for new therapeutic drugs to improve survival and quality of life in cancer patients. Keywords: mouse cancer model, companion animal cancer model, dogs, cats, molecular targets
The intracellular anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fragment shows striking homology with members of the insulin receptor family and was initially identified as an oncogenic fusion protein resulting from a translocation in lymphoma and more recently in a range of cancers. The full-length ALK transmembrane receptor of ~220 kDa was identified based on this initial work. This tyrosine kinase receptor and its ligands, the growth factors pleiotrophin (PTN) and midkine (MK) are highly expressed during development of the nervous system and other organs. Each of these genes has been implicated in malignant progression of different tumor types and shown to alter phenotypes as well as signal transduction in cultured normal and tumor cells. Beyond its role in cancer, the ALK receptor pathway is thought to contribute to nervous system development, function, and repair, as well as metabolic homeostasis and the maintenance of tissue regeneration. ALK receptor activity in cancer can be up-regulated by amplification, overexpression, ligand binding, mutations in the intracellular domain of the receptor and by activity of the receptor tyrosine phosphatase PTPRz. Here we discuss the evidence for ligand control of ALK activity as well as the potential prognostic and therapeutic implications from gene expression and functional studies. An analysis of 18 published gene expression data sets from different cancers shows that overexpression of ALK, its smaller homolog LTK (leukocyte tyrosine kinase) and the ligands PTN and MK in cancer tissues from patients correlate significantly with worse course and outcome of the disease. This observation together with preclinical functional studies suggests that this pathway could be a valid therapeutic target for which complementary targeting strategies with small molecule kinase inhibitors as well as antibodies to ligands or the receptors may be used.
Full Text Available Kwadwo Osei Bonsu,1,2 Isaac Kofi Owusu,3 Kwame Ohene Buabeng,4 Daniel Diamond Reidpath,1 Amudha Kadirvelu1 1School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Sunway Campus, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Accident and Emergency Directorate, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, 3Department of Medicine, 4Department of Clinical and Social Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana Abstract: Heart failure (HF is a major public health priority due to its epidemiological transition and the world’s aging population. HF is typified by continuous loss of contractile function with reduced, normal, or preserved ejection fraction, elevated vascular resistance, fluid and autonomic imbalance, and ventricular dilatation. Despite considerable advances in the treatment of HF over the past few decades, mortality remains substantial. Pharmacological treatments including β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone antagonists have been proven to prolong the survival of patients with HF. However, there are still instances where patients remain symptomatic, despite optimal use of existing therapeutic agents. This understanding that patients with chronic HF progress into advanced stages despite receiving optimal treatment has increased the quest for alternatives, exploring the roles of additional pathways that contribute to the development and progression of HF. Several pharmacological targets associated with pathogenesis of HF have been identified and novel therapies have emerged. In this work, we review recent evidence from proposed mechanisms to the outcomes of experimental and clinical studies of the novel pharmacological agents that have emerged for the treatment of HF. Keywords: novel treatment, experimental and clinical studies, therapeutic targets, heart failure
Ozawa, Yohei; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Felizola, Saulo JA; Takeda, Kenichiro; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Ito, Ken; Ishida, Hirotaka; Konno, Takuro; Kamei, Takashi; Miyata, Go; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Sasano, Hironobu
c-Met is widely known as a poor prognostic factor in various human malignancies. Previous studies have suggested the involvement of c-Met and/or its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but the correlation between c-Met status and clinical outcome remains unclear. Furthermore, the identification of a novel molecular therapeutic target might potentially help improve the clinical outcome of ESCC patients. The expression of c-Met and HGF was immunohistochemically assessed in 104 surgically obtained tissue specimens. The correlation between c-Met/HGF expression and patients’ clinicopathological features, including survival, was evaluated. We also investigated changes in cell functions and protein expression of c-Met and its downstream signaling pathway components under treatments with HGF and/or c-Met inhibitor in ESCC cell lines. Elevated expression of c-Met was significantly correlated with tumor depth and pathological stage. Patients with high c-Met expression had significantly worse survival. In addition, multivariate analysis identified the high expression of c-Met as an independent prognostic factor. Treatment with c-Met inhibitor under HGF stimulation significantly inhibited the invasive capacity of an ESCC cell line with elevated c-Met mRNA expression. Moreover, c-Met and its downstream signaling inactivation was also detected after treatment with c-Met inhibitor. The results of our study identified c-Met expression as an independent prognostic factor in ESCC patients and demonstrated that c-Met could be a potential molecular therapeutic target for the treatment of ESCC with elevated c-Met expression. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1450-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users
Ambrosetti, Marco; Scardina, Giuseppe; Favretto, Giuseppe; Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Faggiano, Pompilio Massimo; Greco, Cesare; Pedretti, Roberto Franco
For patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD), either after hospitalization for acute cardiac events or in the chronic phase, comprehensive treatment programs should be devoted to: (i) reducing mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events, (ii) reducing the ischemic burden a