WorldWideScience

Sample records for target illegal metal

  1. New type of metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharov, A.V.; Ankudinov, V.B.; Ogorodnikov, V.P.; Marukhin, Y.A.

    2014-01-01

    Now the technologies based on interaction of high-intensity beams with substance of a target are being intensively developed. As a target it is possible to use the new type of monodisperse metal targets. The principal advantages of new targets type are: target cooling isn't required; there is no induced activity: the target can be used many times; small dispersion on the speed, the size and interaction points with a beam. The basis of a target is the jet of molten metal, following in the vacuum chamber .Under the influence of the special disturbance superimposed on the liquid jet, the jet disintegrated into identical drops. In the vacuum chamber the drops freeze and form into the solid granules. It is possible to receive monodisperse targets from different metals, alloys and salts (diameter of targets is from 30 .m to 1.5 mm). Dispersion by the sizes and speed is less than 1%. The technique allows to receive not only continuous targets, but also hollow targets with dispersion on thickness of wall within 1...2%.

  2. INFLUENCE OF ILLEGAL WASTE DUMPING SITES OF NORTH-WEST PART OF BARLINEK COMMUNITY ON HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydłowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The in-depth analysis of the soil samples study included 6 from 17 catalogued illegal waste dumps localized in the Barlinek Commune (Gmina Barlinek area. The samples were taken from the middle part of each waste dump and at 5 meter distance toward north and south directions. In the collected material the pH values and concentration of lead, zinc, cadmium, cobalt, manganese, nickel, chromium, iron, copper and mercury were determined. The results of laboratory analysis were compared with current standards (Regulation of the Minister of Environment from 9th September 2002 on soil quality standards and quality standards of soil - Journal of Laws 2002 No 165, item 1359 and with the soils classification by the content of trace elements, according to Kabata-Pendias et al. The reason of diversified content of heavy metals in the collected soils samples from different waste dumps is various morphological composition of deposited waste. Nonetheless, waste landfilled on illegal dumps were not significantly influencing the levels of soil contamination with heavy metals. The concentration of Hg, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe qualifies those soils to geochemical natural levels of heavy metals content. Nevertheless, cadmium was the element, which concentration were most often (21 times exceeded.

  3. Assessment of Selected Heavy Metals and Enzymes in Soil Within the Range of Impact of Illegal Dumping Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartkowiak, A.; Lemanowicz, J.; Siwik-Ziomek, A.

    2016-01-01

    Defining the physicochemical and biological parameters in soil under illegally dumping sites provides information on the real threat and the direction of changes in the soil environment. The paper demonstrates the result of changes in the properties in soil as a result of the operation of illegal dumping sites. Soil was sampled from the research points located on the outskirts of the city of Bydgoszcz (Poland) from the site not affected by illegal dumping sites (control C), within the dumping sites, having removed the waste layer (W), and 10 m away from the dumping sites (W 10). In the soil the content of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and sulphur, total content of copper, zinc, lead and nickel as well as the activity of enzymes were assayed. The content of Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni in the soil samples qualifies the soils as representing the soil category with natural content. The greatest activity of all the enzymes analysed was identified in the soil sampled from the control point affected by waste, whereas the highest content of macroelements was reported in the soil from the dumping sites (W 10). A high variation in the enzymes under study in soils confirms a high value of the coefficient of variation (CV >36%). The analysis of correlation confirmed the relationship between the content of organic carbon compounds and the content of zinc, lead, nickel. The soils show a slight value of the coefficient of contamination for heavy metals (CF<1). The contamination degree (Cdeg) ranged from 1.993 to 5.116, which points to a low level of soil contamination with Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni.

  4. Delayed neutrons in liquid metal spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridikas, D.; Bokov, P.; David, J.C.; Dore, D.; Giacri, M.L.; Van Lauwe, A.; Plukiene, R.; Plukis, A.; Ignatiev, S.; Pankratov, D.

    2003-01-01

    The next generation spallation neutron sources, neutrino factories or RIB production facilities currently being designed and constructed around the world will increase the average proton beam power on target by a few orders of magnitude. Increased proton beam power results in target thermal hydraulic issues leading to new target designs, very often based on flowing liquid metal targets such as Hg, Pb, Pb-Bi. Radioactive nuclides produced in liquid metal targets are transported into hot cells, past electronics, into pumps with radiation sensitive components, etc. Besides the considerable amount of photon activity in the irradiated liquid metal, a significant amount of the delayed neutron precursor activity can be accumulated in the target fluid. The transit time from the front of a liquid metal target into areas, where delayed neutrons may be important, can be as short as a few seconds, well within one half-life of many delayed neutron precursors. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the total neutron flux (including delayed neutrons) as a function of time and determine if delayed neutrons contribute significantly to the dose rate. In this study the multi-particle transport code MCNPX combined with the material evolution program CINDER'90 will be used to evaluate the delayed neutron flux and spectra. The following scientific issues will be addressed in this paper: - Modeling of a typical geometry of the liquid metal spallation target; - Predictions of the prompt neutron fluxes, fission fragment and spallation product distributions; - Comparison of the above parameters with existing experimental data; - Time-dependent calculations of delayed neutron precursors; - Neutron flux estimates due to the prompt and delayed neutron emission; - Proposal of an experimental program to measure delayed neutron spectra from high energy spallation-fission reactions. The results of this study should be directly applicable in the design study of the European MegaPie (1 MW

  5. Conceptual design studies for the liquid metal target META:LIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Class, A.G.; Fazio, C.; Fetzer, J.R.; Gordeev, S.

    2014-01-01

    When the construction of ESS (European Spallation Source) in Sweden was initiated, the target station concept selection group decided to reevaluate a variety of target designs to respect new developments in their selection process. The META:LIC (MEgawatt TArget:Lead bIsmuth Cooled) target concept was developed following an extensive analysis of existing and new proposed designs and reached the level of proof of principle within only 2 years. ESS selected META:LIC as comparative target option for licensing purposes during the design update phase of ESS. The present work describes the design motivation of META:LIC referring to properties and design features of other targets. Therefore, META:LIC design is an evolutionary target which incorporates the extensive experience of liquid metal targets. The modular LBE (Lead Bismuth Eutectic) target concept with focus on the target module is introduced. Both, a window target option for the start of operation and a windowless option with extended lifetime are foreseen. Thermohydraulic simulations show that adequate window cooling can be realized. The stability of the free surface in the windowless option has been shown. Robust target module instrumentation based on free surface levels and the MEGAPIE experience is proposed for target control. Since the META:LIC concept foresees a horizontal extraction for both moderators and target from the monolith a safety concept based on the SNS and JSNS experience is proposed

  6. Illegal deforestation in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Travis, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Dr. Dale Lewis, a co-PI on the grant and the originator of the COMACO model, points out recent illegal deforestation in one of Zambia's National Forests to Dr. Alfonso Torres, another co-PI on the grant (from Cornell). LTRA-2 (An Agricultural Markets Model for Biodiversity Conservation)

  7. Preparation of self-supporting thin metal target films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuying; Ge Suxian; Yin Jianhua; Yin Xu; Jin Genming

    1989-01-01

    The preparation method and equipment for thin metal self-supporting target without oil contamination are described. The influence of target films contaminated by oil vapor on accuracy of nuclear-physics experimental data are also discussed. The analytical results on carbon content in the prepared films of three elements show that the equipment is very effective for eliminating contamination

  8. Metallic beryllium-7 target of small diameter

    CERN Document Server

    Zyuzin, A Yu; Vincent, J S; Buckley, K R; Bateman, N P; Snover, K A; Csandjan, J M; Steiger, T D; Adelberger, E G; Swanson, H E

    1999-01-01

    The stellar sup 7 Be(p, gamma) sup 8 B reaction rate has the largest uncertainty among all nuclear reaction rates in the standard solar model. However, the solar neutrino flux predicted for the majority of proposed and existing solar neutrino detectors is directly dependent on the rate of sup 7 Be(p, gamma) sup 8 B reaction. The existing solar neutrino detectors measure rate of sup 8 B decay neutrinos that is too low. This constitutes largely the solar neutrino problem. Existing measurements of the sup 7 Be(p, gamma) sup 8 B reaction rate disagree with one another, indicating the need for more precise experiments. To provide the required targets a new procedure for sup 7 Be production, separation and target manufacturing has been developed. First, a lithium target has been designed for sup 7 Be production at TRIUMF's 13 MeV cyclotron. The lithium target has been extensively tested at 50 mu A proton beam current yielding 8.1 MBq/mu A h of sup 7 Be. An adsorption filtration technique has been developed for sup ...

  9. METAL:LIC target failure diagnostics by means of liquid metal loop vibrations monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dementjevs, S.; Barbagallo, F.; Wohlmuther, M.; Thomsen, K.; Zik, A.; Nikoluskins, R.

    2014-01-01

    A target mock-up, developed as an European Spallation Source comparative solution, (METAL:LIC) has been tested in a dedicated lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) loop in the Institute of Physics at the University of Latvia. In particular, the feasibility of diagnostic vibration monitoring has been investigated. The loop parameters were: operation temperature 300°C; tubing ∅100 mm, overall length 8 m; electromagnetic pump based on permanent magnets, flow rate 180 kg/s. With sufficient static pressure of a few bars, cavitation was avoided. The vibrations in the loop were measured and analyzed. Several vibrational characteristics of the set-up were derived including resonance frequencies and the dependence of excited vibrations on flow conditions and the pump rotation speed. A high sensitivity to obstructions in the loop has been confirmed, and several indicators for target failure diagnostics were tested and compared. A problem in the electromagnetic pump's gear box has been detected in a very early state long before it manifested itself in the operation of the loop. The vibration monitoring has been demonstrated as a sensitive and reliable probe for the target failure diagnostics. (author)

  10. Illegal Drugs and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Illegal Drugs and Heart Disease Updated:May 3,2018 Most illegal drugs can ... www.dea.gov/druginfo/factsheets.shtml Alcohol and Heart Disease Caffeine and Heart Disease Tobacco and Heart Disease ...

  11. Allegheny County Illegal Dump Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Illegal Dump Site dataset includes information on illegal dump sites, their type of trash, and the estimate tons of trash at each site. The information was...

  12. Illegal trade in Barbary macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380477025

    2014-01-01

    While Morocco is well known as the main port between Africa and the EU for the illegal drugs trade and migration, the illegal trade in wildlife is flourishing as well. Next to the illegal large-scale trafficking of tortoises and birds, it is estimated that as few as 5,000 Barbary macaques remain in

  13. 44gSc from metal calcium targets for PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Gregory; Gagnon, K.; Engle, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost and efficient method for producing pre-clinical scale quantities of 44gSc is presented. Production involves proton irradiation of natural unenriched calcium metal followed by rapid separation of radioscandium from the target using hydroxmate functionalized resin.© 2012 American Institute...

  14. Energy efficiency improvement target for SIC 34 - fabricated metal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrer, T. G.; Billhardt, C. F.; Farkas, M. S.

    1977-03-15

    A March 15, 1977 revision of a February 15, 1977 document on the energy improvement target for the Fabricated Metal Products industry (SIC 34) is presented. A net energy savings in 1980 of 24% as compared with 1972 energy consumption in SIC 34 is considered a realistic goal. (ERA citation 04:045008)

  15. Development of uranium metal targets for 99Mo production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Hofman, G.L.

    1993-10-01

    A substantial amount of high enriched uranium (HEU) is used for the production of medical-grade 99 Mo. Promising methods of producing irradiation targets are being developed and may lead to the reduction or elimination of this HEU use. To substitute low enriched uranium (LEU) for HEU in the production of 99 Mo, the target material may be changed to uranium metal foil. Methods of fabrication are being developed to simplify assembly and disassembly of the targets. Removal of the uranium foil after irradiation without dissolution of the cladding is a primary goal in order to reduce the amount of liquid radioactive waste material produced in the process. Proof-of-concept targets have been fabricated. Destructive testing indicates that acceptable contact between the uranium foil and the cladding can be achieved. Thermal annealing tests, which simulate the cladding/uranium diffusion conditions during irradiation, are underway. Plans are being made to irradiate test targets

  16. The Terahertz Scattering Analysis of Rough Metallic and Dielectric Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The terahertz scattering characteristics of metallic and dielectric rough targets is important for the investigation of the terahertz radar targets properties. According to the stationary phase theory and scalar approximation, if the radius of curvature at any point of the surface is much larger than the incident wavelength, and the wavelength is also much longer than the surface height function and Root-Mean-Square (RMS surface slope, the coherent and incoherent scattering Radar Cross Section (RCS of rough metallic and dielectric targets can be obtained. Based on the stationary phase approximation, the coherent RCS of rough conductors, smooth dielectric targets and rough dielectric targets can be easily deputed. The scattering characteristics of electrically large smooth Al and painted spheres are investigated in this paper, and the calculated RCS are verified by Mie scattering theory, the error is less than 0.1 dBm2. Based on lambert theory, it is demonstrated that the incoherent RCS is analyzed with better precision if the rough surfaces are divided into much more facets. In this paper, the coherent and incoherent scattering of rough Al and painted spheres are numerically observed, and the effects of surface roughness and materials are analyzed. The conclusions provide theoretical foundation for the terahertz scattering characteristics of electrically large rough targets.

  17. Energy efficiency improvement target for SIC 34 - fabricated metal products. Revised target support document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrer, T. G.; Billhardt, C. F.; Farkas, M. S.

    1977-02-15

    In accordance with section 374 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), Pub. L. 94-163, the Federal Energy Administration (FEA) proposed industrial energy efficiency improvement targets for the ten most energy-consumptive manufacturing industries in the U.S. Following public hearings and a review of the comments made, the final targets for Fabricated Metal Products (SIC 34) were established and are described. Using 1972 data on the energy consumed to produce specific metal products, it was concluded that a 24% reduction in energy consumption for SIC 34 is a viable goal for achievement by 1980. (ERA citation 04:045006)

  18. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials in the metals and metal products industries (ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead) are discussed. Data preparation and methodology development and analysis of the technological and economic factors in order to prepare draft targets for the use of recovered materials are covered. Chapter 2 provides an introductory discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33, including industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends for the 5 industries: ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead. Chapter 4 presents the evaluation of recycling targets for those industries. (MCW)

  19. Specific capture of uranyl protein targets by metal affinity chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basset, C.; Dedieu, A.; Guerin, P.; Quemeneur, E.; Meyer, D.; Vidaud, C.

    2008-01-01

    To improve general understanding of biochemical mechanisms in the field of uranium toxicology, the identification of protein targets needs to be intensified. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) has been widely developed as a powerful tool for capturing metal binding proteins from biological extracts. However uranyl cations (UO 2 2+ ) have particular physico-chemical characteristics which prevent them from being immobilized on classical metal chelating supports. We report here on the first development of an immobilized uranyl affinity chromatography method, based on the cation-exchange properties of amino-phosphonate groups for uranyl binding. The cation distribution coefficient and loading capacity on the support were determined. Then the stability of the uranyl-bonded phase under our chromatographic conditions was optimized to promote affinity mechanisms. The successful enrichment of uranyl binding proteins from human serum was then proven using proteomic and mass spectral analysis. (authors)

  20. Metal coatings for laser fusion targets by electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illige, J.D.; Yu, C.M.; Letts, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    Metal coated laser fusion targets must be dense, uniform spherically symmetric to within a few percent of their diameters and smooth to better than a few tenths of a micron. Electroplating offers some unique advantages including low temperature deposition, a wide choice of elements and substantial industrial plating technology. We have evaluatd electroless and electroplating systems for gold and copper, identified the factors responsible for small grain size, and plated glass microspheres with both metals to achieve smooth surfaces and highly symmetric coatings. We have developed plating cells which sustain the microspheres in continuous random motion during plating. We have established techniques for deposition of the initial conductive adherent layer on the glass microsphere surface. Coatings as thick as 15 μm have been made. The equipment is simple, relatively inexpensive and may be adopted for high volume production of laser fusion targets

  1. Compatibility of materials with liquid metal targets for SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.R.; Pawel, S.J.; DeVan, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Several heavy liquid metals are candidates as the target in a spallation neutron source: Hg, Pb, Bi, and Pb-Bi eutectic. Systems with these liquid metals have been used in the past and a data-base on compatibility already exists. Two major compatibility issues have been identified when selecting a container material for these liquid metals: temperature gradient mass transfer and liquid metal embrittlement or LME. Temperature gradient mass transfer refers to dissolution of material from the high temperature portions of a system and its deposition in the lower temperature areas. Solution and deposition rate constants along with temperature, ΔT, and velocity are usually the most important parameters. For most candidate materials mass transfer corrosion has been found to be proportionately worse in Bi compared with Hg and Pb. For temperatures to ∼550 degrees C, ferritic/martensitic steels have been satisfactory in Pb or Hg systems and the maximum temperature can be extended to ∼650 degrees C with additions of inhibitors to the liquid metal, e.g. Mg, Ti, Zr. Above ∼600 degrees C, austenitic stainless steels have been reported to be unsatisfactory, largely because of the mass transfer of nickel. Blockage of flow from deposition of material is usually the life-limiting effect of this type of corrosion. However, mass transfer corrosion at lower temperatures has not been studied. At low temperatures (usually < 150 degrees C), LME has been reported for some liquid metal/container alloy combinations. Liquid metal embrittlement, like hydrogen embrittlement, results in brittle fracture of a normally ductile material

  2. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    The introductory chapter provides a discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. It discusses these industries in terms of resource characteristics, industry technology, pollution control requirements, market structure, the economics of recycling, and the issues involved in econometrically estimating scrap supply response behavior. It further presents the methodology established by DOE for the metals, textiles, rubber, and pulp and paper industries. The areas in which government policies might have a significant impact on the utilization of primary and secondary metals and on any recycling targets between now and 1987 are noted. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33. The profiles include such topics as industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends. Chapter 4 specifically covers the evaluation of recycling targets for the ferrous, aluminum, copper, zinc, and lead industries. (MCW)

  3. Legal and Illegal Colours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2008-01-01

    opinions on food additives, including colours, and on the bioavailability and safety of nutrient sources. The WG ADD consists of several members from the AFC Panel together with selected external experts. The draft opinions go forward to the AFC Panel for discussion and final adoption. The adopted opinions......://www.efsa.europa.eu/EFSA/efsa_locale-1178620753812_1178620761956.htm. Accessed 12.05.08.] this paper only deals with some of the major issues that the Panel has faced in relation to the use of food colours. The three topics to be dealt with are (1) evaluation of illegal colours in food in the EU (EFSA, 2005), (2) re-evaluation of the authorised...... food colours in the EU (ongoing, but one opinion on Red 2G has been published; EFSA, 2007), and (3) evaluation of 'the Southampton study' on hyperactivity in children after intake of food colours (and sodium benzoate) (ongoing at the time of this presentation, but an opinion has now been published...

  4. Researching illegal logging and deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical deforestation such as in the Amazon can be studied well from a green criminological perspective. Ethnographic research methods form a useful way to get insight into the dynamics and complexity of tropical deforestation, which often is illegal. This article gives an account of various ethnographic visits to the rainforests of the Amazon in the period 2003-2014. Ethnographic methods provide insight into the overlap between the legal and illegal, the functioning (or not) of state instit...

  5. Falsificación, introducción de moneda extranjera y extracción de metales: la Guerra de Sucesión y sus consecuencias monetarias en la Península = Forgery, the Introduction of Foreign Currency and Illegal Removal of Metal: The War of Spanish Succession...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Teresa Muñoz Serrulla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDurante la guerra de Sucesión española los problemas monetarios, en los territorios peninsulares, fueron abundantes. La interrupción de las comunicaciones con los reinos de Indias impuso una carestía de plata que afectó directamente a la fabricación de moneda. La introducción de moneda extranjera, la extracción de metales preciosos y la fabricación de moneda falsa fueron graves problemas que las autoridades trataron de solventar. La moneda provincial de los diferentes reinos se vio gravemente afectada por la falsificación, esto unido a la extracción de moneda legítima provocó momentos de escasez de moneda. AbstractDuring the War of Spanish Succession, there were numerous monetary problems in the peninsular territories. Interruptions in communications with the American Kingdoms gave rise to a shortage of silver, which directly affected currency production. The introduction of foreign currency, the illegal removal of precious metal and counterfeit currency production were serious problems for the authorities. The provincial currency of the different kingdoms was significantly affected by forgery. This, together with the illegal removal of legitimate currency from America, caused periods of shortage of currency.

  6. Preparation of microcellular foam in cylindrical metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apen, P.G.; Armstrong, S.V.; Moore, J.E.; Espinoza, B.F.; Gurule, V.; Gobby, P.L.; Williams, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The preparation of microcellular foam in cylindrical gold targets is described. The goal cylinders were fabricated by electroplating gold onto a silicon bronze mandrel and leaching the mandrel with concentrated nitric acid. After several rinsing and cleaning steps, the cylinders were filled with a solution containing trimethylolpropanetriacrylate (TMPTA). Low density, microcellular polymeric foam was prepared by in situ photopolymerization of the TMPTA solution. Foam preparation was extremely sensitive to metal ion contaminants. In particular, copper ions left behind from the leaching process inhibit polymerization and must be removed in order to obtain uniform, non-shrinking foams. A study on the effects of potential contaminants and polymerization inhibitors on TMPTA photopolymerization is presented. In addition, a procedure for the effective leaching and cleaning of gold cylinders is described

  7. Illegal Drug Use in Orthodox Jewish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    Orthodox Jewish adolescents are increasingly seeking stimulation with illegal drugs. Eleven Orthodox Jewish adolescents were surveyed with semi-structured interviews on the Orthodox Jewish cultural aspects of their illegal drug use. Adolescents had mixed beliefs about religious teachings affecting their illegal drug use. No consistent pattern existed for particular ethnic aspects of Orthodox Jewish religious practice as a risk factor for illegal drug use. Language used to describe illegal drug use in this population is described. Unlike illegal drug use in secular and non-Jewish adolescents, these adolescents reported very little family discord or poor relationships with their parents.

  8. Process for the fabrication of aluminum metallized pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Ramsey, Philip B.; Juntz, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    An improved method for fabricating pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets with superior heat transfer ability, longer life, and maximum energy transmission. Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite is contoured and/or segmented to match the erosion profile of the sputter target and then oriented such that the graphite's high thermal conductivity planes are in maximum contact with a thermally conductive metal backing. The graphite contact surface is metallized, using high rate physical vapor deposition (HRPVD), with an aluminum coating and the thermally conductive metal backing is joined to the metallized graphite target by one of four low-temperature bonding methods; liquid-metal casting, powder metallurgy compaction, eutectic brazing, and laser welding.

  9. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 directs DOE to set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials for certain industries. These targets are to be established at levels representing the maximum feasible increase in utilization of recovered materials that can be achieved progressively by January 1, 1987 and is consistent with technical and economic factors. A benefit to be derived from the increased use of recoverable materials is in energy savings, as state in the Act. Therefore, emhasis on different industries in the metals sector has been related to their energy consumption. The ferrous industry (iron and steel, ferrour foundries and ferralloys), as defined here, accounts for approximately 3%, and all others for the remaining 3%. Energy consumed in the lead and zinc segments is less than 1% each. Emphasis is placed on the ferrous scrap users, followed by the aluminum and copper industries. A bibliography with 209 citations is included.

  10. The Mexican "Illegal Alien" Commute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Phil

    1986-01-01

    A photo report of the following three treks by illegal aliens across the border from Mexico to work in Arizona reveals the dangers and disappointments the migrants are exposed to: (1) a "carpool" from Southern Mexico; (2) a train ride from Sinaloa; and (3) a 40-mile hike through the Arizona desert. (PS)

  11. Researching illegal logging and deforestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical deforestation such as in the Amazon can be studied well from a green criminological perspective. Ethnographic research methods form a useful way to get insight into the dynamics and complexity of tropical deforestation, which often is illegal. This article gives an account of various

  12. Influence of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser-irradiated metallic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ziyu; Li Jianfeng; Yu Yong; Li Xiaoya; Peng Qixian; Zhu Wenjun; Wang Jiaxiang

    2012-01-01

    The influences of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser interaction with metallic targets have been investigated. Particle-in-cell simulations at high laser intensities show that the yield of hot electrons tends to increase with lateral target size, because the larger surface area reduces the electrostatic field on the target, owing to its expansion along the target surface. At lower laser intensities and longer time scales, experimental data characterizing electromagnetic pulse emission as a function of lateral target size also show target-size effects. Charge separation and a larger target tending to have a lower target potential have both been observed. The increase in radiation strength and downshift in radiation frequency with increasing lateral target size can be interpreted using a simple model of the electrical capacity of the target.

  13. Influence of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser-irradiated metallic targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Ziyu; Li Jianfeng; Yu Yong; Li Xiaoya; Peng Qixian; Zhu Wenjun [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Wang Jiaxiang [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2012-11-15

    The influences of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser interaction with metallic targets have been investigated. Particle-in-cell simulations at high laser intensities show that the yield of hot electrons tends to increase with lateral target size, because the larger surface area reduces the electrostatic field on the target, owing to its expansion along the target surface. At lower laser intensities and longer time scales, experimental data characterizing electromagnetic pulse emission as a function of lateral target size also show target-size effects. Charge separation and a larger target tending to have a lower target potential have both been observed. The increase in radiation strength and downshift in radiation frequency with increasing lateral target size can be interpreted using a simple model of the electrical capacity of the target.

  14. ILLEGAL MIGRATION-CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA FLORINA POPESCU (PANAIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Illegal migration is a mobile phenomenon, which ignores national borders, a threat that originates outside the community and extends to Western societies. This phenomenon is becoming larger and irregular migrants are often in a precarious situation and exposed to the criminals involved in various manifestations of organized crime. The future risk factors of the illegal migration are the demographic bomb, because the population is decreasing in European countries and increasing rapidly in poorer countries, droughts, floods, deforestation, that cause conflicts between climate refugees , extreme poverty, totalitarian regimes, epidemics, can trigger millions of people, the elderly and the working population imbalance which leads to the permanent import of immigrants To combat this phenomenon, states must engage and cooperate with each other. Measures taken by states must balance their integration policy for immigrants, legally residents and asylum policy to comply with international conventions. Also, states must adopt anti-immigrant policies, consisting of subordination visa policy to the interests of international security and exchange of information and, not least, to continue the Schengen process, as a value of humanitarian law applied in the field. The aim of the research is to characterize this dangerous phenomenon for the society and the goal is to identify strategies to combat illegal migration.

  15. Forestry, illegibility and illegality in Omkoi, Northwest Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Anderson

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Opium poppy cultivation in Thailand fell from 12,112 hectares in 1961 to 281 ha in 2015. One outlier exists: Chiang Mai province’s remote southwestern district, Omkoi. 90% of the district is a national forest reserve where human habitation is illegal. However, an ethnic Karen population has lived there since long before the law that outlawed them was created, unconnected to the state by road, with limited or no access to health, education and other services: they cultivate the majority of Thailand’s known opium poppy, because they have little other choice. They increasingly rely on cash-based markets, their lack of citizenship precludes them from land tenure which might incentivize them to grow alternate crops, and their statelessness precludes them from services and protections. Nor is the Thai state the singular Leviathan that states are often assumed to be; it is a collection of networks with divergent interests, of whom one of the most powerful, the Royal Forestry Department, has purposely made Omkoi’s population illegible to the state, and has consistently blocked the attempts of other state actors to complexify this state space beyond the simplicity of its forest. These factors make short-term, high-yield, high value, imperishable opium the most logical economic choice for poor Karen farmers residing in this “non-state” space.

  16. High-power spallation target using a heavy liquid metal free surface flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litfin, K.; Fetzer, J.R.; Batta, A.; Class, A.G.; Wetzel, Th.

    2015-01-01

    A prototype of a heavy liquid metal free surface target as proposed for the multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications in Mol, Belgium, has been set up and experimentally investigated at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory. A stable operation was demonstrated in a wide range of operating conditions and the surface shape was detected and compared with numerical pre-calculations employing Star-CD. Results show a very good agreement of experiment and numerical predictions which is an essential input for other windowless target designs like the META:LIC target for the European Spallation Source. (author)

  17. Experimental study of liquid-metal target designs of accelerating-controlled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iarmonov, Mikhail; Makhov, Kirill; Novozhilova, Olga; Meluzov, A.G.; Beznosov, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Models of a liquid-metal target of an accelerator-controlled system have been experimentally studied at the Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University to develop an optimal design of the flow part of the target. The main explored variants of liquid-metal targets are: Design with a diaphragm (firm-and-impervious plug) mounted on the pipe tap of particle transport from the accelerator cavity to the working cavity of the liquid-metal target. Design without a diaphragm on the pipe tab of particle transport from the accelerator. The study was carried out in a high-temperature liquid-metal test bench under the conditions close to full-scale ones: the temperature of the eutectic lead-bismuth alloy was 260degC - 400degC, the coolant mass flow was 5-80 t/h, and the rarefaction in the gas cavity was 10 5 Pa, the coefficient of geometric similarity equal to 1. The experimental studies of hydrodynamic characteristics of flow parts in the designs of targets under full-scale conditions indicated high efficiency of a target in triggering, operating, and deactivating modes. Research and technology instructions for designs of the flow part of the liquid-metal target, the target design as a whole, and the target circuit of accelerator-controlled systems were formulated as a result of the studies. (author)

  18. Modeling film uniformity and symmetry in ionized metal physical vapor deposition with cylindrical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Junqing; Yang Lin; Yoon, Jae Hong; Cho, Tong Yul; Tao Guoqing

    2008-01-01

    Severe asymmetry of the metal deposits on the trench sidewalls occurs near the wafer edge during low pressure ionized metal physical vapor deposition of Cu seed layer for microprocessor interconnects. To investigate this process and mitigate the asymmetry, an analytical view factor model based on the analogy between metal sputtering and diffuse thermal radiation was constructed to investigate deposition uniformity and symmetry for cylindrical target sputtering in low pressure (below 0.1 Pa) ionized Cu physical vapor deposition. The model predictions indicate that as the distance from the cylindrical target to wafer increases, the metal film thickness becomes more uniform across the wafer and the asymmetry of the metal deposits at the wafer edge increases significantly. These trends are similar to those for planar targets. To minimize the asymmetry, the height of the cylindrical target should be kept at a minimum. For cylindrical targets, the outward-facing sidewall of the trench could receive more direct Cu fluxes than the inward-facing one when the target to wafer distance is short. The predictions also indicate that increasing the diameter of the cylindrical target could significantly reduce the asymmetry in metal deposits at the wafer edge and make the film thickness more uniform across the wafer

  19. Illegal Immigration and Agrarian Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venancio Salcines

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyse the relation which exists between a landowner and the immigrant workers contracted illegally by this person. For this reason, a theoretical model is developed based on the interconnection between the illegal and legal labour market. The big landowner analysed exercises a monopolistic power in the contracting of illegal manual labour. The application of a tariff in two parts permits this big landowner to obtain a greater surplus from the worker.

  20. Illegal Passive Smoking at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Lesage

    2011-01-01

    Results. Ninety-five percent of a total group of 172 OP of Champagne county filled the postal questionnaire. More than 80% of OP's replies identified illegal PSW. The average prevalence of PSW exposure was 0.7% of the total working population. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS levels were considered between low and medium for most passive smokers (71%. Main features exposure to ETS at work for non-smokers was associated with female gender (69.5%, age between 40 and 49 years (41.2% and belonging to tertiary sector (75.6%. Environmental tobacco smoke exposures at work was firstly in the office for 49.7% of the subjects and secondly in the restroom for 18% of them. Main medical symptoms encountered by non-smokers were respiratory tractus irritation (81.7%. Eighty-three percent of OPs indicated solution to eradicate PSW. Illegal PSW is really weaker than fifteen years ago. However, the findings support a real ban on smoking in the workplace in order to protect all workers.

  1. Researching Illegal Logging and Deforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Boekhout van Solinge

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation such as in the Amazon can be studied well from a green criminological perspective. Ethnographic research methods form a useful way to get insight into the dynamics and complexity of tropical deforestation, which often is illegal. This article gives an account of various ethnographic visits to the rainforests of the Amazon in the period 2003-2014. Ethnographic methods provide insight into the overlap between the legal and illegal, the functioning (or not of state institutions, the power of (corporate lobbies, and why tropical deforestation correlates with crimes such as corruption and violence. The use of ethnographic methods in forest areas where trustworthy state actors and institutions are not very present can also present danger and raise ethical issues (such as when the researcher, for reasons of safety, does not present as a criminological researcher. However, a large advantage of ethnographic visits to tropical rainforests is that they allow the gathering of local views and voices, which rarely reach the international level. These local views lead to interesting contradictions at the international level where corporate views and lobbies dominate.

  2. Research on Ground Motion Metal Target Based on Rocket Projectile by Using Millimeter Wave Radiometer Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongyang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available How to detect the ground motion metal target effectively is an important guarantee for precision strike in the process of Rocket Projectile flight. Accordingly and in view of the millimeter- wave radiation characteristic of the ground motion metal target, a mathematical model was established based on Rocket Projectile about millimeter-wave detection to the ground motion metal target. Through changing various parameters in the process of Rocket Projectile flight, the detection model was studied by simulation. The parameters variation and effective range of millimeter wave radiometer were obtained in the process of rotation and horizontal flight. So a certain theoretical basis was formed for the precision strike to the ground motion metal target.

  3. Irradiation tests of 99Mo isotope production targets employing uranium metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.; Wiencek, T.C.; Wood, E.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Suripto, A.; Nasution, H.; Lufti-Amin, D.; Gogo, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most of the world's supply of 99 mTc for medical purposes is currently produced from the decay of 99 Mo derived from the fissioning of high-enriched uranium (HEU). Substitution of low-enriched uranium (LEU) metal foils for the HEU UO 2 used in current target designs will allow equivalent 99 Mo yields with little change in target geometries. Substitution of uranium metal for uranium alloy and aluminide in other target designs will also allow the conversion of HEU to LEU. Several uranium-metal-foil targets have been fabricated at ANL and irradiated to prototypic burnup in the Indonesian RSG-GAS reactor. Postirradiation examination of the initial test indicated that design modifications were required to allow the irradiated foil to be removed for chemical processing. The latest test has shown good irradiation behavior, satisfactory dismantling and foil removal when the U-foil is separated from its containment by metallic, fission-recoil absorbing barriers. (author)

  4. Irradiation tests of 99Mo isotope production targets employing uranium metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.; Wiencek, T.C.; Wood, E.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Suripto, A.; Nasution, H.; Lufti-Amin, D.; Gogo, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most of the world's supply of 99m Tc for medical purposes is currently produced form the decay of 99 Mo derived from the fissioning of high-enriched uranium (HEU). Substitution of low-enriched uranium (LEU) metal foils for the HEU UO 2 used in current target designs will allow equivalent 99 Mo yields with little change in target geometries. Substitution of uranium metal for uranium alloy and aluminide in other target designs will also allow the conversion of HEU to LEU. Several uranium-metal-foil targets have been fabricated at ANL and irradiated to prototypic burnup in the Indonesian RSG-GAS reactor. Postirradiation examination of the initial test indicated that design modifications were required to allow the irradiated foil to be removed for chemical processing. The latest test has shown good irradiation behavior, satisfactory dismantling and foil removal when the U-foil is separated from its containment by metallic, fission-recoil absorbing barriers

  5. Dynamic modelling of heavy metals - time scales and target loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posch, M.; Vries, de W.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade steady-state methods have been developed to assess critical loads of metals avoiding long-term risks in view of food quality and eco-toxicological effects on organisms in soils and surface waters. However, dynamic models are needed to estimate the times involved in attaining a

  6. Investigation of americium-241 metal alloys for target applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.; Rockwell International Corp., Golden, CO

    1982-01-01

    Several 241 Am metal alloys have been investigated for possible use in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Radiochemical Diagnostic Tracer Program. Several properties were desired for an alloy to be useful for tracer program applications. A suitable alloy would have a fairly high density, be ductile, homogeneous and easy to prepare. Alloys investigated have included uranium-americium, aluminium-americium, and cerium-americium. Uranium-americium alloys with the desired properties proved to be difficult to prepare, and work with this alloy was discontinued. Aluminium-americium alloys were much easier to prepare, but the alloy consisted of an aluminium-americium intermetallic compound (AmAl 4 ) in an aluminum matrix. This alloy could be cast and formed into shapes, but the low density of aluminum, and other problems, made the alloy unsuitable for the intended application. Americium metal was found to have a high solid solubility in cerium and alloys prepared from these two elements exhibited all of the properties desired for the tracer program application. Cerium-americium alloys containing up to 34 wt% americium have been prepared using both co-melting and co-reduction techniques. The latter technique involves co-reduction of cerium tetrafluoride and americium tetrafluoride with calcium metal in a sealed reduction vessel. Casting techniques have been developed for preparing up to eight 2.2 cm (0.87 in) diameter disks in a single casting, and cerium-americium metal alloy disks containing from 10 to 25 wt% 241 Am have been prepared using these techniques. (orig.)

  7. Illegal markets: Estimates of global proceeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Darko M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Illegal markets represent a phenomenon of considerable economic, political and social significance whose annual income exceeds the value of a thousand billion USD. Illegal market participants are beyond the reach of government institutions and rule of law while social connections and personal acquaintances play an important role of functional substitute. In the last decade there was a significant increase of illegal trafficking of narcotics, people, fire arms, counterfeit products and natural resources. Both selling and purchase of these as well as other kinds of products and services at illegal markets are generally characterized by high level of organization and presence of strong criminal groups and networks. Although these activities existed in the past their present scope and geographic distribution are without precedent. Measuring unlawful financial flows at illegal markets represents quite a complex task. Various estimates are the result of inexistence of uniform and generally accepted methodology. In addition to this, the special problem is also the consensus of market actors, because of which the phenomenon of illegal markets and distribution of products and services at these markets is rather hidden. The paper defines and analyzes the key features of illegal markets, the role of organized crime at illegal markets, as well as the estimates of the values of financial flows at the markets of counterfeit products, narcotics, and people as goods, or human organs and sexual services, weapons, tobacco products and dirty money.

  8. Perspectives on Illegal Routes in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    University of Kwazulu-Natal. Pietermaritzburg, South ... Key Words: Nigeria Immigration Service, Illegal Routes, Security Policing, Border,. State .... transported weapons across borders to sell them in exchange for food or other commodities. ... The study's respondents were of the opinion that illegal routes exist around the ...

  9. Postsynthetic Tuning of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Targeted Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamoglu, Timur; Goswami, Subhadip; Li, Zhanyong; Howarth, Ashlee J; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2017-04-18

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are periodic, hybrid, atomically well-defined porous materials that typically form by self-assembly and consist of inorganic nodes (metal ions or clusters) and multitopic organic linkers. MOFs as a whole offer many intriguing properties, including ultrahigh porosity, tunable chemical functionality, and low density. These properties point to numerous potential applications, including gas storage, chemical separations, catalysis, light harvesting, and chemical sensing, to name a few. Reticular chemistry, or the linking of molecular building blocks into predetermined network structures, has been employed to synthesize thousands of MOFs. Given the vast library of candidate nodes and linkers, the number of potentially synthetically accessible MOFs is enormous. Nevertheless, a powerful complementary approach to obtain specific structures with desired chemical functionality is to modify known MOFs after synthesis. This approach is particularly useful when incorporation of particular chemical functionalities via direct synthesis is challenging or impossible. The challenges may stem from limited stability or solubility of precursors, unwanted secondary reactivity of precursors, or incompatibility of functional groups with the conditions needed for direct synthesis. MOFs can be postsynthetically modified by replacing the metal nodes and/or organic linkers or via functionalization of the metal nodes and/or organic linkers. Here we describe some of our efforts toward the development and application of postsynthetic strategies for imparting desired chemical functionalities in MOFs of known topology. The techniques include methods for functionalizing MOF nodes, i.e., solvent-assisted ligand incorporation (SALI) and atomic layer deposition in MOFs (AIM) as well as a method to replace structural linkers, termed solvent-assisted linker exchange (SALE), also known as postsynthethic exchange (PSE). For each functionalization strategy, we first describe

  10. Spatiotemporal trends of illegal activities from ranger-collected data in a Ugandan national park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchlow, R; Plumptre, A J; Driciru, M; Rwetsiba, A; Stokes, E J; Tumwesigye, C; Wanyama, F; Beale, C M

    2015-10-01

    Within protected areas, biodiversity loss is often a consequence of illegal resource use. Understanding the patterns and extent of illegal activities is therefore essential for effective law enforcement and prevention of biodiversity declines. We used extensive data, commonly collected by ranger patrols in many protected areas, and Bayesian hierarchical models to identify drivers, trends, and distribution of multiple illegal activities within the Queen Elizabeth Conservation Area (QECA), Uganda. Encroachment (e.g., by pastoralists with cattle) and poaching of noncommercial animals (e.g., snaring bushmeat) were the most prevalent illegal activities within the QECA. Illegal activities occurred in different areas of the QECA. Poaching of noncommercial animals was most widely distributed within the national park. Overall, ecological covariates, although significant, were not useful predictors for occurrence of illegal activities. Instead, the location of illegal activities in previous years was more important. There were significant increases in encroachment and noncommercial plant harvesting (nontimber products) during the study period (1999-2012). We also found significant spatiotemporal variation in the occurrence of all activities. Our results show the need to explicitly model ranger patrol effort to reduce biases from existing uncorrected or capture per unit effort analyses. Prioritization of ranger patrol strategies is needed to target illegal activities; these strategies are determined by protected area managers, and therefore changes at a site-level can be implemented quickly. These strategies should also be informed by the location of past occurrences of illegal activity: the most useful predictor of future events. However, because spatial and temporal changes in illegal activities occurred, regular patrols throughout the protected area, even in areas of low occurrence, are also required. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Changes in Illegal Behavior During Emerging Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiah Haffejee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging adulthood marks a critical developmental juncture during which some individuals disengage from the illegal behavior of their adolescence while others continue to use substances and commit crimes. While risk factors for delinquency during adolescence are well studied, factors that influence persisting or desisting from illegal activities during emerging adulthood have not been fully explored. This mixed methods study utilizes a sample of college students aged 18-25 (N=74 and examines factors differentiating those who abstained from illegal behaviors, desisted from illegal behaviors, and persisted in illegal behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression models indicated peers offending and hours spent studying predicted desisting and peers offending predicted persisting (compared to the abstaining group. Three qualitative themes: family and peer bonds, morals and values, and fear of consequences further explained factors influencing emerging adults’ persisting and desisting choices. Implications for social work practice are explored.

  12. Targeted Structural Optimization with Additive Manufacturing of Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Adam; Hull, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The recent advances in additive manufacturing (AM) of metals have now improved the state-of-the-art such that traditionally non-producible parts can be readily produced in a cost-effective way. Because of these advances in manufacturing technology, structural optimization techniques are well positioned to supplement and advance this new technology. The goal of this project is to develop a structural design, analysis, and optimization framework combined with AM to significantly light-weight the interior of metallic structures while maintaining the selected structural properties of the original solid. This is a new state-of-the-art capability to significantly reduce mass, while maintaining the structural integrity of the original design, something that can only be done with AM. In addition, this framework will couple the design, analysis, and fabrication process, meaning that what has been designed directly represents the produced part, thus closing the loop on the design cycle and removing human iteration between design and fabrication. This fundamental concept has applications from light-weighting launch vehicle components to in situ resource fabrication.

  13. Mercury purification in the megawatt liquid metal spallation target of EURISOL-DS

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhausen, Joerg; Eller, Martin; Schumann, Dorothea; Eichler, Bernd; Horn, Susanne

    High power spallation targets are going to be used extensively in future research and technical facilities such as spallation neutron sources, neutrino factories, radioactive beam facilities or accelerator driven systems for the transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste. Within EURISOL-DS, a 4 MW liquid metal spallation target is designed to provide neutrons for a fission target, where neutron rich radionuclides will be produced. For the spallation target, mercury is planned to be used as target material. A large amount of radionuclides ranging from atomic number Z=1 to 81 will be produced in the liquid metal during long term irradiation. It is planned to remove those radionuclides by chemical or physicochemical methods to reduce its radioactivity. For the development of a purification procedure, knowledge about the chemical state of the different elements present in the mixture is required. We present a general concept of applicable separation techniques in a target system and show some results of experiment...

  14. Uranium fluoride and metallic uranium as target materials for heavy-element experiments at SHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindler, Birgit [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)], E-mail: b.kindler@gsi.de; Ackermann, Dieter; Hartmann, Willi; Hessberger, Fritz Peter; Hofmann, Sigurd; Huebner, Annett; Lommel, Bettina; Mann, Rido; Steiner, Jutta [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-06-01

    In this contribution we describe the production and application of uranium targets for synthesis of heavy elements. The targets are prepared from uranium fluoride (UF{sub 4}) and from metallic uranium with thin carbon foils as backing. Targets of UF{sub 4} were produced by thermal evaporation in a similar way as the frequently applied targets out of Bi, Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pb, PbS, SmF{sub 3}, and NdF{sub 3,} prepared mostly from isotopically enriched material [Birgit Kindler, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 561 (2006) 107; Bettina Lommel, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 561 (2006) 100]. In order to use more intensive beams and to avoid scattering of the reaction products in the target, metallic uranium is favorable. However, evaporation of metallic uranium is not feasible at a sustainable yield. Therefore, we established magnetron sputtering of metallic uranium. We describe production and properties of these targets. First irradiation tests show promising results.

  15. Magnetron target designs to improve wafer edge trench filling in ionized metal physical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Junqing; Yoon, Jae-Hong; Shin, Keesam; Park, Bong-Gyu; Yang Lin

    2006-01-01

    Severe asymmetry of the metal deposits on the trench sidewalls occurs near the wafer edge during low pressure ionized metal physical vapor deposition of Cu seed layer for microprocessor interconnects. To investigate this process and mitigate the asymmetry, an analytical view factor model based on the analogy between metal sputtering and diffuse thermal radiation was constructed. The model was validated based on the agreement between the model predictions and the reported experimental values for the asymmetric metal deposition at trench sidewalls near the wafer edge for a 200 mm wafer. This model could predict the thickness of the metal deposits across the wafer, the symmetry of the deposits on the trench sidewalls at any wafer location, and the angular distributions of the metal fluxes arriving at any wafer location. The model predictions for the 300 mm wafer indicate that as the target-to-wafer distance is shortened, the deposit thickness increases and the asymmetry decreases, however the overall uniformity decreases. Up to reasonable limits, increasing the target size and the sputtering intensity for the outer target portion significantly improves the uniformity across the wafer and the symmetry on the trench sidewalls near the wafer edge

  16. Results of thermal test of metallic molybdenum disk target and fast-acting valve testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgo, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jonah, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, G. F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report describes the irradiation conditions for thermal testing of helium-cooled metallic disk targets that was conducted on March 9, 2016, at the Argonne National Laboratory electron linac. The four disks in this irradiation were pressed and sintered by Oak Ridge National Laboratory from molybdenum metal powder. Two of those disks were instrumented with thermocouples. Also reported are results of testing a fast-acting-valve system, which was designed to protect the accelerator in case of a target-window failure.

  17. The Knotted Sign: Poetics of Illegibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Blanco Santini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One might argue that legibility precedes any concern about poetics, because: What are the poetics of something we cannot understand? However, our interaction with digital technology constantly exposes us to the illegibility intrinsic to its operations. The aim of this essay is to reflect on illegibility from three perspectives: the definition of readability as a Eurocentric cultural regime, the exploration of the poetics of the machine-readable as opposed to the human-readable, and the proposition that we are facing an increasingly ubiquitous regime of illegibility that is not limited to writing. After this vaguely chronological review of the modern history of illegibility, I will attempt to answer: What can the unreadable mean as an expressive resource?

  18. Beware of Illegally Marketed Diabetes Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Good To Be True? Then it's probably a scam. Watch out for these and similar red flags: " ... at illegal marketing of prescription drugs by fraudulent online pharmacies. Signs that may indicate an online pharmacy ...

  19. DAMPAK LARANGAN ILLEGAL LOGGING DAN ILLEGAL MINING TERHADAP PENDAPATAN MASYARAKAT DAERAH PEMEKARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwarno Suwarno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is for knowing the economic impacts of the policy of illegal logging and Illegal Mining ban to the economic society. The method chosen for exploring this study is qualitative method. The research was conducted from January up to August in 2009. The subject is the community of expansion area, Tumbang Samba. Based on this research, it can be concluded that the impact of issuing a policy of illegal logging and Illegal Mining ban is that a decline of income levels occurs, a lot of sawyers become unemployed, furniture and sawmill companies go bankrupt, the society has no longer become illegal gold miners, the ilegal gold mining companies are closed and there are not any immigrants who want to find gold. Tujuan yang hendak dicapai mengetahui dampak ekonomi kebijakan larangan illegal logging dan Illegal Mining terhadap ekonomi masyarakat. Metode yang dipilih untuk menjawab rumusan masalah tersebut adalah kualitatif. Penelitian dilaku¬kan pada bulan Januari-Agustus 2009. Subyek penelitian adalah masyarakat daerah pemekaran Tumbang Samba. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat ditarik kesimpulan sebagai berikut. Pertama, dam¬pak kebijakan larangan illegal logging dan Illegal Mining terhadap ekonomi masyarakat yaitu menurun¬nya tingkat pendapatan masyarakat. Kedua, banyak sekali tenaga penggergaji menjadi menganggur, perusahaan pengergajian tutup, pekerja industri mebelair tutup, masyarakat tidak lagi menjadi buruh tambang emas ilegal, perusahaan tambang emas ilegal tutup dan tidak ada lagi masyarakat pendatang yang ingin mencari emas.

  20. An assessment of illegal fishing in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.; Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Mutandwa, M.; Sandram, S.

    2012-01-01

    Illegal fishing is a worldwide problem. In this study we present the first assessment of illegal fishing in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), Zimbabwe. Information on illegal fishing was gathered from a total of 39 illegal fishers who were arrested within GNP between February and October 2011. Data

  1. Code package for calculation of damage effects of medium-energy protons in metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, C.A.

    1976-12-01

    A program package was developed to calculate radiation damage effects produced in a metal target by protons in the 100-MeV to 3.5-GeV energy range. A detailed description is given of the control cards and data cards required to use the code package

  2. Study of the dynamic fragmentation of laser shock-loaded metallic target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescoute, E.

    2010-01-01

    The irradiation of a metallic target by a high power laser pulse induces a shock wave in the material. Under some conditions, it leads to the production of high velocity ejecta which can damage the optical environment (lenses, mirrors, windows, etc.). With the ongoing development of high energy laser facilities designed to achieve inertial confinement fusion, such as the Laser MegaJoule in France or the National Ignition Facility in the USA, the question of debris ejection from metallic samples subjected to intense laser irradiation has become a key issue. It is necessary to understand fragmentation processes induced by laser shock, and to anticipate and quantify generated fragments, in order to design suitable protections and experiments, and to preserve laser facilities. The main fragmentation processes which can occur in a laser-shock-loaded metallic target and generate high velocity ejecta are: (i) micro-jetting, which occurs upon reflection of the incident compressive front from the free surface, (ii) spallation, which is due to the later interaction of the release wave reflected from that surface with the incident unloading wave and (iii) dynamic punching of thin targets. Experimental campaigns have been performed on high energy laser facilities in the Centre d'Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d'Aquitaine (CESTA, CEA, Alise facility) and in the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, LULI 2000 facility). Gold and aluminium have been mainly studied because they are the two main metallic components of the target which will be used to achieved the inertial confinement fusion. Specific diagnostics have been developed and used during these experiments to study the dynamic fragmentation: transverse shadowgraphy, free surface velocity measurement and recovery of generated fragments. Experimental results have been compared with numerical predictions obtained with a bi-dimensional hydrodynamic code, where a specific numerical

  3. Interaction of a laser-breakdown plasma with a charged metallic target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, B.I.; Grasyuk, A.Z.; Dyad'kin, A.P.; Sukhanov, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of a laser plasma on the potential of an insulated conducting target. It was discovered that the target potential changed stepwise on illumination with a high-power TEA CO 2 laser. A step, ΔU, in the target potential was observed and the dependences of ΔU on the initial potential, laser radiation energy density, and geometrical dimensions of the illuminated region were determined. There was an optimal pressure of the surrounding air for which ΔU had the maximum value. The dependence of ΔU on the pressure was determined, when illuminating a target in air and in nitrogen. The temporal characteristics of the variation in ΔU were correlated with the time variation of the visible and ultraviolet luminescence from the plasma. A mechanism was proposed to explain the potential step accompanying the interaction of a laser-produced plasma with a charged metallic target

  4. Understanding illegality and corruption in forest governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Aksel

    2016-10-01

    This review synthesizes the literature studying illegality and government corruption in forest management. After discussing the theoretical connections between different types of corruption and illegal forest-related activities it describes the major trends in previous studies, examining cross-national patterns as well as local in-depth studies. Both theory and available empirical findings provide a straightforward suggestion: Bribery is indeed a "door opener" for illegal activities to take place in forest management. It then discusses the implications for conservation, focusing first on international protection schemes such as the REDD+ and second on efforts to reduce illegality and bribery in forest management. Key aspects to consider in the discussion on how to design monitoring institutions of forest regulations is how to involve actors without the incentive to engage in bribery and how to make use of new technologies that may publicize illegal behavior in distant localities. The review concludes by discussing avenues for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metal oxide targets produced by the polymer-assisted deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Mitch A., E-mail: mitch@berkeley.ed [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ali, Mazhar N.; Chang, Noel N.; Parsons-Moss, T. [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ashby, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gates, Jacklyn M. [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stavsetra, Liv [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Nitsche, Heino [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-02-11

    The polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) method was used to create crack-free homogenous metal oxide films for use as targets in nuclear science applications. Metal oxide films of europium, thulium, and hafnium were prepared as models for actinide oxides. Films produced by a single application of PAD were homogenous and uniform and ranged in thickness from 30 to 320 nm. Reapplication of the PAD method (six times) with a 10% by weight hafnium(IV) solution resulted in an equally homogeneous and uniform film with a total thickness of 600 nm.

  6. Metal oxide targets produced by the polymer-assisted deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Mitch A.; Ali, Mazhar N.; Chang, Noel N.; Parsons-Moss, T.; Ashby, Paul D.; Gates, Jacklyn M.; Stavsetra, Liv; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Nitsche, Heino

    2010-01-01

    The polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) method was used to create crack-free homogenous metal oxide films for use as targets in nuclear science applications. Metal oxide films of europium, thulium, and hafnium were prepared as models for actinide oxides. Films produced by a single application of PAD were homogenous and uniform and ranged in thickness from 30 to 320 nm. Reapplication of the PAD method (six times) with a 10% by weight hafnium(IV) solution resulted in an equally homogeneous and uniform film with a total thickness of 600 nm.

  7. Liquid metal targets for high-power applications : pulsed heating and shock hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    2000-01-01

    Significant interest has recently focused on the use of liquid-metal targets flowing with high velocities for various high-power nuclear and high-energy physics applications such as fusion reactor first-walls, the Spallation Neutron Source, Isotope Separation On Line, and Muon Collider projects. This is because the heat generated in solid targets due to beam or plasma bombardment cannot be removed easily and the resulting thermal shock damage could be a serious lifetime problem for long-term operation. More recently, the use of free or open flying-liquid jets has been proposed for higher-power-density applications. The behavior of a free-moving liquid mercury or gallium jet subjected to proton beam deposition in a strong magnetic field has been modeled and analyzed for the Muon Collider project. Free-liquid-metal jets can offer significant advantages over conventional solid targets, particularly for the more demanding and challenging high-power applications. However, the use of free-moving liquid-metal targets raises a number of new and challenging problems such as instabilities of the jet in a strong magnetic field, induced eddy-current effects on jet shape, thermal-shock formation, and possible jet fragmentation. Problems associated with shock heating of liquid jets in a strong magnetic field are analyzed in this study

  8. Clandestine abortions are not necessarily illegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J

    1991-01-01

    It is common to find the term illegal abortion misused. Often times this misuse is perpetrated by antiabortion advocates who wish to reinforce negative stereotypes and thus apply pressure on doctors to refrain from performing abortions. Until a practitioner is prosecuted and convicted of performing an abortion contrary to the law, the procedure should not be referred to as illegal. Instead the legally neutral term, abortion, should be used instead. This would better serve the interests of women's reproductive health. There is no legal system that makes abortion illegal in all circumstances. For example, abortion is often legal if the life of the mother in danger. This includes a perception on behalf of the practitioner that the women may be suicidal or attempt to terminate the pregnancy by herself. A practitioner performing an abortion in such circumstances is not doing so illegally. The use of the term illegal abortion ignores the fact that in criminal law one is presumed innocent until proven guilty. A prosecutor must prove 1st that an intervention was performed and 2nd that a criminal intent accompanied the intervention. It is this 2nd criterion that is often the hardest to prove, since the practitioner must only testify that the intervention was indicated by legally allowed circumstances to be innocent. The prosecutor must show bad faith in order to gain a justified conviction. Even abortion by unqualified practitioners may not be illegal if doctors refuse to perform the intervention because it is still indicated. Accurate description of abortions would clarify situations in which abortion can be legally provided.

  9. [Smuggling of illegal drugs by body suffers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksnes, Tonje Amb; Jacobsen, Dag

    2004-07-01

    Body packers are persons who smuggle illegal drugs by swallowing condoms or plastic cylinders containing such substances. Body stuffers are drug dealers or drug abusers who swallow illegal drugs in an effort to conceal evidence during an arrest or in fear of being arrested. We report four cases and discuss management. Asymptomatic body packers may be managed conservatively with laxatives and water-soluble contrast medium. This method allows an accurate follow-up with abdominal radiography. If patients develop abdominal pain or signs and symptoms of intoxication, surgical intervention should be considered. Both types of patients should be monitored carefully.

  10. DYNAMICS OF THE ROMANIAN ILLEGAL DRUG MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Caunic

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has led to an increase in commercial activities running on the illegal markets, its dynamics being largely determined by the balance between profitability and the major risks involved. Revenuesare significant, one example being those obtained from drug industry. In recent years, illicit drug trafficking has seen in Romania an unprecedented escalation, as a result of market liberalization and the movement of per sons and because of the extending the phenomenon both among producers and consumers. This article examines the size of the Romanian illegal drug markets, the countries of origin and drugtransit routes, as well as the profits made by the drug trafficking networks.

  11. Metal doped fluorocarbon polymer films prepared by plasma polymerization using an RF planar magnetron target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederman, H.; Holland, L.

    1983-01-01

    Fluorocarbon films have been prepared by plasma polymerization of CF 4 using an RF planar magnetron with an aluminium target. More than one order of magnitude higher deposition rate has been achieved in comparison with an r.f. diode system operated under similar conditions of monomer pressure and flow rate and power input. A glow discharge in a CF 4 [25%]-argon[75%] mixture was used to incorporate aluminium from a target electrode into the polymer films. The foregoing mixture and another based on CF 4 [87%]-argon[13%] were used in the RF discharge with a copper target. Some experiments with a gold target and pure CF 4 as the inlet gas were also made. The film structure was examined by SEM and TEM and characteristic micrographs are presented here. The composition of the films was estimated from an EAS study. The sheet resistivity of the metal/polymer film complexes was determined. (orig.)

  12. Accumulation of Long-lived activity in heavy metal liquid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubin, Y. N.; Gai, E. V.; Ignatyuk, A. V.; Lunev, V. P.

    1997-01-01

    The calculations and analysis of the accumulation of radioactive nuclei and long-lived activity in heavy metal liquid targets were performed. The dominating contributions to the total radioactivity of radionuclides resulting from fission, spallation reactions and radiative capture by target nuclei for various irradiation and cooling times were calculated and analyzed. The most important parts of neutron and proton spectra were determined that give the dominant contributions to the total and partial activity of the targets. The contributions of fission products to the target activity and partial activities of main long-lived fission products were evaluated. The results of the calculations are compared with the data on Energy Amplifier Project. (Author) 12 refs

  13. Development of 99Mo isotope production targets employing uranium metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.; Wiencek, T.C.; Wood, E.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program has continued its effort in the past 3 yr to develop use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) to produce the fission product 99 Mo. This work comprises both target and chemical processing development and demonstration. Two major target systems are now being used to produce 99 Mo with highly enriched uranium-one employing research reactor fuel technology (either uranium-aluminum alloy or uranium aluminide-aluminum dispersion) and the other using a thin deposit of UO 2 on the inside of a stainless steel (SST) tube. This paper summarizes progress in irradiation testing of targets based on LEU uranium metal foils. Several targets of this type have been irradiated in the Indonesian RSG-GAS reactor operating at 22.5 MW

  14. Development of dissolution process for metal foil target containing low enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, B.; Hutter, J.C.; Johnson, G.K.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    About six times more low enriched uranium (LEU) metal is needed to produce the same quantity of 99 Mo as from a high enriched uranium (HEU) oxide target, under similar conditions of neutron irradiation. In view of this, the post-irradiation processing procedures of the LEU target are likely to be different from the Cintichem process procedures now in use for the HEU target. The authors have begun a systematic study to develop modified procedures for LEU target dissolution and 99 Mo separation. The dissolution studies include determination of the dissolution rate, chemical state of uranium in the solution, and the heat evolved in the dissolution reaction. From these results the authors conclude that a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acid is a suitable dissolver solution, albeit at higher concentration of nitric acid than in use for the HEU targets. Also, the dissolver vessel now in use for HEU targets is inadequate for the LEU target, since higher temperature and higher pressure will be encountered in the dissolution of LEU targets. The desire is to keep the modifications to the Cintichem process to a minimum, so that the switch from HEU to LEU can be achieved easily

  15. Interaction of a laser breakdown plasma with a charged metallic target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, B I; Grasyuk, A Z; Dyad' kin, A P; Sukhanov, A N [AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.

    1981-11-01

    An effect has been studied of the laser plasma on potential of an insulated conducting target made of aluminium. Targets of 2.4 and 6 cm diameter were used. Spot sizes on the target changed by means of a diaphragm. A change has been found in the charged target potential upon exposure to the high-power TEA CO/sub 2/ laser radiation. Dependences are presented of the jump in the target potential ..delta..U on the initial target potential, laser radiation energy density, geometrical size of the exposed region. It has been established that there is an optimal pressure of the ambient air under which ..delta..U reaches maximum. A dependence is presented of ..delta..U on the pressure upon target exposure in the air and in nitrogen. Temporal characteristics of the ..delta..U variation correlate with those of plasma glow in the visible and ultraviolet bands. A mechanism is suggested which explains the potential jump under the interaction between the laser plasma and the charged metallic target.

  16. Narrating Illegal Logging Across the Globe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Georg; Leipold, Sina; Buhmann, Karin

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade illegal logging has triggered the attention of policy makers and scholars of international forest governance. The issue is multifaceted, involving aspects of social and environmental sustainability, development, trade, access to markets and competitiveness. A vivid academic deb...

  17. Numerical investigation on anti-penetration behavior of ceramic/metal target under ballistic impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, H; Wang, Y C; Liu, X; Cao, D F; Liu, L S

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we used the LS-DYNA FE code to simulate the bullet penetration against the target plate with different ceramic-steel ratio of thickness. The main stages of the bullet penetration and damage contours of the target were studied by analyzing the residual velocity-time curves. We also studied energy absorption of the ceramic/metal target. Considering curves of residual velocity-time, we reckon the process of penetration contains four stages. Ceramic performed good resistance before the formation of damage cone of ceramic. But after the damage cone formed, the anti-penetration behavior kept declining. When the bullet started to penetrate the layer of metal, the anti-penetration behavior of target rose slightly. Compared with thickness ratio of 0.4 and 0.6, ceramic with 0.2 absorbed more energy and works longer. Of several different thicknesses, layers of ceramic and steel were studied. Steel per cm absorbed more energy than ceramic per cm.

  18. Experimental study of the features of the running part liquid metal target on lead-bismuth alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznosov, A.V.; Meluzov, A.G.; Novozhilova, O.O.; Efanov, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of the through part of a full-scale liquid metal target of an accelerator-control system, where the working cavity of the target communicates directly with the particle accelerator cavity, are presented. Two design variants were investigated - with vertical and horizontal orientation of the target axis in space and spinning of the flow in front of the nozzle adapter located in front of the entrance of the eutectic into the working cavity of the target. The profiles obtained for the free coolant surface with liquid metal flowing through vertically and horizontally positioned targets are presented. It is confirmed that when the pressure of the free surface of the liquid metal corresponds to the pressure in the accelerator cavity it is possible that liquid metal will not flow into the cavity simulating the connecting piece for inflow of accelerated particles with the piece oriented vertically or horizontally [ru

  19. Exploring differences among illegal activities in the Ugalla Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring differences among illegal activities in the Ugalla Game Reserve of ... This study aimed to explore the differences among various illegal activities occurring in Ugalla Game Reserve, western Tanzania. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Illegible handwriting and other prescription errors on prescriptions at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Brits

    Background: It is generally accepted that doctors have illegible handwriting. The writer usually ... the text.2 The following quote stresses the problem with illegible ... to determine which group of health care workers (HCWs) could read the ...

  1. Liquid metal embrittlement. From basic concepts to recent results related to structural materials for liquid metal spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorse, D.; Goryachev, S.; Auger, T.

    2003-01-01

    At first, the basic features of LME are recalled (definition, characteristics, embrittling couples), together with classical experimental features and open questions. Then, a review of a few very recent results obtained on classical embrittling couples but using new powerful investigation techniques developed in France is proposed. Second we define LMC. The 'LME-LMC' correlation is postulated. Then we concentrate on the LME-LMC problem related to the build-up of the Liquid Metal Spallation target in the frame of the MEGAPIE project. The Russian expertise on LME is briefly mentioned. Then we present some results obtained in the frame of the Groupement de Recherche' GEDEON, focusing on steel grade T91 in contact with lead and lead-bismuth eutectic, in agreement with Russian literature. (author)

  2. Thermal hydraulic numerical investigation of the heavy liquid metal free surface of MYRRHA spallation target experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batta, A.; Class, A.

    2015-01-01

    The first advanced design of accelerator-driven systems (ADS) is currently being built in SCK-CEN (Mol, Belgium): MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications). The experiment investigates the free surface design of the MYRRHA target. The free surface lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) liquid metal experiment is a full-scale model of the concentric MYRRHA target. The design of the target is combined with CFD simulations using a volume of fluid method accounting for mass transfer across the free surface. The model used has been validated with water experimental results. The design of the target enables a high fluid velocity and a stable surface at the beam entry. In the current work, we present numerical results of Star- CD simulations employing a high-resolution interface-capturing scheme in conjunction with the cavitation model for the nominal operation conditions. Thermal hydraulic of the target is considered for the nominal flow rate and nominal heat load. Results show that the target has a very stable free surface configuration for the considered flow rate and heat load

  3. Labour Market Interactions Between Legal and Illegal Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S

    2000-01-01

    This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.

  4. Labor Market Interactions Between Legal and Illegal Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.

  5. Targeted Catalytic Inactivation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme by Lisinopril-Coupled Transition Metal Chelates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Jeff C.; Hocharoen, Lalintip; Cowan, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    A series of compounds that target reactive transition metal chelates to somatic Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (sACE-1) have been synthesized. Half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) and rate constants for both inactivation and cleavage of full length sACE-1 have been determined and evaluated in terms of metal-chelate size, charge, reduction potential, coordination unsaturation, and coreactant selectivity. Ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclo-dodecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), and tripeptide GGH were linked to the lysine sidechain of lisinopril by EDC/NHS coupling. The resulting amide-linked chelate-lisinopril (EDTA-lisinopril, NTA-lisinopril, DOTA-lisinopril, and GGH-lisinopril) conjugates were used to form coordination complexes with iron, cobalt, nickel and copper, such that lisinopril could mediate localization of the reactive metal chelates to sACE-1. ACE activity was assayed by monitoring cleavage of the fluorogenic substrate Mca-RPPGFSAFK(Dnp)-OH, a derivative of bradykinin, following pre-incubation with metal-chelate-lisinopril compounds. Concentration-dependent inhibition of sACE-1 by metal-chelate-lisinopril complexes revealed IC50 values ranging from 44 nM to 4,500 nM for Ni-NTA-lisinopril and Ni-DOTA-lisinopril, respectively, versus 1.9 nM for lisinopril. Stronger inhibition was correlated with smaller size and lower negative charge of the attached metal chelates. Time-dependent inactivation of sACE-1 by metal-chelate-lisinopril complexes revealed a remarkable range of catalytic activities, with second order rate constants as high as 150,000 M−1min−1 (Cu-GGH-lisinopril), while catalyst-mediated cleavage of sACE-1 typically occurred at much lower rates, indicating that inactivation arose primary from sidechain modification. Optimal inactivation of sACE-1 was observed when the reduction potential for the metal center was poised near 1000 mV, reflecting the difficulty of protein

  6. Targeted catalytic inactivation of angiotensin converting enzyme by lisinopril-coupled transition-metal chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Jeff C; Hocharoen, Lalintip; Cowan, J A

    2012-02-22

    A series of compounds that target reactive transition-metal chelates to somatic angiotensin converting enzyme (sACE-1) have been synthesized. Half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) and rate constants for both inactivation and cleavage of full-length sACE-1 have been determined and evaluated in terms of metal chelate size, charge, reduction potential, coordination unsaturation, and coreactant selectivity. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), and tripeptide GGH were linked to the lysine side chain of lisinopril by 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide coupling. The resulting amide-linked chelate-lisinopril (EDTA-lisinopril, NTA-lisinopril, DOTA-lisinopril, and GGH-lisinopril) conjugates were used to form coordination complexes with iron, cobalt, nickel, and copper, such that lisinopril could mediate localization of the reactive metal chelates to sACE-1. ACE activity was assayed by monitoring cleavage of the fluorogenic substrate Mca-RPPGFSAFK(Dnp)-OH, a derivative of bradykinin, following preincubation with metal chelate-lisinopril compounds. Concentration-dependent inhibition of sACE-1 by metal chelate-lisinopril complexes revealed IC(50) values ranging from 44 to 4500 nM for Ni-NTA-lisinopril and Ni-DOTA-lisinopril, respectively, versus 1.9 nM for lisinopril. Stronger inhibition was correlated with smaller size and lower negative charge of the attached metal chelates. Time-dependent inactivation of sACE-1 by metal chelate-lisinopril complexes revealed a remarkable range of catalytic activities, with second-order rate constants as high as 150,000 M(-1) min(-1) (Cu-GGH-lisinopril), while catalyst-mediated cleavage of sACE-1 typically occurred at much lower rates, indicating that inactivation arose primarily from side chain modification. Optimal inactivation of sACE-1 was observed when the reduction potential for the

  7. Illegal streaming as disruptive innovation : How the established companies within the television industry deal with potential disruptive innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Myhra, Cecilie Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was written to examine how the established companies within the television industry in Norway deal with potential disruptive innovations. In this case the disruptive innovation is illegal streaming of sports, series and movies. This is common among the younger population, which is not the incumbents’ main target. In that way, illegal streaming can grow without them knowing it, and in worst case eventually push them out of the market. Especially when the users can “save” 900 NOK on...

  8. ILLEGAL FISHING SEBAGAI KEJAHATAN KORPORASI SUATU TEROBOSAN HUKUM PIDANA MENGADILI KEJAHATAN ILLEGAL FISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch. Iqbal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cakupan, pengertian dan pemahaman illegal fishing yang dipahami dan dianut dalam hukum positif Indonesia adalah pencurian ikan yang berdampak dan berpengaruh besar terhadap perekonomian negara. Oleh karenanya esensi regulasi dan penindakan terhadap illegal fishing di Indonesia seharusnya dipahami pada penindakan pencurian ikan yang berskala besar, yang pada umumnya dilakukan oleh armada-armada asing, kapal-kapal asing yang illegal, yang telah pula berakibat merugikan perekonomian negara (Indonesia triliunan rupiah tiap tahunnya. Dengan model dan jenis pencurian yang berskala besar dan membahayakan perekonomian nasional tersebut, penanganan regulasinya patut diarahkan pada atau untuk mengatasi kejahatan-kejahatan berskala besar dan rumit (sophisticated, yang tergolong dalam jenis kejahatan white collar crime atau kejahatan korporasi. Mengenal dan memahami seluk beluk serta keberadaan kejahatan korporasi, bagi para penegak hukum adalah sebuah keharusan di era modern ini, oleh karenanya tulisan ini memfokuskan pada dua kata kunci (key word illegal fishing dan corporate crime. Mengetahui dan memahami konsep dan regulasi seputar illegal fishing serta kejahatan korporasi menjadi kontribusi penting dalam proses penegakan hukum. Dengan pemahaman atas illegal fishing dan kejahatan korporasi akan menjadi landasan yang kuat bagi setiap praktisi hukum, khususnya penegak hukum dalam berproses acara maupun menentukan jenis dan klasifikasi pertanggungjawaban pidana yang tepat dan benar bagi penegak hukum khususnya para hakim agar berani dan tidak ragu dalam menjatuhkan sanksi pada setiap pelaku illegal fishing atau pelaku kejahatan korporasi. Dengan hukuman yang tegas dan jelas serta pasti, para penegak hukum tidak saja menegakkan hukum dan keadilan melainkan juga telah menyelamatkan perekonomian negara, dengan mencegah potensi kehilangan kekayaan nasional, sebagai pelaksanaan dari fungsi hukum sebagai alat rekayasa sosial.   Coverage, insight, and

  9. Economic incentives exist to support measures to reduce illegal logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Turner; J. Buongiorno; A. Katz; S. Zhu; R. Li

    2008-01-01

    Three studies of the global economic implications of eliminating illegal logging are summarized. Processors of illegally sourced wood would lose from the elimination of illegal logging through high prices for logs and decreased production of wood products. Associated with these changes could be losses in employment and income. Beyond these losses to the processing...

  10. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public...

  11. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall not...

  12. 26 CFR 1.162-18 - Illegal bribes and kickbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bribe (whether or not illegal) made on or after December 10, 1971, by any provider of services, supplier... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Illegal bribes and kickbacks. 1.162-18 Section 1... bribes and kickbacks. (a) Illegal payments to government officials or employees—(1) In general. No...

  13. The Value Added Tax Implications of Illegal Transactions | van Zyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores whether or not the decision in the MP Finance-case (and preceding cases on the taxation of illegal receipts) can be applied to determine if illegal transactions are subject to VAT and moreover if a trader in illegal goods and services should register as a VAT vendor. Although strictly speaking no analogy ...

  14. The Politics of Illegal Immigration, Bilingual Education, and the Commodity of the Post-Technological Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Heliodoro T., Jr.; Sanchez, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing number of undocumented workers entering the United States and the costs associated with educating their children, bilingual education may soon become the target of opponents of illegal immigration. Furthermore, recent leftist shifts in Latin American governments have provided an impetus for an educated biliterate population…

  15. Melt layer behavior of metal targets irradiatead by powerful plasma streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Tereshin, V.I.; Wuerz, H.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high-heat loads is studied. Experiments with steel, copper, aluminum and titanium samples were carried out in two plasma accelerator devices with different time durations of the heat load. The surfaces of the resolidified melt layers show a considerable roughness with microcraters and ridge like relief on the surface. For each material the mass loss was determined. Melt layer erosion by melt motion was clearly identified. However it is masked by boiling, bubble expansion and bubble collapse and by formation of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The experimental results can be used for validation of numerical codes which model melt layer erosion of metallic armour materials in off-normal events, in tokamaks

  16. Melt layer behavior of metal targets irradiatead by powerful plasma streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E. E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.ua; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Tereshin, V.I.; Wuerz, H

    2002-12-01

    In this paper melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high-heat loads is studied. Experiments with steel, copper, aluminum and titanium samples were carried out in two plasma accelerator devices with different time durations of the heat load. The surfaces of the resolidified melt layers show a considerable roughness with microcraters and ridge like relief on the surface. For each material the mass loss was determined. Melt layer erosion by melt motion was clearly identified. However it is masked by boiling, bubble expansion and bubble collapse and by formation of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The experimental results can be used for validation of numerical codes which model melt layer erosion of metallic armour materials in off-normal events, in tokamaks.

  17. Plutonium-241 processing: from impure oxide to high purity metal target disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.; Baaso, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of three plutonium-241 metal target disks, using a precision casting technique, is described. The disks were 0.625 inch in diameter and 0.125, 0.025, and 0.010 inch thick. All three disks were prepared simultaneously in a single casting. The variation in thickness of each disk was within +-1 percent of the disk's average thickness. The plutonium-241 was highly pure, and the finished disks contained a total of only 297 parts per million of detectable impurities. Purification of the plutonium oxide ( 241 PuO 2 ) and the conversion of the purified 241 PuO 2 to metal are also described. (U.S.)

  18. PRODUCTION OF CATHODES AND HIGH PURITY TARGETS OF CHEMICALLY ACTIVE METALS BY MEANS OF ELECTRONIC-RAY MELTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Alifanov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical process of production and restoration of worn cathodes and targets of chemically active metals (Ti, Zr, V and others with the help of cathode ray in vacuum is developed. Regenerating of worn cathodes, targets is carried out by means of insertion in chill of worn base and successive cathode ray deposition on certain places of required quantity of metal (from 2 till 50mm.

  19. [Legal and illegal abortion in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, H

    1970-01-01

    Aspects of legal and illegal abortion in Switzerland are discussed. About 110,000 births, 25,000 therapeutic abortions (75% for psychiatric indications) and an estimated 50,000 illegal abortions occur annually in Switzerland. Although the mortality and morbidity of therapeutic aborti on are similar to those of normal births (1.4 per 1000 and 11%, respectively) the mortality and morbidity of criminal abortions are far greater (3 per 1000 and 73%, respectively). In the author's view, too strict an interpretatiok of Swiss abortion law (which permits abortion to avoid serious harm to the mother's health) does not take into account the severe and lasting emotional and psychological damage which may be caused by unwanted pregnancy, birth, and childraising. In the present social situation, the social and psychological support required by these women is not available; until it is, abortion is to be preferred.

  20. s-wave elastic scattering of antihydrogen off atomic alkali-metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Prabal K.; Ghosh, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the s-wave elastic scattering of antihydrogen atoms off atomic alkali-metal targets (Li, Na, K, and Rb) at thermal energies (10 -16 -10 -4 a.u.) using an atomic orbital expansion technique. The elastic cross sections of these systems at thermal energies are found to be very high compared to H-H and H-He systems. The theoretical models employed in this study are so chosen to consider long-range forces dynamically in the calculation. The mechanism of cooling suggests that Li may be considered to be a good candidate as a buffer gas for enhanced cooling of antihydrogen atoms to ultracold temperature

  1. Study of the advantage and drawback of using Cs+ primary ion beam on metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallerand, P.; Baril, M.

    1977-01-01

    The simplicity of the design of the thermoionic primary ion-source renders its use very easy. Four groups of targets were studied: 1) pure metals (Cu, Cd, Al, Mo, Pb, Zn); 2) various phosphor bronzes of certified composition; 3) four different iron and nickel stainless steels; 4) two kinds of Babbitt alloys. The intensity of the positive spectra is much lower than that of the negative ones. But both contain useful complementary information. Combining the use of a leak of oxygen with the bombardment by Cs + ion enables the detection of many elements at a much lower level of concentration. The easiness of cluster production is another characteristic of Cs + bombardment. (Auth.)

  2. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Illegality of international population movements in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolski, M

    2000-01-01

    Until the beginning of the 1990s Poland did not receive foreign migrants. Thereafter, the situation changed dramatically. A large part of the inflow proved to be illegal migrants, many of whom were in transit to Western Europe. Although these movements gradually declined in the second half of the decade, some became increasingly identified with relatively sophisticated smuggling of people. Foreigners smuggled from the South to the West, together with the international criminal networks assisting them, became typical of the migratory movements of people in Central and Eastern Europe during the 1990s. This article seeks to describe illegal migration from the perspective of Poland, a country often perceived as a major transit area in the smuggling of persons to Western Europe. The conclusions draw on the findings of several surveys recently carried out in Poland. Basic concepts related to illegal migration are defined and juxtaposed, and various myths and stereotypes concerning it that most often stem from the paucity of empirical evidence are examined. Finally, the trends observed in Poland are interpreted within the larger context of contemporary European migration.

  4. Analytical model for cratering of semi-infinite metallic targets by long rod penetrators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Analytical model is presented herein to predict the diameter of crater in semi-infinite metallic targets struck by a long rod penetrator. Based on the observation that two mechanisms such as mushrooming and cavitation are involved in cavity expansion by a long rod penetrator, the model is constructed by using the laws of conservation of mass, momentum, energy, together with the u-v relationship of the newly suggested 1D theory of long rod penetration (see Lan and Wen, Sci China Tech Sci, 2010, 53(5): 1364–1373). It is demonstrated that the model predictions are in good agreement with available experimental data and numerical simulations obtained for the combinations of penetrator and target made of different materials.

  5. Experimental and numerical investigation of liquid-metal free-surface flows in spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batta, A., E-mail: batta@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany Hermann-von-Helmholtz-PLATZ 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Class, A.G.; Litfin, K.; Wetzel, Th. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany Hermann-von-Helmholtz-PLATZ 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Moreau, V.; Massidda, L. [CRS4 Centre for Advanced Studies, Research and Development in Sardinia, Polaris, Edificio 1, 09010 Pula, CA (Italy); Thomas, S.; Lakehal, D. [ASCOMP GmbH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Angeli, D.; Losi, G. [DIEF – Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); Mooney, K.G. [University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Amherst (United States); Van Tichelen, K. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Experimental study of free surface for lead bismuth eutectic target. • Numerical investigation of free surface of a liquid metal target. • Advanced free surface modelling. - Abstract: Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are extensively investigated for the transmutation of high-level nuclear waste within many worldwide research programs. The first advanced design of an ADS system is currently developed in SCK• CEN, Mol, Belgium: the Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications (MYRRHA). Many European research programs support the design of MYRRHA. In the framework of the Euratom project ‘Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative nuclear Systems (THINS)’ a liquid-metal free-surface experiment is performed at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA) of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The experiment investigates a full-scale model of the concentric free-surface spallation target of MYRRHA using Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) as coolant. In parallel, numerical free surface models are developed and tested which are reviewed in the article. A volume-of-fluid method, a moving mesh model, a free surface model combining the Level-Set method with Large-Eddy Simulation model and a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics approach are investigated. Verification of the tested models is based on the experimental results obtained within the THINS project and on previous water experiments performed at the University Catholic de Louvain (UCL) within the Euratom project ‘EUROpean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS)’. The design of the target enables a high fluid velocity and a stable surface at the beam entry. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of both experimental and numerical results obtained for free surface target characterization. Without entering in technical details, the status, the major achievements and lessons for the future with respect to

  6. Metal doped fluorocarbon polymer films prepared by plasma polymerization using an RF planar magnetron target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederman, H.; Holland, L. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Lab. for Plasma Materials Processing)

    1983-07-01

    Fluorocarbon films have been prepared by plasma polymerization of CF/sub 4/ using an RF planar magnetron with an aluminium target. More than one order of magnitude higher deposition rate has been achieved in comparison with an R.F. diode system operated under similar conditions of monomer pressure and flow rate and power input. A glow discharge in a CF/sub 4/(25%)-argon(75%) mixture was used to incorporate aluminium from a target electrode into the polymer films. The foregoing mixture and another based on CF/sub 4/(87%)-argon(13%) were used in the RF discharge with a copper target. Some experiments with a gold target and pure CF/sub 4/ as the inlet gas were also made. The film structure was examined by SEM and TEM and characteristic micrographs are presented here. The composition of the films was estimated from an EAS study. The sheet resistivity of the metal/polymer film complexes was determined.

  7. Convection in molten pool created by a concentrated energy flux on a solid metal target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikshit, B.; Zende, G. R.; Bhatia, M. S.; Suri, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    During surface evaporation of metals by use of a concentrated energy flux such as electron beam or lasers, a liquid metal pool having a very high temperature gradient is formed around the hot zone created by the beam. Due to temperature dependence of surface tension, density, and depression of the evaporating surface caused by back pressure of the emitted vapor in this molten pool, a strong convective current sets in the molten pool. A proposition is made that this convection may pass through three different stages during increase in the electron beam power depending upon dominance of the various driving forces. To confirm this, convective heat transfer is quantified in terms of dimensionless Nusselt number and its evolution with power is studied in an experiment using aluminum, copper, and zirconium as targets. These experimentally determined values are also compared to the theoretical values predicted by earlier researchers to test the validity of their assumptions and to know about the type of flow in the melt pool. Thus, conclusion about the physical characteristics of flow in the molten pool of metals could be drawn by considering the roles of surface tension and curvature of the evaporating surface on the evolution of convective heat transfer.

  8. Evaluation of target power supplies for krypton storage in sputter-deposited metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwell, E.N.; McClanahan, E.D.; Moss, R.W.

    1986-04-01

    Implantation of 85 Kr in a growing sputtered metal deposit has been studied for the containment of 85 Kr recovered from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. PNL, as part of DOE's research program for 85 Kr storage, has developed krypton trapping storage devices (KTSDs) in a range of sizes for ''cold'' and radioactive testing. The KTSD is a stainless steel canister that contains a sputtering target for depositing an amorphous rare-earth transition metal on the inner wall and simultaneously implanting low-energy krypton ions in the growing deposit. This report covers the design requirements for the target power supply and the description, testing and evaluation of three basic designs. The designs chosen for evaluation were: (1) a standard commercial power supply with an external PNL-designed current interrupter, (2) a commercially manufactured power supply with an integral series-type interrupter, and (3) a commercially manufactured power supply with an integral shunt-type interrupter. The units were compared on the basis of performance, reliability, and life-cycle cost. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Advantageous use of metallic cobalt in the target for pulsed laser deposition of cobalt-doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Minju, E-mail: mjying@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: g.gehring@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Blythe, Harry J.; Gerriu, Fatma M.; Fox, A. Mark; Gehring, Gillian A., E-mail: mjying@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: g.gehring@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Dizayee, Wala [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Department of Science, Salahaddin University, Erbil (Iraq); Heald, Steve M. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    We investigate the magnetic properties of ZnCoO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from targets made containing metallic Co or CoO precursors instead of the usual Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. We find that the films grown from metallic Co precursors in an oxygen rich environment contain negligible amounts of Co metal and have a large magnetization at room temperature. Structural analysis by X-ray diffraction and magneto-optical measurements indicate that the enhanced magnetism is due, in part, from Zn vacancies that partially compensate the naturally occurring n-type defects. We conclude that strongly magnetic films of Zn{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.05}O that do not contain metallic cobalt can be grown by PLD from Co-metal-precursor targets if the films are grown in an oxygen atmosphere.

  10. Characteristics of illegal and legal cigarette packs sold in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Rodrigo; Corral, Juan E; Monzon, Diego; Yoon, Mira; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2016-11-25

    Guatemala, as a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is required to regulate cigarette packaging and labeling and eliminate illicit tobacco trade. Current packaging and labeling characteristics (of legal and illegal cigarettes) and their compliance with the FCTC is unknown. We sought to analyze package and label characteristics of illegal and legal cigarettes sold in Guatemala. We visited the 22 largest traditional markets in the country to purchase illegal cigarettes. All brands registered on tobacco industry websites were purchased as legal cigarettes. Analysis compared labeling characteristics of illegal and legal packs. Most (95%) markets and street vendors sold illegal cigarettes; 104 packs were purchased (79 illegal and 25 legal). Ten percent of illegal and none of the legal packs had misleading terms. Half of the illegal packs had a warning label covering 26 to 50% of the pack surface. All legal packs had a label covering 25% of the surface. Illegal packs were more likely to have information on constituents and emissions (85% vs. 45%, p Guatemala, neither illegal nor legal cigarette packs comply with FCTC labeling mandates. Urgent implementation and enforcement of the FCTC is necessary to halt the tobacco epidemic.

  11. Metal cofactor modulated folding and target recognition of HIV-1 NCp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weitong; Ji, Dongqing; Xu, Xiulian

    2018-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid 7 (NCp7) plays crucial roles in multiple stages of HIV-1 life cycle, and its biological functions rely on the binding of zinc ions. Understanding the molecular mechanism of how the zinc ions modulate the conformational dynamics and functions of the NCp7 is essential for the drug development and HIV-1 treatment. In this work, using a structure-based coarse-grained model, we studied the effects of zinc cofactors on the folding and target RNA(SL3) recognition of the NCp7 by molecular dynamics simulations. After reproducing some key properties of the zinc binding and folding of the NCp7 observed in previous experiments, our simulations revealed several interesting features in the metal ion modulated folding and target recognition. Firstly, we showed that the zinc binding makes the folding transition states of the two zinc fingers less structured, which is in line with the Hammond effect observed typically in mutation, temperature or denaturant induced perturbations to protein structure and stability. Secondly, We showed that there exists mutual interplay between the zinc ion binding and NCp7-target recognition. Binding of zinc ions enhances the affinity between the NCp7 and the target RNA, whereas the formation of the NCp7-RNA complex reshapes the intrinsic energy landscape of the NCp7 and increases the stability and zinc affinity of the two zinc fingers. Thirdly, by characterizing the effects of salt concentrations on the target RNA recognition, we showed that the NCp7 achieves optimal balance between the affinity and binding kinetics near the physiologically relevant salt concentrations. In addition, the effects of zinc binding on the inter-domain conformational flexibility and folding cooperativity of the NCp7 were also discussed.

  12. Metal cofactor modulated folding and target recognition of HIV-1 NCp7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitong Ren

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 nucleocapsid 7 (NCp7 plays crucial roles in multiple stages of HIV-1 life cycle, and its biological functions rely on the binding of zinc ions. Understanding the molecular mechanism of how the zinc ions modulate the conformational dynamics and functions of the NCp7 is essential for the drug development and HIV-1 treatment. In this work, using a structure-based coarse-grained model, we studied the effects of zinc cofactors on the folding and target RNA(SL3 recognition of the NCp7 by molecular dynamics simulations. After reproducing some key properties of the zinc binding and folding of the NCp7 observed in previous experiments, our simulations revealed several interesting features in the metal ion modulated folding and target recognition. Firstly, we showed that the zinc binding makes the folding transition states of the two zinc fingers less structured, which is in line with the Hammond effect observed typically in mutation, temperature or denaturant induced perturbations to protein structure and stability. Secondly, We showed that there exists mutual interplay between the zinc ion binding and NCp7-target recognition. Binding of zinc ions enhances the affinity between the NCp7 and the target RNA, whereas the formation of the NCp7-RNA complex reshapes the intrinsic energy landscape of the NCp7 and increases the stability and zinc affinity of the two zinc fingers. Thirdly, by characterizing the effects of salt concentrations on the target RNA recognition, we showed that the NCp7 achieves optimal balance between the affinity and binding kinetics near the physiologically relevant salt concentrations. In addition, the effects of zinc binding on the inter-domain conformational flexibility and folding cooperativity of the NCp7 were also discussed.

  13. Activity targets for nanostructured platinum-group-metal-free catalysts in hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzler, Brian P.; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Wittkopf, Jarrid A.; Yan, Yushan

    2016-12-01

    Fuel cells are the zero-emission automotive power source that best preserves the advantages of gasoline automobiles: low upfront cost, long driving range and fast refuelling. To make fuel-cell cars a reality, the US Department of Energy has set a fuel cell system cost target of US$30 kW-1 in the long-term, which equates to US$2,400 per vehicle, excluding several major powertrain components (in comparison, a basic, but complete, internal combustion engine system costs approximately US$3,000). To date, most research for automotive applications has focused on proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), because these systems have demonstrated the highest power density. Recently, however, an alternative technology, hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMFCs), has gained significant attention, because of the possibility to use stable platinum-group-metal-free catalysts, with inherent, long-term cost advantages. In this Perspective, we discuss the cost profile of PEMFCs and the advantages offered by HEMFCs. In particular, we discuss catalyst development needs for HEMFCs and set catalyst activity targets to achieve performance parity with state-of-the-art automotive PEMFCs. Meeting these targets requires careful optimization of nanostructures to pack high surface areas into a small volume, while maintaining high area-specific activity and favourable pore-transport properties.

  14. Enhanced electron emission from coated metal targets: Effect of surface thickness on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madas, Saibabu; Mishra, S. K.; Upadhyay Kahaly, Mousumi

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we establish an analytical formalism to address the temperature dependent electron emission from a metallic target with thin coating, operating at a finite temperature. Taking into account three dimensional parabolic energy dispersion for the target (base) material and suitable thickness dependent energy dispersion for the coating layer, Fermi Dirac statistics of electron energy distribution and Fowler's mechanism of the electron emission, we discuss the dependence of the emission flux on the physical properties such as the Fermi level, work function, thickness of the coating material, and operating temperature. Our systematic estimation of how the thickness of coating affects the emission current demonstrates superior emission characteristics for thin coating layer at high temperature (above 1000 K), whereas in low temperature regime, a better response is expected from thicker coating layer. This underlying fundamental behavior appears to be essentially identical for all configurations when work function of the coating layer is lower than that of the bulk target work function. The analysis and predictions could be useful in designing new coated materials with suitable thickness for applications in the field of thin film devices and field emitters.

  15. Enhanced electron emission from coated metal targets: Effect of surface thickness on performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibabu Madas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we establish an analytical formalism to address the temperature dependent electron emission from a metallic target with thin coating, operating at a finite temperature. Taking into account three dimensional parabolic energy dispersion for the target (base material and suitable thickness dependent energy dispersion for the coating layer, Fermi Dirac statistics of electron energy distribution and Fowler’s mechanism of the electron emission, we discuss the dependence of the emission flux on the physical properties such as the Fermi level, work function, thickness of the coating material, and operating temperature. Our systematic estimation of how the thickness of coating affects the emission current demonstrates superior emission characteristics for thin coating layer at high temperature (above 1000 K, whereas in low temperature regime, a better response is expected from thicker coating layer. This underlying fundamental behavior appears to be essentially identical for all configurations when work function of the coating layer is lower than that of the bulk target work function. The analysis and predictions could be useful in designing new coated materials with suitable thickness for applications in the field of thin film devices and field emitters.

  16. EURISOL Multi-MW Target: Investigation of the hydrodynamics of liquid metal (Hg) jet

    CERN Document Server

    Freibergs, J

    In order to develop a windowless target it is necessary to investigate the hydrodynamics of liquid metal (Hg) jet. On the basis of the schematic layout of a high-power target module presented in Ref. [2], and the parameters of the windowless target (speed of the mercury jet up to 30 m/s, diameter of jet 10-20 mm and length of jet about 1 m), a first estimation of the parameters of the main components of a Hg-loop has been obtained by the Institute of Physics, University of Latvia. A preliminary engineering design of a functional Hg-loop to be constructed soon is also proposed. A simplified water stand has been developed with the ability of testing different Hg-nozzle configurations. The tests carried out showed that the kinetic energy of the jet is so high that the coaxial water flow at contact point is transformed into small bubbles (spray). The characteristics of the jet were shown to depend on the pressure of the stand.

  17. Illegal aliens, unemployment and immigration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djajic, S

    1987-02-01

    "This paper develops a simple two-country model of illegal immigration in an attempt to examine the interaction among variables such as the stock of migrant labor, the unemployment rates of the two economies, and the rate of spending by the host country on the enforcement of its immigration restrictions. The focus of the analysis is on the dynamics of immigration policy and on its role in determining the nature of the mechanism by which disturbances to the labor market of one country are transmitted to that of the other in the short run and in the long run." excerpt

  18. The saturation phenomenon in Kr85 ion implantation in metallic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista Junior, V. de P.

    1978-01-01

    Noble gases, as Krypton containing the radioative isotope Kr 85 , can be stably incorporated into a wide variety of solids and used as tracers or a kind of sensitive probe to measure chemical and physical phenomena. A general review is presented about the methods of incorporation with emphasis on ion bombardment and saturation. The problem of saturation of metal targets was correlated to certain properties in order to get a mathematical approach. Six properties were chosen as more significative to produce a simple model of saturation on experiments of ion implantation with Kr 85 at 45 KeV. The accuracy of the model is limited by the experimental error, the available data and its own simplicity. (Author) [pt

  19. Fabrication of self supporting metallic rare earth targets using a piezo-electric quartz as substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetti, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    Metallic self-supporting targets of cerium and praseodymium of 1 to 2.5mg/cm 2 on a diameter of 18mm were made using the process of evaporation by electron bombardment. Materials are placed on a piezo-electric quartz which permits the direct and precise measurement of the mass of the deposit. Then, such a deposit must be removed and placed on a frame in an environment of argon gas. This method is important because it can be used for small quantities of materials (case of separated isotopes). These high purity foils are used for the study of (d,n) reactions with the Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator [fr

  20. On the Macroeconomic and Welfare Effects of Illegal Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiangbo

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the macroeconomic and welfare effects of illegal immigration on the native born within a dynamic general equilibrium framework with labor market frictions. A key feature of the model is that job competition is allowed for between domestic workers and illegal immigrants. We calibrate the model to match some key statistics of the postwar U.S. economy. The model predicts that in the long run illegal immigration is a boon, but the employment opportunities of domestic wo...

  1. Measurement of free-surface of liquid metal lithium jet for IFMIF target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroo Kondo; Nobuo Yamaoka; Takuji Kanemura; Seiji Miyamoto; Hiroshi Horiike; Mizuho Ida; Hiroo Nakamura; Izuru Matsushita; Takeo Muroga

    2006-01-01

    This reports an experimental study on flow characteristics of a lithium target flow of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). Surface shapes of the target were tried to measure by pattern projection method that is a three dimensional image measurement method. Irregularity of the surface shape caused by surface wakes was successfully measured by the method. IFMIF liquid lithium target is formed a flat plane jet of 25 mm in depth and 260 mm in width, and flows in a flow velocity range of 10 to 20 m/s. Aim of this study is to develop measurement techniques for monitoring of the target when IFMIF is in operation. The lithium target flow is high speed jet and the temperature high is more than 500 K. Also, light is not transmitted into liquid metal lithium. Therefore, almost of all flow measurement techniques developed for water are not used for lithium flow. In this study, pattern projection method was employed to measure the surface irregularity of the target. In the method, stripe patterns are projected onto the flow surface. The projected patterns are deformed according the surface shape. Three-dimensional surface shape is measured by analyzing the deformed patterns recorded using a CCD camera. The method uses the property that lithium dose not transmit visible lights. The experiments were carried out using a lithium loop at Osaka University. In this facility, lithium plane jet of 10 mm in depth and 70 mm width is obtained in the velocity range of less than 15 m/s using a two contractions nozzle. The pattern projection method was used to measure the amplitude of surface irregularity caused by surface wakes. The surface wakes were generated from small damaged at the nozzle edge caused by erosion, and those were successfully measured by the method. The measurement results showed the amplitude of the surface wakes were approximately equal to a size of damage of a nozzle. The amplitude was decreasing with distance to down stream and with decreasing

  2. An exploratory study of illegal gamblers in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tessler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigates the nature and behaviour of illegal gamblers in Hong Kong. A face-to-face street survey of 512 gamblers was conducted in Hong Kong between September and December 2015 with supplementary convenience sampling allowing for analysis of a total sample of 103 illegal gamblers. 56% of illegal gamblers recorded results consistent with this study’s definition of ‘excessive gambling’ [i.e. moderate risk and problem gamblers under the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI]. 81% of surveyed illegal gamblers were male, 77% were aged between 30 and 49 and 67% were in blue collar occupations. Illegal gamblers bet more frequently on both legal and illegal games than their legal counterparts and spent more when they did bet. While this research did not indicate the direction of causality between illegal and excessive gambling, international work (de Bruin et al. in verslingerd aan meer dan een spel: Een onderzoek naar de aard en omvang van kansspelproblematiek in Nederland, WODC/CVO, Utrecht, http://www.lexandgaming.eu/nl/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Verslingerd-aan-meer-dan-een-spel.pdf , 2005; Binde in What are the most harmful forms of gambling? Analysing problem gambling prevalence surveys, http://www.utbildning.gu.se/digitalAssets/1327/1327132_cefos-wp12.pdf , 2011 suggests that excessive gamblers are drawn to illegal gambling. Reform could allow excessive gambling by illegal gamblers to be better addressed and initial work suggests some financial benefits to Hong Kong.

  3. CO2 laser pulse shortening by laser ablation of a metal target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, T.; Mazoyer, M.; Lynch, A.; O'Sullivan, G.; O'Reilly, F.; Dunne, P.; Cummins, T.

    2012-01-01

    A repeatable and flexible technique for pulse shortening of laser pulses has been applied to transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO 2 laser pulses. The technique involves focusing the laser output onto a highly reflective metal target so that plasma is formed, which then operates as a shutter due to strong laser absorption and scattering. Precise control of the focused laser intensity allows for timing of the shutter so that different temporal portions of the pulse can be reflected from the target surface before plasma formation occurs. This type of shutter enables one to reduce the pulse duration down to ∼2 ns and to remove the low power, long duration tails that are present in TEA CO 2 pulses. The transmitted energy is reduced as the pulse duration is decreased but the reflected power is ∼10 MW for all pulse durations. A simple laser heating model verifies that the pulse shortening depends directly on the plasma formation time, which in turn is dependent on the applied laser intensity. It is envisaged that this plasma shutter will be used as a tool for pulse shaping in the search for laser pulse conditions to optimize conversion efficiency from laser energy to useable extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation for EUV source development.

  4. Influence of plasma pressure gradient on melt layer macroscopic erosion of metal targets in disruption simulation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tereshin, V.I.; Garkusha, I.E. E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.ua; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Wuerz, H

    2003-03-01

    Melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high heat loads is discussed. Tungsten, copper, aluminum, and titanium targets were exposed to perpendicular and inclined plasma impact in the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. Melt layer motion results in erosion crater formation with rather large mountains of the resolidified material at the crater edge. It is shown that macroscopic motion of the melt layer and surface cracking are the main factors responsible for tungsten erosion.

  5. Influence of plasma pressure gradient on melt layer macroscopic erosion of metal targets in disruption simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshin, V.I.; Garkusha, I.E.; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Wuerz, H.

    2003-01-01

    Melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high heat loads is discussed. Tungsten, copper, aluminum, and titanium targets were exposed to perpendicular and inclined plasma impact in the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. Melt layer motion results in erosion crater formation with rather large mountains of the resolidified material at the crater edge. It is shown that macroscopic motion of the melt layer and surface cracking are the main factors responsible for tungsten erosion

  6. Creation and demolition of illegal structures in Nigerian cities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the issue of demolition of illegal structures in Benin City. The study revealed that the poor economic condition of the country forced many landlords in the city to restructure and convert their houses into mixed uses in order to make a living. In the process many illegal structures sprang up as many ...

  7. The disciplining of illegal palm oil plantations in Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pramudya, Eusebius Pantja; Hospes, Otto; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    The Indonesian state has issued many regulations to control palm oil expansion, but they have been weakly enforced, resulting in widespread illegal plantations. During the last decade, Indonesian authorities have used force to reduce illegal plantations. This article analyses the drivers behind

  8. Parables and Politics: Clergy Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickersham, Mary Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    The passage of a stringent immigration law in Alabama in 2011 makes relevant the juxtaposition of clergy and congregant attitudes and behaviors toward illegal immigrants as related to Biblical teachings that require charity to aliens. In order to examine the relationship between religious attitudes and illegal immigration, approximately 426…

  9. environmental impact of illegal refineries on the vegetation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. O. M. Adesope

    impact of illegal oil refineries in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, the floristic composition of the fresh water swamp forest at refining sites in two river systems and a brackish ... ecosystem of Rivers State, five species of Mangroves and two species of ... Visual observation was made along the Rivers to identify illegal refinery stations.

  10. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-09

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species.

  11. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION § 28.131 Illegal use of...

  12. Comparative studies of liquid metals for an alternative divertor target in a fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarés, F. L.; Oyarzabal, E.; Tafalla, D.; Martin-Rojo, A. B.; Pastor, I.; Ochando, M. A.; Medina, F.; Zurro, B.; McCarthy, K. J.; the TJ-II Team

    2017-12-01

    Two liquid metals (LM), Li and LiSn (20:80 at), presently considered as alternative materials for the divertor target of a fusion reactor, have been exposed to the plasma in a capillary porous system (CPS) arrangement in TJ-II. A negligible perturbation of the plasma has been recorded in both cases, even when stellarator plasmas are particularly sensitive to high Z elements due to the tendency to central impurity accumulation. The surface temperature of the LM CPS samples (made of a tungsten mesh impregnated in SnLi or Li) has been measured during the plasma pulse with ms resolution by pyrometry and the thermal balance during heating and cooling has been used to obtain the thermal parameters of the SnLi and Li CPS arrangements. Temperatures as high as 1150 K during TJ-II plasma exposure were observed for the LiSn solid case. Strong changes in the thermal conductivity of the alloy were recorded in the cooling phase at temperatures close to the nominal melting point. The deduced values for the thermal conductivity of the LiSn alloy/CPS sample were significantly lower than those predicted from their individual components.

  13. Illegal drug use among female university students in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejovičová, Barbora; Trandžík, Jozef; Schlarmannová, Janka; Boledovičová, Mária; Velemínský, Miloš

    2015-01-20

    This study is focused on the issue of illegal drug use among female university students preparing to become teachers. The main aim was to determine the frequency of drug abuse in a group of young women (n=215, mean age 20.44 years). Using survey methods, we determined that 33.48% of female university students in Slovakia use illegal drugs and 66.51% of students have never used illegal drugs. Differences between these groups were determined using statistical analysis, mostly in 4 areas of survey questions. We determined that education of parents has a statistically significant influence on use of illegal drugs by their children (χ2=10.14; Pstudents not using illegal drugs were interested in how their children spend their free time (68.53%). We confirmed the relationship between consumption of alcohol and illegal drug use (χ2=16.645; Pstudents is marijuana. Our findings are relevant for comparison and generalization regarding causes of the steady increase in number of young people using illegal drugs.

  14. Recent developments in human biomonitoring: non-invasive assessment of target tissue dose and effects of pneumotoxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, A; Corradi, M

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco smoke and polluted environments substantially increase the lung burden of pneumotoxic chemicals, particularly pneumotoxic metallic elements. To achieve a better understanding of the early events between exposure to inhaled toxicants and the onset of adverse effects on the lung, the characterization of dose at the target organ would be extremely useful. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC), obtained by cooling exhaled air under conditions of spontaneous breathing, is a novel technique that could provide a non-invasive assessment of pulmonary pathobiology. Considering that EBC is water practically free of interfering solutes, it represents an ideal biological matrix for elemental characterization. Published data show that several toxic metals and trace elements are detectable in EBC, raising the possibility of using this medium to quantify the lung tissue dose of pneumotoxic substances. This novel approach may represent a significant advance over the analysis of alternative media (blood, serum, urine, hair), which are not as reliable (owing to interfering substances in the complex matrix) and reflect systemic rather than lung (target tissue) levels of both toxic metals and essential trace elements. Data obtained among workers occupationally exposed to either hard metals or chromium (VI) and in smokers with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are reviewed to show that--together with biomarkers of exposure--EBC also allows the simultaneous quantification of biomarkers of effect directly sampled from the epithelial lining fluid, thus providing novel insights on both kinetic and dynamic aspects of metal toxicology.

  15. Inhalation Exposure Method for Illegal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Akiko; Ogata, Akio; Tada, Yukie; Nagasawa, Akemichi; Yuzawa, Katsuhiro; Ando, Hiroshi; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kaihoko, Fujifumi; Tanaka, Kazuyoshi; Nakajima, Jun'ichi; Suzuki, Atsuko; Uemura, Nozomi; Moriyasu, Takako; Watanabe, Daisuke; Ishihara, Kei; Usami, Takashi; Kamei, Satoru; Kohno, Yasuaki

    2017-01-01

    We developed a new inhalation exposure method to evaluate effects of synthetic cannabimimetics that are being distributed as new, unregulated drugs in the Tokyo area. We selected the commercial product "SOUTOU" containing AB-CHMINACA and 5F-AMB as the test drug and dried marshmallow (Althaea officinalis) leaves as the negative control. A half cigarette packed with dried marshmallow leaves or SOUTOU was ignited, then mainstream smoke from each was delivered to five mice in an exposure box. After the cigarettes were fully consumed, neurobehavioral observations and a catalepsy test were performed at 15, 30 and 60 min after exposure. The effluent air from the exposure box was poured into impingers containing acetonitrile (first impinger) and dimethyl sulfoxide (second impinger). The resulting solutions were analyzed to assess decomposition of the synthetic cannabimimetics. Mice exposed to SOUTOU smoke showed many excitement behaviors and some suppressive behaviors at 15, 30 and 60 min. These clearly included cannabimimetic specific pharmacological actions. Negative control mice also showed some suppressive behaviors at 15 min but these were attenuated at later times, nearly disappearing at 60 min. In addition, the behavioral effects observed in controls were less pronounced than those in SOUTOU exposed mice. The inhalation exposure method developed in our study would be effective for determining cannabinoid specific pharmacological effects of illegal drugs, as well as for assessing the presence of active compound(s) by comparing the test substance with a negative control.

  16. ANALYSIS OF REMEDIATION PROCESS OF THE GROUDWATER COTAMINATION IN AN ILLEGAL DUMPING SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Norikazu; Furuichi, Toru; Ishii, Kazuei

    Among on-site remediation technologies applied to illegal dumping sites, a technology to remedy contaminated groundwater without removal of the dumped waste is expected to provide a great opportunity to fulfill a societal need due to its economic advantage compared to removal of all waste. However heterogeneously-distributed waste makes the remedial process difficult. In this study, an in situflushing technology was applied to an illegal dumping site in Kuwana city, Mie, in order to remedy groundwater contaminated with several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within five years. The key to successfully achieve the target was to conduct a series of advanced remediation processes; introducing a new indicator by which multiple VOCs can be estimated integratelly, monitoring the progress of remediation with a contour map of VOC concentration as well as the weighted averages of the concentration derived from the indicator, pinpointing residual contaminants area, reexamining the plan, and taking additional steps that promote further remediation.

  17. Computational and experimental studies of the flow field near the beam entrance window of a liquid metal target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geža, Vadims; Milenković, Rade Ž.; Kapulla, Ralf; Dementjevs, Sergejs; Jakovičs, Andris; Wohlmuther, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Water model of liquid metal target for validation of CFD models was built. • PIV measurements showed flow features in the region near beam entrance window. • The zones with high turbulence kinetic energy were distinguished. • Reasonable agreement between modeling and PIV data was obtained. - Abstract: After the first world liquid metal target has been successfully operated at the SINQ facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) for 6 months. The idea of having a reliable target with a bypass flow for cooling the beam entrance window, but with the bypass flow not driven by a separate pump, was examined within the project called LIMETS (Liquid Metal Target for SINQ). In designing of liquid metal targets, turbulence modelling is of high importance due to lack in methods for measuring the spatial distribution of flow and turbulence characteristics. In this study, validation of different turbulence models were performed in water model with hemispherical geometry using particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Two components of water flow velocity in plexiglas container with inner radius of 88 mm were measured in different cross sections, with the velocities varying from 1 to 10 m/s. Numerical calculations using large eddy simulation (LES) approach and Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) models were carried out to validate their applicability and study performance issues. Mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy data were used for comparison of PIV and calculation results. Reasonable agreement was obtained for mean velocity data, with some discrepancies due to the limited length of the inlet tube. However, several discrepancies in turbulence characteristics were found in numerical results, especially in RANS model calculations

  18. Identifying Demand Responses to Illegal Drug Supply Interdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Scott; Finlay, Keith

    2016-10-01

    Successful supply-side interdictions into illegal drug markets are predicated on the responsiveness of drug prices to enforcement and the price elasticity of demand for addictive drugs. We present causal estimates that targeted interventions aimed at methamphetamine input markets ('precursor control') can temporarily increase retail street prices, but methamphetamine consumption is weakly responsive to higher drug prices. After the supply interventions, purity-adjusted prices increased then quickly returned to pre-treatment levels within 6-12 months, demonstrating the short-term effects of precursor control. The price elasticity of methamphetamine demand is -0.13 to -0.21 for self-admitted drug treatment admissions and between -0.24 and -0.28 for hospital inpatient admissions. We find some evidence of a positive cross-price effect for cocaine, but we do not find robust evidence that increases in methamphetamine prices increased heroin, alcohol, or marijuana drug use. This study can inform policy discussions regarding other synthesized drugs, including illicit use of pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. EURISOL-DS Multi-MW Target Preliminary Study of the Liquid Metal Proton-to-Neutron Converter

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, A; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2006-01-01

    This technical note summarises the design calculations performed within Task #2 of the European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study (EURISOL-DS) [1]. A preliminary study was carried out in order to determine the optimum value of relevant parameters in the target design. Different scenarios were simulated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA [2]. Namely, sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impact of the projectile particle energy on the neutronics and energy deposition in the spallation target. The optimal target dimensions were also studied for every case as well as the proper target material for the liquid metal proton-to-neutron converter, since mercury and lead-bismuth eutectic are reasonable options. The effect of the beam width on the power densities was also evaluated, taking into account the geometrical limitations of the facility. Finally, a comparison between protons and deuterons as primary particles was performed, acknowledging the limitations of using FLU...

  20. Interpreting the empirical evidence on illegal gun market dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Anthony A; Wintemute, Garen J; Pierce, Glenn L; Cook, Philip J; Ridgeway, Greg

    2012-10-01

    Thousands of Americans are killed by gunfire each year, and hundreds of thousands more are injured or threatened with guns in robberies and assaults. The burden of gun violence in urban areas is particularly high. Critics suggest that the results of firearm trace data and gun trafficking investigation studies cannot be used to understand the illegal supply of guns to criminals and, therefore, that regulatory and enforcement efforts designed to disrupt illegal firearms markets are futile in addressing criminal access to firearms. In this paper, we present new data to address three key arguments used by skeptics to undermine research on illegal gun market dynamics. We find that criminals rely upon a diverse set of illegal diversion pathways to acquire guns, gun traffickers usually divert small numbers of guns, newer guns are diverted through close-to-retail diversions from legal firearms commerce, and that a diverse set of gun trafficking indicators are needed to identify and shut down gun trafficking pathways.

  1. Illegal Immigration: Is It a Threat To National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, III, Luther B

    2006-01-01

    .... borders without benefit of government oversight or control. On the positive side illegal immigrants provided pools of unskilled and semi-skilled labor to fuel growth in the American service-based economy over the last fifteen years...

  2. Injury Patterns Among Illegal Migrants from Africa in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Amotz; Radomislensky, Irina; Peleg, Kobi

    2015-08-01

    In recent years Israel has become a destination for many migrants from Africa that illegally cross the Egyptian-Israeli border. The objective of this paper is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of injuries among illegal migrants in Israel. The study was carried out retrospectively using data from 19 trauma centers that participated in the Israel National Trauma Registry between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011. Illegal migrants from Africa were compared to the local population. Migrants were injured more often than the local population from intentional injuries (57.11 %). Migrants were also less likely than the local population (58.38 %) to sustain a minor injury (i.e., injury severity ≤8). The study also shows the hospitalization cost as a result of injuries among migrants from Africa. Preventive measures among illegal migrants from Africa should prioritize intentional injuries and industrial site injuries.

  3. Illegal markets, human trade and transnational organised crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna Ž.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author explores, focusing largely on the example of the Balkans, the connection between the expansion of neoliberal market economy and war, and related to it the growth of illegal markets and the shadow economy, on one hand, and the victimisation by human trafficking, on the other. By locating human trade within expanding local and global illegal markets, the author is arguing that, without taking into consideration wider social contexts, which create structural incentives for illegal markets and transnational organised crime, we can hardly understand the causes, let alone build effective strategies to combat and prevent it. Consequently, on the basis of the analyses of human trade as a form of both transnational organised crime and illegal markets, some strategies (short-term and long-term for the prevention and control of human trafficking on both the micro and macro level are suggested.

  4. Becoming less illegal: deservingness frames and undocumented migrant incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chauvin, S.; Garcés-Mascareñas, B.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, research on unauthorized migration has departed from the equation of migrant illegality with absolute exclusion, emphasizing that formal exclusion typically results in subordinate inclusion. Irregular migrants integrate through informal support networks, the underground

  5. IDENTITY FRAUD: Prevalence and Links to Alien Illegal Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    To discuss the significance of "identity fraud"-a term that encompasses a broad range of illegal activities based on fraudulent use of identifying information of a real person or of a fictitious person...

  6. Hepatotoxicity of illegal home-made alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökce, Hasan; Akcan, Ramazan; Celikel, Adnan; Zeren, Cem; Ortanca, Ibrahim; Demirkiran, Sumeyra

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol-related hepatotoxicity is not only caused by excessive alcohol consumption but also caused and even accelerated by hepatotoxic ingredients other than ethanol. Concentrations of hepatotoxic substances might be significantly high, particularly in illegally produced home-made alcohols. In this study we aim to analyze the hepatotoxic effects of a home-made alcohol traditionally called "bogma raki" in Turkey. Fifty Wistar albino male rats were used. Five groups were randomly formed with ten animals in each. Besides laboratory diets, groups were fed as follows: Group 1 (control group) distilled water; Group 2 bogma raki with distilled water (%44 (v/v), 9.2 ml/kg/day); Group 3 bogma raki with distilled water (%44 (v/v), 9.2 ml/kg/day)+walnut (10 g/kg/day); Group 4 whisky with distilled water (%40 (v/v), 9.2 ml/kg/day); Group 5 distilled water + walnut (10 g/kg/day), for 28 days. The toxicological analysis of The spirits were analyzed using Hewlett-Packard (Palo Alto, CA) GC/MS system with HP 6890 gas chromatograph, an HP 5972 mass selective detector (MSD) and an HP 6890 automatic liquid sampler GC/MS; the pressure of the carrier gas helium was 6.0 bar and the split value with a ratio of 1:100. The injection unit temperature set to 250 °C and MS quadrupole temperature set to 280 °C. The MS quadrupole detector ionization energy set to 70 eV. The initial column temperature was 60 °C (for 4 min) programmed by 6 °C/min to final temperature 160 °C and kept for 8 min at 160 °C. Utilized whisky and bogma raki samples were analyzed for the amounts of trans-anethole, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanolol, butanol, 2-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanolol (isobutanol) and 3-methylbutanol (isoamyl alcohol). Histopathological changes in liver tissues were graded as follows; normal = 0 (illegally produced raki sample (%v/v) was as follows: trans-anethole %1.93, ethanol %95.70, 2-methyl-1-propanolol (isobutanol) %0.19, asetic acid %0.25, 3-methylbutanol (isoamyl

  7. Perception of illegal practice of medicine by Brazilian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Herbas, Suzana; Lisboa, Larissa; Damasceno, Hannah; Menezes, Marta

    2014-06-01

    Illegal practice of medicine by medical students is a worldwide problem. In Brazil, information about this issue is scarce. To describe the perception of illegal practice of medicine by medical students. A cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 130 medical students in the 6th to 12th semesters from a private faculty of medicine in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil, from September to October 2011. Students responded to a standardised questionnaire about the illegal practice of medicine by medical students. Knowing medical students who practised medical activities without supervision was reported by 86% of the respondents, and 93.8% had heard about someone who performed such practices. Medical specialties most often associated with illegal practice were general medicine (78.8%) and occupational health (55.9%). Illegal practice of medicine was more common in peripheral cities/towns (83.9%) than in the State capital, Salvador City (52.4%). Only 10.5% of illegal activities were reported to the authorities. Unsupervised medical practice was more often reported in the 8th-9th semester (56.8%) and 10th-11th semester (54.4%) of medical school. Illegal practice of medicine was commonly reported by the medical students questioned. The high frequency of reported illegal practice for financial reasons highlights the need for greater availability of paid internships for medical students. Educational institutions represent the social control responsible for supervising the activities of academics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US?Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3%...

  9. Automatic system of production, transfer and processing of coin targets for the production of metallic radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicioli, M.; Ouadi, A.; Marchand, P.; Foehrenbacher, T.; Schuler, J.; Dick-Schuler, N.; Brasse, D.

    2017-05-01

    The work presented in this paper gathers three main technical developments aiming at 1) optimizing nuclide production by the mean of solid targets 2) automatically transferring coin targets from vault to hotcell without human intervention 3) processing target dilution and purification in hotcell automatically. This system has been installed on a ACSI TR24 cyclotron in Strasbourg France.

  10. The Value Added Tax Implications of Illegal Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SP van Zyl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the case of MP Finance Group CC (In Liquidation v CSARS the High Court of Appeal ruled that income "received by" a taxpayer from illegal gains will be taxable in the hands of the taxpayer. This article explores whether or not the decision in the MP Finance-case (and preceding cases on the taxation of illegal receipts can be applied to determine if illegal transactions are subject to VAT and moreover if a trader in illegal goods and services should register as a VAT vendor. Although strictly speaking no analogy can be drawn between the charging provisions for income tax and VAT, it is clear that in the determination of the taxability of illegal income, the courts applied the principle of tax neutrality. In terms of the principle of tax neutrality, taxes are not concerned with the legality or illegality of a transaction, but rather with whether the transaction complies with the requirements for it to be taxed or not. That said, the European Court of Justice has a different approach in applying this principle. According to the European Court of Justice where the intrinsic nature of the goods excludes it from the commercial arena (like narcotic drugs it should not be subject to VAT, but where the goods compete with a legal market it must be subject to VAT. Charging VAT on illegal transactions might give the impression that government benefits from criminal activities. However, if illegal transactions are not subject to VAT the trader in illegal goods will benefit as his products will be 14% cheaper than his rival’s. Is this necessarily a moral dilemma? In conclusion three arguments can be deduced on the question if illegal transactions should be subject to VAT:1. Illegal transactions should not be taxed at all. Illegal goods or services fall outside the sphere of the application of the charging provision in section 7(1 of the VAT Act. Moreover, taxing illegal transactions lends a quasi-validity to the contract and gives the impression that

  11. Ultrastructural observations of target-organs of the crayfish Orconectes limosus exposed to metallic pollutants: application to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasset, G.; Simon, O.; Floriani, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using electron microscopy associated with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDAXTEM), ultrastructure and elemental analysis in subcellular micro-localization can bring understanding to both metabolic cycle of a metallic pollutant and its potential effects at the subcellular scale. The approach consists in comparing both structures and micro-localization in various tissues/organs ultrathin sections (70-140 nm thickness) obtained from control organisms (i.e. not exposed to a given metal) and exposed organisms. However, the observations of ultrastructural effects of metal exposure involved robust comparison to reference subcellular and cellular organization. Consequently, preliminary developments presented in this poster have been performed from the non-contaminated freshwater crayfish Orconectes limosus (adult at inter-moult state). Studies of ultrastructural images and elemental composition of subcellular mineral deposits were carried out on target organs of uranium accumulation such as the digestive gland, the gills, the intestine and the antennal gland, organs participating in the detoxification, primary accumulation and depuration mechanisms. Observations indicated cell-specific architecture (identification of main organelles, frequency, length of cells), the range of natural variation of the cell organisation between individuals and identification of cellular types. Information will allow then to focus on these identified specific organization after metallic exposure. These ultrastructural observations performed on reference organisms constitute necessarily a first set of data for the cellular metallic effects analysis. (author)

  12. Proceedings of Soil Decon `93: Technology targeting radionuclides and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The principal objective for convening this workshop was to exchange ideas and discuss with scientists and engineers methods for removing radionuclides and/or toxic metals from soils. Over the years there have been numerous symposia, conferences, and workshops directed at soil remediation. However, this may be the first where the scope was narrowed to the removal of radionuclides and toxic metals from soils. The intent was to focus on the separation processes controlling the removal of the radionuclide and/or metal from soil. Its purpose was not intended to be a soil washing/leaching workshop, but rather to identify a variety or combination of processes (chemical, physical, and biological) that can be used in concert with the applicable engineering approaches to decontaminate soils of radionuclides and toxic metals. Abstracts and visual aids used by the speakers of the workshop are presented in this document.

  13. Proceedings of Soil Decon '93: Technology targeting radionuclides and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The principal objective for convening this workshop was to exchange ideas and discuss with scientists and engineers methods for removing radionuclides and/or toxic metals from soils. Over the years there have been numerous symposia, conferences, and workshops directed at soil remediation. However, this may be the first where the scope was narrowed to the removal of radionuclides and toxic metals from soils. The intent was to focus on the separation processes controlling the removal of the radionuclide and/or metal from soil. Its purpose was not intended to be a soil washing/leaching workshop, but rather to identify a variety or combination of processes (chemical, physical, and biological) that can be used in concert with the applicable engineering approaches to decontaminate soils of radionuclides and toxic metals. Abstracts and visual aids used by the speakers of the workshop are presented in this document

  14. Vapor phase coatings of metals and organics for laser fusion target applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsic, G.A.; Powell, B.W.

    Techniques for applying a variety of metal and organic coatings to 50- to 500 μm diameter glass micro-balloons are discussed. Coating thicknesses vary from 1- to 10 μm. Physical vapor deposition (PVD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and electrolytic and electroless plating are some of the techniques being evaluated for metal deposition. PVD and glow discharge polymerization are being used for the application of organic coatings. (U.S.)

  15. Not an 'iron pipeline', but many capillaries: regulating passive transactions in Los Angeles' secondary, illegal gun market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnut, Kelsie Y; Barragan, Melissa; Gravel, Jason; Pifer, Natalie A; Reiter, Keramet; Sherman, Nicole; Tita, George E

    2017-08-01

    California has strict firearm-related laws and is exceptional in its regulation of firearms retailers. Though evidence suggests that these laws can reduce illegal access to guns, high levels of gun violence persist in Los Angeles (LA), California. This research seeks to describe the sources of guns accessed by active offenders in LA, California and reports offenders' motivations for obtaining guns. Los Angeles County Jail (LACJ) system (four facilities). Random sampling from a screened pool of eligible participants was used to conduct qualitative semistructured interviews with 140 incarcerated gun offenders in one of four (LACJ) facilities. Researchers collected data on firearm acquisition, experiences related to gun violence, and other topics, using a validated survey instrument. Grounded theory guided the collection and analysis of data. Respondents reported possession of 77 specific guns (79.2% handguns) collectively. Social networks facilitate access to illegal guns; the majority of interviewees acquired their illegal guns through a social connection (85.7%) versus an outside broker/unregulated retailer (8.5%). Most guns were obtained through illegal purchase (n=51) or gift (n=15). A quarter of gun purchasers report engaging in a passive transaction, or one initiated by another party. Passive gun buyers were motivated by concerns for personal safety and/or economic opportunity. In LA's illegal gun market, where existing social relationships facilitate access to guns across a diffuse network, individuals, influenced by both fear and economic opportunity, have frequent opportunities to illegally possess firearms through passive transactions. Gun policies should better target and minimise these transactions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Microjet formation and hard x-ray production from a liquid metal target irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lar' kin, A., E-mail: alexeylarkin@yandex.ru; Uryupina, D.; Ivanov, K.; Savel' ev, A., E-mail: abst@physics.msu.ru [International Laser Center and Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Bonnet, T.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M. [Centre d' Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, University of Bordeaux-CNRS-IN2P3, 33170 Gradignan (France); Spohr, K. [School of Engineering, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, Scotland PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Breil, J.; Chimier, B.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Leguay, P.-M.; Tikhonchuk, V. T. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, University of Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, Talence 33405 (France)

    2014-09-15

    By using a liquid metal as a target one may significantly enhance the yield of hard x-rays with a sequence of two intense femtosecond laser pulses. The influence of the time delay between the two pulses is studied experimentally and interpreted with numerical simulations. It was suggested that the first arbitrary weak pulse produces microjets from the target surface, while the second intense pulse provides an efficient electron heating and acceleration along the jet surface. These energetic electrons are the source of x-ray emission while striking the target surface. The microjet formation is explained based on the results given by both optical diagnostics and hydrodynamic modeling by a collision of shocks originated from two distinct zones of laser energy deposition.

  17. Microjet formation and hard x-ray production from a liquid metal target irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lar'kin, A.; Uryupina, D.; Ivanov, K.; Savel'ev, A.; Bonnet, T.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Spohr, K.; Breil, J.; Chimier, B.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Leguay, P.-M.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2014-01-01

    By using a liquid metal as a target one may significantly enhance the yield of hard x-rays with a sequence of two intense femtosecond laser pulses. The influence of the time delay between the two pulses is studied experimentally and interpreted with numerical simulations. It was suggested that the first arbitrary weak pulse produces microjets from the target surface, while the second intense pulse provides an efficient electron heating and acceleration along the jet surface. These energetic electrons are the source of x-ray emission while striking the target surface. The microjet formation is explained based on the results given by both optical diagnostics and hydrodynamic modeling by a collision of shocks originated from two distinct zones of laser energy deposition

  18. Microjet formation and hard x-ray production from a liquid metal target irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lar'kin, A.; Uryupina, D.; Ivanov, K.; Savel'ev, A.; Bonnet, T.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Spohr, K.; Breil, J.; Chimier, B.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Leguay, P.-M.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2014-09-01

    By using a liquid metal as a target one may significantly enhance the yield of hard x-rays with a sequence of two intense femtosecond laser pulses. The influence of the time delay between the two pulses is studied experimentally and interpreted with numerical simulations. It was suggested that the first arbitrary weak pulse produces microjets from the target surface, while the second intense pulse provides an efficient electron heating and acceleration along the jet surface. These energetic electrons are the source of x-ray emission while striking the target surface. The microjet formation is explained based on the results given by both optical diagnostics and hydrodynamic modeling by a collision of shocks originated from two distinct zones of laser energy deposition.

  19. Structural integrity of heavy liquid-metal target installed in spallation neutron facility. Part 4: Consideration by fracture mechanics of target container window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Syuichi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Kenji; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro

    2004-01-01

    Developments of the neutron scattering facility is carried out under the high-intensity proton accelerator project promoted by JAERI and KEK. To estimate the structural integrity of the heavy liquid-metal (mercury) target used as a spallation neutron source in a MW-class neutron scattering facility, static and dynamic stress (including pressure wave in mercury) behaviors due to the incident of 1MW-pulsed proton beam (Maximum heat density is 461W/cc) were analyzed. In the analyses, two type target containers with semi-cylindrical type and flat-type beam windows were used as analytical models. As a result, it is confirmed that the stress generated by the pressure wave becomes the largest at the center of the beam window, and the flat-type beam window is more advantageous from the structural viewpoint than the semi-cylindrical type beam window. It has been understood that the stress generated in the beam window by the pressure wave can be treated as the secondary stress. Then, it has been understood that the stress and the stress range generated in the target window were bellow the allowable stress level defined by the standard of JIS on the maximum stress and fatigue strength. It has been experimentally confirmed that a cavitation was generated by generating the negative pressure in mercury near the target beam window and a collapse of cavitation damaged to the target container material, as pits. Then, the fracture mechanical analyses were carried out on the pit and a crack on pit tip. Consequently, it was clarified that the crack would not propagate because the inner surface of the beam window was become the compressive stress field due to the steady state thermal stress. Moreover, the evaluation technique of the cavitation which would be needed in the future was summarized. (author)

  20. Experimental study of hydrodynamics of target system construction with liquid metallic coolant on water models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznosov, A.; Davidov, D.; Khokhlov, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is about experimental study of hydrodynamics of target system construction with a spherical beam window (membrane). The visualization of current and current velocity fields in energy release area was considered. The findings are used to optimize the geometrical characteristics of target system. Also report contains the information about functioning accelerator-driven system, description it principle circuit and description of basic requirements what the target design should satisfy. (authors)

  1. Illegal Serbian Structures in the Republic of Kosovo Why these structures are illegal and not paralel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar Selimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Serb structures, operating in Kosovo after the forced withdrawal under NATO intervention of Serb-Yugoslav mechanisms of power from Kosovo in June 1999 which marks the end of the war and at the same time the beginning of a new process of peace building, do not represent parallel structures, rather they represent illegal structures. This paper argues that these kinds of structures achieved to be established and being continuesly strengthened due to multi-dimensional support of the Republic of Serbia which for its interest needed them to undermine the establishment of functional governance overall in Kosovo but predominantly in the Serb enclaves, and also due to UN Interim Administration in Kosovo which’s main interest was peace and stability not functionality of governance. In this paper, it is also argued that these Serb structures do not represent the majority of Serbs living in Kosovo because they are incorporated into the constitutional institutions of the Rrepublic of Kosovo. Through comparing main domestic and international documents by which UN Interim Administration and National Institutions of Governance were established and also data gathered in the field through different reports, this paper concludes that: these structures are unconstitutional structures, and therefore illegal, rather than parallel structures; consideration of them as parallel by UN Interim Administration was a mistake which negatively affected integration, development, and democratization of a part of the Serbian community in Kosovo’s northern municipalities; they are also supported by criminal structures which seriously impede the exercise of state power, the legal system, and the development of democracy predominantly in the northern part of Kosovo; and beside of political and diplomatic efforts, a state organized force with an international support is the only answer to criminal structures.

  2. Metal Nanoparticles as Targeted Carriers Circumventing the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintov, A C; Velasco-Aguirre, C; Gallardo-Toledo, E; Araya, E; Kogan, M J

    2016-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles have been proposed as a carrier and a therapeutic agent in biomedical field because of their unique physiochemical properties. Due to these physicochemical properties, they can be used in different fields of biomedicine. In relation to this, plasmonic nanoparticles can be used for detection and photothermal destruction of tumor cells or toxic protein aggregates, and magnetic iron nanoparticles can be used for imaging and for hyperthermia of tumor cells. In addition, both therapy and imaging can be combined in one nanoparticle system, in a process called theranostics. Metal nanoparticles can be synthesized to modulate their size and shape, and conjugated with different ligands, which allow their application in drug delivery, diagnostics, and treatment of central nervous system diseases. This review is focused on the potential applications of metal nanoparticles and their capability to circumvent the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although many articles have demonstrated delivery of metal nanoparticles to the brain by crossing the BBB after systemic administration, the percentage of the injected dose that reaches this organ is low in comparison to others, especially the liver and spleen. In connection with this drawback, we elaborate the architecture of the BBB and review possible mechanisms to cross this barrier by engineered nanoparticles. The potential uses of metal nanoparticles for treatment of disorders as well as related neurotoxicological considerations are also discussed. Finally, we bring up for discussion a direct and relatively simpler solution to the problem. We discuss this in detail after having proposed the use of the intranasal administration route as a way to circumvent the BBB. This route has not been extensively studied yet for metal nanoparticles, although it could be used as a research tool for mechanistic understanding and toxicity as well as an added value for medical practice. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Illegal Migration and Human Smuggling in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Futo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The analytical and statistical services of border management organizations in Central and Eastern European countries have registered and accumulated a vast body of knowledge on the demographics and mechanisms of illegal migration over the last one-and-a-half decade. This paper attempts to tap this resource by summarising the results of a yearly survey among border guards of 17 countries. A set of quantitative indicators of illegal migration is developed, presented and interpreted, based on the answers of the border services to a series of quantitative and qualitative questions. This empirical material is used to evaluate the dynamics and pattern of illegal migration in Central and Eastern Europe on the one hand, and to examine the development of border management strategies on the other. The impacts of legal and institutional reforms are investigated in light of the temporal and spatial variations of border apprehension statistics. The interdependence of the two processes is reviewed from the point of view of national border management authorities, perhaps the most authoritative source of information on the issue. The results of the authors’ annual survey indicate that the progressive development of migration control mechanisms at national and international levels seems to have a significant impact on irregular migration flows as most indicators of illegal migration have significantly decreased after the turn of the century. At the same time, the geographical distribution of illegal migration flows in Central and Eastern European countries has become more complex over the years.

  4. ABORTION IN BRAZIL: IMPACTS OF ILLEGALITY IN PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cruz Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion in Brazil provides public health impacts, mainly due to the high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality, because it most often occurs in an illegal practice and / or unsafe, because of the illegality of abortion in certain situations in the country. Therefore, it is an issue that refers to the various reflections, such as legal, moral, cultural, socio-economic and bioethical. Given the above, the study aims to address about abortion in Brazil and the impacts of illegality in public health. Study of literature review, descriptive and discursive, held in the database SciELO sites and governmental and non-governmental organizations. It was evident that the illegality of abortion in Brazil is harmful to the health of women who resort to unsafe practices and / or illegal, a violation of human rights, the women’s autonomy, as well as providing public health impacts, and sometimes this actually happens because the deficit in quality of care, specifically to sexual and reproductive health, as the actions of Family Planning. It is considered that the way of abortion in Brazil requires modifications, especially with regard to legislative and bioethics conflicts.

  5. Illegal fishing and territorial user rights in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyanedel, Rodrigo; Keim, Andres; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Gelcich, Stefan

    2017-11-07

    Illegal fishing poses a major threat to conservation of marine resources worldwide. However, there is still limited empirical research that quantifies illegal catch levels. We used the randomized response technique to estimate the proportion of divers and the quantities of loco (Concholepas concholepas) they extracted illegally. Loco have been managed for the past 17 years through a territorial user rights for fisheries system (TURFs) in Chile. Illegal fishing of loco was widespread within the TURFs system. Official reported landings (i.e., legal landings) accounted for 14-30% of the total loco extraction. Our estimates suggest that ignoring the magnitude of illegal fishing and considering only official landing statistics may lead to false conclusions about the status and trends of a TURFs managed fishery. We found evidence of fisher associations authorizing their members to poach inside TURFs, highlighting the need to design TURFs systems so that government agencies and fishers' incentives and objectives align through continuous adaptation. Government support for enforcement is a key element for the TURFs system to secure the rights that are in place. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Emerging protein targets for metal-based pharmaceutical agents : An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Almeida, Andreia; Oliveira, Bruno L.; Correia, Joao D. G.; Soveral, Graca; Casini, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The peculiar chemical properties of metal-based drugs impart innovative pharmacological profiles to this class of therapeutic and diagnostic agents, most likely in relation to novel molecular mechanisms still poorly understood. However, inorganic drugs have been scarcely considered for medicinal

  7. MEGAPIE, a 1 MW pilot experiment for a liquid metal spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G.S.; Salvatores, M.; Heusener, G.

    2001-01-01

    MEGAPIE (Megawatt Pilot Target Experiment) is an initiative launched by Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany) in collaboration with Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland), to demonstrate, in an international collaboration, the feasibility of a liquid lead bismuth target for spallation facilities at a beam power level of 1 MW. Such a target is under consideration for various concepts of accelerator driven systems (ADS) to be used in transmutation of nuclear waste and other applications world-wide. It also has the potential of increasing significantly the thermal neutron flux available at the spallation neutron source (SINQ) for neutron scattering. SINQ's beam power being close to 1 MW already, this facility offers a unique opportunity to realize such an experiment with a reasonably small number of new ancillary systems. The paper describes the basic features of the experiment and its boundary conditions, the technical concept of the target and underlying research carried out at participating laboratories. (author)

  8. Nicotine dependence, use of illegal drugs and psychiatric morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ortega, José María; Jurado, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Gurpegui, Manuel

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of smoking and nicotine dependence with psychiatric morbidity, controlling for the potential confounding effect of smoking on the relationship between the use of other substances and psychiatric morbidity. A sample of 290 adults were interviewed at a primary health centre (patients, 58%; patients' relatives, 34%; staff, 8%) to inquire about their tobacco, caffeine, alcohol, and illegal drug consumption. Psychiatric morbidity, defined by a score >6 on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), showed a strong direct association with nicotine dependence. The use of illegal drugs, but not of alcohol, was also strongly associated with psychiatric morbidity, after controlling for smoking. Both smoking and high nicotine dependence were also associated with use of caffeine, alcohol, cannabis and cocaine. High nicotine dependence may be considered as an expression of individual psychopathologic vulnerability. Tobacco may have a central facilitating role in the use of caffeine, alcohol, and illegal drug.

  9. Reducing the illegal sale of cigarettes to minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, D G; Foster, V; Rasenick-Douss, L; Tye, J B

    1989-01-06

    This study reports on an effort to stop the illegal sale of cigarettes to minors. In Santa Clara County, Calif, 412 stores and 30 vending machines were visited by 18 minors aged 14 through 16 years with the intent to purchase cigarettes; they were successful at 74% of the stores and 100% of the vending machines. After an aggressive six-month campaign using communitywide media, direct merchant education, contact with the chief executive officers of chain stores and franchise operations owned by major companies, and grassroots work with community organizations, the percentage of stores with illegal over-the-counter sale of cigarettes to minors was reduced to 39%. Sales from vending machines were not reduced. While much remains to be accomplished in stopping the illegal sale of tobacco to minors, data from this study illustrate that a well-designed community and merchant education campaign can significantly reduce such sales.

  10. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  11. Logging concessions enable illegal logging crisis in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Sky, Melissa A Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-17

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  12. Interaction Of CO2 Laser Nanosecond Pulse Train With The Metallic Targets In Optical Breakdown Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonov, V. V.; Firsov, K. N.; Konov, V. I.; Nikitin, P. I.; Prokhorov, A. M.; Silenok, A. S.; Sorochenko, V. R.

    1986-11-01

    In the present paper the electric field and currents in the air-breakdown plasma, produced by the train of nanosecond pulses of TEA-002 - regenerative amplifier near the un-charged targets are studied. The breakdown thresholds and the efficiency of plasma-target heat transmission are also measured. The results of numerical calculations made for increasing of the pulse train contrast with respect to the background in a regenerative amplifier are advanced.

  13. Feasibility of High Power Refractory Metal Foil-Targets for EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    R. Wilfinger, J. Lettry and the EURISOL Task 3 Workgroup

    Radioisotopes are produced by the ISOL method in thick targets. In existing ISOL facilities, only small yields have been obtained for short-lived nuclei close to the driplines due to the radioactive decay during the diffusion, effusion and ionization processes. An increase of the proton beam current increases the production rate, which is directly proportional to the primary proton flux. But at the same time, the power deposition inside the target is also increased proportional to the primary proton flux...

  14. Formation and damping of a shock wave induced by laser in a metallic target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottet, F.

    1981-01-01

    In the first part of this work, a numerical simulation of the formation and of the damping of the shock wave induced in a solid target by a laser impulse is developed. It allows to interpret the experimental obtained in the second part of the study. Two series of experiments have been realized. An iron target metallographic study is intended to verify if laser shocks produce effects comparable with conventional shocks, particularly a deformation by albite twinning the existence of which is related to the shock amplitude and its evolution during the propagation in the target. Macles observation become a possible mean to estimate the value of the induced pressures. Another experiment series has been realized to determine more directly the shock parameters. Piezoelectric cermets have been used to detect a shock-wave passage and to measure the time taken to go through targets of variable thickness. The numerical solution allows, afterwards, to deduce the maximum pressure of the induced shock. The most part of the tests have been done on copper targets, the behaviour of which is well known in a large pressure domain. Some tests have been realized on aluminium and iron targets [fr

  15. On financing the internal enforcement of illegal immigration policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, G A; Tenorio, R

    1996-02-01

    "We introduce a government budget constraint into an illegal immigration model, and show that the effect of increasing internal enforcement of immigration laws on the host country's disposable national income depends on the mix of employer fines and income taxation used to finance the added enforcement. These issues are addressed under alternative assumptions about (a) the ability of host country employers to discern between legal and illegal workers, and (b) host country labor market conditions. Empirical evidence for the United States indicates that the employer sanctions program may have had a negative impact on disposable national income." excerpt

  16. Electrochemical and colorimetric assessment on the influence of target metals on wine color

    OpenAIRE

    Esparza, I. (Irene); Santamaria, C. (Carolina); Garcia-Mina, J.M. (José María); Fernandez, J.M. (José María)

    2006-01-01

    Presentado en Book of abstracts of the11th International Conference on Electroanalysis ESEAC, 2006; P2-081. Three year old samples of Vitis vinifera origin-controlled red wine samples were spiked with adequate amounts of metals and subsequent colorimetric parameters evolution and complexing capacity behaviour were checked. The used approach consisted in the study of the complexing capacity of natural occurring ligands on wine with respect to Zn and Cu by means of stripping voltammetry in ...

  17. Melt layer erosion of metallic armour targets during off-normal events in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazylev, B.; Wuerz, H.

    2002-01-01

    Melt layer erosion by melt motion is the dominating erosion mechanism for metallic armours under high heat loads. A 1-D fluid dynamics simulation model for calculation of melt motion was developed and validated against experimental results for tungsten from the e-beam facility JEBIS and beryllium from the e-beam facility JUDITH. The driving force in each case is the gradient of the surface tension. Due to the high velocity which develops in the Be melt considerable droplet splashing occurs

  18. Melt layer erosion of metallic armour targets during off-normal events in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazylev, B.; Wuerz, H.

    2002-12-01

    Melt layer erosion by melt motion is the dominating erosion mechanism for metallic armours under high heat loads. A 1-D fluid dynamics simulation model for calculation of melt motion was developed and validated against experimental results for tungsten from the e-beam facility JEBIS and beryllium from the e-beam facility JUDITH. The driving force in each case is the gradient of the surface tension. Due to the high velocity which develops in the Be melt considerable droplet splashing occurs.

  19. Design of a liquid metal target loop for a high power spallation

    CERN Document Server

    Andreas Vetter (PSI)

    Diplomarbeit zur Erlangung des Grades Diplom-IngenieurTechnische Universität BerlinThis thesis shows the lay-out of the liquid metal loop, which is designed to evacuate 3.0 MW of thermal power. It describes the function and sizing of the piping and components. The thesis deals with the choice of the pump, the expansion tank/gas separator and the heat exchanger using water as cooling fluid as well as instrumentation.

  20. The efficiency of ceramic-faced metal targets at high-velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkachev, V. F.; Konyaev, A. A.; Pakhnutova, N. V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper represents experimental results and engineering evaluation concerning the efficiency of composite materials to be used as an additional protection during the high- velocity interaction of a tungsten rod with a target in the velocity range of 1...5 km/s. The main parameter that characterizes the high-velocity interaction of a projectile with a layered target is the penetration depth. Experimental data, numerical simulation and engineering evaluation by modified models are used to determine the penetration depth. Boron carbide, aluminum oxide, and aluminum nickelide are applied as a front surface of targets. Based on experimental data and numerical simulation, the main characteristics of ceramics are determined, which allows composite materials to be effectively used as additional elements of protection.

  1. Some results of experimental investigation of super-deep penetration into the metal's targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andilevko, S.K.; Roman, O.V.; Usherenko, S.M.; Shilkin, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of Super-Deep Penetration (SDP) is briefly presented. Various experimental techniques, including that based on neutron-activated autoradiography (NAAR), for experimentally investigating this phenomenon are described. Results from a number of investigations in which the effect on SDP of initial target temperature, the dependence of the concentration on depth for different powder particles and the use of bimetallic targets, are reviewed. The complicated nature of the SDP process and the need for a wider range of experimental data if it is to be fully understood are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Targeting high value metals in lithium-ion battery recycling via shredding and size-based separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Babbitt, Callie W

    2016-05-01

    Development of lithium-ion battery recycling systems is a current focus of much research; however, significant research remains to optimize the process. One key area not studied is the utilization of mechanical pre-recycling steps to improve overall yield. This work proposes a pre-recycling process, including mechanical shredding and size-based sorting steps, with the goal of potential future scale-up to the industrial level. This pre-recycling process aims to achieve material segregation with a focus on the metallic portion and provide clear targets for subsequent recycling processes. The results show that contained metallic materials can be segregated into different size fractions at different levels. For example, for lithium cobalt oxide batteries, cobalt content has been improved from 35% by weight in the metallic portion before this pre-recycling process to 82% in the ultrafine (6mm). However, size fractions across multiple battery chemistries showed significant variability in material concentration. This finding indicates that sorting by cathode before pre-treatment could reduce the uncertainty of input materials and therefore improve the purity of output streams. Thus, battery labeling systems may be an important step towards implementation of any pre-recycling process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Damage induced by swift heavy ions in a pure metallic target: iron. Experimental results and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, P.

    1993-01-01

    The damage induced when a high energy deposition occurs in the electronic system of a pure metal (Ag, Co, Fe, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ti, W, Zr) has been investigated using two methods: low temperature swift heavy ion (O, Ar, Kr, Xe, Pb, u) irradiations and computer simulations by molecular dynamics. Irradiations reveal that up to now, it is only in iron, titanium, cobalt and zirconium targets that high levels of energy deposition in electronic excitations lead to a new mechanism of defect creation in addition to the effects of elastic collisions. This mechanism might be the Coulomb explosion: the incident ion creates in its wake a cylinder of highly ionized matter; Coulomb repulsions of short duration in metallic targets could then set a great number of neighbouring atoms into motion and lead to permanent atomic displacements. Using molecular dynamics, we confirm that atomic displacements can indeed occur when neighbouring perturbated atoms receive even a very small amount of kinetic energy (≤ 1 eV). This happens only if the repulsive movements are collective and coherent. Defect creation and annealing of preexisting defects which occur in iron at different energy deposition levels are successfully simulated. An original empirical N-body potential, allowing a realistic description of the bulk properties of the body centered cubic iron, is used. (author). refs., figs., tabs

  4. MEGAPIE, a 1 MW pilot experiment for a liquid metal spallation target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Spallation Neutron Source Division, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Salvatores, M. [CEA Cadarache, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Heusener, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Projekt Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    MEGAPIE (Megawatt Pilot Target Experiment) is an initiative launched by Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany) in collaboration with Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland), to demonstrate, in an international collaboration, the feasibility of a liquid lead bismuth target for spallation facilities at a beam power level of 1 MW. Such a target is under consideration for various concepts of accelerator driven systems (ADS) to be used in transmutation of nuclear waste and other applications world-wide. It also has the potential of increasing significantly the thermal neutron flux available at the spallation neutron source (SINQ) for neutron scattering. SINQ's beam power being close to 1 MW already, this facility offers a unique opportunity to realize such an experiment with a reasonably small number of new ancillary systems. The paper describes the basic features of the experiment and its boundary conditions, the technical concept of the target and underlying research carried out at participating laboratories. (author)

  5. Ionization and excitation of some atomic targets and metal oxides by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    son et al [2] performed experimental-cum-model studies on the VUV excitation– emission processes. The measured .... is rather small in many cases so that a choice ∆ = Eth would make Vabs excessively large. Hence the ... For almost all the targets investigated by us [10–14] this choice of ∆ results in a general accord of our ...

  6. The Value Added Tax Implications of Illegal Transactions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    that "enterprises" conducting their business by illegal means should register as VAT vendors? ..... The issue confronting the courts was the maxim ex turpi causa non oritur actio in ...... Applying the principles of tax neutrality creating a moral dilemma? .... William Collins and Sons Co Ltd Collins English Dictionary 6 th ed.

  7. Summarizing the evidence on the international trade in illegal wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gail Emilia; Smith, Katherine F

    2010-08-01

    The global trade in illegal wildlife is a multi-billion dollar industry that threatens biodiversity and acts as a potential avenue for invasive species and disease spread. Despite the broad-sweeping implications of illegal wildlife sales, scientists have yet to describe the scope and scale of the trade. Here, we provide the most thorough and current description of the illegal wildlife trade using 12 years of seizure records compiled by TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network. These records comprise 967 seizures including massive quantities of ivory, tiger skins, live reptiles, and other endangered wildlife and wildlife products. Most seizures originate in Southeast Asia, a recently identified hotspot for future emerging infectious diseases. To date, regulation and enforcement have been insufficient to effectively control the global trade in illegal wildlife at national and international scales. Effective control will require a multi-pronged approach including community-scale education and empowering local people to value wildlife, coordinated international regulation, and a greater allocation of national resources to on-the-ground enforcement.

  8. Prehospital Emergencies in Illegal Gold Mining Sites in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egmann, Gérald; Tattevin, Pierre; Palancade, Renaud; Nacher, Matthieu

    2018-03-01

    Illegal gold mining is flourishing in French Guiana, existing outside the law due to both the high cost of gold mining permits and the challenges of law enforcement within the Amazon forest. We report the characteristics of, and the medical responses to, medical emergencies in illegal gold mining sites. We performed a retrospective study of all medical emergencies reported from illegal gold mining sites to the centralized call office of SAMU 973 from 1998 through 2000 and from 2008 through 2010. According to the national health care system, any medical emergency within the territory is handled by the prehospital emergency medical service (SAMU 973), irrespective of the patients' legal status. Data were extracted from the SAMU 973 notebook registry (1998-2000) or the SAMU 973 computerized database (2008-2010) and werre collected using a standardized questionnaire. Of 71,932 calls for medical emergencies in French Guiana during the study periods, 340 (0.5%) originated from illegal gold mining sites. Of these, 196 (58%) led to medical evacuation by helicopter, whereas the overall rate of evacuation by helicopter after placing a call to SAMU 973 was only 4% (3020/71,932; PAmazon forest mostly include infectious diseases, followed by trauma, and often require medical evacuation by helicopter. Our study suggests that implementation of preventive medicine within gold mining sites, irrespective of their legal status, could be cost-effective and reduce morbidity. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Madagascar rosewood, illegal logging and the tropical timber trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although deforestation rates in the tropics are reportedly slowing, the loss of both forest area and forest quality remains a significant issue for many countries. This is particularly true of Madagascar, where recent government instability has enabled a significant increase in the incidence of illegal logging of Dalbergia species ...

  10. The composition of surrogate and illegal alcohol products in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Katrin; Väli, Marika; Szucs, Sándor; Adány, Róza; McKee, Martin

    2006-01-01

    To identify the composition of illegal and surrogate alcohol products consumed in Estonia. The initial source of information was a series of visits made in August 2005 to a soup kitchen in central Tartu, Estonia. Individuals were asked for brief details of their personal circumstances, what they normally drank, and in addition they were asked to bring samples of the substances they usually consumed. In other cases, the substances identified were purchased by the investigators or from informal contacts in north-eastern part of Estonia, an area that is well known for illegal alcohol consumption. Samples were tested for chemical contents. We identified a range of alcohol-containing substances that are consumed, although, not intended for consumption. These comprised medicinal products, aftershaves, illegally produced spirits, and fire-lighting fuel. The medicinal compounds contained, on average, 67% ethanol by volume; the aftershaves contained slightly less. Both were typically pure, with a few containing detectable quantities of isoamyl alcohol. The illegally produced alcohol contained, on average, 43% ethanol by volume, ranging from 32 to 53%. However, many also contained detectable quantities of long chain alcohols. These substances are half the price or less of commercial vodka, with fire lighting fuels especially inexpensive. There is in Estonia a range of alcohol-containing substances easily available at low cost. Some contain substantially higher concentrations of ethanol than commercial spirits and others also contain toxic long chain alcohols.

  11. The Dark Side of Illegal Immigration: Cause for National Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-28

    was officially terminated in 1964. However, illegal aliens were recruited in large numbers well after the Bracero program .24 For almost ten years...Mexico has its official roots in the demise of the Bracero program . Employers had become accustomed to cheap Mexican labor and were willing to ignore

  12. Monkey business : the illegal trade in Barbary macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380477025

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the organization, modus operandi and trade route of the illegal trade in Barbary macaques. The Barbary macaque is the most seized CITES mammal in the EU, accounting for almost 25% of live mammalrelated seizures. It is estimated that as few as 5,000-6,000 Barbary macaques

  13. A New Business: Redirecting Black Youth from the Illegal Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox Edmondson, Vickie

    2009-01-01

    Young Black males are an at-risk group for earning a living through illegal activities in the U.S. As with most at-risk groups, concerted efforts have been made to help prepare them to become viable contributors and valued members of society. Anecdotal evidence shows that faculty members have also tried to reach out and influence young Black males…

  14. Environmental impact of illegal refineries on the vegetation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... aesthetic scenery of the forest, regeneration of plant species and destruction of wildlife habitat, disruption of water cycle and loss of medicinal plant species. Youth empowerment, through vocational training and environmental education can ameliorate the situation. Keywords: Environmental degradation, Illegal Refineries, ...

  15. A Mixed-Method Approach for Quantifying Illegal Fishing and Its Impact on an Endangered Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, Christopher M; Jensen, Olaf P; Mendsaikhan, Bud

    2015-01-01

    Illegal harvest is recognized as a widespread problem in natural resource management. The use of multiple methods for quantifying illegal harvest has been widely recommended yet infrequently applied. We used a mixed-method approach to evaluate the extent, character, and motivations of illegal gillnet fishing in Lake Hovsgol National Park, Mongolia and its impact on the lake's fish populations, especially that of the endangered endemic Hovsgol grayling (Thymallus nigrescens). Surveys for derelict fishing gear indicate that gillnet fishing is widespread and increasing and that fishers generally use 3-4 cm mesh gillnet. Interviews with resident herders and park rangers suggest that many residents fish for subsistence during the spring grayling spawning migration and that some residents fish commercially year-round. Interviewed herders and rangers generally agree that fish population sizes are decreasing but are divided on the causes and solutions. Biological monitoring indicates that the gillnet mesh sizes used by fishers efficiently target Hovsgol grayling. Of the five species sampled in the monitoring program, only burbot (Lota lota) showed a significant decrease in population abundance from 2009-2013. However, grayling, burbot, and roach (Rutilus rutilus) all showed significant declines in average body size, suggesting a negative fishing impact. Data-poor stock assessment methods suggest that the fishing effort equivalent to each resident family fishing 50-m of gillnet 11-15 nights per year would be sufficient to overexploit the grayling population. Results from the derelict fishing gear survey and interviews suggest that this level of effort is not implausible. Overall, we demonstrate the ability for a mixed-method approach to effectively describe an illegal fishery and suggest that these methods be used to assess illegal fishing and its impacts in other protected areas.

  16. Channels of energy redistribution in short-pulse laser interactions with metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.; Ivanov, Dmitriy S.

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics and channels of laser energy redistribution in a target irradiated by a short, 1 ps, laser pulse is investigated in computer simulations performed with a model that combines molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a continuum description of the laser excitation and relaxation of the conduction band electrons, based on the two-temperature model (TTM). The energy transferred from the excited electrons to the lattice splits into several parts, namely the energy of the thermal motion of the atoms, the energy of collective atomic motions associated with the relaxation of laser-induced stresses, the energy carried away from the surface region of the target by a stress wave, the energy of quasi-static anisotropic stresses, and, at laser fluences above the melting threshold, the energy transferred to the latent heat of melting and then released upon recrystallization. The presence of the non-thermal channels of energy redistribution (stress wave and quasi-static stresses), not accounted for in the conventional TTM model, can have important implications for interpretation of experimental results on the kinetics of thermal and mechanical relaxation of a target irradiated by a short laser pulse as well as on the characteristics of laser-induced phase transformations. The fraction of the non-thermal energy in the total laser energy partitioning increases with increasing laser fluence

  17. Demographic evidence of illegal harvesting of an endangered asian turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yik-Hei; Karraker, Nancy E; Hau, Billy C H

    2013-12-01

    Harvesting pressure on Asian freshwater turtles is severe, and dramatic population declines of these turtles are being driven by unsustainable collection for food markets, pet trade, and traditional Chinese medicine. Populations of big-headed turtle (Platysternon megacephalum) have declined substantially across its distribution, particularly in China, because of overcollection. To understand the effects of chronic harvesting pressure on big-headed turtle populations, we examined the effects of illegal harvesting on the demography of populations in Hong Kong, where some populations still exist. We used mark-recapture methods to compare demographic characteristics between sites with harvesting histories and one site in a fully protected area. Sites with a history of illegal turtle harvesting were characterized by the absence of large adults and skewed ratios of juveniles to adults, which may have negative implications for the long-term viability of populations. These sites also had lower densities of adults and smaller adult body sizes than the protected site. Given that populations throughout most of the species' range are heavily harvested and individuals are increasingly difficult to find in mainland China, the illegal collection of turtles from populations in Hong Kong may increase over time. Long-term monitoring of populations is essential to track effects of illegal collection, and increased patrolling is needed to help control illegal harvesting of populations, particularly in national parks. Because few, if any, other completely protected populations remain in the region, our data on an unharvested population of big-headed turtles serve as an important reference for assessing the negative consequences of harvesting on populations of stream turtles. Evidencia Demográfica de la Captura Ilegal de una Tortuga Asiática en Peligro. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Work related injuries: estimating the incidence among illegally employed immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadda Emanuela

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistics on occupational accidents are based on data from registered employees. With the increasing number of immigrants employed illegally and/or without regular working visas in many developed countries, it is of interest to estimate the injury rate among such unregistered workers. Findings The current study was conducted in an area of North-Eastern Italy. The sources of information employed in the present study were the Accidents and Emergencies records of a hospital; the population data on foreign-born residents in the hospital catchment area (Health Care District 4, Primary Care Trust 20, Province of Verona, Veneto Region, North-Eastern Italy; and the estimated proportion of illegally employed workers in representative samples from the Province of Verona and the Veneto Region. Of the 419 A&E records collected between January and December 2004 among non European Union (non-EU immigrants, 146 aroused suspicion by reporting the home, rather than the workplace, as the site of the accident. These cases were the numerator of the rate. The number of illegally employed non-EU workers, denominator of the rate, was estimated according to different assumptions and ranged from between 537 to 1,338 individuals. The corresponding rates varied from 109.1 to 271.8 per 1,000 non-EU illegal employees, against 65 per 1,000 reported in Italy in 2004. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that there is an unrecorded burden of illegally employed immigrants suffering from work related injuries. Additional efforts for prevention of injuries in the workplace are required to decrease this number. It can be concluded that the Italian National Institute for the Insurance of Work Related Injuries (INAIL probably underestimates the incidence of these accidents in Italy.

  19. Work related injuries: estimating the incidence among illegally employed immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Rylander, Ragnar; Buja, Alessandra; Marangi, Gianluca; Fadda, Emanuela; Fedeli, Ugo; Cegolon, Luca

    2010-12-08

    Statistics on occupational accidents are based on data from registered employees. With the increasing number of immigrants employed illegally and/or without regular working visas in many developed countries, it is of interest to estimate the injury rate among such unregistered workers. The current study was conducted in an area of North-Eastern Italy. The sources of information employed in the present study were the Accidents and Emergencies records of a hospital; the population data on foreign-born residents in the hospital catchment area (Health Care District 4, Primary Care Trust 20, Province of Verona, Veneto Region, North-Eastern Italy); and the estimated proportion of illegally employed workers in representative samples from the Province of Verona and the Veneto Region. Of the 419 A&E records collected between January and December 2004 among non European Union (non-EU) immigrants, 146 aroused suspicion by reporting the home, rather than the workplace, as the site of the accident. These cases were the numerator of the rate. The number of illegally employed non-EU workers, denominator of the rate, was estimated according to different assumptions and ranged from between 537 to 1,338 individuals. The corresponding rates varied from 109.1 to 271.8 per 1,000 non-EU illegal employees, against 65 per 1,000 reported in Italy in 2004. The results of this study suggest that there is an unrecorded burden of illegally employed immigrants suffering from work related injuries. Additional efforts for prevention of injuries in the workplace are required to decrease this number. It can be concluded that the Italian National Institute for the Insurance of Work Related Injuries (INAIL) probably underestimates the incidence of these accidents in Italy.

  20. Identification and analysis the illegal dumping spot of solid waste at Ciliwung segment 5 riverbanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, D.; Purwaningrum, P.

    2018-01-01

    Ciliwung River is the main river in the area of Jakarta that is divided into six segments across West Java and Jakarta. The study focuses on the fifth segment which is 30 km long, covering from Kelapa Dua Depok to Manggarai, South Jakarta. The survey of the river consists of 3 sub-segments: Lenteng Agung, Pejaten Timur and Manggarai. Objectives of the study are to describe the characteristics and typology of the residential surrounding the Ciliwung Segment 5 Riverbank, to identification the illegal dumping spot of solid waste, to measure the volume and composition of solid waste in the riverbank, to decide solid waste management for residential area surrounding river banks to control the river pollution. The study shows that there are 11 illegal dumping spot of solid waste consisting of 4.37 m3 solid waste volume. The average composition of solid waste consists of 44% organic, 14% woods, 12% papers, 11% plastics, 3% rubbers, 1% metals and 2% others. To control the river pollution efforts are restoring the function of riverbanks to become green open space area, installing the trash rack into the river, to manage domestic solid waste based on 3R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) concept.

  1. Two-dimensional study of shock breakout at the rear face of laser irradiated metallic targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottet, F.; Marty, L.; Hallouin, M.; Romain, J.P.; Virmont, J.; Fabbro, R.; Faral, B.

    1988-11-01

    The two-dimensional propagation dynamics of laser-driven shock waves in solids is studied through the analysis of the shock breakout at the rear face of the target for a set of materials and laser intensities. The laser shock simulations were carried out by means of a two-dimensional hydrodynamics code in which the laser-ablation pressure is replaced by an equivalent pressure pulse. It is shown that the two-dimensional code is a very useful tool to analyze laser-shock experiments where two-dimensional effects arise from a finite laser-spot size or a heterogeneous energy deposition.

  2. Two-dimensional study of shock breakout at the rear face of laser irradiated metallic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottet, F.; Marty, L.; Hallouin, M.; Romain, J.P.; Virmont, J.; Fabbro, R.; Faral, B.

    1988-01-01

    The two-dimensional propagation dynamics of laser-driven shock waves in solids is studied through the analysis of the shock breakout at the rear face of the target for a set of materials and laser intensities. The laser shock simulations were carried out by means of a two-dimensional hydrodynamics code in which the laser-ablation pressure is replaced by an equivalent pressure pulse. It is shown that the two-dimensional code is a very useful tool to analyze laser-shock experiments where two-dimensional effects arise from a finite laser-spot size or a heterogeneous energy deposition

  3. Electroplating fission-recoil barriers onto LEU-metal foils for 99Mo-production targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaga, J.A.; Sedlet, J.; Conner, C.; Liberatore, M.W.; Walker, D.E.; Wygmans, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    Electroplating experiments on uranium foil have been conducted in order to develop low-enriched uranium composite targets suitable for the production of 99 Mo. Preparation of the foil surface prior to plating was found to play a key role in the quality of the resultant coating. A surface preparation procedure was developed that produces both zinc and nickel coatings with the desired level of coating adherence and coverage. Modifications of the existing plating processes now need investigation to improve to uniformity of the plating thickness, especially at the foil perimeter. (author)

  4. Electroplating fission-recoil barriers onto LEU-metal foils for 99Mo-production targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaga, J.A.; Sedlet, J.; Conner, C.; Liberatore, M.W.; Walker, D.E.; Wygmans, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-10-01

    Electroplating experiments on uranium foil have been conducted in order to develop low-enriched uranium composite targets suitable for the production of 99 Mo. Preparation of the foil surface prior to plating was found to play a key role in the quality of the resultant coating. A surface preparation procedure was developed that produces both zinc and nickel coatings with the desired level of coating adherence and coverage. Modifications of the existing plating processes now need investigation to improve to uniformity of the plating thickness, especially at the foil perimeter

  5. Comments on the possibility of cavitation in liquid metal targets for pulsed spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter J.M.

    1996-01-01

    When short pulses of protons strike the volume of a liquid target, the rapid heating produces a pressurized region which relaxes as the pressure wave propagates outward. Skala and Bauer have modeled the effects of the pressure wave impinging on the container walls of a liquid mercury target under ESS conditions. They find that high pressures and high wall stresses result if the medium is uniform, nearly incompressible liquid. The pressure and the stresses are much reduced if the liquid contains bubbles of helium, due to their high compressibility. However, according to the calculation, the pressure still reaches an atmosphere or so at the surface, which reflects the compressive wave as a rarefaction wave of the same magnitude. Even such modest underpressures can lead to the growth of bubbles (cavitation) at or near the surface, which can collapse violently and erode the container surface. It is necessary to avoid this. Leighton provides a wide ranging discussion of pressure waves in bubbly media, which may provide insights into the nature and control of cavitation phenomena. The paper surveys some of the relevant information from that source

  6. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol... property while under the influence of illegal drugs or alcohol. Using alcoholic beverages on NARA property...

  7. A molecular dynamics computer simulation of the time dependence of surface damage production in ion irradiated metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.P.; Harrison, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulations have been used to study the development of ion-induced cascades in the surface region of an initially perfect single crystal metal target. A 16 mm movie has been produced to show the temporal progress of individual cascades. The cascades can then be seen to be formed from a few high energy primary knock-on initiated replacement collision sequences which overlap to form the more usual interpretation of a mature collision cascade. However, it is before the collision cascade has matured, and while the replacement sequences are spreading, that the majority of atoms (> 80%) are ejected. These qualitative observations are also upheld more quantatively in a global average, over many cascades, of the ejection time of each atom. This gives rise to the appearance of a statistical ejection front which propagates radially outwards, from the impact point on the crystal surface, with a well defined velocity. (author)

  8. Increase in the temperature of a laser plasma formed by two-frequency UV - IR irradiation of metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, A A; Grasyuk, Arkadii Z; Efimovskii, S V; Kurbasov, Sergei V; Losev, Leonid L; Soskov, V I

    1998-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made of a laser plasma formed by successive irradiation of a metal target with 30-ps UV and IR laser pulses. The UV prepulse, of 266 nm wavelength, was of relatively low intensity (∼ 10 12 W cm -2 ), whereas the intensity of an IR pulse, of 10.6 μm wavelength, was considerably higher (∼3 x 10 14 W cm -2 ) and it was delayed by 0 - 6 ns (the optimal delay was 2 ns). Such two-frequency UV - IR irradiation produced a laser plasma with an electron temperature 5 times higher than that of a plasma created by singe-frequency IR pulses of the same (∼3 x 10 14 W cm -2 ) intensity. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  9. Nano-fabrication of molecular electronic junctions by targeted modification of metal-molecule bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, S. Hassan M.; Löfås, Henrik; Blom, Tobias; Wallner, Andreas; Grigoriev, Anton; Ahuja, Rajeev; Ottosson, Henrik; Leifer, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    Reproducibility, stability and the coupling between electrical and molecular properties are central challenges in the field of molecular electronics. The field not only needs devices that fulfill these criteria but they also need to be up-scalable to application size. In this work, few-molecule based electronics devices with reproducible electrical characteristics are demonstrated. Our previously reported 5 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP) coated with ω-triphenylmethyl (trityl) protected 1,8-octanedithiol molecules are trapped in between sub-20 nm gap spacing gold nanoelectrodes forming AuNP-molecule network. When the trityl groups are removed, reproducible devices and stable Au-thiol junctions are established on both ends of the alkane segment. The resistance of more than 50 devices is reduced by orders of magnitude as well as a reduction of the spread in the resistance histogram is observed. By density functional theory calculations the orders of magnitude decrease in resistance can be explained and supported by TEM observations thus indicating that the resistance changes and strongly improved resistance spread are related to the establishment of reproducible and stable metal-molecule bonds. The same experimental sequence is carried out using 1,6-hexanedithiol functionalized AuNPs. The average resistances as a function of molecular length, demonstrated herein, are comparable to the one found in single molecule devices.

  10. [The risk for illegal behaviour and corruption in the healthcare sector: what preventive measures can be taken?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoiro, Chiara

    2016-05-01

    In the healthcare sector risk factors for illegal behavior and corruption are peculiar and greater than in other social areas, as it plays a crucial role in the community's economical, political and cultural life. The healthcare services is a complex network that require interaction between may people, constant contacts with the industry, safety and adequate facilities that require regular maintenance, upgrade and replacement of medical technology, connection with local and regional policy makers. This provides the opportunity of being exposed to improper influence. However, illegal behaviors can be prevented: first of all supporting all professionals that everyday work to protect our health with ethics and expertise; then with all instruments that anti-corruption action plans, such as the one introduced in Italy in 2012, aim to identify and target those areas most at risk of corruption phenomena.

  11. THEY MIGHT BE GIANTS: LUMINOSITY CLASS, PLANET OCCURRENCE, AND PLANET-METALLICITY RELATION OF THE COOLEST KEPLER TARGET STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Andrew W.; Hilton, Eric J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Gaidos, Eric [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Lepine, Sebastien, E-mail: amann@ifa.hawaii.edu [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We estimate the stellar parameters of late K- and early M-type Kepler target stars. We obtain medium-resolution visible spectra of 382 stars with K{sub P} - J > 2 ({approx_equal}K5 and later spectral type). We determine luminosity class by comparing the strength of gravity-sensitive indices (CaH, K I, Ca II, and Na I) to their strength in a sample of stars of known luminosity class. We find that giants constitute 96% {+-} 1% of the bright (K{sub P} < 14) Kepler target stars, and 7% {+-} 3% of dim (K{sub P} > 14) stars, significantly higher than fractions based on the stellar parameters quoted in the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC). The KIC effective temperatures are systematically (110{sup +15}{sub -35} K) higher than temperatures we determine from fitting our spectra to PHOENIX stellar models. Through Monte Carlo simulations of the Kepler exoplanet candidate population, we find a planet occurrence of 0.36 {+-} 0.08 when giant stars are properly removed, somewhat higher than when a KIC log g > 4 criterion is used (0.27 {+-} 0.05). Last, we show that there is no significant difference in g - r color (a probe of metallicity) between late-type Kepler stars with transiting Earth-to-Neptune-size exoplanet candidates and dwarf stars with no detected transits. We show that a previous claimed offset between these two populations is most likely an artifact of including a large number of misidentified giants.

  12. Personality characteristics of victims of illegal attacks on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safuanov F.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the personality characteristics of victims of illegal attacks on the Internet. We used methods as follow: 16 factors Cattell personality questionnaire, subjective control level, life-style index, Buss-Perry questionnaire, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, a COPE inventory. 78 internet users were divided into two groups of 38 persons: the main group included people falling victim to illegal attacks on the Internet, the control group participants were not attacked on the internet. We identified specific aggregated symptoms of individual psychological characteristics of internet attack victims and show that victims of "non-forced" and "forced" offenses have different levels of situational and personal anxiety, aggression and locus of control.

  13. Experimental and numerical study of the micro-spalling of metallic targets subjected to laser shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loison, D.

    2012-01-01

    Micro-spalling is a failure phenomenon consisting in dynamic fragmentation of a material after partial or full melting under intense shock wave loading. High power pulsed lasers are used as shock wave generators in laboratory for scientific and industrial purposes, such as research on inertial confinement fusion. In this context, the production of high velocity fragments can damage the facilities where shock experiments are conducted. This thesis, realized in collaboration with different teams from CEA, aims at understanding and modeling the different processes involved in micro-spalling phenomenon. Experiments to study micro-spalling of laser shock-loaded tin and aluminum targets have been performed. Various and complementary diagnostics (photonic Doppler velocimetry, soft recovery of debris and microtomography) have been used to characterize the ballistic properties (size distributions and velocities) of droplets constituting the micro-spalling cloud. In parallel, phase transition and fragmentation models have been adapted to simulate micro-spalling. These models have been implemented in a code to predict the sizes and velocities of debris. The combination of experimental and numerical results allows characterizing the successive stages of micro-spalling from laser-matter interaction to the ejection of droplets. (author)

  14. Behavioral Indicators of Legal and Illegal Gun Carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    foundation to develop training for law enforcement and security personnel to utilize behavioral indicators in a safe, legal, and effective manner...hope to develop more efficient and effective means of assisting the police to identify and safely interdict persons carrying illegal firearms. This...by Velcro hook and loop fastener tape. Attached to the elastic wrap is a pocket with a security strap that holds the gun in place. When fastened to

  15. Movie Pirates of the Caribbean: Exploring Illegal Streaming Cyberlockers

    OpenAIRE

    Ibosiola, Damilola; Steer, Benjamin; Garcia-Recuero, Alvaro; Stringhini, Gianluca; Uhlig, Steve; Tyson, Gareth

    2018-01-01

    Online video piracy (OVP) is a contentious topic, with strong proponents on both sides of the argument. Recently, a number of illegal websites, called streaming cyberlockers, have begun to dominate OVP. These websites specialise in distributing pirated content, underpinned by third party indexing services offering easy-to-access directories of content. This paper performs the first exploration of this new ecosystem. It characterises the content, as well the streaming cyberlockers' individual ...

  16. Collision cross sections and equilibrium fractions of ions and atoms in metal vapor targets. Project progress report, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this program is to measure atomic collision cross sections and equilibrium fractions of ions and atoms in metal vapor targets. The goal is to obtain experimental information on atomic collision processes relevant to the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. In particular, in connection with the development of double charge exchange D - ion sources, we are measuring D - formation cross sections in alkaline-earth metal vapor targets. During the period covered in this report we have measured electron transfer cross sections for 3-40 keV D + ions and D 0 atoms in collision with calcium vapor

  17. Consistent constitutive modeling of metallic target penetration using empirical, analytical, and numerical penetration models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John (Jack P. Riegel III

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Historically, there has been little correlation between the material properties used in (1 empirical formulae, (2 analytical formulations, and (3 numerical models. The various regressions and models may each provide excellent agreement for the depth of penetration into semi-infinite targets. But the input parameters for the empirically based procedures may have little in common with either the analytical model or the numerical model. This paper builds on previous work by Riegel and Anderson (2014 to show how the Effective Flow Stress (EFS strength model, based on empirical data, can be used as the average flow stress in the analytical Walker–Anderson Penetration model (WAPEN (Anderson and Walker, 1991 and how the same value may be utilized as an effective von Mises yield strength in numerical hydrocode simulations to predict the depth of penetration for eroding projectiles at impact velocities in the mechanical response regime of the materials. The method has the benefit of allowing the three techniques (empirical, analytical, and numerical to work in tandem. The empirical method can be used for many shot line calculations, but more advanced analytical or numerical models can be employed when necessary to address specific geometries such as edge effects or layering that are not treated by the simpler methods. Developing complete constitutive relationships for a material can be costly. If the only concern is depth of penetration, such a level of detail may not be required. The effective flow stress can be determined from a small set of depth of penetration experiments in many cases, especially for long penetrators such as the L/D = 10 ones considered here, making it a very practical approach. In the process of performing this effort, the authors considered numerical simulations by other researchers based on the same set of experimental data that the authors used for their empirical and analytical assessment. The goals were to establish a

  18. Turbulent heat mixing of a heavy liquid metal flow in the MEGAPIE target geometry-The heated jet experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieglitz, Robert; Daubner, Markus; Batta, A.; Lefhalm, C.-H.

    2007-01-01

    The MEGAPIE target installed at the Paul-Scherrer Institute is an example of a spallation target using eutectic liquid lead-bismuth (Pb 45 Bi 55 ) both as coolant and neutron source. An adequate cooling of the target requires a conditioning of the flow, which is realized by a main flow transported in an annular gap downwards, u-turned at a hemispherical shell into a cylindrical riser tube. In order to avoid a stagnation point close to the lowest part of the shell a jet flow is superimposed to the main flow, which is directed towards to the stagnation point and flows tangentially along the shell. The heated jet experiment conducted in the THEADES loop of the KALLA laboratory is nearly 1:1 representation of the lower part of the MEGAPIE target. It is aimed to study the cooling capability of this specific geometry in dependence on the flow rate ratio (Q main /Q jet ) of the main flow (Q main ) to the jet flow (Q jet ). Here, a heated jet is injected into a cold main flow at MEGAPIE relevant flow rate ratios. The liquid metal experiment is accompanied by a water experiment in almost the same geometry to study the momentum field as well as a three-dimensional turbulent numerical fluid dynamic simulation (CFD). Besides a detailed study of the envisaged nominal operation of the MEGAPIE target with Q main /Q jet = 15 deviations from this mode are investigated in the range from 7.5 ≤ Q main /Q jet ≤ 20 in order to give an estimate on the safe operational threshold of the target. The experiment shows that, the flow pattern establishing in this specific design and the turbulence intensity distribution essentially depends on the flow rate ratio (Q main /Q jet ). All Q main /Q jet -ratios investigated exhibit an unstable time dependent behavior. The MEGAPIE design is highly sensitive against changes of this ratio. Mainly three completely different flow patterns were identified. A sufficient cooling of the lower target shell, however, is only ensured if Q main /Q jet ≤ 12

  19. Discursive Representations of Asylum Seekers and Illegal Immigrants in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Burroughs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Migrants are often referred to as an all encompassing group of people and the “many faces of migration”, the variety of people, legalities and complexities involved, can be overlooked. The same can be said for non-EU migrants in the Irish context. Non-EU migrants (or those that are not Caucasian are generally viewed to be a distinct cohort of comparable migrants. Indeed, these migrants are often portrayed in a broadly negative way by key Irish institutions (such as the parliament or the media, and these representations impact upon how Irish society views non-EU migration and indeed migration in general. While Ireland is by no means the only European country in which this type of practice occurs, this paper aims to draw attention to generalized, inaccurate and misleading representations of non-EU migrants in Ireland, by specifically examining representations of asylum seekers and illegal immigrants. There can be an overlap in how these “types” of migrants are conceptualized and this paper therefore aims to develop an understanding of the implications involved for migrants categorized as an “asylum seeker” or an “illegal immigrant.” Furthermore, these topics are under-researched within the Irish context, yet they receive much political and public attention. At the same time however, this paper aims to challenge the labels assigned to non-EU migrants and the terminology that is used to define their identity so concretely. In the Irish context there is much confusion in relation to the multiple “faces” of non-EU migration, as a range of terminology is used to refer to them. This terminology is often used in an interchangeable manner, in an array of societal contexts. There is a consistent (whether this happens intentionally or unintentionally is debatable misuse of categories and migration terminology in Irish institutional discourses. Quite often those seeking asylum are referred to as illegal immigrants and vice versa

  20. D- production by multiple charge-transfer collisions in metal-vapor targets. [1 to 50 keV D/sup +/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlachter, A.S.

    1977-09-01

    A beam of D/sup -/ions can be produced by multiple charge-transfer collisions of a D/sup +/ beam in a thick metal-vapor target. Cross sections and equilibrium charge-state fractions are presented and discussed.

  1. Analytical models for development of high performance metal targets irradiated in IPEN-CNEN/SP Cyclone 30 and Cyclone 18 cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Henrique Barcellos de

    2009-01-01

    Analytical models were developed that describe the basic elements for metal targets irradiation in cyclotrons. Important parameters such as maximum beam current value and thermal power deposited on target were obtained and compared with practical situations. In an unprecedented way, were determined analytically the features found in intense thermal transient situations, when high protons concentrations in a small region of the beam cause intense temperature gradients in small regions of the target. Comparing with results found in the literature showed that the developed models are satisfactory, in view of all limitations of the proposed model. (author)

  2. International movements, post-apartheid dispensations and illegal immigration into South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambidima Wotela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arising from the supposed negative impact of illegal immigration, including security threats as well as recent xenophobic violence, the South African Government would like to counter illegal immigration. To do this, it needs to understand the root causes of illegal immigration into the country. This article, therefore, seeks to explain and interpret why illegal immigrants make South Africa their ideal choice of destination. To provide a context, the article begins with a discussion on the research setting, that is, the South African international boundaries. Thereafter, the article discusses the concept of illegal immigration from the South African context before reviewing literature on the number of illegal immigrants in South Africa and the supposed impact. The article then explores literature on international movements and discusses established migration frameworks that explain and interpret these movements. Lastly, to confirm some facts arising from the review, we interviewed officials that manage illegal immigration as well as detained immigrants. We establish that four migration streams that have created a blended society in Southern Africa sparked illegal immigration into South Africa. The article conclude that the problem of illegal immigration into South Africa is perpetuated by deep-rooted migration networks. Therefore, if the South African Government wants to avert illegal immigration, its policy-makers should examine these roots and take them into account to arrive at a solution that is in sync with the root causes of the problem.

  3. Structure and properties of nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation of Zn metal targets in water and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlichnyi, V. A.; Lapin, I. N.

    2013-10-01

    Size characteristics, structure, and spectral and luminescent properties of nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation of zinc metal targets in water and ethanol are experimentally investigated upon excitation by Nd:YAG-laser radiation (1064 nm, 7 ns, and 15 Hz). It is demonstrated that zinc oxide nanoparticles with average sizes of 10 nm (in water) and 16 nm (in ethanol) are formed in the initial stage as a result of ablation. The kinetics of the absorption and luminescence spectra, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray structural analysis demonstrate that during long storage of water dispersions and their drying, nanoparticles efficiently interact with carbon dioxide gas of air that leads to the formation of water-soluble Zn(CO3)2(OH)6. In ethanol, Zn oxidation leads to the formation of stable dispersions of ZnO nanoparticles with 99% of the wurtzite phase; in this case, the fluorescence spectra of ZnO nanoparticles change with time, shifting toward longer wavelength region from 550 to 620 nm, which is caused by the changed nature of defects.

  4. Atomistic simulation study of short pulse laser interactions with a metal target under conditions of spatial confinement by a transparent overlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Eaman T.; Shugaev, Maxim; Wu, Chengping; Zhigilei, Leonid V., E-mail: lz2n@virginia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 395 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4745 (United States); Lin, Zhibin; Hainsey, Robert F. [Electro Scientific Industries, Inc., 13900 NW Science Park Drive, Portland, Oregon 97229 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    The distinct characteristics of short pulse laser interactions with a metal target under conditions of spatial confinement by a solid transparent overlayer are investigated in a series of atomistic simulations. The simulations are performed with a computational model combining classical molecular dynamics (MD) technique with a continuum description of the laser excitation, electron-phonon equilibration, and electronic heat transfer based on two-temperature model (TTM). Two methods for incorporation of the description of a transparent overlayer into the TTM-MD model are designed and parameterized for Ag-silica system. The material response to the laser energy deposition is studied for a range of laser fluences that, in the absence of the transparent overlayer, covers the regimes of melting and resolidification, photomechanical spallation, and phase explosion of the overheated surface region. In contrast to the irradiation in vacuum, the spatial confinement by the overlayer facilitates generation of sustained high-temperature and high-pressure conditions near the metal-overlayer interface, suppresses the generation of unloading tensile wave, decreases the maximum depth of melting, and prevents the spallation and explosive disintegration of the surface region of the metal target. At high laser fluences, when the laser excitation brings the surface region of the metal target to supercritical conditions, the confinement prevents the expansion and phase decomposition characteristic for the vacuum conditions leading to a gradual cooling of the hot compressed supercritical fluid down to the liquid phase and eventual solidification. The target modification in this case is limited to the generation of crystal defects and the detachment of the metal target from the overlayer.

  5. Mass balance approaches to assess critical loads and target loads of heavy metals for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Posch, M.

    2015-01-01

    Critical loads of heavy metals address not only ecotoxicological effects on organisms in soils and surface waters, but also food quality in view of public health. A critical load for metals is the load resulting at steady state in a metal concentration in a compartment (e.g. soil solution, surface

  6. Games of corruption: how to suppress illegal logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joung-Hun; Sigmund, Karl; Dieckmann, Ulf; Iwasa, Yoh

    2015-02-21

    Corruption is one of the most serious obstacles for ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation. In particular, more than half of the loss of forested area in many tropical countries is due to illegal logging, with corruption implicated in a lack of enforcement. Here we study an evolutionary game model to analyze the illegal harvesting of forest trees, coupled with the corruption of rule enforcers. We consider several types of harvesters, who may or may not be committed towards supporting an enforcer service, and who may cooperate (log legally) or defect (log illegally). We also consider two types of rule enforcers, honest and corrupt: while honest enforcers fulfill their function, corrupt enforcers accept bribes from defecting harvesters and refrain from fining them. We report three key findings. First, in the absence of strategy exploration, the harvester-enforcer dynamics are bistable: one continuum of equilibria consists of defecting harvesters and a low fraction of honest enforcers, while another consists of cooperating harvesters and a high fraction of honest enforcers. Both continua attract nearby strategy mixtures. Second, even a small rate of strategy exploration removes this bistability, rendering one of the outcomes globally stable. It is the relative rate of exploration among enforcers that then determines whether most harvesters cooperate or defect and most enforcers are honest or corrupt, respectively. This suggests that the education of enforcers, causing their more frequent trialing of honest conduct, can be a potent means of curbing corruption. Third, if information on corrupt enforcers is available, and players react opportunistically to it, the domain of attraction of cooperative outcomes widens considerably. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Likelihood of illegal alcohol sales at professional sport stadiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Traci L; Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen M; Kilian, Gunna R

    2008-11-01

    Several studies have assessed the propensity for illegal alcohol sales at licensed alcohol establishments and community festivals, but no previous studies examined the propensity for these sales at professional sport stadiums. In this study, we assessed the likelihood of alcohol sales to both underage youth and obviously intoxicated patrons at professional sports stadiums across the United States, and assessed the factors related to likelihood of both types of alcohol sales. We conducted pseudo-underage (i.e., persons age 21 or older who appear under 21) and pseudo-intoxicated (i.e., persons feigning intoxication) alcohol purchase attempts at stadiums that house professional hockey, basketball, baseball, and football teams. We conducted the purchase attempts at 16 sport stadiums located in 5 states. We measured 2 outcome variables: pseudo-underage sale (yes, no) and pseudo-intoxicated sale (yes, no), and 3 types of independent variables: (1) seller characteristics, (2) purchase attempt characteristics, and (3) event characteristics. Following univariate and bivariate analyses, we a separate series of logistic generalized mixed regression models for each outcome variable. The overall sales rates to the pseudo-underage and pseudo-intoxicated buyers were 18% and 74%, respectively. In the multivariate logistic analyses, we found that the odds of a sale to a pseudo-underage buyer in the stands was 2.9 as large as the odds of a sale at the concession booths (30% vs. 13%; p = 0.01). The odds of a sale to an obviously intoxicated buyer in the stands was 2.9 as large as the odds of a sale at the concession booths (89% vs. 73%; p = 0.02). Similar to studies assessing illegal alcohol sales at licensed alcohol establishments and community festivals, findings from this study shows the need for interventions specifically focused on illegal alcohol sales at professional sporting events.

  8. Multi-colorimetric sensor array for detection of illegal materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Boisen, Anja; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2012-01-01

    The detection of low pressure illegal compounds is an important analytical problem which requires reliable, selective and sensitive detection methods which provide the highest level of confidence in the result. Therefore, to contribute in the successful development of the recognition technology...... and signal processing enhancements to sensing methods, recognition ability, data acquisition time and data processing algorithms are necessary. In this research we work towards the development of a rapid, easy in use, highly sensitive, specific (minimal false positives) sensor based on a colorimetric sensing...

  9. Adolescent Girls with illegally Induced Abortion in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Mchumvu, Y

    2000-01-01

    that gave them the right to seek family planning services and in practice these services are not being provided. There is a need for youth-friendly family planning services and to make abortion safe and legal, in order to reduce unwanted pregnancies and abortion-related complications and deaths among......This article reports on a study of induced abortion among adolescent girls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who were admitted to a district hospital in Dar es Salaam because of an illegally induced abortion in 1997. In the quantitative part of the study, 197 teenage girls (aged 14-19) were asked...

  10. Securing the Chernobyl exclusion zone against illegal movement of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, O. O.; Proskura, M. I.; Duftschmid, K. E.; Kravchencko, N. E.

    2004-01-01

    . Within the framework of the IAEA Nuclear Security Program the technical cooperation project S trengthening Security of Nuclear Materials in Ukraine ( UKR/0/008) is aimed primarily to strengthen protection the entrance/exit checkpoints of the Chernobyl exclusion zone and adjacent State borders of Ukraine against illicit movement of radioactive materials (including nuclear materials). The particular situation of the exclusion zone presents a high risk of uncontrolled movement of radioactive materials from and into the exclusion zone. In view of the future construction of the S helter-2 a nd decommissioning of the three closed reactor blocks it is expected that the traffic through the exclusion zone will considerably increase in the next years and those large amounts of possibly contaminated metal scrap, construction material and equipment will leave the zone. There is also a risk of illegal movement of radioactive waste into the zone, possibly also through the international border, which could make the zone to an illegal dumping ground for radioactive waste. As practice shows theft of nuclear materials cannot be excluded. The general concept of the project is based on modernization of old and deployment of new vehicle (road and railway) and pedestrian monitoring equipment at all checkpoints of the exclusion zone including road checkpoints, train stations and river ports. A central station of data acquisition and management is to be located in Chernobyl. The equipment to be installed has to meet new technical requirements developed by IAEA. This includes, e.g. sensitivity of gamma and neutron detection, identification of innocent alarms caused by NORM materials or medical radioisotopes, accurate indication of the source position in the vehicle, and remote identification of license plate by advanced video systems. The implementation of the project and deployment of the equipment is expected to start in 2003 and should be completed in 2005. (Author)

  11. Judgments about illegal performance-enhancing substances: reasoned, reactive, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Tonya; Stock, Michelle; Litt, Dana

    2013-07-01

    This study applied aspects of the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Prototype/Willingness model to understand cognitions associated with the use of illegal performance-enhancing substances. There were two study objectives. One was to investigate whether the illegal-is-effective heuristic (i.e. belief that illegal performance-enhancing substances are more effective than legal performance-enhancing substances) affects willingness to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The second was to examine whether attitudes, norms, and prototypes influence the willingness and intentions to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The illegal-is-effective heuristic was a significant predictor of willingness but was not a significant predictor of intentions. Implications for future research and prevention efforts are discussed.

  12. THE PROBLEM OF ILLEGAL MIGRATION OF ETHNIC ROHINGYA IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Сомкамнерд, Навапат

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of illegal migration of ethnic Rohingya in the region of South-East Asia, in some ASEAN countries, especially in Myanmar and Thailand. An overview focuses on the role of Thailand, Myanmar, Bangladesh and the role of international and regional organizations, especially the role of the UN and ASEAN in resolution of the problem of illegal migration of Rohingya. Particular emphasis is placed on activities of ASEAN and Thailand to tackle the problem of illegal...

  13. The Use of Violence in Illegal Markets: Evidence from Mahogany Trade in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Chimeli, Ariaster B.; Soares, Rodrigo R.

    2011-01-01

    Agents operating in illegal markets cannot resort to the justice system to guarantee property rights, to enforce contracts, or to seek protection from competitors' improper behaviors. In these contexts, violence is used to enforce previous agreements and to fight for market share. This relationship plays a major role in the debate on the pernicious effects of the illegality of drug trade. This paper explores a singular episode of transition of a market from legal to illegal to provide a first...

  14. FUNGSI EKOLOGIS HUTAN MENURUT SISWA KELUARGA PELAKU ILLEGAL LOGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskhur Maskhur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini mendeskripsikan pemaknaan dan sikap siswa SDN3 Kluwih Bandar Batang keluarga pelaku illegal loging terhadap fungsi hutan. Penelitian ini menggunakan paradigma dan pendekatan kualitatif dengan pendekatan fenomenologi. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui teknik observasi, wawancara kepada 12 subjek yang telah ditentukan secara purposif. Data yang didapat kemudian dianalisis dengan model anailis interaktif dengan mengacu pada teori Milles & Huberman. Hasil riset ini menunjukkan bahwa pemaknaan mereka terhadap hutan menjadi negative dan sesat. Walaupun pengetahuan para siswa tersebut tentang fungsi ekologis hutan masih positif dan baik. Pemahaman mereka atas fungsi ekologi hutan sangat dipengaruhi oleh perilaku pelaku penebangan hutan, yang mana adalah keluarga dekat mereka sendiri. Walaupun sikap mereka secara kognitif dan afektif sangat positif namun secara konatif sikap mereka sangat negatif. This article describes elementary knowledge and attitudes of students of SDN 3 Kluwih Banda Batang which had relathionship family with illegal loging agent. This used qualitative paradigm with phenomological perspective. Data collected through observation, interviews with 12 subjects who have been determined purposively. The data obtained were analyzed using an interactive model with reference to the theory of Milles and Huberman. The results of this research indicate that they purport to be negative and misguided forest. Hence the students knowledge about the ecological function of the forest is still positive and good. Their understanding of forests ecological functions are influenced by the behavior of agents of deforestation, which are close relatives of their own. Although their attitude is very positive cognitive and affective manner connective but their attitude was very negative.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF ILLEGAL CAPITAL FLOWS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana PETROVA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the existent methodologies used in international practice to estimate illegalcapital outflows. Also, authors carried out an assessment of the illegal capital outflows in the Republic ofMoldova on the basis of two models: the general method based on the balance of payments and the WorldBank’s "residual" model. The paper reflects the exceptional situation of the financial system of theRepublic of Moldova and trends in evolution of capital flows. The analysis of illegal flows should be partof the monitoring system of the country’s financial stability, which will allow identifying in time negativetrends that threaten Moldova's financial security. The main research methods were systemic analysis andlogic synthesis; data analysis and interpretation; statistical methods, etc. The main conclusionsobtained within the research of this topic are: for more reliable estimates for analytical purposes, it isnecessary to develop an adequate methodological base that would help to measure and analyze shadowcross-border flows; for the assessment of the financial security of the Republic of Moldova, as a transitioneconomy, it is important to monitor, analyze and forecast a broader list of financial indicators, as well astheir critical values.

  16. [Current situation with abortion in Colombia: between illegality and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vélez, Ana Cristina

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the illegality of abortion in Colombia, situating this country within the 0.4% of the world population where abortion is completely banned. Absolute criminalization of abortion turns it into a public health matter and produces social inequality. The Colombian legislation has always disregarded women as individuals and as persons in full possession of their legal rights. In contrast to a comprehensive conceptualization of sexual and reproductive rights, the various abortion bills merely refer either to "morally unacceptable" situations such as pregnancy resulting from rape or to therapeutic motives. Contradictions between illegality and reality give rise to a public discourse that features rejection of abortion practices, in keeping with the prevailing stance of the ecclesiastic hierarchy, while in practice, and at the private level, people resort to voluntary interruption of pregnancy under conditions of safety and confidentiality, at least for women from the higher socioeconomic strata. This situation not only causes social inequality but also reflects how laws lose meaning and create the collective impression of being useless or unnecessary, thus undermining the state's governing role.

  17. Which psychoactive prescription drugs are illegally obtained and through which ways of acquisition? About OPPIDUM survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauger, Elisabeth; Nordmann, Sandra; Orleans, Veronica; Pradel, Vincent; Pauly, Vanessa; Thirion, Xavier; Micallef, Joëlle

    2012-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine which psychoactive prescription drugs are illegally obtained and through which ways of acquisition. OPPIDUM is an annual national study. It is based on specialized care centers that included subjects presenting a drug dependency or under opiate maintenance treatment. All their psychoactive substances consumed are reported. This work focuses on the different ways of acquisition specially the illegal ways of acquisition (bought on the street, forged prescription, stolen, given, internet). For each medication illegally obtained, a ratio has been calculated (number of illegal acquisitions divided by the number of described acquisitions). In 2008, 5542 subjects have been included and have described the consumption of 11 027 substances including 63.8% of prescription drugs. Among them, 11% were illegally obtained. The different illegal acquisition ways were 'street market' (77.6%), 'gift' (16.6%), 'theft' (2.3%), 'forged prescription' (2.3%), and 'internet' (0.7%). The third first drugs illegally obtained were high dosage buprenorphine, methadone, and clonazepam. Some prescription drugs, less consumed, have an important ratio of illegal acquisition like ketamine, flunitrazepam, morphine, trihexyphenidyl, or methylphenidate. This study confirms that theft, forged prescription and internet are few used and permits to highlight diversion of prescription drugs. It is important to inform healthcare professionals on the different prescription drugs that are illegally obtained. © 2011 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  18. Knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS in illegal residents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A Memish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS in illegal residents, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire study was conducted among the illegal residents from four regions in Saudi Arabia: Jeddah, Makkah, Riyadh, and Jazan. Results: The survey enrolled 5,000 participants, 79%male (39.6% from Jeddah; 20% from Riyadh; and 20% from Jazan, aged between 15 and 45 years. Of the total, 1288 (25.8% had not heard about HIV/AIDS. Knowledge of HIV transmission was poor in 90% of the respondents. Of the total, 737 had read about HIV/AIDS materials and 649 participants had been previously tested for HIV. The majority of participants (85% held a negative attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Those who were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS expressed more a positive attitude. One-fifth (968, majority were men; single 55%, married 45% had engaged in non-marital sexual activity. The largest proportion of the individuals who had engaged in non-marital sex were single (54.9% followed by the married ones (40.4%. Men cited pleasure as the main reason for such activity (84.6%, whereas women (73.4% cited financial gain. Of the respondents, 53.9 and 32.1% believed that TV and schools were the best media through which information with regard to HIV/AIDS could be imparted. Conclusions: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, its mode of transmission, and prevention measures was poor. Educational programs specifically targeted toward this group were required.

  19. Economics of Illegal Work and Illegal Workers (Immigrants: Are They Protected under South African Labour Law and the Constitution, 1996?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashele Rapatsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses whether prostitution (illegal work and illegal immigrants have access to the protective ambits of statutory framework regulating employment relations. Its objective is to examine the scope of labour law, considerate of ever changing trends in the modern world of work. It utilizes the two notable precedents founded in Kylie v CCMA and Discovery Health v CCMA. This is considerate of inherent dynamics in contemporary labour relations where the majority of workers have been displaced into grey areas that offer little or no protection, thus rendering workers vulnerable to exploitation. The article highlights a rising tension arising out of exploitative labour practices and socio-economic factors, and the need for labour law to respond. It has been found that courts have creatively invented strategic methods that have successfully aided efforts of protecting vulnerable workers engaged in economic activities under precarious circumstances. This is to the extent that the Constitution, 1996 and the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995 have been interpreted in a manner that enhances worker protection, which fulfils the purpose for which labour law was enacted.

  20. The excitation functions of 4s-4p and 3d-4p transitions in Ni atoms sputtered from metallic targets by Ar+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, P.; Gabla, L.; Pedrys, R.

    1981-01-01

    The intensities of spectral lines corresponding to 4s-4p and 3d-4p transitions in Ni atoms sputtered from metallic targets by Ar + ions were measured. The energy of primary ions was varied from 4 keV to 10 keV. Both single crystal and polycrystalline targets were used at various temperatures including ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases. The excitation functions calculated from experimental data can be explained only by the assumption that the promotion of the electrons occurs during energetic binary collisions of atomic particles in the solid. (orig.)

  1. Laser-fusion target fabrication: application of organic coatings to metallic and nonmetallic micropellets by the glow-discharge polymerization of p-xylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsic, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Laser-fusion targets require thin, uniform organic-film coatings. A coating technique involving glow-discharge polymerization is described for applying highly adherent, extremely uniform, thin films of a high-temperature polymer to a variety of microsubstrates. Polymeric coatings as thick as 10 μm have been successfully deposited on hollow, spherical, 40- to 250-μm-diam micropellets of glass, metal-coated glass, and nickel/manganese alloy. Experimental yields of coatings of a quality acceptable for laser-fusion targets are typically greater than 90 percent

  2. [Substance-abuse related emergencies--illegal drugs, part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinn, Michael; Holzbach, Rüdiger; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald Bernhard

    2008-11-01

    For the first time since the year 2000 the number of death due to substance abuse of illegal drugs has increased in Germany in 2007 (+8 % compared to 2006). Emergency situations due to drug abuse are frequent, particular in big cities. They may be, however, difficult to diagnose and/or treat for an emergency physician on scene because of a lack of diagnostic tools, the local and personal surroundings, and the unknown number and nature of drugs. Many drug intoxications must be considered suicidal. On the other hand, drug intoxications may mask (other) life-threatening conditions. Emergency situations due to withdrawal offer the possibility to motivate patients to take advantage of specialist-guided abstinence programs.

  3. [Nursing school students' perception of legal and illegal drugs consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Herrera, Azucena; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Priotto, Elis Maria Teixeira; Sampaio, Julliane Messias Cordeiro

    2011-06-01

    Drugs consumption is as ancient as humanity. It has always existed and is associated with culture, in its historical and social context. The aim of this research is to know and analyze the perception of students from the Nursing School at the University of Guayaquil about legal and illegal drugs consumption. The methodological approach was qualitative, descriptive and exploratory. The sample consisted of eleven first-year students from the Nursing School. Individual and semi structured interviews were used for data collection. Thematic content analysis was adopted, in which five themes were identified: The economic situation, domestic violence, migration of close relatives, influence of the media that surround us, and ignorance about the topic. With a view to enhancing awareness on this hard reality that hurts and prejudices humanity, knowing students' perceptions contributes to identify their needs and create possibilities for health care interventions, particularly health promotion.

  4. Illegal or legitimate use? Precursor compounds to amphetamine and methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musshoff, F

    2000-02-01

    The interpretation of methamphetamine and amphetamine positive test results in biological samples is a challenge to clinical and forensic toxicology for several reasons. The effects of pH and dilution of urine samples and the knowledge about legitimate and illicit sources have to be taken into account. Besides a potentially legal prescription of amphetamines, many substances metabolize to methamphetamine or amphetamine in the body: amphetaminil, benzphetamine, clobenzorex, deprenyl, dimethylamphetamine, ethylamphetamine, famprofazone, fencamine, fenethylline, fenproporex, furfenorex, mefenorex, mesocarb, and prenylamine. Especially the knowledge of potential origins of methamphetamine and amphetamine turns out to be very important to prevent a misinterpretation of the surrounding circumstances and to prove illegal drug abuse. In this review, potential precursor compounds are described, including their medical use and major clinical effects and their metabolic profiles, as well as some clues which help to identify the sources.

  5. Illegal and Unsustainable Wildlife Hunting and Trade in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zahler

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports and studies document dramatic declines in a wide variety of wildlife species in Mongolia. The prime driver in these declines appears to be illegal and unsustainable hunting, both for local trade and consumption and for the international market. While data on these declines are sparse, comparisons of survey reports since the 1980s present evidence that some species may have declined by up to 90% in recent years. We outline the situation for eight major species of wildlife in Mongolia (saiga antelope, Mongolian gazelle, red deer , musk deer , ar gali, brown bear , Siberian marmot, and saker falcon. We then review the existing legal conditions and government efforts to control this situation, and suggest specific changes and actions that Mongolia should take to halt these dramatic declines in wildlife populations and avoid what may soon become an extinction crisis.

  6. Destruction of illegal things and devices to contrast the counterfeiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The movement of goods illegal and counterfeit in the circuit of the economy and the labor market, has put in place of criminal policy internal supranational and a primary need of confiscation and destruction in relation to safety issues transnational linked to all forms of counterfeiting, piracy agro-food to fraud in industrial brands of high fashion et similia: from here the major node of the procedure of destruction of goods illegal and counterfeit subject to seizure and confiscation and respect of guarantees communities of the criminal process, especially in the light of the amendment of art. 260, co. 3 bis and ter, c.p.p. with the d.l. 23-5-2008, n. 92 and subsequent amendments (so-called Safety Package. In line with the criminal policy of ''security'', in l. 23-7-2009, n. 99, the so-called Decree Development, between the ''darrangements for the development and the internationalization of enterprises, as well as in the field of energy'' and  wanted to redesign, with analytical provisions of particular edge, the perimeter of the criminal-law protection ''Dei property rights industrial'' through the introduction of four new hypothesis of offenses of counterfeiting (artt. 473, 474, 474 b and c, 517 b and c, c.p. and related hypothesis of obligatory confiscation (art. 474 bis and 517 ter c.p., with implications concerning the regime differentiated penitentiary (art. 4 bis, co. 1 ter, ord. penit. in relation to the cases of belonging to criminal association aimed to commit new offenses referred to in articles 473-474 c.p. (arts. 416 bis, 6º Co., c.p. and 51, co. 3 bis, c.p.p., as well as the regulatory body containing the so-called ''responsability of administrative entities'', within the meaning of art. 19, d.lg. 8-6-2001, n. 231.

  7. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assistance to family. 982.304 Section 982.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that illegal... prevents the family from finding or leasing a suitable unit with assistance under the program. The PHA must...

  8. Corruption within the Illegal Wildlife Trade : A symbiotic and Antithetical Enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380477025; Moreto, William D.

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of corruption in facilitating the illegal wildlife trade. This research attempts to contribute to the literature by disentangling the existence, influence and nested nature of corruption within the illegal wildlife trade based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in

  9. 10 CFR 707.13 - Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... another test, performed by the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method (GC/MS). This procedure is... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use... Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall be...

  10. A decade of illegal fishing in Table Mountain National Park (2000 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Illegal fishing activities are reported to be on the increase in South Africa, including in its marine protected areas (MPAs). Research is presented on the nature and the scale of illegal fishing in Table Mountain National Park (TMNP) by analysing the numbers of abalone Haliotis midae and West Coast rock lobster Jasus ...

  11. Global governance approaches to addressing illegal logging: uptake and lessons learnt

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Cashore; K. McGinley; S. Leipold; P.O. Cerutti; G. Bueno; S. et al. Carodenuto

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the results of the fifth global scientific assessment undertaken by the GFEP initiative. The report set out to gain deeper understanding of the meaning of illegal logging and related timber trade, its scale, drivers and consequences. It provides a structured synthesis of available scientific and expert knowledge on illegal logging and associated...

  12. Forensic timber identification: It's time to integrate disciplines to combat illegal logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleanor E. Dormontt; Markus Boner; Birgit Braun; Gerhard Breulmann; Bernd Degen; Edgard Espinoza; Shelley Gardner; Phil Guillery; John C. Hermanson; Gerald Koch; Soon Leong Lee; Milton Kanashiro; Anto Rimbawanto; Darren Thomas; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Yafang Yin; Johannes Zahnen; Andrew J. Lowe

    2015-01-01

    The prosecution of illegal logging crimes is hampered by a lack of available forensic timber identification tools, both for screening of suspectmaterial and definitive identification of illegally sourcedwood. Reputable timber traders are also struggling to police their own supply chains and comply with the growing requirement for due diligence with respect to timber...

  13. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A.V.; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little

  14. The Role of Family Experiences for Adolescents' Readiness to Use and Participate in Illegal Political Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Terese; Dahl, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This study used reactance theory as a starting point to explain what role a perceived undemocratic and controlling family has for adolescents' readiness to use illegal political activity. Additionally, we examined whether adolescents' readiness to use illegal political means was related to actual political behaviour, which has been lacking in…

  15. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal... REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a) An... vessel, vehicle or aircraft involved in such attempt is subject to seizure, forfeiture and disposition as...

  16. Reality Television Programs Are Associated With Illegal Drug Use and Prescription Drug Misuse Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Shlivko, Alexander

    2016-01-02

    Reality television watching and social media use are popular activities. Reality television can include mention of illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. To determine if reality television and social media use of Twitter are associated with either illegal drug use or prescription drug misuse. Survey of 576 college students in 2011. Independent variables included watching reality television (social cognitive theory), parasocial interaction (parasocial interaction theory), television hours watched (cultivation theory), following a reality television character on Twitter, and demographics. Outcome variables were illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. Watching reality television and also identifying with reality TV program characters were each associated with greater odds for illegal drug use. Also, following a reality TV character on Twitter had greater odds for illegal drug use and also in one analytical model for prescription drug misuse. No support was seen for cultivation theory. Those born in the United States had greater odds for illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. Women and Asians had lower odds for illegal drug use. African Americans and Asians had lower odds for prescription drug misuse. Physicians, psychologists, and other healthcare practitioners may find it useful to include questions in their clinical interview about reality television watching and Twitter use. Physician and psychology groups, public health practitioners, and government health agencies should consider discussing with television broadcasting companies the potential negative impact of including content with illegal drugs and prescription drug misuse on reality television programs.

  17. Reclamation of the illegal dump for sustainable development the environment in Sverdlovo of Leningrad Oblast’, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukova Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Illegal dumping is dumping of any waste such as oil, furniture, appliances, trash, litter or landscaping cuttings, upon any land of state, city, village or private ownership without consent of the owner. Illegal dumping has a great negative and fatal impact on our environment and all living organisms both fauna and flora. It also exposes people to various risks of chemicals (fluids or dust and is a big threat to all under-ground and surface water resources. Illegal dumps also attract all kinds of bugs such as rodents and insects. For example, illegal dumps with waste tires provide a practically perfect place for mosquitoes to breed. Mosquitoes can multiply 100 times faster than normal in the warm, stagnant water in waste tires. Exemplary for the illegal dump in Sverdlovo of Leningrad Oblast’ the main purpose of this article is to offer a possible option for the remediation of contaminated area.

  18. Targeted and untargeted profiling of biological fluids to screen for anabolic practices in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinel, G.; Weigel, S.; Antigac, P.; Mooney, M.H.; Elliott, C.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Bizec, le B.

    2010-01-01

    This review deals with the potential of profiling approaches as valuable tools for combating the illegal use of growth promoters in cattle breeding. Detection of illegal practices classically relies on residue monitoring in a targeted approach and methods based on gas or liquid chromatography

  19. Illegal use of natural resources in federal protected areas of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauano, Érico E; Silva, Jose M C; Michalski, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon is the world's largest rainforest regions and plays a key role in biodiversity conservation as well as climate adaptation and mitigation. The government has created a network of protected areas (PAs) to ensure long-term conservation of the region. However, despite the importance of and positive advances in the establishment of PAs, natural resource depletion in the Brazilian Amazon is pervasive. We evaluated a total of 4,243 official law enforcement records generated between 2010 and 2015 to understand the geographical distribution of the illegal use of resources in federal PAs in the Brazilian Amazon. We classified illegal activities into ten categories and used generalized additive models (GAMs) to evaluate the relationship between illegal use of natural resources inside PAs with management type, age of PAs, population density, and accessibility. We found 27 types of illegal use of natural resources that were grouped into 10 categories of illegal activities. Most infractions were related to suppression and degradation of vegetation (37.40%), followed by illegal fishing (27.30%) and hunting activities (18.20%). The explanatory power of the GAMs was low for all categories of illegal activity, with a maximum explained variation of 41.2% for illegal activities as a whole, and a minimum of 14.6% for hunting activities. These findings demonstrate that even though PAs are fundamental for nature conservation in the Brazilian Amazon, the pressures and threats posed by human activities include a broad range of illegal uses of natural resources. Population density up to 50 km from a PA is a key variable, influencing illegal activities. These threats endanger long-term conservation and many efforts are still needed to maintain PAs that are large enough and sufficiently intact to maintain ecosystem functions and protect biodiversity.

  20. Non-sanctioning of illegal tackles in South African youth community rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J C; Boucher, S J; Lambert, M; Viljoen, W; Readhead, C; Hendricks, S; Kraak, W J

    2018-06-01

    The tackle event in rugby union ('rugby') contributes to the majority of players' injuries. Referees can reduce this risk by sanctioning dangerous tackles. A study in elite adult rugby suggests that referees only sanction a minority of illegal tackles. The aim of this study was to assess if this finding was similar in youth community rugby. Observational study. Using EncodePro, 99 South African Rugby Union U18 Youth Week tournament matches were coded between 2011 and 2015. All tackles were coded by a researcher and an international referee to ensure that laws were interpreted correctly. The inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were 0.97-1.00. A regression analysis compared the non-sanctioned rates over time. In total, 12 216 tackles were coded, of which less than 1% (n=113) were 'illegal'. The majority of the 113 illegal tackles were front-on (75%), high tackles (72%) and occurred in the 2nd/4th quarters (29% each). Of the illegal tackles, only 59% were sanctioned. The proportions of illegal tackles and sanctioning of these illegal tackles to all tackles improved by 0.2% per year from 2011-2015 (p<0.05). In these youth community rugby players, 59% of illegal tackles were not sanctioned appropriately. This was better than a previous study in elite adult rugby, where only 7% of illegal tackles were penalised. Moreover, the rates of illegal tackles and non-sanctioned illegal tackles both improved over time. However, it is critical that referees consistently enforce all laws to enhance injury prevention efforts. Further studies should investigate the reasons for non-sanctioning. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High-rate deposition of Ta-doped SnO2 films by reactive magnetron sputtering using a Sn–Ta metal-sintered target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Y.; Nakatomi, S.; Oka, N.; Iwabuchi, Y.; Kotsubo, H.; Shigesato, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Ta-doped SnO 2 films were deposited on glass substrate (either unheated or heated at 200 °C) by reactive magnetron sputtering with a Sn–Ta metal-sintered target using a plasma control unit (PCU) and mid-frequency (mf, 50 kHz) unipolar pulsing. The PCU feedback system precisely controlled the flow of the reactive and sputtering gases (O 2 and Ar, respectively) by monitoring either discharge impedance or the plasma emission of the atomic O* line at 777 nm. The planar target was connected to the switching unit, which was operated in unipolar pulse mode. Power density on the target was maintained at 4.4 W cm −2 during deposition. The lowest obtained resistivity for the films deposited on heated substrate was 6.4 × 10 −3 Ωcm, where the deposition rate was 250 nm min −1 .

  2. The Immigration Challenge: The Use of U.S. Military Force to Control Illegal Immigration from Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grissom, Bruce

    1997-01-01

    Controlling illegal immigration into the United States has become a major issue in U.S. politics. A February 1997 report released by the INS estimates that there are currently 5 million illegal aliens in the United States...

  3. Concentrations of Selected Metals In Some Ready-To-Eat-Foods Consumed in Southern Nigeria: Estimation of Dietary Intakes and Target Hazard Quotients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwujindu Maxwell Iwegbue

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of selected metals (Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr and Co in some ready-to-eat-foods consumed in Nigeria were investigated with a view providing information on the risk associated with the consumption of these products. The concentrations of metals (mg.kg-1 in these ready-to-eat-foods are in the ranges of 2.4 – 5.2 for Cu; 0.1– 0.8 for Cd; 0.7 – 4.0 for Ni; 8.1 – 53.7 for Fe; 8.9 – 20.0 for Zn; 0.1 – 3.8 for Pb; 5.1 – 14.4 for Mn; 0.83 – 21.4 for Cr and 0.20 – 1.32 for Co. The concentrations and estimated intakes of Cd, Ni and Pb in some of these food types exceeded the permissible limits and tolerable daily intake respectively. The target hazard quotients (THQ for the individual metals indicate levels of concern for Ni, Cd, and Co in some of the ready-to-eat-foods. The combined THQ values for the metals in the examined samples ranged from 1.7 to 10 with significant contributions from Cd, Ni and Co.

  4. Studies on the reactive pulsed-magnetron sputtering of ITO from metallic targets; Untersuchungen zum reaktiven Pulsmagnetronsputtern von ITO von metallischen Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnehr, W.M.

    2006-06-15

    The thesis deals with a reactive sputter process for the deposition of ITO- films. In contrast to the usual technique, the sputter targets consists of indium-tin-alloy instead of ceramic ITO. All experiments were conducted on an inline coater with 600 mm target-width. The process is stabilized by a control loop based on optical emission detection. The experiments prove, that this control loop guarantees a long term stability of the outcomes of the coating process.Process parameters, that are crucial for the optical and electrical properties of the deposited thin films are identified and studied. Among them are the flow of oxygen and the substrate temperature but also less obvious parameters such as the distance between target and substrate.Througout the work the focus is on the film deposition with pulsed plasmas. Novel bipolar DC pulse- and pulse package generators are employed for the deposition.In order to shed some light onto the influence of certain pulse parameters on the outcome of a particular coating process, a Monte-Carlo-Simulation of the particle flow in pulsed plasmas is developed. This simulation yields the distribution of particles and their respective energies on deliberately placed planes in the process chamber. Particles under investigation are both sputtered species and neutral sputter gas atoms reflected at the target. The results of this simulation provide an explanation for the influence of certain pulse parameters on the outcome of the coating process. The further investigations deal with the influence of the construction of the process chamber on the coating process. For this purpose, locally resolved optical spectra are recorded. In order to analyse these spectra, a novel connected fit algorithm is developed.This algorithm yields the distribution of certain fitparameters on the substrate. Provided the most complex of the discussed parametrizations of the dielectric function are used, these can be crucial properties such as the carrier

  5. Effect of illegal on-street parking on travel times in urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morillo Carbonell, C.; Magin Campos Cacheda, J.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of the on-street illegal parking on the commercial travel time of the vehicles in the area. The effect of the illegal parking in the travel time of the vehicles in the zone is analyzed in an urban scenario in order to quantify the negative impact that illegal parking implies to this, by itself, congested areas. To achieve the objective of the paper, a 3x3 street model has been designed and evaluated for different situations. In this sense, based on a traffic microsimulation model a bunch of scenarios have been considered in function of parameters referred to intensity of vehicles, illegal on street parking level and location of the illegals. Based on the scenarios mentioned, it has been analyzed the effect that the different parameters have on the commercial speed of the vehicles in order to have a first set of information that permits how to act to reduce the effect of illegal on street parking. The results obtained in this article will be able to be used in next steps in order to define direct and indirect reduction strategies referred to illegal on street parking effect. (Author)

  6. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A V; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little attempt to develop a richer understanding of the motivations behind contemporary illegal wildlife hunting. As a first step, we reviewed the academic and policy literatures on poaching and illegal wildlife use and considered the meanings of poverty and the relative importance of structure and individual agency. We placed motivations for illegal wildlife hunting within the context of the complex history of how wildlife laws were initially designed and enforced to indicate how hunting practices by specific communities were criminalized. We also considered the nature of poverty and the reasons for economic deprivation in particular communities to indicate how particular understandings of poverty as material deprivation ultimately shape approaches to illegal wildlife hunting. We found there is a need for a much better understanding of what poverty is and what motivates people to hunt illegally. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. The Impacts on Illegal Farmland Conversion of Adopting Remote Sensing Technology for Land Inspection in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiyang Zhong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While China’s central government has adopted remote sensing technology in land inspection since 2000, little empirical research has been done on its effect. This study aims to measure the effect of satellite imagery-based land inspection (SIBI on illegal farmland conversion. The data used in this study were collected for the period from 1997 to 2010 at the province-level. The econometrics approach for panel data model was used in this research. The results showed that SIBI has a deterrent effect of approximately 2.42 ha for every increase of 1% in proportion to the area of prefecture-level regions inspected in a province-level region. The results also indicate land inspections with RS (Remote Sensing technology saved approximately 11,880 ha farmland from illegal conversion during 2000–2010 with an estimated contribution of reducing illegal farmland conversion by nearly 11%. Furthermore, the governance structure change for land inspection has also contributed to deterring illegal farmland conversion. The deterrent effects due to land inspection by the Supervisor of State Land (SSL are about 7332 ha during 2008–2010 with an estimated contribution of reducing illegal farmland conversion by nearly 33%. In conclusion, although SIBI has strengthened China’s central capacity to uncover illegal farmland conversion and weakened local governments’ abilities to hide illegal farmland conversion, it has limited impact on illegal farmland conversion since it is just a technical tool. Improvements in the land inspection governance structure have also helped to deter illegal farmland conversion.

  8. 2-periodic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as supermolecular building layers (SBLs) for making targeted 3-periodic MOFs

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Eubank, Jarrod F.

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for chemical assemblies, multidimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), supermolecular building layers (SBLs), inorganic molecular building blocks (MBBs), organic MBBs (designed ligands), methods of making each, and methods of using each, and the like. In an embodiment, the composition can be used in catalysis, separations, gas storage, and drug delivery.

  9. 2-periodic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as supermolecular building layers (SBLs) for making targeted 3-periodic MOFs

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-09-22

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for chemical assemblies, multidimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), supermolecular building layers (SBLs), inorganic molecular building blocks (MBBs), organic MBBs (designed ligands), methods of making each, and methods of using each, and the like. In an embodiment, the composition can be used in catalysis, separations, gas storage, and drug delivery.

  10. (e,2e) ionization studies of alkaline-earth-metal and alkali-earth-metal targets: Na, Mg, K, and Ca, from near threshold to beyond intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Andrew James

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive set of experimental data is presented for the electron impact ionization differential cross sections of sodium, magnesium, potassium, and calcium. A coplanar symmetric geometry was chosen for these (e,2e) coincidence studies, the energies ranging from near threshold to around fifteen times the first ionization potential. The results reveal a complex structure in both angle and energy which depends on the chosen target. Similarities and differences in the overall structure are found for the targets which have been studied. The results are compared to the measured cross section for helium over the same incident energy regime. The calcium results are also compared to recent theoretical calculations using a distorted wave Born approximation and the convergent close coupling method. Clear discrepancies are found between both theories and with experiment

  11. Teens, Drugs, & Vegas: Toxicological surveillance of illicit prescription and illegal drug abuse in adolescents (12-17 years) using post-mortem data in Clark County, Nevada from 2005 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anthea B Mahesan; Simms, Lary; Mahesan, Andrew A; Belanger, Eric Charles

    2018-04-14

    Illegal drug abuse, particularly prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States. Research on adolescent drug abuse is based on national self-reported data. Using local coroner data, quantitative prevalence of illegal substance toxicology and trends can be assessed to aid directed outreach and community-based prevention initiatives. Retrospective analysis was conducted on all cases aged 12-17 years referred to the Office of the Medical Examiner, Clark County from 2005 to 2015 (n = 526). The prevalence of illegal opioid use in this population was 13.3%. The most commonly used drug was tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in 29.7%. Illegal-prescription opioids and benzodiazepines were used approximately 1.7 times as much as all other illegal-drugs, excluding THC combined. The largest proportion of illicit prescription drug users were accidental death victims (p = 0.02, OR = 2.02). Drug trends by youth are ever evolving and current specific data is necessary to target prevention initiatives in local communities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Legal Drugs Are Good Drugs And Illegal Drugs Are Bad Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Indrati

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Labelling drugs are important issue nowadays in a modern society. Although it is generally believed that legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs, it is evident that some people do not aware about the side effects of drugs used. Therefore, a key contention of this philosophical essay is that explores harms minimisation policy, discuss whether legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs and explores relation of drugs misuse in a psychiatric nursing setting and dual diagnosis.Key words: Legal, good drugs, illegal, bad drugs.

  13. The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragomen, A T

    1997-01-01

    "On September 30, 1996, President Clinton signed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (1996 Act), Pub. L. No. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009. After an intense lobbying effort by the business community, most provisions relating to legal immigration were omitted from the final bill. Instead, the 1996 Act focuses on illegal immigration reform and includes some of the toughest measures ever taken against illegal immigration." Aspects considered include border enforcement, penalities against alien smuggling and document fraud, deportation and exclusion proceedings, employer sanctions, welfare provisions, and changes to existing refugee and asylum procedures. excerpt

  14. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER AND OTHER LASER APPLICATIONS: Changes in the emission properties of metal targets during pulse-periodic laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konov, Vitalii I.; Pimenov, S. M.; Prokhorov, A. M.; Chapliev, N. I.

    1988-02-01

    A scanning electron microscope was used with a pulse-periodic CO2 laser to discover the laws governing the correlation of the modified microrelief of metal surfaces, subjected to the action of multiple laser pulses, with the emission of charged particles and the luminescence of the irradiated zone. It was established that the influence of sorption and laser-induced desorption on the emission signals may be manifested differently depending on the regime of current generation in the "target-vacuum chamber" circuit.

  15. The use of macro and micro proton beams to study the variation in PIXE yield from metal targets insulated with PTFE, glass and nylon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, A.E.

    1999-01-01

    Proton beams of diameters of 3 mm and 3 μm, were used to observe the differences in PIXE yield from pure metal targets encapsulated with PTFE, glass (macor) and nylon. The beam energy was kept constant at 700 keV. Beam currents varied from about 200 pA with the microbeam and between 1-10 nA with the macrobeam. Considerable enhancement was observed mainly with the use of PTFE, up to about a factor of 18 with the macrobeam and 306 with the microbeam. (author)

  16. Wild Carpathia Future Development: From Illegal Deforestation to ORV Sustainable Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Voda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Romanian Wild Carpathia constitutes the ultimate pristine wilderness of the old European continent. Carpathian Mountains landscape experiences and outdoor recreation represents quite unique cultural ecosystem services. The new annotations to the Forest Law are restricting any public access in the woods without authorities’ pre-approval for organised sport, leisure and tourism activities. However, off road vehicle (ORV recreation is a popular activity and a growing transparency concern of National Forest Administration Authorities that is not managed accordingly. Here we show that our ORV recreation frame model can securely allow public access and protect all Romanian mountains. Our results demonstrate how growing ORV recreation popularity can be used in an honest and open way if it is well organized and controlled. We anticipate our assay to be a starting point for a regional and national forest administration sustainable development plan. Furthermore, stopping illegal forest activities is a major target of the anti-logging movement. A well-defined assay for the ORV recreation frame model will be relevant for such developments.

  17. Outdoor Illegal Construction Identification Algorithm Based on 3D Point Cloud Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Lu; Guo, Baolong

    2018-03-01

    Recently, various illegal constructions occur significantly in our surroundings, which seriously restrict the orderly development of urban modernization. The 3D point cloud data technology is used to identify the illegal buildings, which could address the problem above effectively. This paper proposes an outdoor illegal construction identification algorithm based on 3D point cloud segmentation. Initially, in order to save memory space and reduce processing time, a lossless point cloud compression method based on minimum spanning tree is proposed. Then, a ground point removing method based on the multi-scale filtering is introduced to increase accuracy. Finally, building clusters on the ground can be obtained using a region growing method, as a result, the illegal construction can be marked. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified using a publicly data set collected from the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS).

  18. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... cases where the drug is being used as prescribed for a patient by a licensed physician. ...

  19. LOCAL GOVERNMENT ROLE IN THE SOLVING OF CATCHING FISH ILLEGALLY IN ACEH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the shape of local government actions in tackling illegal fishing in Aceh, the handling of illegal fishing destructive fishery resources. The fundamental point is Law No. 45 Year 2009 concerning fisheries. This spesification of this research descriptive analysis, used both normative juridical approach and empirical. The results showed that the local government has made an effort preventive and repressive in the case of illegal fishing. To coordinate with relevant agencies and empower the role of traditional institutions of the sea to assist the role of government and law enforcement.Local governments should improve the coordination and supervision of the marine area, to monitor and evaluate the performance of local authorities in applying the law against this illegal fishing case.

  20. The Illegal Employment in Ukraine: What More Is to Be Done to Overcome It?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchetinina Ludmila V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers consequences of proliferation of the illegal employment in Ukraine, which are classified by the levels of administration – international, macro, meso, micro, and personal level, further by the public institutions – the State employment service, system of compulsory social insurance, pension system, judiciary, trade unions etc. The article analyzes the legislative documents as to their contribution to unshadowing the employment and legalization of wages. It has been determined that employers that provide illegal employment can be subject to administrative responsibility, criminal liability, and penalties. But, despite the available demotivators towards the illegal employment in the national legislation, its volume remains significant. Therefore we suggest the following activities to be necessary: informing citizens about the legal liability for illegal employment, activation of bodies of the State supervision and monitoring of violations of labor laws as well as working groups on legalization of the payment of wages and employment.

  1. Engineering metal-binding sites of bacterial CusF to enhance Zn/Cd accumulation and resistance by subcellular targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Pengli; Yuan, Jinhong; Zhang, Hui; Deng, Xin; Ma, Mi; Zhang, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • mCusF is specifically targeted to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. • Plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF exhibit strongest Zn resistance. • All transgenic lines accumulate more Zn under Zn exposure. • All transgenic lines enhance root-to-shoot translocation of Cd. • Metal homeostasis is improved in mCusF plants under Cd exposure. - Abstract: The periplasmic protein CusF acts as a metallochaperone to mediate Cu resistance in Escherichia coli. CusF does not contain cysteine residues and barely binds to divalent cations. Here, we addressed effects of cysteine-substitution mutant (named as mCusF) of CusF on zinc/cadmium (Zn/Cd) accumulation and resistance. We targeted mCusF to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. We found that plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF were more resistant to excess Zn than WT and plants with cell wall-targeted or cytoplasmic mCusF. Under long-term exposure to excess Zn, all transgenic lines accumulated more Zn (up to 2.3-fold) in shoots than the untransformed plants. Importantly, plants with cytoplasmic mCusF showed higher efficiency of Zn translocation from root to shoot than plants with secretory pathway-targeted-mCusF. Furthermore, the transgenic lines exhibited enhanced resistance to Cd and significant increase in root-to-shoot Cd translocation. We also found all transgenic plants greatly improved manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) homeostasis under Cd exposure. Our results demonstrate heterologous expression of mCusF could be used to engineer a new phytoremediation strategy for Zn/Cd and our finding also deepen our insights into mechanistic basis for relieving Cd toxicity in plants through proper root/shoot partitioning mechanism and homeostatic accumulation of Mn and Fe.

  2. Engineering metal-binding sites of bacterial CusF to enhance Zn/Cd accumulation and resistance by subcellular targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Pengli; Yuan, Jinhong [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Zhang, Hui [Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Deng, Xin [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ma, Mi [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Zhang, Haiyan, E-mail: hyz@ibcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • mCusF is specifically targeted to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. • Plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF exhibit strongest Zn resistance. • All transgenic lines accumulate more Zn under Zn exposure. • All transgenic lines enhance root-to-shoot translocation of Cd. • Metal homeostasis is improved in mCusF plants under Cd exposure. - Abstract: The periplasmic protein CusF acts as a metallochaperone to mediate Cu resistance in Escherichia coli. CusF does not contain cysteine residues and barely binds to divalent cations. Here, we addressed effects of cysteine-substitution mutant (named as mCusF) of CusF on zinc/cadmium (Zn/Cd) accumulation and resistance. We targeted mCusF to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. We found that plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF were more resistant to excess Zn than WT and plants with cell wall-targeted or cytoplasmic mCusF. Under long-term exposure to excess Zn, all transgenic lines accumulated more Zn (up to 2.3-fold) in shoots than the untransformed plants. Importantly, plants with cytoplasmic mCusF showed higher efficiency of Zn translocation from root to shoot than plants with secretory pathway-targeted-mCusF. Furthermore, the transgenic lines exhibited enhanced resistance to Cd and significant increase in root-to-shoot Cd translocation. We also found all transgenic plants greatly improved manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) homeostasis under Cd exposure. Our results demonstrate heterologous expression of mCusF could be used to engineer a new phytoremediation strategy for Zn/Cd and our finding also deepen our insights into mechanistic basis for relieving Cd toxicity in plants through proper root/shoot partitioning mechanism and homeostatic accumulation of Mn and Fe.

  3. Illegal "no prescription" internet access to narrow therapeutic index drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim K; Lovett, Kimberly M

    2013-05-01

    Narrow therapeutic index (NTI) drugs, because of proximity of therapeutic amounts to toxic amounts, require close professional oversight, particularly when switching formulations. However, safe use may be compromised by unsupervised switching through access to online "no prescription" Web sites. We assessed no prescription online availability of NTI drugs, using an academically published list (core NTI drugs). Using the Google search term "buy DRUG no prescription," we reviewed the first 5 search result pages for marketing of no prescription NTI drugs. We further assessed if National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) Not Recommended vendors were marketing NTI drugs. Searches were conducted from November 3, 2012 to January 3, 2013. For core NTI drugs, we found 13 of 14 NTI drugs (92%) marketed as available without prescription, all from NABP Not Recommended vendors. On the basis of these initial findings, we expanded our core list to 12 additional NTI drugs; 11 of 12 of these drugs (92%) were available from no prescription Web sites. Overall, 24 of 26 NTI drugs (92%) were illegally marketed as available online without the need for a prescription. Suspect online NTI drug access from no prescription vendors represents a significant patient safety risk because of potential patient drug switching and risk of counterfeit versions. Further, state health care exchanges with coverage limitations may drive patients to seek formulations online. Food and Drug Administration harmonization with tighter international NTI drug standards should be considered, and aggressive action against suspect online marketers should be a regulatory and public health priority. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Elevated blood lead levels associated with illegally distilled alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegues, D A; Hughes, B J; Woernle, C H

    1993-06-28

    Whiskey produced in illegal stills (ie, "moonshine") remains an important and underappreciated source of lead toxicity in some rural counties of the Southeast. From March 5 through October 26, 1991, eight adult patients with elevated blood lead levels were identified at a rural county hospital in Alabama and were reported to the Alabama Department of Public Health notifiable disease surveillance system. A case-patient was defined as any person 17 years of age or more who presented to the hospital from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1991, and had a blood lead level of 0.72 mumol/L or more (15 micrograms/dL or more). To identify cases and potential sources of lead exposure, we reviewed medical and laboratory records from the hospital, interviewed patients with elevated blood lead levels, and determined the lead content of moonshine samples. Nine patients met the case definition, including one patient who was not reported to the state. Patients ranged in age from 28 to 62 years; blood lead values ranged from 0.77 to 12.50 mumol/L (16 to 259 micrograms/dL). The most frequent signs of possible lead toxicity included seizures (six), microcytic anemia (five), and encephalopathy (two); one patient died. The only identified source of lead exposure for the nine patients was moonshine ingestion. Moonshine samples available from local stills contained sufficient amounts of lead (340 to 4600 mumol/L) to result in the observed blood lead levels. This investigation emphasizes the adverse health effects and ongoing public health impact of moonshine ingestion.

  5. Legal Drugs Are Good Drugs and Illegal Drugs Are Bad Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Indrati, Dina; Prasetyo, Herry

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT : Labelling drugs are important issue nowadays in a modern society. Although it is generally believed that legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs, it is evident that some people do not aware about the side effects of drugs used. Therefore, a key contention of this philosophical essay is that explores harms minimisation policy, discuss whether legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs and explores relation of drugs misuse in a psychiatric nursing s...

  6. The War on Illegal Drug Production and Trafficking: An Economic Evaluation of Plan Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Mejía; Pascual Restrepo

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a thorough economic evaluation of the anti-drug policies implemented in Colombia between 2000 and 2006 under the so-called Plan Colombia. The paper develops a game theory model of the war against illegal drugs in producer countries. We explicitly model illegal drug markets, which allows us to account for the feedback effects between policies and market outcomes that are potentially important when evaluating large scale policy interventions such as Plan Colombia. We use ava...

  7. Illegal dumping and crime prevention: A case study of Ash Road, Liverpool Council

    OpenAIRE

    Crofts, Penny; Morris, Tara; Wells, Kim; Powell, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    Illegal waste disposal is an increasingly significant and costly problem. This paper considers a specific hot-spot for illegal dumping in Sydney, Australia from criminological perspectives. We contribute to the developing criminological literature that considers environmental harms as a crime. This draws upon the symbolic aspect of criminal law, contributing to the notion of environmental harms as wrongs worthy of sanction, and facilitates analysis through the prism of criminological literatu...

  8. Remarkable enhancement on elimination reaction of side groups in excimer laser ablation of mixture targets of perylene derivatives with metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Satoru; Tamura, Kazuyuki; Tsujine, Yukari; Fukao, Tomoko; Nakano, Masayoshi; Matsuzaki, Akiyoshi; Sato, Hiroyasu

    2002-01-01

    Films are deposited on substrates at 20 deg.C by excimer laser ablation (ELA) of mixture targets of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) with metal powder, PTCDA/M (M=Co, Ni, Fe, W, Cu and Ag) using XeCl and ArF beams. Large amount of fragments with ''naked'' perylene skeletons can be produced owing to effective elimination of carboxylic dianhydride groups by ELA of PTCDA/Co both with XeCl and ArF beams under optimized ablation conditions. Elimination reaction of side groups of PTCDA is observed for ELA of the targets with metal powder of the iron group, Co, Fe and Ni, especially remarkable for Co and Fe. The film from PTCDA/Ni consists of small particles with the various diameters ranging from 10 to 100 nm as well as that from PTCDA/Co. Morphology like petal of rose can be seen everywhere for the film from PTCDA/Fe

  9. Illegal trade of regulated and protected aquatic species in the Philippines detected by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asis, Angelli Marie Jacynth M; Lacsamana, Joanne Krisha M; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-01-01

    Illegal trade has greatly affected marine fish stocks, decreasing fish populations worldwide. Despite having a number of aquatic species being regulated, illegal trade still persists through the transport of dried or processed products and juvenile species trafficking. In this regard, accurate species identification of illegally traded marine fish stocks by DNA barcoding is deemed to be a more efficient method in regulating and monitoring trade than by morphological means which is very difficult due to the absence of key morphological characters in juveniles and processed products. Here, live juvenile eels (elvers) and dried products of sharks and rays confiscated for illegal trade were identified. Twenty out of 23 (87%) randomly selected "elvers" were identified as Anguilla bicolor pacifica and 3 (13%) samples as Anguilla marmorata. On the other hand, 4 out of 11 (36%) of the randomly selected dried samples of sharks and rays were Manta birostris. The rest of the samples were identified as Alopias pelagicus, Taeniura meyeni, Carcharhinus falciformis, Himantura fai and Mobula japonica. These results confirm that wild juvenile eels and species of manta rays are still being caught in the country regardless of its protected status under Philippine and international laws. It is evident that the illegal trade of protected aquatic species is happening in the guise of dried or processed products thus the need to put emphasis on strengthening conservation measures. This study aims to underscore the importance of accurate species identification in such cases of illegal trade and the effectivity of DNA barcoding as a tool to do this.

  10. Analysis of methanol and its derivatives in illegally produced alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, M Mustafa; Zeren, Cem; Aydin, Zeki; Akcan, Ramazan; Dokuyucu, Recep; Keten, Alper; Cekin, Necmi

    2015-07-01

    Illegal alcohol production remains as a common issue worldwide. Methanol poisoning mostly occurs because of the methanol used in production of counterfeit alcohol instead of ethyl alcohol due to its low price or by drinking the liquids containing methyl alcohol. Pectolytic enzymes results in an increase of methanol levels in many fermentation products such as ciders or wines. Methanol poisonings are infrequently encountered in forensic medicine practice. However, sporadic cases due to methanol intoxication as well as epidemic cases have been reported. In this study, we aimed to identify existence of methanol and its metabolites in illegally produced alcoholic beverages used in Antakya region. Twelve legally produced alcohol samples and Fifty-six different illegally produced alcohol samples were collected from the markets and local producers. Existence of methanol, formic acid, methyl amine, methyl formate and trioxan were determined using GC-MS method in these samples. Fifty-six different illegal alcohol samples were analyzed in this study and methanol was detected in 39 (75%) of samples. Formic acid was detected in 3, formamide in 1, methyl amine in 6, methyl formate in 10 and trioxan in 2 samples. Overwhelming majority of illegal alcoholic beverages was detected to contain methanol. Interestingly this study also revealed the presence of trioxane, which has not previously reported among toxic agents in illegal alcohol samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantifying the Effect of Macroeconomic and Social Factors on Illegal E-Waste Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthymiou, Loukia; Mavragani, Amaryllis; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P

    2016-08-05

    As illegal e-waste trade has been significantly growing over the course of the last few years, the consequences on human health and the environment demand immediate action on the part of the global community. Though it is argued that e-waste flows from developed to developing countries, this subject seems to be more complex than that, with a variety of studies suggesting that income per capita is not the only factor affecting the choice of regions that e-waste is illegally shipped to. How is a country's economic and social development associated with illegal e-waste trade? Is legislation an important factor? This paper aims at quantifying macroeconomic (per capita income and openness of economy) and social (human development and social progress) aspects, based on qualitative data on illegal e-waste trade routes, by examining the percentage differences in scorings in selected indicators for all known and suspected routes. The results show that illegal e-waste trade occurs from economically and socially developed regions to countries with significantly lower levels of overall development, with few exceptions, which could be attributed to the fact that several countries have loose regulations on e-waste trade, thus deeming them attractive for potential illegal activities.

  12. An econometric study of illegal electricity connections in the urban favelas of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimmi, Luisa M.; Ecer, Sencer

    2010-01-01

    The data from the project 'Conviver,' launched in 2006 in Belo Horizonte (Brazil), provides a unique opportunity to study illegal electricity connections. Based on an original dataset of 15,279 low-income households, this paper studies the incidence and determinants of illegality in the context of low-income urban favelas. The probability of engaging in illegal behavior is explained not just by low income, but by a combination of concurring factors: sub-standard energy provision and equipment; inefficient/incorrect use of domestic electric appliances and running an informal in-house business. These recurrent issues in the urban favelas aggravate a sense of exclusion from growth, which is generally recognized as a trigger of illegality. The impact of energy demand on energy-related illegality is carefully analyzed, and different empirical strategies adopted to circumvent some simultaneity problem between both decision processes. The effectiveness of consumption-based energy subsidies is also explored. In spite of some contrary arguments in the literature, in the context of peri-urban slums, such measures may exert a positive impact in mitigating illegal access and use of energy. Effectiveness will be enhanced by accompanying measures such as: perceivable improvements of equipment, metering and maintenance, promotion of beneficiaries' awareness of energy usage, and energy-saving behaviors.

  13. An econometric study of illegal electricity connections in the urban favelas of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimmi, Luisa M. [Global Partnership on Output-Based Aid (GPOBA), World Bank (United States); Ecer, Sencer [LECG, Georgetown University Public Policy Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The data from the project Conviver, launched in 2006 in Belo Horizonte (Brazil), provides a unique opportunity to study illegal electricity connections. Based on an original dataset of 15,279 low-income households, this paper studies the incidence and determinants of illegality in the context of low-income urban favelas. The probability of engaging in illegal behavior is explained not just by low income, but by a combination of concurring factors: sub-standard energy provision and equipment; inefficient/incorrect use of domestic electric appliances and running an informal in-house business. These recurrent issues in the urban favelas aggravate a sense of exclusion from growth, which is generally recognized as a trigger of illegality. The impact of energy demand on energy-related illegality is carefully analyzed, and different empirical strategies adopted to circumvent some simultaneity problem between both decision processes. The effectiveness of consumption-based energy subsidies is also explored. In spite of some contrary arguments in the literature, in the context of peri-urban slums, such measures may exert a positive impact in mitigating illegal access and use of energy. Effectiveness will be enhanced by accompanying measures such as: perceivable improvements of equipment, metering and maintenance, promotion of beneficiaries' awareness of energy usage, and energy-saving behaviors. (author)

  14. Ionothermal synthesis and structural transformation targeted by ion exchange in metal-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qing-Qing [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, Shaanxi (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Liu, Bing [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Sciences and Technology, Xi’an 710021, Shaanxi (China); Xu, Ling, E-mail: xuling@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, Shaanxi (China); Jiao, Huan, E-mail: jiaohuan@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, Shaanxi (China)

    2017-03-15

    Ionothermal reactions of 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate acid (H{sub 3}BTC) and Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} gave two discrete 32-membered ring-like allomers, [M{sub 2}(HBTC){sub 2}(NH{sub 2}CONH{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]·3H{sub 2}O (M=Ni(1), Co(2)) and one layered [Cu{sub 2}(BTC)Cl(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}] (3). The weak interactions in 1 can be deconstructed to some degree in ion exchange by exploring the factors of divalent and trivalent metal species, metal concentration and soaking time, which are demonstrated by PXRD and N{sub 2} absorption. Cu{sup 2+} has the highest N{sub 2} adsorbance when soaking with 1, and 1 can keep structure stable when Cu{sup 2+} below 0.16 mol L{sup −1} and the soaking time within 24d. As Cu{sup 2+} beyond 0.16 mol L{sup −1} and the soaking time beyond 24d, the structure of compound 1 starts to transform with the crystal morphology from clear pale green to opaque blue. Ionothermal reactions of compound 1 with different Cu{sup 2+} amounts obtained Ni{sup 2+}-Cu{sup 2+} hetero complexes, whose PXRD patterns are similar to that of 3 and EDS indicates Cu{sup 2+}% increases with Cu{sup 2+} additions and close to 100% as Cu{sup 2+} being 1.6 mmol. It suggests that 3 is a controlled product and Cu{sup 2+} can transform discrete compound 1 into 2D compound 3. - Graphical abstract: Three compounds were synthesized through ionothermal reactions. The weak interactions in compound 1 can be deconstructed by ion exchange and discrete compound 1 can be transformed into layered compound 3. - Highlights: • Two discrete ring-like and one layered compounds were ionothermally synthesized. • Metal species, metal concentration and soaking time deconstruct the H-bondings in 1. • 1 can be transformed to 3 through ionothermal reaction, otherwise forbidden.

  15. Structure of the I-SceI nuclease complexed with its dsDNA target and three catalytic metal ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieto, Jesús; Redondo, Pilar; Merino, Nekane

    2016-01-01

    Homing endonucleases are highly specific DNA-cleaving enzymes that recognize and cleave long stretches of DNA. The engineering of these enzymes provides instruments for genome modification in a wide range of fields, including gene targeting. The homing endonuclease I-SceI from the yeast Saccharom......Homing endonucleases are highly specific DNA-cleaving enzymes that recognize and cleave long stretches of DNA. The engineering of these enzymes provides instruments for genome modification in a wide range of fields, including gene targeting. The homing endonuclease I-SceI from the yeast...... experiments were performed in the presence of Mn(2+), yielding crystals that were suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 80.11, b = 80.57, c = 130.87 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The self-rotation function and the Matthews...

  16. Plasma source ion implantation of metal ions: Synchronization of cathodic-arc plasma production and target bias pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, B.P.; Reass, W.A.; Henins, I.

    1995-01-01

    An erbium cathodic-arc has been installed on a Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) experiment to allow the implantation of erbium metal and the growth of adherent erbia (erbium oxide) films on a variety of substrates. Operation of the PSII pulser and the cathodic-arc are synchronized to achieve pure implantation, rather than the hybrid implantation/deposition being investigated in other laboratories. The relative phase of the 20 μs PSII and cathodic-arc pulses can to adjusted to tailor the energy distribution of implanted ions and suppress the initial high-current drain on the pulse modulator. The authors present experimental data on this effect and make a comparison to results from particle-in-cell simulations

  17. Imperceptible Politics: Illegalized Migrants and Their Struggles for Work and Unionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Wilcke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that illegalized migrants carry the potential for social change not only through their acts of resistance but also in their everyday practices. This is the case despite illegalized migrants being the most disenfranchised subjects produced by the European border regime. In line with Jacques Rancière (1999 these practices can be understood as ‘politics’. For Rancière, becoming a political subject requires visibility, while other scholars (Papadopoulos & Tsianos, 2007; Rygiel, 2011 stress that this is not necessarily the case. They argue that political subjectivity can also be achieved via invisible means; important in this discussion as invisibility is an essential strategy of illegalized migrants. The aim of this article is to resolve this binary and demonstrate, via empirical examples, that the two concepts of visibility and imperceptibility are often intertwined in the messy realities of everyday life. In the first case study, an intervention at the ver.di trade union conference in 2003, analysis reveals that illegalized migrants transformed society in their fight for union membership, but also that their visible campaigning simultaneously comprised strategies of imperceptibility. The second empirical section, which examines the employment stories of illegalized migrants, demonstrates that the everyday practices of illegal work can be understood as ‘imperceptible politics’. The discussion demonstrates that despite the exclusionary mechanisms of the existing social order, illegalized migrants are often able to find work. Thus, they routinely undermine the very foundations of the order that produces their exclusions. I argue that this disruption can be analyzed as migrants’ ‘imperceptible politics’, which in turn can be recognized as migrants’ transformative power.

  18. Differential production cross sections for charged particles produced by 590 MeV proton bombardment of thin metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; Cierjacks, S.; Hino, Y.; Raupp, F.; Rainbow, M.T.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Buth, L.

    1981-01-01

    Differential production cross sections have been measured for the reactions (p,p), (p,d), (p,t) and (p,π+-) using the 590 MeV proton beam at SIN. Here we report measurements made on thin targets of aluminium, niobium, lead, and uranium at laboratory angles of 90 0 and 157 0 . The data were taken over a proton energy range of about 50 MeV to 590 MeV. Differential cross sections are reported along with predictions by the intranuclear-cascade/evaporation model as computed by HETC. (orig.)

  19. In-Ga-Zn-oxide thin-film transistors with Sb2TeOx gate insulators fabricated by reactive sputtering using a metallic Sb2Te target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Woo-Seok

    2011-01-01

    Using reactive sputtering, we made transparent amorphous Sb 2 TeO x thin films from a metallic Sb 2 Te target in an oxidizing atmosphere. In-Ga-Zn-oxide thin-film transistors (IGZO TFTs) with Sb 2 TeO x gate insulators deposited at room temperature showed a large hysteresis with a counter clockwise direction, which was caused by mobile charges in the gate insulators. The problems of the mobile charges was solved by using Sb 2 TeO x films formed at 250 .deg. C. After the IGZO TFT had been annealed at 200 .deg. C for 1 hour in an O 2 ambient, the mobility of the IGZO TFT was 22.41 cm 2 /Vs, and the drain current on-off ratio was ∼10 8 .

  20. Synthesis and Properties of Metallic Technetium and Technetium-Zirconium Alloys as Transmutation Target and Radioactive waste storage form in the UREX+1 Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Thomas [Idaho State University/Idaho National Laboratory, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)]|[Harry Reid Center, University Nevada - Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R. [Harry Reid Center, University Nevada - Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In the application of UREX+1 process, technetium will be separated together with uranium and iodine within the first process step. After the separation of uranium, technetium and iodine must be immobilized by their incorporation in a suitable waste storage-form. Based on recent activities within the AFCI community, a potential candidate as waste storage form to immobilize technetium is to alloy the metal with excess zirconium. Alloys in the binary Tc-Zr system may act as potential transmutation targets in order to transmute Tc-99 into Ru-100. We are presenting first results in the synthesis of metallic technetium, and the synthesis of equilibrium phases in the binary Tc-Zr system at 1400 deg. C after arc-melting and isothermal annealing under inert conditions. Samples were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction, Rietveld analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe micro-analysis, which allows us to construct the binary Tc-Zr phase diagram for the isothermal section at 1400 deg. C. (authors)

  1. Study on the erosion of refractory metals in interaction with low energy ions at high temperatures of a target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaulin, E.P.; Georgieva, N.E.; Martynenko, T.P.; Feoktistov, L.V.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental study on the erosion of a polycrystalline tungsten by argon ions with 50-100 eV energy in the temperature range 1000-1900 K is carried out and a theoretical analysis of sputtering rate under these conditions is given. It is shown that the sputtering rate is determined not only by ion energy but depends essentially on surface temperature. On the basis of the thermal spot'' model a semiempiric formula is obtained for dependence of sputtering coefficient on ion energy and target temperature. The estimation of cathode specific errosion in high-current discharges due to the sputtering and evaporation is performed. It is shown that depending on cathode temperature, cathode potential jump value as well as on relation of ion and electron current on a cathode the specific erosion due to individual ions shock can be higher and much higher than the specific erosion for account of evaporation [ru

  2. Official control of plant protection products in Poland: detection of illegal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczyk, Marek; Płonka, Marlena; Stobiecki, Tomasz; Kronenbach-Dylong, Dorota; Waleczek, Kazimierz; Weber, Roland

    2018-04-03

    Market presence of illegal and counterfeit pesticides is now a global problem. According to data published in 2012 by the European Crop Protection Association (ECPA), illegal products represent over 10% of the global market of plant protection products. Financial benefits are the main reason for the prevalence of this practice. Counterfeit and illegal pesticides may contain substances that may pose a threat to the environment, crops, animals, and humans, inconsistent with the label and registration dossier. In Poland, action against illegal and counterfeit plant protection products is undertaken by the Main Inspectorate of Plant Health and Seed Inspection (PIORiN), the police, the prosecution, and the pesticide producers. Results of chemical analyses carried out by the Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute Sośnicowice Branch, Pesticide Quality Testing Laboratory (PQTL IPP-NRI Sosnicowice Branch) indicate that a majority of illegal pesticides in Poland are detected in the group of herbicides. Products from parallel trade tend to have the most irregularities. This article describes the official quality control system of plant protection products in Poland and presents the analytical methods for testing pesticides suspected of adulteration and recent test results.

  3. Illegal Migration and the Risks of Terrorism in the Republic of Ingushetia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ахмед Курейшевич Чапанов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors analyze the extent and nature of illegal migration in modern Ingushetia. It noted the relationship of illegal migration and terrorism, proposed a strategy to combat this phenomenon. The authors analyzed the socio-political problems arising from uncontrolled migration flows into the country. In recent years, illegal migration in the Republic of Ingushetia has become a frequent phenomenon. Illegal migration is a real threat to regional and national security of the Russian Federation. The authors propose the concept that migration policy should be guided first and foremost the interests of national security, preservation of socio-political stability and the integrity of the territory of the Russian Federation. In this regard, it is crucial interaction of state and law enforcement agencies of all the countries involved: the outcome of, and transit of illegal migrants settling. The current socio-political conditions of life of the Ingush society, increased uncontrolled migration, national security require a tightening of migration policy.

  4. Twitter-Based Detection of Illegal Online Sale of Prescription Opioid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Kalyanam, Janani; Katsuki, Takeo; Lanckriet, Gert

    2017-12-01

    To deploy a methodology accurately identifying tweets marketing the illegal online sale of controlled substances. We first collected tweets from the Twitter public application program interface stream filtered for prescription opioid keywords. We then used unsupervised machine learning (specifically, topic modeling) to identify topics associated with illegal online marketing and sales. Finally, we conducted Web forensic analyses to characterize different types of online vendors. We analyzed 619 937 tweets containing the keywords codeine, Percocet, fentanyl, Vicodin, Oxycontin, oxycodone, and hydrocodone over a 5-month period from June to November 2015. A total of 1778 tweets (marketing the sale of controlled substances online; 90% had imbedded hyperlinks, but only 46 were "live" at the time of the evaluation. Seven distinct URLs linked to Web sites marketing or illegally selling controlled substances online. Our methodology can identify illegal online sale of prescription opioids from large volumes of tweets. Our results indicate that controlled substances are trafficked online via different strategies and vendors. Public Health Implications. Our methodology can be used to identify illegal online sellers in criminal violation of the Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act.

  5. Digital surveillance: a novel approach to monitoring the illegal wildlife trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonricker Hansen, Amy L; Li, Annie; Joly, Damien; Mekaru, Sumiko; Brownstein, John S

    2012-01-01

    A dearth of information obscures the true scale of the global illegal trade in wildlife. Herein, we introduce an automated web crawling surveillance system developed to monitor reports on illegally traded wildlife. A resource for enforcement officials as well as the general public, the freely available website, http://www.healthmap.org/wildlifetrade, provides a customizable visualization of worldwide reports on interceptions of illegally traded wildlife and wildlife products. From August 1, 2010 to July 31, 2011, publicly available English language illegal wildlife trade reports from official and unofficial sources were collected and categorized by location and species involved. During this interval, 858 illegal wildlife trade reports were collected from 89 countries. Countries with the highest number of reports included India (n = 146, 15.6%), the United States (n = 143, 15.3%), South Africa (n = 75, 8.0%), China (n = 41, 4.4%), and Vietnam (n = 37, 4.0%). Species reported as traded or poached included elephants (n = 107, 12.5%), rhinoceros (n = 103, 12.0%), tigers (n = 68, 7.9%), leopards (n = 54, 6.3%), and pangolins (n = 45, 5.2%). The use of unofficial data sources, such as online news sites and social networks, to collect information on international wildlife trade augments traditional approaches drawing on official reporting and presents a novel source of intelligence with which to monitor and collect news in support of enforcement against this threat to wildlife conservation worldwide.

  6. Illegal trade of tortoises (Testudinata) in Colombia: A network analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroyave Bermudez, Felber Jair; Romero Goyeneche, Oscar Yandy; Bonilla Gomez, Maria Argenis; Hurtado Heredia, Rafael German

    2014-01-01

    The use of wildlife is important for supporting the economic and demographic growth in emerging countries. Nevertheless, the products of wildlife usually come from illegal trade to supply fur, wild meat and pet markets. Illegal trade puts great pressure over wild populations and threats some endangered species. In Colombia, the trade of wildlife is important because of the volumes traded and the cultural and economic connotation of some products. We describe the spatial structure of illegal trade of wildlife at departmental level for the five most traded genera of Colombian tortoises (Trachemys, Chelonoidis, Kinosternon, Podocnemis and Rhinoclemmys). This study is based on the reports of seizures between 2005 and 2009 compiled by the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo of Colombia. We apply network analysis to study and evidence that the illegal trade network of tortoises includes international markets and supplies the Andean region. The Caribbean, Pacific and Orinoquia regions are the principal suppliers. Quindio, Santander, Antioquia and Putumayo are the biggest jobbers and consumers of wild tortoises. We propose sociocultural and cohercitive actions to fragment the trade network and their illegal market as well as promoting the conservation and sustainable use of tortoises.

  7. Digital surveillance: a novel approach to monitoring the illegal wildlife trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Sonricker Hansen

    Full Text Available A dearth of information obscures the true scale of the global illegal trade in wildlife. Herein, we introduce an automated web crawling surveillance system developed to monitor reports on illegally traded wildlife. A resource for enforcement officials as well as the general public, the freely available website, http://www.healthmap.org/wildlifetrade, provides a customizable visualization of worldwide reports on interceptions of illegally traded wildlife and wildlife products. From August 1, 2010 to July 31, 2011, publicly available English language illegal wildlife trade reports from official and unofficial sources were collected and categorized by location and species involved. During this interval, 858 illegal wildlife trade reports were collected from 89 countries. Countries with the highest number of reports included India (n = 146, 15.6%, the United States (n = 143, 15.3%, South Africa (n = 75, 8.0%, China (n = 41, 4.4%, and Vietnam (n = 37, 4.0%. Species reported as traded or poached included elephants (n = 107, 12.5%, rhinoceros (n = 103, 12.0%, tigers (n = 68, 7.9%, leopards (n = 54, 6.3%, and pangolins (n = 45, 5.2%. The use of unofficial data sources, such as online news sites and social networks, to collect information on international wildlife trade augments traditional approaches drawing on official reporting and presents a novel source of intelligence with which to monitor and collect news in support of enforcement against this threat to wildlife conservation worldwide.

  8. Heavy-ion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the characteristics of targets required in heavy-ion accelerator physics experiments. The effects of target parameters on heavy-ion experimental results are reviewed. The target fabrication and characterization techniques used to minimize experimental problems during heavy-ion bombardment are described. Topics considered include target thickness and uniformity, target lifetime, target purity, substrate materials, Doppler shift effects, metal preparations, and target preparation methods

  9. The thrill of the chase: uncovering illegal sport hunting in Brazil through YouTube™ posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani R. El Bizri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of unregulated sport hunting can severely affect populations of target game species. Because hunting in Brazil is limited by law, obtaining data on illegal sport hunting in this country is challenging. We used an unusual online resource, YouTube™, to detect the occurrence of sport hunting in Brazil, measure the impacts of the activity on the main Brazilian game species and biomes, evaluate the opinions of hunters and internet users on sport hunting, and discuss the need for policy interventions in wildlife conservation in this country. We found 383 videos related to Brazilian sport hunting on YouTube™, accounting for more than 15 million views. Most videos were produced in the Cerrado (Brazilian savannah and approximately 70% of them depicted events of pursuit and killing of wild animals, especially lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca and armadillos (Family Dasypodidae. Videos were posted primarily in July and December, coinciding with the two main Brazilian vacation periods. Furthermore, the shotguns identified on videos show that sport hunters expend large sums of money to undertake their hunts. These results indicate that Brazilian sport hunters are possibly wealthier urban residents who travel to rural areas to hunt, contrasting with previous hunting studies in the country. Most viewers declared themselves in favor of sport hunting in comments (n = 2893 and ratings (n = 36,570 of the videos. Discussions generated by comments suggest that Brazilian sport hunters employ several informal management strategies to maintain game species stocks for future hunting and intensely question the restrictions of Brazilian environmental policies. Our results demonstrate that solutions are needed for the regulation of sport hunting in Brazil. Government actions, whether to increase surveillance or legalize hunting programs, should take into account the opinions of sport hunters and their perceptions on hunting dynamics to support effective policy

  10. Illegal Immigration: Is the Use of Military Force in Policing the United states' Border with Mexico a Viable Option?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, David

    2001-01-01

    Illegal immigration across the United States' borders, in particular the Southern Border with Mexico, has been a continual problem confronting our local, state and national political decision makers...

  11. Illegal logging in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan van der Ploeg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Illegal logging is a threat to biodiversity and rural livelihoods in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, the largest protected area in the Philippines. Every year between 20,000 and 35,000 cu. m wood is extracted from the park. The forestry service and municipal governments tolerate illegal logging in the protected area; government officials argue that banning an important livelihood activity of households along the forest frontier will aggravate rural poverty. However this reasoning underestimates the scale of timber extraction, and masks resource capture and collusive corruption. Illegal logging in fact forms an obstacle for sustainable rural development in and around the protected area by destroying ecosystems, distorting markets, and subverting the rule of law. Strengthening law enforcement and controlling corruption are prerequisites for sustainable forest management in and around protected areas in insular southeast Asia.

  12. The biomedicalisation of illegal abortion: the double life of misoprostol in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia De Zordo

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the double life of misoprostol in Brazil, where it is illegally used by women as an abortifacient and legally used in obstetric hospital wards. Based on my doctoral and post-doctoral anthropological research on contraception and abortion in Salvador, Bahia, this paper initially traces the “conversion” of misoprostol from a drug to treat ulcers to a self-administered abortifacient in Latin America, and its later conversion to aneclectic global obstetric tool. It then shows how, while reducing maternal mortality, its use as an illegal abortifacient has reinforced the double reproductive citizenship regime existing in countries with restrictive abortion laws and poor post-abortion care services, where poor women using it illegally are stigmatised, discriminated against and exposed to potentially severe health risks.

  13. “Don’t Let the Illegals Vote!”: The Myths of Illegal Latino Voters and Voter Fraud in Contested Local Immigrant Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Courtney Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes how the belief and fear by mostly older, white voters, politicians, and poll workers that “illegal” Latino immigrants were seeking to vote in local elections led to stigmatization of and discrimination against some Latino citizen voters in Port Chester, New York. Stoked by and closely echoing national voter ID law rhetoric, this fear fueled an “illegal Latino voter threat” narrative. This article documents how Port Chester’s leaders and citizens repeated this narrative in public life, sometimes enacting it in politics, including in voting. The resultant stigma denies Latino voters the presumed legitimacy other citizens enjoy, discrediting them in one word: illegal. Such processes harm democracy in Port Chester and America, and were on display in the 2016 presidential election.

  14. X-rays diagnostics of the hot electron energy distribution in the intense laser interaction with metal targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenko, O. F.; Andreev, N. E.; Rosmej, O. N.

    2018-03-01

    A two-temperature hot electron energy distribution has been revealed by modeling of bremsstrahlung emission, measured by the radiation attenuation and half-shade methods, and Kα emission from a massive silver cylinder irradiated by a subpicosecond s-polarized laser pulse with a peak intensity of about 2 × 1019 W/cm2. To deduce parameters of the hot electron spectrum, we have developed semi-analytical models of generation and measurements of the x-rays. The models are based on analytical expressions and tabulated data on electron stopping power as well as cross-sections of generation and absorption of the x-rays. The Kα emission from thin silver foils deposited on low-Z substrates, both conducting and nonconducting, has been used to verify the developed models and obtained hot electron spectrum. The obtained temperatures of the colder and hotter electron components are in agreement with the values predicted by kinetic simulations of the cone-guided approach to fast ignition [Chrisman et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 056309 (2008)]. The temperature of the low-energy component of the accelerated electron spectrum is well below the ponderomotive scaling and Beg's law. We have obtained relatively low conversion efficiency of laser energy into the energy of hot electrons propagating through the solid target of about 2%. It is demonstrated that the assumption about a single-temperature hot electron energy distribution with the slope temperature described by the ponderomotive scaling relationship, without detailed analysis of the hot electron spectrum, can lead to strong overestimation of the laser-to-electron energy-conversion efficiency, in particular, the conversion efficiency of laser energy into the high-temperature component of the hot electron distribution.

  15. Geo-spatial aspects of acceptance of illegal hunting of large carnivores in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaas, Kristin E; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P; Andreassen, Harry P

    2013-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human - wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI) towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine). The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country), they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7-15.7% of respondents) and Sweden (3.3-4.1% of respondents). We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI) were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale

  16. Skipping Syntactically Illegal "the" Previews: The Role of Predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Matthew J.; Angele, Bernhard; Ahn, Y. Danbi; Rayner, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Readers tend to skip words, particularly when they are short, frequent, or predictable. Angele and Rayner (2013) recently reported that readers are often unable to detect syntactic anomalies in parafoveal vision. In the present study, we manipulated target word predictability to assess whether contextual constraint modulates…

  17. The role of the illegality factor in the taxation of income. Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Čerka, Paulius; Gudynienė, Lina

    2012-01-01

    The taxation of illegal income is quite common in many foreign countries, but this practice is not yet applicable in Lithuania, though the recent movements of Lithuania’s Finance Minister, when she admitted that all income should be taxed despite it’s source show her positive attitude towards the taxation of illegal income. The article promotes the idea that all personal income, despite its source, should be taxed.The article is divided into two parts: the first one, which is not published he...

  18. MOTIVASI, SIKAP, DAN INTENSI PENGGUNA MEDIA SOSIAL PADA KAMPANYE STOP ILLEGAL FISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Moriansyah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social media is commonly used to promote social campaigns, one of which is Stop Illegal Fishing campaign. To achieve success in this campaign, some conditions have to be fulfilled i.e. positive attitudes of the social media users toward the campaigns and high intentions to provide recommendations (word of mouth to others. This study was conducted to analyze types of motivations affecting attitudes of users towards social campaigns (stop illegal fishing in social media. In addition, it also analyzed the influence of attitudes on users’ intentions in performing WOM. The method utilized to meet the objectives was Partial Least Square. The results showed that users’ motivation in using social media and towards the campaign messages are perceived to have significantly a positive effect on the attitude towards social campaigns in social media. Besides, the increase in the intention to perform WOM is positively influenced by the attitudes of social media users. There are differences identified in the motivation that affect the attitudes of social media users towards campaign of the two groups i.e. the social media users who have never seen the Stop Illegal Fishing campaign (151 samples and those who have seen the campaign in social media.    Keywords:  motivation, attitude, word of mouth, user experience, uses and gratification theory, digital campaigns, social campaigns, stop illegal fishingABSTRAKMedia sosial sering digunakan untuk mempromosikan kampanye sosial, contohnya adalah  kampanye Stop Illegal Fishing. Untuk meraih kesuksesan pada kampanye ini, beberapa hal yang harus diraih adalah sikap positif pengguna media sosial terhadap kampanye dan intensi yang tinggi untuk memberikan rekomendasi (word of mouth kepada orang lain. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis motivasi pengguna apa saja yang memengaruhi sikap pengguna media sosial terhadap kampanye sosial (stop illegal fishing di media sosial. Selain itu menganalisis sikap

  19. Remote Sensing Analysis Techniques and Sensor Requirements to Support the Mapping of Illegal Domestic Waste Disposal Sites in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Glanville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal disposal of waste is a significant management issue for contemporary governments with waste posing an economic, social, and environmental risk. An improved understanding of the distribution of illegal waste disposal sites is critical to enhance the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of waste management efforts. Remotely sensed data has the potential to address this knowledge gap. However, the literature regarding the use of remote sensing to map illegal waste disposal sites is incomplete. This paper aims to analyze existing remote sensing methods and sensors used to monitor and map illegal waste disposal sites. The purpose of this paper is to support the evaluation of existing remote sensing methods for mapping illegal domestic waste sites in Queensland, Australia. Recent advances in technology and the acquisition of very high-resolution remote sensing imagery provide an important opportunity to (1 revisit established analysis techniques for identifying illegal waste disposal sites, (2 examine the applicability of different remote sensors for illegal waste disposal detection, and (3 identify opportunities for future research to increase the accuracy of any illegal waste disposal mapping products.

  20. The feasibility study based on e-commerce instructions-focuses on detection and deletion of illegal content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianze; Bi, Siyu; Liu, Jiaming

    2018-04-01

    This essay legally restrains the illegal content based on the e-commerce directive and introduces that the European countries detect and notify illegal content through the instructions of competent authorities, notification of credible flaggers, user reports and technical tools. The illegal content should be deleted through the service terms and transparency report basing on prevent excessive deletions system. At the same time, use filters to detect and filter to against the recurrence of illegal content. By analyzing the advantages of China under the environment of cracking down on illegal content, this essay concludes that the success of China in cracking down on illegal content lies in all-round collaborative management model of countries, governments, enterprises and individuals. At the end of the essay, one is to build a training corpus that can automatically update the ability to identify the illegal content. And it proposes an optimization scheme that establish a complete set of address resolution procedures and classify IP address data according to big data analysis and DNS protection module to prevent hackers from spreading illegal content by tampering with DNS segments.

  1. Main spatial defects of illegal residential buildings : The case of Alto da Cova da Moura districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; Vilhena, A.; Baptista Coelho, A.; Vasconcelos Paiva, J.; Cruz, C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to describe the main spatial defects in illegal residential buildings. Three research questions are addressed: What are the main spatial defects of the dwellings? What are the main spatial defects in the relation between buildings? What is the impact of spatial defects to

  2. Main functional elements having defects of illegal residential buildings : The case of Cova da Moura district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilhena, A.; Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; Baptista Coelho, A.; Vasconcelos Paiva, J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to describe the main functional elements with defects in illegal residential buildings. Three research questions are addressed: What are the main functional elements with defects in buildings and in dwellings? What are the main defects found? In which way these defects

  3. Preliminary assessment of illegal hunting by communities adjacent to the northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.

    2011-01-01

    Illegal hunting of wildlife is a major issue in today’s society, particularly in tropical ecosystems. In this study, a total of 114 local residents from eight villages located in four wards adjacent to the northern Gonarezhou National Park, south-eastern Zimbabwe were interviewed in 2009, using

  4. The popular music heritage of the Dutch pirates: illegal radio and cultural identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.C. van der Hoeven (Arno)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis article explores how cultural identities are negotiated in relation to the heritage of illegal radio in the Netherlands. The term ‘pirate radio’ commonly refers to the offshore radio stations that were broadcasting during the 1960s. These stations introduced commercial radio and

  5. KEJAHATAN KERAH PUTIH (WHITE COLLAR CRIME TERHADAP ILLEGAL LOGGING DI SUMATERA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad R. Dayan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pemerintah membuat kebijakan terhadap tindak pidana Illegal logging disebabkan kegiatan illegal logging merupakan serangkaian tindakan penyimpangan perilaku yang berdampak kepada ekosistem secara berkelanjutan yang pada akhirnya berakibat dan membahayakan keberlangsungan hidup manusia. Sebagai suatu patokann (standar untuk menilai dan dikenakan sanksi pidana. Oleh karenya memerlukan penanggulangan baik secara preventif maupun represif. Pertanggungjawaban pelaku kejahatan kerah putih terhadap illegal logging adalah penerapan atas hukum yang meminta pertanggungjawaban pelaku tanpa membuktikan adanya unsur kesalahn atau adanya unsur kesalahan pada si pelaku tindak pidana. Hal ini disebabkan KUH Pidana mengandung unsur adanya asas mens rea (asas kesalahan dan tentang pertanggungjawbana pidana berorientasi kepada manusia atau orang bukan korporasi istilah “daad-dader straftrecht” artinya hukum pidana yang memperlihatkan segi-segi objektif dari “perbuatan” (daad dan juga segi-segi subjektif dari orang/pembuat (dader. Sifat hukum demikian akan menggambarkan keseimbangan antara kepentingan masyarakat dan kepentingan individu. Upaya penegakan hukum untuk menanggulangi kejahatan illegal logging adalah menggunakan perangkat undang-undang money laundering, hal ini disebabkan perangkat hukum memungkinkan actor intelektual yang mendanai kegiatan tersebut dapat terjerat oleh hukum. Oleh karenanya dalam tindak pidana pencucian uang adanya kerja sama antara Lembaga Penyedia Jasa Keuangan atas indikasi pencucian uang dan Pusat Pelapor dan Analisis Transaksi Keuangan (PPATK serta Penyidik (kepolisian dan Penuntut Umum.

  6. Illegal drug use and its correlates in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Canino, Glorisa

    2018-04-01

    Data on the prevalence and correlates of illegal drug use in Puerto Rico are now almost 20 years old. This study sought to estimate the 12-month prevalence of illegal and non-prescribed medical drug use in San Juan, Puerto Rico and identify sociodemographic correlates of use. Data are from a random household sample of 1510 individuals, 18-64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The 12-month prevalence of any illegal or non-prescribed drug use was 16.5%. Prevalence among men (20.7%) was higher than among women (12.9%; chi 2  = 16.308; df = 1; p  .05) were negatively associated with drug use compared to annual income up to $10,000. As in many other places in the U.S., drug use in San Juan, Puerto Rico is high, affecting about 1 in 6 adults in the population. The highest prevalence is for marijuana use, which cannot be medically prescribed and of which recreational use is illegal on the island. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cut and Run: Illegal Logging and Timber Trade in the Tropics | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Illegal logging and trade in timber is a major cause of forest degradation in the world ... But controlling this global problem is not a simple matter of enacting new laws ... practices in the logging industry and timber trade of four tropical countries.

  8. Identifying areas under potential risk of illegal construction and demolition waste dumping using GIS tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Nissim; Portnov, Boris A

    2018-05-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste, dumped illegally in ravines and open areas, contaminates soil and can cause underground water pollution and forests fires. Yet, effective monitoring of illegal C&D waste dumping and enforcing legislation against the offenders are often a difficult task due to the large size of geographic areas that need to be monitored, and limited human and financial resources available to environmental law enforcement agencies. In this study, we use Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and geo-statistical modelling to identify the areas under potentially elevated risk of illegal C&D waste dumping in the Haifa district of Israel. As our analysis shows, locational factors, significantly associated with the accumulated amount of waste in the existing illegal C&D waste sites, include: distance to the nearest main road, depth of the ravine present at the site (pwaste dumping for future monitoring. As we suggest, the proposed approach may be useful for environmental law enforcement authorities, by helping them to focus on specific sites for inspection, save resources, and act against the offenders more efficiently. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A virtual market for illegal trade in cultural goods: Palmyra in Syria as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Rubina

    This publication is a report from the Nordic expert conference “Illicit trade in cultural artefacts. Stronger together: How can the Nordics join forces to stop the illegal import and export of cultural objects?” which was held in Oslo, 2 to 3 December 2015, following an initiative of the Nordic...... Ministers of Culture....

  10. China's Rare Earth Supply Chain: Illegal Production, and Response to new Cerium Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Imholte, D. Devin

    2016-07-01

    As the demand for personal electronic devices, wind turbines, and electric vehicles increases, the world becomes more dependent on rare earth elements. Given the volatile, Chinese-concentrated supply chain, global attempts have been made to diversify supply of these materials. However, the overall effect of supply diversification on the entire supply chain, including increasing low-value rare earth demand, is not fully understood. This paper is the first attempt to shed some light on China's supply chain from both demand and supply perspectives, taking into account different Chinese policies such as mining quotas, separation quotas, export quotas, and resource taxes. We constructed a simulation model using Powersim Studio that analyzes production (both legal and illegal), production costs, Chinese and rest-of-world demand, and market dynamics. We also simulated new demand of an automotive aluminum-cerium alloy in the US market starting from 2018. Results showed that market share of the illegal sector has grown since 2007-2015, ranging between 22% and 25% of China's rare earth supply, translating into 59-65% illegal heavy rare earths and 14-16% illegal light rare earths. There will be a shortage in certain light and heavy rare earths given three production quota scenarios and constant demand growth rate from 2015 to 2030. The new simulated Ce demand would require supply beyond that produced in China. Finally, we illustrate revenue streams for different ore compositions in China in 2015.

  11. 7 CFR 1773.9 - Disclosure of fraud, illegal acts, and other noncompliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the auditor must design the audit to provide reasonable assurance of detecting fraud that is material... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Audit... statements, auditors should apply audit procedures specifically directed to ascertaining whether an illegal...

  12. The Magic of the Populace: An Ethnography of Illegibility in the South African Immigration Bureaucracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoag, Colin Brewster

    2010-01-01

    their interactions with the public. This perspectival bias needs to be overcome through ethnographies of the state and of state bureaucracies in everyday practice. This article examines the Immigration Services Branch of the South African Department of Home Affairs, a state bureaucracy widely deemed “illegible...

  13. Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Navarro

    Full Text Available Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. Here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time GPS tracking of scavenging species to detect environmental crime. Specifically, we were able to detect illegal activities at an officially closed dump, which was visited recurrently by 5 of 19 GPS-tracked yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis. In comparison with conventional land-based surveys, GPS tracking allows a much wider and cost-efficient spatiotemporal coverage, even of the most hazardous sites, while GPS data accessibility through the internet enables rapid intervention. Our results suggest that multi-species guilds of feathered detectives equipped with GPS and cameras could help fight illegal dumping at continental scales. We encourage further experimental studies, to infer waste detection thresholds in gulls and other scavenging species exploiting human waste dumps.

  14. Economic consequences of legal and illegal drugs: The case of social costs in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Delfine; Vander Laenen, Freya; Verhaeghe, Nick; Putman, Koen; Pauwels, Lieven; Hardyns, Wim; Annemans, Lieven

    2017-06-01

    Legal and illegal drugs impose a considerable burden to the individual and to society. The misuse of addictive substances results in healthcare and law enforcement costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life. A social cost study was conducted to estimate the substance-attributable costs of alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs and psychoactive medication to Belgian society in 2012. The cost-of-illness framework with prevalence-based and human capital approach was applied. Three cost components were considered: direct, indirect and intangible costs related to substance misuse. The direct and indirect cost of addictive substances was estimated at 4.6 billion euros in Belgium (419 euros per capita or 1.19% of the GDP) and more than 515,000 healthy years are lost due to substance misuse. The Belgian social cost study reaffirms that alcohol and tobacco impose the highest cost to society compared to illegal drugs. Health problems are the main driver of the social cost of legal drugs. Law enforcement expenditure exceed the healthcare costs but only in the case of illegal drugs. Estimating social costs of addictive substances is complex because it is difficult to determine to what extent the societal harm is caused by substances. It can be argued that social cost studies take only a 'snapshot' of the monetary consequences of substance misuse. Nevertheless, the current study offers the most comprehensive analysis thus far of the social costs of substance misuse in Belgium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvement of Legislation on Administrative Responsibility for the Illegal Use of Trademarks and Application Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Permyakova N. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of legislation improvement concerning administrative responsibility for illegal use of trademarks. The author exposes problematic questions of law enforcement on bringing to administrative responsibility under Art. 14.10 of the RF Administrative Code

  16. Feathered Detectives : Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, J.; Grémillet, D.; Afán, I.; Ramírez, F.; Bouten, W.; Forero, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic

  17. Insights into the illegal trade of feline derivatives in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Rebecca Kelly, Ph.D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has given the illegal trade of feline derivatives in Mexico as well as Central and South America little attention. The purpose of this article is to: 1 Begin a dialogue among human dimensions of wildlife scholars about the economic and cultural values of feline derivatives throughout Mexico, Central and South America; 2 Present the range of economic values that emerged in my interview and participant observation data from Costa Rica; 3 Offer an explanation of how sociological concepts influence the buying and selling of dead jaguars (Panthera onca, pumas (Puma concolor, and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis in Costa Rica. The principal results are: 1 The sociological concepts of social status and masculine identity interlace with and motivate the illegal trade; 2 The value of feline parts in Costa Rica ranges from $25 to $5000; 3 This value differs by culture and geographic residency of the seller (urban versus rural and diverged from values discovered in other countries; 4 The men who adorn their homes with illegal trophies are not necessarily the poachers. The value of jaguar skin has been recorded for as little as $100 in a 1983 study conducted in Belize and for as high as $600 in a study done in Venezuela in approximately 2011. Because of cultural differences, Cabécar sell a feline skin for as little as $25 and up to $400 if it includes teeth and nails, but Ticos, who are non-indigenous Costa Ricans, sell the skins from $500-$5000. Non-indigenous, wealthy urban men indicate prestige by the display of feline parts. My findings align with existing research that jaguar skins are sold to people in larger cities and that adornment of feline derivatives is a masculine tradition that can be linked with Amerindian cultures and ancient times. Historically jaguars have been associated with elitist symbolism and evidence in this study suggests this continues in today's culture as a sign of social status. Results suggest that money alone does not

  18. Digital Surveillance: A Novel Approach to Monitoring the Illegal Wildlife Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Damien; Mekaru, Sumiko; Brownstein, John S.

    2012-01-01

    A dearth of information obscures the true scale of the global illegal trade in wildlife. Herein, we introduce an automated web crawling surveillance system developed to monitor reports on illegally traded wildlife. A resource for enforcement officials as well as the general public, the freely available website, http://www.healthmap.org/wildlifetrade, provides a customizable visualization of worldwide reports on interceptions of illegally traded wildlife and wildlife products. From August 1, 2010 to July 31, 2011, publicly available English language illegal wildlife trade reports from official and unofficial sources were collected and categorized by location and species involved. During this interval, 858 illegal wildlife trade reports were collected from 89 countries. Countries with the highest number of reports included India (n = 146, 15.6%), the United States (n = 143, 15.3%), South Africa (n = 75, 8.0%), China (n = 41, 4.4%), and Vietnam (n = 37, 4.0%). Species reported as traded or poached included elephants (n = 107, 12.5%), rhinoceros (n = 103, 12.0%), tigers (n = 68, 7.9%), leopards (n = 54, 6.3%), and pangolins (n = 45, 5.2%). The use of unofficial data sources, such as online news sites and social networks, to collect information on international wildlife trade augments traditional approaches drawing on official reporting and presents a novel source of intelligence with which to monitor and collect news in support of enforcement against this threat to wildlife conservation worldwide. PMID:23236444

  19. Social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco in the European Union: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Pablo; Reynolds, Jillian; García-Altés, Anna; Gual, Antoni; Anderson, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Drug use accounts for one of the main disease groups in Europe, with relevant consequences to society. There is an increasing need to evaluate the economic consequences of drug use in order to develop appropriate policies. Here, we review the social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco in the European Union. A systematic search of relevant databases was conducted. Grey literature and previous systematic reviews were also searched. Studies reporting on social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco were included. Methodology, cost components as well as costs were assessed from individual studies. To compare across studies, final costs were transformed to 2014 Euros. Forty-five studies reported in 43 papers met the inclusion criteria (11 for illegal drugs, 26 for alcohol and 8 for tobacco). While there was a constant inclusion of direct costs related to treatment of substance use and comorbidities, there was a high variability for the rest of cost components. Total costs showed also a great variability. Price per capita for the year 2014 ranged from €0.38 to €78 for illegal drugs, from €26 to €1500 for alcohol and from €10.55 to €391 for tobacco. Drug use imposes a heavy economic burden to Europe. However, given the high existing heterogeneity in methodologies, and in order to better assess the burden and thus to develop adequate policies, standardised methodological guidance is needed. [Barrio P, Reynolds J, García-Altés A, Gual A, Anderson P. Social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco in the European Union: A systematic review. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. An analysis of illegal mining on the Offin shelterbelt forest reserve, Ghana: Implications on community livelihood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Boadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining in tropical countries contributes significantly to the global minerals supplies but unregulated mining activities in reserved forests is associated with destruction, loss of habitats and loss of biodiversity. This study determined the area of the Offin shelterbelt forest reserve, Ghana, degraded through illegal mining (galamsey and the impacts on the livelihoods of fringe communities. Thirty-two (32 coordinates were recorded around the peripheries of disturbed site in the reserve using hand-held Global Positioning System and were then imported into a geodatabase in ArcGIS which was used to estimate the area degraded. Data was obtained from 60 purposively sampled respondents from two communities fringing the reserve and 10 key informant interviews. Increased income (13%, employment opportunities (6.7% and increased market activities (2% were some benefits of the illegal mining activities identified by the respondents. Eight respondents associated their employment with of the advent of illegal mining activities out which 6 (70% were engaged directly in mining activities, while 2 (30% were into trading. The miners earned cash income range of US $ 2.9–22.9 daily. Within 5 years, illegal mining had degraded 2.5 km2 (4.4% of the total area of the reserve and the destruction of cocoa farms and water sources (31. Farming among respondents reduced from 90% to 76% after illegal mining. The relatively high cost (US$ 6424.1 involved in flushing out and the subsequent return of such miners poses a threat to sustainable forest management and requires a more holistic approach in tackling such a problem.

  1. Facile synthesis of highly biocompatible folic acid-functionalised SiO2 nanoparticles encapsulating rare-earth metal complexes, and their application in targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiuling; Hu, Fan; Shuai, Qi

    2017-11-14

    Mesoporous silica core-shell nanospheres encapsulating a rare-earth metal complex (RC) were first synthesised through a facile W/O (water in oil) inverse microemulsion method. In order to achieve targeted complex delivery, folic acid (FA) was used as the targeting component due to its high affinity for over-expressed folate receptors (FRs) in cancer cells. The RC 2 @SiO 2 -FA nanospheres were characterised via ultraviolet-visible light absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis spectroscopy), dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A microwave method was used to synthesise five RC cores based on 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, and their crystal structures were further confirmed using X-ray diffraction. The five RC cores have the following chemical formulae: [Er 2 (p-CPA) 6 (H 2 O) 6 ] RC 1 , [Ho 2 (p-CPA) 6 (H 2 O) 6 ] RC 2 , [Sm(p-CPA) 3 (H 2 O)] RC 3 , [Pr(p-CPA) 3 (H 2 O)]·3H 2 O RC 4 and [Ce(p-CPA) 3 (H 2 O) 2 ]·2H 2 O RC 5 . The carboxyl groups showed two kinds of coordination modes, namely μ 2 -η 1 :η 1 and μ 2 -η 1 :η 2 , among RC 1 -RC 5 . The flexible -OCH 2 COO- spacer group, which can undergo rotation of its C-O and C-C bonds, offered great potential for structural diversity. In vivo experiments revealed that the nanospheres exhibited no obvious cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells and 293 T cells, even at concentrations of up to 80 μg mL -1 . Nevertheless, all of the RC cores showed a certain degree of anti-tumour efficacy; in particular, RC 2 showed the strongest cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells. Interestingly, the cytotoxicity of all of the RC 2 @SiO 2 -FA nanospheres was higher than that of lone RC 2 . These types of FA-targeted mesoporous silica nanocarriers can be used for the delivery of anti-tumour RC, and provide a basis for the further study of affordable non-platinum-based complexes.

  2. Techniques for preparing isotopic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoji; Guan Shouren; Luo Xinghua; Sun Shuhua

    1987-12-01

    The techniques of making isotopic targets for nuclear physics experiments are introduced. Vacuum evaporation, electroplating, centrifugal precipitation, rolling and focused heavy-ion beam sputtering used to prepare various isotopic targets at IAE are described. Reduction-distillation with active metals and electrolytic reduction for converting isotope oxides to metals are mentioned. The stripping processes of producing self-supporting isotopic targets are summarized. The store methods of metallic targets are given

  3. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  4. 25 CFR 166.814 - How will the BIA determine the value of the products or property illegally used or removed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the BIA determine the value of the products or property illegally used or removed? We will determine the value of the products or property illegally used or removed based upon a valuation of similar... property illegally used or removed? 166.814 Section 166.814 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. Heavy metal contamination in stream water and sediments of gold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the seasonal variation in heavy metal contamination of stream water and sediments in the gold mining area of Atakunmosa West local Government, Osun State, Nigeria. Twelve villages of prominence in illegal gold mining were selected for the study covering dry and wet seasons of 2012. Stream water ...

  6. Clinical features and treatment prognosis of pathological gamblers with and without recent gambling-related illegal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, David M; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Morasco, Benjamin J; Petry, Nancy M

    2007-01-01

    A substantial proportion of pathological gamblers engage in gambling-related illegal behavior. We examined differences in baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes in two groups: pathological gamblers who did and did not commit gambling-related illegal acts in the year before treatment. Participants were 231 pathological gamblers enrolled in a randomized study of treatment that included cognitive behavior therapy and referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA). Participants reporting recent illegal behavior (n = 63) endorsed more severe lifetime and recent (past-year) gambling disorder symptoms and higher gambling-related debt than did gamblers who denied illegal behavior (n = 168). Those who reported illegal behavior also maintained a significantly higher severity of gambling disorder throughout treatment, although both groups experienced similar improvements in gambling symptoms over time. While pathological gamblers with or without gambling-related illegal behavior appeared to improve at a similar rate regardless of the treatment provided, more intensive treatment may be warranted for individuals with gambling-related illegal behavior, as they demonstrated greater gambling severity throughout treatment and follow-up.

  7. Analysis on typical illegal events for nuclear safety class 1 valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Dongqing; Gao Runsheng; Jiao Dianhui; Yang Lili; Chen Peng

    2014-01-01

    Illegal welding events of nuclear safety class l valve forging occurred to the manufacturer, while the valve was returned to be repaired. Illegal nondestructive test event of nuclear safety class valve occurred also to the manufacturer in the manufacturing process. The two events have resulted in quality incipient fault for the installed valves and the valves in the manufacturing process. It was reflected that operation of the factory quality assurance system isn't activated, and nuclear power engineering and operating company have insufficient supervision. The event-related parties should strengthen quality management and process control, get rid of the quality incipient fault, and experience feedback should be done well to guarantee quality of equipment in nuclear power plant. (authors)

  8. [Parent discourse on legal and illegal drugs use perceived by university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Rosa Elba Sánchez; Galera, Sueli Aparecida Frari

    2004-01-01

    The problems related to use and abuse of legal and illegal drugs are considered worldwide epidemic. Although the drug use is considered an individual decision it is important to stress the role of the family in the conservation and changes of habits, custom and behaviours among family members and among generations. This study aimed to identify parents' discourses about legal and illegal drugs and to explore the divergences and agreements in their discourses. The research was conducted through individual interviews with 13 university students at Bogotá. The interviews were analysed with the focus on systemic theory, constructivism and narrative analysis. In the results emerged the a) the patriarchal culture context and expectance on the genre role, b) three kinds of parents discourses that present divergences and agreements typical of the nuclear family.

  9. Outcomes of the international forum. Illegal nuclear traffic: Risks, safeguards and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martellini, M.; Cotta-Ramusino, P.

    1998-01-01

    Two important meetings were held in Como, Italy, at the Centre for Scientific Culture A.Volta on illegal nuclear traffic from research of military and civilian nuclear installations around the world, technologies suitable to detect it and counter measures. This paper summarizes the outcome of these meetings which discussed obstacles existing in control of illegal nuclear material trafficking and indicated specific measures to overcome some of these obstacles. These measures include working out standardised procedures and methodology of analysis of nuclear materials, setting up a civilian world data bank to collect information on the type, features and isotopic composition of stolen materials, development and application of highly sensitive stationary and field detectors and distance monitoring systems

  10. A map of representations of Use / s User / s of illegal drugs from semiotics Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Palazzolo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe, implement and evaluate the scope of the analytical method known as Statements Semiotics for the analysis of social representations, from interviews with actors involved in the phenomenon of illegal drugs. This time it made possible to establish a first conceptual map of how different actors (lawmakers, social activists, drug users and ex drug users, state workers on addictions, members of civil organizations define use and users of illegal drugs, being identified two discursive formations that are in tension. Also shows clearly some tensions within each discursive formation, as well as correlations between the two formations, and contradictions or opacities in the discourse of the actors

  11. Local Perspectives on Environmental Insecurity and Its Influence on Illegal Biodiversity Exploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith L Gore

    Full Text Available Environmental insecurity is a source and outcome of biodiversity declines and social conflict. One challenge to scaling insecurity reduction policies is that empirical evidence about local attitudes is overwhelmingly missing. We set three objectives: determine how local people rank risk associated with different sources of environmental insecurity; assess perceptions of environmental insecurity, biodiversity exploitation, myths of nature and risk management preferences; and explore relationships between perceptions and biodiversity exploitation. We conducted interviews (N = 88 with residents of Madagascar's Torotorofotsy Protected Area, 2014. Risk perceptions had a moderate effect on perceptions of environmental insecurity. We found no effects of environmental insecurity on biodiversity exploitation. Results offer one if not the first exploration of local perceptions of illegal biodiversity exploitation and environmental security. Local people's perception of risk seriousness associated with illegal biodiversity exploitation such as lemur hunting (low overall may not reflect perceptions of policy-makers (considered to be high. Discord is a key entry point for attention.

  12. "Unequal opportunity": neighbourhood disadvantage and the chance to buy illegal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, C L; Chen, C-Y; Anthony, J C

    2004-03-01

    This study investigates whether subgroups of people living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods may be more likely to come into contact with drug dealers as compared with persons living in more advantaged areas, with due attention to male-female and race-ethnicity differences. Standardised survey data collected using stratified, multistage area probability sampling. United States of America, 1998. Nationally representative sample of household residents age 12 or older (n = 25 500). Evidence supports an inference that women are less likely to be approached by someone selling illegal drugs. The study found no more than modest and generally null racial and ethnicity differences, even for residents living within socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods, where chances to buy illegal drugs are found to be more common. Limitations of survey data always merit attention, but this study evidence lends support to the inference that physical and social characteristics of a neighbourhood can set the stage for opportunities to become involved with drugs.

  13. Risk classification for nuclear facilities in connection with the illegal use of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.; Naegele, G.; Sellinschegg, D.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown, and illustrated by an example, that specific conditions at a nuclear facility to a large extent determine the probability of a successful illegal attack against that facility. Therefore, a categorization of nuclear materials according to the associated hazards alone, as practised currently, does not appear to be sufficient for the establishment of a balanced national physical protection system. In this paper a possible way of categorizing nuclear facilities according to the associated risks, determined as objectively as possible, is discussed. It is felt that initially the analysis should be restricted to the determination of the conditional risks, associated with illegal acquisition and use of radioactive materials by a postulated hostile or similar group. (author)

  14. Automatic detection of potentially illegal online sales of elephant ivory via data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Hernandez-Castro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we developed an automated system to detect potentially illegal elephant ivory items for sale on eBay. Two law enforcement experts, with specific knowledge of elephant ivory identification, manually classified items on sale in the Antiques section of eBay UK over an 8 week period. This set the “Gold Standard” that we aim to emulate using data-mining. We achieved close to 93% accuracy with less data than the experts, as we relied entirely on metadata, but did not employ item descriptions or associated images, thus proving the potential and generality of our approach. The reported accuracy may be improved with the addition of text mining techniques for the analysis of the item description, and by applying image classification for the detection of Schreger lines, indicative of elephant ivory. However, any solution relying on images or text description could not be employed on other wildlife illegal markets where pictures can be missing or misleading and text absent (e.g., Instagram. In our setting, we gave human experts all available information while only using minimal information for our analysis. Despite this, we succeeded at achieving a very high accuracy. This work is an important first step in speeding up the laborious, tedious and expensive task of expert discovery of illegal trade over the internet. It will also allow for faster reporting to law enforcement and better accountability. We hope this will also contribute to reducing poaching, by making this illegal trade harder and riskier for those involved.

  15. The biomedicalisation of illegal abortion: the double life of misoprostol in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Zordo, Silvia De

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines the double life of misoprostol in Brazil, where it is illegally used by women as an abortifacient and legally used in obstetric hospital wards. Based on my doctoral and post-doctoral anthropological research on contraception and abortion in Salvador, Bahia, this paper initially traces the “conversion” of misoprostol from a drug to treat ulcers to a self-administered abortifacient in Latin America, and its later conversion to aneclectic global obstetric tool. It th...

  16. How effective are task forces in tackling illegal logging? Empirical evidence from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franck, Marte; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard

    2014-01-01

    not proven effective in Ghana. The task forces are influenced by corruption; interference by powerful actors; fear of violence; and logistical and resource-related challenges. The paper suggests that effectively addressing illegal logging in Ghana will require a more normative approach that involves policy...... reforms addressing fundamental issues such as rights to trees and benefits from them. Without such reforms, timber task forces as well as other types of “hard” law enforcement become illusive....

  17. Externalities, Border Trade and Illegal Production: An Optimal Tax Approach to Alcohol Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Aronsson, Thomas; Sjögren, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with optimal income and commodity taxation in an economy, where alcohol is an externality-generating consumption good. In our model, alcohol can be bought domestically, imported (via border trade) or produced illegally. Border trade implies an incentive to set the domestic alcohol tax below the marginal social damage of alcohol, and to tax (subsidize) commodities which are complementary with (substitutable for) alcohol. In addition, since leisure and alcohol consumption are g...

  18. Diagnostic overview of the illegal trade in primates and law enforcement in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanee, Noga; Mendoza, A Patricia; Shanee, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Peru has one of the richest primate faunas of any country. The illegal trade in wild primates is one of the largest threats to this fauna in Peru. We characterize the illegal trade in primates through empirical and ethnographic data. We collected data from traffic routes and centers throughout Peru and evaluate current efforts to combat this traffic. Based on our findings from 2,070 instances of wildlife crime involving 6,872 primates, we estimate the domestic trade in primates for pets and bushmeat in Peru in the hundreds of thousands per year, with the larger bodied Atelidae facing the highest direct consequences. We found that government authorities lack sufficient staff, capacity, resources, infrastructure, and protocols to efficiently combat illegal trade in primates. Also, the complicated legal framework and lack of cooperation and antagonism with the public further limit these efforts. Wildlife authorities in Peru are able to confiscate only a fraction of primates traded and mostly intervene in cases of private pet owners rather than traffickers. We estimate that the current rate of illegal trade in primates is comparable to levels of trade prior to the 1973 ban on primates' exportation. The combination of direct observations on primate trade and ethnographic data allows a comprehensive look at primate trade in Peru. We call upon decision makers and international funders to channel their efforts toward "on the ground" actions such as increasing the ability of the authorities to act, giving them "in action" training in law enforcement and establishing strict control measures against corruption. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22516, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Economic and cultural factors and illegal copying in the university textbook market

    OpenAIRE

    Scorcu, Antonello Eugenio; Vici, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The role of economic factors, such as family income, the price of illegal reproductions of books, the enforcement rules and the expected penalties are considered the main determinants of the possible infringements of the copyright law. However, the comparison between individual economic gains and losses offers only a partial explanation, as also cultural individual habits and peer effects exert important influences. Using a unique dataset based on a survey conducted at the University of Bolog...

  20. Assessment of fire-damaged mesquite trees 8 years following an illegal burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Pablo Garcia; Diego Valdez-Zamudio; Akram Al-Khouri

    2003-01-01

    Effects of an illegal burn on the Santa Rita Experimental Range on mesquite (Prosopis velutina) survival in the semidesert grass-shrub ecosystem was initially assessed in terms of firedamage classes 18 months after the fire and again 8 years after the burn. While many of the mesquite trees on the burned site were damaged by the fire, some of the trees appear to have...

  1. The ambivalent relation between state and illegal actors: piracy retail in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, José Carlos G.

    2011-01-01

    In the rise of democratic governments across Latin America, the neoliberal law-and-order perspective has been the most influential model of security in the region. This approach is based on the opposition between state and illegal agents, as if they were two different sets of actors. Influenced by this model, Mexican president Vicente Fox launched an extensive anti-piracy programme to eradicate retail of counterfeit. Based on ethnographic material gathered in the San Juan de Dios market in Gu...

  2. Dumping and Illegal Transport of Hazardous Waste, Danger of Modern Society

    OpenAIRE

    Obradović, Mario; Kalambura, Sanja; Smolec, Danijel; Jovičić, Nives

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the production of hazardous waste during the past few years and stricter legislation in the area of​ permanent disposal and transportation costs were significantly elevated above activities. This creates a new, highly lucrative gray market which opens the way for the criminalization. Of great importance is the identification of illegal trafficking of hazardous waste since it can have a significant impact on human health and environmental pollution. Barriers to effective engagement ...

  3. Psychopathology and resident status - comparing asylum seekers, refugees, illegal migrants, labor migrants, and residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Martina; Wittmann, Lutz; Ehlert, Ulrike; Schnyder, Ulrich; Maier, Thomas; Müller, Julia

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to describe, compare, and predict mental health outcomes of different migrant groups and native residents in Switzerland. Asylum seekers (n=65); refugees holding permanent protection visas (n=34); illegal migrants (n=21); labor migrants (n=26); and residents (n=56) completed an assessment by questionnaire. Main outcome variables were symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression. It was tested whether resident status predicted psychopathology over and above the influence of control variables including social desirability, traumatic event types and post-migration resources. Asylum seekers (54.0%) and refugees (41.4%) fulfilled criteria of PTSD most frequently. Clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety and depression were most frequently reported by asylum seekers (84.6% and 63.1%, resp.) and illegal migrants (both 47.6%). Resident status contributed to psychopathology over and above the influence of control variables. Overall, asylum seekers, refugees, and illegal migrants showed high psychiatric morbidity. Differences in resident status appear to be specifically associated with mental health outcomes. This association persists even when controlling for social desirability, post-migration resources and traumatic events. This emphasizes the importance of current socio-political living conditions for mental health, even with respect to the psychopathological sequelae of past traumatic experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-leptospiral agglutinins in marmosets (Saguinus oedipus and Saguinus leucopus from illegal trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Gonzalez-Astudillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the infection status with pathogenic Leptospira of one Saguinus oedipus and nine Saguinus leucopus at the Cali Zoo that had been confiscated in Colombia from illegal trade. Materials and methods. A full physical examination, blood work, urinalysis were conducted in all individuals during the reception health check-up, in addition to running the microagglutination test with a pool of 19 serovars, with a starting dilution of 1:50. Results. A high positive titer (≥1:3200 to Leptospira alexanderi serovar manhao in an asymptomatic S. oedipus was detected. All S. leucopus tested negative or less than 1:50. Conclusions. Captive locations have been documented to artificially enhance opportunities to come into contact with contaminated bodily fluids from peridomestic rodents. However, infectious diseases acquired during the illegal transport of wildlife to major metropolitan centers are rarely considered a wildlife conservation or public health threat. Infection with zoonotic pathogens should also be considered an additional threat to endangered wild primates involved in illegal trade, which could hamper reintroduction efforts or other population management procedures for primate species with restricted and fragmented distributions.

  5. Exploring differences in stakeholders' perceptions of illegal bird trapping in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Heather M; Mammides, Christos; Keane, Aidan

    2017-11-28

    Cyprus is recognised as a hotspot for illegal bird trapping in the Mediterranean basin. A consumer demand for the Eurasian blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) is driving the use of non-selective trapping methods, resulting in the indiscriminate killing of millions of migratory birds. Efforts to tackle the issue have so far been characterised mostly by a top-down approach, focusing on legislation and enforcement. However, trapping levels are not decreasing and conflict between stakeholder groups is intensifying. To understand why efforts to stop illegal bird trapping have not been effective, we used semi-structured interviews to interview 18 local bird trappers and nine representatives from the pertinent environmental non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the governmental agencies responsible for enforcing the legislation. We found distinct differences between the views of the local trapping community and the environmental NGOs, particularly on why trapping is occurring and its impact on the avifauna. This disparity has contributed to misrepresentations of both sides and a high degree of conflict, which is potentially proving counterproductive to conservation interventions. In addition, it appears that trappers are a heterogeneous group, likely driven by various motivations besides profit. We argue that stakeholders interested in reducing illegal bird trapping need to develop anti-poaching strategies that aim at minimising the disparity in the views, and subsequently the conflict, acknowledging also that trappers are not a homogenous group, as often treated.

  6. Analysis and design of Cubesat constellation for the Mediterranean south costal monitoring against illegal immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazreg, Nissen; Ben Bahri, Omar; Besbes, Kamel

    2018-02-01

    Costal monitoring is focused on fast response to illegal immigration and illegal ship traffic. Especially, the illegal ship traffic has been present in media since April 2015, as the number of reported deaths of immigrants crossing the Mediterranean significantly increased. Satellite images provide a possibility to at least partially control both types of events. This paper defines the principal criteria to select the best satellite constellation architecture for maritime and coastal monitoring, filling the gaps of imagery techniques in term of real-time control. The primary purpose of a constellation is to obtain global measurement improving the temporal resolution. The small size and low-cost are the main factors, which make CubeSats ideal for use in constellations. We propose a constellation of 9 Cubesats distributed evenly in 3 different planes. This reduces the revisit time enhancing the coverage duration. In addition, it also allows observing fire, damage on building and similar disasters. In this analysis, the performance criteria were reported such as the revisit time, the vision duration and the area coverage.

  7. Innovative Techniques for Estimating Illegal Activities in a Human-Wildlife-Management Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul; St. John, Freya A. V.; Khan, Saira; Petroczi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Effective management of biological resources is contingent upon stakeholder compliance with rules. With respect to disease management, partial compliance can undermine attempts to control diseases within human and wildlife populations. Estimating non-compliance is notoriously problematic as rule-breakers may be disinclined to admit to transgressions. However, reliable estimates of rule-breaking are critical to policy design. The European badger (Meles meles) is considered an important vector in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle herds. Land managers in high bTB prevalence areas of the UK can cull badgers under license. However, badgers are also known to be killed illegally. The extent of illegal badger killing is currently unknown. Herein we report on the application of three innovative techniques (Randomized Response Technique (RRT); projective questioning (PQ); brief implicit association test (BIAT)) for investigating illegal badger killing by livestock farmers across Wales. RRT estimated that 10.4% of farmers killed badgers in the 12 months preceding the study. Projective questioning responses and implicit associations relate to farmers' badger killing behavior reported via RRT. Studies evaluating the efficacy of mammal vector culling and vaccination programs should incorporate estimates of non-compliance. Mitigating the conflict concerning badgers as a vector of bTB requires cross-disciplinary scientific research, departure from deep-rooted positions, and the political will to implement evidence-based management. PMID:23341973

  8. Innovative techniques for estimating illegal activities in a human-wildlife-management conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cross

    Full Text Available Effective management of biological resources is contingent upon stakeholder compliance with rules. With respect to disease management, partial compliance can undermine attempts to control diseases within human and wildlife populations. Estimating non-compliance is notoriously problematic as rule-breakers may be disinclined to admit to transgressions. However, reliable estimates of rule-breaking are critical to policy design. The European badger (Meles meles is considered an important vector in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in cattle herds. Land managers in high bTB prevalence areas of the UK can cull badgers under license. However, badgers are also known to be killed illegally. The extent of illegal badger killing is currently unknown. Herein we report on the application of three innovative techniques (Randomized Response Technique (RRT; projective questioning (PQ; brief implicit association test (BIAT for investigating illegal badger killing by livestock farmers across Wales. RRT estimated that 10.4% of farmers killed badgers in the 12 months preceding the study. Projective questioning responses and implicit associations relate to farmers' badger killing behavior reported via RRT. Studies evaluating the efficacy of mammal vector culling and vaccination programs should incorporate estimates of non-compliance. Mitigating the conflict concerning badgers as a vector of bTB requires cross-disciplinary scientific research, departure from deep-rooted positions, and the political will to implement evidence-based management.

  9. Thebaine in hair as a marker for chronic use of illegal opium poppy substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeun; Park, Yonghoon; Han, Eunyoung; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2011-01-30

    Opium poppy products are often illegally used for both recreational and medicinal purposes. In order to demonstrate the ingestion of opium poppy substances, morphine, codeine and their metabolites have been identified. However, morphine and codeine also originate from the ingestion of therapeutic drugs. Therefore, thebaine, one of the main opium alkaloids, in hair was suggested as a marker for chronic use of illegal opium poppy substances in the present study. First, thebaine was included in the analyte list of our routine analytical method for the simultaneous quantification of codeine, morphine, norcodeine, normorphine and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) in hair, which was fully validated previously. Then, the incorporation of thebaine and other opiates into hair and the effect of hair pigmentation were examined using lean Zucker rats with both dark grey and white hair on the same body. Thebaine was also measured in hair samples from actual cases of opium poppy substance use. Consequently, thebaine in hair was demonstrated as a marker of chronic use of illegal opium poppy substances using an animal study and actual cases. Thebaine and other opiates were successfully measured in pigmented hair from rats that ingested raw opium suspension. Moreover, thebaine identified in hair excluded possibility of ingestion of pharmaceutical opiates in actual cases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A rapid situation assessment of the market for surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Lang, Katrin; Raju, Kadi; Väli, Marika; McKee, Martin

    2007-01-01

    To understand the phenomenon of consumption of surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, capital of Estonia. This study, conducted in Tallinn in May 2006, used rapid situation assessment. Interviews with key informants in relevant settings such as emergency departments of hospitals, accommodation for the homeless, police etc. (n = 22), with alcohol abusers (n = 33), natural observations of surrogate sale and consumption venues (n = 46), and tracking of trade data were carried out. Key informants confirmed that consumption of illegal and surrogate alcohols are widely used by alcohol abusers, a finding confirmed by the alcohol abusers. Availability of surrogates varied by area of the city, mainly sold from street kiosks. Illegally produced spirits were also easily available. Sales of surrogates appear to have increased in recent years. A range of alcohol-containing substances that appear to be easily available at low cost, and that have high concentration of ethanol or contaminants known to be toxic, were identified in Tallinn. Alcohol policies in Estonia should address the consumption and availability of these substances.

  11. Limits of Brazil's Forest Code as a means to end illegal deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Andrea A; Rajão, Raoni; Costa, Marcelo A; Stabile, Marcelo C C; Macedo, Marcia N; Dos Reis, Tiago N P; Alencar, Ane; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Pacheco, Rayane

    2017-07-18

    The 2012 Brazilian Forest Code governs the fate of forests and savannas on Brazil's 394 Mha of privately owned lands. The government claims that a new national land registry (SICAR), introduced under the revised law, could end illegal deforestation by greatly reducing the cost of monitoring, enforcement, and compliance. This study evaluates that potential, using data from state-level land registries (CAR) in Pará and Mato Grosso that were precursors of SICAR. Using geospatial analyses and stakeholder interviews, we quantify the impact of CAR on deforestation and forest restoration, investigating how landowners adjust their behaviors over time. Our results indicate rapid adoption of CAR, with registered properties covering a total of 57 Mha by 2013. This suggests that the financial incentives to join CAR currently exceed the costs. Registered properties initially showed lower deforestation rates than unregistered ones, but these differences varied by property size and diminished over time. Moreover, only 6% of registered producers reported taking steps to restore illegally cleared areas on their properties. Our results suggest that, from the landowner's perspective, full compliance with the Forest Code offers few economic benefits. Achieving zero illegal deforestation in this context would require the private sector to include full compliance as a market criterion, while state and federal governments develop SICAR as a de facto enforcement mechanism. These results are relevant to other tropical countries and underscore the importance of developing a policy mix that creates lasting incentives for sustainable land-use practices.

  12. Innovative techniques for estimating illegal activities in a human-wildlife-management conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul; St John, Freya A V; Khan, Saira; Petroczi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Effective management of biological resources is contingent upon stakeholder compliance with rules. With respect to disease management, partial compliance can undermine attempts to control diseases within human and wildlife populations. Estimating non-compliance is notoriously problematic as rule-breakers may be disinclined to admit to transgressions. However, reliable estimates of rule-breaking are critical to policy design. The European badger (Meles meles) is considered an important vector in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle herds. Land managers in high bTB prevalence areas of the UK can cull badgers under license. However, badgers are also known to be killed illegally. The extent of illegal badger killing is currently unknown. Herein we report on the application of three innovative techniques (Randomized Response Technique (RRT); projective questioning (PQ); brief implicit association test (BIAT)) for investigating illegal badger killing by livestock farmers across Wales. RRT estimated that 10.4% of farmers killed badgers in the 12 months preceding the study. Projective questioning responses and implicit associations relate to farmers' badger killing behavior reported via RRT. Studies evaluating the efficacy of mammal vector culling and vaccination programs should incorporate estimates of non-compliance. Mitigating the conflict concerning badgers as a vector of bTB requires cross-disciplinary scientific research, departure from deep-rooted positions, and the political will to implement evidence-based management.

  13. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ILLEGAL DUMPING AND IT’S SPATIAL AUTOREGRESSION: THE CASE OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjae Chang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the data pertaining to the illegal dumping of municipal solid waste in the Republic of Korea for the year 2011 to check for the presence of spatial autoregression of illegal dumping among 224 basic autonomous units with reference to the “Broken Windows Theory.” We found that a pure neighborhood effect exists even after controlling for conventional variables that explain illegal dumping behavior. Interestingly, however, the neighborhood effect is largely offset by so-called relative price effect such that the number of illegal dumping reported in one region is in fact decreased as the price of vinyl bag for MSW in neighboring regions increases, which is seemingly against the implication of the “Broken Windows Theory.”

  14. A Case of Nonthrombotic Pulmonary Embolism after Facial Injection of Hyaluronic Acid in an Illegal Cosmetic Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Jong Geol; Hong, Kyung Soo; Choi, Eun Young

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid is widely used in medical procedures, particularly in cosmetic procedures administered by physicians or nonmedical personnel. The materials used for cosmetic procedures by physicians as well as illegally by non-medical personnel can cause nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism (NTPE). We report the case of a woman with acute respiratory failure, neurologic symptoms and petechiae after an illegal procedure of hyaluronic acid dermal filler performed by an unlicensed medical practition...

  15. Identifying and analyzing digital payment flows regarding illegal purposes on the Internet : I samarbete med CGI och Finanskoalitionen

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Caroline; Asplund, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate an unexplored illegal exploitation of legal businesses, with the purpose of limiting this market and especially the related transactions. The issue of transactions regarding illegal material executed with credit cards was solved through involving the companies who issues the credit cards, making the market more transparent and thus preventing this kind of transactions. The thesis will illustrate how cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, are being exploited...

  16. Client and clinician-rated characteristics of problem gamblers with and without history of gambling-related illegal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jennifer D; Lister, Jamey J; Struble, Cara A; Cairncross, Molly; Carr, Meagan M; Ledgerwood, David M

    2018-03-12

    Individuals with gambling disorder are at an elevated risk for engaging in gambling-related illegal behaviors. The present study examined client (N = 88) and clinician ratings (N = 30) of client characteristics associated with a history of gambling-related illegal behaviors. We also examined client characteristics associated with history of arrest for a gambling-related crime. Gambling-related illegal behaviors and arrest were common (57.3% and 23.9%, respectively) in the present sample. Clients of younger age, and those with greater gambling-related financial consequences, lifetime alcohol problems, impulsivity, mood symptoms, and daily living role difficulties were more likely to report gambling-related illegal behaviors. Clients who had been arrested for a gambling-related crime were more likely to report daily living and role functioning difficulties and lifetime alcohol problems. Clinicians rated clients with a history of gambling-related illegal behaviors and/or gambling-related arrests as more impulsive, and clinicians also endorsed higher rates of treatment failure among these clients. Both client and clinician report suggested that clients with a history of illegal behaviors may have a variety of comorbid problems that may be a focus of clinical intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of a piezo-electric quartz as substrate for the preparation of self-supporting rare earth targets, in metallic form, not oxidized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetti, C.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for preparing rare earth self-supporting targets is described. These high purity foils are used for nuclear spectroscopy, with a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. Target thicknesses range from 1000μg/cm 2 to 2500μg/cm 2 . The originality of this procedure consists in using the piezo-electric quartz for target thickness measurements and for temporary substrate. With this method, it is possible to measure the target thickness without geometrical errors and to suppress the effects of the molecular flux anisotropy. (Auth.)

  18. Illegal Dumping of Toxic Waste and Its Effect on Human Health in Campania, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Alfredo; Piscitelli, Prisco; Neglia, Cosimo; Della Rosa, Giulia; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

    2015-06-16

    The region of Campania (particularly Naples and Caserta) has experienced an emergency in the waste management cycle during past years. Although the most critical phase has been overcome after the construction of the incineration plant in Acerra (an old-fashioned technology built up over a few months, whose impact on environment and health has not yet been assessed), most of the underlying problems have not been resolved. The illegal burning of wheels, plastics, textiles, and other industrial residuals, along with the detection of two thousand toxic substance dumping sites, still represents major concerns of environmental pollution and population health. This review summarizes the most relevant studies, which analyzed chemical contamination (primarily dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) of the air, soil, water, animals, and humans in Campania. In addition, we reviewed information on population health (i.e., mortality data, congenital malformations, and cancer incidence). Moving from a detailed mapping of (mostly illegal) waste dumping sites in Campania, we have focused on recent studies which have found: (a) high concentrations of dioxins (≥5.0 pg TEQ/g fat) in milk samples from sheep, cows, and river buffaloes; (b) remarkable contamination of dioxin and PCBs in human milk samples from those living in the Naples and Caserta areas (PCDDs+PCDFs and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs) assessed at 16.6 pg TEQ/g of fat; range: 7.5-43 pg/g of fat); (c) potential age-adjusted standardized mortality rates associated with some specific cancer types; (d) a statistically significant association between exposure to illegal toxic waste dumping sites and cancer mortality, even after adjustment by socio-economic factors and other environmental indicators.

  19. The relation of self-esteem and illegal drug usage in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehdaluee, Mohammad; Zavar, Abbas; Alidoust, Mahbobeh; Pourandi, Razieh

    2013-11-01

    Adolescence is the period of stress and strain. Researchers have shown that adolescents without strong social supports would have tendency towards smoking and drug abuse. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between low self-esteem and illegal drug abuse. Participants were 943 grades nine to 12 high school students, from Sarakhs during 2010 - 2011. Adolescents participated in the study, completed two self-report questionnaires. The first questionnaire included questions about individual and family information, smoking and illegal drug abuse history, and the second was the Rosenberg's self-esteem scale. 53.8% of participants were male (507 individuals). The mean Rosenberg self-esteem score was 19.8 + 5.2, and the most frequent obtained scores were from 22 to 30. The difference of Rosenberg self-esteem score test between students who did not use any substance and those who had a history of smoking or drug abuse like heroin, pills, alcohols, betel nut (Nas) and other drugs (such as Pan and Hookah) was significant (P self-esteem scores between adolescents who lived with both or one of the parents, and those who did not live with any of parents, was significant (P = 0.04). There was also a significant association between the number of children in the family and self-esteem score. The current study showed significant association between the Rosenberg self-esteem test results and smoking, and illegal drug abuse like heroin, pills, alcohol, Nas, and other substances. Therefore, increasing self-esteem is essential for preventing the adolescents' emotional and behavioral disorders. This fact could guide us to the new approaches for smoking and drug-abuse prevention in adolescents.

  20. Linking cases of illegal shootings of the endangered California condor using stable lead isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Myra E., E-mail: myraf@ucsc.edu [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kuspa, Zeka E. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Welch, Alacia [National Park Service, Pinnacles National Park, 5000 Highway 146, Paicines, CA 95043 (United States); Eng, Curtis; Clark, Michael [Los Angeles Zoo and Botanical Gardens, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Burnett, Joseph [Ventana Wildlife Society, 19045 Portola Dr. Ste. F-1, Salinas, CA 93908 (United States); Smith, Donald R. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Lead poisoning is preventing the recovery of the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and lead isotope analyses have demonstrated that ingestion of spent lead ammunition is the principal source of lead poisoning in condors. Over an 8 month period in 2009, three lead-poisoned condors were independently presented with birdshot embedded in their tissues, evidencing they had been shot. No information connecting these illegal shooting events existed and the timing of the shooting(s) was unknown. Using lead concentration and stable lead isotope analyses of feathers, blood, and recovered birdshot, we observed that: i) lead isotope ratios of embedded shot from all three birds were measurably indistinguishable from each other, suggesting a common source; ii) lead exposure histories re-constructed from feather analysis suggested that the shooting(s) occurred within the same timeframe; and iii) two of the three condors were lead poisoned from a lead source isotopically indistinguishable from the embedded birdshot, implicating ingestion of this type of birdshot as the source of poisoning. One of the condors was subsequently lead poisoned the following year from ingestion of a lead buckshot (blood lead 556 µg/dL), illustrating that ingested shot possess a substantially greater lead poisoning risk compared to embedded shot retained in tissue (blood lead ∼20 µg/dL). To our knowledge, this is the first study to use lead isotopes as a tool to retrospectively link wildlife shooting events. - Highlights: • We conducted a case-based analysis of illegal shootings of California condors. • Blood and feather Pb isotopes were used to reconstruct the illegal shooting events. • Embedded birdshot from the three condors had the same Pb isotope ratios. • Feather and blood Pb isotopes indicated that the condors were shot in a common event. • Ingested shot causes substantially greater lead exposure compared to embedded shot.

  1. Illegal Dumping of Toxic Waste and Its Effect on Human Health in Campania, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Mazza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The region of Campania (particularly Naples and Caserta has experienced an emergency in the waste management cycle during past years. Although the most critical phase has been overcome after the construction of the incineration plant in Acerra (an old-fashioned technology built up over a few months, whose impact on environment and health has not yet been assessed, most of the underlying problems have not been resolved. The illegal burning of wheels, plastics, textiles, and other industrial residuals, along with the detection of two thousand toxic substance dumping sites, still represents major concerns of environmental pollution and population health. This review summarizes the most relevant studies, which analyzed chemical contamination (primarily dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs of the air, soil, water, animals, and humans in Campania. In addition, we reviewed information on population health (i.e., mortality data, congenital malformations, and cancer incidence. Moving from a detailed mapping of (mostly illegal waste dumping sites in Campania, we have focused on recent studies which have found: (a high concentrations of dioxins (≥5.0 pg TEQ/g fat in milk samples from sheep, cows, and river buffaloes; (b remarkable contamination of dioxin and PCBs in human milk samples from those living in the Naples and Caserta areas (PCDDs+PCDFs and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs assessed at 16.6 pg TEQ/g of fat; range: 7.5–43 pg/g of fat; (c potential age-adjusted standardized mortality rates associated with some specific cancer types; (d a statistically significant association between exposure to illegal toxic waste dumping sites and cancer mortality, even after adjustment by socio-economic factors and other environmental indicators.

  2. Drivers of illegal livelihoods in remote transboundary regions: the case of the Trans-Fly region of Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Busilacchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Remote transboundary regions in developing countries often contain abundant natural resources. Many of these resources are being overexploited to supply an ever-increasing demand from Asia, often via illegal cross-border trade. Understanding the systemic issues that drive households to engage in illegal activities in transboundary regions is a prerequisite for designing effective interventions and diverting livelihoods toward sustainable trajectories, but is rarely applied. This study analyzed the drivers of illegal trade in marine products, e.g. sea cucumber, shark fin, and fish bladders, among coastal villages in Papua New Guinea that border Indonesia and Australia in the Trans-Fly region. Mixed-methods (household questionnaire surveys, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews were applied to triangulate results and minimize denial bias, which is a challenge when studying illegality. Results indicated that distance from markets and economic centers was the main driver for engagement in illegal activity, and distance from a center was also the main driver of poverty. Contrary to studies elsewhere, we found that poverty did not generally drive households' engagement in illegal trade. Only in Daru, the primary economic hub, where immigrants from the areas impacted by the Ok Tedi mine operations have resettled, were the poorest households likely to be involved in illegal trade, because they had no alternative sources of livelihood. Weak governance exacerbates the situation, which includes corruption, a lack of enforcement, and poor coordination among government levels, and a breakdown of traditional resource management systems. Respondents highlighted that current bilateral border agreements are outdated and cannot account for modernization, a globalizing economy, and communities' rapid transition to a cash economy. Our findings emphasize the need to find innovative governance solutions to manage this stressed social

  3. Burden of proof for the illegal immissions as prerequisite of in rem removal claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Marko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the question of the burden of proof for the facts that imply illegal immission as prerequisite of in rem removal claim. The approach is different to the standard doctrine and it is in according to the general rule of the burden of proof in litigation - so called modified norm theory. In the centre of the attention is distinction of so called constitutive and impeditive facts, and criteria for distinction. The implementation of modified norm theory regarding issue of this paper shows that primal distinguishing point is not suitable, so the other modification methods should be applied, in order to get the answer.

  4. Competition to commit crime: An economic experiment on illegal logging using behavioral game theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tananya Songchoo; Komsan Suriya

    2012-01-01

    This study constructs an economic experiment using behavioral game theory to figure out policies that discourage illegal logging in Thailand. A player is assigned to be either a police or an outlaw in the game. The game randomly matches two players in different roles. The lawbreaker can offer a bribe to police under uncertainties whether the police may refuse it or reject the offer because of too small amount of the bribe. Even when bribery is accepted, it is still uncertain for an lawbreaker...

  5. The importance of distinguishing illegality from guilt in trials for alleged medical malpractice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Díaz Brousse

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A proper analysis of the essential elements that comprise a criminal offense that falls under the purview of medical negligence is fundamental in order to rule, in justice, cases of alleged malpractice. It is necessary to properly distinguish between accusations of illegality and those of guilt. Open legal essays and precedents about such illicit acts provide judges with great latitude in determining when acts are consistent or not with standard care. This power mandates that judges should ground their convictions on objective infringements of the law rather than subjective criteria.

  6. Radiation protection for the illegal governmental use of radiation sources. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    2000-01-01

    Probably for the first time, illegal governmental uses of radiation sources, including the administrative infrastructure such as special radiation protection regulation, an advisory body etc., have been documented by the evaluation of the documents of the Ministry of State Security in the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Over a thousand persons, but also documents, money bills etc. were marked with a wide variety of radionuclides and traced with specially developed detectors. Among the many different nuclides provided regularly from the Rossendorf Research Center near Dresden, in particular 46 Sc was popular. (orig.) [de

  7. Isolation and structural identification of a novel minoxidil analogue in an illegal dietary supplement: triaminodil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Han Na; Park, Hyoung Joon; Kim, Nam Sook; Park, Sung-Kwan; Lee, Jongkook; Baek, Sun Young

    2018-01-01

    A new minoxidil analogue was detected in an illegal dietary supplement advertised as a hair-growth treatment. The analogue was identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The compound was structurally elucidated as a minoxidil analogue in which the piperidinyl group of minoxidil was replaced with a pyrrolidinyl group corresponding to a molecular formula of C 8 H 13 N 5 O. The new analogue has been named triaminodil. As this is the first report of the compound, there are no chemical, toxicology or pharmacological data available.

  8. A property rights-based analysis of the illegal logging for fuelwood in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Bouriaud, L.; Nichiforel , L.; Ribeiro Nunes, L. M.; Pereira, H.; Bajraktari, A.

    2014-01-01

    The increased demand for fuelwood may have the side-effect of unsustainable use of forest resource. The case of Kosovo fuelwood production is of a peculiar relevance to studying the drivers of the unsustainable patterns of forest biomass use in a post-war and poor economic context. The domestic market demand for fuelwood in Kosovo is estimated at more than 1.5 hm3, while the legal supply, including imports, is slightly higher than 0.3 hm3. Illegal logging for satisfying Kosovo population fuel...

  9. Selective metal binding to Cys-78 within endonuclease V causes an inhibition of catalytic activities without altering nontarget and target DNA binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, M.A.; Friedman, B.; Gruskin, E.A.; Schrock, R.D. III; Lloyd, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    T4 endonuclease V is a pyrimidine dimer-specific DNA repair enzyme which has been previously shown not to require metal ions for either of its two catalytic activities or its DNA binding function. However, we have investigated whether the single cysteine within the enzyme was able to bind metal salts and influence the various activities of this repair enzyme. A series of metals (Hg2+, Ag+, Cu+) were shown to inactivate both endonuclease Vs pyrimidine dimer-specific DNA glycosylase activity and the subsequent apurinic nicking activity. The binding of metal to endonuclease V did not interfere with nontarget DNA scanning or pyrimidine dimer-specific binding. The Cys-78 codon within the endonuclease V gene was changed by oligonucleotide site-directed mutagenesis to Thr-78 and Ser-78 in order to determine whether the native cysteine was directly involved in the enzyme's DNA catalytic activities and whether the cysteine was primarily responsible for the metal binding. The mutant enzymes were able to confer enhanced ultraviolet light (UV) resistance to DNA repair-deficient Escherichia coli at levels equal to that conferred by the wild type enzyme. The C78T mutant enzyme was purified to homogeneity and shown to be catalytically active on pyrimidine dimer-containing DNA. The catalytic activities of the C78T mutant enzyme were demonstrated to be unaffected by the addition of Hg2+ or Ag+ at concentrations 1000-fold greater than that required to inhibit the wild type enzyme. These data suggest that the cysteine is not required for enzyme activity but that the binding of certain metals to that amino acid block DNA incision by either preventing a conformational change in the enzyme after it has bound to a pyrimidine dimer or sterically interfering with the active site residue's accessibility to the pyrimidine dimer

  10. Influence of the reactive atmosphere on the formation of nanoparticles in the plasma plume induced by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation of metallic targets at atmospheric pressure and high repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, M. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Le Garrec, J.-L.; Mitchell, J.B.A. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251 CNRS-Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Jouvard, J.-M. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Carvou, E. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251 CNRS-Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Menneveux, J.; Yu, J. [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ouf, F.-X. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire IRSN/PSN-RES/SCA/LPMA BP 68, 91192 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Carles, S. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251 CNRS-Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Potin, V.; Pillon, G.; Bourgeois, S. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Perez, J. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Marco de Lucas, M.C., E-mail: delucas@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); and others

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • NPs formed in a plasma-plume during laser irradiation of metals (Al, Ti, Ag) were studied. • In situ SAXS and ex situ TEM, XRD and Raman spectra were measured. • NPs size decreased when increasing the O{sub 2} fraction in a controlled O{sub 2}+N{sub 2} atmosphere. • The oxidation of metal NPs in the plasma restricts the increase of the size of the NPs. - Abstract: The influence of a reactive atmosphere on the formation of nanoparticles (NPs) in the plasma plume generated by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation of metal targets (Ti, Al, Ag) was probed in situ using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Air and different O{sub 2}–N{sub 2} gas mixtures were used as reactive gas within atmospheric pressure. SAXS results showed the formation of NPs in the plasma-plume with a mean radius varying in the 2–5 nm range. A decrease of the NPs size with increasing the O{sub 2} percentage in the O{sub 2}–N{sub 2} gas mixture was also showed. Ex situ observations by transmission electron microscopy and structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were also performed for powders collected in experiments done using air as ambient gas. The stability of the different metal oxides is discussed as being a key parameter influencing the formation of NPs in the plasma-plume.

  11. Nontargeted Screening Method for Illegal Additives Based on Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanqing; Zhou, Zhihui; Kong, Hongwei; Lu, Xin; Zhao, Xinjie; Chen, Yihui; Chen, Jia; Wu, Zeming; Xu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Chunxia; Xu, Guowang

    2016-09-06

    Identification of illegal additives in complex matrixes is important in the food safety field. In this study a nontargeted screening strategy was developed to find illegal additives based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). First, an analytical method for possible illegal additives in complex matrixes was established including fast sample pretreatment, accurate UHPLC separation, and HRMS detection. Second, efficient data processing and differential analysis workflow were suggested and applied to find potential risk compounds. Third, structure elucidation of risk compounds was performed by (1) searching online databases [Metlin and the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB)] and an in-house database which was established at the above-defined conditions of UHPLC-HRMS analysis and contains information on retention time, mass spectra (MS), and tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) of 475 illegal additives, (2) analyzing fragment ions, and (3) referring to fragmentation rules. Fish was taken as an example to show the usefulness of the nontargeted screening strategy, and six additives were found in suspected fish samples. Quantitative analysis was further carried out to determine the contents of these compounds. The satisfactory application of this strategy in fish samples means that it can also be used in the screening of illegal additives in other kinds of food samples.

  12. The impact of sediment bioturbation by secondary organisms on metal bioavailability, bioaccumulation and toxicity to target organisms in benthic bioassays: Implications for sediment quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remaili, Timothy M.; Simpson, Stuart L.; Amato, Elvio D.; Spadaro, David A.; Jarolimek, Chad V.; Jolley, Dianne F.

    2016-01-01

    Bioturbation alters the properties of sediments and modifies contaminant bioavailability to benthic organisms. These naturally occurring disturbances are seldom considered during the assessment of sediment quality. We investigated how the presence (High bioturbation) and absence (Low bioturbation) of a strongly bioturbating amphipod within three different sediments influenced metal bioavailability, survival and bioaccumulation of metals to the bivalve Tellina deltoidalis. The concentrations of dissolved copper decreased and manganese increased with increased bioturbation. For copper a strong correlation was observed between increased bivalve survival (53–100%) and dissolved concentrations in the overlying water. Increased bioturbation intensity resulted in greater tissue concentrations for chromium and zinc in some test sediments. Overall, the results highlight the strong influence that the natural bioturbation activities from one organism may have on the risk contaminants pose to other organisms within the local environment. The characterisation of field-based exposure conditions concerning the biotic or abiotic resuspension of sediments and the rate of attenuation of released contaminants through dilution or readsorption may enable laboratory-based bioassay designs to be adapted to better match those of the assessed environment. - Highlights: • Bioturbation intensity modifies metal exposure and outcomes of sediment bioassays. • Sediment fluxes of Cu decrease and Mn and Zn increase with increased bioturbation. • Strong correlations between bioaccumulated and dissolved Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni. • Weak correlations between bioaccumulated and particulate metals. - This study investigated the impact of sediment bioturbation intensity on metal bioavailability and toxicity to aquatic organisms, and the implications of this to toxicity test design.

  13. Coyotes, Concessions and Construction Companies: Illegal Water Markets and Legally Constructed Water Scarcity in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Reis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of (semiarid Mexico, such as the Valley of Toluca, face challenges due to rapid growth and the simultaneous overexploitation of groundwater. The water reform of the 1990s introduced individual water rights concessions granted through the National Water Commission (Comisión Nacional del Agua, or CONAGUA. Since then, acquiring new water rights in officially 'water-scarce' aquifers is only possible through official rights transmissions from users ceding their rights. With the law prohibiting the sale of water rights, a profitable illegal market for these rights has emerged. The key actor in the water rights allocation network is the coyote, functioning as a broker between a people wanting to cede water rights and those needing them, and b the formal and informal spheres of water rights allocation. Actors benefitting from water rights trading include the coyote and his 'working brigades', water users selling surplus rights, and (senior and lower-level staff in the water bureaucracy. The paper concludes that legally constructed water scarcity is key to the reproduction of illegal water rights trading. This has important implications regarding the current push for expanding regularisation of groundwater extraction in Mexico. Currently, regularisation does not counter overexploitation, while possibly leading to a de facto privatisation of groundwater.

  14. Illegal alphabets and adult biliteracy latino migrants crossing the linguistic border, expanded edition

    CERN Document Server

    Kalmar, Tomás Mario

    2015-01-01

    How do "illegal aliens" chart the speech sounds of colloquial English? This book is timeless in offering an unusually direct entry into how a group of Mexican fruit pickers analyze their first encounter with local American speech in a tiny rural Midwestern community in the United States. Readers see close up how intelligently migrant workers help each other use what they already know-the alphabetic principle of one letter, one sound-to teach each other, from scratch, at the very first contact, a language which none of them can speak. They see how and why the strategies adult immigrants actually use in order to cope with English in the real world seem to have little in common with those used in publicly funded bilingual and ESL classrooms. What's new in this expanded edition of Tomás Mario Kalmar's landmark Illegal Alphabets and Adult Biliteracy are in-depth commentaries from six distinguished scholars-Peter Elbow, Ofelia García, James Paul Gee, Hervé Varenne, Luis Vázquez León, Karen Velasquez-who bring ...

  15. [Illegal professional conflict of interest from the viewpoint of the attorney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglie, M G

    1998-10-01

    Since the so called "heart-valve scandal" occurred in Germany, the practice of financially or otherwise supported hospitals and practicing doctors has to be critically re-examined and may be changed. The practice and acceptance of support is common in many areas of our daily life, however, due to governmental social laws regulating the flow of money and due to the various financial forms of support for the health care system, criminal violations and sanctions may arise. Aside from the existing standard criminal violations, a new law, as of has been enacted August 13, 1997-this law specifically deals with bribery and the acceptance of such illegal payments. Proving that such a criminal violation was committed by a physician can be very difficult for the prosecutor. The mass of procedural laws--aside from the substantive law requirements--cause problems for the state. It is also very difficult to determine the exact amount of damages or that a physician has gained an illegal advantage. In these specific and other general cases, a professional defense by a competent attorney is absolutely essential to prevent an unpleasant suit or to resolve charges outside of court. In some cases, it may even be possible to persuade the prosecutor to only levy a fine, if it is not possible to persuade him to drop the charges all together--for lack of good evidence.

  16. Developing a theory of change for a community-based response to illegal wildlife trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Duan; Cooney, Rosie; Roe, Dilys; Dublin, Holly T; Allan, James R; Challender, Dan W S; Skinner, Diane

    2017-02-01

    The escalating illegal wildlife trade (IWT) is one of the most high-profile conservation challenges today. The crisis has attracted over US$350 million in donor and government funding in recent years, primarily directed at increased enforcement. There is growing recognition among practitioners and policy makers of the need to engage rural communities that neighbor or live with wildlife as key partners in tackling IWT. However, a framework to guide such community engagement is lacking. We developed a theory of change (ToC) to guide policy makers, donors, and practitioners in partnering with communities to combat IWT. We identified 4 pathways for community-level actions: strengthen disincentives for illegal behavior, increase incentives for wildlife stewardship, decrease costs of living with wildlife, and support livelihoods that are not related to wildlife. To succeed the pathways, all require strengthening of enabling conditions, including capacity building, and of governance. Our ToC serves to guide actions to tackle IWT and to inform the evaluation of policies. Moreover, it can be used to foster dialogue among IWT stakeholders, from local communities to governments and international donors, to develop a more effective, holistic, and sustainable community-based response to the IWT crisis. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. RESTRICTING ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION IN THE U.S- IS IT GROUNDED IN ECONOMIC TERMS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN MAHA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Hispanic immigration phenomenon, especially of the illegal one on the economy at local, state andfederal level is a major concern in the U.S.. Challenges to effective control at the borders of the United States haveincreased dramatically in recent decades.The problem of the present research is the extent to which budgetary policy restricted the illegal immigrationphenomenon and what were the negative consequences of the policy to strengthen the borders?The purpose of this analysis is to check if there is a significant relationship between the Border Patrol budget and thenumber of apprehensions at the border. The results of the research indicate that the two variables are closely linked,and the trend is that with the increase of the budget, the number of border apprehensions drops. The results wereanalyzed in two phases during 1990-2000 and 2001-2011. For both periods, it shows that the connection between thetwo chosen variables is statistically strong. However, factors such as political, social and economic resulted in adifferent correlation between the Border Patrol budget and the number of apprehensions

  18. Early warning of illegal development for protected areas by integrating cellular automata with neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Lao, Chunhua; Liu, Yilun; Liu, Xiaoping; Chen, Yimin; Li, Shaoying; Ai, Bing; He, Zijian

    2013-11-30

    Ecological security has become a major issue under fast urbanization in China. As the first two cities in this country, Shenzhen and Dongguan issued the ordinance of Eco-designated Line of Control (ELC) to "wire" ecologically important areas for strict protection in 2005 and 2009 respectively. Early warning systems (EWS) are a useful tool for assisting the implementation ELC. In this study, a multi-model approach is proposed for the early warning of illegal development by integrating cellular automata (CA) and artificial neural networks (ANN). The objective is to prevent the ecological risks or catastrophe caused by such development at an early stage. The integrated model is calibrated by using the empirical information from both remote sensing and handheld GPS (global positioning systems). The MAR indicator which is the ratio of missing alarms to all the warnings is proposed for better assessment of the model performance. It is found that the fast urban development has caused significant threats to natural-area protection in the study area. The integration of CA, ANN and GPS provides a powerful tool for describing and predicting illegal development which is in highly non-linear and fragmented forms. The comparison shows that this multi-model approach has much better performances than the single-model approach for the early warning. Compared with the single models of CA and ANN, this integrated multi-model can improve the value of MAR by 65.48% and 5.17% respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular tracing of confiscated pangolin scales for conservation and illegal trade monitoring in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huarong; Miller, Mark P.; Yang, Feng; Chan, Hon Ki; Gaubert, Philippe; Ades, Gary; Fischer, Gunter A

    2015-01-01

    Despite being protected by both international and national regulations, pangolins are threatened by illegal trade. Here we report mitochondrial DNA identification and haplotype richness estimation, using 239 pangolin scale samples from two confiscations in Hong Kong. We found a total of 13 genetically distinct cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) haplotypes in two confiscations (13 and ten haplotypes respectively, with ten shared haplotypes between confiscations). These haplotypes clustered in two distinct clades with one clade representing the Sunda pangolin (Manisjavanica). The other clade did not match with any known Asian pangolin sequences, and likely represented a cryptic pangolin lineage in Asia. By fitting sample coverage and rarefaction/regression models to our sample data, we predicted that the total number of COI haplotypes in two confiscations were 14.86 and 11.06 respectively, suggesting that our sampling caught the majority of haplotypes and that we had adequately characterized each confiscation. We detected substantial sequence divergence among the seized scales, likely evidencing that the Sunda pangolins were harvested over wide geographical areas across Southeast Asia. Our study illustrates the value of applying DNA forensics for illegal wildlife trade monitoring.

  20. Molecular tracing of confiscated pangolin scales for conservation and illegal trade monitoring in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huarong Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite being protected by both international and national regulations, pangolins are threatened by illegal trade. Here we report mitochondrial DNA identification and haplotype richness estimation, using 239 pangolin scale samples from two confiscations in Hong Kong. We found a total of 13 genetically distinct cytochrome c oxidase I (COI haplotypes in two confiscations (13 and ten haplotypes respectively, with ten shared haplotypes between confiscations. These haplotypes clustered in two distinct clades with one clade representing the Sunda pangolin (Manisjavanica. The other clade did not match with any known Asian pangolin sequences, and likely represented a cryptic pangolin lineage in Asia. By fitting sample coverage and rarefaction/regression models to our sample data, we predicted that the total number of COI haplotypes in two confiscations were 14.86 and 11.06 respectively, suggesting that our sampling caught the majority of haplotypes and that we had adequately characterized each confiscation. We detected substantial sequence divergence among the seized scales, likely evidencing that the Sunda pangolins were harvested over wide geographical areas across Southeast Asia. Our study illustrates the value of applying DNA forensics for illegal wildlife trade monitoring.

  1. Children’s Proneness to Shame and Guilt Predict Risky and Illegal Behaviors in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June P.; Kendall, Stephanie; Folk, Johanna B.; Meyer, Candace Reinsmith; Dearing, Ronda L.

    2014-01-01

    Do shame and guilt help people avoid doing wrong? Although some research suggests that guilt-proneness is a protective factor while shame-proneness puts individuals at risk, most research is either cross-sectional or short-term. In this longitudinal study, 380 5th graders (ages 10–12) completed measures of proneness to shame and guilt. We re-interviewed 68% of participants after they turned 18 years old (range 18–21). Guilt-proneness assessed in childhood predicted fewer sexual partners, less use of illegal drugs and alcohol, and less involvement with the criminal justice system. Shame-proneness, in contrast, was a risk factor for later deviant behavior. Shame-prone children were more likely to have unprotected sex and use illegal drugs in young adulthood. These results held when controlling for childhood SES and teachers’ ratings of aggression. Children’s moral emotional styles appear to be well established by at least middle childhood, with distinct downstream implications for risky behavior in early adulthood. PMID:24842762

  2. Children's proneness to shame and guilt predict risky and illegal behaviors in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June P; Kendall, Stephanie; Folk, Johanna B; Meyer, Candace Reinsmith; Dearing, Ronda L

    2015-04-01

    Do shame and guilt help people avoid doing wrong? Although some research suggests that guilt-proneness is a protective factor while shame-proneness puts individuals at risk, most research is either cross-sectional or short-term. In this longitudinal study, 380 5th graders (ages 10-12) completed measures of proneness to shame and guilt. We re-interviewed 68 % of participants after they turned 18 years old (range 18-21). Guilt-proneness assessed in childhood predicted fewer sexual partners, less use of illegal drugs and alcohol, and less involvement with the criminal justice system. Shame-proneness, in contrast, was a risk factor for later deviant behavior. Shame-prone children were more likely to have unprotected sex and use illegal drugs in young adulthood. These results held when controlling for childhood SES and teachers' ratings of aggression. Children's moral emotional styles appear to be well established by at least middle childhood, with distinct downstream implications for risky behavior in early adulthood.

  3. Head circumference at birth and exposure to tobacco, alcohol and illegal drugs during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-García, Juan A; Gutierrez-Churango, Jorge E; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel F; Martínez-Aroca, Miguel; Delgado-Marín, Juan L; Sánchez-Solis, M; Parrilla-Paricio, J J; Claudio, Luz; Martínez-Lage, Juan F

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of exposure to tobacco smoke, alcohol and illegal drugs during early pregnancy on the head circumference (HC) at birth of otherwise healthy neonates. A follow-up study from the first trimester of pregnancy to birth was carried out in 419 neonates. An environmental reproductive health form was used to record data of substance exposure obtained during the first obstetric visit at the end of the first trimester. A multiple linear regression model was created for this purpose. Alcohol intake during pregnancy and medical ionizing radiation exposure were the most significant predictors of HC. The mothers' alcohol consumption increased with the mothers' and fathers' education level, net family income and fathers' alcohol consumption. In contrast, maternal smoking decreased with increasing mothers' and fathers' education level and net family income. About 13% of the surveyed embryos were exposed to illegal drugs. Mild to moderate alcohol consumption diminishes the at-birth HC of theoretically healthy newborns in a linear form. There was no threshold dose. We perceived a need for increasing the awareness, and for training, of health care professionals and parents, in regard to risks of alcohol consumption and for recommending abstinence of these substances in both parents during pregnancy. It should also be remembered that medical ionizing radiation should be performed only during the first half of the cycle in fertile women. We think that our study has an important social impact as it affords data for implementing policies for promoting "healthy pregnancies".

  4. Theoretical Model of Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Effect Impacting Thin Metal Target%横向效应增强型侵彻体撞击金属薄板理论模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜忠华; 宋丽丽

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the factors influencing the lateral velocity of penetrator with enhanced lateral effect(PELE)shell,a theoretical analysis model for its lateral velocity is established. According to the requirement of thin metal target sensitivity, the model based on the kinetic energy theorem and momentum theorem is combined with the principle and features of the PELE penetrating thin metal targets. The acoustic impedances of fillers and target materials, the density and Poisson's ratio of shells, the density and thickness of targets, the target impact velocities, the ratios of the inner-outer diameters and the length-diameter ratios are considered comprehensively in this model. Combining with the structure of PELE, the condition of the target and the speed range in the practical application of combat,a three-dimension numerical simulation is proposed by using the software of LS-DYNA. The result shows the lateral velocity of the PELE shell increases with the increase of the acoustic impedance of the filler and the target impact velocity under the interaction of the shell and the filler. The calculating result of the theoretical model agrees with that of the numerical simulation.%为了分析影响横向效应增强型侵彻体( PELE)弹壳体横向速度的因素,该文建立了其横向速度的理论分析模型.该模型基于动能定理和动量定理,考虑了PELE弹对金属薄板灵敏度的要求,结合了PELE弹作用原理及其对金属薄板的作用特点.综合考虑了装填材料及靶板材料的声阻抗、弹体的密度和泊松比、靶板密度及厚度、着靶速度、弹丸壳体的内外径比和长径比因素.结合实战用PELE弹的结构、靶板条件和速度范围,利用LS-DYNA软件进行了三维数值仿真.研究结果发现:PELE弹在壳体自身和装填材料的共同作用下,壳体的横向速度随着弹丸着靶速度和装填材料声阻抗的增大而增大,其理论分析模型计算结果与仿真结果一致性较好.

  5. Assessing Guinea Bissau's Legal and Illegal Unreported and Unregulated Fisheries and the Surveillance Efforts to Tackle Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremias Francisco Intchama

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries in Guinea Bissau contribute greatly to the economy and food security of its people. Yet, as the ability of the country to monitor its fisheries is at most weak, and confronted with a heavy foreign fleet presence, the impact of industrial foreign fleets on fisheries catches is unaccounted for in the region. However, their footprint in terms of catch and value on the small-scale sector is heavily felt, through declining availability of fish. Fisheries in Guinea Bissau are operated by both legal (small-scale and industrial, and illegal (foreign unauthorized fleets, whose catches are barely recorded. In this paper, we assess catches by both the legal and illegal sector, and the economic loss generated by illegal fisheries in the country, then attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of Monitoring Control and Surveillance (MCS of Guinea Bissau's fisheries. Two main sectors were identified through official reports and a literature review, the large-scale (industrial sector, which between 2011 and 2017 included exclusively catches by foreign owned and flagged vessels, and catches by the small-scale sector, which remain largely unmonitored in official statistics. We use the available data on the number of legal and illegal vessels and/or fishers, and their respective catch per unit of effort to estimate catches, and we analyze monitoring outcomes against the registered industrial and artisanal fleets. We find that of the legal industrial vessels, 20% were linked to criminal activities in the past 7 years. These activities range widely from using an illegal mesh size, to fishing in a prohibited area, to labor abuse. Overall, total small-scale and industrial catches were estimated at 370,000 t/year in 2017, of which less than 2% is ever reported to the FAO. Small-scale catches represented 8% of the total catch, and this contribution was found to be declining. Industrial fisheries generate over $458 million US, or which $75 million US is taken

  6. Private or Public Law Enforcement? The Case of Digital Piracy Policies with Non-monitored Illegal Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Éric Darmon; Thomas Le Texier

    2014-01-01

    In the case of digital piracy should rights be publicly or privately enforced? The emergence of large-scale anti-piracy laws and the existence of non-monitored illegal channels raise important issues for the design of digital anti-piracy policies. In this paper, we study the impact of these two enforcement settings (public vs. private) in the presence of an illegal non-monitored outside option for users. Taking account of market outcomes, we show that in both cases, the optimal strategies of ...

  7. Formation of a fine-dispersed liquid-metal target under the action of femto- and picosecond laser pulses for a laser-plasma radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinokhodov, A Yu; Krivokorytov, M S [EUV Labs, Ltd., Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Koshelev, K N; Krivtsun, V M; Sidelnikov, Yu V; Medvedev, V V; Kompanets, V O; Melnikov, A A; Chekalin, S V [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-31

    We report the results of studying the dynamics of deformation and fragmentation of liquid-metal droplets under the action of ultrashort laser pulses. The experiments have been performed to optimise the shape of the droplet target used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation sources based on the laser-produced plasma using the pre-pulse technology. The pre-pulse is generated by a system incorporating a master Ti : sapphire oscillator and a regenerative amplifier, allowing one to vary the pulse duration from 50 fs to 50 ps. The power density of laser radiation at the droplet target, averaged over the pulse duration and spatial coordinates, has reached 3 × 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}. The production of liquid-metal droplets has been implemented by means of a droplet generator based on a nozzle with a ring piezoceramic actuator. The droplet material is the eutectic indium – tin alloy. The droplet generator could operate in the droplet and jet regime with a maximal rate of stable operation 5 and 150 kHz, respectively. The spatial stability of droplet position σ = 1% – 2% of its diameter is achieved. The size of the droplets varied within 30 – 70 μm, their velocity was 2 – 8 m s{sup -1} depending on the operation regime. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  8. Pharmacokinetics and Biodistribution of the Illegal Food Colorant Rhodamine B in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Yi; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2017-02-08

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) demonstrated rhodamine B as a potential carcinogen in 1978. Nevertheless, rhodamine B has been illegally used as a colorant in food in many countries. Few pharmacokinetic and toxicological investigations have been performed since the first pharmacokinetic study on rhodamine B in 1961. The aims of this study were to develop a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection for the quantitative detection of rhodamine B in the plasma and organs of rats and to estimate its pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. The results demonstrated that the oral bioavailabilities of rhodamine B were 28.3 and 9.8% for the low-dose and high-dose exposures, respectively. Furthermore, rhodamine B was highly accumulated in the liver and, to a lesser extent, the kidney, but was undetectable in the brain. These results provide useful information for improving the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of rhodamine B, supporting additional food safety evaluations.

  9. Illegal handling of radioactive and nuclear materials. Threats and suggestions for measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Lena; Melin, Lena; Prawitz, Jan; Ringbom, Anders; Sandstroem, Bjoern; Wigg, Lars; Wirstam, Jens

    2004-01-01

    This project deals with threats from smuggling or other illegal transportation of radioactive or nuclear materials across the borders to Sweden, and with the security of handling such materials in Sweden. The project has included studies of relevant documentation; visits and interviews at industries, hospitals, research institutes and military institutions in Sweden that handle radioactive materials; a pilot study at the Stockholm freeport, where equipment for detection of radioactive materials has been tested for six months; an analysis of incidents reported to the IAEA database; and an analysis of Swedish incidents. The following conclusions are drawn: Stricter rules regarding the physical protection of radiation sources and radioactive materials should be implemented in Sweden. The recommendations recently issued by IAEA should serve as a point of departure for working out such rules

  10. Biosensor technology for the detection of illegal drugs I: objectives, preparatory work, and drug enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilpert, Reinhold; Binder, Florian; Grol, Michael; Hallermayer, Klaus; Josel, Hans-Peter; Klein, Christian; Maier, Josef; Oberpriller, Helmut; Ritter, Josef; Scheller, Frieder W.

    1994-10-01

    In a joint project of Deutsche Aerospace, Boehringer Mannheim and the University of Potsdam portable devices for the detection of illegal drugs, based on biosensor technology, are being developed. The concept enrichment of the drug from the gas phase and detection by immunological means. This publication covers the description of our objectives, preparatory work and results concerning enrichment of drugs from the gas phase. Vapor pressures of cocaine and cannabinoids have been determined. A test gas generator has been constructed which allows for reproducible preparation of cocaine concentrations between 2 ng/l and 2 pg/l. Coupling of a thermodesorption unit with GC/MS has been established for reference analysis. As another analytical tool, an ELISA with a lower detection limit of about 0,5 pg cocaine/assay has been developed. Applying fleece-type adsorbers, enrichment factors for cocaine in the range of 105 have been realized. No significant interference was found with potentially disturbing substances.

  11. Deforestation in the Amazon: What is illegal and what is not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Hummel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazil has succeeded in reducing deforestation rates in the Amazon, but has not succeeded in explaining to the general public how much of this deforestation was illegal and how much was legally authorized. Transparency of deforestation data is limited, and pertinent legislation is little understood and poorly applied in practice. Lack of dissemination of information on authorized clearing of vegetation and lack of implementation of regulatory frameworks are contentious issues when defining strategies to reach zero deforestation in the Amazon region and for building policies related to climate change mitigation. The need to establish the new Forest Code provides an opportunity to establish goals and regulations for zero deforestation. This paper provides recommendations on how to communicate this information to the general public, how to make regulatory instruments effective and how to implement a zero deforestation agenda.

  12. Can tobacco control endgame analysis learn anything from the US experience with illegal drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Peter

    2013-05-01

    The goals of tobacco control endgame strategies are specified in terms of the desired levels of tobacco use and/or tobacco related health consequences. Yet the strategies being considered may have other consequences beyond tobacco use prevalence, forms and related harms. Most of the proposed strategies threaten to create large black markets with potential attendant harms: corruption, high illegal earnings, violence and/or organised crime. Western societies of course have considerable experience with these problems in the context of prohibition of drugs such as cannabis, cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine. These experiences suggest that low prevalence has been achieved only by tough enforcement with damaging unintended consequences. Tobacco prohibition (total or partial) may not present the same trade-off but there is little basis for making a projection of the scale, form and harms of the attendant black markets. Nonetheless, these harms should not be ignored in analyses of the endgame proposals.

  13. PENINDAKAN ILLEGAL FISHING DAN PERJANJIAN BILATERAL BIDANG PERIKANAN DENGAN NEGARA TETANGGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Koesrianti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the biggest maritim state in the world as two third of its area are ocean. In order to maximized its fisheries products, Indonesia has some policies regarding to the management of its waters, including eradicating illegal logging and reforming bilateral agreements with some neighbor countries. This policies, however, appear to be not yet optimal. The government in 1985 has ratified the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS 1982 with the Act 17/1985. However, up to now, Indonesia has not ratified yet the United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement 1995 and the 1993 Compliance Agreement as the continued arrangements of UNCLOS 1982. Indonesia should conduct such ratification in order to optimize the Indonesian fisheries industry in which its natural resources, whether living or non-living can be explored and exploited. This is crucial as fisheries industries can provide fish stock as alternative healthy food for the people in Indonesia.

  14. Quantifying explainable discrimination and removing illegal discrimination in automated decision making

    KAUST Repository

    Kamiran, Faisal

    2012-11-18

    Recently, the following discrimination-aware classification problem was introduced. Historical data used for supervised learning may contain discrimination, for instance, with respect to gender. The question addressed by discrimination-aware techniques is, given sensitive attribute, how to train discrimination-free classifiers on such historical data that are discriminative, with respect to the given sensitive attribute. Existing techniques that deal with this problem aim at removing all discrimination and do not take into account that part of the discrimination may be explainable by other attributes. For example, in a job application, the education level of a job candidate could be such an explainable attribute. If the data contain many highly educated male candidates and only few highly educated women, a difference in acceptance rates between woman and man does not necessarily reflect gender discrimination, as it could be explained by the different levels of education. Even though selecting on education level would result in more males being accepted, a difference with respect to such a criterion would not be considered to be undesirable, nor illegal. Current state-of-the-art techniques, however, do not take such gender-neutral explanations into account and tend to overreact and actually start reverse discriminating, as we will show in this paper. Therefore, we introduce and analyze the refined notion of conditional non-discrimination in classifier design. We show that some of the differences in decisions across the sensitive groups can be explainable and are hence tolerable. Therefore, we develop methodology for quantifying the explainable discrimination and algorithmic techniques for removing the illegal discrimination when one or more attributes are considered as explanatory. Experimental evaluation on synthetic and real-world classification datasets demonstrates that the new techniques are superior to the old ones in this new context, as they succeed in

  15. Frequency of zoonotic bacteria among illegally traded wild birds in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Rey Matias

    Full Text Available Abstract The illegal wildlife trade may increase the risk of infectious disease transmission, and it may not only cause disease outbreaks in humans but also threaten livestock, native wild populations, and ecosystems' health. Bird species may act as carriers in the transmission of enteric pathogens. However, epidemiological studies on zoonotic bacteria in wild birds are rare in Brazil. From March 2011 to March 2012, we investigated the frequency of Enterobacteriaceae in cloacal swab samples from 109 birds of the passerine and Psittacidae families. These birds were recovered from illegal trade in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and sent to a rehabilitation center. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 86 wild birds (78.9%. A mean (±SD of 1.68 (±1.30 different bacterial species were isolated per bird, with a maximum of five bacterial species from three bird species. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli, followed by Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and other enteric bacteria. Salmonella ser. Typhimurium was isolated from a Temminck's seedeater (Sporophila falcirostris, and two Salmonella ser. Panama were isolated from two specimens of chestnut-capped blackbird (Chrysomus ruficapillus. Of the 70 selected bacterial isolates, 60 exhibited antibiotic resistance. The resistance patterns varied from one to nine of the antibiotics tested. Resistance to ceftiofur was the most prevalent, followed by ampicillin and ceftriaxone. The dissemination potential of resistant strains in situations typically seen in the management of captive birds may become a problem for the conservation of natural bird populations and for public health.

  16. Using crowd sourcing to combat potentially illegal or dangerous UAV operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsall, Brooke T.

    2016-10-01

    The UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) industry is growing exponentially at a pace that policy makers, individual countries and law enforcement agencies are finding difficult to keep up. The UAV market is large, as such the amount of UAVs being operated in potentially dangerous situations is prevalent and rapidly increasing. Media is continually reporting `near-miss' incidents between UAVs and commercial aircraft, UAV breaching security in sensitive areas or invading public privacy. One major challenge for law enforcement agencies is gaining tangible evidence against potentially dangerous or illegal UAV operators due to the rapidity with which UAV operators are able to enter, fly and exit a scene before authorities can arrive or before they can be located. DroneALERT, an application available via the Airport-UAV.com website, allows users to capture potentially dangerous or illegal UAV activity using their mobile device as it the incident is occurring. A short online DroneALERT Incident Report (DIR) is produced, emailed to the user and the Airport-UAV.com custodians. The DIR can be used to aid authorities in their investigations. The DIR contains details such as images and videos, location, time, date of the incident, drone model, its distance and height. By analysing information from the DIR, photos or video, there is a high potential for law enforcement authorities to use this evidence to identify the type of UAV used, triangulate the location of the potential dangerous UAV and operator, create a timeline of events, potential areas of operator exit and to determine the legalities breached. All provides crucial evidence for identifying and prosecuting a UAV operator.

  17. A novel approach to assessing the prevalence and drivers of illegal bushmeat hunting in the serengeti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuno, Ana; Bunnefeld, Nils; Naiman, Loiruck C; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2013-12-01

    Assessing anthropogenic effects on biological diversity, identifying drivers of human behavior, and motivating behavioral change are at the core of effective conservation. Yet knowledge of people's behaviors is often limited because the true extent of natural resource exploitation is difficult to ascertain, particularly if it is illegal. To obtain estimates of rule-breaking behavior, a technique has been developed with which to ask sensitive questions. We used this technique, unmatched-count technique (UCT), to provide estimates of bushmeat poaching, to determine motivation and seasonal and spatial distribution of poaching, and to characterize poaching households in the Serengeti. We also assessed the potential for survey biases on the basis of respondent perceptions of understanding, anonymity, and discomfort. Eighteen percent of households admitted to being involved in hunting. Illegal bushmeat hunting was more likely in households with seasonal or full-time employment, lower household size, and longer household residence in the village. The majority of respondents found the UCT questions easy to understand and were comfortable answering them. Our results suggest poaching remains widespread in the Serengeti and current alternative sources of income may not be sufficiently attractive to compete with the opportunities provided by hunting. We demonstrate that the UCT is well suited to investigating noncompliance in conservation because it reduces evasive responses, resulting in more accurate estimates, and is technically simple to apply. We suggest that the UCT could be more widely used, with the trade-off being the increased complexity of data analyses and requirement for large sample sizes. Una Aproximación Novedosa para Evaluar la Prevalencia y Factores de la Cacería Ilegal en el Serengueti. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. The effect of illegal lead processing on blood lead levels in children living in the mining area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorac Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgraund/Aim. The northern part of Kosovo was one of the largest lead and zinc production industries in Europe. Special attention has been paid to the landfill sites of these metals remained after past industrial activities. The inhabitants of Roma camps in this area are collecting led waste they process by crushing and melting in their shacks in primitively organized working environments. Because of all the aforementioned it was necessary to examine the concentration of blood lead level (BLL in the children aged less than 6 years inhabiting this area, especially taking care of blood analysis of children living in Roma camps. Methods. The study was conducted in the municipality of Leposavić, Province Kosovo and Metohija, Serbia. Totally 78 subjects participated in the study. All the subjects were divided into two groups: the group I consisting of 42 children who lived in the Romas camp, and the group II with 36 children from a city kindergarten. Based on the mathematical model WRPLOT we found out that both groups of patients were in the low risk zone for industrial contamination exposure. Blood analysis was done according to the protocol provided by ESA Lead Care. Results. The average age of participants in the study was 4.60 ± 1.63 years. The mean BBL in the children from the group 1 was 19.11 μg/dL and from the group 2 4.87 μg/dL. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean values of BBL between the groups (U = 39, p < 0.001. All of the children from the group 1 had BBL greater than 5 μg/dL in comparison to 38.9% of the children from the group 2 (χ2 = 35.75, p < 0.001. Conclusion. Although both groups were located outside the zone of direct spread of pollution, the results indicate high concentrations of lead in blood of all the examined children. The concentration was higher in the children who lived in the area in which illegal processing of lead waste took place. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education

  19. Ensuring freedoms and protecting rights in the governance of the Internet : a comparative analysis of blocking measures and Internet Providers’ Removal of Illegal Internet Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parti, K.; Marin, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Removing illegal or harmful material from the internet has been pursued for more than two decades. The advent of Web 2.0, with the prominent increase and diffusion of user-generated content, amplifies the necessity for technical and legal frameworks enabling the removal of illegal material from the

  20. Determination And Characteristic Oil Biomarker Of Illegal Crude Oil Production Using Mass Spectroscopy in Musi Banyuasin District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhi suryanto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available South Sumatra is one of the largest petroleum producing provinces in Indonesia, especially in the region of Musi Banyuasin Petroleum resources other than legally cultivated by Pertamina as government representatives, but on the other hand the community also participate through Illegal Drilling activities. This study aims to determine the hydrocarbon content and characterization of petroleum produced illegally by communities in the Sangadesa, Babattoman and Keluang districts through the biomarker analysis of the distribution of n-Alkane C10-C34 (m/z: 57, pristane, phytane, sterane C27-C29 (m/z: 217,218,259 and specific biomarker using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy agilent GCMSD 6890/5973i with data analysis using MSD Chemstation F.01.01.2317 and Library Database NIST14. Petroleum samples taken from 10 illegal wells with a depth range of 80-250 meters and production period of 3 months until 3 years. Oil is produced through The illegal drilling is not the main oil source rock but the result of migration. Biomarkers Hydrocarbon analysis is one of the most widely used devices for exploration geochemistry, exploitation, production and forensic environment in the assessment and determination of sources of pollution related to petroleum material and derivatives very well.

  1. Fear, economic consequences, hunting competition, and distrust of authorities determine preferences for illegal lethal actions against gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Peter Lyhne; Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2017-01-01

    based on similarities of preferences. Preference for illegal lethal actions were found among four groups concerned about; (1) negative economic impact; (2) competition over game; (3) safety of humans and domestic animals, and; (4) lack of trust in authorities. Our results do not imply that 60...

  2. Necessary, sufficient and contributory factors generating illegal economic activity, and specifically drug-related activity, in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco E. Thoumi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The international drug control regime is formulated under a basic paradigm: all drugs included in the convention schedules I, II and IV can only have medical and research uses. The policies derived from these conventions forbid all recreational, ritual, experimental, or self-medicating consumption of coca, cocaine, opium, heroin, marijuana and many other drugs. The conventions allow the production of controlled drugs for medical and research uses and criminalize all other production. Where consumption is concerned they are less rigid, as users of illegal drugs do not have to be arrested or jailed. Anti-drug policies seek to suppress both illicit drug supply and demand but are formulated without clearly spelling out the reasons why there is a demand and a supply for illegal drugs. To understand illegal drug demand and supply it is necessary to have clear answers to fundamental criminological questions such as: Why do people commit crimes? Or why some individuals contravene formal or informal norms while others do not? Policymakers, however, do not hesitate to formulate and implement anti-drug policies without having first considered those questions. They proceed as if their answers were obvious or known. Yet, when asked about the reasons why the illegal drugs industry develops in a location, most answers are highly questionable and at best partially right. The aim of this essay is to show this using Colombia as an example.

  3. Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and "sugar-daddies" in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Rasch, V

    2001-01-01

    they became pregnant, and many counted on an illegally induced abortion if they got pregnant. Even if adolescents are now allowed free access to family planning information, education and services, our study shows that this remains in the realm of theory rather than practice. Moreover, most adolescent girls...

  4. Undocumented Intelligence: Laying Low by Achieving High--An "Illegal Alien's" Co-Option of School and Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I relay the irony of my own path as an "illegal alien" in the US--identifying the tension between being a successful student earning straight As and accolades for good citizenship, while hiding my undocumented legal status. Drawing from the notions of race, smartness and citizenship as social constructions, I use a…

  5. The Impact of the Crisis on Illegal Employment of Foreigners and the Related Policy - Case study: Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera–Karin BRAZOVA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to provide a critical perspective of the public policy measures to tackle the illegal employment of foreigners in the Czech Republic taken by the Czech government in the wake of the global financial crisis. In the introductory part of the article, the problem of illegal employment of migrants in the Czech Republic is delimitated and put into a theoretical context. Based on the study of official documents as well as on expert interviews, the analysis of the changes in the public policy dealing with the problem of illegal employment is conducted. While the crisis triggered a more open public debate and brought the problem on the agenda of some core public policy actors and while new measures were taken to address the issue, some of the main underlying problems remain unaddressed. In the final part, a possible future development in the area of illegal employment of migrants is outlined, drawing on the global labor migration trends as well as on the current public policy practice in the Czech Republic.

  6. Transnational crime and the interface between legal and illegal actors : the case of the illicit art and antiquities trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijhuis, Antonius Johannes Gerhardus

    2006-01-01

    In this PhD study the interface between legal governments and corporations on the one hand, and transnational criminals at the other hand, is analysed in depth. In the first part of the book, a typology of interfaces is developed that can be used to describe interfaces between legal and illegal

  7. Law enforcement staff perceptions of illegal hunting and wildlife conservation in the Gonarezhou National Park, southeast Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.; Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Mango, L.; Jakarasi, J.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, pressure from the illegal harvesting of wildlife is a recurrent issue for protected area management. In order to ensure the effective conservation of wildlife resources, law enforcement has been identified as one of the most important components of protected area management. Our study

  8. Isolation and structure elucidation of an interaction product of aminotadalafil found in an illegal health food product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häberli, Adrian; Girard, Philippe; Low, Min-Yong; Ge, Xiaowei

    2010-09-21

    An interaction product of aminotadalafil was isolated from an illegal health food product. The structure of the interaction product was elucidated by means of IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy. The hitherto unknown compound was characterized as condensation product of aminotadalafil and hydroxymethylfuraldehyde and is probably the result of a drug-excipient incompatibility. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. 80 A/cm2 electron beams from metal targets irradiated by KrCl and XeCl excimer lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglazov, A.; Martino, M.; Nassisi, V.

    1996-05-01

    Due to the growing demand for high-current and long-duration electron-beam devices, laser electron sources were investigated in our laboratory. Experiments on electron-beam generation and propagation from aluminium and copper targets illuminated by XeCl (308 nm) and KrCl (222 nm) excimer lasers, were carried out under plasma ignition due to laser irradiation. This plasma supplied a spontaneous accelerating electric field of about 370 kV/m without an external accelerating voltage. By applying the modified one-dimensional Poisson equation, we computed the expected current and we also estimated the plasma concentration during the accelerating process. At 40 kV of accelerating voltage, an output current pulse of about 80 A/cm2 was detected from an Al target irradiated by the shorter wavelength laser.

  10. Hybrid Vlasov–Fokker–Planck–Maxwell simulations of fast electron transport and the time dependance of K-shell excitation in a mid-Z metallic target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A G R; Sherlock, M; Ridgers, C P; Kuranz, C; Drake, R P

    2013-01-01

    Using a hybrid Vlasov–Fokker–Planck–Maxwell code coupled to calculations using a modified relativistic binary-encounter Bethe model of ionizing collisions we study the time and space dependence of K α photon generation by a fast electron beam injected into a solid density copper plasma target. The electron beam is chosen to be representative of that expected to be generated by a picosecond duration, ∼10 19 W cm −2 intensity laser. K α photons are produced as electrons reflux laterally across the target and are slowed and thermalized by collisions with, and Ohmic heating of, the background fluid over a ∼10 ps timescale, which dictates the timescale for K α emission. The results show reasonable agreement with recent experimental results in terms of both the yield and time dependance. We show how lateral expansion of the electrons can be imaged in the K α radiation. (paper)

  11. Influence of plasma-induced energy deposition effects, the equation of state, thermal ionization, pulse shaping, and radiation on ion-beam-driven expansions of plane metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, K.A.; Tahir, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    In a previous paper by Long and Tahir [Phys. Fluids 29, 275 (1986)], the motion of plane targets irradiated by ion beams whose energy deposition was assumed to be independent of the ion energy, and the temperature and density of the plasma, was analyzed. In this paper, the analytic solution is extended in order to include the effects of a temperature-and density-dependent energy deposition as a result of electron excitation, an improved equation of state, thermal ionization, a pulse shape, and radiation losses. The change in the energy deposition with temperature and density leads to range shortening and an increased power deposition in the target. It is shown how the analytic theory can be used to analyze experiments to measure the enhanced energy deposition. In order to further analyze experiments, numerical simulations are presented which include the plasma-induced effects on the energy deposition. It is shown that since the change in the range is due to both decrease in density and the increase in temperature, it is not possible to separate these two effects in present experiments. Therefore, the experiments which measure the time-dependent energy of the ions emerging from the back side of a plane target do not as yet measure the energy loss as a function of the density and temperature of the plasma or of the energy of the ion, but only an averaged loss over certain ranges of these physical quantities

  12. Introduction of African swine fever into the European Union through illegal importation of pork and pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, Solenne; Jones, Bryony Anne; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Mur, Lina; de la Torre, Ana; Martínez, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose-Manuel; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary animal diseases can have very severe socio-economic impacts when introduced into new regions. The history of disease incursions into the European Union suggests that initial outbreaks were often initiated by illegal importation of meat and derived products. The European Union would benefit from decision-support tools to evaluate the risk of disease introduction caused by illegal imports in order to inform its surveillance strategy. However, due to the difficulty in quantifying illegal movements of animal products, very few studies of this type have been conducted. Using African swine fever as an example, this work presents a novel risk assessment framework for disease introduction into the European Union through illegal importation of meat and products. It uses a semi-quantitative approach based on factors that likely influence the likelihood of release of contaminated smuggled meat and products, and subsequent exposure of the susceptible population. The results suggest that the European Union is at non-negligible risk of African swine fever introduction through illegal importation of pork and products. On a relative risk scale with six categories from negligible to very high, five European Union countries were estimated at high (France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom) or moderate (Spain) risk of African swine fever release, five countries were at high risk of exposure if African swine fever were released (France, Italy, Poland, Romania and Spain) and ten countries had a moderate exposure risk (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom). The approach presented here and results obtained for African swine fever provide a basis for the enhancement of risk-based surveillance systems and disease prevention programmes in the European Union.

  13. Risks, prices, and positions: A social network analysis of illegal drug trafficking in the world-economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Rémi

    2014-03-01

    Illegal drug prices are extremely high, compared to similar goods. There is, however, considerable variation in value depending on place, market level and type of drugs. A prominent framework for the study of illegal drugs is the "risks and prices" model (Reuter & Kleiman, 1986). Enforcement is seen as a "tax" added to the regular price. In this paper, it is argued that such economic models are not sufficient to explain price variations at country-level. Drug markets are analysed as global trade networks in which a country's position has an impact on various features, including illegal drug prices. This paper uses social network analysis (SNA) to explain price markups between pairs of countries involved in the trafficking of illegal drugs between 1998 and 2007. It aims to explore a simple question: why do prices increase between two countries? Using relational data from various international organizations, separate trade networks were built for cocaine, heroin and cannabis. Wholesale price markups are predicted with measures of supply, demand, risks of seizures, geographic distance and global positioning within the networks. Reported prices (in $US) and purchasing power parity-adjusted values are analysed. Drug prices increase more sharply when drugs are headed to countries where law enforcement imposes higher costs on traffickers. The position and role of a country in global drug markets are also closely associated with the value of drugs. Price markups are lower if the destination country is a transit to large potential markets. Furthermore, price markups for cocaine and heroin are more pronounced when drugs are exported to countries that are better positioned in the legitimate world-economy, suggesting that relations in legal and illegal markets are directed in opposite directions. Consistent with the world-system perspective, evidence is found of coherent world drug markets driven by both local realities and international relations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  14. Interactions between Metal-binding Domains Modulate Intracellular Targeting of Cu(I)-ATPase ATP7B, as Revealed by Nanobody Binding*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yiping; Nokhrin, Sergiy; Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Gholamreza; Yu, Corey H.; Yang, Haojun; Barry, Amanda N.; Tonelli, Marco; Markley, John L.; Muyldermans, Serge; Dmitriev, Oleg Y.; Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    The biologically and clinically important membrane transporters are challenging proteins to study because of their low level of expression, multidomain structure, and complex molecular dynamics that underlies their activity. ATP7B is a copper transporter that traffics between the intracellular compartments in response to copper elevation. The N-terminal domain of ATP7B (N-ATP7B) is involved in binding copper, but the role of this domain in trafficking is controversial. To clarify the role of N-ATP7B, we generated nanobodies that interact with ATP7B in vitro and in cells. In solution NMR studies, nanobodies revealed the spatial organization of N-ATP7B by detecting transient functionally relevant interactions between metal-binding domains 1–3. Modulation of these interactions by nanobodies in cells enhanced relocalization of the endogenous ATP7B toward the plasma membrane linking molecular and cellular dynamics of the transporter. Stimulation of ATP7B trafficking by nanobodies in the absence of elevated copper provides direct evidence for the important role of N-ATP7B structural dynamics in regulation of ATP7B localization in a cell. PMID:25253690

  15. Illegal gold miners in French Guiana: a neglected population with poor health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douine, Maylis; Mosnier, Emilie; Le Hingrat, Quentin; Charpentier, Charlotte; Corlin, Florine; Hureau, Louise; Adenis, Antoine; Lazrek, Yassamine; Niemetsky, Florence; Aucouturier, Anne-Laure; Demar, Magalie; Musset, Lise; Nacher, Mathieu

    2017-07-17

    In French Guiana, a French overseas territory in South America, 6 to 10 thousands undocumented persons work illegally in gold mining sites in the Amazonian forest. Precarious life conditions lead to poor health but few data exist on the health status of illegal gold miners in French Guiana. The objective of this article was to describe the sociodemographic and health status of this vulnerable population. A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 on gold mine supply sites at the border between French Guiana and Suriname. Health status was assessed through medical examination, past medical history, haemoglobin concentration, and HIV and malaria testing. A questionnaire was used to collect data about the migration itinerary and life conditions on mining sites. Among the 421 adults included in the study, 93.8% (395/421) were Brazilian, mainly from Maranhão (55.7%, 220/395), the poorest Brazilian state. The sex ratio was 2.4. Overall, 48% of persons never went to school or beyond the primary level. The median time spent in gold mining was quite long (10 years), with a high turn-over. One third of the surveyed population (37.1%, 156/421) had high blood pressure, and only two had a medical follow-up. Most persons had experienced malaria (89.3%, 376/421). They declared frequent arboviroses and digestive disorders. Active leishmaniasis was observed in 8.3% of gold miners. Among women, 28.5% were anemic. Concerning HIV, 36.6% (154/421) of persons, mainly men, never got tested before and 6 were tested positive, which represented an HIV prevalence of 1.43% (95%CI =0.29-2.5). These findings support the hypothesis that mining in remote areas is linked to several specific illnesses. Theoretically, gold miners would be presumed to start their economical migration to French Guiana as a healthy group. However, their strenuous working and living conditions there lead to poor health caused by infectious and non infectious diseases. This description of their health

  16. Eurisol-DS Multi MW Target Preliminary Study of the Windlowless Transverse Film (WTF) Liquid Metal Proton-to Neutron Converter

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Y; Rocca, R; Samec, K

    2008-01-01

    This technical note summarises the design calculations performed within Task#2 of the European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study (EURISOL-DS) for the WTF (Windowless Transverse Film) mercur converter. A preliminary study was carried out in order to determine the heat deposition within the mercury and estimate the mercury velocity needed in the film. The geometry used is based on previous analysis simulated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA. The results of these calculations show the baseline parameters, which will be used for the detailed design. Particularly, with a 1 GeV proton beam with a $\\sigma$ ~2 mm Gaussian distribution on a 4x30x40cm long target and with a 5m/s velocity at the peak power density region seems a suitable solution.

  17. Metal-metal-hofteproteser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Michael; Overgaard, Søren; Penny, Jeannette

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark 4,456 metal-on-metal (MoM) hip prostheses have been implanted. Evidence demonstrates that some patients develope adverse biological reactions causing failures of MoM hip arthroplasty. Some reactions might be systemic. Failure rates are associated with the type and the design of the Mo...

  18. X-ray emission reduction and photon dose lowering by energy loss of fast electrons induced by return current during the interaction of a short-pulse high-intensity laser on a metal solid target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.

    2018-04-01

    During the interaction of a short-pulse high-intensity laser with the preplasma produced by the pulse's pedestal in front of a high-Z metal solid target, high-energy electrons are produced, which in turn create an X-ray source by interacting with the atoms of the converter target. The current brought by the hot electrons is almost completely neutralized by a return current j → driven by the background electrons of the conductive target, and the force exerted on the hot electrons by the electric field E → which induces Ohmic heating j → .E → , produced by the background electrons, reduces the energy of the hot electrons and thus lowers the X-ray emission and photon dose. This effect is analyzed here by means of a simple 1-D temperature model which contains the most significant terms of the relativistic Fokker-Planck equation with electron multiple scattering, and the energy equations of ions, hot, and cold electrons are then solved numerically. This Ohmic heating energy loss fraction τOh is introduced as a corrective term in an improved photon dose model. For instance, for a ps laser pulse with 10 μm spot size, the dose obtained with a tantalum target is reduced by less than about 10% to 40% by the Ohmic heating, depending upon the plasma scale length, target thickness, laser parameters, and in particular its spot size. The laser and plasma parameters may be optimized to limit the effect of Ohmic heating, for instance at a small plasma scale length or small laser spot size. Conversely, others regimes not suitable for dose production are identified. For instance, the resistive heating is enhanced in a foam target or at a long plasma scale length and high laser spot size and intensity, as the mean emission angle θ0 of the incident hot electron bunch given by the ponderomotive force is small; thus, the dose produced by a laser interacting in a gas jet may be inhibited under these circumstances. The resistive heating may also be maximized in order to reduce

  19. Prediction of Chinese Drivers' Intentions to Park Illegally in Emergency Lanes: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yubing; Ma, Yang; Guo, Lixin; Cheng, Jianchuan; Zhang, Yunlong

    2018-06-21

    Illegal parking in emergency lanes (paved highway shoulders) is becoming a serious road safety issue in China. The aim of this study was: 1) to examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) extended with descriptive norm, past behavior, facilitating and deterring circumstances, sensation seeking and invulnerability in predicting Chinese drivers' intentions in illegal emergency lane parking; 2) to investigate whether respondents' demographic characteristics would impact their views towards the behavior and predictive patterns of intentions; 3) to identify significant predictors of intentions. In this cross-sectional study, eligible respondents were all qualified Chinese drivers. A self-administered questionnaire was employed to collect data including demographic information, descriptive norm, past behavior, facilitating and deterring circumstances, sensation seeking and scenario-based invulnerability combined with TPB constructs. Descriptive statistics, MANOVAs and a series of hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted in SPSS. A total of 435 qualified drivers (234 males and 201 females) with a mean age of 35.2 years (S.D.=10.3) were included in analysis. The descriptive analysis showed that most participants reported weak intentions (M = 2.35) to park illegally in emergency lanes with negative attitude (M = 3.19), low perceived support (M = 2.91) and high control (M = 5.08) over the behavior. The model succeeded in explaining 64% of the variance in intentions for the whole sample, and principal TPB components accounted for 21% of variance in intentions after demographic variables were controlled. MANOVAs revealed that significant differences of respondents' opinions towards illegal emergency lane parking were only found between better-educated drivers (with college education background) and less-educated ones. Separate regression analyses revealed that predictive pattern of better-educated participants also

  20. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-08-22

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  1. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics of illegal motorcycle street racers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Li Ping

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study sought to understand the factors associated with street racing among the illegal motorcycle racers in Malaysia or known as the "Mat Rempit". Methods Street outreach interviewer-administered surveys were conducted from June 2008 to January 2009 in this multi-state study. Results A total of 2022 participants were surveyed, the mean ± SD age of the participants was 20.5 ± 3.4 years (age range: 12 to 35 years. Mean duration of street racing was 2.65(SD ± 1.77 years (range: 2 months to 12 years, with 50.1% and 35.8% reporting stunt riding and alcohol drinking while racing, respectively. With regard to risk behaviours, cigarette smoking was highly prevalent among the study participants (78.3%, followed by alcohol drinking (27.8% and recreational drug use (18.8%. Participants scored high on the masculinity scale (15.7 ± 4.0 out of 21.0. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that socio-demographic variables, risk behaviour and masculinity scores were associated with racing frequency. Conclusion Given these associations, tailoring family-centered interventions to the needs of the lower socio-economic groups and interventions recognizing the negative consequences of health risk behaviours related to street racing as an expression of traditional masculinity should be emphasized.

  2. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics of illegal motorcycle street racers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-06-08

    This study sought to understand the factors associated with street racing among the illegal motorcycle racers in Malaysia or known as the "Mat Rempit". Street outreach interviewer-administered surveys were conducted from June 2008 to January 2009 in this multi-state study. A total of 2022 participants were surveyed, the mean ± SD age of the participants was 20.5 ± 3.4 years (age range: 12 to 35 years). Mean duration of street racing was 2.65(SD ± 1.77) years (range: 2 months to 12 years), with 50.1% and 35.8% reporting stunt riding and alcohol drinking while racing, respectively. With regard to risk behaviours, cigarette smoking was highly prevalent among the study participants (78.3%), followed by alcohol drinking (27.8%) and recreational drug use (18.8%). Participants scored high on the masculinity scale (15.7 ± 4.0 out of 21.0). The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that socio-demographic variables, risk behaviour and masculinity scores were associated with racing frequency. Given these associations, tailoring family-centered interventions to the needs of the lower socio-economic groups and interventions recognizing the negative consequences of health risk behaviours related to street racing as an expression of traditional masculinity should be emphasized.

  3. [Pathological gambling, illegal behavior and the preventive potentiality of a helpline in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abait, Patricia E; Folino, Jorge O

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of Pathological Gambling has some important landmarks such as the age of onset, time elapse between onset and the perception of gambling consequences and their severity. These events encourage the exploration of the preventive potential of a helpline service for gamblers, thus the contact with this service might be the beginning of opportune intervention. To describe and to compare the course and complications due to gambling reported by two Argentineans gambler population with access to different services: a sample of participants of a self-help group; and a sample of helpline clients. A total of 268 gamblers were surveyed using a structured interview that included the Brief Questionnaire of Pathological Gambling. The sample was composed by 174 subjects attending self-help groups (Anonymous Gamblers); and 94 consecutive callers to a gambling helpline in Argentina. 76% of Anonymous Gamblers and 33% of helpline clients reported having committed some illegal behaviour (Odds Ratio = 6.4; 95% IC 3.6; 11.6). The disorder and the negative consequences were more severe in the Anonymous Gamblers group. Mean age of onset of gambling for helpline clients was 35 years and for Anonymous Gamblers 28. The mean time elapsed to perceiving economic problems was 5 years for helpline clients and 7 for Anonymous Gamblers. The findings support that helpline services promote the seek for help in those gamblers that have not yet reached the summit of the disorder.

  4. Vote Buying with Illegal Resources: Manifestation of a Weak Rule of Law in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Serra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mexico’s consolidation strategy seems to be reaching a limit. The country’s transition from authoritarianism was largely based on a series of electoral reforms that leveled the playing field in elections. While this strategy was initially successful, it has failed to address several problems, especially in the electoral arena. This essay analyzes the prevalence of two such problems, vote buying and illegal campaign finance, which are closely connected. I draw evidence from available accounts of the 2012 presidential election and subsequent contests in problematic states such as Tabasco. The outcomes of the midterm elections of June 2015 are also used to assess whether previous electoral reforms have provided effective solutions to the problems analyzed here. I suggest that no legal reform will be effective while these laws are only being weakly enforced. A more comprehensive package of measures strengthening the rule of law would help Mexico transition from electoral democracy to liberal democracy.

  5. The association of alcohol outlet density with illegal underage adolescent purchasing of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John W; Livingston, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Although previous studies have suggested that greater community densities of alcohol sales outlets are associated with greater alcohol use and problems, the mechanisms are unclear. The present study examined whether density was associated with increased purchasing of alcohol by adolescents younger than the legal purchase age of 18 in Australia. The number of alcohol outlets per 10,000 population was identified within geographic regions in Victoria, Australia. A state-representative student survey (N = 10,143) identified adolescent reports of purchasing alcohol, and multilevel modeling was then used to predict the effects for different densities of outlet types (packaged, club, on-premise, general, and overall). Each extra sales outlet per 10,000 population was associated with a significant increase in the risk of underage adolescent purchasing. The strongest effect was for club density (odds ratio = 1.22) and packaged (takeaway) outlet density (odds ratio = 1.12). Males, older children, smokers, and those with substance-using friends were more likely to purchase alcohol. One mechanism by which alcohol sales outlet density may influence population rates of alcohol use and related problems is through increasing the illegal underage purchasing of alcohol. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An autopsy case of fatal acute peritonitis complicated by illegal acupuncture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, DongJa; Lee, SangHan

    2017-07-01

    Acupuncture is an alternative medical therapy and widely practiced in Northeast Asia. Although it is known as a safe procedure, complications including infection, pneumothorax, hemorrhage, and cardiac tamponade have been reported. The authors present a rare case of fatal acute peritonitis due to penetration of acupuncture needles directly into the abdominal and pelvic cavity. The victim was a 55-year-old woman who had a recent history of chemo-radiotherapy due to breast cancer. She was collapsed three days after receiving acupuncture. She had symptoms of fever and chilling sensation, general myalgia, and vomiting during three days. The autopsy revealed several needle marks in the lower abdomen and 180ml of bloody exudate in the abdominal cavity. There was no visible intestinal perforation, but hemorrhagic foci in the mesentery and paracolic area of sigmoid colon were noted. The deepest portion was 13.5cm from the needle marks on the abdominal skin. The practitioner had not a Chinese medical license. He was accused of illegal medical practice and manslaughter. Acute peritonitis associated with acupuncture might be caused by inadequate sterilization of skin and needle itself and/or direct mesentery injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecularly imprinted polymers for the detection of illegal drugs and additives: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Deli; Jiang, Yue; Bi, Yanping

    2018-04-04

    This review (with 154 refs.) describes the current status of using molecularly imprinted polymers in the extraction and quantitation of illicit drugs and additives. The review starts with an introduction into some synthesis methods (lump MIPs, spherical MIPs, surface imprinting) of MIPs using illicit drugs and additives as templates. The next section covers applications, with subsections on the detection of illegal additives in food, of doping in sports, and of illicit addictive drugs. A particular focus is directed towards current limitations and challenges, on the optimization of methods for preparation of MIPs, their applicability to aqueous samples, the leakage of template molecules, and the identification of the best balance between adsorption capacity and selectivity factor. At last, the need for convincing characterization methods, the lack of uniform parameters for defining selectivity, and the merits and demerits of MIPs prepared using nanomaterials are addressed. Strategies are suggested to solve existing problems, and future developments are discussed with respect to a more widespread use in relevant fields. Graphical abstract This review gives a comprehensive overview of the advances made in molecularly imprinting of polymers for use in the extraction and quantitation of illicit drugs and additives. Methods for syntheses, highlighted applications, limitations and current challenges are specifically addressed.

  8. Exponential increase of signal crayfish in running waters in Sweden – due to illegal introductions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohman P.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Sweden has only one indigenous species of crayfish, the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus, Fabricius. There has been a steady decline of noble crayfish populations in Sweden since 1907, mainly due to the crayfish plague. To substitute the noble crayfish fishery lost, the Swedish government launched a large-scale introduction of the signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana. Today, the signal crayfish is regarded as a chronic carrier of the crayfish plague, and an expansion of the species may seriously threaten the noble crayfish. This paper examines the decrease of noble crayfish populations, and the concurrent expansion of signal crayfish in running waters. Data from the Swedish Electrofishing RegiSter (SERS was used. We found that in 1980–1984 the noble crayfish occurred in 4.5% of the studied river sections. In 2008–2009 the occurrences had decreased to 1.9%. In contrast, the signal crayfish had increased in occurrence, from 0.2% (1980–1984 to 11.8% in (2008–2009. We studied the number of stocking permits for signal crayfish introductions, and the available signal crayfish population from the open fishery in Lake Vättern, as possible causes of this expansion. A negative correlation between stocking permits and increased occurrence in streams, and a positive correlation between the availability of crayfish in Lake Vättern and the occurrence in streams was found. This suggests that the expansion of signal crayfish may be due to illegal introductions, further endangering the endemic noble crayfish.

  9. Biosensor technology for the detection of illegal drugs II: antibody development and detection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilpert, Reinhold; Bauer, Christian; Binder, Florian; Grol, Michael; Hallermayer, Klaus; Josel, Hans-Peter; Klein, Christian; Maier, Josef; Makower, Alexander; Oberpriller, Helmut; Ritter, Josef

    1994-10-01

    In a joint project of Deutsche Aerospace, Boehringer Mannheim and the University of Potsdam portable devices for the detection of illegal drugs, based on biosensor technology, are being developed. The concept enrichment of the drug from the gas phase and detection by immunological means. This publication covers the development of specific antibodies and various detection procedures. Antibodies with a high affinity for cocaine have been developed with the aid of specially synthesized immunogens. A competitive detection procedure with biosensors based on optical grating couplers and applying particulate labels has been established, showing a lower detection limit of 10-10 mol/l for cocaine. Additionally, a combination of a displacement-immunoreactor and an enzymatically amplified electrode was investigated, which at present still suffers from insufficient sensitivity of the immunoreactor. An alternative, fleece-matrix based test procedure, where enrichment and detection steps are integrated in a single unit, is promising in terms of simplicity and sensitivity. A simple swab-test for the detection of cocaine at surfaces has been developed, which has a lower detection limit of about 10 ng and which can be performed within one minute.

  10. Consuming energy drinks at the age of 14 predicted legal and illegal substance use at 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrense-Dias, Yara; Berchtold, André; Akre, Christina; Surís, Joan-Carles

    2016-11-01

    This study examined whether consuming energy drinks at the age of 14 predicted substance use at 16. We followed 621 youths from an area of Switzerland who completed a longitudinal online survey in both 2012 and 2014 when they were 14 and 16 years of age. At 14, participants, who were divided into nonenergy drink users (n = 262), occasional users (n = 183) and regular users (n = 176), reported demographic, health-related and substance use data. Substance use at 16 was assessed through logistic regression using nonusers as the reference group and controlling for significant variables at 14. At the bivariate level, energy drink consumption was associated with substance use at both 14 and 16. Energy drink consumers were also more likely to be male, older, less academic, sleep less on schooldays and live in an urban area. In the multivariate analysis, smokers, alcohol misusers and cannabis users at the age of 16 were significantly more likely to have been regular energy drink users at the age of 14. Consuming energy drinks at 14 years of age predicted using legal and illegal substances at 16. Health providers should screen young adolescents for energy drink use and closely monitor weekly users. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Psychiatric, Cognitive and Emotional Profile in Ex-combatants of Illegal Armed Groups in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón, Carlos; Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel Camilo; Velilla, Lina; Duque, Jon; Ramos, Claudia Patricia; Pineda, David

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to armed conflict produces biological adaptations oriented to handle the highly stressful conditions in war environments. The special features of The Colombian armed create a special scenario to evaluate the human behavior. In this study, psychiatric, cognitive and emotional processing characteristics of a group of Colombian armed illegal forces of ex-combatants are described. Sixty-three ex combatants and 22 controls were assessed with WAIS (IQ), INECO frontal screening (executive functions), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (empathy), emotional features recognition and MINI (psychiatric profile). When compared to the control group, ex-combatants showed higher frequency of antisocial personality disorder (P=.031) and behavioral dissocial disorder (P=.017). In cognitive profile, the ex-combatants showed a lower score in the executive function test (Me=18.50; RQ=4.00), control (Me=23.00; RQ=5.25), with a poor personal distress in emphatic profile (Me=10.00; RQ=5.00) compared to control group (Me=37.00; RQ=7.25). We found differences in cognitive and psychiatric profile in ex-combatants in comparison with controls. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of California firearms sales laws and dealer regulations on the illegal diversion of guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Glenn L; Braga, Anthony A; Wintemute, Garen J

    2015-06-01

    The available evidence suggests that more restrictive state firearm sales laws can reduce criminal access to guns. California has firearm-related laws that are more stringent than many other states and regulates its retail firearms dealers to a unique degree. This research seeks to examine the effect of more restrictive state gun laws and regulations on the illegal diversion of guns to criminals. Survival analyses are used to determine whether state firearm sales laws, particularly California's legal context and regulatory regime, impact the distribution of time-to-crime of recovered firearms in that state relative to other US states. USA. 225,392 traced firearms, where the first retail purchasers and the gun possessors were different individuals, recovered by law enforcement agencies between 2003 and 2006. The increased stringency of state-level firearms laws and regulations leads to consistently older firearms being recovered. California was associated with the oldest recovered crime guns compared with guns associated with other states. These patterns persisted regardless of whether firearms were first purchased within the recovery state or in another state. These findings suggest that more restrictive gun sales laws and gun dealer regulations do make it more difficult for criminals to acquire new guns first purchased at retail outlets. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Rapid identification of illegal synthetic adulterants in herbal anti-diabetic medicines using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanchun; Lei, Deqing; Hu, Changqin

    We created a rapid detection procedure for identifying herbal medicines illegally adulterated with synthetic drugs using near infrared spectroscopy. This procedure includes a reverse correlation coefficient method (RCCM) and comparison of characteristic peaks. Moreover, we made improvements to the RCCM based on new strategies for threshold settings. Any tested herbal medicine must meet two criteria to be identified with our procedure as adulterated. First, the correlation coefficient between the tested sample and the reference must be greater than the RCCM threshold. Next, the NIR spectrum of the tested sample must contain the same characteristic peaks as the reference. In this study, four pure synthetic anti-diabetic drugs (i.e., metformin, gliclazide, glibenclamide and glimepiride), 174 batches of laboratory samples and 127 batches of herbal anti-diabetic medicines were used to construct and validate the procedure. The accuracy of this procedure was greater than 80%. Our data suggest that this protocol is a rapid screening tool to identify synthetic drug adulterants in herbal medicines on the market.

  14. Wildlife forensic entomology: determining time of death in two illegally killed black bear cubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G S

    1999-07-01

    Forensic entomology is now commonly used to determine time of death in human death investigations. However, it can be equally applicable to wildlife crimes. This paper describes the use of entomology to determine time of death in the illegal killing of two young bear cubs in Manitoba, Canada. Two cubs were found shot, disemboweled, with their gall bladders removed. Natural Resource officers (Conservation Officers) and a Royal Canadian Mounted Police (R.C.M.P.) officer examined the remains, and the R.C.M.P. officer collected insect evidence. The only insects on the remains were adult blow flies coming to lay eggs and the blow fly eggs themselves (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The time of hatch was recorded and the insects were reared to adulthood. Time of hatch, together with species identification, macro and micro climate and lab developmental data were used to determine the time of death. The time was consistent with the time that the defendants were seen at the scene and was used in their conviction. This case illustrates that insect evidence can be equally as valuable in poaching cases as in homicide cases. However, in most cases Conservation Officers are unaware of this science. It is therefore, extremely important for more Conservation Officers to be educated about this field.

  15. Radiation protection for the illegal governmental use of radiation sources. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.

    2000-07-01

    Probably for the first time, illegal governmental uses of radiation sources, including the administrative infrastructure such as special radiation protection regulation, an advisory body etc., have been documented by the evaluation of the documents of the Ministry of State Security in the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Over a thousand persons, but also documents, money bills etc. were marked with a wide variety of radionuclides and traced with specially developed detectors. Among the many different nuclides provided regularly from the Rossendorf Research Center near Dresden, in particular {sup 46}Sc was popular. (orig.) [German] 'Regierungskriminalitaet' kann man auch im deutschen Strahlenschutz finden. Anhand neuer Dokumentationen der so genannten Gauckbehoerden, ueber die auch schon fluechtig in der Presse berichtet und spekuliert wurde, lassen sich Einzelheiten ueber die Vorgehensweisen einfallsreicher Stasi-Mitarbeiter, die Stasi-eigene Strahlenschutzverordnung und Strahlenschutz-Kommission usw. rekonstruieren. Ueber 1.000 Personen, aber auch Gegenstaende, Dokumente, Geldscheine etc. wurden markiert, wobei unter einer Vielzahl der regelmaessig aus Rossendorf gelieferten Nukliden {sup 46}Sc besonders gern eingesetzt sowie in Dresden spezielle Nachweisgeraete entwickelt wurden. (orig.)

  16. Aliphatic alcohol contaminants of illegally produced spirits inhibit phagocytosis by human granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pál, László; Árnyas, Ervin M; Tóth, Béla; Ádám, Balázs; Rácz, Gábor; Ádány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor

    2013-04-01

    Unregulated production of spirits in many countries leads to products containing appreciable levels of aliphatic alcohols (AAs) and is the main source of human exposure to these substances worldwide. Previous studies have confirmed that alcohol abuse can lead to ethanol-induced immunosuppression and thereby increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. Granulocytes, as professional phagocytic cells, play a crucial role in engulfment and killing of pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, a decrease in their phagocytic activity has been invoked as a factor in the impaired antimicrobial defense observed in alcoholics. However, AAs consumed as contaminants of illicit spirits may also influence phagocytosis, thereby contributing to a further decrease in microbicidal activity but, so far, this has not been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure granulocyte phagocytosis following treatment of granulocytes with those higher alcohols found in illegal spirits. Granulocytes were isolated from human peripheral blood. Then phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan particles by granulocytes treated with AAs individually and in combination was determined. These alcohols inhibited phagocytosis in a concentration-dependent manner and at lower concentrations when combined than when tested individually. Due to their synergistic effects, it is possible that, in combination with ethanol, they may inhibit phagocytosis in a clinically meaningful way in episodic heavy drinkers.

  17. Illegal pangolin trade in northernmost Myanmar and its links to India and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The northern Myanmar region has been identified as a potential transit and source place for the illegal trade of pangolins and their scales. In this study, we surveyed the trade links between Kachin State (northern Myanmar and China and Kachin and India based on interviews, market surveys and online seizure data. From our results we cannot extrapolate that there is a link between Myanmar and India. Based on the results from interviews (17 of 38, we found that around 140–168 pangolins/year are smuggled into China via three different routes from Kachin to China. Scales are the most traded parts of pangolins in this part of Myanmar. Based on the online sources, 30 seizures of pangolin and their products were made on the Kachin–China route during 2010–2016, with all seizures made on the Chinese side of the border. We thus, recommend an increase in law enforcement on the Myanmar side, with focused effort at identifying trade hubs and deterring wholesalers. We further suggest investigating possible trade links between Kachin and other source areas. We recommend, a reclassification of the pangolins’ protection status in China from a Class II to a Class I Key Protected Species, and the prohibition of the use of pangolins’ scales for Traditional Chinese Medicine.

  18. Dumping and illegal transport of hazardous waste, danger of modern society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradović, Mario; Kalambura, Sanja; Smolec, Danijel; Jovicić, Nives

    2014-06-01

    Increasing the production of hazardous waste during the past few years and stricter legislation in the area of permanent disposal and transportation costs were significantly elevated above activities. This creates a new, highly lucrative gray market which opens the way for the criminalization. Of great importance is the identification of illegal trafficking of hazardous waste since it can have a significant impact on human health and environmental pollution. Barriers to effective engagement to prevent these activities may vary from region to region, country to country, but together affect the ability of law enforcement authorities to ensure that international shipments of hazardous waste comply with national laws and maritime regulations. This paper will overview the legislation governing these issues, and to analyze the barriers to their implementation, but also try to answer the question of why and how this type of waste traded. Paper is an overview of how Croatia is prepared to join the European Union in this area and indicates the importance and necessity of the cooperation of all of society, and international organizations in the fight with the new trend of environmental crime.

  19. About Influence of Ionic Beams of Metals of IVB-VIB Groups on Structure and Properties of a Target at Various Modes of Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatova, E. I.; Klimanov, V. A.; Ksenofontov, A. I.; Fridlyander, I. N.

    2006-08-01

    A complex of special properties of materials and a threshold of their working temperatures which is frequently limited 500-550°C define the level of modern technological development and, first of all, for nuclear-industrial plants. The alloys on the basis of iron are the most widespread kind of constructional materials, and therefore an increase of their special properties (high-temperature strength, corrosion stability, durability and other characteristics) is of great value. The ionic beams with a low energy (300-1,500 eV) which can change the structure and the properties of a target, in particular iron and its alloys were used for the solution of these problems in the present work. In this work theoretical and experimental results of the research of the process of impact interaction of the ionic beams with iron are also given. The properties of a iron surface with the help of modern methods of physical and chemical analyse are investigated. The opportunities to produce new surface properties of iron using the ionic beams are shown. On the basis of the results obtained the supplementary work directions are analyzed.

  20. Rapid immune colloidal gold strip for cetacean meat restraining illegal trade and consumption: implications for conservation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chieh; Chin, Li-Te; Chu, Chi-Shih; Wang, Yu-Ting; Chan, Kun-Wei; Yang, Wei-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of cetacean meat is geographically common and often of undetermined sustainability. Besides, it can expose humans to contaminants and zoonotic pathogens. The illegality of possessing cetacean meat was likely under-reported in some countries due to lack of attention paid by the officials although DNA analysis of market products helped to show such practices. We developed two monoclonal antibodies against synthetic peptides of myoglobin (Mb) for constructing a rapid immune colloidal gold strip. Only cetacean Mb is capable of binding to both antibodies and presents positive signal while the Mb from other animals can bind only 1 of the antibodies and presents negative result. The strip for cetacean meat would be an applicable and cost-effective test for field inspectors and even the general public. It contributes to increase the reporting capacity and coverage of illegal cetacean meat possession, which has implications for global cetacean conservation and public health.

  1. Protection of asylum seekers and illegal migrants human rights: Practice of the European Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukanović Anđela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of asylum seeker and Illegal migrants human rights, has often been difficult due to the need of states to regulate unwanted migration flows. European Court of Human Rights plays an important role in protecting the rights of these individuals, through a set of human rights. Requests for interim measures under Rule 39 of the Rules of Court also have great importance. In cases involving illegal migrants and asylum-seekers, Court was often in difficult position, given the contradictions that could arise from the protection of human rights and the legitimate aim of the Contracting States to control the entry, residence and expulsion of aliens. Recent Courts judgment in case of M. S. S. against Belgium is particularly important, because of its remarkable influence on the perception of a common asylum system in the EU, as well as the judgment in the case of Jama Hirsi and Others v. Italy.

  2. Definition of the Situation of Children Demobilized Illegal Armed Groups in the Legal Acts and Psychoeducational Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alberto Carmona Parra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with a reflection on performative utterances, which are speech acts, to show that the right contributes to the creation of reality and subjectivity. Based on this argument examines five definitions of the situation of children demobilized from illegal armed groups in Colombia, named according to their effects psychoeducational: victimizing, pathologizing, criminalizing, idealizing and responsabilizing. Each definition is examined in terms of their philosophical affiliation, deterministic, nondeterministic or interactionist, its effects on the construction of the identity of minors and in his appeal to responsibility and legal insanity. At the end of the article shows the intervention proposals arising from each of the definitions and shows the role that restorative justice can play in building a model of care which confers responsibility to the children demobilized from illegal armed groups, and other victims of armed conflict, which guarantees the restitution of rights and also empowers them as key actors in redefining their social role and identity reconstruction.

  3. Do Illegal Copies of Movies Reduce the Revenue of Legal Products? The case of TV animation in Japan (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    TANAKA Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    Whether or not illegal copies circulating on the internet reduce the sales of legal products has been a hot issue in the entertainment industries. Though much empirical research has been conducted on the music industry, research on the movie industry has been very limited. This paper examines the effects of the movie sharing site Youtube and file sharing program Winny on DVD sales and rentals of Japanese TV animation programs. Estimated equations of 105 anime episodes show that (1) Youtube vi...

  4. Breast Milk and Hair Testing to Detect Illegal Drugs, Nicotine, and Caffeine in Donors to a Human Milk Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Garcia-Algar, Óscar; Joya, Xavier; Marchei, Emilia; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2016-08-01

    The use of illegal drugs and tobacco is an exclusion criteria for accepting a nursing mother as a milk donor. The detection window for human milk testing is typically a few hours. Hair testing has been considered the gold standard to assess chronic exposure to these toxic substances. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of illegal drugs, nicotine, and caffeine in breast milk and hair samples from donors to assess whether these substances were being used during the donation period and the months leading up to it. Thirty-six samples of hair and breast milk were obtained from 36 donors. The tests performed identified nicotine, caffeine, morphine, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, codeine, methadone, and other substances derived therefrom. No illegal drugs were found in any of the samples analyzed. Nicotine and cotinine were found in 33.3% (12/36) of all hair samples. Among these 12 samples, 10 had cotinine concentrations consistent with cutoff values for unexposed nonsmokers, 1 had concentrations consistent with cutoff values for passive smokers, and 1 had concentrations consistent with cutoff values for active smokers. Caffeine was found in 77.7% of the hair samples and in 50% of the donor milk samples. The correlation for caffeine between donor milk and hair samples was r = 0.288, P = .0881. Donors do not use illegal drugs during either the donation period or the months leading up to it. They are occasionally exposed to tobacco smoke and almost all of them consume caffeine. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Environmental Pollution from Illegal Waste Disposal and Health Effects: A Review on the “Triangle of Death”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Triassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “triangle of death” was used for the first time by Senior and Mazza in the journal The Lancet Oncology referring to the eastern area of the Campania Region (Southern Italy which has one of the worst records of illegal waste dumping practices. In the past decades, many studies have focused on the potential of illegal waste disposal to cause adverse effects on human health in this area. The great heterogeneity in the findings, and the bias in media communication has generated great healthcare doubts, anxieties and alarm. This paper addresses a review of the up-to-date literature on the “triangle of death”, bringing together the available information on the occurrence and severity of health effects related to illegal waste disposal. The Scopus database was searched using the search terms “waste”, “Campania”, “Naples”, “triangle of death” and “human biomonitoring”. Despite the methodological and sampling heterogeneity between the studies, this review examines the evidence from published data concerning cancer incidence, childhood mortality and birth defects, so that the current situation, knowledge gaps and research priorities can be established. The review aims to provide a contribution to the scientific community, and to respond to the concerns of the general population.

  6. Tracking Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria in Raw and Ready-to-Eat Food Illegally Sold at the Eastern EU Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolacu, Luminita; Stessl, Beatrix; Bolocan, Andrei Sorin; Oniciuc, Elena Alexandra; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin; Nicolau, Anca Ioana

    2016-03-01

    Food illegally brought into the European Union, mainly in the personal luggage of travelers, represents a potential threat to consumers' health. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of five pathogens in food brought into the European Union by Moldavian citizens as personal goods and illegally sold in Romania in the vicinity of the border. The occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes was 7.5% and 8%, while Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. were absent in all samples. L. monocytogenes sequence type 2, 9, 121, and 155, highly prevalent among foodstuffs worldwide, was also present among isolates from ready-to-eat food illegally sold in Romania, even at the same date of sampling, indicating cross-contamination during food handling. S. aureus spa types t449, t304, and t524 were most often isolated from raw-milk cheeses contaminated with 10(3)-10(5) colony-forming units per gram, evidencing a contamination at herd level or unhygienic conditions during processing. S. aureus t011 and t3625, both included in the livestock-associated CC398, were isolated from pork lard and poultry meat. This study shows that cross-border trade from nonmember states represents a neglected route of transmission of foodborne pathogens into the European Union that could lead to sporadic or family-associated cases of disease.

  7. Isolation and characterization of avian influenza viruses from raw poultry products illegally imported to Japan by international flight passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, A; Hiono, T; Fukuhara, H; Sumiyoshi, R; Ohkawara, A; Matsuno, K; Okamatsu, M; Osaka, H; Sakoda, Y

    2018-04-01

    The transportation of poultry and related products for international trade contributes to transboundary pathogen spread and disease outbreaks worldwide. To prevent pathogen incursion through poultry products, many countries have regulations about animal health and poultry product quarantine. However, in Japan, animal products have been illegally introduced into the country in baggage and confiscated at the airport. Lately, the number of illegally imported poultry and the incursion risk of transboundary pathogens through poultry products have been increasing. In this study, we isolated avian influenza viruses (AIVs) from raw poultry products illegally imported to Japan by international passengers. Highly (H5N1 and H5N6) and low (H9N2 and H1N2) pathogenic AIVs were isolated from raw chicken and duck products carried by flight passengers. H5 and H9 isolates were phylogenetically closely related to viruses isolated from poultry in China, and haemagglutinin genes of H5N1 and H5N6 isolates belonged to clades 2.3.2.1c and 2.3.4.4, respectively. Experimental infections of H5 and H9 isolates in chickens and ducks demonstrated pathogenicity and tissue tropism to skeletal muscles. To prevent virus incursion by poultry products, it is important to encourage the phased cleaning based on the disease control and eradication and promote the reduction in contamination risk in animal products. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Trophic flow structure of the Danajon ecosystem (Central Philippines) and impacts of illegal and destructive fishing practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalso, Regina Therese M.; Wolff, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    A trophic model of the shallow Danajon Bank, in the Central Visayas, Philippines was developed using a mass-balance approach (Ecopath) to describe the system characteristics and fisheries interactions. The Ecopath model is composed of 37 functional groups and 17 fishing fleet types reflecting the high diversity of catches and fishing operations in the Danajon Bank. Collectively, the catch is dominated by lower trophic level fish and invertebrates as reflected in the mean trophic level of the fishery (2.95). The low biomass and high exploitation levels for many upper trophic level groups and the little evidence for strong natural physical disturbances suggest that top-down fishery is the main driver of system dynamics. The mixed trophic impacts (MTI) analysis reveals the role of the illegal and destructive fishing operations in influencing the ecosystem structure and dynamics. Furthermore, the illegal fisheries' estimated collective annual harvest is equivalent to nearly a quarter of the entire municipal fisheries catch in the area. Improved fisheries law enforcement by the local government units to curb these illegal and destructive fishing operations could substantially increase the potential gains of the legal fisheries.

  9. A meta-analysis of mortality data in Italian contaminated sites with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Adverse effects of waste management represent a public health issue. Mortality meta-analysis in Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps is presented. Methods. 24 NPCSs include industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps. Class 1 (10 NPCSs with industrial waste landfills and Class 2 (14 NPCSs with illegal dumps were categorized. Random-effects model meta-analyses of Standardized Mortality Ratios non-adjusted (SMRs and adjusted for Deprivation (DI-SMRs computed for each CS (1995-2002 were performed for overall 24 NPCSs and the two classes. The North-Southern gradient was considered. Results. 24 CSs pooled-SMRs are significantly increased in both genders for cancer of liver (men: SMR = 1.13; women: SMR = 1.18, bladder (men: SMR = 1.06; women: SMR = 1.11, and for cirrhosis (men: SMR = 1.09; women: SMR = 1.13. In Class 2 the increase is confirmed in both genders for liver and bladder cancers and for cirrhosis and in men only for lung cancer. Congenital anomalies and adverse perinatal conditions are not increased. Conclusion. The results are consistent with the hypothesis of adverse health effects of non-adequately managed hazardous waste. Causal interpretation is not allowed, but the meta-analytic approach provides more confidence in the findings.

  10. Design of a molten heavy-metal coolant and target for fast-thermal accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyamurthy, P.; Degwekar, S.B.; Nema, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator Driven sub-critical Systems (ADS) have evoked considerable interest in recent years. The Energy Amplifier concept developed by C. Rubbia and others at CERN incorporates a buoyancy driven, lead-coolant primary system for extracting the heat generated in the fast reactor as well as that in neutron spallation target. In earlier publications, our BARC group has proposed a one-way coupled booster reactor system which could be operated at proton beam currents as low as 1-2 mA for a power output of 750 MW th . Here, the basic idea is to have a fast booster reactor zone of low power (- 100 MW th ) which is separated by a large gap from the main thermal reactor zone. In this arrangement, the spallation neutron source feeds neutrons to the fast reactor zone where neutrons are further multiplied. Further in this system, the neutrons from the booster region enter the main reactor but very few neutrons from main reactor return to booster, thus ensuring one-way coupling. In earlier work, several possible configurations of the booster and thermal regions were presented. In the present work, we describe an engineering design particularly with respect to thermal hydraulics of lead/lead-bismuth eutectic coolant also acting as spallation neutron source. This hybrid ADS reactor consists of fast and thermal reactor zones producing about 100 MW th and 650 MW th respectively. The scheme of the system is shown. The fast core consists of 48 hexagonal fuel bundles each containing 169 fuel pins of 8.2 mm diameter arranged in 11.4 mm triangular array pitch. The average thermal power per fuel pin is about 13.46 kw. However, due to neutron flux peaking effect, the maximum fuel pin power can be up to 2.5 times this average power. The thermal reactor consists of heavy water as moderator and coolant similar to a typical CANDU type Indian PHWR except for fuel composition. Though the gap between fast and thermal zones essentially provides one way coupling of neutron flux, a thermal

  11. Preclinical evaluation of multistep targeting of diasialoganglioside GD2 using a IgG-scFv bispecific antibody with high affinity for GD2 and DOTA metal complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheal, Sarah M.; Xu, Hong; Guo, Hong-fen; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Larson, Steven M.; Cheung, Nai-Kong

    2014-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies (BsAb) have proven to be useful targeting vectors for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT). We sought to overcome key PRIT limitations such as high renal radiation exposure and immunogenicity (e.g. of streptavidin-antibody fusions), to advance clinical translation of this PRIT strategy for diasialoganglioside GD2-positive (GD2(+)) tumors. For this purpose, a IgG-scFv BsAb was engineered using the sequences for the anti-GD2 humanized monoclonal antibody hu3F8 (1) and C825, a murine scFv antibody with high affinity for the chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) complexed with beta-particle emitting radiometals such as 177Lu and 90Y (2, 3). A three-step regimen including hu3F8-C825, a dextran-based clearing agent, and p-aminobenzyl-DOTA radiolabeled with 177Lu (as 177Lu-DOTA-Bn; t1/2 = 6.71 days (d)) was optimized in immunocompromised mice carrying subcutaneous (s.c.) human GD2(+) neuroblastoma (NB) xenografts. Absorbed doses for tumor and normal tissues were ∼85 cGy/MBq and ≤3.7 cGy/MBq, respectively, with therapeutic indicies (TI) of 142 for blood and 23 for kidney. A therapy study (n = 5 per group; tumor volume: 240 ± 160 mm3) with three successive PRIT cycles (total 177Lu: ∼33 MBq; tumor dose ∼3400 cGy), revealed complete tumor response in 5/5 animals, with no recurrence up to 28 d post-treatment. Tumor ablation was confirmed histologically in 4/5 mice, and normal organs showed minimal overall toxicities. All non-treated mice required sacrifice within 12 d (>1.0 cm3 tumor volume). We conclude that this novel anti-GD2 PRIT approach has sufficient TI to successfully ablate s.c. GD2(+)–NB in mice while sparing kidney and bone marrow. PMID:24944121

  12. Search for Two Categories of Target Produces Fewer Fixations to Target-Color Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menneer, Tamaryn; Stroud, Michael J.; Cave, Kyle R.; Li, Xingshan; Godwin, Hayward J.; Liversedge, Simon P.; Donnelly, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Searching simultaneously for metal threats (guns and knives) and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in X-ray images is less effective than 2 independent single-target searches, 1 for metal threats and 1 for IEDs. The goals of this study were to (a) replicate this dual-target cost for categorical targets and to determine whether the cost remains…

  13. Illegal intra-corporeal packets: can dual energy CT be used for the evaluation of cocaine concentration? A cross sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platon, Alexandra; Becker, Minerva; Becker, Christoph D.; Lock, Eric; Wolff, Hans; Perneger, Thomas; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The recent implementation of the dual energy technology on CT-scanners has opened new perspectives in tissue and material characterization. This study aims to evaluate whether dual energy CT can be used to assess the concentration of cocaine of intra-intestinal illegal packets. The study was approved by the institutional review board of our institution (CER 13-027-R). From November 2010 to May 2013, all consecutive conveyors in whom a low-dose abdominal CT (LDCT) revealed the presence of illegal intra-corporeal drug packets underwent a dual energy CT series (gemstone spectral imaging) targeted on one container. The mean radiological density (HU) of these packets was measured on the LDCT series, and on the monochromatic dual energy series, at 40 and 140 keV. The difference between the HU at 40 and 140 keV was reported as ∆HU. The effective atomic number Z(eff) was also measured on the monochromatic series. A chemical analysis was performed after expulsion to select cocaine containing packets, and to determine their cocaine concentrations. A correlation analysis was performed between HU, ∆HU and Z(eff), with regard to the percentage of cocaine. Fifty-four cocaine conveyors were included. The mean cocaine content of the packets was 36.8 % (range 11.2–80, SD 15.4), the mean radiologic density 105 HU, the mean Z(eff) 8.7 and the mean ∆HU 163. The cocaine content was correlated with the ∆HU (0.57, p < 0.001), with the Z(eff) (r = 0.56, p < 0.001) but not with radiologic density (r = 0.25, p = 0.064). ∆HU >200 was 0.9 (9 of 10) sensitive and 0.82 (36 of 44) specific to predict a cocaine concentration higher than 50 %. Measuring ∆HU or Z(eff) on dual energy monochromatic CT series can be used to detect ingested packets with cocaine concentration >50 %

  14. Malakit: an innovative pilot project to self-diagnose and self-treat malaria among illegal gold miners in the Guiana Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douine, Maylis; Sanna, Alice; Galindo, Muriel; Musset, Lise; Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Marchesini, Paola; Magalhaes, Edgard Dias; Suarez-Mutis, Martha; Hiwat, Helene; Nacher, Mathieu; Vreden, Stephen; Garancher, Laure

    2018-04-10

    Illegal gold miners in French Guiana, a French overseas territory ('département') located in Amazonia, often carry malaria parasites (up to 46.8%). While the Guiana Shield Region aims at malaria elimination, the high prevalence of Plasmodium in this hard-to-reach population in conjunction with frequent incorrect use of artemisinin-based anti-malarials could favour the emergence of resistant parasites. Due to geographical and regulatory issues in French Guiana, usual malaria control strategies cannot be implemented in this particular context. Therefore, new strategies targeting this specific population in the forest are required. Numerous discussions among health institutions and scientific partners from French Guiana, Brazil and Suriname have led to an innovative project based on the distribution of kits for self-diagnosis and self-treatment of Plasmodium infections. The kit-distribution will be implemented at "resting sites", which are areas across the border of French Guiana regularly frequented by gold miners. The main objective is to increase the appropriate use and complete malaria treatment after a positive malaria diagnosis with a rapid test, which will be evaluated with before-and-after cross-sectional studies. Monitoring indicators will be collected from health mediators at the time of kit distribution and during subsequent visits, and from illegal gold miners themselves, through a smartphone application. The project funding is multisource, including Ministries of Health of the three countries, WHO/PAHO, and the European Union. This project will start in April 2018 as a 18 month pilot study led by the Clinical Investigation Centre of Cayenne. Results should be available at the end of 2019. This innovative approach may have several limitations which should be taken into account, as potential side effects, kit misuse or resale, declarative main criteria, or no Plasmodium vivax curative treatment. Close monitoring is thus needed. This project may be the

  15. A Bottom-Up Understanding of Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated Fishing in Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Luomba

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU fishing is a major concern in fisheries management around the world. Several measures have been taken to address the problem. In Lake Victoria, the alleviation of IUU fishing is implemented through the Regional Plan of Action (RPOA-IUU, which restricts use of certain fishing gear, as well as prohibits fishing in closed areas and during closed seasons. Despite the long-term efforts to monitor and control what goes on in the fisheries, IUU fishing has persisted in Lake Victoria. Inspired by interactive governance theory, this paper argues that the persistence of IUU fishing could be due to different images that stakeholders have about the situation, rather than the lack of management competency. Through structured interviews with 150 fisheries stakeholders on Ijinga Island in the southeastern part of Lake Victoria, Tanzania, using paired comparison questionnaires, the study elicits stakeholders’ perspective about the severity of different locally-pertinent fishing-related activities. The results show that while fisheries stakeholder groups agree on their judgments about certain fishing gears, some differences are also apparent. For instance, fisheries managers and scientists do not always agree with fishing people about what activities cause the most damage to fisheries resources and ecosystem. Further, they tend to consider some IUU fishing-related activities less damaging than some non-IUU fishing. Such disparity creates governability challenges, pointing to the need to revisit relevant regulatory measures and to make them consistent with the knowledge and judgments of all stakeholders. Based on these findings, we discuss governing interventions that may contribute to addressing IUU fishing in Lake Victoria and elsewhere.

  16. Illegal substance use among Italian high school students: trends over 11 years (1999-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Molinaro

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To monitor changes in habits in drug use among Italian high school students. METHODS: Cross-sectional European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD carried out in Italy annually for 11 years (1999-2009 with representative samples of youth attending high school. The sample size considered ranges from 15,752 to 41,365 students and response rate ranged from 85.5% to 98.6%. Data were analyzed to obtain measures of life-time prevalence (LT, use in the last year (LY, use in the last 30 days (LM, frequent use. Comparisons utilized difference in proportion tests. Tests for linear trends in proportion were performed using the Royston p trend test. RESULTS: When the time-averaged value was considered, cannabis (30% LT was the most, and heroin the least (2% frequently used, with cocaine (5%, hallucinogens (2% and stimulants (2% in between. A clear gender gap is evident for all drugs, more obvious for hallucinogens (average M/F LY prevalence ratio 2, range 1.7-2.4, p<0.05, less for cannabis (average M/F LY prevalence ratio 1.3, range 1.2-1.5, p<0.05. Data shows a change in trend between 2005 and 2008; in 2006 the trend for cannabis use and availability dropped and the price rose, while from 2005 cocaine and stimulant use prevalence showed a substantial increase and the price went down. After 2008 use of all substances seems to have decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Drug use is widespread among students in Italy, with cannabis being the most and heroin the least prevalent. Girls are less vulnerable than boys to illegal drug use. In recent years, a decrease in heroin use is overbalanced by a marked rise in hallucinogen and stimulant use.

  17. Global population collapse in a superabundant migratory bird and illegal trapping in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Johannes; Oppel, Steffen; Ananin, Alexandr A; Durnev, Yurii A; Gashev, Sergey N; Hölzel, Norbert; Mishchenko, Alexandr L; Pessa, Jorma; Smirenski, Sergey M; Strelnikov, Evgenii G; Timonen, Sami; Wolanska, Kolja; Chan, Simba

    2015-12-01

    Persecution and overexploitation by humans are major causes of species extinctions. Rare species, often confined to small geographic ranges, are usually at highest risk, whereas extinctions of superabundant species with very large ranges are rare. The Yellow-breasted Bunting (Emberiza aureola) used to be one of the most abundant songbirds of the Palearctic, with a very large breeding range stretching from Scandinavia to the Russian Far East. Anecdotal information about rapid population declines across the range caused concern about unsustainable trapping along the species' migration routes. We conducted a literature review and used long-term monitoring data from across the species' range to model population trend and geographical patterns of extinction. The population declined by 84.3-94.7% between 1980 and 2013, and the species' range contracted by 5000 km. Quantitative evidence from police raids suggested rampant illegal trapping of the species along its East Asian flyway in China. A population model simulating an initial harvest level of 2% of the population, and an annual increase of 0.2% during the monitoring period produced a population trajectory that matched the observed decline. We suggest that trapping strongly contributed to the decline because the consumption of Yellow-breasted Bunting and other songbirds has increased as a result of economic growth and prosperity in East Asia. The magnitude and speed of the decline is unprecedented among birds with a comparable range size, with the exception of the Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius), which went extinct in 1914 due to industrial-scale hunting. Our results demonstrate the urgent need for an improved monitoring of common and widespread species' populations, and consumption levels throughout East Asia. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Combining airborne and satellite remote sensing programs to repress illegal oil discharges in restricted sea areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.

    2005-01-01

    An airborne surveillance program has been conducted over the Belgian part of the North Sea since 1991. The role of the program is to detect infringements on the Marpol Convention via remote sensing, and to take legal action against polluters through the use of recorded observations. Although Belgium has a restricted sea area of about 3,500 km with no fixed offshore oil installations, a pollution risk is constantly present due to 2 dense traffic separation schemes close to the shoreline. The Belgian marine areas and adjacent waters are regularly scanned with a Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) on board a remote sensing aircraft. This paper describes an evaluation trial that the Belgian Management Unit of the North Sea Mathematical Models (MUMM) joined in 2004, together with various agencies from the United Kingdom, Germany and the Netherlands. The trial consists of a cost-sharing satellite service for oil detection with ENVISAT ASAR data. The trial was co-funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) and run by Kongsberg Satellite Services. MUMM's objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and operational character of satellite services for detecting oil spills at sea. The results of the 3 month trial have indicated that aerial remote sensing for the detection of illegal oil discharges at sea increases the chances of catching polluters more efficiently, with improved chances of evidence collecting. It was concluded that when various services are integrated and strict operational conditions are met, satellite services may prove to be valuable in restricted, very densely navigated national waters that are easily reached by airborne means. 12 refs., 8 tabs., 3 figs

  19. An open door for illegal trade: online sale of Strombocactus disciformis (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania R. Olmos-Lau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Online trade of CITES listed species has become a persistent threat which is difficult to measure and control. The use of online markets is growing day by the day as technology becomes more available and familiar to people of all ages and interests. Species trade can now be propagated remotely hardly without any real human interaction. We develop a quick-easy method to assess the online availability of the genus Strombocactus, a highly collectible cactus, to understand the real magnitude of this new form of threat and the possible menace it could be for these Mexican cacti. We used the Google.com site to do an online search in four languages (Spanish, English, French and German for the offer of adult plants or seeds. We found specimens and seeds available in major online markets like ebay, amazon, cactusplaza.com and mercado libre. Plant price range from €10.00 to €30.00 plus shipping and handling. The plants were also offered in local online stores in countries like the USA, France, Germany, Australia, Czech Republic, the United Kingdom, and others; some sellers claim they have no obstacles for “shipping across countries” and others openly declare the natural localities where seeds were extracted. Only a minority of these online stores openly stated that the cacti were obtained from CITES registered nurseries or that the cacti were grown through propagules or seeds. Our method is easily transferable to estimate the illegal market for any species. There is an active online trade of Strombocactus species and other species listed in CITES without the necessary documentation. Compliance or other regulation mechanisms are needed in order to promote species conservation.

  20. Trusted Insiders Are Committing Fraud and Embezzlement Within Organizations: Is There a Connection to Addiction, as the Motivating Factor for Their Illegal Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    increase in opioid prescribing has led to parallel increases in opioid addiction and overdose deaths.” Since 1999, it was reported that, “overdose...COMMITTING FRAUD AND EMBEZZLEMENT WITHIN ORGANIZATIONS: IS THERE A CONNECTION TO ADDICTION , AS THE MOTIVATING FACTOR FOR THEIR ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES...INSIDERS ARE COMMITTING FRAUD AND EMBEZZLEMENT WITHIN ORGANIZATIONS: IS THERE A CONNECTION TO ADDICTION , AS THE MOTIVATING FACTOR FOR THEIR ILLEGAL

  1. Illegal immigration at sea: a social analysis (Imigraţia ilegală pe mare: o analiză socială

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Federica MANFREDI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Illegal immigration could be defined as a pathology of migration (which is a much broader, positive and needed phenomenon. It is a phenomenon of relevant historical importance; in particular, European history has been marked by many waves of migration, sometimes of whole populations. Unfortunately, the problem of illegal immigration is still very much present in today’s society, touching certain countries in particular, such as Italy, which suffers immigration from sub-Saharan Africa and the Balkan area.

  2. Separations chemistry of toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.; Barr, M.; Barrans, R.

    1996-01-01

    Sequestering and removing toxic metal ions from their surroundings is an increasingly active area of research and is gaining importance in light of current environmental contamination problems both within the DOE complex and externally. One method of separating metal ions is to complex them to a molecule (a ligand or chelator) which exhibits specific binding affinity for a toxic metal, even in the presence of other more benign metals. This approach makes use of the sometimes subtle differences between toxic and non-toxic metals resulting from variations in size, charge and shape. For example, toxic metals such as chromium, arsenic, and technetium exist in the environment as oxyanions, negatively charged species with a characteristic tetrahedral shape. Other toxic metals such as actinides and heavy metals are positively charged spheres with specific affinities for particular donor atoms such as oxygen (for actinides) and nitrogen (for heavy metals). In most cases the toxic metals are found in the presence of much larger quantities of less toxic metals such as sodium, calcium and iron. The selectivity of the chelators is critical to the goal of removing the toxic metals from their less toxic counterparts. The approach was to build a ligand framework that complements the unique characteristics of the toxic metal (size, charge and shape) while minimizing interactions with non-toxic metals. The authors have designed ligands exhibiting specificity for the target metals; they have synthesized, characterized and tested these ligands; and they have shown that they exhibit the proposed selectivity and cooperative binding effects

  3. Heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano, Domy; VANGRONSVELD, Jaco; Bolan, N.S.; Wenzel, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    - Sources of Metals in the Environment - Environmental Contamination - Retention and Dynamics of Metals in Soils - Adsorption - Complexation - Precipitation - Bioavailability–Natural Attenuation Interactions - Biological Response to Metals - Soil Remediation

  4. CERN: Fixed target targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-03-15

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become visible for the first

  5. Target-triggered signal turn-on detection of prostate specific antigen based on metal-enhanced fluorescence of Ag@SiO2@SiO2-RuBpy composite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun-Liang; Xu, Dang-Dang; Pang, Dai-Wen; Tang, Hong-Wu

    2017-02-01

    A three-layer core-shell nanostructure consisting of a silver core, a silica spacer, and a fluorescent dye RuBpy-doped outer silica layer was fabricated, and the optimal metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) distance was explored through adjusting the thickness of the silica spacer. The results show that the optimal distance is ˜10.4 nm with the maximum fluorescence enhancement factor 2.12. Then a new target-triggered MEF ‘turn-on’ strategy based on the optimized composite nanoparticles was successfully constructed for quantitative detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA), by using RuBpy as the energy donor and BHQ-2 as the acceptor. The hybridization of the complementary DNA of PSA-aptamer immobilized on the surface of the MEF nanoparticles with PSA-aptamer modified with BHQ-2, brought BHQ-2 in close proximity to RuBpy-doped silica shell and resulted in the decrease of fluorescence. In the presence of target PSA molecules, the BHQ-PSA aptamer is dissociated from the surface of the nanoparticles with the fluorescence switched on. Therefore, the assay of PSA was achieved by measuring the varying fluorescence intensity. The results show that PSA can be detected in the range of 1-100 ng ml-1 with a detection limit of 0.20 ng ml-1 (6.1 pM), which is 6.7-fold increase of that using hollow RuBpy-doped silica nanoparticles. Moreover, satisfactory results were obtained when PSA was detected in 1% serum.

  6. Mass Producing Targets for Nuclear Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Kendall, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Metal-encapsulating technique advances prospects of controlling nuclear fusion. Prefilled fusion targets form at nozzle as molten metal such as tin flows through outer channel and pressurized deuterium/tritium gas flows through inner channel. Molten metal completely encloses gas charge as it drops off nozzle.

  7. Metallic coating of microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates

  8. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  9. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques have been devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented

  10. Escape from Socialist Yugoslavia ‒ Illegal Emigration from Croatia from 1945 to the Beginning of the 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Šarić

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the post-war socialist Yugoslavia political and/or economic situation has become unacceptable for part of the population. Since legal emigration from Croatia was not allowed, the number of illegal immigrants increased since the end of World War II. The article deals with this group of migrants using the comparative analysis of original archival materials and available literature in the period from 1945 to 1961 when the state began to gradually open the border. Mostly young people, under 25 years of age, immigrated illegally, mainly for economic reasons, and this was associated with a tradition of emigration, especially in the coastal region. In addition to the poor economic situation, people also emigrated for political reasons, then for adventure, to avoid serving in the Yugoslav People’s Army or to escape from the law for committing criminal offenses. They were fleeing by land or by sea, which was much more successful. Usually the first destinations of the immigrants were Italy, Austria and Germany, from where the majority of them moved to overseas countries. Most people fled the districts of Rijeka, Pula, Zagreb, Zadar, Šibenik and Split that existed at that time so that 74% of all illegal immigrants came from them. The runaways were mostly workers, followed by farmers, vocational school students, public servants, pupils and students, sailors and craftsmen. According to gender, there were many more men than women among the runaways, most of whom were unmarried. The authorities were trying to prevent the escape abroad by methods of controlling the border and prison sentences, but also by the attempts to ensure better living conditions in the affected areas. As these measures had not yielded the desired results, but also due to the beginning of the economic crisis and the appearance of unemployment, the authorities liberalized emigration procedures and opened the borders to immigrants which resulted in a new wave of economic emigration.

  11. Reframing the science and policy of nicotine, illegal drugs and alcohol - conclusions of the ALICE RAP Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; Berridge, Virginia; Conrod, Patricia; Dudley, Robert; Hellman, Matilda; Lachenmeier, Dirk; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Miller, David; Rehm, Jürgen; Room, Robin; Schmidt, Laura; Sullivan, Roger; Ysa, Tamyko; Gual, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, illegal drug use was responsible for 1.8% of years of life lost in the European Union, alcohol was responsible for 8.2% and tobacco for 18.2%, imposing economic burdens in excess of 2.5% of GDP. No single European country has optimal governance structures for reducing the harm done by nicotine, illegal drugs and alcohol, and existing ones are poorly designed, fragmented, and sometimes cause harm. Reporting the main science and policy conclusions of a transdisciplinary five-year analysis of the place of addictions in Europe, researchers from 67 scientific institutions addressed these problems by reframing an understanding of addictions.  A new paradigm needs to account for evolutionary evidence which suggests that humans are biologically predisposed to seek out drugs, and that, today, individuals face availability of high drug doses, consequently increasing the risk of harm.  New definitions need to acknowledge that the defining element of addictive drugs is 'heavy use over time', a concept that could replace the diagnostic artefact captured by the clinical term 'substance use disorder', thus opening the door for new substances to be considered such as sugar. Tools of quantitative risk assessment that recognize drugs as toxins could be further deployed to assess regulatory approaches to reducing harm. Re-designed governance of drugs requires embedding policy within a comprehensive societal well-being frame that encompasses a range of domains of well-being, including quality of life, material living conditions and sustainability over time; such a frame adds arguments to the inappropriateness of policies that criminalize individuals for using drugs and that continue to categorize certain drugs as illegal. A health footprint, modelled on the carbon footprint, and using quantitative measures such as years of life lost due to death or disability, could serve as the accountability tool that apportions responsibility for who and what causes drug-related harm.

  12. Aliphatic alcohols of illegally produced spirits can act synergistically on superoxide-anion production by human granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnyas, Ervin M; Pál, László; Kovács, Csilla; Adány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor

    2012-10-01

    Aliphatic alcohols present in illegally produced spirits in a large number of low and middle income countries have been implicated in the etiology of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Previous studies have confirmed that chronic alcoholism can lead to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. Reduced superoxide-anion (O(2)·(-)) production by granulocytes could provide a mechanism by which antimicrobial defense is impaired in alcoholics. In vitro experiments have also demonstrated that ethanol can inhibit granulocyte O(2)·(-) generation. Aliphatic alcohols consumed as contaminants of illicit spirits may also influence O(2)·(-) production thereby contributing to a decrease in microbicidal activity. The aim of this study was to investigate this possibility. It measured the O(2)·(-) production by human granulocytes following treatment of the cells with aliphatic alcohol contaminants found in illicit spirits. Granulocytes were isolated from human buffy coats with centrifugal elutriation and then treated with individual aliphatic alcohols and their mixture. The O(2)·(-) production was stimulated with phorbol-12-13-dibutyrate and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and measured by superoxide dismutase inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome c. Aliphatic alcohols of illegally produced spirits inhibited the FMLP-induced O(2)·(-) production in a concentration dependent manner. They suppressed O(2)·(-) generation at 2.5-40 times lower concentrations when combined than when tested individually. Aliphatic alcohols found in illegally produced spirits can inhibit FMLP-induced O(2)·(-) production by granulocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Due to their synergistic effects, it is possible that, in combination with ethanol, they may inhibit O(2)·(-) formation in heavy episodic drinkers.

  13. Global trends and factors associated with the illegal killing of elephants: A hierarchical bayesian analysis of carcass encounter data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Robert W; Underwood, Fiona M; Blanc, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Elephant poaching and the ivory trade remain high on the agenda at meetings of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Well-informed debates require robust estimates of trends, the spatial distribution of poaching, and drivers of poaching. We present an analysis of trends and drivers of an indicator of elephant poaching of all elephant species. The site-based monitoring system known as Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE), set up by the 10(th) Conference of the Parties of CITES in 1997, produces carcass encounter data reported mainly by anti-poaching patrols. Data analyzed were site by year totals of 6,337 carcasses from 66 sites in Africa and Asia from 2002-2009. Analysis of these observational data is a serious challenge to traditional statistical methods because of the opportunistic and non-random nature of patrols, and the heterogeneity across sites. Adopting a bayesian hierarchical modeling approach, we used the proportion of carcasses that were illegally killed (PIKE) as a poaching index, to estimate the trend and the effects of site- and country-level factors associated with poaching. Important drivers of illegal killing that emerged at country level were poor governance and low levels of human development, and at site level, forest cover and area of the site in regions where human population density is low. After a drop from 2002, PIKE remained fairly constant from 2003 until 2006, after which it increased until 2008. The results for 2009 indicate a decline. Sites with PIKE ranging from the lowest to the highest were identified. The results of the analysis provide a sound information base for scientific evidence-based decision making in the CITES process.

  14. Global trends and factors associated with the illegal killing of elephants: A hierarchical bayesian analysis of carcass encounter data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Burn

    Full Text Available Elephant poaching and the ivory trade remain high on the agenda at meetings of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES. Well-informed debates require robust estimates of trends, the spatial distribution of poaching, and drivers of poaching. We present an analysis of trends and drivers of an indicator of elephant poaching of all elephant species. The site-based monitoring system known as Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE, set up by the 10(th Conference of the Parties of CITES in 1997, produces carcass encounter data reported mainly by anti-poaching patrols. Data analyzed were site by year totals of 6,337 carcasses from 66 sites in Africa and Asia from 2002-2009. Analysis of these observational data is a serious challenge to traditional statistical methods because of the opportunistic and non-random nature of patrols, and the heterogeneity across sites. Adopting a bayesian hierarchical modeling approach, we used the proportion of carcasses that were illegally killed (PIKE as a poaching index, to estimate the trend and the effects of site- and country-level factors associated with poaching. Important drivers of illegal killing that emerged at country level were poor governance and low levels of human development, and at site level, forest cover and area of the site in regions where human population density is low. After a drop from 2002, PIKE remained fairly constant from 2003 until 2006, after which it increased until 2008. The results for 2009 indicate a decline. Sites with PIKE ranging from the lowest to the highest were identified. The results of the analysis provide a sound information base for scientific evidence-based decision making in the CITES process.

  15. Domestic cooperation in combating illegal nuclear traffic - Experience of the Emergency Service Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smagala, G.; Tanczyk, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Poland's experience in combating illicit trafficking in nuclear and radioactive materials dates from the end of 1990 when the government decided to expand detection capabilities at the border check-points and initiated a gradual deployment of the portal radiation devices to detect all attempts of imported commodities with raised radiation level. Although the country had already had well-developed regulations in place as well as accountability and control systems over nuclear material, radiation sources and devices, the need to enforce the control activities and to strengthen cooperation among the nuclear safety and radiological protection bodies and the law enforcement authorities appeared. Then, besides the importation of the post Chernobyl contamination transports, Poland experienced: the lost and vagabonding nuclear materials or radioactive sources from the former Soviet/Russian military bases deployed in Poland; the tourism trafficking in radioactive materials The task of combating illegal radioactive traffic has been entrusted to: the Border Guard and Customs services - at the borders; the Police and State Security services - mainly within the state Some contribution to that action have had also the recycling of metallurgical scrap plants, which decided to install fixed radiation control devices to protect their products from the presence of radioactive isotopes. The duty of the coordinator as well as providing an immediate assistance in case of a seizure or a suspicion about the seizure of unknown radioactive material, fulfils the Emergency Service Centre (ODSA) at the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLOR). ODSA has been established in the mid-60s and its fundamental responsibility is to collect notifications on radiological emergency events and to organize help to liquidate consequences of a radiation incident with involved sources. All users of radiation sources and the law enforcement officers are obliged to inform ODSA about

  16. Target laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, D.C.; Pednekar, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    A target laboratory to make stripper foils for the accelerator and various targets for use in the experiments is set up in the pelletron accelerator facility. The facilities available in the laboratory are: (1) D.C. glow discharge setup, (2) carbon arc set up, and (3) vacuum evaporation set up (resistance heating), electron beam source, rolling mill - all for target preparation. They are described. Centrifugal deposition technique is used for target preparation. (author). 3 figs

  17. Peculiarities of the Enforcement of the European Arrest Warrant in the Case of an Illegal Liberty Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora Ioana Rusu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The illegal deprivation of liberty is, under the current context, one of the most serious offenses, being treated differently in the European Union. The need to prevent and combat this violation, it has led the European legislator to include it under different names in the European legislative act that governs the institution of the European arrest warrant. In this context, the European arrest warrant is the most important form of judicial cooperation in penal matters between the Member States of the EU, which is based on mutualrecognition of criminal judgments. The research conducted on how it is regulated the enforcement of the European arrest warrant in the case of illegal liberty deprivation in the European legislative act (the Framework Decision 2002/584/JHA leads to the conclusion that the legislature failed to mention the violation in question in the group of the violation for which it was not necessary the inspection of the double incrimination, but, still, including the offenses as kidnapping, illegal restraint and hostage-taking. Even if theRomanian legislator included this violation in the above mentioned group, this situation is not solved, because it will cause some problems in the request by the Romanian judicial authorities of the enforcement of such warrant. Another criticized issue, observed not only in the European legislative act, but also in the internal law, is related to the lack of stipulations, which can lead to the possibility of issuing and executing a European arrest warrant and for the execution of educational measures for illegal deprivation of liberty and also others. Also, in order to increase the effectiveness of the execution of a European arrest warrant, we consider that it should be granted executive powers of all courts of Romania. The originality of the work consists of the critical observations and the lege ferenda proposal which covers both the European legislativeact and the Romanian Law. At the same time

  18. Ice targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.; Stark, C.; Tanaka, N.; Hodgkins, D.; Barnhart, J.; Kosty, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report presents a description of ice targets that were constructed for research work at the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) and at the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS). Reasons for using these ice targets and the instructions for their construction are given. Results of research using ice targets will be published at a later date

  19. PELE 正侵穿金属薄靶轴向剩余速度近似计算与分析%Approximate calculation on the axial residual velocity of the PELE penetrate thin metal target plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊自建; 冉宪文; 汤文辉; 于国栋; 李泽斌; 陈为科

    2015-01-01

    By using the shock wave theory,the process that PELE (Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Efficiency)penetrated a thin metal target was analyzed.The energy loss of the PELE in the process of penetrating the target plate could be divided into the energy obtained by plug when jacket and filling impacted the target,the increased internal energy of jacket and filling,and the shear energy dissipated in the outer and inner edge on the front end of jacket in the process of penetrating the target,etc.Based on the principle of conservation of energy and the method to determine these energies,the approximate formula of the axial residual velocity of PELE was presented.Results show that the axial residual velocity and the calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data.Compared with the energy loss in different conditions,the filling material has little effect on projectile penetrating ability,and the energy that the plug obtained is the largest while the shear dissipated energy can be neglected.%运用冲击波理论,对横向效应增强型弹丸(Penetration with Enhanced Lateral Efficiency,PELE)侵穿金属靶板的机理进行了分析,将 PELE 侵彻过程中能量损失分为外壳和内芯撞击靶板区域环形塞块获得的能量,冲击波影响范围内外壳和内芯增加的内能,外壳前端外沿和内沿对靶板冲塞剪切耗能等,给出了确定这些能量的计算方法;并依据能量守恒原理,给出了 PELE 正撞金属薄靶板靶后剩余速度的近似计算公式。公式计算结果与多种条件下实验结果均吻合较好。分析计算所得各能量损失结果表明,弹体内芯材料的变化对弹体侵彻能力的影响较小;侵彻中靶板塞块获得的能量在弹体侵彻动能损失中比重最大;外壳前端内沿对靶板的剪切能耗对弹体动能损失的影响可以忽略。

  20. Health risks related to illegal and on-line sale of drugs and food supplements: results of a survey on marketed products in Italy from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, Maria Cristina; Manna, Livia; Bartolomei, Monica; Rodomonte, Andrea Luca; Bertocchi, Paola; Antoniella, Eleonora; Romanini, Laura; Alimonti, Stefano; Rufini, Leandro; Valvo, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The increasing illegal and on-line market of medicines and food supplements is helping the widespread diffusion of harmful counterfeit and forbidden products among consumers of developed countries. The objectives of this survey were the description of the main frauds recognized by public officers and the detection of illegal or counterfeit drugs and food supplements. Medicines and food supplements found by Police forces on the illegal market or resulting from seizures made by Italian Customs authorities were visually inspected and analysed to evaluate their quality and the presence of other undeclared substances. The visual inspection and the chemical analysis revealed unsuitable packaging (mostly lacking of adequate information for consumers), absence of the declared active substances and presence of undeclared active substances. Products containing doping agents, illegal substances and active ingredients requiring medical supervision were found. The present work confirmed the health risk associated with assumption of medicines purchased on the Internet and from the illegal supply chain and evidenced a new threat to consumer safety related to the presence of pharmaceutical active ingredients in food supplements claiming to contain only "natural ingredients".