WorldWideScience

Sample records for target experimental systems

  1. EXPERIMENTAL TARGET INJECTION AND TRACKING SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION AND SINGLE SHOT TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PETZOLDT, R.W.; ALEXANDER, N.B.; DRAKE, T.J.; GOODIN, D.T; JONESTRACK, K; VERMILLION, B.A

    2003-01-01

    Targets must be injected into an IFE power plant at a rate of approximately 5 to 10 Hz. Targets must be tracked very accurately to allow driver beams to be aligned with defined points on the targets with accuracy ± 150 (micro)m for indirect drive and ± 20 (micro)m for direct drive. An experimental target injection and tracking system has been constructed at General Atomics. The injector system will be used as a tool for testing the survivability of various target designs and provide feedback to the target designers. Helium gas propels the targets down an 8 m gun barrel up to 400 m/s. Direct-drive targets are protected in the barrel by sabots that are spring loaded to separate into two halves after acceleration. A sabot deflector directs the sabot halves away from the target injection path. Targets will be optically tracked with laser beams and line-scan cameras. Target position and arrival time will be predicted in real time based on early target position measurements. The system installation will be described. System testing to overcome excessive projectile wear and debris in the gun barrel is presented

  2. Experimental study of liquid-metal target designs of accelerating-controlled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iarmonov, Mikhail; Makhov, Kirill; Novozhilova, Olga; Meluzov, A.G.; Beznosov, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Models of a liquid-metal target of an accelerator-controlled system have been experimentally studied at the Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University to develop an optimal design of the flow part of the target. The main explored variants of liquid-metal targets are: Design with a diaphragm (firm-and-impervious plug) mounted on the pipe tap of particle transport from the accelerator cavity to the working cavity of the liquid-metal target. Design without a diaphragm on the pipe tab of particle transport from the accelerator. The study was carried out in a high-temperature liquid-metal test bench under the conditions close to full-scale ones: the temperature of the eutectic lead-bismuth alloy was 260degC - 400degC, the coolant mass flow was 5-80 t/h, and the rarefaction in the gas cavity was 10 5 Pa, the coefficient of geometric similarity equal to 1. The experimental studies of hydrodynamic characteristics of flow parts in the designs of targets under full-scale conditions indicated high efficiency of a target in triggering, operating, and deactivating modes. Research and technology instructions for designs of the flow part of the liquid-metal target, the target design as a whole, and the target circuit of accelerator-controlled systems were formulated as a result of the studies. (author)

  3. Experimental study of hydrodynamics of target system construction with liquid metallic coolant on water models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznosov, A.; Davidov, D.; Khokhlov, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is about experimental study of hydrodynamics of target system construction with a spherical beam window (membrane). The visualization of current and current velocity fields in energy release area was considered. The findings are used to optimize the geometrical characteristics of target system. Also report contains the information about functioning accelerator-driven system, description it principle circuit and description of basic requirements what the target design should satisfy. (authors)

  4. Target experimental area and systems of the Us national ignition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, M.; Van Wonterghem, B.; MacGowan, B.J.; Hibbard, W.; Kalantar, D.; Lee, F.D.; Pittenger, L.; Wong, K.

    2000-01-01

    One of the major goals of the US National Ignition Facility is the demonstration of laser driven fusion ignition and burn of targets by inertial confinement and provide capability for a wide variety of high energy density physics experiments. The NIF target area houses the optical systems required to focus the 192 beamlets to a target precisely positioned at the center of the 10 meter diameter, 10-cm thick aluminum target chamber. The chamber serves as mounting surface for the 48 final optics assemblies, the target alignment and positioning equipment, and the target diagnostics. The internal surfaces of the chamber are protected by louvered steel beam dumps. The target area also provides the necessary shielding against target emission and environmental protection equipment. Despite its complexity, the design provides the flexibility to accommodate the needs of the various NIF user groups, such as direct and indirect drive irradiation geometries, modular final optics design, capability to handle cryogenic targets, and easily re-configurable diagnostic instruments. Efficient target area operations are ensured by using line-replaceable designs for systems requiring frequent inspection, maintenance and reconfiguration, such as the final optics, debris shields, phase plates and the diagnostic instruments. A precision diagnostic instrument manipulator (DIMS) allows fast removal and precise repositioning of diagnostic instruments. In addition we will describe several activities to enhance the target chamber availability, such as the target debris mitigation, the use of standard experimental configurations and the development of smart shot operations planning tools. (authors)

  5. Target experimental area and systems of the U.S. National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, M; Van Wonterghem, B; MacGowan, B J; Hibbard, W; Kalantar, D; Lee, F D; Pittenger, L; Wong, K

    1999-01-01

    One of the major goals of the US National Ignition Facility is the demonstration of laser driven fusion ignition and burn of targets by inertial confinement and provide capability for a wide variety of high energy density physics experiments. The NIF target area houses the optical systems required to focus the 192 beamlets to a target precisely positioned at the center of the 10 meter diameter, 10-cm thick aluminum target chamber. The chamber serves as mounting surface for the 48 final optics assemblies, the target alignment and positioning equipment, and the target diagnostics. The internal surfaces of the chamber are protected by louvered steel beam dumps. The target area also provides the necessary shielding against target emission and environmental protection equipment. Despite its complexity, the design provides the flexibility to accommodate the needs of the various NIF user groups, such as direct and indirect drive irradiation geometries, modular final optics design, capability to handle cryogenic targets, and easily re-configurable diagnostic instruments. Efficient target area operations are ensured by using line-replaceable designs for systems requiring frequent inspection, maintenance and reconfiguration, such as the final optics, debris shields, phase plates and the diagnostic instruments. A precision diagnostic instrument manipulator (DIMS) allows fast removal and precise repositioning of diagnostic instruments. In addition the authors describe several activities to enhance the target chamber availability, such as the target debris mitigation, the use of standard experimental configurations and the development of smart shot operations planning tools

  6. Experimental targeting of chaos via controlled symbolic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corron, Ned J.; Pethel, Shawn D.

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter, we report experimental targeting in a chaotic system by controlling symbolic dynamics. We acquire and control an electronic circuit using small perturbations to elicit a desired objective state starting from an arbitrary, uncontrolled state. The control perturbations are calculated using a symbolic targeting sequence and applied using dynamic limiting control

  7. Experimental results from a flowing-lithium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annese, C.E.; Schwartz, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Hydraulic stability of a free surface lithium jet was demonstrated at 260 0 C and from the middle-vacuum region of 0.01 Pa (10 - 4 Torr) up to 124 kPa (18 psia). The jet is formed by flowing lithium at rates to 0.04 m 3 /s (600 GPM) through a precisely defined nozzle which directs the flow along a curved wall where velocities of up to 17 m/s are attained. This nozzle and curved wall configuration form the basis of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium target. A full-size experimental model of this target is presently under test with flowing lithium in the Experimental Lithium System (ELS). The FMIT is being developed for the Department of Energy by the Westinghouse Hanford Company at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory

  8. Experimental methods in radioactive ion-beam target/ion source development and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welton, R.F.; Alton, G.D.; Cui, B.; Murray, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed off-line experimental techniques and apparatuses that permit direct measurement of effusive-flow delay times and ionization efficiencies for nearly any chemically reactive element in high-temperature target/ion sources (TIS) commonly used for on-line radioactive ion-beam (RIB) generation. The apparatuses include a hot Ta valve for effusive-flow delay-time measurements, a cooled molecular injection system for determination of ionization efficiencies, and a gas flow measurement/control system for introducing very low, well-defined molecular flows into the TIS. Measurements are performed on a test stand using molecular feed compounds containing stable complements of the radioactive nuclei of interest delivered to the TIS at flow rates commensurate with on-line RIB generation. In this article, the general techniques are described and effusive-flow delay times and ionization efficiency measurements are reported for fluorine in an electron-beam plasma target/ion source developed for RIB generation and operated in both positive- and negative-ion extraction modes. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  9. The GEKKO XII-HIPER (High Intensity Plasma Experimental Research) system relevant to ignition targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, N.; Nakatsuka, M.; Azechi, H.

    2001-01-01

    To test high gain targets surrogated in the planar geometry, we have constructed a new experimental system (HIPER) which provides the high ablation pressure with a uniform irradiance profile. These performances were achieved by bundling twelve beams of the existing GEKKO XII into a F/3 focus cone. The partially coherent light is introduced for the beam smoothing of a green foot pulse consisting of three beams, and the three-directional smoothing by spectral dispersion is utilized for residual nine beams delivering a blue main drive pulse. The detail of design concept and results of initial activation of this system are reported. (author)

  10. Simulations of effusion from ISOL target/ion source systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the low- and high-conductivity Target/Ion Source systems used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for effusion measurements are performed. Comparisons with the corresponding experimental data for the different geometries are presented and discussed. Independent checks of the simulation using data for simple geometries and using the conductance approach well known in vacuum technology are performed. A simulation-based comparison between the low- and high-conductivity systems is also presented

  11. Lead-Bismuth Eutectic cooled experimental Accelerator Driven System. Windowless target unit thermal-hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, F.; Ferri, R.; Moreau, V.

    2004-01-01

    A main concern related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy is the safe management of nuclear wastes, with particular attention to long-lived fission products. An increasing attention has recently been addressed to transmutation systems (Accelerator Driven System: ADS) able to 'burn' the actinides and some of the long-lived fission products (High-Level Waste: HLW), transforming them in short or medium-lived wastes that may be easier managed and stored in the geological disposal, with the consequent easier acceptability by population. An ADS consists of a subcritical-core coupled with an accelerator by means of a target. This paper deals with the thermal-hydraulic analysis, performed with STAR-CD and RELAP5 codes for the windowless target unit of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) cooled experimental ADS (XADS), both to assess its behaviour during operational and accident sequences and to provide input data for the thermal-mechanical analyses. It also reports a description of modifications properly implemented in the codes used for the assessment of this kind of plants. (author)

  12. Startup of Experimental Lithium System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, D.L.

    1980-06-01

    The Experimental Lithium System (ELS) is designed for full-scale testing of targets and other lithium system components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. The system also serves as a test bed for development of lithium purification and characterization equipment, provides experience in operation of large lithium systems, and helps guide FMIT design

  13. Experimental lithium system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, J.M.; Berg, J.D.; Kolowith, R.; Miller, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Experimental Lithium System is a test loop built to support design and operation of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility. ELS has achieved over 15,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program has demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including an electromagnetic pump, lithium jet target, and vacuum system. Data on materials corrosion and behavior of lithium impurities are also presented. (author)

  14. Experimental studies of spallation on thin target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borne, F.; Crespin, S.; Drake, D.; Frehaut, J.; Ledoux, X.; Lochard, J.P.; Martinez, E.; Patin, Y.; Petibon, E.; Pras, Ph.; Boudard, A.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Terrien, Y.; Bouyer, P.; Brochard, F.; Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Durand, J.M.; Meigo, S.I.; Milleret, G.; Thun, J.; Whittal, D.M.; Wlazlo, W.; Lebrun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lefebvres, F.; Louvel, M.; Varignon, C.; Menard, S.; Stugge, L.; Hanappe, F.

    2000-01-01

    Angular distribution of spallation neutrons induced by protons (0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 GeV) and deuterons (0.8 and 1.6 GeV beams on various thin targets have been measured at SATURNE (CEA Saclay/France) with two complementary experimental techniques: the time-of-flight measurement with tagged incident protons for low energy neutrons (2-400 MeV) and the use of a hydrogen converter associated are analysed, interpreted and finally compared with theoretical previsions of simulation codes using the TIERCE system including the intranuclear cascade codes of BERTINI and CUGNON. (authors)

  15. Experimental and numerical studies on free surface flow of windowless target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, G.Y.; Gu, H.Y.; Cheng, X.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental and CFD studies on free surface flow have been performed in a scaled windowless target. ► Flow structure inside spallation area can be divided into three typical zones. ► Under large Reynolds number, large scale vortex can be observed. ► CFD studies have been conducted by using both LES and RANS (k-ω SST) turbulence models. ► LES model provides better numerical prediction on free surface behavior and flow transient. - Abstract: The formation and control method of the coolant free surface is one of the key technologies for the design of windowless targets in the accelerator driven system (ADS). In the recent study, experimental and numerical investigations on the free surface flow have been performed in a scaled windowless target by using water as the model fluid. The planar laser induced fluorescence technique has been applied to visualize the free surface flow pattern inside the spallation area. Experiments have been carried out with the Reynolds number in the range of 30,000–50,000. The structure and features of flow vortex have been investigated. The experimental results show that the free surface is vulnerable to the vortex movement. In addition, CFD simulations have been performed under the experimental conditions, using LES and RANS (k-ω SST) turbulence models, respectively. The numerical results of LES model agree qualitatively well with the experimental data related to both flow pattern and free surface behavior.

  16. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m 3 lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion

  17. Experimental study on neutronics in bombardment of thick targets by high energy proton beams for accelerator-driven sub-critical system

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Shi Lun; Shi Yong Qian; Shen Qing Biao; Wan Jun Sheng; Brandt, R; Vater, P; Kulakov, B A; Krivopustov, M I; Sosnin, A N

    2002-01-01

    The experimental study on neutronics in the target region of accelerator-driven sub-critical system is carried out by using the high energy accelerator in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia. The experiments with targets U(Pb), Pb and Hg bombarded by 0.533, 1.0, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV proton beams show that the neutron yield ratio of U(Pb) to Hg and Pb to Hg targets is (2.10 +- 0.10) and (1.76 +- 0.33), respectively. Hg target is disadvantageous to U(Pb) and Pb targets to get more neutrons. Neutron yield drops along 20 cm thick targets as the thickness penetrated by protons increases. The lower the energy of protons, the steeper the neutron yield drops. In order to get more uniform field of neutrons in the targets, the energy of protons from accelerators should not be lower than 1 GeV. The spectra of secondary neutrons produced by different energies of protons are similar, but the proportion of neutrons with higher energy gradually increases as the proton energy increases

  18. Experimental and numerical investigation of liquid-metal free-surface flows in spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batta, A., E-mail: batta@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany Hermann-von-Helmholtz-PLATZ 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Class, A.G.; Litfin, K.; Wetzel, Th. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany Hermann-von-Helmholtz-PLATZ 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Moreau, V.; Massidda, L. [CRS4 Centre for Advanced Studies, Research and Development in Sardinia, Polaris, Edificio 1, 09010 Pula, CA (Italy); Thomas, S.; Lakehal, D. [ASCOMP GmbH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Angeli, D.; Losi, G. [DIEF – Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); Mooney, K.G. [University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Amherst (United States); Van Tichelen, K. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Experimental study of free surface for lead bismuth eutectic target. • Numerical investigation of free surface of a liquid metal target. • Advanced free surface modelling. - Abstract: Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are extensively investigated for the transmutation of high-level nuclear waste within many worldwide research programs. The first advanced design of an ADS system is currently developed in SCK• CEN, Mol, Belgium: the Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications (MYRRHA). Many European research programs support the design of MYRRHA. In the framework of the Euratom project ‘Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative nuclear Systems (THINS)’ a liquid-metal free-surface experiment is performed at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA) of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The experiment investigates a full-scale model of the concentric free-surface spallation target of MYRRHA using Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) as coolant. In parallel, numerical free surface models are developed and tested which are reviewed in the article. A volume-of-fluid method, a moving mesh model, a free surface model combining the Level-Set method with Large-Eddy Simulation model and a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics approach are investigated. Verification of the tested models is based on the experimental results obtained within the THINS project and on previous water experiments performed at the University Catholic de Louvain (UCL) within the Euratom project ‘EUROpean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS)’. The design of the target enables a high fluid velocity and a stable surface at the beam entry. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of both experimental and numerical results obtained for free surface target characterization. Without entering in technical details, the status, the major achievements and lessons for the future with respect to

  19. Complete fabrication of target experimental chamber and implement initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Dickinson, M.R.; Henestroza, E.; Katayanagi, T.; Jung, J.Y.; Lee, C.W.; Leitner, M.; Ni, P.; Roy, P.; Seidl, P.; Waldron, W.; Welch, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) has completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for future Warm Dense Matter (WDM) experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. This achievement provides to the HIFS-VNL unique and state-of-the-art experimental capabilities in preparation for the planned target heating experiments using intense heavy ion beams

  20. Muon-catalyzed fusion experiment target and detector system. Preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.; Watts, K.D.; Caffrey, A.J.; Walter, J.B.

    1982-03-01

    We present detailed plans for the target and particle detector systems for the muon-catalyzed fusion experiment. Requirements imposed on the target vessel by experimental conditions and safety considerations are delineated. Preliminary designs for the target vessel capsule and secondary containment vessel have been developed which meet these requirements. In addition, the particle detection system is outlined, including associated fast electronics and on-line data acquisition. Computer programs developed to study the target and detector system designs are described

  1. Experimental results obtained with the simulated cold moderator system. System characteristics and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aso, Tomokazu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Toshio; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have been developing a Mega-Watt scale spallation target system. In the system, neutrons generated in a target are sorted out their energy to the proper values in liquid-hydrogen moderators. Then, the liquid-hydrogen is forced to circulate in order to suppress hydrogen temperature increase. In the operation of moderators, it is very important to establish a safety protection system against emergency shutdown of the accelerator or accidents of the cold moderator system. In order to obtain a technical data for design and safety review of the liquid-hydrogen system, we have fabricated an experimental apparatus simulated the cold moderator system using liquid nitrogen (max. 1.5 MPa, mini. 77 K) instead of liquid hydrogen. The experiments on a controllability of the system were carried out to investigate dynamic characteristics of the system. This report presents the experimental results and technical issues for the construction of a practical liquid-hydrogen moderator system of the Mega-Watt scale target system. (author)

  2. Active Multimodal Sensor System for Target Recognition and Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yufu; Zhang, Guirong; Zou, Zhaofan; Liu, Ziyue; Mao, Jiansen

    2017-06-28

    High accuracy target recognition and tracking systems using a single sensor or a passive multisensor set are susceptible to external interferences and exhibit environmental dependencies. These difficulties stem mainly from limitations to the available imaging frequency bands, and a general lack of coherent diversity of the available target-related data. This paper proposes an active multimodal sensor system for target recognition and tracking, consisting of a visible, an infrared, and a hyperspectral sensor. The system makes full use of its multisensor information collection abilities; furthermore, it can actively control different sensors to collect additional data, according to the needs of the real-time target recognition and tracking processes. This level of integration between hardware collection control and data processing is experimentally shown to effectively improve the accuracy and robustness of the target recognition and tracking system.

  3. Experimental functional realization of attribute grammar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Attali

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an experimental functional realization of attribute grammar(AG system for personal computers. For AG system functioning only Turbo Prolog compiler is required. The system functioning is based on a specially elaborated metalanguage for AG description, universal syntactic and semantic constructors. The AG system provides automatic generation of target compiler (syntax--oriented software using Turbo Prolog as object language.

  4. Experimental results obtained with the simulated cold moderator system. System characteristics and technical issues

    CERN Document Server

    Aso, T; Hino, R; Kaminaga, M; Kinoshita, H; Takahashi, T

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have been developing a Mega-Watt scale spallation target system. In the system, neutrons generated in a target are sorted out their energy to the proper values in liquid-hydrogen moderators. Then, the liquid-hydrogen is forced to circulate in order to suppress hydrogen temperature increase. In the operation of moderators, it is very important to establish a safety protection system against emergency shutdown of the accelerator or accidents of the cold moderator system. In order to obtain a technical data for design and safety review of the liquid-hydrogen system, we have fabricated an experimental apparatus simulated the cold moderator system using liquid nitrogen (max. 1.5 MPa, mini. 77 K) instead of liquid hydrogen. The experiments on a controllability of the system were carried out to investigate dynamic characteristics of the system. This report presents the experimental results and technical issues for the co...

  5. Elemental Technologies for Lead-Bismuth Spallation Target System in J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obayashi, H.; Yamaguchi, K.; Saito, S.; Sugawara, T.; Takei, H.; Sasa, T.

    2015-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been researching and developing an Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) as a dedicated system for the transmutation of long-lived radioactive nuclides. The ADS proposed by JAEA uses the lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy as a spallation target material and a coolant. In the various R and D for ADS, construction of the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) is planned under the framework of the J-PARC project as a preceding step before the construction of demonstrative ADS. In this R and D, TEF is considered for the experimental investigation of the feasibility of the beam window, the structural materials, and to investigate the operation properties of the target system by using 400 MeV-250 kW proton beam. This target system is consisted of various elements and must be able to operate without troubles during an operation period of TEF facility. Furthermore, in the maintenance period after the operation, because the inside of a hot cell storing a target is exposed to strong radiations, all elements must be designed as remote control devices. In this study, the present conditions of the design and the result of performance test of each important elements were confirmed in the realisation of the LBE target system, such as the monitoring system of flow rate by using the ultrasonic method, the heater system with the metallic heat insulator joined to a flow channel of LBE, and the operability of remote handing. (authors)

  6. Mechanical design of experimental apparatus for FIREX cryo-target cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, A.; Norimatsu, T.; Nakai, M.; Sakagami, H.; Fujioka, S.; Shiraga, H.; Azechi, H.

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical design of an experimental apparatus for FIREX cryo-target cooling is described. Gaseous helium (GHe) sealing system at a cryogenic environment is an important issue for laser fusion experiments. The dedicated loading system was designed for a metal gasket. We take U-TIGHTSEAL® (Usui Kokusai Sangyo Kaisha. Ltd.) with an indium plated copper jacket as an example. According to its specification, a linear load of 110 N/m along its circumference is the optimum compression; however a lower load would still maintain helium (He) leak below the required level. Its sealing performance was investigated systematically. Our system demanded 27 N/mm of the load to keep He leak tightness in a cryogenic environment. Once leak tightness was obtained, it could be reduced to 9.5 N/mm.

  7. Experimental and numerical study on free surface behavior of windowless target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Guanyu; Gu Hanyang; Cheng Xu

    2012-01-01

    The formation and control method of coolant free surface is one of the key technologies for the design of windowless target in accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS). Experimental and CFD investigations on free surface behavior were performed in a scaled windowless target model by using water as test fluid. Laser induced fluorescence was applied for flow field visualization. The free surface and flow field visualization were obtained at Re=30000-50000. Under high Re conditions, an unsteady vortex pair was obtained. By decreasing Re, the structure of the vortex becomes more turbulent. CFD simulation was performed using LES and kω-SST turbulence models, separately. The numerical results show that LES model can qualitatively reproduce the characteristics of flow field and free surface. (authors)

  8. Comprehensive predictions of target proteins based on protein-chemical interaction using virtual screening and experimental verifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroki; Harada, Hiroko; Nakamura, Masaomi; Futamura, Yushi; Ito, Akihiro; Yoshida, Minoru; Iemura, Shun-Ichiro; Shin-Ya, Kazuo; Doi, Takayuki; Takahashi, Takashi; Natsume, Tohru; Imoto, Masaya; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

    2012-04-05

    Identification of the target proteins of bioactive compounds is critical for elucidating the mode of action; however, target identification has been difficult in general, mostly due to the low sensitivity of detection using affinity chromatography followed by CBB staining and MS/MS analysis. We applied our protocol of predicting target proteins combining in silico screening and experimental verification for incednine, which inhibits the anti-apoptotic function of Bcl-xL by an unknown mechanism. One hundred eighty-two target protein candidates were computationally predicted to bind to incednine by the statistical prediction method, and the predictions were verified by in vitro binding of incednine to seven proteins, whose expression can be confirmed in our cell system.As a result, 40% accuracy of the computational predictions was achieved successfully, and we newly found 3 incednine-binding proteins. This study revealed that our proposed protocol of predicting target protein combining in silico screening and experimental verification is useful, and provides new insight into a strategy for identifying target proteins of small molecules.

  9. Comprehensive predictions of target proteins based on protein-chemical interaction using virtual screening and experimental verifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Hiroki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of the target proteins of bioactive compounds is critical for elucidating the mode of action; however, target identification has been difficult in general, mostly due to the low sensitivity of detection using affinity chromatography followed by CBB staining and MS/MS analysis. Results We applied our protocol of predicting target proteins combining in silico screening and experimental verification for incednine, which inhibits the anti-apoptotic function of Bcl-xL by an unknown mechanism. One hundred eighty-two target protein candidates were computationally predicted to bind to incednine by the statistical prediction method, and the predictions were verified by in vitro binding of incednine to seven proteins, whose expression can be confirmed in our cell system. As a result, 40% accuracy of the computational predictions was achieved successfully, and we newly found 3 incednine-binding proteins. Conclusions This study revealed that our proposed protocol of predicting target protein combining in silico screening and experimental verification is useful, and provides new insight into a strategy for identifying target proteins of small molecules.

  10. Development of a higher power cooling system for lithium targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, B; Green, S; Scott, M C; Bennett, J R J; Edgecock, T R

    2015-12-01

    The accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy beam at the University of Birmingham is based around a solid thick lithium target cooled by heavy water. Significant upgrades to Birmingham's Dynamitron accelerator are planned prior to commencing a clinical trial. These upgrades will result in an increase in maximum achievable beam current to at least 3 mA. Various upgrades to the target cooling system to cope with this increased power have been investigated. Tests of a phase change coolant known as "binary ice" have been carried out using an induction heater to provide a comparable power input to the Dynamitron beam. The experimental data shows no improvement over chilled water in the submerged jet system, with both systems exhibiting the same heat input to target temperature relation for a given flow rate. The relationship between the cooling circuit pumping rate and the target temperature in the submerged jet system has also been tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An underwater ranging system based on photoacoustic effect occurring on target surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kai; Hu, Kai; Li, Xinghui; Wang, Lidai; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Xiaohao

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an underwater ranging system based on photoacoustic effect occurring on target surface is proposed. In this proposal, laser pulse generated by blue-green laser is directly incident on target surface, where the photoacoustic effect occurs and a sound source is formed. And then the sound wave which is also called photoacoustic signal is received by the ultrasonic receiver after passing through water. According to the time delay between transmitting laser and receiving photoacoustic signal, and sound velocity in water, the distance between the target and the ultrasonic receiver can be calculated. Differing from underwater range finding by only laser, this approach can avoid backscattering of laser beam, so easier to implement. Experimental system according to this principle has been constructed to verify the feasibility of this technology. The experimental results showed that a ranging accuracy of 1 mm can be effectively achieved when the target is close to the ultrasonic receiver.

  12. Analysis of an XADS Target with the System Code TRACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Wadim; Sanchez Espinoza, Victor H.; Feng, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Accelerator-driven systems (ADS) present an option to reduce the radioactive waste of the nuclear industry. The experimental Accelerator-Driven System (XADS) has been designed to investigate the feasibility of using ADS on an industrial scale to burn minor actinides. The target section lies in the middle of the subcritical core and is bombarded by a proton beam to produce spallation neutrons. The thermal energy produced from this reaction requires a heat removal system for the target section. The target is cooled by liquid lead-bismuth-eutectics (LBE) in the primary system which in turn transfers the heat via a heat exchanger (HX) to the secondary coolant, Diphyl THT (DTHT), a synthetic diathermic fluid. Since this design is still in development, a detailed investigation of the system is necessary to evaluate the behavior during normal and transient operations. Due to the lack of experimental facilities and data for ADS, the analyses are mostly done using thermal hydraulic codes. In addition to evaluating the thermal hydraulics of the XADS, this paper also benchmarks a new code developed by the NRC, TRACE, against other established codes. The events used in this study are beam power switch-on/off transients and a loss of heat sink accident. The obtained results from TRACE were in good agreement with the results of various other codes. (authors)

  13. Targeting Accuracy, Procedure Times and User Experience of 240 Experimental MRI Biopsies Guided by a Clinical Add-On Navigation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Harald; Riedel, Tim; Garnov, Nikita; Thörmer, Gregor; Kahn, Thomas; Moche, Michael

    2015-01-01

    MRI is of great clinical utility for the guidance of special diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The majority of such procedures are performed iteratively ("in-and-out") in standard, closed-bore MRI systems with control imaging inside the bore and needle adjustments outside the bore. The fundamental limitations of such an approach have led to the development of various assistance techniques, from simple guidance tools to advanced navigation systems. The purpose of this work was to thoroughly assess the targeting accuracy, workflow and usability of a clinical add-on navigation solution on 240 simulated biopsies by different medical operators. Navigation relied on a virtual 3D MRI scene with real-time overlay of the optically tracked biopsy needle. Smart reference markers on a freely adjustable arm ensured proper registration. Twenty-four operators - attending (AR) and resident radiologists (RR) as well as medical students (MS) - performed well-controlled biopsies of 10 embedded model targets (mean diameter: 8.5 mm, insertion depths: 17-76 mm). Targeting accuracy, procedure times and 13 Likert scores on system performance were determined (strong agreement: 5.0). Differences in diagnostic success rates (AR: 93%, RR: 88%, MS: 81%) were not significant. In contrast, between-group differences in biopsy times (AR: 4:15, RR: 4:40, MS: 5:06 min:sec) differed significantly (p<0.01). Mean overall rating was 4.2. The average operator would use the system again (4.8) and stated that the outcome justifies the extra effort (4.4). Lowest agreement was reported for the robustness against external perturbations (2.8). The described combination of optical tracking technology with an automatic MRI registration appears to be sufficiently accurate for instrument guidance in a standard (closed-bore) MRI environment. High targeting accuracy and usability was demonstrated on a relatively large number of procedures and operators. Between groups with different expertise there were

  14. Targeting Accuracy, Procedure Times and User Experience of 240 Experimental MRI Biopsies Guided by a Clinical Add-On Navigation System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Busse

    Full Text Available MRI is of great clinical utility for the guidance of special diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The majority of such procedures are performed iteratively ("in-and-out" in standard, closed-bore MRI systems with control imaging inside the bore and needle adjustments outside the bore. The fundamental limitations of such an approach have led to the development of various assistance techniques, from simple guidance tools to advanced navigation systems. The purpose of this work was to thoroughly assess the targeting accuracy, workflow and usability of a clinical add-on navigation solution on 240 simulated biopsies by different medical operators.Navigation relied on a virtual 3D MRI scene with real-time overlay of the optically tracked biopsy needle. Smart reference markers on a freely adjustable arm ensured proper registration. Twenty-four operators - attending (AR and resident radiologists (RR as well as medical students (MS - performed well-controlled biopsies of 10 embedded model targets (mean diameter: 8.5 mm, insertion depths: 17-76 mm. Targeting accuracy, procedure times and 13 Likert scores on system performance were determined (strong agreement: 5.0.Differences in diagnostic success rates (AR: 93%, RR: 88%, MS: 81% were not significant. In contrast, between-group differences in biopsy times (AR: 4:15, RR: 4:40, MS: 5:06 min:sec differed significantly (p<0.01. Mean overall rating was 4.2. The average operator would use the system again (4.8 and stated that the outcome justifies the extra effort (4.4. Lowest agreement was reported for the robustness against external perturbations (2.8.The described combination of optical tracking technology with an automatic MRI registration appears to be sufficiently accurate for instrument guidance in a standard (closed-bore MRI environment. High targeting accuracy and usability was demonstrated on a relatively large number of procedures and operators. Between groups with different expertise there were

  15. Fixed Target Beauty Physics Experimental Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbincius, P.H.

    1987-11-01

    The current and near term future fixed target physics efforts in observing particles with open beauty are reviewed. This includes a compilation of the non-observation upper limits and the observation of both upsilon and b-states. A short discussion of the theoretical predictions for the hadro-produced beauty pairs is included. The major part of this review is devoted to the techniques and tricks employed, a survey of the current and proposed experiments. A personal summary of the experimental prospects concludes this report. 28 refs., 26 figs

  16. Computational-experimental approach to drug-target interaction mapping: A case study on kinase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cichonska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to relatively high costs and labor required for experimental profiling of the full target space of chemical compounds, various machine learning models have been proposed as cost-effective means to advance this process in terms of predicting the most potent compound-target interactions for subsequent verification. However, most of the model predictions lack direct experimental validation in the laboratory, making their practical benefits for drug discovery or repurposing applications largely unknown. Here, we therefore introduce and carefully test a systematic computational-experimental framework for the prediction and pre-clinical verification of drug-target interactions using a well-established kernel-based regression algorithm as the prediction model. To evaluate its performance, we first predicted unmeasured binding affinities in a large-scale kinase inhibitor profiling study, and then experimentally tested 100 compound-kinase pairs. The relatively high correlation of 0.77 (p < 0.0001 between the predicted and measured bioactivities supports the potential of the model for filling the experimental gaps in existing compound-target interaction maps. Further, we subjected the model to a more challenging task of predicting target interactions for such a new candidate drug compound that lacks prior binding profile information. As a specific case study, we used tivozanib, an investigational VEGF receptor inhibitor with currently unknown off-target profile. Among 7 kinases with high predicted affinity, we experimentally validated 4 new off-targets of tivozanib, namely the Src-family kinases FRK and FYN A, the non-receptor tyrosine kinase ABL1, and the serine/threonine kinase SLK. Our sub-sequent experimental validation protocol effectively avoids any possible information leakage between the training and validation data, and therefore enables rigorous model validation for practical applications. These results demonstrate that the kernel

  17. Some results of experimental investigation of super-deep penetration into the metal's targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andilevko, S.K.; Roman, O.V.; Usherenko, S.M.; Shilkin, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of Super-Deep Penetration (SDP) is briefly presented. Various experimental techniques, including that based on neutron-activated autoradiography (NAAR), for experimentally investigating this phenomenon are described. Results from a number of investigations in which the effect on SDP of initial target temperature, the dependence of the concentration on depth for different powder particles and the use of bimetallic targets, are reviewed. The complicated nature of the SDP process and the need for a wider range of experimental data if it is to be fully understood are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Experimental inventory verification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steverson, C.A.; Angerman, M.I.

    1991-01-01

    As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) goals and Department of Energy (DOE) inventory requirements are frequently in conflict at facilities across the DOE complex. The authors wish, on one hand, to verify the presence of correct amounts of nuclear materials that are in storage or in process; yet on the other hand, we wish to achieve ALARA goals by keeping individual and collective exposures as low as social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations permit. The Experimental Inventory Verification System (EIVSystem) is a computer-based, camera-driven system that utilizes image processing technology to detect change in vault areas. Currently in the test and evaluation phase at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this system guards personnel. The EIVSystem continually monitors the vault, providing proof of changed status for objects sorted within the vault. This paper reports that these data could provide the basis for reducing inventory requirements when no change has occurred, thus helping implement ALARA policy; the data will also help describe there target area of an inventory when change has been shown to occur

  19. WEBEXPIR: Windowless target electron beam experimental irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Marc; Schuurmans, Paul; Heyse, Jan; Rosseel, Kris; Tichelen, Katrien Van; Nactergal, Benoit; Vandeplassche, Dirk; Aoust, Thierry; Abs, Michel; Guertin, Arnaud; Buhour, Jean-Michel; Cadiou, Arnaud; Abderrahim, Hamid Ait

    2008-01-01

    The windowless target electron beam experimental irradiation (WEBEXPIR) program was set-up as part of the MYRRHA/XT-ADS R and D effort on the spallation target design to investigate the interaction of a proton beam with a liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) free surface. In particular, possible free surface distortion or shockwave effects in nominal conditions and during sudden beam on/off transient situations, as well as possible enhanced evaporation were assessed. An experiment was conceived at the IBA TT-1000 Rhodotron, where a 7 MeV electron beam was used to simulate the high power deposition at the MYRRHA/XT-ADS LBE free surface. The geometry and the LBE flow characteristics in the WEBEXPIR set-up were made as representative as possible of the actual situation in the MYRRHA/XT-ADS spallation target. Irradiation experiments were carried out at beam currents of up to 10 mA, corresponding to 40 times the nominal beam current necessary to reproduce the MYRRHA/XT-ADS conditions. Preliminary analyses show that the WEBEXPIR free surface flow was not disturbed by the interaction with the electron beam and that vacuum conditions stayed well within the design specifications

  20. Mercury erosion experiments for spallation target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro

    2003-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a plan to construct the spallation neutron source at the Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, under the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC). A mercury circulation system has been designed so as to supply mercury to the target stably under the rated flow rate of 41 m 3 /hr. Then, it was necessary to confirm a mercury pump performance from the viewpoint of making the mercury circulation system feasible, and more, to investigate erosion rate under the mercury flow as well as an amount of mercury remained on the surface after drain from the viewpoints of mechanical strength relating to the lifetime and remote handling of mercury components. The mercury pump performance was tested under the mercury flow conditions by using an experimental gear pump, which had almost the same structure as a practical mercury pump to be expected in the mercury circulation system, and the erosion rates in a mercury pipeline as well as the amount of mercury remained on the surface were also investigated. The discharged flow rates of the experimental gear pump increased linearly with the rotation speed, so that the gear pump would work as the flow meter. Erosion rates obtained under the mercury velocity less than 1.6 m/s was found to be so small that decrease of pipeline wall thickness would be 390 μm after 30-year operation under the rated mercury velocity of 0.7 m/s. For the amount of remaining mercury on the pipeline, remaining rates of weight and volume were estimated at 50.7 g/m 2 and 3.74 Hg-cm 3 /m 2 , respectively. Applying these remaining rates of weight and volume to the mercury target, the remaining mercury was estimated at about 106.5 g and 7.9 cm 3 . Radioactivity of this remaining mercury volume was found to be three-order lower than that of the target casing. (author)

  1. Experimental Investigations of a Precision Sensor for an Automatic Weapons Stabilizer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Korobiichuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental investigations of a precision sensor for an automatic weapons stabilizer system. It also describes the experimental equipment used and the structure of the developed sensor. A weapons stabilizer is designed for automatic guidance of an armament unit in the horizontal and vertical planes when firing at ground and air targets that are quickly maneuvering, and at lower speeds when firing anti-tank missiles, as well as the bypass of construction elements by the armament unit, and the automatic tracking of moving targets when interacting with a fire control system. The results of experimental investigations have shown that the error of the precision sensor developed on the basis of a piezoelectric element is 6 × 10−10 m/s2 under quasi-static conditions, and ~10−5 m/s2 for mobile use. This paper defines metrological and calibration properties of the developed sensor.

  2. Ex vivo investigation of magnetically targeted drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Fukui, S.; Fujimoto, S.; Mishima, F.; Takeda, S.; Izumi, Y.; Ohtani, S.; Fujitani, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2007-01-01

    In conventional systemic drug delivery the drug is administered by intravenous injection; it then travels to the heart from where it is pumped to all regions of the body. When the drug is aimed at a small target region, this method is extremely inefficient and leads to require much larger doses than those being necessary. In order to overcome this problem a number of targeted drug delivery methods are developed. One of these, magnetically targeted drug delivery system (MT-DDS) will be a promising way, which involves binding a drug to small biocompatible magnetic particles, injecting these into the blood stream and using a high gradient magnetic field to pull them out of suspension in the target region. In the present paper, we describe an ex vivo experimental work. It is also reported that navigation and accumulation test of the magnetic particles in the Y-shaped glass tube was performed in order to examine the threshold of the magnetic force for accumulation. It is found that accumulation of the magnetic particles was succeeded in the blood vessel when a permanent magnet was placed at the vicinity of the blood vessel. This result indicates the feasibility of the magnetically drug targeting in the blood vessel

  3. High-Speed Target Identification System Based on the Plume’s Spectral Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Lang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to recognize the target of high speed quickly and accurately, an identification system was designed based on analysis of the distribution characteristics of the plume spectrum. In the system, the target was aligned with visible light tracking module, and the spectral analysis of the target’s plume radiation was achieved by interference module. The distinguishing factor recognition algorithm was designed on basis of ratio of multifeature band peaks and valley mean values. Effective recognition of the high speed moving target could be achieved after partition of the active region and the influence of target motion on spectral acquisition was analyzed. In the experiment the small rocket combustion was used as the target. The spectral detection experiment was conducted at different speeds 2.0 km away from the detection system. Experimental results showed that spectral distribution had significant spectral offset in the same sampling period for the target with different speeds, but the spectral distribution was basically consistent. Through calculation of the inclusion relationship between distinguishing factor and distinction interval of the peak value and the valley value at the corresponding wave-bands, effective identification of target could be achieved.

  4. Universal method for effusive-flow characterization target ion source/vapor transport systems for radioactive ion beam generation (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Bilheux, J.-C.; Liu, Y.; Cole, J. A.; Williams, C.

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide interest in the use of accelerated radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for exploring reactions important in understanding the structure of the nucleus and nuclear astrophysical phenomena has motivated the construction of facilities dedicated to their production and acceleration. Many facilities utilize the isotope-separator-on-line (ISOL) method in which species of interest are generated within a solid or liquid target matrix. Experimentally useful RIBs are often difficult to generate by this technique because of the times required for diffusion from the interior of the target material, and to effusively transport the species of interest to the ion source following diffusion release in relation to its lifetime. Therefore, these delay times must be minimized. We have developed an experimental method that can be used to determine effusive-flow times of arbitrary geometry target/vapor transport systems. The technique utilizes a fast valve to measure effusive-flow times as short as 0.1 ms for any chemically active or inactive species through any target system, independent of size, geometry and materials of construction. In this report, we provide a theoretical basis for effusive flow through arbitrary geometry vapor transport systems, describe a universal experimental apparatus for measuring effusive-flow times, and provide time spectra for noble gases through prototype RIB target/vapor-transport systems

  5. Dosimetric accuracy of a treatment planning system for actively scanned proton beams and small target volumes: Monte Carlo and experimental validation

    CERN Document Server

    Magro, G; Mairani, A; Mirandola, A; Panizza, D; Russo, S; Ferrari, A; Valvo, F; Fossati, P; Ciocca, M

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), in optimising proton pencil beam dose distributions for small targets of different sizes (5–30 mm side) located at increasing depths in water. The TPS analytical algorithm was benchmarked against experimental data and the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code, previously validated for the selected beam-line. We tested the Siemens syngo® TPS plan optimisation module for water cubes fixing the configurable parameters at clinical standards, with homogeneous target coverage to a 2 Gy (RBE) dose prescription as unique goal. Plans were delivered and the dose at each volume centre was measured in water with a calibrated PTW Advanced Markus® chamber. An EBT3® film was also positioned at the phantom entrance window for the acquisition of 2D dose maps. Discrepancies between TPS calculated and MC simulated values were mainly due to the different lateral spread modeling and resulted in being related to the field-to-spot size r...

  6. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma: potential targets, experimental models, and clinical challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshida, Yujin; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Tanabe, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic fibrotic liver diseases such as viral hepatitis eventually develop liver cirrhosis, which causes occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Given the limited therapeutic efficacy in advanced HCC, prevention of HCC development could be an effective strategy for improving patient prognosis. However, there is still no established therapy to meet the goal. Studies have elucidated a wide variety of molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in HCC development. Genetically-engineered or chemically-treated experimental models of cirrhosis and HCC have been developed and shown their potential value in investigating molecular therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers for HCC prevention. In this review, we overview potential targets of prevention and currently available experimental models, and discuss strategies to translate the findings into clinical practice. PMID:22873223

  7. Nuclease Target Site Selection for Maximizing On-target Activity and Minimizing Off-target Effects in Genome Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ciaran M; Cradick, Thomas J; Fine, Eli J; Bao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The rapid advancement in targeted genome editing using engineered nucleases such as ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9 systems has resulted in a suite of powerful methods that allows researchers to target any genomic locus of interest. A complementary set of design tools has been developed to aid researchers with nuclease design, target site selection, and experimental validation. Here, we review the various tools available for target selection in designing engineered nucleases, and for quantifying nuclease activity and specificity, including web-based search tools and experimental methods. We also elucidate challenges in target selection, especially in predicting off-target effects, and discuss future directions in precision genome editing and its applications. PMID:26750397

  8. Thermal hydraulics of accelerator driven system windowless targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno ePanella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the fluid dynamics of the windowless spallation target of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS is presented. Several target mockup configurations have been investigated: the first one was a symmetrical target, that was made by two concentric cylinders, the other configurations are not symmetrical. In the experiments water has been used as hydraulic equivalent to lead-bismuth eutectic fluid. The experiments have been carried out at room temperature and flow rate up to 24 kg/s. The fluid velocity components have been measured by an ultrasound technique. The velocity field of the liquid within the target region either for the approximately axial-symmetrical configuration or for the not symmetrical ones as a function of the flow rate and the initial liquid level is presented. A comparison of experimental data with the prediction of the finite volume FLUENT code is also presented. Moreover the results of a 2D-3D numerical analysis that investigates the effect on the steady state thermal and flow fields due to the insertion of guide vanes in the windowless target unit of the EFIT project ADS nuclear reactor are presented, by analysing both the cold flow case (absence of power generation and the hot flow case (nominal power generation inside the target unit.

  9. Experimental study of the features of the running part liquid metal target on lead-bismuth alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznosov, A.V.; Meluzov, A.G.; Novozhilova, O.O.; Efanov, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of the through part of a full-scale liquid metal target of an accelerator-control system, where the working cavity of the target communicates directly with the particle accelerator cavity, are presented. Two design variants were investigated - with vertical and horizontal orientation of the target axis in space and spinning of the flow in front of the nozzle adapter located in front of the entrance of the eutectic into the working cavity of the target. The profiles obtained for the free coolant surface with liquid metal flowing through vertically and horizontally positioned targets are presented. It is confirmed that when the pressure of the free surface of the liquid metal corresponds to the pressure in the accelerator cavity it is possible that liquid metal will not flow into the cavity simulating the connecting piece for inflow of accelerated particles with the piece oriented vertically or horizontally [ru

  10. Spallation Neutron Source Accelerator Facility Target Safety and Non-safety Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, Ronald E.; DeVan, B.; Munro, John K. Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a proton accelerator facility that generates neutrons for scientific researchers by spallation of neutrons from a mercury target. The SNS became operational on April 28, 2006, with first beam on target at approximately 200 W. The SNS accelerator, target, and conventional facilities controls are integrated by standardized hardware and software throughout the facility and were designed and fabricated to SNS conventions to ensure compatibility of systems with Experimental Physics Integrated Control System (EPICS). ControlLogix Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) interface to instruments and actuators, and EPICS performs the high-level integration of the PLCs such that all operator control can be accomplished from the Central Control room using EPICS graphical screens that pass process variables to and from the PLCs. Three active safety systems were designed to industry standards ISA S84.01 and IEEE 603 to meet the desired reliability for these safety systems. The safety systems protect facility workers and the environment from mercury vapor, mercury radiation, and proton beam radiation. The facility operators operated many of the systems prior to beam on target and developed the operating procedures. The safety and non-safety control systems were tested extensively prior to beam on target. This testing was crucial to identify wiring and software errors and failed components, the result of which was few problems during operation with beam on target. The SNS has continued beam on target since April to increase beam power, check out the scientific instruments, and continue testing the operation of facility subsystems

  11. Nova target diagnostics control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severyn, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    During the past year the Nova target diagnostics control system was finished and put in service. The diagnostics loft constructed to the north of the target room provides the environmental conditions required to collect reliable target diagnostic data. These improvements include equipment cooling and isolation of the power source with strict control of instrumentation grounds to eliminate data corruption due to electromagnetic pulses from the laser power-conditioning system or from target implosion effects

  12. Thermal hydraulic numerical investigation of the heavy liquid metal free surface of MYRRHA spallation target experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batta, A.; Class, A.

    2015-01-01

    The first advanced design of accelerator-driven systems (ADS) is currently being built in SCK-CEN (Mol, Belgium): MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications). The experiment investigates the free surface design of the MYRRHA target. The free surface lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) liquid metal experiment is a full-scale model of the concentric MYRRHA target. The design of the target is combined with CFD simulations using a volume of fluid method accounting for mass transfer across the free surface. The model used has been validated with water experimental results. The design of the target enables a high fluid velocity and a stable surface at the beam entry. In the current work, we present numerical results of Star- CD simulations employing a high-resolution interface-capturing scheme in conjunction with the cavitation model for the nominal operation conditions. Thermal hydraulic of the target is considered for the nominal flow rate and nominal heat load. Results show that the target has a very stable free surface configuration for the considered flow rate and heat load

  13. Theoretical and Experimental Impact Analysis of Decision Support Systems for Advanced MCR Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Human error is recognized as one of the main causes of nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents, and there have been efforts to reduce and prevent human errors by developing various operator support systems. Before adapting these support systems to actual NPPs, it is necessary to validate their reliability and to evaluate their effect on operator performance. Particularly for safety-critical systems such as NPPs, the validation and evaluation of support systems is as important as the design of good systems. Such evaluations may be carried out through a theoretical modelling or experimentation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of decision support systems on operator performance by both theoretical and experimental methods. The target system is an integrated decision support system including four decision support sub-systems. In the results of both the theoretical and experimental evaluations, the decision support systems revealed positive effects, and several trends were observed. (authors)

  14. Theoretical and Experimental Impact Analysis of Decision Support Systems for Advanced MCR Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-703 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Human error is recognized as one of the main causes of nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents, and there have been efforts to reduce and prevent human errors by developing various operator support systems. Before adapting these support systems to actual NPPs, it is necessary to validate their reliability and to evaluate their effect on operator performance. Particularly for safety-critical systems such as NPPs, the validation and evaluation of support systems is as important as the design of good systems. Such evaluations may be carried out through a theoretical modelling or experimentation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of decision support systems on operator performance by both theoretical and experimental methods. The target system is an integrated decision support system including four decision support sub-systems. In the results of both the theoretical and experimental evaluations, the decision support systems revealed positive effects, and several trends were observed. (authors)

  15. Neuroinflammatory targets and treatments for epilepsy validated in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronica, Eleonora; Bauer, Sebastian; Bozzi, Yuri; Caleo, Matteo; Dingledine, Raymond; Gorter, Jan A; Henshall, David C; Kaufer, Daniela; Koh, Sookyong; Löscher, Wolfgang; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Mishto, Michele; Norwood, Braxton A; Palma, Eleonora; Poulter, Michael O; Terrone, Gaetano; Vezzani, Annamaria; Kaminski, Rafal M

    2017-07-01

    A large body of evidence that has accumulated over the past decade strongly supports the role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of human epilepsy. Specific inflammatory molecules and pathways have been identified that influence various pathologic outcomes in different experimental models of epilepsy. Most importantly, the same inflammatory pathways have also been found in surgically resected brain tissue from patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy. New antiseizure therapies may be derived from these novel potential targets. An essential and crucial question is whether targeting these molecules and pathways may result in anti-ictogenesis, antiepileptogenesis, and/or disease-modification effects. Therefore, preclinical testing in models mimicking relevant aspects of epileptogenesis is needed to guide integrated experimental and clinical trial designs. We discuss the most recent preclinical proof-of-concept studies validating a number of therapeutic approaches against inflammatory mechanisms in animal models that could represent novel avenues for drug development in epilepsy. Finally, we suggest future directions to accelerate preclinical to clinical translation of these recent discoveries. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevozchikov, V.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm 3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  17. Experimental Results and Numerical Simulation of the Target RCS using Gaussian Beam Summation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanmi Helmi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of Radar Cross Section (RCS of radar targets using Gaussian Beam Summation (GBS method. The purpose GBS method has several advantages over ray method, mainly on the caustic problem. To evaluate the performance of the chosen method, we started the analysis of the RCS using Gaussian Beam Summation (GBS and Gaussian Beam Launching (GBL, the asymptotic models Physical Optic (PO, Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD and the rigorous Method of Moment (MoM. Then, we showed the experimental validation of the numerical results using experimental measurements which have been executed in the anechoic chamber of Lab-STICC at ENSTA Bretagne. The numerical and experimental results of the RCS are studied and given as a function of various parameters: polarization type, target size, Gaussian beams number and Gaussian beams width.

  18. Challenges in thermal and hydraulic analysis of ADS target systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groetzbach, G.; Batta, A.; Lefhalm, C.-H.; Otic, I.

    2004-01-01

    The liquid metal cooled spallation targets of Accelerator Driven nuclear reactor Systems obey high thermal loads; in addition some flow and cooling conditions are of a prototypical character; in contrast the operating conditions for the engaged materials are narrow; thus, the target development requires a very careful analysis by experimental and numerical means. Especially the cooling of the steel window, which is heated by the proton beam, needs special care. Some of the main goals of the experimental and numerical analyses of the thermal dynamics of those systems are discusses. The prediction of locally detached flows and of flows with larger recirculation areas suffers from insufficient turbulence modeling; this has to be compensated by using prototypical model experiments, e.g. with water, to select the adequate models and numerical schemes. The well known problems with the Reynolds analogy in predicting the heat transfer in liquid metals requires always prototypic liquid metal experiments to select and adapt the turbulent heat flux models. The uncertainties in liquid metal experiments cannot be neglected; so it is necessary to perform CFD calculations and experiments always hand in hand and to develop improve turbulent heat flux models. One contribution to an improved 3 or 4-equation model is deduced from recent Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data. (author)

  19. Experimental results on 2-30 keV bremsstrahlung from thick and thin targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanker, R. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Physics Department, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)]. E-mail: rshanker@bhu.ac.in

    2006-10-15

    The recent experimental investigations on electron bremsstrahlung produced from impact of 2-30 keV electrons with thick solid and thin gaseous targets are reviewed. The theoretical models describing the energy and angular distributions of bremsstrahlung photons are discussed with their brief outlines and formulations to explain the experimental data. The results on thick target bremsstrahlung (TTB) spectra produced by keV electrons have suggested that there is a need to develop a comprehensive theory for accounting the solid state effects. It is further noted that the prediction of the modified KKD formula gives a reasonable agreement with the TTB data, whereas a semi-empirical formula gives a better fit to the data for thick targets. The available experimental data for dependence of double differential cross-sections of emitted photons on impact energy and their emission angles for gaseous atoms and molecules exhibit a good agreement with the theoretical calculations of Kissel et al., [1983. Shape functions for atomic-field bremsstrahlung from electrons of kinetic energy 1-500 keV on selected neutral atoms 1

  20. Development of a liquid {sup 3}He target for experimental studies of antikaon-nucleon interaction at J-PARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iio, M., E-mail: masami.iio@kek.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ishimoto, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Sato, M. [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Enomoto, S. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Hashimoto, T. [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Suzuki, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Iwasaki, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Hayano, R.S. [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-09-21

    A liquid {sup 3}He target system was developed for experimental studies of kaonic atoms and kaonic nuclei at J-PARC. {sup 3}He gas is liquefied in a heat exchanger cooled below 3.2 K by decompression of liquid {sup 4}He. To maintain a large acceptance of the cylindrical detector system for decay particles of kaonic nuclei, efficient heat transport between the separate target cell and the main unit is realized using circulation of liquid {sup 3}He. To minimize the amount of material, a vacuum vessel containing a carbon fiber reinforced plastic cylinder having an inside diameter of 150 mm and a thickness of 1 mm was produced. A target cell made of pure beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloy was developed not only to minimize the amount of material but also to obtain high X-ray transmission. During a cooling test, the target cell was kept at 1.3 K at a pressure of 33 mbar. The total estimated heat load to the components including the target cell and heat exchanger cooled by liquid {sup 4}He decompression, was 0.21 W, and the liquid {sup 4}He consumption rate was 50 L/day.

  1. Spallation source neutron target systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.; Brown, R.; Collier, M.; Donahue, J.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report for a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project sought to design a next-generation spallation source neutron target system for the Manuel Lujan, Jr., Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos. It has been recognized for some time that new advanced neutron sources are needed in the US if the country is to maintain a competitive position in several important scientific and technological areas. A recent DOE panel concluded that the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (a nuclear reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and a high-power pulsed spallation source are both needed in the near future. One of the most technically challenging designs for a spallation source is the target station itself and, more specifically, the target-moderator-reflector arrangement. Los Alamos has demonstrated capabilities in designing, building, and operating high-power spallation-neutron-source target stations. Most of the new design ideas proposed worldwide for target system design for the next generation pulsed spallation source have either been conceived and implemented at LANSCE or proposed by LANSCE target system designers. These concepts include split targets, flux-trap moderators, back scattering and composite moderators, and composite reflectors

  2. Study of an automatized experimental device for the irradiation of a radioactive target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claverie, G.

    1996-01-01

    In order to solve the enigma of solar neutrinos, a team of physicians of the nuclear research center of Bordeaux-Gradignan and of the center of nuclear spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy of Orsay (France) decided to measure again the cross section of the beryllium-proton nuclear reaction at the lowest possible energies. This measurement requires the design of an automatized experimental device to irradiate in a specific way a beryllium target with an accelerated proton beam. The aim of this work is the study of such a device for an energy range of 800 to 300 KeV. This device comprises a particle multi-detector and a shutter for the irradiation of the target and the counting of the reaction products according to a programmable time sequence. The advantage of this setup is to allow an important bombardment of the target and to ensure its cooling. This device is automatically controlled thanks to a micro-controller, actuators (step motors and electrostatic deflector). It includes some beam diagnosis elements controlled by step motors and a target temperature monitoring system controlling a safety valve. The management of the experiment cell vacuum has led to the design of a vacuum monitor allowing the precise follow up of the vacuum and the control of the safety valves of the device. The nuclear instrumentation necessary to be implemented for this measurement is also presented. (J.S.)

  3. A rotating target wheel system for gammasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    A description is given for a low-mass, rotating target wheel to be used within the Gammasphere target chamber. This system was developed for experiments employing high beam currents in order to extend lifetimes of targets using low-melting point target material. The design is based on a previously successful implementation of rotating target wheels for the Argonne Positron Experiment (APEX) as well as the Fragment Mass Analyser (FMA) at ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). A brief history of these rotating target wheel systems is given as well as a discussion on target preparation and performance

  4. Dosimetric accuracy of a treatment planning system for actively scanned proton beams and small target volumes: Monte Carlo and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, G.; Molinelli, S.; Mairani, A.; Mirandola, A.; Panizza, D.; Russo, S.; Ferrari, A.; Valvo, F.; Fossati, P.; Ciocca, M.

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), in optimising proton pencil beam dose distributions for small targets of different sizes (5-30 mm side) located at increasing depths in water. The TPS analytical algorithm was benchmarked against experimental data and the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code, previously validated for the selected beam-line. We tested the Siemens syngo® TPS plan optimisation module for water cubes fixing the configurable parameters at clinical standards, with homogeneous target coverage to a 2 Gy (RBE) dose prescription as unique goal. Plans were delivered and the dose at each volume centre was measured in water with a calibrated PTW Advanced Markus® chamber. An EBT3® film was also positioned at the phantom entrance window for the acquisition of 2D dose maps. Discrepancies between TPS calculated and MC simulated values were mainly due to the different lateral spread modeling and resulted in being related to the field-to-spot size ratio. The accuracy of the TPS was proved to be clinically acceptable in all cases but very small and shallow volumes. In this contest, the use of MC to validate TPS results proved to be a reliable procedure for pre-treatment plan verification.

  5. Dosimetric accuracy of a treatment planning system for actively scanned proton beams and small target volumes: Monte Carlo and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magro, G; Molinelli, S; Mairani, A; Mirandola, A; Panizza, D; Russo, S; Valvo, F; Fossati, P; Ciocca, M; Ferrari, A

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), in optimising proton pencil beam dose distributions for small targets of different sizes (5–30 mm side) located at increasing depths in water. The TPS analytical algorithm was benchmarked against experimental data and the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code, previously validated for the selected beam-line. We tested the Siemens syngo ® TPS plan optimisation module for water cubes fixing the configurable parameters at clinical standards, with homogeneous target coverage to a 2 Gy (RBE) dose prescription as unique goal. Plans were delivered and the dose at each volume centre was measured in water with a calibrated PTW Advanced Markus ® chamber. An EBT3 ® film was also positioned at the phantom entrance window for the acquisition of 2D dose maps. Discrepancies between TPS calculated and MC simulated values were mainly due to the different lateral spread modeling and resulted in being related to the field-to-spot size ratio. The accuracy of the TPS was proved to be clinically acceptable in all cases but very small and shallow volumes. In this contest, the use of MC to validate TPS results proved to be a reliable procedure for pre-treatment plan verification. (paper)

  6. Automatic target alignment of the Helios laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberman, I.; Viswanathan, V.K.; Klein, M.; Seery, B.D.

    1980-01-01

    An automatic target-alignment technique for the Helios laser facility is reported and verified experimentally. The desired alignment condition is completely described by an autocollimation test. A computer program examines the autocollimated return pattern from the surrogate target and correctly describes any changes required in mirror orientation to yield optimum targe alignment with either aberrated or misaligned beams. Automated on-line target alignment is thus shown to be feasible

  7. Experimental studies of spallation on thin target; Etudes experimentales de la spallation en cible mince

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borne, F.; Crespin, S.; Drake, D.; Frehaut, J.; Ledoux, X.; Lochard, J.P.; Martinez, E.; Patin, Y.; Petibon, E.; Pras, Ph. [CEA/DAM-Ile de France, Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee, DPTA, 91 - Bruyeres-Le-Chatel (France); Boudard, A.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Terrien, Y. [CEA/Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, DAPNIA, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bouyer, P.; Brochard, F.; Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Durand, J.M.; Meigo, S.I.; Milleret, G.; Thun, J.; Whittal, D.M.; Wlazlo, W. [Laboratoire National Saturne - Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lebrun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lefebvres, F.; Louvel, M.; Varignon, C. [Caen Univ., Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, 14 (France); Menard, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France); Stugge, L. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, IReS, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Hanappe, F. [IIM, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    Angular distribution of spallation neutrons induced by protons (0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 GeV) and deuterons (0.8 and 1.6 GeV) beams on various thin targets have been measured at SATURNE (CEA Saclay/France) with two complementary experimental techniques: the time-of-flight measurement with tagged incident protons for low energy neutrons (2-400 MeV) and the use of a hydrogen converter associated are analysed, interpreted and finally compared with theoretical previsions of simulation codes using the TIERCE system including the intranuclear cascade codes of BERTINI and CUGNON. (authors)

  8. Radiological Protection and Nuclear Engineering Studies in Multi-MW Target Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Raul Fernandes

    goal of this work was to perform an optimisation study for the ISOLDE neutron converter and Vssion target system. The target system was simulated using FLUKA and the cross section codes TALYS and ABRABLA, with the objective of maximising the performance of the system for the production of pure beams of neutron-rich isotopes, suppressing the contaminations by undesired neutron-deficient isobars. Two alternative target systems were proposed in the optimisation studies; the simplest of the two, with some modiVcations, was built as a prototype and tested at ISOLDE. The experimental results clearly show that it is possible, with simple changes in the layouts of the target systems, to produce purer beams of neutron-rich isotopes around the doubly magic nuclei 78Ni and 132Sn. A study of Radiological Protection was also performed, comparing the performances of the prototype target system and the standard ISOLDE target system. None

  9. Development of IFE target systems on the NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.; Fagaly, R.L.; Bernat, T.; Meier, W.; Petzoldt, R.; Foreman, L.

    1995-01-01

    The Target Systems session of the Workshop on NIF Experiments for IFE developed a list of critical issues for inertial fusion energy (IFE) target systems, and considered the potential of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to help in the resolution of these issues and in the development of IFE target systems. This paper describes the IFE Target System issues, categorized into target fabrication issues and target transport issues, describes potential NIF IFE target systems experiments, considers the impact of these experiments on the NIF and discusses the development required before these experiments could be done. Most target systems issues must be resolved by development in the laboratory, not in the NIF, and some must be resolved before the NIF can be successful. However, experiments done in the NIF could play a valuable role in developing target systems for IFE. These experiments should have modest impact on the basic design of the NIF, but could require several hundred dedicated, high yield shots

  10. Electromagnetic three-dimensional reconstruction of targets from free space experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffrin, J.-M.; Chaumet, P. C.; Eyraud, C.; Belkebir, K.; Sabouroux, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of reconstructing the relative permittivity of three-dimensional targets using experimental scattered fields. The fields concerned were measured in an anechoic chamber on the surface of a sphere surrounding the target. The inverse scattering problem is reformulated as an optimization problem that is iteratively solved thanks to a conjugate gradient method and by using the coupled dipoles method as a forward problem solver. The measurement technique and the inversion procedure are briefly described with the inversion results. This work demonstrates the reliability of the experiments and the efficiency of the proposed inverse scattering scheme

  11. LANSCE target system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Robinson, H.; Legate, G.L.; Bridge, A.; Sanchez, R.J.; Brewton, R.J.; Woods, R.; Hughes, H.G. III

    1989-01-01

    We measured neutron beam fluxes at LANSCE using gold foil activation techniques. We did an extensive computer simulation of the as-built LANSCE Target/Moderator/Reflector/Shield geometry. We used this mockup in a Monte Carlo calculation to predict LANSCE neutronic performance for comparison with measured results. For neutron beam fluxes at 1 eV, the ratio of measured data to calculated varies from ∼0.6-0.9. The computed 1 eV neutron leakage at the moderator surface is 3.9 x 10 10 n/eV-sr-s-μA for LANSCE high-intensity water moderators. The corresponding values for the LANSCE high-resolution water moderator and the liquid hydrogen moderator are 3.3 and 2.9 x 10 10 , respectively. LANSCE predicted moderator intensities (per proton) for a tungsten target are essentially the same as ISIS predicted moderator intensities for a depleted uranium target. The calculated LANSCE steady state unperturbed thermal (E 13 n/cm 2 -s. The unique LANSCE split-target/flux-trap-moderator system is performing exceedingly well. The system has operated without a target or moderator change for over three years at nominal proton currents of ∼25 μA of 800-MeV protons. (author)

  12. Progress in ISOL target-ion source systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, U. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: koester@ill.fr; Arndt, O. [HGF VISTARS and Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Bouquerel, E.; Fedoseyev, V.N. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Franberg, H. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Laboratory for Radio- and Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Joinet, A. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Centre d' Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Jost, C. [HGF VISTARS and Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Kerkines, I.S.K. [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Chemistry, Zografou 157 71, GR (Greece); Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation and Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Kirchner, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    The heart of every ISOL (isotope separation on-line) facility is its target and ion source system. Its efficiency, selectivity and rapidity is decisive for the production of intense and pure ion beams of short-lived isotopes. Recent progress in ISOL target and ion source technology is discussed at the examples of radioactive ion beams of exotic zinc and tin isotopes that were purified by isothermal chromatography and molecular sideband separation respectively. An outlook is given to which other elements these purification methods are applicable.

  13. Progress in ISOL target-ion source systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, U.; Arndt, O.; Bouquerel, E.; Fedoseyev, V.N.; Franberg, H.; Joinet, A.; Jost, C.; Kerkines, I.S.K.; Kirchner, R.

    2008-01-01

    The heart of every ISOL (isotope separation on-line) facility is its target and ion source system. Its efficiency, selectivity and rapidity is decisive for the production of intense and pure ion beams of short-lived isotopes. Recent progress in ISOL target and ion source technology is discussed at the examples of radioactive ion beams of exotic zinc and tin isotopes that were purified by isothermal chromatography and molecular sideband separation respectively. An outlook is given to which other elements these purification methods are applicable.

  14. Detection technique of targets for missile defense system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hua-ling; Deng, Jia-hao; Cai, Ke-rong

    2009-11-01

    Ballistic missile defense system (BMDS) is a weapon system for intercepting enemy ballistic missiles. It includes ballistic-missile warning system, target discrimination system, anti-ballistic-missile guidance systems, and command-control communication system. Infrared imaging detection and laser imaging detection are widely used in BMDS for surveillance, target detection, target tracking, and target discrimination. Based on a comprehensive review of the application of target-detection techniques in the missile defense system, including infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA), ground-based radar detection technology, 3-dimensional imaging laser radar with a photon counting avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays and microchip laser, this paper focuses on the infrared and laser imaging detection techniques in missile defense system, as well as the trends for their future development.

  15. CHAOS: An SDN-Based Moving Target Defense System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving target defense (MTD has provided a dynamic and proactive network defense to reduce or move the attack surface that is available for exploitation. However, traditional network is difficult to realize dynamic and active security defense effectively and comprehensively. Software-defined networking (SDN points out a brand-new path for building dynamic and proactive defense system. In this paper, we propose CHAOS, an SDN-based MTD system. Utilizing the programmability and flexibility of SDN, CHAOS obfuscates the attack surface including host mutation obfuscation, ports obfuscation, and obfuscation based on decoy servers, thereby enhancing the unpredictability of the networking environment. We propose the Chaos Tower Obfuscation (CTO method, which uses the Chaos Tower Structure (CTS to depict the hierarchy of all the hosts in an intranet and define expected connection and unexpected connection. Moreover, we develop fast CTO algorithms to achieve a different degree of obfuscation for the hosts in each layer. We design and implement CHAOS as an application of SDN controller. Our approach makes it very easy to realize moving target defense in networks. Our experimental results show that a network protected by CHAOS is capable of decreasing the percentage of information disclosure effectively to guarantee the normal flow of traffic.

  16. Experimental study on ablative stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability of laser-irradiated targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemori, Keisuke; Sakaiya, Tatsuhiko; Otani, Kazuto; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nakai, Mitsuo; Azechi, Hiroshi; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Tamari, Yohei; Okuno, Kazuki; Sunahara, Atsushi; Nagatomo, Hideo; Murakami, Masakatsu; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Izawa, Yasukazu

    2004-09-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities are key issues of the physics of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. Among the instabilities, Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is the most important because it gives the largest growth factor in the ICF targets. Perturbations on the laser irradiated surface grow exponentially, but the growth rate is reduced by ablation flow. The growth rate γ is written as Takabe-Betti formula: γ = [kg/(1+kL)]1/2-βkm/pa, where k is wave number of the perturbation, g is acceleration, L is density scale-length, β is a coefficient, m is mass ablation rate per unit surface, and ρa is density at the ablation front. We experimentally measured all the parameters in the formula for polystyrene (CH) targets. Experiments were done on the HIPER laser facility at Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. We found that the β value in the formula is ~ 1.7, which is in good agreements with the theoretical prediction, whereas the β for certain perturbation wavelengths are larger than the prediction. This disagreement between the experiment and the theory is mainly due to the deformation of the cutoff surface, which is created by non-uniform ablation flow from the ablation surface. We also found that high-Z doped plastic targets have multiablation structure, which can reduce the RT growth rate. When a low-Z target with high-Z dopant is irradiated by laser, radiation due to the high-Z dopant creates secondary ablation front deep inside the target. Since, the secondary ablation front is ablated by x-rays, the mass ablation rate is larger than the laser-irradiated ablation surface, that is, further reduction of the RT growth is expected. We measured the RT growth rate of Br-doped polystyrene targets. The experimental results indicate that of the CHBr targets show significantly small growth rate, which is very good news for the design of the ICF targets.

  17. Experimental study of lithium free-surface flow for IFMIF target design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, H.; Fujisato, A.; Yamaoka, N.; Inoue, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Iida, T.; Nakamura, H.; Ida, M.; Matushita, I.; Muroga, T.; Horiike, H.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium free-surface flow experiments to verify the design of IFMIF target have been carried out at Osaka University. The present report summarizes experimental results of surface phenomena, and cavitation characteristics of the loop, so as to try to apply these results to design parameters. Waves on the lithium flow surface is similar to that on water, and can be predicted by a linear stability theory. The wave amplitude is measured by an electro-contact probe. Surface roughness on a target nozzle, caused for example by attached chemical compounds and/or wastages by erosion and corrosion, can lead to a significant loss of target flow stability as well as surface wakes. The need of a polishing manipulator or exchange of the nozzle may be anticipated. Cavitation characteristic of the loop was measured by an accelerometer. From the results, a friction factor could be estimated fort he lithium flow

  18. Image-based in vivo assessment of targeting accuracy of stereotactic brain surgery in experimental rodent models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Janaki Raman; Vande Velde, Greetje; van Gent, Friso; de Vloo, Philippe; Dresselaers, Tom; Depypere, Maarten; van Kuyck, Kris; Nuttin, Bart; Himmelreich, Uwe; Maes, Frederik

    2016-11-01

    Stereotactic neurosurgery is used in pre-clinical research of neurological and psychiatric disorders in experimental rat and mouse models to engraft a needle or electrode at a pre-defined location in the brain. However, inaccurate targeting may confound the results of such experiments. In contrast to the clinical practice, inaccurate targeting in rodents remains usually unnoticed until assessed by ex vivo end-point histology. We here propose a workflow for in vivo assessment of stereotactic targeting accuracy in small animal studies based on multi-modal post-operative imaging. The surgical trajectory in each individual animal is reconstructed in 3D from the physical implant imaged in post-operative CT and/or its trace as visible in post-operative MRI. By co-registering post-operative images of individual animals to a common stereotaxic template, targeting accuracy is quantified. Two commonly used neuromodulation regions were used as targets. Target localization errors showed not only variability, but also inaccuracy in targeting. Only about 30% of electrodes were within the subnucleus structure that was targeted and a-specific adverse effects were also noted. Shifting from invasive/subjective 2D histology towards objective in vivo 3D imaging-based assessment of targeting accuracy may benefit a more effective use of the experimental data by excluding off-target cases early in the study.

  19. Experimental research on the relation between food price changes and food-purchasing patterns: a targeted review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Jankowiak, Noelle; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Raynor, Hollie A; French, Simone A; Finkelstein, Eric

    2012-04-01

    One way in which to modify food purchases is to change prices through tax policy, subsidy policy, or both. We reviewed the growing body of experimental research conducted in the laboratory and in the field that investigates the following: the extent to which price changes influence purchases of targeted and nontargeted foods, total energy, or macronutrients purchased; the interaction of price changes with adjunctive interventions; and moderators of sensitivity to price changes. After a brief overview of economic principles and observational research that addresses these issues, we present a targeted review of experimental research. Experimental research suggests that price changes modify purchases of targeted foods, but research on the overall nutritional quality of purchases is mixed because of substitution effects. There is mixed support for combining price changes with adjunctive interventions, and there are no replicated findings on moderators to price sensitivity in experiments. Additional focused research is needed to better inform food policy development with the aim of improving eating behavior and preventing obesity.

  20. Comprehensive Evaluation of Algal Biofuel Production: Experimental and Target Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin M. Beal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, algal biofuel research and development efforts have focused on increasing the competitiveness of algal biofuels by increasing the energy and financial return on investments, reducing water intensity and resource requirements, and increasing algal productivity. In this study, analyses are presented in each of these areas—costs, resource needs, and productivity—for two cases: (1 an Experimental Case, using mostly measured data for a lab-scale system, and (2 a theorized Highly Productive Case that represents an optimized commercial-scale production system, albeit one that relies on full-price water, nutrients, and carbon dioxide. For both cases, the analysis described herein concludes that the energy and financial return on investments are less than 1, the water intensity is greater than that for conventional fuels, and the amounts of required resources at a meaningful scale of production amount to significant fractions of current consumption (e.g., nitrogen. The analysis and presentation of results highlight critical areas for advancement and innovation that must occur for sustainable and profitable algal biofuel production can occur at a scale that yields significant petroleum displacement. To this end, targets for energy consumption, production cost, water consumption, and nutrient consumption are presented that would promote sustainable algal biofuel production. Furthermore, this work demonstrates a procedure and method by which subsequent advances in technology and biotechnology can be framed to track progress.

  1. A new transfer system for solid targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, J.; Buckley, K. R.; Zeisler, S. K.; Dodd, M.; Tsao, P.; Hoehr, C.; Economou, C.; Corsaut, J.; Appiah, J. P.; Kovacs, M. S.; Valliant, J. F.; Benard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Schaffer, P.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a collaborative research project funded by Natural Resources Canada, TRIUMF has designed and manufactured solid target and solid target processing systems for the production of technetium-99m using small medical cyclotrons. The system described herein is capable of transporting the target from a hotcell, where the target is loaded and processed, to the cyclotron and back again. The versatility of the transfer system was demonstrated through the successful installation and operation on the ACSI TR 19 at the BC Cancer Agency, the GE PETtrace cyclotrons at Lawson Health Research (LHRI) and the Centre for Probe Development and Commercialization (CDPC).

  2. Preliminary conceptual design of target system. Pt. 1. System configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Ryutaro; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kaminaga, Masanori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1997-07-01

    In the 21st century, neutron is expected to play a very important role in the fields of structural biology, nuclear physics, material science if a very high-intensity neutron source will be built because of its superior nature as an probe to investigate material structure and its function. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has launched the Neutron Science Project for construction and utilization of a high-intensity spallation neutron source coupled with a proton accelerator. In the project, a neutron scattering facility is planned to be constructed in an early stage. Development of a 5MW spallation neutron source is one of the most difficult technical challenges in this project. A two-step development plan of the target was established to construct a 5MW-target station In the 1st step, a 1.5MW target will be constructed to develop 5MW target technology. The preliminary conceptual design was conducted to clarify the specifications of the target system of 1.5MW and 5MW including system layout, scale etc. This report describes (1) a design policy, (2) a layout of system consisting of the target, remote-handling devices, bio-shieldings etc., (3) specifications of components and facilities such as cooling systems for target and moderators, beam-port shutter and air conditioning system, (4) overhaul procedures by remote-handling devices, (5) safety assessment, and (6) necessary R and D items derived from the design activity. (author)

  3. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  4. Experimental and theoretical studies of the physical processes occurring in thin plane targets irradiated by intense X-ray pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugrov, A. E.; Burdonskii, I. N.; Gavrilov, V. V.; Gol'tsov, A. Yu.; Grabovskii, E. V.; Efremov, V. P.; Zhuzhukalo, E. V.; Zurin, M. V.; Koval'skii, N. G.; Kondrashov, V. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Potapenko, A. I.; Samokhin, A. A.; Smirnov, V. P.; Fortov, V. E.; Frolov, I. N.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental and theoretical studies of the interaction of intense X-ray pulses with different types of plane targets, including low-density (∼10 mg/cm 3 ) ones, in the Angara-5-1 facility. It is found experimentally that a dense low-temperature plasma forms on the target surface before the arrival of the main heating X-ray pulse. It is demonstrated that the contrast of the X-ray pulse can be increased by placing a thin organic film between the target and the discharge gap. The expansion velocity of the plasma created on the target surface irradiated by Z-pinch-produced X rays was found to be (3-4) x 10 6 cm/s. A comparison between the simulation and experimental results confirms the validity of the physical-mathematical model used

  5. Theoretical study and experimental detection of cavitation phenomena in Liquid Lithium Target Facility for IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orco, G. Dell; Horiike, H.; Ida, M.; Nakamura, H.

    2006-01-01

    In the IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) testing facility, the required high energy neutrons emission will be produced by reaction of two D + beams with a free surface liquid Lithium jet target flowing along concave back-wall at 20 m/s. The Lithium height in the experimental loop and its relevant static pressure, the high flow velocities and the presence of several devices for the flow control and the pressure reduction increase the risk of cavitation onset in the target system. Special attention has to be taken in the primary pump, in the flow straightener, in the nozzle and their interconnections where the local pressure decreases and/or velocity increases or flow separations could promote the emission of cavitation vapour bubbles. The successive bubble re-implosions, in the higher pressure liquid bulk, could activate material erosion and transportation of activated particulates. These bubbles, if emitted close to the free jet flow, could also procure hydraulic instability and disturbance of the neutron field in the D + beams-Lithium target zone. Therefore, the cavitation risk must be properly foreseen along the whole IFMIF Lithium target circuit and its occurrence at different operating condition should be also monitored by special instrumentation. ENEA, in close cooperation with JAEA, has demonstrated the capability to detect the onset of the cavitation noises in liquid Lithium, by using the ENEA patented accelerometric gauge called CASBA-2000, during hydraulic test campaigns carried-out at Osaka University Lithium facility on a straight mock-up of the IFMIF back plate target. Comparison with the Thoma' cavitation similitude criteria have also determined the critical threshold limit for the estimation of the onset. Theoretical study on the conditions of cavitations generation in the IFMIF Lithium Target Circuit were also launched between ENEA and JAEA aiming at analysing the risk of the cavitation occurrence in the Lithium flow by

  6. A windowless frozen hydrogen target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, P.E.; Beer, G.A.; Beveridge, J.L.

    1995-06-01

    A cryogenic target system has been constructed in which gaseous mixtures of all three hydrogen isotopes have been frozen onto a thin, 65 mm diameter gold foil. The foil is cooled to 3 K while inside a 70 K radiation shield, all of which is mounted in a vacuum system maintained at 10 -9 torr. Stable multi-layer hydrogen targets of known uniformity and thickness have been maintained for required measurement times of up to several days. To date, hundreds of targets have been successfully used in muon-catalyzed fusion experiments at TRIUMF. (author). 12 refs., 6 figs

  7. Targeting engineering synchronization in chaotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sourav K.; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2016-07-01

    A method of targeting engineering synchronization states in two identical and mismatch chaotic systems is explained in detail. The method is proposed using linear feedback controller coupling for engineering synchronization such as mixed synchronization, linear and nonlinear generalized synchronization and targeting fixed point. The general form of coupling design to target any desire synchronization state under unidirectional coupling with the help of Lyapunov function stability theory is derived analytically. A scaling factor is introduced in the coupling definition to smooth control without any loss of synchrony. Numerical results are done on two mismatch Lorenz systems and two identical Sprott oscillators.

  8. VIRmiRNA: a comprehensive resource for experimentally validated viral miRNAs and their targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Abid; Thakur, Nishant; Monga, Isha; Thakur, Anamika; Kumar, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Viral microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression of viral and/or host genes to benefit the virus. Hence, miRNAs play a key role in host-virus interactions and pathogenesis of viral diseases. Lately, miRNAs have also shown potential as important targets for the development of novel antiviral therapeutics. Although several miRNA and their target repositories are available for human and other organisms in literature, but a dedicated resource on viral miRNAs and their targets are lacking. Therefore, we have developed a comprehensive viral miRNA resource harboring information of 9133 entries in three subdatabases. This includes 1308 experimentally validated miRNA sequences with their isomiRs encoded by 44 viruses in viral miRNA ' VIRMIRNA: ' and 7283 of their target genes in ' VIRMIRTAR': . Additionally, there is information of 542 antiviral miRNAs encoded by the host against 24 viruses in antiviral miRNA ' AVIRMIR': . The web interface was developed using Linux-Apache-MySQL-PHP (LAMP) software bundle. User-friendly browse, search, advanced search and useful analysis tools are also provided on the web interface. VIRmiRNA is the first specialized resource of experimentally proven virus-encoded miRNAs and their associated targets. This database would enhance the understanding of viral/host gene regulation and may also prove beneficial in the development of antiviral therapeutics. Database URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/servers/virmirna. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Experimental research on the relation between food price changes and food-purchasing patterns: a targeted review1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Jankowiak, Noelle; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Raynor, Hollie A; French, Simone A; Finkelstein, Eric

    2012-01-01

    One way in which to modify food purchases is to change prices through tax policy, subsidy policy, or both. We reviewed the growing body of experimental research conducted in the laboratory and in the field that investigates the following: the extent to which price changes influence purchases of targeted and nontargeted foods, total energy, or macronutrients purchased; the interaction of price changes with adjunctive interventions; and moderators of sensitivity to price changes. After a brief overview of economic principles and observational research that addresses these issues, we present a targeted review of experimental research. Experimental research suggests that price changes modify purchases of targeted foods, but research on the overall nutritional quality of purchases is mixed because of substitution effects. There is mixed support for combining price changes with adjunctive interventions, and there are no replicated findings on moderators to price sensitivity in experiments. Additional focused research is needed to better inform food policy development with the aim of improving eating behavior and preventing obesity. PMID:22378726

  10. Setup and commissioning of a cryogenic system for the production of targets to be used in experiments with high energy lasers and heavy ion beams; Aufbau und Inbetriebnahme einer Kryoanlage zur Targeterzeugung fuer Experimente mit Hochenergielasern und Schwerionenstrahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jurij Alexander

    2010-02-10

    Part of this work was the development of a cryogenic system to produce solid state targets out of nitrogen and rare gases but also hydrogen and deuterium. For target optimization a portable cryogenic test and development chamber has been set up, which can be used offline at different experimental places. Cryogenic targets with different geometries have been produced. Targets with a high aspect ratio having a thickness of only a few micrometers and transverse sizes of millimeters are of special interest for the envisioned investigations. Such targets permit the generation of laser plasmas with a high degree of homogeneity, thus enabling the measurement of the ion energy loss under well defined conditions. Nevertheless, high aspect ratio targets are technologically demanding. Thus, in view of energy loss experiments a simpler geometry has also been considered. Therefore, cryogenic nitrogen targets with cm sizes have been produced and irradiated by the nhelix high energy laser system. The free electron density of the generated plasma has been measured in the range up to 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. The measured electron temperature was about 200 eV. The experimental results have been compared to computer simulations and analyzed. It turned out that simulation and experiment are in good agreement, but the free electron density was too low and inhomogeneous for reliable energy loss experiments. Therefore, further deuterium targets with a high aspect ratio but varying geometries have been produced. These targets have been probed by the UNILAC ion beam and it has been shown that the ion beam can penetrate through them. The targets have also been simultaneously irradiated by the high energy laser systems nhelix and Phelix. The free electron density inside the deuterium plasma has been measured and compared with computer simulations. As in the case of nitrogen plasmas a good agreement has been observed. A new measurement technique has been developed to characterize the target

  11. Development of targeted radiotherapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Guillermina; Villarreal, Jose E.; Garcia, Laura; Tendilla, Jose I.; Paredes, Lydia; Murphy, Consuelo A.; Pedraza, Martha

    2001-01-01

    Conventional or external beam radiotherapy, has been a viable alternative for cancer treatment. Although this technique is effective, its use is limited if the patient has multiple malignant lesions (metastases). An alternative approach is based on the design of radiopharmaceuticals that, to be administered in the patient, are directed specifically toward the target cell producing a selective radiation delivery. This treatment is known as targeted radiotherapy. We have summarized and discussed some results related to our investigations on the development of targeted radiotherapy systems, including aspects of internal dosimetry

  12. Computer system for Monte Carlo experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grier, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    A new computer system for Monte Carlo Experimentation is presented. The new system speeds and simplifies the process of coding and preparing a Monte Carlo Experiment; it also encourages the proper design of Monte Carlo Experiments, and the careful analysis of the experimental results. A new functional language is the core of this system. Monte Carlo Experiments, and their experimental designs, are programmed in this new language; those programs are compiled into Fortran output. The Fortran output is then compiled and executed. The experimental results are analyzed with a standard statistics package such as Si, Isp, or Minitab or with a user-supplied program. Both the experimental results and the experimental design may be directly loaded into the workspace of those packages. The new functional language frees programmers from many of the details of programming an experiment. Experimental designs such as factorial, fractional factorial, or latin square are easily described by the control structures and expressions of the language. Specific mathematical modes are generated by the routines of the language

  13. Vision-Based Target Finding and Inspection of a Ground Target Using a Multirotor UAV System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinas, Ajmal; Roberts, Jonathan M; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2017-12-17

    In this paper, a system that uses an algorithm for target detection and navigation and a multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for finding a ground target and inspecting it closely is presented. The system can also be used for accurate and safe delivery of payloads or spot spraying applications in site-specific crop management. A downward-looking camera attached to a multirotor is used to find the target on the ground. The UAV descends to the target and hovers above the target for a few seconds to inspect the target. A high-level decision algorithm based on an OODA (observe, orient, decide, and act) loop was developed as a solution to address the problem. Navigation of the UAV was achieved by continuously sending local position messages to the autopilot via Mavros. The proposed system performed hovering above the target in three different stages: locate, descend, and hover. The system was tested in multiple trials, in simulations and outdoor tests, from heights of 10 m to 40 m. Results show that the system is highly reliable and robust to sensor errors, drift, and external disturbance.

  14. Target isolation system, high power laser and laser peening method and system using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Harris, Fritz

    2007-11-06

    A system for applying a laser beam to work pieces, includes a laser system producing a high power output beam. Target delivery optics are arranged to deliver the output beam to a target work piece. A relay telescope having a telescope focal point is placed in the beam path between the laser system and the target delivery optics. The relay telescope relays an image between an image location near the output of the laser system and an image location near the target delivery optics. A baffle is placed at the telescope focal point between the target delivery optics and the laser system to block reflections from the target in the target delivery optics from returning to the laser system and causing damage.

  15. Cytotoxic chromosomal targeting by CRISPR/Cas systems can reshape bacterial genomes and expel or remodel pathogenicity islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercoe, Reuben B; Chang, James T; Dy, Ron L; Taylor, Corinda; Gristwood, Tamzin; Clulow, James S; Richter, Corinna; Przybilski, Rita; Pitman, Andrew R; Fineran, Peter C

    2013-04-01

    In prokaryotes, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated (Cas) proteins constitute a defence system against bacteriophages and plasmids. CRISPR/Cas systems acquire short spacer sequences from foreign genetic elements and incorporate these into their CRISPR arrays, generating a memory of past invaders. Defence is provided by short non-coding RNAs that guide Cas proteins to cleave complementary nucleic acids. While most spacers are acquired from phages and plasmids, there are examples of spacers that match genes elsewhere in the host bacterial chromosome. In Pectobacterium atrosepticum the type I-F CRISPR/Cas system has acquired a self-complementary spacer that perfectly matches a protospacer target in a horizontally acquired island (HAI2) involved in plant pathogenicity. Given the paucity of experimental data about CRISPR/Cas-mediated chromosomal targeting, we examined this process by developing a tightly controlled system. Chromosomal targeting was highly toxic via targeting of DNA and resulted in growth inhibition and cellular filamentation. The toxic phenotype was avoided by mutations in the cas operon, the CRISPR repeats, the protospacer target, and protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) beside the target. Indeed, the natural self-targeting spacer was non-toxic due to a single nucleotide mutation adjacent to the target in the PAM sequence. Furthermore, we show that chromosomal targeting can result in large-scale genomic alterations, including the remodelling or deletion of entire pre-existing pathogenicity islands. These features can be engineered for the targeted deletion of large regions of bacterial chromosomes. In conclusion, in DNA-targeting CRISPR/Cas systems, chromosomal interference is deleterious by causing DNA damage and providing a strong selective pressure for genome alterations, which may have consequences for bacterial evolution and pathogenicity.

  16. Developing conservation targets in social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip S. Levin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of targets is foundational in conservation. Although progress has been made in setting targets, the diverse linkages among ecological and social components make target setting for coupled social-ecological systems extremely challenging. Developing integrated social-ecological targets is difficult because it forces policy makers to consider how management actions propagate throughout social-ecological systems, and because ultimately it is society, not scientists, that defines targets. We developed an interdisciplinary approach for identifying management targets and illustrate this approach using an example motivated by Puget Sound, USA. Our approach blends ecological modeling with empirical social science to articulate trade-offs and reveal societal preferences for different social-ecological states. The framework aims to place information in the hands of decision makers and promote discussion in the appropriate forums. Our ultimate objective is to encourage the informed participation of citizens in the development of social-ecological targets that reflect their values while also protecting key ecosystem attributes.

  17. Targeting the endocannabinoid system : future therapeutic strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Elezgarai, Izaskun; Rico-Barrio, Irantzu; Zarandona, Iratxe; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2017-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in many physiological regulation pathways in the human body, which makes this system the target of many drugs and therapies. In this review, we highlight the latest studies regarding the role of the ECS and the drugs that target it, with a particular

  18. An Experimental Study on the Attribution of Personality Traits to Bullies and Targets in a Workplace Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ståle Pallesen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the personality of bullies and targets have exclusively been based on self-report. Against this backdrop we conducted a between group experimental vignette study with three conditions, describing a bully, a target and a control, respectively. Students (n = 242 were recruited as participants and rated the target on the observer rating version of the NEO Five Factor Inventory-Revised reflecting the personality dimensions Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness to experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. A MANOVA showed an overall significant effect of the experimental conditions. On Neuroticism significant differences between all conditions were found with targets rated highest and the control lowest. In terms of Extroversion the target was rated as lower than the control and the bully. No main effect was found for Openness. On Agreeableness the bully was rated as lower than both the target and the control. The bully was rated lower on Conscientiousness than the control. The significant differences reflected medium to large effect sizes. By and large the results are in agreement with comparable self-report data. The results are discussed in terms of practical implications and directions for future research are outlined.

  19. An Experimental Study on the Attribution of Personality Traits to Bullies and Targets in a Workplace Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, Ståle; Nielsen, Morten B; Magerøy, Nils; Andreassen, Cecilie S; Einarsen, Ståle

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on the personality of bullies and targets have exclusively been based on self-report. Against this backdrop we conducted a between group experimental vignette study with three conditions, describing a bully, a target and a control, respectively. Students ( n = 242) were recruited as participants and rated the target on the observer rating version of the NEO Five Factor Inventory-Revised reflecting the personality dimensions Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness to experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. A MANOVA showed an overall significant effect of the experimental conditions. On Neuroticism significant differences between all conditions were found with targets rated highest and the control lowest. In terms of Extroversion the target was rated as lower than the control and the bully. No main effect was found for Openness. On Agreeableness the bully was rated as lower than both the target and the control. The bully was rated lower on Conscientiousness than the control. The significant differences reflected medium to large effect sizes. By and large the results are in agreement with comparable self-report data. The results are discussed in terms of practical implications and directions for future research are outlined.

  20. Deeply inelastic transfer reactions induced by heavy ions in rare earth targets. II. Interpretation of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivet, M.F.; Bimbot, R.; Ngo, C.

    1979-01-01

    The experimental angular distributions and cross sections for a series of deeply inelastic transfer reactions induced by various projectiles in rare earth targets have been interpreted using a model which includes a dynamical coupling between relative motion and mass asymmetry and treats statistical fluctuations. As the transfer reactions considered correspond to an increase of the potential energy of the composite system their observation is mainly due to fluctuations. The calculation reproduces correctly the angular distributions, but the cross sections are underestimated. Several effects are discussed which may increase these cross sections and are neglected in the calculation

  1. Thermal-hydraulic design concept of the solid-target system of spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, F.; Hibiki, T.; Saito, Y.; Takeda, T.; Mishima, K.

    2001-01-01

    In relation to thermal-hydraulic design of the N-Arena solid-target system of the JHF project, heat transfer experiments were performed to obtain experimental data systematically on heat transfer coefficient and CHF for vertical upward and horizontal flows in a thin rectangular channel simulating a coolant channel of the proposed spallation neutron source. Thermal-hydraulic correlations which can be used for design calculations were proposed based on the obtained data. Finally tentative results of feasibility study on maximum beam power which could be attained with a solid target were presented. The result indicated that the condition for the onset of nucleate boiling is the most significant limiting factor to the maximum beam power. (author)

  2. Extended Fitts' model of pointing time in eye-gaze input system - Incorporating effects of target shape and movement direction into modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Atsuo; Fukunaga, Daichi

    2018-04-01

    This study attempted to investigate the effects of the target shape and the movement direction on the pointing time using an eye-gaze input system and extend Fitts' model so that these factors are incorporated into the model and the predictive power of Fitts' model is enhanced. The target shape, the target size, the movement distance, and the direction of target presentation were set as within-subject experimental variables. The target shape included: a circle, and rectangles with an aspect ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4. The movement direction included eight directions: upper, lower, left, right, upper left, upper right, lower left, and lower right. On the basis of the data for identifying the effects of the target shape and the movement direction on the pointing time, an attempt was made to develop a generalized and extended Fitts' model that took into account the movement direction and the target shape. As a result, the generalized and extended model was found to fit better to the experimental data, and be more effective for predicting the pointing time for a variety of human-computer interaction (HCI) task using an eye-gaze input system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Target for production of X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S.A. E-mail: sergey_korenev@steris.com

    2004-10-01

    The patented new type of X-ray target is considered in this report. The main concept of the target consists in developing a sandwich structure depositing a coating of materials with high Z on the substrate with low Z, high thermal conductivity and high thermal stability. The target presents multiple layers system. The thermal conditions for X-ray target are discussed. The experimental results for Ta target on the Al and Cu substrates are presented.

  4. Target for production of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The patented new type of X-ray target is considered in this report. The main concept of the target consists in developing a sandwich structure depositing a coating of materials with high Z on the substrate with low Z, high thermal conductivity and high thermal stability. The target presents multiple layers system. The thermal conditions for X-ray target are discussed. The experimental results for Ta target on the Al and Cu substrates are presented

  5. Target for production of X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, S. A.

    2004-09-01

    The patented new type of X-ray target is considered in this report. The main concept of the target consists in developing a sandwich structure depositing a coating of materials with high Z on the substrate with low Z, high thermal conductivity and high thermal stability. The target presents multiple layers system. The thermal conditions for X-ray target are discussed. The experimental results for Ta target on the Al and Cu substrates are presented.

  6. A free Hg jet system for use in a high-power target experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Spampinato, Philip; Gabriel, Tony A; Graves, Van; Haseroth, H; Kirk, Harold G; Lettry, Jacques; McDonald, Kirk T; Rennich, Mark; Simos, Nikolaos; Titus, P; Tsang, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We describe a mercury jet system that is suitable for insertion into the 15cm diameter bore of a high-field solenoid magnet. The device features a hermetically sealed primary containment volume which is enclosed in a secondary containment system to insure isolation of mercury vapors from the remaining experimental environment. The jet diameter is 1-cm while the jet velocity will be up to 20 m/s. Optical diagnostics is incorporated into the target design to allow observation of the dispersal of the mercury as a result of interaction with a 24 GeV proton beam with up to 20 x 10

  7. Cytotoxic chromosomal targeting by CRISPR/Cas systems can reshape bacterial genomes and expel or remodel pathogenicity islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben B Vercoe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In prokaryotes, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs and their associated (Cas proteins constitute a defence system against bacteriophages and plasmids. CRISPR/Cas systems acquire short spacer sequences from foreign genetic elements and incorporate these into their CRISPR arrays, generating a memory of past invaders. Defence is provided by short non-coding RNAs that guide Cas proteins to cleave complementary nucleic acids. While most spacers are acquired from phages and plasmids, there are examples of spacers that match genes elsewhere in the host bacterial chromosome. In Pectobacterium atrosepticum the type I-F CRISPR/Cas system has acquired a self-complementary spacer that perfectly matches a protospacer target in a horizontally acquired island (HAI2 involved in plant pathogenicity. Given the paucity of experimental data about CRISPR/Cas-mediated chromosomal targeting, we examined this process by developing a tightly controlled system. Chromosomal targeting was highly toxic via targeting of DNA and resulted in growth inhibition and cellular filamentation. The toxic phenotype was avoided by mutations in the cas operon, the CRISPR repeats, the protospacer target, and protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM beside the target. Indeed, the natural self-targeting spacer was non-toxic due to a single nucleotide mutation adjacent to the target in the PAM sequence. Furthermore, we show that chromosomal targeting can result in large-scale genomic alterations, including the remodelling or deletion of entire pre-existing pathogenicity islands. These features can be engineered for the targeted deletion of large regions of bacterial chromosomes. In conclusion, in DNA-targeting CRISPR/Cas systems, chromosomal interference is deleterious by causing DNA damage and providing a strong selective pressure for genome alterations, which may have consequences for bacterial evolution and pathogenicity.

  8. Cytotoxic Chromosomal Targeting by CRISPR/Cas Systems Can Reshape Bacterial Genomes and Expel or Remodel Pathogenicity Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercoe, Reuben B.; Chang, James T.; Dy, Ron L.; Taylor, Corinda; Gristwood, Tamzin; Clulow, James S.; Richter, Corinna; Przybilski, Rita; Pitman, Andrew R.; Fineran, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    In prokaryotes, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated (Cas) proteins constitute a defence system against bacteriophages and plasmids. CRISPR/Cas systems acquire short spacer sequences from foreign genetic elements and incorporate these into their CRISPR arrays, generating a memory of past invaders. Defence is provided by short non-coding RNAs that guide Cas proteins to cleave complementary nucleic acids. While most spacers are acquired from phages and plasmids, there are examples of spacers that match genes elsewhere in the host bacterial chromosome. In Pectobacterium atrosepticum the type I-F CRISPR/Cas system has acquired a self-complementary spacer that perfectly matches a protospacer target in a horizontally acquired island (HAI2) involved in plant pathogenicity. Given the paucity of experimental data about CRISPR/Cas–mediated chromosomal targeting, we examined this process by developing a tightly controlled system. Chromosomal targeting was highly toxic via targeting of DNA and resulted in growth inhibition and cellular filamentation. The toxic phenotype was avoided by mutations in the cas operon, the CRISPR repeats, the protospacer target, and protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) beside the target. Indeed, the natural self-targeting spacer was non-toxic due to a single nucleotide mutation adjacent to the target in the PAM sequence. Furthermore, we show that chromosomal targeting can result in large-scale genomic alterations, including the remodelling or deletion of entire pre-existing pathogenicity islands. These features can be engineered for the targeted deletion of large regions of bacterial chromosomes. In conclusion, in DNA–targeting CRISPR/Cas systems, chromosomal interference is deleterious by causing DNA damage and providing a strong selective pressure for genome alterations, which may have consequences for bacterial evolution and pathogenicity. PMID:23637624

  9. Multi-Stage System for Automatic Target Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas T.; Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Johnson, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feedforward back-propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and to remove false positives. The system parameter optimizations process has been developed to adapt to various targets and datasets. The objective was to design an efficient computer vision system that can learn to detect multiple targets in large images with unknown backgrounds. Because the target size is small relative to the image size in this problem, there are many regions of the image that could potentially contain the target. A cursory analysis of every region can be computationally efficient, but may yield too many false positives. On the other hand, a detailed analysis of every region can yield better results, but may be computationally inefficient. The multi-stage ATR system was designed to achieve an optimal balance between accuracy and computational efficiency by incorporating both models. The detection stage first identifies potential ROIs where the target may be present by performing a fast Fourier domain OT-MACH filter-based correlation. Because threshold for this stage is chosen with the goal of detecting all true positives, a number of false positives are also detected as ROIs. The verification stage then transforms the regions of interest into feature space, and eliminates false positives using an

  10. A two-cassette reporter system for assessing target gene translation and target gene product inclusion body formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dual cassette reporter system capable of assessing target gene translation and target gene product folding. The present invention further relates to vectors and host cells comprising the dual cassette reporter system. In addition the invention relates to the use...... of the dual cassette reporter system for assessing target gene translation and target gene product folding....

  11. Müller cells and retinal axons can be primary targets in experimental neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Bleranda; Lassmann, Hans; Bradl, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Recent work from our laboratory, using different models of experimental neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), has led to a number of observations that might be highly relevant for NMOSD patients. For example: (i) in the presence of neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G, astrocyte-destructive lesions can be initiated by CD4+ T cells when these cells recognize aquaporin 4 (AQP4), but also when they recognize other antigens of the central nervous system. The only important prerequisite is that the T cells have to be activated within the central nervous system by "their" specific antigen. Recently activated CD4+ T cells with yet unknown antigen specificity are also found in human NMOSD lesions. (ii) The normal immune repertoire might contain AQP4-specific T cells, which are highly encephalitogenic on activation. (iii) The retina might be a primary target of AQP4-specific T cells and neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G: AQP4-specific T cells alone are sufficient to cause retinitis with low-grade axonal pathology in the retinal nerve fiber/ganglionic cell layer. A thinning of these layers is also observed in NMOSD patients, where it is thought to be a consequence of optic neuritis. Neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G might target cellular processes of Müller cells and cause their loss of AQP4 reactivity, when AQP4-specific T cells open the blood-retina barrier in the outer plexiform layer. Patchy loss of AQP4 reactivity on Müller cells of NMOSD patients has been recently described. Cumulatively, our findings in experimental NMOSD suggest that both CD4+ T cell and antibody responses directed against AQP4 might play an important role in the pathogenesis of tissue destruction seen in NMOSD.

  12. The Gut Microbiome as Therapeutic Target in Central Nervous System Diseases: Implications for Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winek, Katarzyna; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Meisel, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Research on commensal microbiota and its contribution to health and disease is a new and very dynamically developing field of biology and medicine. Recent experimental and clinical investigations underscore the importance of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis and course of stroke. Importantly, microbiota may influence the outcome of cerebral ischemia by modulating central nervous system antigen-specific immune responses. In this review we summarize studies linking gut microbiota with physiological function and disorders of the central nervous system. Based on these insights we speculate about targeting the gut microbiome in order to treat stroke.

  13. A combined experimental and numerical approach for the control and monitoring of the SPES target during operation at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballan, Michele [National Institute of Nuclear Physics – Legnaro National Laboratories (INFN-LNL), Viale dell’Università 2, Legnaro, 35020 Padova (Italy); Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Manzolaro, Mattia [National Institute of Nuclear Physics – Legnaro National Laboratories (INFN-LNL), Viale dell’Università 2, Legnaro, 35020 Padova (Italy); Department of Industrial Engineering (DII), University of Padova, via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Meneghetti, Giovanni [Department of Industrial Engineering (DII), University of Padova, via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Andrighetto, Alberto [National Institute of Nuclear Physics – Legnaro National Laboratories (INFN-LNL), Viale dell’Università 2, Legnaro, 35020 Padova (Italy); Monetti, Alberto [National Institute of Nuclear Physics – Legnaro National Laboratories (INFN-LNL), Viale dell’Università 2, Legnaro, 35020 Padova (Italy); Department of Industrial Engineering (DII), University of Padova, via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Bisoffi, Giovanni; Prete, Gianfranco [National Institute of Nuclear Physics – Legnaro National Laboratories (INFN-LNL), Viale dell’Università 2, Legnaro, 35020 Padova (Italy)

    2016-06-01

    The SPES project at INFN-LNL aims at the production of neutron-rich Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) using the ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) technique. A 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam will directly impinge a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10{sup 13} fissions per second. The target system is installed under vacuum inside a water-cooled chamber, and have to maintain high working temperatures, close to 2000 °C. During operation the proton beam provides the heating power required to keep the target at the desired temperature level. As a consequence, its characteristics have to be strictly controlled in order to avoid undesired overheating. According to the original design of the control system, the proton beam can be suddenly interrupted in case of out of range vacuum or cooling water flow levels. With the aim to improve the reliability of the control system a set of temperature sensors has been installed close to the target. Their types and installation positions were defined taking into consideration the detailed information coming from a dedicated thermal–electric model that allowed to investigate the most critical and inaccessible target hot-spots. This work is focused on the definition and experimental validation of the aforementioned numerical model. Its results were used to appropriately install two type C thermocouples, a PT100 thermo-resistance and a residual primary beam current detector. In addition the numerical model will be used for the definition of appropriate thresholds for each installed temperature sensor, since it allows to define a relationship between the locally measured values with the overall calculated temperature field. In case of over temperatures the monitoring system will send warning signals or in case interrupt the proton beam.

  14. A combined experimental and numerical approach for the control and monitoring of the SPES target during operation at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballan, Michele; Manzolaro, Mattia; Meneghetti, Giovanni; Andrighetto, Alberto; Monetti, Alberto; Bisoffi, Giovanni; Prete, Gianfranco

    2016-06-01

    The SPES project at INFN-LNL aims at the production of neutron-rich Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) using the ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) technique. A 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam will directly impinge a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 1013 fissions per second. The target system is installed under vacuum inside a water-cooled chamber, and have to maintain high working temperatures, close to 2000 °C. During operation the proton beam provides the heating power required to keep the target at the desired temperature level. As a consequence, its characteristics have to be strictly controlled in order to avoid undesired overheating. According to the original design of the control system, the proton beam can be suddenly interrupted in case of out of range vacuum or cooling water flow levels. With the aim to improve the reliability of the control system a set of temperature sensors has been installed close to the target. Their types and installation positions were defined taking into consideration the detailed information coming from a dedicated thermal-electric model that allowed to investigate the most critical and inaccessible target hot-spots. This work is focused on the definition and experimental validation of the aforementioned numerical model. Its results were used to appropriately install two type C thermocouples, a PT100 thermo-resistance and a residual primary beam current detector. In addition the numerical model will be used for the definition of appropriate thresholds for each installed temperature sensor, since it allows to define a relationship between the locally measured values with the overall calculated temperature field. In case of over temperatures the monitoring system will send warning signals or in case interrupt the proton beam.

  15. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements target diagnostics subsystem SSDR 1.8.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.

    1996-01-01

    This SSDR establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for the Target Experimental System's Diagnostic, WBS 1.8. 3. This includes the individual diagnostic components, the Target Diagnostic Data Acquisition System (Target DAS), the diagnostic vacuum system, the timing/fiducial system, and the EMI protection system

  16. ENERGY AND ENTROPY ANALYSES OF AN EXPERIMENTAL TURBOJET ENGINE FOR TARGET DRONE APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Turan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates energy and entropy analyses of an experimental turbojet engine build in Anadolu University Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics Test-Cell Laboratory.  Law of motions and Brayton thermodynamic cycle model are used for this purpose. The processes (that is, compression, combustion, and expansion are simulated in P-v, T-s and h-s diagrams. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics is applied to the cycle model to perform the entropy analysis. A distribution of the wasted and thrust power, the overall (energy-based the first law efficiency, and the specific fuel consumption and specific thrust of the engine were calculated during the analyses as well. The results of the study also show the entropy changing value in engine components due to irreversibilities and inefficiencies. As a conclusion, it is expected that this study is useful to study future design and research work similar aircraft turbojets, auxiliary power units and target drone power systems.

  17. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements target area auxiliary subsystem SSDR 1.8.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, T.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement (SSDR) establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems (WBS 1.8.6), which is part of the NIF Target Experimental System (WBS 1.8). This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in NIF Target Experimental System SDR 003 document. Key elements of the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems include: WBS 1.8.6.1 Local Utility Services; WBS 1.8.6.2 Cable Trays; WBS 1.8.6.3 Personnel, Safety, and Occupational Access; WBS 1.8.6.4 Assembly, Installation, and Maintenance Equipment; WBS 1.8.6.4.1 Target Chamber Service System; WBS 1.8.6.4.2 Target Bay Service Systems

  18. Accuracy of position measurement method using Arago spot for inertial fusion energy target tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saruta, Koichi; Tsuji, Ryusuke

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy of a position measurement method using the Arago spot is reported for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) target tracking system, where the position of the target is determined by the position of the Arago spot, which is a bright spot appearing in the central portion of the diffraction pattern of a spherical obstacle. We use a He-Ne laser as the light source and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera with a microscope objective lens to magnify and record the diffraction pattern of a spherical target. We examine two different algorithms to determine the center of the Arago spot in order to compare the measurement performances. The experimental results show that the position of a 5-mm-diameter target can be obtained with a measurement resolution of 1 μm and an rms measurement error of less than 0.2μm for both algorithms when the distance between the target and the microscope objective lens is 5 cm. (author)

  19. Seismic Target Classification Using a Wavelet Packet Manifold in Unattended Ground Sensors Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enliang Song

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging problems in target classification is the extraction of a robust feature, which can effectively represent a specific type of targets. The use of seismic signals in unattended ground sensor (UGS systems makes this problem more complicated, because the seismic target signal is non-stationary, geology-dependent and with high-dimensional feature space. This paper proposes a new feature extraction algorithm, called wavelet packet manifold (WPM, by addressing the neighborhood preserving embedding (NPE algorithm of manifold learning on the wavelet packet node energy (WPNE of seismic signals. By combining non-stationary information and low-dimensional manifold information, WPM provides a more robust representation for seismic target classification. By using a K nearest neighbors classifier on the WPM signature, the algorithm of wavelet packet manifold classification (WPMC is proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed WPMC can not only reduce feature dimensionality, but also improve the classification accuracy up to 95.03%. Moreover, compared with state-of-the-art methods, WPMC is more suitable for UGS in terms of recognition ratio and computational complexity.

  20. Heavy-ion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the characteristics of targets required in heavy-ion accelerator physics experiments. The effects of target parameters on heavy-ion experimental results are reviewed. The target fabrication and characterization techniques used to minimize experimental problems during heavy-ion bombardment are described. Topics considered include target thickness and uniformity, target lifetime, target purity, substrate materials, Doppler shift effects, metal preparations, and target preparation methods

  1. The Nuclotron internal target control and data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isupov, A.Yu., E-mail: isupov@moonhe.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Krasnov, V.A.; Ladygin, V.P.; Piyadin, S.M.; Reznikov, S.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-11

    The new control system of the Nuclotron (JINR, Dubna) internal target is described in both hardware and software aspects. The CAMAC hardware is based on the use of the standard CAMAC modules developed and manufactured at JINR. The internal target control and data acquisition (IntTarg CDAQ) system software is implemented using the ngdp framework under the Unix-like operating system (OS) FreeBSD to allow easy network distribution of the online data collected from internal target and accompanying detectors, as well as the internal target remote control.

  2. I sup(123) target transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, G.L. de; Rautenberg, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    The construction of target transfer system using a robot into hot cell of IEN cyclotron (Brazilian-CNEN) for sup(123)I production is presented. The system operation is described, and the advantages are shown. (M.C.K.)

  3. Experimental and numerical study on the flow pattern of the ADS windowless spallation target with a second free surface downstream using model fluid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Zhenqin; Gu, Hanyang; Gong, Shenjie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A windowless spallation target with a buffer tank is tested. • Shape of the main free surface is recorded. • Streamline is obtained with the planar laser induced fluorescence method. • Stability of free surface is improved by the buffer tank. • Flow structure is simulated using RNG k-e turbulence model and VOF model. - Abstract: The windowless spallation targets are a promising design solution for accelerator driven system (ADS) due to their extended life compared to the spallation targets with a window. Keeping the stability of the free surface and reducing the recirculation zone is one of the key tasks for the design of a windowless spallation target. A windowless spallation target with a second free surface downstream (which is a buffer used to stabilize the main free surface of the flow) is studied experimentally and numerically using water at atmospheric pressure. By using planar laser induced fluorescence technique (LIF), the flow pattern inside the target zone is visualized for Reynolds numbers varying between 3.5 × 10 4 and 7.0 × 10 4 and pressure differences from 100 to 804 Pa. The experimental results reveal that the stability of the free surface is improved by adding a buffer in the downstream thus making it easier to control the height of the surface. The effect of the pressure difference between the void above the second free surface (high pressure side) and beam pipe (low pressure side) on the flow pattern is analyzed, as well as the inlet flow rate. The height of the surface length decreases with an increase in the pressure difference. The formation of the spallation zone is simulated with Fluent using the LES turbulence model and VOF model. The interface predicted agrees well with the experimental results

  4. Dynamic target high pressure control of a VRF system for heating energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Geun Young; Lee, Je Hyeon; Kim, Inhan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed the dynamic target high pressure control of a VRF system. • We created the VRF control model using the EnergyPlus runtime language. • Multicalorimeter experimental results indicate that the energy efficiency improved by 21%. • EnergyPlus simulations demonstrate that the annual heating energy consumption was lowered by 22%. - Abstract: Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems are widely used because of their ability to provide individualized comfort control with energy-saving potential. This study develops load responsive high pressure control of a VRF system with the aim of reducing the heating energy consumption of a VRF system under part load conditions. The developed control consists of two parts: one part that determines the level of heating load, and the other that assigns a target high pressure based on the level of heating load. In this way, the compressor speed can be accurately matched to heating load, which improves the energy performance of the VRF system. A series of multicalorimeter experiments revealed that the heating capacity of the VRF system varied by 45% by modulating the target high pressure and that its efficiency was enhanced by 21% by changing the high pressure from 30 kgf/cm"2 to 25 kgf/cm"2. To evaluate the annual heating energy performance of the VRF system with the developed control, a custom computer code was developed to implement the developed control using a programming language called EnergyPlus Runtime Language. Simulation outcomes showed that the annual heating energy consumption of a medium-size office building was reduced by 22% when the developed control was applied.

  5. The Research Progress of Targeted Drug Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiayin; Ting, Xizi Liang; Zhu, Junjie

    2017-06-01

    Targeted drug delivery system (DDS) means to selectively transport drugs to targeted tissues, organs, and cells through a variety of drugs carrier. It is usually designed to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of conventional drugs and to overcome problems such as limited solubility, drug aggregation, poor bio distribution and lack of selectivity, controlling drug release carrier and to reduce normal tissue damage. With the characteristics of nontoxic and biodegradable, it can increase the retention of drug in lesion site and the permeability, improve the concentration of the drug in lesion site. at present, there are some kinds of DDS using at test phase, such as slow controlled release drug delivery system, targeted drug delivery systems, transdermal drug delivery system, adhesion dosing system and so on. This paper makes a review for DDS.

  6. A tritium target system for μCF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmeskal, J.; Ackerbauer, P.; Durham, W.B.; Heard, H.C.; Neumann, W.; Bossy, H.

    1990-12-01

    An apparatus has been constructed for the safe handling of tritium as part of a series of muon-catalyzed fusion experiments. The equipment was designed to handle 100 kCi of tritium. The main parts of this system are the oil-free high vacuum and transfer system, and the quadrupole mass analyzer for a direct determination of the target content. The system was used successfully for five continuous periods of operation of over one month each. A new target system was constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for ultimate use at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) to investigate the high temperature and high pressure region. 9 refs., 4 figs

  7. Repetitive output laser system and method using target reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    An improved laser system and method for implosion of a thermonuclear fuel pellet is described in which that portion of a laser pulse reflected by the target pellet is utilized in the laser system to initiate a succeeding target implosion, and in which the energy stored in the laser system to amplify the initial laser pulse, but not completely absorbed thereby, is used to amplify succeeding laser pulses initiated by target refγlection

  8. Treat-to-target in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Mosca, Marta; Bertsias, George

    2014-01-01

    guidance for healthcare providers and administrators. Thus, an initiative to evaluate possible therapeutic targets and develop treat-to-target guidance was believed to be highly appropriate in the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients as well. Specialists in rheumatology, nephrology...

  9. Numerical simulation and experimental study of factors influencing the optical characteristics of a spatial target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Dingqiang; Shen Wentao; Cai Guobiao; Ke Weina

    2013-01-01

    The optical properties of a spatial target are important characteristics for its detection, identification, tracking and interception. A homeostatic model of the temperature and infrared characteristics of the target has been developed considering the radiation of the environmental background. The heat conduction inside the wall and the effect of an internal heat source are included in the model. The reflection characteristics of the target are calculated with bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) models. The temperature and infrared radiation have been measured in the simulating space environment in the ground tests. The comparisons between the theoretical results and experimental data demonstrate a good agreement. Applying the developed model, the influences of several parameters (such as spin frequency, absorptivity/emissivity and thermal conductivity) of the target have been investigated. Highlights: ► A mathematical model was developed to predict the optical characteristics of a spatial target. ► The temperature and infrared radiation are measured in ground tests. ► The simulation results and the test results are consistent. ► The effects of several target parameters were analysed.

  10. Experimental techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P.

    2007-01-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, γ detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  11. Experimental Modeling of Dynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten Haack

    2006-01-01

    An engineering course, Simulation and Experimental Modeling, has been developed that is based on a method for direct estimation of physical parameters in dynamic systems. Compared with classical system identification, the method appears to be easier to understand, apply, and combine with physical...

  12. Revealing the Effects of the Herbal Pair of Euphorbia kansui and Glycyrrhiza on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Ascites with Integrating Network Target Analysis and Experimental Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Lin, Ya; Zhao, Haiyu; Guo, Qiuyan; Yan, Chen; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    Although the herbal pair of Euphorbia kansui (GS) and Glycyrrhiza (GC) is one of the so-called "eighteen antagonistic medicaments" in Chinese medicinal literature, it is prescribed in a classic Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula Gansui-Banxia-Tang for cancerous ascites, suggesting that GS and GC may exhibit synergistic or antagonistic effects in different combination designs. Here, we modeled the effects of GS/GC combination with a target interaction network and clarified the associations between the network topologies involving the drug targets and the drug combination effects. Moreover, the "edge-betweenness" values, which is defined as the frequency with which edges are placed on the shortest paths between all pairs of modules in network, were calculated, and the ADRB1-PIK3CG interaction exhibited the greatest edge-betweenness value, suggesting its crucial role in connecting the other edges in the network. Because ADRB1 and PIK3CG were putative targets of GS and GC, respectively, and both had functional interactions with AVPR2 approved as known therapeutic target for ascites, we proposed that the ADRB1-PIK3CG-AVPR2 signal axis might be involved in the effects of the GS-GC combination on ascites. This proposal was further experimentally validated in a H22 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ascites model. Collectively, this systems-level investigation integrated drug target prediction and network analysis to reveal the combination principles of the herbal pair of GS and GC. Experimental validation in an in vivo system provided convincing evidence that different combination designs of GS and GC might result in synergistic or antagonistic effects on HCC ascites that might be partially related to their regulation of the ADRB1-PIK3CG-AVPR2 signal axis.

  13. Polymer-Based Novel Lung Targeted Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmowafy, Enas; Osman, Rihab; Ishak, Rania A H

    2017-01-01

    Due to its unique features, the respiratory tract had received great attention as a promising non-invasive route for drug administration to achieve both local and systemic effects. Efforts spent to tailor systems able to overcome the lung defence mechanisms and biological barriers are followed in this review. Aerodynamic diameter, morphology, lung deposition and drug release profiles are the main criteria describing the selected new smart lung targeted delivery systems. Novel systems such as nanoparticles, nano-embedded-in microparticles (NEM), small microparticles (MP), large porous particles (LPP), PulmospheresTM and polymeric micelles are used to passively target different areas in the respiratory tract. The most common preparation methods are outlined in the article. Special emphasis was given to the characteristics of the polymers used to fabricate the developed systems. Efforts made to prepare systems using chitosan (CS), alginate (alg), hyaluronic acid (HA), gelatin and albumin as examples of natural polymers and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) as synthetic polymers were compiled. The continuous development and work in the area of lung targeting resulted in the development of engineered smart platforms with the capability to carry small drug molecules, proteins and genes to treat a variety of local and systemic diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  15. Recent Advances in Aptamers Targeting Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Piao-Ping

    2017-02-01

    The immune system plays important role in protecting the organism by recognizing non-self molecules from pathogen such as bacteria, parasitic worms, and viruses. When the balance of the host defense system is disturbed, immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and inflammation occur. Nucleic acid aptamers are short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) or RNA ligands that interact with complementary molecules with high specificity and affinity. Aptamers that target the molecules involved in immune system to modulate their function have great potential to be explored as new diagnostic and therapeutic agents for immune disorders. This review summarizes recent advances in the development of aptamers targeting immune system. The selection of aptamers with superior chemical and biological characteristics will facilitate their application in the diagnosis and treatment of immune disorders.

  16. Target system materials and engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the common problems of target design. As a model for the discussion, the author considers a spallation source which is fed by a high power proton beam of the order of one megawatt. The materials used for the target station and particularly for the spallation target itself depend on whether the source is built for pulsed, modulated or continuous operation. The difference of materials used is mainly determined by the neutronics considerations. Depending on the choice of materials for the target systems, the characters of material problems met, are of somewhat different nature. It is recognized that for each target version quite specific difficulties have to be overcome. On the other hand, there is a whole set of problems which is common to all target versions. These are: heat load in region of proton beam interactions; thermal stress and cycling; and radiation damage. It is shown that solutions to the whole package of problems up to a beam power of 0 (1MW) have been found. The whole effort concentrates onto the region of the first few centimeters of beam penetration. Two solutions have been proposed: (1) Keep the power of proton beam limited and produce neutrons elsewhere in the target. and (2) Dilute the power by moving mechanically the target and the window. 8 refs., 11 figs

  17. Targeting the Thioredoxin System for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junmin; Li, Xinming; Han, Xiao; Liu, Ruijuan; Fang, Jianguo

    2017-09-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) are essential components of the Trx system which plays pivotal roles in regulating multiple cellular redox signaling pathways. In recent years TrxR/Trx have been increasingly recognized as an important modulator of tumor development, and hence targeting TrxR/Trx is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. In this review we first discuss the structural details of TrxR, the functions of the Trx system, and the rational of targeting TrxR/Trx for cancer treatment. We also highlight small-molecule TrxR/Trx inhibitors that have potential anticancer activity and review their mechanisms of action. Finally, we examine the challenges of developing TrxR/Trx inhibitors as anticancer agents and perspectives for selectively targeting TrxR/Trx. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tumor target amplification: Implications for nano drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidi, Khaled; Neubauer, Heidi A; Moriggl, Richard; Jahanban-Esfahlan, Rana; Javaheri, Tahereh

    2018-04-10

    Tumor cells overexpress surface markers which are absent from normal cells. These tumor-restricted antigenic signatures are a fundamental basis for distinguishing on-target from off-target cells for ligand-directed targeting of cancer cells. Unfortunately, tumor heterogeneity impedes the establishment of a solid expression pattern for a given target marker, leading to drastic changes in quality (availability) and quantity (number) of the target. Consequently, a subset of cancer cells remains untargeted during the course of treatment, which subsequently promotes drug-resistance and cancer relapse. Since target inefficiency is only problematic for cancer treatment and not for treatment of other pathological conditions such as viral/bacterial infections, target amplification or the generation of novel targets is key to providing eligible antigenic markers for effective targeted therapy. This review summarizes the limitations of current ligand-directed targeting strategies and provides a comprehensive overview of tumor target amplification strategies, including self-amplifying systems, dual targeting, artificial markers and peptide modification. We also discuss the therapeutic and diagnostic potential of these approaches, the underlying mechanism(s) and established methodologies, mostly in the context of different nanodelivery systems, to facilitate more effective ligand-directed cancer cell monitoring and targeting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Target Soil Impact Verification: Experimental Testing and Kayenta Constitutive Modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broome, Scott Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flint, Gregory Mark [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newell, Pania [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report details experimental testing and constitutive modeling of sandy soil deformation under quasi - static conditions. This is driven by the need to understand constitutive response of soil to target/component behavior upon impact . An experimental and constitutive modeling program was followed to determine elastic - plastic properties and a compressional failure envelope of dry soil . One hydrostatic, one unconfined compressive stress (UCS), nine axisymmetric compression (ACS) , and one uniaxial strain (US) test were conducted at room temperature . Elastic moduli, assuming isotropy, are determined from unload/reload loops and final unloading for all tests pre - failure and increase monotonically with mean stress. Very little modulus degradation was discernable from elastic results even when exposed to mean stresses above 200 MPa . The failure envelope and initial yield surface were determined from peak stresses and observed onset of plastic yielding from all test results. Soil elasto - plastic behavior is described using the Brannon et al. (2009) Kayenta constitutive model. As a validation exercise, the ACS - parameterized Kayenta model is used to predict response of the soil material under uniaxial strain loading. The resulting parameterized and validated Kayenta model is of high quality and suitable for modeling sandy soil deformation under a range of conditions, including that for impact prediction.

  20. Experimental study for angular distribution of the hot electrons generated by femtosecond laser interaction with solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, D.F.; Gu, Y.Q.; Zheng, Z.J.; Wen, T.S.; Chunyu, S.T.; Wang, Z.B.; Yang, X.D.

    2003-01-01

    The experimental results of angular distribution of hot electrons in the interaction of a 60 fs, 125 mJ, 800 nm, ∼10 17 W cm -2 laser pulse with Al targets are reported. Three obvious peaks of hot electrons emission have been observed, as there is a weak normal component of the laser electric field. These emission peaks are located in the directions of the specular reflection of the laser, the target normal, and the backreflection of the laser, respectively. In the case of the P-polarized laser pulse, which has a strong normal component of the laser electric field, the peak in the backreflection of the laser disappeared, and only two obvious peaks of hot electron emissions existed. It shows that the different directions of hot electrons emission are dominated by different absorption or acceleration mechanisms. The experimental result of the hot electrons energy spectrum at the target normal shows that the effective temperature of hot electrons is about 190 keV, which is consistent with a scaling law of the resonance absorption

  1. The NA50 segmented target and vertex recognition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellaiche, F.; Cheynis, B.; Contardo, D.; Drapier, O.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guichard, A.; Haroutunian, R.; Jacquin, M.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Pizzi, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The NA50 segmented target and vertex recognition system is described. The segmented target consists of 7 sub-targets of 1-2 mm thickness. The vertex recognition system used to determine the sub-target where an interaction has occured is based upon quartz elements which produce Cerenkov light when traversed by charged particles from the interaction. The geometrical arrangement of the quartz elements has been optimized for vertex recognition in 208 Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon. A simple algorithm provides a vertex recognition efficiency of better than 85% for dimuon trigger events collected with a 1 mm sub-target set-up. A method for recognizing interactions of projectile fragments (nuclei and/or groups of nucleons) is presented. The segmented target allows a large target thickness which together with a high beam intensity (∼10 7 ions/s) enables high statistics measurements. (orig.)

  2. Control systems for experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    At an international conference last year at Villars-sur-Ollon (Switzerland), scientists from all over the world looked at the problems of controlling complex physics installations, including particle accelerators, nuclear reactors, large telescopes and high energy physics detectors. The meeting, organized by the European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Experimental Physics Control Systems, EPCS, brought together 180 scientists from the world's leading experimental physics research laboratories, universities and industries

  3. Magnetic confinement system using charged ammonia targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.D.; Bogdanoff, A.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for guiding charged laser targets to a predetermined focal spot of a laser along generally arbitrary, and especially horizontal, directions which comprises a series of electrostatic sensors which provide inputs to a computer for real time calculation of position, velocity, and direction of the target along an initial injection trajectory

  4. Dust removal system for fusion experimental reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Ueda, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Oda, Y.; Seki, Y.; Ueda, S.; Aoki, I.

    1995-01-01

    Development of a dust removal system using static electricity has been conducted. It is envisioned that the system can collect and transport dust under vacuum. In the system, the dust is charged by dielectric polarization and floated by an electrostatic attraction force that is generated by the DC electric field. The dust is then transported by the electric curtain formed by the three-phase AC electric field. Experimental investigation has been conducted to examine the characteristics of the system. Current research results indicate that the dust removal system using static electricity can be used for fusion experimental reactors

  5. Dust removal system for fusion experimental reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M.; Ueda, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Seki, Y.; Ueda, S.; Aoki, I. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Development of a dust removal system using static electricity has been conducted. It is envisioned that the system can collect and transport dust under vacuum. In the system, the dust is charged by dielectric polarization and floated by an electrostatic attraction force that is generated by the DC electric field. The dust is then transported by the electric curtain formed by the three-phase AC electric field. Experimental investigation has been conducted to examine the characteristics of the system. Current research results indicate that the dust removal system using static electricity can be used for fusion experimental reactors.

  6. Kansas Water Quality Action Targeting System (KATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This system is a revision of the original KATS system developed in 1990 as a tool to aid resource managers target Kansas valuable and vulnerable water resources for...

  7. Experimental and theoretical study of heavy ion slowing down in solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehana, A.

    1993-06-01

    Heavy ion energy losses in C, Al, Cu, Ag, Ta and Au solid targets have been measured at high energy (0.2 to 5 MeV/u), using the backward secondary ion technique, and at low energy (0.1 to 0.25 MeV/u) for the C, N and O ions, using the particle backscatter method. A brief review of the various matter-induced charged particle slowing down theories, and especially the Lindhard dielectric theory, is first presented. Then, the various models for the evaluation of the effective charge and of the high order correction, are discussed and compared. Experimental techniques and data processing methods are described, and the experimental results are compared to calculations derived from the dielectric theory. In particular, the effective charges and the high order corrections (Barkas-Bloch) are examined and compared to the models for the determination of the z 3 and z 4 terms for heavy ions

  8. Target tracking system based on preliminary and precise two-stage compound cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yiyan; Hu, Ruolan; She, Jun; Luo, Yiming; Zhou, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Early detection of goals and high-precision of target tracking is two important performance indicators which need to be balanced in actual target search tracking system. This paper proposed a target tracking system with preliminary and precise two - stage compound. This system using a large field of view to achieve the target search. After the target was searched and confirmed, switch into a small field of view for two field of view target tracking. In this system, an appropriate filed switching strategy is the key to achieve tracking. At the same time, two groups PID parameters are add into the system to reduce tracking error. This combination way with preliminary and precise two-stage compound can extend the scope of the target and improve the target tracking accuracy and this method has practical value.

  9. HIRFL–CSR internal cluster target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Caojie; Lu, Rongchun; Cai, Xiaohong; Yu, Deyang; Ruan, Fangfang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Jianming; Torpokov, D.K.; Nikolenko, D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An internal cluster target was built and installed at HIRFL–CSR. • The target thickness for H 2 amounts up to 6.6 × 10 12 atoms/cm 2 . • The feasibility and stability of the internal cluster target were verified by on-line experiments. -- Abstract: Since HIRFL–CSR internal cluster target was built, it has played a key role in in-ring experiments at HIRFL–CSR. So far it have been operated with five gas species as targets for scattering experiments, i.e. hydrogen, nitrogen, argon, neon, and krypton. The obtained highest thickness for hydrogen target amounts up to 10 12 atoms/cm 2 , and those of other targets are larger than 10 13 atoms/cm 2 with the background pressure of 10 −11 mbar in CSR. The target thickness can be varied by regulating the nozzle temperature and pressure of the inlet gas. The first online internal target experiment dedicated to investigate radioactive electron capture (REC) process with Xe 54+ ions colliding with the nitrogen target demonstrated the stability and reliability of the internal target system. In addition, hydrogen and krypton were also tested online in recent experiments, which indicate the target system can meet experimental requirements for the thickness of target, pressure in scattering chamber, and long-term stability

  10. A Study on Control System Design Based on ARM Sea Target Search System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xinwei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The infrared detector is used for sea target search, which can assist humans in searching suspicious objects at night and under poor visibility conditions, and improving search efficiency. This paper applies for interrupt and stack technology to solve problems of data losses that may be caused by one-to-many multi-byte protocol communication. Meanwhile, this paper implements hardware and software design of the system based on industrial-grade ARM control chip and uC / OS-II embedded operating system. The control system in the sea target search system is an information exchange and control center of the whole system, which solves the problem of controlling over the shooting angle of the infrared detector in the process of target search. After testing, the control system operates stably and reliably, and realizes rotation and control functions of the pan/tilt platform during automatic search, manual search and track.

  11. Radiation effects in IFMIF Li target diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, J.; Vila, R.; Shikama, T.; Horiike, H.; Simakov, S.; Ciotti, M.; Ibarra, A.

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostics for the lithium target will be crucial for the operation of IFMIF. Several parameters as the lithium temperature, target thickness or wave pattern must be monitored during operation. Radiation effects may produce malfunctioning in any of these diagnostics due to the exposure to high radiation fields. The main diagnostic systems proposed for the operation of IFMIF are reviewed in this paper from the point of view of radiation damage. The main tools for the assessment of the performance of these diagnostics are the neutronics calculations by using specialised codes and the information accumulated during the last decades on the radiation effects in functional materials, components and diagnostics for ITER. This analysis allows to conclude that the design of some of the diagnostic systems must be revised to assure the high availability required for the target system.

  12. A novel experimental scheme of electron scattering off unstable nuclei with a self-confining radioactive ion target (SCRIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasugi, Masanori

    2005-01-01

    We proposed a new experimental scheme of an electron scattering off unstable nuclei using a Self-Confining Radioactive Ion Target (SCRIT). The SCRIT is an unstable ion target formed in the electron storage ring, and is based on completely new idea. We constructed prototype of the SCRIT device and installed it in the electron storage ring KSR in Kyoto University. In the test experiment, 10 7 -Cs ions are confined in the SCRIT with the lifetime of about 2 s and the feasibility of the SCRIT as the target has been confirmed. (author)

  13. A beam sweeping system for the Fermilab antiproton production target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.

    1993-08-01

    In the Main Injector era beam intensities high enough to damage the antiproton production target will be available. In order to continue to operate with a tightly-focused primary beam spot on the target, and thus maintain yield, it will be necessary to spread the hot spot on the target by use of a beam sweeping system. This report summarizes the requirements for such a system, and addresses the issues involved in the design of a sweeping system

  14. System for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The system for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target representing the high-sensitivity nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described Q-meter with series connection and a circuit for measuring system resonance characteristic is used for NMR-absorption signal recording. Measuring coil is produced of a strip conductor in order to obtain uniform system sensitivity to polarization state in all target volume and improve signal-to-noise ratio. Polarization measuring system operates ion-line with the M-6000 computer. The total measuring error for the value of free proton polarization in target taking into account the error caused by local depolarization of working substance under irradiation by high-intense photon beam is <= 6%. Long-term application of the described system for measuring the proton polarization in the LUEh-20000 accelerator target used in the pion photoproduction experiments has demonstrated its high reliability

  15. Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Squires, B.; Gasteyer, T.; Richardson, R.

    1996-12-01

    In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only

  16. Target raster system at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, C.; Adderley, P.; Carlini, R.; Cuevas, C.; Vulcan, W.; Wines, R.

    1995-01-01

    A fast raster (FR) system consisting of two Litz cable air-core magnets (x, y) has been installed and tested in the Hall C beam line tunnel, 21 m from the cryogenic target. The system provides a maximum deflection of 0.06 mrad at a frequency range of 15-45 kHz for a 6 GeV electron beam. The FR magnets are driven by a MOSFET bipolar switching power source with a triangle current waveform, the peak-to-peak current is 40 A. (orig.)

  17. IGF system targeted therapy: Therapeutic opportunities for ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefers-Visser, J A L; Meijering, R A M; Reyners, A K L; van der Zee, A G J; de Jong, S

    2017-11-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system comprises multiple growth factor receptors, including insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), insulin receptor (IR) -A and -B. These receptors are activated upon binding to their respective growth factor ligands, IGF-I, IGF-II and insulin, and play an important role in development, maintenance, progression, survival and chemotherapeutic response of ovarian cancer. In many pre-clinical studies anti-IGF-1R/IR targeted strategies proved effective in reducing growth of ovarian cancer models. In addition, anti-IGF-1R targeted strategies potentiated the efficacy of platinum based chemotherapy. Despite the vast amount of encouraging and promising pre-clinical data, anti-IGF-1R/IR targeted strategies lacked efficacy in the clinic. The question is whether targeting the IGF-1R/IR signaling pathway still holds therapeutic potential. In this review we address the complexity of the IGF-1R/IR signaling pathway, including receptor heterodimerization within and outside the IGF system and downstream signaling. Further, we discuss the implications of this complexity on current targeted strategies and indicate therapeutic opportunities for successful targeting of the IGF-1R/IR signaling pathway in ovarian cancer. Multiple-targeted approaches circumventing bidirectional receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) compensation and prevention of system rewiring are expected to have more therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental research on laser tracking system with galvanometer scanner for measuring spatial coordinates of moving target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Hu, Zhaohui; Liu, Yongdong; Liang, Jinwen

    2000-10-01

    The spatial position of industrial object, such as robot end- effector, is an important geometric parameter whose accuracy determines whether robot can perform accurately. Therefore, we have established a laser tracking and coordinate measuring system with galvanometer scanner for high accuracy, large range, non- contact, and spatial dynamic measurement. In this paper, the laser tracking system and its setup are illuminated at first. Then, the formulae for calculating coordinates are deduced, and the calibration method of the initial distance from tracking mirror to target is presented. After that, two preliminary experiments in different distances are described. One is on CMM; the other is with grating ruler as reference. In the former, the maximum measurement error of coordinates is 70micrometers and the maximum error of length is 35micrometers in the 85x100x100mm3 measurement volume, and in the 1m initial distance. In the later, the maximum error of length is 140micrometers in the range of 480mm, and in the 5m initial distance. At the end of the paper, the error sources are analyzed and simulated.

  19. Shiva and Argus target diagnostics vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaros, S.S.; Mayo, S.E.; Campbell, D.; Holeman, D.

    1978-09-01

    The normal operation of LLL's Argus and Shiva laser irradiation facilities demand a main vacuum system for the target chamber and a separate local vacuum system for each of the larger appendage dianostics. This paper will describe the Argus and Shiva main vacuum systems, their respective auxiliary vacuum systems and the individual diagnostics with their respective special vacuum requirements and subsequent vacuum systems. Our latest approach to automatic computer-controlled vacuum systems will be presented

  20. Strategies for systemic radiotherapy of micrometastases using antibody-targeted 131I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheldon, T E; O'Donoghue, J A; Hilditch, T E; Barrett, A

    1988-02-01

    A simple analysis is developed to evaluate the likely effectiveness of treatment of micrometastases by antibody-targeted 131I. Account is taken of the low levels of tumour uptake of antibody-conjugated 131I presently achievable and of the "energy wastage" in targeting microscopic tumours with a radionuclide whose disintegration energy is widely dissipated. The analysis shows that only modest doses can be delivered to micrometastases when total body dose is restricted to levels which allow recovery of bone marrow. Much higher doses could be delivered to micrometastases when bone marrow rescue is used. A rationale is presented for targeted systemic radiotherapy used in combination with external beam total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow rescue. This has some practical advantages. The effect of the targeted component is to impose a biological non-uniformity on the total body dose distribution with regions of high tumour cell density receiving higher doses. Where targeting results in high doses to particular normal organs (e.g. liver, kidney) the total dose to these organs could be kept within tolerable limits by appropriate shielding of the external beam radiation component of the treatment. Greater levels of tumour cell kill should be achievable by the combination regime without any increase in normal tissue damage over that inflicted by conventional TBI. The predicted superiority of the combination regime is especially marked for tumours just below the threshold for detectability (e.g. approximately 1 mm-1 cm diameter). This approach has the advantage that targeted radiotherapy provides only a proportion of the total body dose, most of which is given by a familiar technique. The proportion of dose given by the targeted component could be increased as experience is gained. The predicted superiority of the combination strategy should be experimentally testable using laboratory animals. Clinical applications should be cautiously approached, with due regard to

  1. Cryogenic control system of the large COMPASS polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Gautheron, F; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Görtz, S; Gustafsson, K K; Horikawa, N; Kisselev, Yu V; Koivuniemi, J H; Kondo, K; Meyer, Werner T; Reicherz, G

    2004-01-01

    The dilution refrigerator used to cool the large COMPASS polarized target is monitored through a PC running LabVIEW trademark 6.1 under Windows 2000 trademark . About 60 parameters of the target (temperatures, pressures, flow rates) are continuously plotted and checked. They are periodically recorded in an Oracle trademark database and in a data file. An alarm for every parameter can be individually activated and optionally connected to a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) delivery message system. A web server receives and publishes the online status of the target with online tables and graphics on a dedicated COMPASS polarized target information web site. A Siemens programmable logic controller (PLC) powered by an uninterruptable source keeps the cryogenic system safe and stable during the long beam periods by controlling valves and interlocks. This safety feature protects the dilution refrigerator against potential damages in case of power failure.

  2. Targeting miR-155 to Treat Experimental Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qingran; Chen, Jie; Li, Wei; Bao, Chunde; Fu, Qiong

    2016-02-01

    Scleroderma is a refractory autoimmune skin fibrotic disorder. Alterations of microRNAs in lesional skin could be a new approach to treating the disease. Here, we found that expression of miR-155 was up regulated in lesional skin tissue from patients with either systemic or localized scleroderma, and correlated with fibrosis area. Then we demonstrated the potential of miR-155 as a therapeutic target in pre-clinical scleroderma models. MiR-155(-/-) mice were resistant to bleomycin induced skin fibrosis. Moreover, topical antagomiR-155 could effectively treat mice primed with subcutaneous bleomycin. In primary skin fibroblast, miR-155 silencing could inhibit collagen synthesis function, as well as signaling intensity of two pro-fibrotic pathways, Wnt/β-catenin and Akt, simultaneously. We further showed that miR-155 could regulate the two pathways via directly targeting casein kinase 1α (CK1α) and Src homology 2-containing inositol phosphatase-1 (SHIP-1), as previous reports. Mice with miR-155 knockout or topical antagomir-155 treatment showed inhibited Wnt/β-catenin and Akt signaling in skin upon bleomycin challenge. Together, our data suggest the potential of miR-155 silencing as a promising treatment for dermal fibrosis, especially in topical applications.

  3. Target plane imaging system for the Nova laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, C.D.; Bliss, E.S.; Jones, W.A.; Reeves, R.J.; Seppala, L.G.; Shelton, R.T.; VanArsdall, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Nova laser, in operation since December 1984, is capable of irradiating targets with light at 1.05 μm, 0.53 μm, and 0.35 μm. Correct alignment of these harmonic beams uses a system called a target plane imager (TPI). It is a large microscope (four meters long, weighing one thousand kilograms) that relays images from the target chamber center to a video optics module located on the outside of the chamber. Several modes of operation are possible including: near-field viewing and far-field viewing at three magnifications and three wavelengths. In addition, the entire instrument can be scanned in X,Y,Z to examine various planes near chamber center. Performance of this system and its computer controls will be described

  4. Development of the NSRR experimental data bank system, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishijima, Kiyomi; Uemura, Mutsumi; Ohnishi, Nobuaki

    1981-01-01

    To promote collection, arrangement, and utilization of the NSRR experimental data, development of the NSRR experimental data bank system was intended. Fundamental parts of the NSRR experimental data bank system, including the processing program DTBNK, have been completed. Data of the experiments performed so far have been collected and stored. Outline of the processing program and the method of utilization and the present status of the data bank system are discussed. (author)

  5. Experimental results from a large volume active target made of glass capillaries and liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, P.; Buontempo, S.; Brunner, J.; De Jong, M.; Fabre, J.P.; Frenkel, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Golovkin, S.; Gregoire, G.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Kushnirenko, A.; Martellotti, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Medvedkov, A.; Michel, L.; Mondardini, M.R.; Panman, J.; Penso, G.; Petukhov, Y.; Riccardi, F.; Siegmund, W.P.; Strack, R.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wong, H.; Zymin, K.

    1995-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of high-resolution tracking with an active target made of glass capillaries filled with organic liquid scintillator. This technique allows real time detection of short-lived particle decays. In this paper, we report on experimental results obtained from an active target having 2 x 2 cm 2 cross section and 180 cm length, installed in front of the CHORUS detector and exposed to the CERN Wide Band Neutrino Beam. The detector consists of 5.1 x 10 5 capillaries with 20 μm inner diameter, read out by a single optoelectronic chain and a Megapixel CCD. Details on tests in the neutrino beam will be reported. First neutrino interactions have been detected. (orig.)

  6. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  7. System for measuring of proton polarization in polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkach, A.Ya.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kuz'menko, V.S.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement system of proton polarization in the target, which uses the method of nuclear magnetic resonance is described. To record the signal of NMR-absorption a parallel Q-meter of voltage with analogous subtraction of resonance characteristics of measurement circuit is used. To obtain gradual sensitivity of the system to polarization state in the whole volume of the target the measurement coils is made of tape conductor. The analysis and mathematical modelling of Q-meter are carried out. Corrections for nonlinearity and dispersion are calculated. Key diagrams of the main electron blocks of Q-meter are presented. The system described operates on line with the M6000 computer. Total error of measurement of polarization value of free protons in the target does not exceed 6% [ru

  8. User's manual of JT-60 experimental data analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Takashi; Morishima, Soichi; Yoshioka, Yuji

    2010-02-01

    In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency Naka Fusion Institute, a lot of experiments have been conducted by using the large tokamak device JT-60 aiming to realize fusion power plant. In order to optimize the JT-60 experiment and to investigate complex characteristics of plasma, JT-60 experimental data analysis system was developed and used for collecting, referring and analyzing the JT-60 experimental data. Main components of the system are a data analysis server and a database server for the analyses and accumulation of the experimental data respectively. Other peripheral devices of the system are magnetic disk units, NAS (Network Attached Storage) device, and a backup tape drive. This is a user's manual of the JT-60 experimental data analysis system. (author)

  9. Polarized proton and deuteron solid HD targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.

    1977-01-01

    A decade has now elapsed since HD was proposed as a polarized proton and deuteron target with exceptionally desirable properties. These include a very high free proton proportion, independently polarizable proton and deuteron systems, and a ''frozen-spin'' mode of operation which allows separation of the functions of production and utilization of the highly polarized target. A discussion is given of what can be expected of the polarized HD system right now, without further research. The basic features of solid HD pertinent to its use as a ''frozen-spin'' target are outlined, then a summary is given of the particular experimental results which support the contention that the target will perform successfully, and finally, some feasible operating modes and the expected performances from them are presented

  10. Preparation of targets using electron gun systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Komor, P.

    1975-01-01

    Most targets of isotopes with very low vapor pressure can only be fabricated by vacuum deposition using an electron gun system or a heavy ion sputtering system. Heavy ion sputtering is a very new technique with many unsolved problems. Therefore it seems to be easier to work with an electron gun. Different commercially available electron guns, which are all designed for the high evaporation rates used in industry, are examined for their qualification in processing small amounts of material as used in fabrication of isotope targets. Electron backscattering and the associated efficiency of the electron beam power is strongly dependent on the atomic number Z of the evaporant and the incident angle of the electron beam on the surface of the evaporant. This dependence leads also to the undesired effects to the target layers from electrons and ions. Some precautions are necessary against the effects of the electrons and ions, which are formed in the plasma directly over the beam impact point. Beam power and beam density have to be chosen to get a constant evaporation rate and a low enough condensation rate in order not to overheat the target substrates. To evaporate some metals it may be helpful to pulse the electron beam

  11. Systems integration of biodefense omics data for analysis of pathogen-host interactions and identification of potential targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B McGarvey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The NIAID (National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases Biodefense Proteomics program aims to identify targets for potential vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics for agents of concern in bioterrorism, including bacterial, parasitic, and viral pathogens. The program includes seven Proteomics Research Centers, generating diverse types of pathogen-host data, including mass spectrometry, microarray transcriptional profiles, protein interactions, protein structures and biological reagents. The Biodefense Resource Center (www.proteomicsresource.org has developed a bioinformatics framework, employing a protein-centric approach to integrate and support mining and analysis of the large and heterogeneous data. Underlying this approach is a data warehouse with comprehensive protein + gene identifier and name mappings and annotations extracted from over 100 molecular databases. Value-added annotations are provided for key proteins from experimental findings using controlled vocabulary. The availability of pathogen and host omics data in an integrated framework allows global analysis of the data and comparisons across different experiments and organisms, as illustrated in several case studies presented here. (1 The identification of a hypothetical protein with differential gene and protein expressions in two host systems (mouse macrophage and human HeLa cells infected by different bacterial (Bacillus anthracis and Salmonella typhimurium and viral (orthopox pathogens suggesting that this protein can be prioritized for additional analysis and functional characterization. (2 The analysis of a vaccinia-human protein interaction network supplemented with protein accumulation levels led to the identification of human Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 4 protein as a potential therapeutic target. (3 Comparison of complete genomes from pathogenic variants coupled with experimental information on complete proteomes allowed the identification and

  12. Production of Y-86 and other radiometals for research purposes using a solution target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlke, Elisabeth; Hoehr, Cornelia; Hou, Xinchi; Hanemaayer, Victoire; Zeisler, Stefan; Adam, Michael J.; Ruth, Thomas J.; Celler, Anna; Buckley, Ken; Benard, Francois; Schaffer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnostic radiometals are typically obtained from cyclotrons by irradiating solid targets or from radioisotope generators. These methods have the advantage of high production yields, but require additional solid target handling infrastructure that is not readily available to many cyclotron facilities. Herein, we provide an overview of our results regarding the production of various positron-emitting radiometals using a liquid target system installed on a 13 MeV cyclotron at TRIUMF. Details about the production, purification and quality control of 89 Zr, 68 Ga and for the first time 86 Y are discussed. Methods: Aqueous solutions containing 1.35–1.65 g/mL of natural-abundance zinc nitrate, yttrium nitrate, and strontium nitrate were irradiated on a 13 MeV cyclotron using a standard liquid target. Different target body and foil materials were investigated for corrosion. Production yields were calculated using theoretical cross-sections from the EMPIRE code and compared with experimental results. The radioisotopes were extracted from irradiated target material using solid phase extraction methods adapted from previously reported methods, and used for radiolabelling experiments. Results: We demonstrated production quantities that are sufficient for chemical and biological studies for three separate radiometals, 89 Zr (A sat = 360 MBq/μA and yield = 3.17 MBq/μA), 86 Y (A sat = 31 MBq/μA and yield = 1.44 MBq/μA), and 68 Ga (A sat = 141 MBq/μA and yield = 64 MBq/μA) from one hour long irradiations on a typical medical cyclotron. 68 Ga yields were sufficient for potential clinical applications. In order to avoid corrosion of the target body and target foil, nitrate solutions were chosen as well as niobium as target-body material. An automatic loading system enabled up to three production runs per day. The separation efficiency ranged from 82 to 99%. Subsequently, 68 Ga and 86 Y were successfully used to radiolabel DOTA-based chelators while

  13. An Agrobacterium-delivered CRISPR/Cas9 system for high-frequency targeted mutagenesis in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, Si Nian; Neelakandan, Anjanasree K; Nahampun, Hartinio; Frame, Bronwyn; Main, Marcy; Spalding, Martin H; Becraft, Philip W; Meyers, Blake C; Walbot, Virginia; Wang, Kan; Yang, Bing

    2017-02-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 is a powerful genome editing tool in many organisms, including a number of monocots and dicots. Although the design and application of CRISPR/Cas9 is simpler compared to other nuclease-based genome editing tools, optimization requires the consideration of the DNA delivery and tissue regeneration methods for a particular species to achieve accuracy and efficiency. Here, we describe a public sector system, ISU Maize CRISPR, utilizing Agrobacterium-delivered CRISPR/Cas9 for high-frequency targeted mutagenesis in maize. This system consists of an Escherichia coli cloning vector and an Agrobacterium binary vector. It can be used to clone up to four guide RNAs for single or multiplex gene targeting. We evaluated this system for its mutagenesis frequency and heritability using four maize genes in two duplicated pairs: Argonaute 18 (ZmAgo18a and ZmAgo18b) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase or anthocyaninless genes (a1 and a4). T 0 transgenic events carrying mono- or diallelic mutations of one locus and various combinations of allelic mutations of two loci occurred at rates over 70% mutants per transgenic events in both Hi-II and B104 genotypes. Through genetic segregation, null segregants carrying only the desired mutant alleles without the CRISPR transgene could be generated in T 1 progeny. Inheritance of an active CRISPR/Cas9 transgene leads to additional target-specific mutations in subsequent generations. Duplex infection of immature embryos by mixing two individual Agrobacterium strains harbouring different Cas9/gRNA modules can be performed for improved cost efficiency. Together, the findings demonstrate that the ISU Maize CRISPR platform is an effective and robust tool to targeted mutagenesis in maize. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. System dynamic analyses on the JKJ mercury target and cold moderator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Aso, Tomokazu; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-01-01

    The temperature responses of major points in a mercury target cooling system and in a cold moderator system of JKJ (JAERI/KEK Joint Project) were simulated by the analytical code MATLAB (SIMULINK). As a result, it was made clear that non-control of mercury temperature is the best way to control the mercury target cooling system. If the mercury temperature of the system is controlled by the PID control system using an outlet temperature of heat exchanger, the PID control system shows the characteristics of an on-off control system, and the temperature cannot be controlled. Analytical results also showed that mercury temperature remained below the boiling point of 356degC under 0.1 MPa during a transient at one cooling pump trip. Analytical results for the cold moderator system showed that the outlet temperature of cold moderator vessels could be kept within a temperature range of 1 k during steady-state conditions. (author)

  15. Conceptual design of the handling and storage system for spent target vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Junichi; Sasaki, Shinobu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    A conceptual design of a handling and storage system for spent target vessels has been carried out, in order to establish spent target technology for the neutron scattering facility. The spent target vessels must be treated remotely with high reliability and safety, since they are highly activated and contain the poisonous mercury. The system is composed of a target exchange trolley to exchange the target vessel, remote handling equipment such as manipulators, airtight casks for the spent target vessel, storage pits and so on. This report presents the results of conceptual design study on a basic plan, a handling procedure, main devices and their arrangement of a handling and storage system for the spent target vessels. (author)

  16. Experimental Cross Sections for Reactions of Heavy Ions and 208Pb, 209Bi, 238U, and 248Cm Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patin, Joshua B.

    2002-01-01

    The study of the reactions between heavy ions and 208 Pb, 209 Bi, 238 U, and 248 Cm targets was performed to look at the differences between the cross sections of hot and cold fusion reactions. Experimental cross sections were compared with predictions from statistical computer codes to evaluate the effectiveness of the computer code in predicting production cross sections. Hot fusion reactions were studied with the MG system, catcher foil techniques and the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS). 3n- and 4n-exit channel production cross sections were obtained for the 238 U( 18 O,xn) 256-x Fm, 238 U( 22 Ne,xn) 260-x No, and 248 Cm( 15 N,xn) 263-x Lr reactions and are similar to previous experimental results. The experimental cross sections were accurately modeled by the predictions of the HIVAP code using the Reisdorf and Schaedel parameters and are consistent with the existing systematics of 4n exit channel reaction products. Cold fusion reactions were examined using the BGS. The 208 Pb( 48 Ca,xn) 256-x No, 208 Pb( 50 Ti,xn) 258-x Rf, 208 Pb( 51 V,xn) 259-x Db, 209 Bi( 50 Ti,xn) 259-x Db, and 209 Bi( 51 V,xn) 260-x Sg reactions were studied. The experimental production cross sections are in agreement with the results observed in previous experiments. It was necessary to slightly alter the Reisdorf and Schaedel parameters for use in the HIVAP code in order to more accurately model the experimental data. The cold fusion experimental results are in agreement with current 1n- and 2n-exit channel systematics

  17. Structural systems pharmacology: a new frontier in discovering novel drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hepan; Ge, Xiaoxia; Xie, Lei

    2013-08-01

    The modern target-based drug discovery process, characterized by the one-drug-one-gene paradigm, has been of limited success. In contrast, phenotype-based screening produces thousands of active compounds but gives no hint as to what their molecular targets are or which ones merit further research. This presents a question: What is a suitable target for an efficient and safe drug? In this paper, we argue that target selection should take into account the proteome-wide energetic and kinetic landscape of drug-target interactions, as well as their cellular and organismal consequences. We propose a new paradigm of structural systems pharmacology to deconvolute the molecular targets of successful drugs as well as to identify druggable targets and their drug-like binders. Here we face two major challenges in structural systems pharmacology: How do we characterize and analyze the structural and energetic origins of drug-target interactions on a proteome scale? How do we correlate the dynamic molecular interactions to their in vivo activity? We will review recent advances in developing new computational tools for biophysics, bioinformatics, chemoinformatics, and systems biology related to the identification of genome-wide target profiles. We believe that the integration of these tools will realize structural systems pharmacology, enabling us to both efficiently develop effective therapeutics for complex diseases and combat drug resistance.

  18. Type I-E CRISPR-Cas Systems Discriminate Target from Non-Target DNA through Base Pairing-Independent PAM Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datsenko, Kirill A.; Jackson, Ryan N.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Severinov, Konstantin; Brouns, Stan J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Discriminating self and non-self is a universal requirement of immune systems. Adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes are centered around repetitive loci called CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat), into which invader DNA fragments are incorporated. CRISPR transcripts are processed into small RNAs that guide CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to invading nucleic acids by complementary base pairing. However, to avoid autoimmunity it is essential that these RNA-guides exclusively target invading DNA and not complementary DNA sequences (i.e., self-sequences) located in the host's own CRISPR locus. Previous work on the Type III-A CRISPR system from Staphylococcus epidermidis has demonstrated that a portion of the CRISPR RNA-guide sequence is involved in self versus non-self discrimination. This self-avoidance mechanism relies on sensing base pairing between the RNA-guide and sequences flanking the target DNA. To determine if the RNA-guide participates in self versus non-self discrimination in the Type I-E system from Escherichia coli we altered base pairing potential between the RNA-guide and the flanks of DNA targets. Here we demonstrate that Type I-E systems discriminate self from non-self through a base pairing-independent mechanism that strictly relies on the recognition of four unchangeable PAM sequences. In addition, this work reveals that the first base pair between the guide RNA and the PAM nucleotide immediately flanking the target sequence can be disrupted without affecting the interference phenotype. Remarkably, this indicates that base pairing at this position is not involved in foreign DNA recognition. Results in this paper reveal that the Type I-E mechanism of avoiding self sequences and preventing autoimmunity is fundamentally different from that employed by Type III-A systems. We propose the exclusive targeting of PAM-flanked sequences to be termed a target versus non-target discrimination mechanism. PMID:24039596

  19. Evaluating system reliability and targeted hardening strategies of power distribution systems subjected to hurricanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, Abdullahi M.; Li, Yue; Stewart, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, power distribution systems have been vulnerable to extensive damage from hurricanes which can cause power outage resulting in millions of dollars of economic losses and restoration costs. Most of the outage is as a result of failure of distribution support structures. Over the years, various methods of strengthening distribution systems have been proposed and studied. Some of these methods, such as undergrounding of the system, have been shown to be unjustified from an economic point of view. A potential cost-effective strategy is targeted hardening of the system. This, however, requires a method of determining critical parts of a system that when strengthened, will have greater impact on reliability. This paper presents a framework for studying the effectiveness of targeted hardening strategies on power distribution systems subjected to hurricanes. The framework includes a methodology for evaluating system reliability that relates failure of poles and power delivery, determination of critical parts of a system, hurricane hazard analysis, and consideration of decay of distribution poles. The framework also incorporates cost analysis that considers economic losses due to power outage. A notional power distribution system is used to demonstrate the framework by evaluating and comparing the effectiveness of three hardening measures. - Highlight: • Risk assessment of power distribution systems subjected to hurricanes is carried out. • Framework for studying effectiveness of targeted hardening strategies is presented. • A system reliability method is proposed. • Targeted hardening is cost effective for existing systems. • Economic losses due to power outage should be considered for cost analysis.

  20. Acquisition and treatment systems for experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouard, E.

    1988-01-01

    The acquisition and treatment systems for experimental data has been conceived to give a response to experimental requirements in a research reactor such OSIRIS. Its objective is to acquire and treat the ensemble of informations coming from one or many experiences, to archive useful data for an ulterior treatment and to give at the experimentator a tool ensemble for a better track of his experience. Its main characteristics are given in this text [fr

  1. Constraints in distortion-invariant target recognition system simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Razzaque, Md A.

    2000-11-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) is a mature but active research area. In an earlier paper, we proposed a novel ATR approach for recognition of targets varying in fine details, rotation, and translation using a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) Neural Network (NN). The proposed approach performed segmentation of multiple objects and the identification of the objects using LVQNN. In this current paper, we extend the previous approach for recognition of targets varying in rotation, translation, scale, and combination of all three distortions. We obtain the analytical results of the system level design to show that the approach performs well with some constraints. The first constraint determines the size of the input images and input filters. The second constraint shows the limits on amount of rotation, translation, and scale of input objects. We present the simulation verification of the constraints using DARPA's Moving and Stationary Target Recognition (MSTAR) images with different depression and pose angles. The simulation results using MSTAR images verify the analytical constraints of the system level design.

  2. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  3. Experimental investigation of the formation of negative hydrogen ions in collisions between positive ions and atomic or molecular targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattouf, Elie

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the negative hydrogen ion (H - ) in collisions between a positive ion and a neutral atomic or molecular target is studied experimentally at impact energies of a few keV. The doubly-differential cross sections for H - formation are measured as a function of the kinetic energy and emission angle for the collision systems OH + + Ar and O + + H 2 O at 412 eV/a.m.u. These H - ions can be emitted at high energies (keV) in hard quasi-elastic two-body collisions involving a large momentum transfer to the H center. However, H - anions are preferentially emitted at low energy (eV) due to soft many-body (≥ 2) collisions resulting in a low momentum transfer. The formation of H - ions by electron capture follows excitation or ionization of the molecule. The molecular fragmentation dynamics is modeled to simulate the emission of H - ions. The overall good agreement between the simulation and the experiment leads to the understanding of most of the experimental observations. (author) [fr

  4. A Gas Target with a Tritium Gas Handling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmqvist, B; Wiedling, T

    1963-12-15

    A detailed description is given of a simple tritium gas target and its tritium gas filling system, and how to put it into operation. By using the T (p,n) He reaction the gas target has been employed for production of monoenergetic fast neutrons of well defined energy and high intensity. The target has been operated successfully for a long time.

  5. Real-Time Target Motion Animation for Missile Warning System Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    T. Perkins, R. Sundberg, J. Cordell, Z. Tun , and M. Owen, Real-time Target Motion Animation for Missile Warning System Testing, Proc. SPIE Vol 6208...Z39-18 Real-time target motion animation for missile warning system testing Timothy Perkins*a, Robert Sundberga, John Cordellb, Zaw Tunb, Mark

  6. System design and as-built MCNP model comparison for the Lujan Center target moderator reflector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhrer, G.; Ferguson, P.D.; Russell, G.J.; Pitcher, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    During the design of the Manuel Lujan, Jr., Neutron Scattering Center target, a simplified Monte Carlo model was used to estimate target system performance and to aid engineers as decisions were made regarding the construction of the target system. Although the simplified model ideally would perfectly reflect the as-built system performance, assumptions were made in the model during the design process that may result in deviations between the model predictions and the as-built system performance. Now that the Lujan Center target system has been completed, a more detailed, as-built, model of the target system has been completed. The purpose of this work is to investigate differences between the predicted target system performance of the simplified model and the as-built model from the standpoint of time-averaged moderator brightness. Calculated discrepancies between the two models have been isolated to a few key issues. Figure 1 shows MCNP geometric plots of the simplified and as-built models. Major differences between these two models include details in the moderator designs (plena) and piping, full versus partial moderator canisters (only in the direction of the extracted neutron beam for the simplified model), and reflector details including cooling pipes and engineering tolerance gaps. In addition, Fig. 1 demonstrates that the detailed model includes shielding and additional material beyond that which was modeled by the original simplified model

  7. Moving Target Detection and Active Tracking with a Multicamera Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a systematic framework for Intelligence Video Surveillance System (IVSS with a multicamera network. The proposed framework consists of low-cost static and PTZ cameras, target detection and tracking algorithms, and a low-cost PTZ camera feedback control algorithm based on target information. The target detection and tracking is realized by fixed cameras using a moving target detection and tracking algorithm; the PTZ camera is manoeuvred to actively track the target from the tracking results of the static camera. The experiments are carried out using practical surveillance system data, and the experimental results show that the systematic framework and algorithms presented in this paper are efficient.

  8. Solar-Diesel Hybrid Power System Optimization and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Headley Stewart

    As of 2008 1.46 billion people, or 22 percent of the World's population, were without electricity. Many of these people live in remote areas where decentralized generation is the only method of electrification. Most mini-grids are powered by diesel generators, but new hybrid power systems are becoming a reliable method to incorporate renewable energy while also reducing total system cost. This thesis quantifies the measurable Operational Costs for an experimental hybrid power system in Sierra Leone. Two software programs, Hybrid2 and HOMER, are used during the system design and subsequent analysis. Experimental data from the installed system is used to validate the two programs and to quantify the savings created by each component within the hybrid system. This thesis bridges the gap between design optimization studies that frequently lack subsequent validation and experimental hybrid system performance studies.

  9. The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center) target data collection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernodle, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) Target Data Collection System is the result of an effort to provide a base of information from which to draw conclusions on the performance and operational condition of the overall LANSCE target system. During the conceptualization of the system, several goals were defined. A survey was made of both custom-made and off-the-shelf hardware and software that were capable of meeting these goals. The first stage of the system was successfully implemented for the LANSCE run cycle 52. From the operational experience gained thus far, it appears that the LANSCE Target Data Collection System will meet all of the previously defined requirements

  10. J-PARC Transmutation Experimental Facility Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasa, T.; Takei, H.; Saito, S.; Obayashi, H.; Nishihara, K.; Sugawara, T.; Iwamoto, H.; Yamaguchi, K.; Tsujimoto, K.; Oigawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    Since the Fukushima accident, nuclear transmutation is considered as an option for waste management. Japan Atomic Energy Agency proposes the transmutation of minor actinides (MA) in accelerator-driven system (ADS) using lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE) as a spallation target and a coolant of subcritical core. To obtain the data required for ADS design, we plan the building of a transmutation experimental facility (TEF) is planned within the J-PARC project. TEF consists of an ADS target test facility (TEF-T), which will be installed 400 MeV-250 kW LBE spallation target for material irradiations, and a transmutation physics experimental facility (TEF-P), which set up a fast critical/subcritical assembly driven by low power proton beam with MA fuel to study ADS neutronics. At TEF-T, various research plans to use emitted neutrons from LBE target are discussed. The paper summarises a road-map to establish the ADS transmuter and latest design activities for TEF construction. (authors)

  11. Study of TXRF experimental system by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Ana Cristina M.; Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Conti, Claudio C.

    2011-01-01

    The Total-Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) technique offers unique possibilities to study the concentrations of a wide range of trace elements in various types of samples. Besides that, the TXRF technique is widely used to study the trace elements in biological, medical and environmental samples due to its multielemental character as well as simplicity of sample preparation and quantification methods used. In general the TXRF experimental setup is not simple and might require substantial experimental efforts. On the other hand, in recent years, experimental TXRF portable systems have been developed. It has motivated us to develop our own TXRF portable system. In this work we presented a first step in order to optimize a TXRF experimental setup using Monte Carlo simulation by MCNP code. The results found show that the Monte Carlo simulation method can be used to investigate the development of a TXRF experimental system before its assembly. (author)

  12. Target detection and localization in shallow water: an experimental demonstration of the acoustic barrier problem at the laboratory scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandet, Christian; Roux, Philippe; Nicolas, Barbara; Mars, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates experimentally at the laboratory scale the detection and localization of a wavelength-sized target in a shallow ultrasonic waveguide between two source-receiver arrays at 3 MHz. In the framework of the acoustic barrier problem, at the 1/1000 scale, the waveguide represents a 1.1-km-long, 52-m-deep ocean acoustic channel in the kilohertz frequency range. The two coplanar arrays record in the time-domain the transfer matrix of the waveguide between each pair of source-receiver transducers. Invoking the reciprocity principle, a time-domain double-beamforming algorithm is simultaneously performed on the source and receiver arrays. This array processing projects the multireverberated acoustic echoes into an equivalent set of eigenrays, which are defined by their launch and arrival angles. Comparison is made between the intensity of each eigenray without and with a target for detection in the waveguide. Localization is performed through tomography inversion of the acoustic impedance of the target, using all of the eigenrays extracted from double beamforming. The use of the diffraction-based sensitivity kernel for each eigenray provides both the localization and the signature of the target. Experimental results are shown in the presence of surface waves, and methodological issues are discussed for detection and localization.

  13. Feasibility of target communities in a Dutch brook valley system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, AH; Bekker, RM

    As a reaction to the ongoing deterioration of nature conservation interest in The Netherlands, an offensive nature strategy was formulated in the 1990 Nature Policy Plan. In this Plan, target communities and target plant species are mentioned. For the 'Drentse A brook valley system', target

  14. Emergency reactor cooling systems for the experimental VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitake, Susumu; Suzuki, Katsuo; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Tamura, Kazuo; Ezaki, Masahiro.

    1983-03-01

    Performances and design of the panel cooling system which has been proposed to be equipped as an emergency reactor cooling system for the experimental multi purpose very high temperature gas-cooled reactor are explained. Effects of natural circulation flow which would develop in the core and temperature transients of the panel in starting have been precisely investigated. Conditions and procedures for settling accidents with the proposed panel cooling system have been also studied. Based on these studies, it has been shown that the panel cooling system is effective and useful for the emergency reactor cooling of the experimental VHTR. (author)

  15. Virtual target screening to rapidly identify potential protein targets of natural products in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Pevzner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inherent biological viability and diversity of natural products make them a potentially rich source for new therapeutics. However, identification of bioactive compounds with desired therapeutic effects and identification of their protein targets is a laborious, expensive process. Extracts from organism samples may show desired activity in phenotypic assays but specific bioactive compounds must be isolated through further separation methods and protein targets must be identified by more specific phenotypic and in vitro experimental assays. Still, questions remain as to whether all relevant protein targets for a compound have been identified. The desire is to understand breadth of purposing for the compound to maximize its use and intellectual property, and to avoid further development of compounds with insurmountable adverse effects. Previously we developed a Virtual Target Screening system that computationally screens one or more compounds against a collection of virtual protein structures. By scoring each compound-protein interaction, we can compare against averaged scores of synthetic drug-like compounds to determine if a particular protein would be a potential target of a compound of interest. Here we provide examples of natural products screened through our system as we assess advantages and shortcomings of our current system in regards to natural product drug discovery.

  16. Virtual target screening to rapidly identify potential protein targets of natural products in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Pevzner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inherent biological viability and diversity of natural products make them a potentially rich source for new therapeutics. However, identification of bioactive compounds with desired therapeutic effects and identification of their protein targets is a laborious, expensive process. Extracts from organism samples may show desired activity in phenotypic assays but specific bioactive compounds must be isolated through further separation methods and protein targets must be identified by more specific phenotypic and in vitro experimental assays. Still, questions remain as to whether all relevant protein targets for a compound have been identified. The desire is to understand breadth of purposing for the compound to maximize its use and intellectual property, and to avoid further development of compounds with insurmountable adverse effects. Previously we developed a Virtual Target Screening system that computationally screens one or more compounds against a collection of virtual protein structures. By scoring each compound-protein interaction, we can compare against averaged scores of synthetic drug-like compounds to determine if a particular protein would be a potential target of a compound of interest. Here we provide examples of natural products screened through our system as we assess advantages and shortcomings of our current system in regards to natural product drug discovery.

  17. Study of neutron spectra in extended uranium target. New experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraipan M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of neutron fluences in the extended uranium target (“Quinta” assembly irradiated with 0.66 GeV proton, 4 AGeV deuteron and carbon beams was studied using the reactions with different threshold energy (Eth. The data sets were obtained with 59Co samples. The accumulation rates for the following isotopes: 60Co (Eth 0 MeV, 59Fe (Eth 3 MeV, 58Co (Eth 10 MeV, 57Co (Eth 20 MeV, 56Co (Eth 32 MeV, 47Sc (Eth 55 MeV, and 48V (Eth 70 MeV were measured with HPGe spectrometer. The experimental accumulation rates were compared with the predictions of the simulations with Geant4 code. Substantial difference between the reconstructed and the simulated data for the hard part of the neutron spectrum was analyzed.

  18. Progress and Challenges in Developing Aptamer-Functionalized Targeted Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers, which can be screened via systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX, are superior ligands for molecular recognition due to their high selectivity and affinity. The interest in the use of aptamers as ligands for targeted drug delivery has been increasing due to their unique advantages. Based on their different compositions and preparation methods, aptamer-functionalized targeted drug delivery systems can be divided into two main categories: aptamer-small molecule conjugated systems and aptamer-nanomaterial conjugated systems. In this review, we not only summarize recent progress in aptamer selection and the application of aptamers in these targeted drug delivery systems but also discuss the advantages, challenges and new perspectives associated with these delivery systems.

  19. Control systems: More for experimental physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-03-15

    The European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Experimental Physics Control Systems (EPCS) ended 1989 on an optimistic note, welcoming its 30th member institution and having substantially enlarged its range of activities.

  20. Nanobody-Based Delivery Systems for Diagnosis and Targeted Tumor Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaozhong Hu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of innovative targeted therapeutic approaches are expected to surpass the efficacy of current forms of treatments and cause less damage to healthy cells surrounding the tumor site. Since the first development of targeting agents from hybridoma’s, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been employed to inhibit tumor growth and proliferation directly or to deliver effector molecules to tumor cells. However, the full potential of such a delivery strategy is hampered by the size of mAbs, which will obstruct the targeted delivery system to access the tumor tissue. By serendipity, a new kind of functional homodimeric antibody format was discovered in camelidae, known as heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs. The cloning of the variable domain of HCAbs produces an attractive minimal-sized alternative for mAbs, referred to as VHH or nanobodies (Nbs. Apart from their dimensions in the single digit nanometer range, the unique characteristics of Nbs combine a high stability and solubility, low immunogenicity and excellent affinity and specificity against all possible targets including tumor markers. This stimulated the development of tumor-targeted therapeutic strategies. Some autonomous Nbs have been shown to act as antagonistic drugs, but more importantly, the targeting capacity of Nbs has been exploited to create drug delivery systems. Obviously, Nb-based targeted cancer therapy is mainly focused toward extracellular tumor markers, since the membrane barrier prevents antibodies to reach the most promising intracellular tumor markers. Potential strategies, such as lentiviral vectors and bacterial type 3 secretion system, are proposed to deliver target-specific Nbs into tumor cells and to block tumor markers intracellularly. Simultaneously, Nbs have also been employed for in vivo molecular imaging to diagnose diseased tissues and to monitor the treatment effects. Here, we review the state of the art and focus on recent developments with Nbs as

  1. Rotating target wheel system for super-heavy element production at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, J P; Falout, J; Janssens, R V F

    2004-01-01

    A new scattering chamber housing a large diameter rotating target wheel has been designed and constructed in front of the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) for the production of very heavy nuclei (Z greater than 100) using beams from the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS). In addition to the target and drive system, the chamber is extensively instrumented in order to monitor target performance and deterioration. Capabilities also exist to install rotating entrance and exit windows for gas cooling of the target within the scattering chamber. The design and initial tests are described.

  2. Development of the HERA-Β-target-control system and study of target operation at the HERA storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issever, S.

    2001-03-01

    The HERA-B experiment investigates the physics of heavy quarks, which are produced in pN reactions of the 920 GeV protons of HERA with the HERA-B internal fixed target. It consists out of eight wires, which surround the proton beam from four sides and is a high luminosity particle source. As being the closest mechanical device to the proton beam, it has to be operated very carefully and thus needs a secure and automatic control system, which additionally must be efficient and reliable to guarantee an efficient HERA-B data taking. The implementation of the target control system and its performance as well as dedicated studies of target-beam physics are presented. These include the measurement of the aperture limitation, usual target operational position, target efficiency, target independent proton loss in HERA and the scrape velocity of the target. The source of rate fluctuations is investigated in detail; among many dependencies environmental noise has a major impact on the rate fluctuations. Further studies include the analysis of beam position fluctuations and its correlation to the rate fluctuations; the rate changes about a factor of 2, if the beam is changing its position by 10 μm. This rate sensitivity is also verified directly by means of step function measurements. Furthermore the step function measurements can be used to study target-beam dynamics on time scales as short as a second. Experiments to reduce the rate sensitivity - the so called beam tail shaping measurements - are presented as well. During target operation a current, which is proportional to the interaction rate, is measured and used to determine the rate of each single wire. It is shown, that the source of this current is delta electron production. Finally the multiwire performance of the target control system is presented. (orig.)

  3. Experimental cross section evaluation for innovative 99Mo production via the (α,n) reaction on 96Zr target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupillo, Gaia; Gambaccini, M.; Esposito, J.; Haddad, F.; Michel, N.

    2014-01-01

    The recent crisis of 99 Mo production by nuclear reactors caused an unexpected worldwide 99m Tc shortening, forcing the international scientific community to find alternative production routes for these vital nuclides. One of the possibilities is to replace the current reactor-based method with the accelerator-based one. The aim of this work is the experimental evaluation of the 96 Zr(α,n) 99 Mo reaction, using the well known stacked foil technique with natural Zr targets, in the energy range 33-8 MeV. The results were compared with the published experimental values, finding good agreement in the trend of the cross section but at higher peak value. The results refer to 100% enriched 96 Zr target. The cross section values measured in the different irradiations show excellent agreement and indicate that the ideal energy range for 99 Mo production is 13-25 MeV. In comparison with the literature, there is good agreement in the trend of the cross section but at higher peak value. The 96 Zr(α,n) 99 Mo reaction is an interesting alternative production route of 99 Mo aimed at the realization of 99 Mo/ 99 mTc generators. Using enriched 96 Zr as target, 99 Mo is the only radioactive Mo-isotope produced, while using natural Zr as target, the resulting 99 Mo still has an high radioisotopic purity (only the radioactive 93 Mo is co-produced), but a lower specific activity. In both cases no Tc-nuclides are directly produced in target and the high purity 99m Tc results only from the decay of 99 Mo

  4. Experimental Study of a Thermoelectric Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Junpeng; Gao, Junling; Chen, Min

    2011-01-01

    . System-level simulation is carried out using a quasi-one-dimensional numerical model that enables direct comparison with experimental results. The results of both experiment and simulation will provide a foundation to improve and optimize complex thermoelectric generation systems....

  5. Control systems: More for experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Experimental Physics Control Systems (EPCS) ended 1989 on an optimistic note, welcoming its 30th member institution and having substantially enlarged its range of activities.

  6. Mockup experiments to investigate the leak rate correlation between mercury and helium for the mercury target system of J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, Katsuhiro; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    Checking the seal performance of the mercury piping network is very important for the mercury target system operation of J-PARC, and the test method for leaks using the pressure change measurement is preferable for this purpose because it can be carried out easily and precisely by measuring the pressure change, and it is free from the risk of mercury contamination. The piping network is pressurized by helium gas. Thus, the correlation between the helium leak rate and mercury leak flow rate was investigated experimentally by carrying out leak tests for helium and mercury with an identical mockup flange model. The results showed that the mercury leak flow rates of the experimental data were lower than those of the estimated value by 64% on average. It was also found that the threshold of the helium leak rate at which good seal performance for mercury can be obtained exists between 2.18 x 10 -4 and 1.01 x 10 -2 Pa.m 3 /s. This fact confirmed the sufficient safety margin of the mercury target system against the mercury leak, where 1 x 10 -6 Pa.m 3 /s was adopted as the seal performance criterion. (author)

  7. Conceptual design report for the University of Rochester cryogenic target delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagaly, R.L.; Alexander, N.B.; Bourque, R.F.; Dahms, C.F.; Lindgren, J.R.; Miller, W.J.; Bittner, D.N.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1993-05-01

    The upgrade of the Omega laser at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) will result in a need for large targets filled with D 2 or Dt and maintained at cryogenic temperatures. This mandates a cryogenic target delivery system capable of filling, layering, characterizing and delivering cryogenic targets to the Omega Upgrade target chamber. The program goal is to design, construct, and test the entire target delivery system by June 1996. When completed (including an operational demonstration), the system will be shipped to Rochester for reassembly and commissioning in time for the Omega Upgrade cryogenic campaign, scheduled to start in 1998. General Atomics has been assigned the task of developing the conceptual design for the cryogenic target delivery system. Design and fabrication activities will be closely coordinated with the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), drawing upon their knowledge base in fuel layering and cryogenic characterization. The development of a target delivery system for Omega could also benefit experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the other ICF Laboratories in that the same technologies could be applied to NOVA, the National Ignition Facility or the future Laboratory Microfusion Facility

  8. Conceptual design report for the University of Rochester cryogenic target delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagaly, R.L.; Alexander, N.B.; Bourque, R.F.; Dahms, C.F.; Lindgren, J.R.; Miller, W.J. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)); Bittner, D.N.; Hendricks, C.D. (W.J. Schafer Associates, Livermore, CA (United States))

    1993-05-01

    The upgrade of the Omega laser at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) will result in a need for large targets filled with D[sub 2] or Dt and maintained at cryogenic temperatures. This mandates a cryogenic target delivery system capable of filling, layering, characterizing and delivering cryogenic targets to the Omega Upgrade target chamber. The program goal is to design, construct, and test the entire target delivery system by June 1996. When completed (including an operational demonstration), the system will be shipped to Rochester for reassembly and commissioning in time for the Omega Upgrade cryogenic campaign, scheduled to start in 1998. General Atomics has been assigned the task of developing the conceptual design for the cryogenic target delivery system. Design and fabrication activities will be closely coordinated with the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), drawing upon their knowledge base in fuel layering and cryogenic characterization. The development of a target delivery system for Omega could also benefit experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the other ICF Laboratories in that the same technologies could be applied to NOVA, the National Ignition Facility or the future Laboratory Microfusion Facility.

  9. Conceptual design report for the University of Rochester cryogenic target delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagaly, R.L.; Alexander, N.B.; Bourque, R.F.; Dahms, C.F.; Lindgren, J.R.; Miller, W.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Bittner, D.N.; Hendricks, C.D. [W.J. Schafer Associates, Livermore, CA (US)

    1993-05-01

    The upgrade of the Omega laser at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) will result in a need for large targets filled with D{sub 2} or Dt and maintained at cryogenic temperatures. This mandates a cryogenic target delivery system capable of filling, layering, characterizing and delivering cryogenic targets to the Omega Upgrade target chamber. The program goal is to design, construct, and test the entire target delivery system by June 1996. When completed (including an operational demonstration), the system will be shipped to Rochester for reassembly and commissioning in time for the Omega Upgrade cryogenic campaign, scheduled to start in 1998. General Atomics has been assigned the task of developing the conceptual design for the cryogenic target delivery system. Design and fabrication activities will be closely coordinated with the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), drawing upon their knowledge base in fuel layering and cryogenic characterization. The development of a target delivery system for Omega could also benefit experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the other ICF Laboratories in that the same technologies could be applied to NOVA, the National Ignition Facility or the future Laboratory Microfusion Facility.

  10. The yeast three-hybrid system as an experimental platform to identify proteins interacting with small signaling molecules in plant cells: Potential and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eCottier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical genetics is a powerful scientific strategy that utilizes small bioactive molecules as experimental tools to unravel biological processes. Bioactive compounds occurring in nature represent an enormous diversity of structures that can be used to dissect functions of biological systems. Once the bioactivity of a natural or synthetic compound has been critically evaluated the challenge remains to identify its molecular target and mode of action, which usually is a time consuming and labor-intensive process. To facilitate this task, we decided to implement the yeast three-hybrid (Y3H technology as a general experimental platform to scan the whole Arabidopsis proteome for targets of small signaling molecules. The Y3H technology is based on the yeast two-hybrid system and allows direct cloning of proteins that interact in vivo with a synthetic hybrid ligand, which comprises the biologically active molecule of interest covalently linked to methotrexate (Mtx. In yeast nucleus the hybrid ligand connects two fusion proteins: the Mtx part binding to dihydrofolate reductase fused to a DNA binding domain (encoded in the yeast strain, and the bioactive molecule part binding to its potential protein target fused to a DNA activating domain (encoded on a cDNA expression vector. During cDNA library screening, the formation of this ternary, transcriptional activator complex leads to reporter gene activation in yeast cells, and thereby allows selection of the putative targets of small bioactive molecules of interest. Here we present the strategy and experimental details for construction and application of a Y3H platform, including chemical synthesis of different hybrid ligands, construction of suitable cDNA libraries, the choice of yeast strains, and appropriate screening conditions. Based on the results obtained and the current literature we discussed the perspectives and limitations of the Y3H approach for identifying targets of small bioactive molecules.

  11. Development of Detector Systems for Internal and Fixed Target Heavy Ion Physics Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, Pavel

    2003-04-01

    This thesis deals with intermediate energy heavy ion reactions with the particular aim to study the nuclear matter equation of state which defines the relation between statistical parameters of a fermionic system. The development of equipment for two experiments, CA47 at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden and R16 at Kernfysisch Versneller Inst. (KVI), Groningen, The Netherlands, are described. CA47 contains the CHICSi detector, a modular, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible, multi-detector system, covering a solid angle of 3pi sr around the collision point. Together with two auxiliary detector systems CHICSi is placed at the cluster-jet target chamber of the CELSIUS storage ring. This thesis gives a technical overview of the detector and the development carried out in order to achieve the desired detection performance. Some laboratory and in-beam tests are described and the analysis of the first experimental results is discussed. The nuclear intensity interferometry experiment (R16) was performed in a dedicated beam-line of the AGOR superconducting cyclotron. Small-angle two-particle correlations were measured for the E/A = 61 MeV 36 Ar + 27 Al, 112 Sn, 124 Sn reactions, together with singles spectra. The experimental energy distributions of neutrons and light charged particles for the 36 Ar + 27 Al reaction have been analyzed with a Maxwellian multi-source prescription. These results, together with correlation function data, are used to extract information on the size of the emitting sources and their time evolution

  12. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements target positioning subsystem SSDR 1.8.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittenger, L.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement document is a development specification that establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for the target positioner subsystem (WBS 1.8.2) of the NIF Target Experimental System (WBS 1.8)

  13. National Ignition Facility Cryogenic Target Systems Interim Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, B

    2002-01-01

    delivering this system will be decided at the national level, based on experiment campaign requirement dates that will be derived through this process. The current milestone date for achieving indirect-drive ignition on the NIF is December 2010. Maintaining this milestone requires that the cryogenic systems be complete and available for fielding experiments early enough that the planned experimental campaigns leading up to ignition can be carried out. The capability of performing non-ignition cryogenic experiments is currently required by March 2006, when the NIF's first cluster of beams is operational. Plans for cryogenic and non-cryogenic experiments on the NIF are contained in NNSA's Campaign 10 Program Plans for Ignition (MTE 10.1) and High Energy Density Sciences (MTE 10.2). As described in this document, the NCTS Program Manager is responsible for managing NIF Cryogenic Target Systems development, engineering, and deployment. Through the NIF Director, the NCTS Program Manager will put in place an appropriate Program Execution Plan (draft attached) at a later time consistent with the maturing and funding these efforts. The PEP will describe management methods for carrying out these activities

  14. The evaluation study of high performance gas target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae; Kim, Sang Wook

    2008-06-01

    The object of this study is a improvement of a gas target and targetry for increasing the radioisotope production yields. The main results are as follows 1. Improvement of beam entrance of the gas target : In this work, deep hole grid was designed for improvement of beam entrance. Using FEM(Finite Elements Method) analysis, it was verified that this design is more effective than the old one. 2. Improvement of target gas loading and withdrawing system : For the targetry, Helium gas and vacuum lines was installed for evaluating the production yields. Using these lines, it was proved that the recovery yields was improved and the residual impurity was reduced. 3. Improvement of target cooling efficiency : In case of the cylindrical target, it is more effective to use short length of target cavity for the high production yields. For improving the cooling efficiency, cooling fin was suggested to the target design. It is more effective to put the cooling fins inside the target cavity for the suppressed target pressure and density reduction effect during the proton beam irradiation. In conclusion, the target with fins inside the target cavity was better for high current irradiation and mass RI production

  15. The evaluation study of high performance gas target system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae; Kim, Sang Wook

    2008-06-15

    The object of this study is a improvement of a gas target and targetry for increasing the radioisotope production yields. The main results are as follows 1. Improvement of beam entrance of the gas target : In this work, deep hole grid was designed for improvement of beam entrance. Using FEM(Finite Elements Method) analysis, it was verified that this design is more effective than the old one. 2. Improvement of target gas loading and withdrawing system : For the targetry, Helium gas and vacuum lines was installed for evaluating the production yields. Using these lines, it was proved that the recovery yields was improved and the residual impurity was reduced. 3. Improvement of target cooling efficiency : In case of the cylindrical target, it is more effective to use short length of target cavity for the high production yields. For improving the cooling efficiency, cooling fin was suggested to the target design. It is more effective to put the cooling fins inside the target cavity for the suppressed target pressure and density reduction effect during the proton beam irradiation. In conclusion, the target with fins inside the target cavity was better for high current irradiation and mass RI production.

  16. Development of the jet-target system of the MAGIX experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, Aulenbacher [Institut fuer Kernphysik, JGU, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: Magix/MESA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Since the new accelerator MESA which will be built up in Mainz in the next years operates at low Energies (100 MeV), but at high beam currents (1 mA), a thin windowless target is required. Therefore the MAGIX collaboration is developing a Jet-Target. This target blasts a Gas-Jet perpendicular to the beam through the scattering chamber of MAGIX. This talk is about the development of this Target System.

  17. Exploding pusher targets for the SHIVA laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.D.; Larsen, J.T.; Nuckolls, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    The first targets for the 20 TW SHIVA laser system were designed. They are simple glass micro-balloons, approximately 300 μm in diameter and 2 μm thick, filled with D-T gas. Using LASNEX, whose model physics was utilized successfully for ARGUS targets, we optimize for both gain and yield. The target behaves as an exploding pusher. Different simple analytic models for the physics of this mode are presented, and are tested by comparing their scaling predictions, at constant absorbed power, with those demonstrated by LASNEX. Emphasis is placed on successful prediction of the basic quantities of peak ion temperature and compression, rather than neutron yield or n tau

  18. A Context Dependent Automatic Target Recognition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. H.; Payton, D. W.; Olin, K. E.; Tseng, D. Y.

    1984-06-01

    This paper describes a new approach to automatic target recognizer (ATR) development utilizing artificial intelligent techniques. The ATR system exploits contextual information in its detection and classification processes to provide a high degree of robustness and adaptability. In the system, knowledge about domain objects and their contextual relationships is encoded in frames, separating it from low level image processing algorithms. This knowledge-based system demonstrates an improvement over the conventional statistical approach through the exploitation of diverse forms of knowledge in its decision-making process.

  19. Emerging drugs which target the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckelings, Ulrike Muscha; Paulis, Ludovit; Unger, Thomas; Bader, Michael

    2011-12-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is already the most important target for drugs in the cardiovascular system. However, still new developments are underway to interfere with the system on different levels. The novel strategies to interfere with RAAS aim to reduce the synthesis of the two major RAAS effector hormones, angiotensin (Ang) II and aldosterone, or interfere with their receptors, AT1 and mineralocorticoid receptor, respectively. Moreover, novel targets have been identified in RAAS, such as the (pro)renin receptor, and molecules, which counteract the classical actions of Ang II and are therefore beneficial in cardiovascular diseases. These include the AT2 receptor and the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis. The search for drugs activating these tissue-protective arms of RAAS is therefore the most innovative field in RAAS pharmacology. Most of the novel pharmacological strategies to inhibit the classical RAAS need to prove their superiority above the existing treatment in clinical trials and then have to compete against these now quite cheap drugs in a competitive market. The newly discovered targets have functions beyond the cardiovascular system opening up novel therapeutic areas for drugs interfering with RAAS components.

  20. Conceptual design study of IFMIF target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Ida, M.; Maekawa, H.; Katsuta, H.; Hua, T.; Cevolani, S.

    1997-01-01

    IFMIF-CDA (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - Conceptual Design Activity) had been carried out during 1995 and 1996, under the auspices of the IEA. The mission of this facility is to provide an accelerator based deuterium-lithium (D-Li) neutron source to test the candidate materials of radiation - resistant and low - activation materials up to about a full lifetime of anticipated use in fusion energy reactors. The neutrons of about 14 MeV are obtained by the stripping reaction of the deuteron of Max. 40 MeV with target lithium. Total deuteron beam current is about 250 mA and beam footprint is 20 cm x 5 cm on the free surface of lithium jet. In this report general characteristics of the target lithium system and the results of thermal and flow analysis for the target lithium jet are described. (author)

  1. Treat-to-target in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosca, Marta; Boumpas, Dimitrios T; Bruce, Ian N

    2013-01-01

    Multiple clinical trials performed over twenty years in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have clearly demonstrated that patients have better outcomes if their disease activity at each time-point for follow-up includes a pre-specified target. A European SLE expert panel met in Zurich...... on May 8, 2012 to discuss whether a treat-to-target approach could be applied in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (T2T/SLE), define a research agenda, and establish a plan for moving forward. In the present paper, observations raised at the meeting and literature data on potential...

  2. An Experimental Study of the Correlates and Consequences of Perceiving Oneself to Be the Target of Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Chu, Hui

    2010-01-01

    An experimental methodology was used to test hypotheses concerning the effects of contextual, cognitive-developmental, and individual difference factors on children's views of whether they have been the target of gender discrimination and the possible consequent effect of such views on two forms of state self-esteem: performance and social…

  3. Multiple operating system rotation environment moving target defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nathaniel; Thompson, Michael

    2016-03-22

    Systems and methods for providing a multiple operating system rotation environment ("MORE") moving target defense ("MTD") computing system are described. The MORE-MTD system provides enhanced computer system security through a rotation of multiple operating systems. The MORE-MTD system increases attacker uncertainty, increases the cost of attacking the system, reduces the likelihood of an attacker locating a vulnerability, and reduces the exposure time of any located vulnerability. The MORE-MTD environment is effectuated by rotation of the operating systems at a given interval. The rotating operating systems create a consistently changing attack surface for remote attackers.

  4. LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center) target system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Robinson, H.; Legate, G.L.; Bridge, A.; Sanchez, R.J.; Brewton, R.J.; Woods, R.; Hughes, H.G. III

    1989-01-01

    The authors measured neutron beam fluxes at LANSCE using gold foil activation techniques. They did an extensive computer simulation of the as-built LANSCE Target/Moderator/Reflector/Shield geometry. They used this mockup in a Monte Carlo calculation to predict LANSCE neutronic performance for comparison with measured results. For neutron beam fluxes at 1 eV, the ratio of measured data to calculated varies from ∼0.6-0.9. The computed 1 eV neutron leakage at the moderator surface is 3.9 x 10 10 n/eV-sr-s-μA for LANSCE high-intensity water moderators. The corresponding values for the LANSCE high-resolution water moderator and the liquid hydrogen moderator are 3.3 and 2.9 x 10 10 , respectively. LANSCE predicted moderator intensities (per proton) for a tungsten target are essentially the same as ISIS predicted moderator intensities for a depleted uranium target. The calculated LANSCE steady state unperturbed thermal (E 13 n/cm 2 -s. The unique LANSCE split-target/flux-trap-moderator system is performing exceedingly well. The system has operated without a target or moderator change for over three years at nominal proton currents of 25 μA of 800-MeV protons. 17 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  5. A Secure and Privacy-Preserving Targeted Ad-System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulaki, Elli; Bellovin, Steven M.

    Thanks to its low product-promotion cost and its efficiency, targeted online advertising has become very popular. Unfortunately, being profile-based, online advertising methods violate consumers' privacy, which has engendered resistance to the ads. However, protecting privacy through anonymity seems to encourage click-fraud. In this paper, we define consumer's privacy and present a privacy-preserving, targeted ad system (PPOAd) which is resistant towards click fraud. Our scheme is structured to provide financial incentives to all entities involved.

  6. Shilling Attacks Detection in Recommender Systems Based on Target Item Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wen, Junhao; Koh, Yun Sing; Xiong, Qingyu; Gao, Min; Dobbie, Gillian; Alam, Shafiq

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are highly vulnerable to shilling attacks, both by individuals and groups. Attackers who introduce biased ratings in order to affect recommendations, have been shown to negatively affect collaborative filtering (CF) algorithms. Previous research focuses only on the differences between genuine profiles and attack profiles, ignoring the group characteristics in attack profiles. In this paper, we study the use of statistical metrics to detect rating patterns of attackers and group characteristics in attack profiles. Another question is that most existing detecting methods are model specific. Two metrics, Rating Deviation from Mean Agreement (RDMA) and Degree of Similarity with Top Neighbors (DegSim), are used for analyzing rating patterns between malicious profiles and genuine profiles in attack models. Building upon this, we also propose and evaluate a detection structure called RD-TIA for detecting shilling attacks in recommender systems using a statistical approach. In order to detect more complicated attack models, we propose a novel metric called DegSim' based on DegSim. The experimental results show that our detection model based on target item analysis is an effective approach for detecting shilling attacks.

  7. Shilling Attacks Detection in Recommender Systems Based on Target Item Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wen, Junhao; Koh, Yun Sing; Xiong, Qingyu; Gao, Min; Dobbie, Gillian; Alam, Shafiq

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are highly vulnerable to shilling attacks, both by individuals and groups. Attackers who introduce biased ratings in order to affect recommendations, have been shown to negatively affect collaborative filtering (CF) algorithms. Previous research focuses only on the differences between genuine profiles and attack profiles, ignoring the group characteristics in attack profiles. In this paper, we study the use of statistical metrics to detect rating patterns of attackers and group characteristics in attack profiles. Another question is that most existing detecting methods are model specific. Two metrics, Rating Deviation from Mean Agreement (RDMA) and Degree of Similarity with Top Neighbors (DegSim), are used for analyzing rating patterns between malicious profiles and genuine profiles in attack models. Building upon this, we also propose and evaluate a detection structure called RD-TIA for detecting shilling attacks in recommender systems using a statistical approach. In order to detect more complicated attack models, we propose a novel metric called DegSim’ based on DegSim. The experimental results show that our detection model based on target item analysis is an effective approach for detecting shilling attacks. PMID:26222882

  8. Experimental evaluation of Arabic OCR systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Alghamdi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of this paper is to experimentally evaluate the effectiveness of the state-of-the-art printed Arabic text recognition systems to determine open areas for future improvements. In addition, this paper proposes a standard protocol with a set of metrics for measuring the effectiveness of Arabic optical character recognition (OCR systems to assist researchers in comparing different Arabic OCR approaches. Design/methodology/approach – This paper describes an experiment to automatically evaluate four well-known Arabic OCR systems using a set of performance metrics. The evaluation experiment is conducted on a publicly available printed Arabic dataset comprising 240 text images with a variety of resolution levels, font types, font styles and font sizes. Findings – The experimental results show that the field of character recognition for printed Arabic still requires further research to reach an efficient text recognition method for Arabic script. Originality/value – To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first work that provides a comprehensive automated evaluation of Arabic OCR systems with respect to the characteristics of Arabic script and, in addition, proposes an evaluation methodology that can be used as a benchmark by researchers and therefore will contribute significantly to the enhancement of the field of Arabic script recognition.

  9. Monetary targeting and financial system characteristics : An empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samarina, A..

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how reforms and characteristics of the financial system affect the likelihood of countries to abandon their strategy of monetary targeting. Apart from financial system characteristics, we include macroeconomic, fiscal, and institutional factors potentially associated with

  10. Performance Measurement and Target-Setting in California's Safety Net Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat, Shirin; Schillinger, Dean; Lyles, Courtney; Ackerman, Sara; Gourley, Gato; Vittinghoff, Eric; Handley, Margaret; Sarkar, Urmimala

    Health policies encourage implementing quality measurement with performance targets. The 2010-2015 California Medicaid waiver mandated quality measurement and reporting. In 2013, California safety net hospitals participating in the waiver set a voluntary performance target (the 90th percentile for Medicare preferred provider organization plans) for mammography screening and cholesterol control in diabetes. They did not reach the target, and the difference-in-differences analysis suggested that there was no difference for mammography ( P = .39) and low-density lipoprotein control ( P = .11) performance compared to measures for which no statewide quality improvement initiative existed. California's Medicaid waiver was associated with improved performance on a number of metrics, but this performance was not attributable to target setting on specific health conditions. Performance may have improved because of secular trends or systems improvements related to waiver funding. Relying on condition-specific targets to measure performance may underestimate improvements and disadvantage certain health systems. Achieving ambitious targets likely requires sustained fiscal, management, and workforce investments.

  11. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.

    1985-01-01

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  12. Development of Detector Systems for Internal and Fixed Target Heavy Ion Physics Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, Pavel

    2003-04-01

    This thesis deals with intermediate energy heavy ion reactions with the particular aim to study the nuclear matter equation of state which defines the relation between statistical parameters of a fermionic system. The development of equipment for two experiments, CA47 at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden and R16 at Kernfysisch Versneller Inst. (KVI), Groningen, The Netherlands, are described. CA47 contains the CHICSi detector, a modular, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible, multi-detector system, covering a solid angle of 3pi sr around the collision point. Together with two auxiliary detector systems CHICSi is placed at the cluster-jet target chamber of the CELSIUS storage ring. This thesis gives a technical overview of the detector and the development carried out in order to achieve the desired detection performance. Some laboratory and in-beam tests are described and the analysis of the first experimental results is discussed. The nuclear intensity interferometry experiment (R16) was performed in a dedicated beam-line of the AGOR superconducting cyclotron. Small-angle two-particle correlations were measured for the E/A = 61 MeV {sup 36}Ar + {sup 27}Al, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 124}Sn reactions, together with singles spectra. The experimental energy distributions of neutrons and light charged particles for the {sup 36}Ar + {sup 27}Al reaction have been analyzed with a Maxwellian multi-source prescription. These results, together with correlation function data, are used to extract information on the size of the emitting sources and their time evolution.

  13. Target-Tracking Camera for a Metrology System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Carl; Bartman, Randall; Chapsky, Jacob; Abramovici, Alexander; Brown, David

    2009-01-01

    An analog electronic camera that is part of a metrology system measures the varying direction to a light-emitting diode that serves as a bright point target. In the original application for which the camera was developed, the metrological system is used to determine the varying relative positions of radiating elements of an airborne synthetic aperture-radar (SAR) antenna as the airplane flexes during flight; precise knowledge of the relative positions as a function of time is needed for processing SAR readings. It has been common metrology system practice to measure the varying direction to a bright target by use of an electronic camera of the charge-coupled-device or active-pixel-sensor type. A major disadvantage of this practice arises from the necessity of reading out and digitizing the outputs from a large number of pixels and processing the resulting digital values in a computer to determine the centroid of a target: Because of the time taken by the readout, digitization, and computation, the update rate is limited to tens of hertz. In contrast, the analog nature of the present camera makes it possible to achieve an update rate of hundreds of hertz, and no computer is needed to determine the centroid. The camera is based on a position-sensitive detector (PSD), which is a rectangular photodiode with output contacts at opposite ends. PSDs are usually used in triangulation for measuring small distances. PSDs are manufactured in both one- and two-dimensional versions. Because it is very difficult to calibrate two-dimensional PSDs accurately, the focal-plane sensors used in this camera are two orthogonally mounted one-dimensional PSDs.

  14. Activity of Nanobins Targeted to the Urokinase Plasminogen Activator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Patrick Leon

    While innovations in nanotechnology have resulted in numerous medical advancements for the treatment of cancer, there remains an urgent unmet need for safe and efficient molecular platforms that facilitate the delivery of potent therapeutics to solid tumors. Nanoscale formulations help to overcome the poor bioavailability and systemic organ toxicity associated with many small molecule drugs. Of these nanoparticle drug delivery systems, the greatest clinical successes to date have employed simple nanoscale lipid bilayer assemblies which encase large payloads of chemotherapeutic. While the nanobin platform we have developed has seen initial success through the passive accumulation into tumors, actively targeting nanobins to tumor specific antigens has the potential to increase the therapeutic index of these nanoparticle drugs. We have identified the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its cell surface bound receptor (uPAR) as ideal targets for drug delivery due to their selective overexpression in metastatic cancers and their important role in tumor progression. From a panel of monoclonal antibodies targeted to uPA and uPAR, we have selected ATN291 and ATN658 as lead candidates for nanobin targeting based on their tumor cell binding and ability to be internalized by cells. A novel method of conjugating antibodies to liposomes was developed for our nanobin platform that preserves the high binding affinity and specificity of these antibodies. We evaluated these uPA- and uPAR-targeted nanobins in several xenograft tumor models and found that they were well-tolerated over a wide range of doses and demonstrated significantly increased antitumor efficacy over untargeted nanobins in multiple tumor types. Preliminary studies suggest that uPA-targeted nanobins are readily internalized by tumor cells, and we believe this is the mechanism for their increased antitumor effect. A method for radiolabeling nanobins with gallium-67 was developed, and preliminary SPECT

  15. Technological aspects of cryogenic laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musinski, D.L.; Henderson, T.M.; Simms, R.J.; Pattinson, T.R.; Jacobs, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Most current laser-fusion targets consist of hollow spherical glass shells which have been filled with a mixture of gaseous deuterium-tritium fuel. Theoretical considerations suggest that optimum yields can be obtained from these targets if the fuel is condensed as a uniform liquid or solid layer on the inner surface of the glass shell at the time it is irradiated. In principle, this can be accomplished in a straightforward way by cooling the target below the condensation or freezing point of the fuel. In practice, cryogenic targets can appear in routine laser experiments only when the necessary cryogenic technology is reliably integrated into experimental target chambers. Significant progress has been made recently in this field. The authors will discuss the scientific basis and the various technological features of a system which has allowed the successful irradiation of uniform solid-fuel-layer targets

  16. Analysis on Target Detection and Classification in LTE Based Passive Forward Scattering Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Abdullah, Raja Syamsul Azmir; Abdul Aziz, Noor Hafizah; Abdul Rashid, Nur Emileen; Ahmad Salah, Asem; Hashim, Fazirulhisyam

    2016-09-29

    The passive bistatic radar (PBR) system can utilize the illuminator of opportunity to enhance radar capability. By utilizing the forward scattering technique and procedure into the specific mode of PBR can provide an improvement in target detection and classification. The system is known as passive Forward Scattering Radar (FSR). The passive FSR system can exploit the peculiar advantage of the enhancement in forward scatter radar cross section (FSRCS) for target detection. Thus, the aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of passive FSR for moving target detection and classification by experimental analysis and results. The signal source is coming from the latest technology of 4G Long-Term Evolution (LTE) base station. A detailed explanation on the passive FSR receiver circuit, the detection scheme and the classification algorithm are given. In addition, the proposed passive FSR circuit employs the self-mixing technique at the receiver; hence the synchronization signal from the transmitter is not required. The experimental results confirm the passive FSR system's capability for ground target detection and classification. Furthermore, this paper illustrates the first classification result in the passive FSR system. The great potential in the passive FSR system provides a new research area in passive radar that can be used for diverse remote monitoring applications.

  17. Targeted mutagenesis in Zea mays using TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Kunling; Gao, Caixia

    2014-02-20

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems have emerged as powerful tools for genome editing in a variety of species. Here, we report, for the first time, targeted mutagenesis in Zea mays using TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas system. We designed five TALENs targeting 4 genes, namely ZmPDS, ZmIPK1A, ZmIPK, ZmMRP4, and obtained targeting efficiencies of up to 23.1% in protoplasts, and about 13.3% to 39.1% of the transgenic plants were somatic mutations. Also, we constructed two gRNAs targeting the ZmIPK gene in maize protoplasts, at frequencies of 16.4% and 19.1%, respectively. In addition, the CRISPR/Cas system induced targeted mutations in Z. mays protoplasts with efficiencies (13.1%) similar to those obtained with TALENs (9.1%). Our results show that both TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas system can be used for genome modification in maize. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The evaluation study for gas target system in cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae; Kim, Sang Wook

    2009-06-01

    The object of this study is an improvement of a gas target and targetry for increasing the radioisotope production yields. The main results are as follows 1. Improvement of beam entrance of the gas target : In this work, the deep hole grid and the hex grid are compared for improvement of beam entrance. Using FEM analysis, it was verified that the hex grid design is more effective than the hole grid. 2. Improvement of target gas loading and withdrawing system : For the targetry, two type of mixture gas (N 2 +H 2 /N 2 +O 2 ) lines was installed for CH 4 /CO 2 production. Use the mixture gas than the He gas, it was proved that the recovery yields was improved and the residual impurity was reduced. 3. Compare the target yields : For improving the cooling efficiency, cooling fin was suggested to the target design. Also, we tested the production yield variation with impurity of the mixture gas. It is more effective to put the cooling fins inside the target cavity for the suppressed target pressure and density reduction effect during the proton beam irradiation. In conclusion, the target with fins inside the target cavity was better for high current irradiation and mass RI production

  19. The IPIRG-1 pipe system fracture tests: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.J.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the First International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-1) program, six dynamic pipe system experiments were conducted. The objective of these experiments was to generate experimental data to assess analysis methodologies for characterizing the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe in a representative piping system subjected to combined inertial and displacement-controlled stresses. A unique experimental facility was designed and constructed. The pipe system evaluated was an expansion loop with over 30 m (100 feet) of 16-inch nominal diameter Schedule 100 pipe. The experimental facility was equipped with special hardware to ensure that system boundary conditions could be appropriately modeled. The test matrix involved one uncracked and five cracked dynamic pipe system experiments. The uncracked-pipe experiment was conducted to evaluate the piping system damping and natural frequency characteristics. The cracked-pipe experiments were conducted to evaluate the fracture behavior, piping system response, and fracture stability characteristics of five different materials. All cracked-pipe experiments were conducted at PWR conditions. Material characterization efforts provided the tensile and fracture toughness properties of the different pipe materials at various strain rates and temperatures. Key results from the six pipe system experiments and material characterization efforts are presented. Detailed analyses will be published in a companion paper

  20. Literature-based condition-specific miRNA-mRNA target prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsik Oh

    Full Text Available miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the 3'-UTR of genes. Many recent studies have reported that miRNAs play important biological roles by regulating specific mRNAs or genes. Many sequence-based target prediction algorithms have been developed to predict miRNA targets. However, these methods are not designed for condition-specific target predictions and produce many false positives; thus, expression-based target prediction algorithms have been developed for condition-specific target predictions. A typical strategy to utilize expression data is to leverage the negative control roles of miRNAs on genes. To control false positives, a stringent cutoff value is typically set, but in this case, these methods tend to reject many true target relationships, i.e., false negatives. To overcome these limitations, additional information should be utilized. The literature is probably the best resource that we can utilize. Recent literature mining systems compile millions of articles with experiments designed for specific biological questions, and the systems provide a function to search for specific information. To utilize the literature information, we used a literature mining system, BEST, that automatically extracts information from the literature in PubMed and that allows the user to perform searches of the literature with any English words. By integrating omics data analysis methods and BEST, we developed Context-MMIA, a miRNA-mRNA target prediction method that combines expression data analysis results and the literature information extracted based on the user-specified context. In the pathway enrichment analysis using genes included in the top 200 miRNA-targets, Context-MMIA outperformed the four existing target prediction methods that we tested. In another test on whether prediction methods can re-produce experimentally validated target relationships, Context-MMIA outperformed the four existing target prediction

  1. Los Alamos pulsed spallation neutron source target systems - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.; Daemen, L.L.; Pitcher, E.J.; Brun, T.O.; Hjelm, R.P. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    For the past 16 yr, spallation target-system designers have devoted much time and effort to the design and optimization of pulsed spallation neutron sources. Many concepts have been proposed, but, in practice, only one has been implemented horizontal beam insertion with moderators in wing geometry i.e., until we introduced the innovative split-target/flux-trap-moderator design with a composite reflector shield at the Manuel Lujan, Jr., Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE). The LANSCE target system design is now considered a classic by spallation target system designers worldwide. LANSCE, a state-of-the-art pulsed spallation neutron source for materials science and nuclear physics research, uses 800-MeV protons from the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. These protons are fed into the proton storage ring to be compressed to 250-ns pulses before being delivered to LANSCE at 20 Hz. LANSCE produces the highest peak neutron flux of any pulsed spallation neutron source in the world

  2. Development of experimental systems for material sciences under microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanii, Jun; Obi, Shinzo; Kamimiyata, Yotsuo; Ajimine, Akio

    1988-01-01

    As part of the Space Experiment Program of the Society of Japanese Aerospace Companies, three experimental systems (G452, G453, G454) have been developed for materials science studies under microgravity by the NEC Corporation. These systems are to be flown as Get Away Special payloads for studying the feasibility of producing new materials. Together with the experimental modules carrying the hardware specific to the experiment, the three systems all comprise standard subsystems consisting of a power supply, sequence controller, temperature controller, data recorder, and video recorder.

  3. Operation and management manual of JT-60 experimental data analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Takashi; Morishima, Soichi

    2014-03-01

    In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency Naka Fusion Institute, a lot of experiments have been conducted by using the large tokamak device JT-60 aiming to realize fusion power plant. In order to optimize the JT-60 experiment and to investigate complex characteristics of plasma, JT-60 experimental data analysis system was developed and used for collecting, referring and analyzing the JT-60 experimental data. Main components of the system are a data analysis server and a database server for the analyses and accumulation of the experimental data respectively. Other peripheral devices of the system are magnetic disk units, NAS (Network Attached Storage) device, and a backup tape drive. This is an operation and management manual the JT-60 experimental data analysis system. (author)

  4. Development of a nickel plated aluminum krypton-81m target system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrumayan, F; Okarvi, S M; Nagatsu, K; Yanbawi, S; Aljammaz, I

    2017-03-01

    A fully automated system was developed to produce rubidium-81 ( 81 Rb), based on the nat Kr (p, n) 81 Rb reaction. The energy incident on the target was 26MeV. Only 6MeV was stopped inside the gas and the remainder was stopped by a specially designed flange. The target body was characterized by its conical shape and its inner walls were chemically plated with 100±10µm of nickel (Ni). Ni is advantageous as a fairly good conductor of heat whose surface can resist solutions. Additionally, the Ni plated target allowed potassium chloride to dissolve 81 Rb, with no further effect on the target body. The system produced 81 Rb with a production yield of approximately 4.5mCi/µAh, which is close to the calculated expected yield of 5.3mCi/µAh. The system is able to deliver reliable and reproducible radioactivity for patients and can be operated up to 1500µAh before preventive maintenance is due. Key steps in designing the 81 Rb target for selected energy ranges are reported here. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Experimental and numerical studies on penetration of shaped charge into concrete and pebble layered targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on penetrating into concrete and pebble layered targets were performed by shaped charge with different cone angles, liner wall thicknesses, length to diameter ratios and charge diameters at different standoffs. Based on the experimental data, the influence of shaped charge’s structural parameters on crater diameter, hole diameter, crater depth and penetration depth was analyzed in detail. Meanwhile, formation and penetration processes of all shaped charges were simulated by AUTODYN software for investigating the more intrinsic mechanisms, in which the numerical models are the same as those set up in the experiments. The results obtained in this paper indicate that there are obvious differences between jetting projectile charge (JPC and explosively formed projectile (EFP in penetrating into multi-layer targets. For the same charge diameter, the values of hole diameter formed by EFP were much larger than JPC. However, for the same standoff, the penetration depth caused by JCP were larger than EFP. The interfacial effect exists in the penetration progress of JPC.

  6. Treat-to-target in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosca, Marta; Boumpas, Dimitrios T; Bruce, Ian N

    2013-01-01

    on May 8, 2012 to discuss whether a treat-to-target approach could be applied in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (T2T/SLE), define a research agenda, and establish a plan for moving forward. In the present paper, observations raised at the meeting and literature data on potential...

  7. Repetitive laser fusion experiment and operation using a target injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Komeda, Osamu; Mori, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    Since 2008, a collaborative research project on laser fusion development based on a high-speed ignition method using repetitive laser has been carried out with several collaborative research institutes. This paper reports the current state of operation of high repetition laser fusion experiments, such as target introduction and control based on a target injection system that allows free falling under 1 Hz, using a high repetition laser driver that has been under research and development, as well as the measurement of targets that freely fall. The HAMA laser driver that enabled high repetition fusion experiments is a titanium sapphire laser using a diode-pumped solid-state laser KURE-I of green light output as a driver pump light source. In order to carry out high repetition laser fusion experiments, the target injection device allows free falling of deuterated polystyrene solid sphere targets of 1 mm in diameter under 1 Hz. The authors integrated the developed laser and injection system, and succeeded first in the world in making the nuclear fusion reaction continuously by hitting the target to be injected with laser, which is essential technology for future laser nuclear fusion reactor. In order to realize repetition laser fusion experiments, stable laser, target synchronization control, and target position measurement technologies are indispensable. (A.O.)

  8. Disorder Prediction Methods, Their Applicability to Different Protein Targets and Their Usefulness for Guiding Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Atkins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The role and function of a given protein is dependent on its structure. In recent years, however, numerous studies have highlighted the importance of unstructured, or disordered regions in governing a protein’s function. Disordered proteins have been found to play important roles in pivotal cellular functions, such as DNA binding and signalling cascades. Studying proteins with extended disordered regions is often problematic as they can be challenging to express, purify and crystallise. This means that interpretable experimental data on protein disorder is hard to generate. As a result, predictive computational tools have been developed with the aim of predicting the level and location of disorder within a protein. Currently, over 60 prediction servers exist, utilizing different methods for classifying disorder and different training sets. Here we review several good performing, publicly available prediction methods, comparing their application and discussing how disorder prediction servers can be used to aid the experimental solution of protein structure. The use of disorder prediction methods allows us to adopt a more targeted approach to experimental studies by accurately identifying the boundaries of ordered protein domains so that they may be investigated separately, thereby increasing the likelihood of their successful experimental solution.

  9. Target diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeper, R.J.; Chandler, G.A.; Cooper, G.W.; Derzon, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    A review of recent progress on the design of a diagnostic system proposed for ignition target experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be presented. This diagnostic package contains an extensive suite of optical, x-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron diagnostics that enable measurements of the performance of both direct and indirect driven NIF targets. The philosophy used in designing all of the diagnostics in the set has emphasized redundant and independent measurement of fundamental physical quantities relevant to the operation of the NIF target. A unique feature of these diagnostics is that they are being designed to be capable of operating, in the high radiation, EMP, and debris backgrounds expected on the NIF facility. The diagnostic system proposed can be categorized into three broad areas: laser characterization, hohlraum characterization, and capsule performance diagnostics. The operating principles of a representative instrument from each class of diagnostic employed in this package will be summarized and illustrated with data obtained in recent prototype diagnostic tests

  10. Transmutation of 126Sn in spallation targets of accelerator-driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chi Young; Saito, Masaki; Sagara, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The practical feasibility of 126 Sn transmutation in spallation targets of accelerator-driven systems was evaluated from the viewpoints of accumulation of radioactive spallation products and neutron production as well as transmutation amount of 126 Sn. A cylindrical liquid 126 Sn target whose length depends on proton beam energy was described, based on a Pb-Bi target design of accelerator-driven system being developed in JAEA. A proton beam of 1.5 GeV-20 mA was estimated to give the transmutation rate of 126 Sn 6.4 kg/yr, which corresponds to the amount of 126 Sn annually discharged in 27 LWRs of 1 GWt and 33 GWd/THM. The equilibrium radioactivity of spallation products would reach 9% of that of 126 Sn transmuted in the spallation target, and the equilibrium toxicity would be just 3%. Some parametric analyses showed that the effective half-life of 126 Sn could be reduced through a proper reduction of the target size. The 126 Sn target was calculated to produce 40 neutrons per proton of 1.5 GeV and give a neutron spectrum very similar to that of the reference Pb-Bi target. As a result, the transmutation of 126 Sn in the spallation target has a high feasibility in terms of better transmutation performance and comparable target performance. (author)

  11. Protein search for multiple targets on DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Martin [Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz 55122 (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Kochugaeva, Maria [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Kolomeisky, Anatoly B., E-mail: tolya@rice.edu [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Protein-DNA interactions are crucial for all biological processes. One of the most important fundamental aspects of these interactions is the process of protein searching and recognizing specific binding sites on DNA. A large number of experimental and theoretical investigations have been devoted to uncovering the molecular description of these phenomena, but many aspects of the mechanisms of protein search for the targets on DNA remain not well understood. One of the most intriguing problems is the role of multiple targets in protein search dynamics. Using a recently developed theoretical framework we analyze this question in detail. Our method is based on a discrete-state stochastic approach that takes into account most relevant physical-chemical processes and leads to fully analytical description of all dynamic properties. Specifically, systems with two and three targets have been explicitly investigated. It is found that multiple targets in most cases accelerate the search in comparison with a single target situation. However, the acceleration is not always proportional to the number of targets. Surprisingly, there are even situations when it takes longer to find one of the multiple targets in comparison with the single target. It depends on the spatial position of the targets, distances between them, average scanning lengths of protein molecules on DNA, and the total DNA lengths. Physical-chemical explanations of observed results are presented. Our predictions are compared with experimental observations as well as with results from a continuum theory for the protein search. Extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations fully support our theoretical calculations.

  12. TargetMine, an integrated data warehouse for candidate gene prioritisation and target discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-An Chen

    Full Text Available Prioritising candidate genes for further experimental characterisation is a non-trivial challenge in drug discovery and biomedical research in general. An integrated approach that combines results from multiple data types is best suited for optimal target selection. We developed TargetMine, a data warehouse for efficient target prioritisation. TargetMine utilises the InterMine framework, with new data models such as protein-DNA interactions integrated in a novel way. It enables complicated searches that are difficult to perform with existing tools and it also offers integration of custom annotations and in-house experimental data. We proposed an objective protocol for target prioritisation using TargetMine and set up a benchmarking procedure to evaluate its performance. The results show that the protocol can identify known disease-associated genes with high precision and coverage. A demonstration version of TargetMine is available at http://targetmine.nibio.go.jp/.

  13. Experimental system design for the integration of trapped-ion and superconducting qubit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Motte, D.; Grounds, A. R.; Rehák, M.; Rodriguez Blanco, A.; Lekitsch, B.; Giri, G. S.; Neilinger, P.; Oelsner, G.; Il'ichev, E.; Grajcar, M.; Hensinger, W. K.

    2016-12-01

    We present a design for the experimental integration of ion trapping and superconducting qubit systems as a step towards the realization of a quantum hybrid system. The scheme addresses two key difficulties in realizing such a system: a combined microfabricated ion trap and superconducting qubit architecture, and the experimental infrastructure to facilitate both technologies. Developing upon work by Kielpinski et al. (Phys Rev Lett 108(13):130504, 2012. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.130504), we describe the design, simulation and fabrication process for a microfabricated ion trap capable of coupling an ion to a superconducting microwave LC circuit with a coupling strength in the tens of kHz. We also describe existing difficulties in combining the experimental infrastructure of an ion trapping set-up into a dilution refrigerator with superconducting qubits and present solutions that can be immediately implemented using current technology.

  14. Monocular Vision-Based Robot Localization and Target Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Fei Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vision-based technology for localizing targets in 3D environment. It is achieved by the combination of different types of sensors including optical wheel encoders, an electrical compass, and visual observations with a single camera. Based on the robot motion model and image sequences, extended Kalman filter is applied to estimate target locations and the robot pose simultaneously. The proposed localization system is applicable in practice because it is not necessary to have the initializing setting regarding starting the system from artificial landmarks of known size. The technique is especially suitable for navigation and target tracing for an indoor robot and has a high potential extension to surveillance and monitoring for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with aerial odometry sensors. The experimental results present “cm” level accuracy of the localization of the targets in indoor environment under a high-speed robot movement.

  15. Analysis on Target Detection and Classification in LTE Based Passive Forward Scattering Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Syamsul Azmir Raja Abdullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The passive bistatic radar (PBR system can utilize the illuminator of opportunity to enhance radar capability. By utilizing the forward scattering technique and procedure into the specific mode of PBR can provide an improvement in target detection and classification. The system is known as passive Forward Scattering Radar (FSR. The passive FSR system can exploit the peculiar advantage of the enhancement in forward scatter radar cross section (FSRCS for target detection. Thus, the aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of passive FSR for moving target detection and classification by experimental analysis and results. The signal source is coming from the latest technology of 4G Long-Term Evolution (LTE base station. A detailed explanation on the passive FSR receiver circuit, the detection scheme and the classification algorithm are given. In addition, the proposed passive FSR circuit employs the self-mixing technique at the receiver; hence the synchronization signal from the transmitter is not required. The experimental results confirm the passive FSR system’s capability for ground target detection and classification. Furthermore, this paper illustrates the first classification result in the passive FSR system. The great potential in the passive FSR system provides a new research area in passive radar that can be used for diverse remote monitoring applications.

  16. A system dynamics optimization framework to achieve population desired of average weight target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zulkepli, Jafri Haji; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2017-11-01

    Obesity is becoming a serious problem in Malaysia as it has been rated as the highest among Asian countries. The aim of the paper is to propose a system dynamics (SD) optimization framework to achieve population desired weight target based on the changes in physical activity behavior and its association to weight and obesity. The system dynamics approach of stocks and flows diagram was used to quantitatively model the impact of both behavior on the population's weight and obesity trends. This work seems to bring this idea together and highlighting the interdependence of the various aspects of eating and physical activity behavior on the complex of human weight regulation system. The model was used as an experimentation vehicle to investigate the impacts of changes in physical activity on weight and prevalence of obesity implications. This framework paper provides evidence on the usefulness of SD optimization as a strategic decision making approach to assist in decision making related to obesity prevention. SD applied in this research is relatively new in Malaysia and has a high potential to apply to any feedback models that address the behavior cause to obesity.

  17. Experimental gingivitis, bacteremia and systemic biomarkers: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinane, D F; Zhang, P; Benakanakere, M; Singleton, J; Biesbrock, A; Nonnenmacher, C; He, T

    2015-12-01

    Bacteremia and systemic inflammatory markers are associated with periodontal and systemic diseases and may be linking mechanisms between these conditions. We hypothesized that in the development of gingival inflammation, systemic markers of inflammation and bacteremia would increase. To study the effect of bacteremia on systemic inflammatory markers, we recruited 80 subjects to participate in an experimental gingivitis study. Subjects were stratified based on gender, smoking and the number of bleeding sites and then randomized to one of two groups: control group (n = 40) or experimental gingivitis group (n = 40). Subjects in the control group conducted an oral hygiene regimen: brushing twice daily with a regular sodium fluoride cavity protection dentifrice and a standard manual toothbrush, flossing twice daily, and mouth rinsing with an anti-cavity fluoride rinse once daily. The experimental group stopped brushing and flossing, and used only the fluoride anti-cavity mouth rinse for 21 d. Seventy-nine of 80 subjects were evaluable. One subject in the control group was excluded from the results due to antibiotic use during the study. Our data showed the experimental gingivitis group exhibited a significant (p gingival inflammatory indices relative to baseline and the control group but a decrease in bacteremia and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels vs. baseline. Bacteremia was negatively correlated with gingival inflammatory indices and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in the experimental gingivitis group, thus negating our hypothesis. We conclude that there are marked differences in systemic cytokine levels over the course of short-term experimentally induced gingivitis and further conclude that a long-term periodontitis study must be considered to address mechanisms whereby oral diseases may affect systemic diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. TARGET - NEW PAYMENT SYSTEM FOR THE EURO AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA VIOLETA DRĂGOI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available At EU level, the funds transfer systems have undergone significant changes starting with the introduction of euro. The launch of the euro, the emergence of new technologies, introduction of financial innovations and the globalization have led to reorganization of funds transfer systems` infrastructure. The paper aims to offer an analysis of actual payment system for Euro area, a trans-European funds transfer system with gross settlement in real-time for payments in euro TARGET- to increase economical and operational efficiency of payments and also to reduce the risks in the electronic funds transfer system by creating efficient and secure payment systems.

  19. Colon-targeted oral drug delivery systems: design trends and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Seth; Brown, Jack E; Dave, Vivek S

    2015-08-01

    Colon-specific drug delivery systems (CDDS) are desirable for the treatment of a range of local diseases such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pancreatitis, and colonic cancer. In addition, the colon can be a potential site for the systemic absorption of several drugs to treat non-colonic conditions. Drugs such as proteins and peptides that are known to degrade in the extreme gastric pH, if delivered to the colon intact, can be systemically absorbed by colonic mucosa. In order to achieve effective therapeutic outcomes, it is imperative that the designed delivery system specifically targets the drugs into the colon. Several formulation approaches have been explored in the development colon-targeted drug delivery systems. These approaches involve the use of formulation components that interact with one or more aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, such as the difference in the pH along the GI tract, the presence of colonic microflora, and enzymes, to achieve colon targeting. This article highlights the factors influencing colon-specific drug delivery and colonic bioavailability, and the limitations associated with CDDS. Further, the review provides a systematic discussion of various conventional, as well as relatively newer formulation approaches/technologies currently being utilized for the development of CDDS.

  20. A dual-reservoir remote loading water target system for 18F and 13N production with direct in-target liquid level sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Alexoff, D.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes our universal water target loading system that serves both [ 18 F] and [ 13 N] production targets, and a radionuclide delivery system that is specific for [ 18 F] fluoride. The system was designed and fabricated around the operation of a single pneumatic syringe dispenser that accesses one of two reservoirs filled with [ 18 O] enriched water for [ 18 F] fluoride production from the 18 O(p,n) 18 F reaction and natural abundance water for [ 13 N] nitrate/nitrite production from the 16 O(p,α) 13 N reaction and loads one of two targets depending on the radionuclide desired. The system offers several novel features for reliable radionuclide production. First, there exists an in-target probe for direct liquid level sensing using the conductivity response of water. In addition, transfer of [ 18 F] fluoride to the Hot Lab is completely decoupled from the irradiated water through the actions of a resin/recovery system which is located in the cyclotron vault, thus maintaining transfer line integrity. This feature also provides a mechanism for vault-containment of long-lived contaminants generated through target activation and leaching into the water

  1. Whole-ecosystem experimental manipulations of tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Fayle, Tom M; Turner, Edgar Clive; Basset, Yves; Ewers, Robert M; Reynolds, Glen; Novotny, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests are highly diverse systems involving extraordinary numbers of interactions between species, with each species responding in a different way to the abiotic environment. Understanding how these systems function and predicting how they respond to anthropogenic global change is extremely challenging. We argue for the necessity of ‘whole-ecosystem’ experimental manipulations, in which the entire ecosystem is targeted, either to reveal the functioning of the...

  2. Systems biology-embedded target validation: improving efficacy in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamme, Drieke; Minke, Benedikt A; Fitzmaurice, William; Kholodenko, Boris N; Kolch, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is faced with a range of challenges with the ever-escalating costs of drug development and a drying out of drug pipelines. By harnessing advances in -omics technologies and moving away from the standard, reductionist model of drug discovery, there is significant potential to reduce costs and improve efficacy. Embedding systems biology approaches in drug discovery, which seek to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of potential drug targets in a network context, will reduce attrition rates by earlier target validation and the introduction of novel targets into the currently stagnant market. Systems biology approaches also have the potential to assist in the design of multidrug treatments and repositioning of existing drugs, while stratifying patients to give a greater personalization of medical treatment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. IFMIF-CDA technical workshop on lithium target system. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    An intense neutron source, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is planned under the collaborative program by International Energy Agency (IEA), and the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) started in February 1995. US, Japan and EU are responsible to take a lead in coordinating accelerator, target and test cell design, respectively. In order to exchange the current results of the study and to coordinate the activities for the design integration, the first technical workshop on the lithium target system was held in the period of July 18-21 at the Tokai Research Establishment of the JAERI. This publication summarizes the materials presented in this meeting. The presentations and discussions were organized with the identified CDA tasks. It was confirmed that the reference design of the IFMIF target based on the previous studies under FMIT and ESNIT, elaborated to meet IFMIF parameters, is reasonable and feasible. It was pointed out that the interface between accelerator and test cell subsystems should be carefully investigated to avoid technical conflicts. Some design options such as nozzle, backwall and lithium jet geometry, lithium purity control, and lithium vapor control, based on the current technology were proposed to improve the integral target system function, and further R and D studies were suggested for design integration. (author)

  4. The design of a lead-bismuth target system with a dual injection tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, C.H.; Kim, Y.; Song, T.Y.; Park, W.S.

    2005-01-01

    A spallation target system is a key component to be developed for an accelerator driven system (ADS). It is known that a 15 ∼ 25 MW spallation target is required for a practical 1000 MWth ADS. The design of a 20 MW spallation target is very challenging because more than 60% of the beam power is deposited as heat in a small volume of the target system. In the present work, a numerical design study was performed to obtain the optimal design parameters for a 20 MW spallation target for a 1000 MW ADS. A dual injection tube was proposed for the reduction of the LBE flow rate at the target channel. The results of the present study show that a 30 cm wide proton beam with a uniform beam distribution should be adopted for the spallation target of a 20 MW power. When the dual LBE injection tube is employed, the LBE flow rate could be reduced by a factor of 4 without reducing the maximum allowable beam current. (authors)

  5. Experimental thin-target and thick-target yields for natOs(α, xn)Pt, natOs(α, X)Os, Ir and natMo(p, xn)Tc nuclear reactions from threshold up to 38 and 45 MeV, by combined single and stacked foil techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birattari, Claudio; Bonardi, Mauro; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia; Menapace, Enzo

    2002-01-01

    The experimental values of thin-target excitation functions for the nuclear reactions: nat Os(α, X) 188,189,191 Pt, 192g,194m Ir in the energy range 11 - 38 MeV and nat Mo(p, xn) 94g,95g,95m,96(m+g) Tc in the energy range 5 - 44 MeV are presented. The experimental values were obtained by cyclotron activation followed by off-line HPGe γ-spectrometry and corrected at the End Of an Instantaneous Bombardment, EOIB. In different cases use was made of single foil and stacked foil techniques, which present significantly different advantages and disadvantages. The thin-target yield values can be easily either numerically or analytically integrated, as a function of both incoming particle energy and energy loss in target itself, in order to calculate apriori the thick-target yield of various radionuclides under any different experimental condition. Moreover, the thin-target yields are directly related to the effective cross-sections of various nuclear reaction channels involved. The data are of relevant interest for optimizing cyclotron production of platinum and technetium radionuclides to be used as radiotracers for metallo-biochemical, biomedical, toxicological and environmental studies. (author)

  6. Contribution to the study of reactions induced by a low-energy He3 beam on a C12 target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, Jean-Paul

    1965-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study concerning which reaction mode will better describe a nucleus in which the excitation energy is between two extremes. Due to experimental considerations and abilities, this study focuses on light target nuclei and carbon 12. The author describes experimental techniques used for angular distributions (targets, detection system), describes the experimental techniques for activation experiments (experimental set-up, targets, measurement of relative efficient cross section, result analysis, measurement of absolute efficient cross section). The author discusses the experimental results (excitation functions and angular distributions) and the interpretation of elastic scattering results (theoretical background, computation approach, analysis of elastic scattering) and the results of the C 12 (He 3 , α)C 11 reaction [fr

  7. Experimental study on the ( mu /sup 4/He)/sub 2S//sup +/ metastable system in helium gas

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin, A; Duclos, J; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gorini, G; Neri, G; Picard, J; Pitzurra, O; Placci, A; Polacco, E; Torelli, G; Vitale, A; Zavattini, E

    1975-01-01

    The authors report the results of an experimental investigation on the properties of the ( mu He)/sub 2S//sup +/ metastable muonic system, which was performed stopping negative muons in a pure helium target at pressures ranging from 10 to 50 atm, and observing the total yield and the differential time distribution of the X-rays released in delayed coincidence with the arrival of muons. At each pressure P, information was obtained on the following quantities: a) the total disappearance rate lambda /sub 2S, tot/(P) of the ( mu He)/sub 2S//sup +/ system, b) the disappearance rates lambda /sub A/(P) and lambda /sub St/(P) of the ( mu He)/sub 2S//sup +/ system for external Auger effect and Stark-mixing collisions. (35 refs).

  8. CFD Study of the Active Part of the HYPER LBE Spallation Target System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chung-ho; Tak, Nam-il; Lee, Yong-bum; Choi, Jae-Hyuk

    2007-01-01

    In an accelerator driven system (ADS), a high-energy proton beam impinges on a heavy metal target to produce spallation neutrons that are multiplied in a subcritical blanket. Therefore, the spallation target is one of the most important units of an ADS. A beam power of 15-25 MW is required for an operation of the HYPER system. But, the design of a 20 MW spallation target is very challenging because more than 60% of a beam power is deposited as heat in a small volume of a target system. LBE is preferred as the target material due to its high neutron production rate, effective heat removal, low melting point and vapor pressure, low neutron absorption and good radiation damage properties. In addition, it can be used simultaneously as a reactor coolant. Single hemi-spherical beam window is considered for the HYPER target. The beam window is a thin physical barrier to separate the vacuum space from the LBE. It is exposed to high thermal and irradiation loads, which affect its life time. The integrity of the beam window is crucial for a safe operation of the HYPER, for preventing the penetration of the radioactive spallation products into the accelerator island. Therefore, a sufficient cooling capability of the beam window is one of the key issues of the target design. In the previous study, a series of parametric thermal and mechanical studies were made for the optimization of the HYPER target. The optimized target has a 0.2 cm thick beam window with a diameter of 35 cm. Also, a 30 cm wide proton beam with a uniform beam distribution should be adopted for the spallation target of the HYPER. A dual injection tube is adopted to economize the LBE flow in the primary system. This paper presents the numerical studies on the optimized spallation target system. Several advanced turbulence models with different grid structures are investigated by using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code CFX 5.7.1

  9. Experimental and theoretical studies of the yields of residual product nuclei produced in thin Pb and Bi targets irradiated by 40 - 2600 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V.F.; Karpikhin, E.I.; Zhivun, V.M.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Lunev, V.P.; Titarenko, N.N.; Shubin, Yu.N.; Barashenkov, V.S.

    2009-10-01

    The Project is aimed at experimental determining and computer-aided theoretical simulating the independent and cumulative yields of residual radioactive product nuclei in high-energy protonirradiated thin targets made of high-isotopic and natural lead ( 206 Pb, 207 Pb, 208 PB, natPb) and bismuth ( 209 Bi) that are the most probable choice to be the target materials in the acceleratordriven (hybrid) systems (ADS) coupled to a high-current proton accelerator. The yields of residual product nuclei are of great importance when estimating such basic radiation-technology characteristics of the hybrid facility targets as the total target activity, the target 'poisoning', the buildup of long-lived nuclides, the α-activity, the content of low-pressure evaporated nuclides (Hg), the content of the chemically-active nuclides that drastically spoil the corrosion resistance of the facility structure materials, etc. In view of the above, the radioactive product nuclide yields from targets materials were experimentally determined using the ITEP U-10 proton accelerator in 55 measurement runs using the monoisotopic and natural lead ( 206 Pb, 207 Pb, 208 PB, natPb) and bismuth ( 209 Bi) targets within the proton energy range fractionated minutely, namely at 0.04, 0.07, 0.10, 0.8, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, and 2.6 GeV to cover the entire range of the internuclear hadron cascading. As a result, 5972 cumulative and independent yields of residual radioactive product nuclei, whose lifetimes range from 8 minutes to 32 years, have been measured. Besides, the cross sections for the 27 Al(p,x) 24 Na and 27 Al(p,x)7Be monitor reactions have been measured at the same proton energies together with the 27 Al(n,p) 27 Mg reaction rate that characterizes the neutron background contributions in each experiment. The experimental nuclide yields are determined by the direct γ-spectrometry method. The γ-spectrometer resolution is 1.8 keV in the 1332 keV 60 Co γ-line. The experimental γ-spectra are processed by

  10. An Experimental Infarct Targeting the Internal Capsule: Histopathological and Ultrastructural Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Woo Han

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Stroke involving the cerebral white matter (WM has increased in prevalence, but most experimental studies have focused on ischemic injury of the gray matter. This study was performed to investigate the WM in a unique rat model of photothrombotic infarct targeting the posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC, focusing on the identification of the most vulnerable structure in WM by ischemic injury, subsequent glial reaction to the injury, and the fundamental histopathologic feature causing different neurologic outcomes. Methods Light microscopy with immunohistochemical stains and electron microscopic examinations of the lesion were performed between 3 hours and 21 days post-ischemic injury. Results Initial pathological change develops in myelinated axon, concomitantly with reactive change of astrocytes. The first pathology to present is nodular loosening to separate the myelin sheath with axonal wrinkling. Subsequent pathologies include rupture of the myelin sheath with extrusion of axonal organelles, progressive necrosis, oligodendrocyte degeneration and death, and reactive gliosis. Increase of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP immunoreactivity is an early event in the ischemic lesion. WM pathologies result in motor dysfunction. Motor function recovery after the infarct was correlated to the extent of PLIC injury proper rather than the infarct volume. Conclusions Pathologic changes indicate that the cerebral WM, independent of cortical neurons, is highly vulnerable to the effects of focal ischemia, among which myelin sheath is first damaged. Early increase of GFAP immunoreactivity indicates that astrocyte response initially begins with myelinated axonal injury, and supports the biologic role related to WM injury or plasticity. The reaction of astrocytes in the experimental model might be important for the study of pathogenesis and treatment of the WM stroke.

  11. Drug targeting systems for inflammatory disease: one for all, all for one

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crielaard, B.J.; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Schiffelers, R.M.; Storm, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In various systemic disorders, structural changes in the microenvironment of diseased tissues enable both passive and active targeting of therapeutic agents to these tissues. This has led to a number of targeting approaches that enhance the accumulation of drugs in the target tissues,

  12. System of measurement of proton polarization in a polarized target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnaukov, I.M.; Chechetenko, V.F.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Y.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.

    1985-05-01

    This paper describes a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer with high sensitivity. The signal of NMR absorption is recorded by a Q-meter with a series circuit and a circuit for compensation of the resonance characteristic of the measuring circuit. In order to ensure uniform sensitivity of the system to the state of polarization throughout the volume of the target and to enhance the S/N ration the measuring coil is made of a flat conductor. The polarization-measuring system works on-line with an M-6000 computer. The total error of measurement of the polarization of free protons in a target with allowance for the error due to local depolarization of free protons in a target with allowance for the error due to local depolarization of the working substance under irradiation with an intense photon beam is less than or equal to 6%.

  13. Thermal experiments in the model of ADS target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Efanov; Yuri, Orlov; Alexander, Sorokin; Eugeni, Ivanov; Galina, Bogoslovskaia; Ning, Li

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents thermal experiments performed in the SSC RF IPPE on the ADS window target model. Brief description of the model, specific features of structure, measurement system and some methodological approaches are presented. Eutectic lead-bismuth alloy is modeled here by eutectic sodium-potassium alloy. The following characteristics of the target model were measured directly and estimated by processing: coolant flow rate, model power, absolute temperature of the coolant with a distance from the membrane of the target, absolute temperature of the membrane surface, mean square value and pulsating component of coolant temperature, as well as membrane temperature. Measurements have shown a great pulsations of temperature existing at the membrane surface that must be taken into account in analysis of strength of real target system. Experimental temperature fields (present work) and velocity fields measured earlier make up a complete database for verification of 2D and 3D thermohydraulic codes. (author)

  14. Experimental consideration for realizing image based visual servo control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, N.; Suzuki, K.; Fujii, Y.; Usui, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we consider the experimental aspect of image based visual servo control system. The items considered are the following; 1) Inertial parameter estimation, 2) Focal point estimation, 3) Controller performance for the system with delay. From the experimental result of visual control, it is found that the system is very sensitive to the controller gain because of the computational delay of vision. In order to establish a satisfactory delay compensation, more investigations on controller design are required. (author)

  15. The design status of CSNS experimental control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Zhuang; Yuanping Chu; Dapeng Jin; Yuqian Liu; Yinhong Zhang; Zhuoyu Zhang; Kejun Zhu; Libin Ding; Lei Hu; Jiajie Li; Yali, Liu

    2012-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand from user community, China decided to build a world-class spallation neutron source, called CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source). It can provide users a neutron scattering platform with high flux, wide wavelength range and high efficiency. CSNS construction is expected to start in 2011 and will last 6.5 years. The control system of CSNS is divided into accelerator control system and experimental control system. CSNS Experimental Control System is based on EPICS architecture, offering device operation and device debug interface, communication between devices, environment monitor, machine and personnel protection, interface to accelerator control system, overall system monitor and database service. The control system is divided into 4 parts, such as front control layer, local and global control layer based on EPICS, database and network service and the others. The front control layer is based on YOKOGAWA PLC and other controllers. EPICS includes local and global control layer provides all system control and information exchange. Embedded PLC YOKOGAWA RP61 and others is to be used as communication node between front layer and EPICS. Database service provides system configuration and historical data. From the experience of BESIII, MySQL is an option. The system will be developed in Dongguan, Guangdong province and Beijing. So VPN will be used to help development. Now, total 9 persons are working on this system. (authors)

  16. Petawatt laser and target irradiation system at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, D.M.; Perry, M.D.; Britten, J.A.; Brown, C.G.; Herman, S.; Homer, J.; Miller, J.L.; Stuart, B.C.; Tietbohl, G.; Van Lue, J.; Yanovsky, V.

    1997-01-01

    In May, 1996, we demonstrated the production over a petawatt of peak power in the Nova/Petawatt Laser Facility, generating 620 J in ∼ 430 fs. Results of the first focused irradiance tests, and recent deployment of a novel targeting system will be presented

  17. Female reproductive tract pain: targets, challenges, and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip eJobling

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain from the female reproductive tract (FRT is a significant clinical problem for which there are few effective therapies. The complex neuroantomy of pelvic organs not only makes diagnosis of pelvic pain disorders difficult but represents a challenge to development of targeted therapies. A number of potential therapeutic targets have been identified on sensory neurons supplying the FRT but our knowledge on the basic neurophysiology of these neurons is limited compared with other viscera. Until this is addressed we can only guess if the new experimental therapies proposed for somatic, gastrointestinal or bladder pain will translate to the FRT. Once suitable therapeutic targets become clear, the next challenge is drug delivery. The FRT represents a promising system for topical drug delivery that could be tailored to act locally or systemically depending on formulation. Development of these therapies and their delivery systems will need to be done in concert with more robust in vivo and in vitro models of FRT pain.

  18. System Studies for the ADTF: Target and Materials Test Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappiello, M.; Pitcher, E.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    2002-01-01

    To meet the objectives of the Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) program, the Accelerator-Driven Test Facility (ADTF) provides a world-class accelerator-driven test facility to: - Provide the capability to assess technology options for the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and waste through a proof-of-performance. - Provide a user facility that allows testing of advanced nuclear technologies and applications, material science and research, experimental physics, and conventional nuclear engineering science applications. - Provide the capability, through upgrades or additions to the ADTF accelerator, to produce tritium for defense purposes, if required. - Provide the capability, through upgrades or additions, to produce radioisotopes for medical and commercial purposes. These missions are diverse and demand a facility with significant flexibility. In order to meet them, it is envisioned that we construct two target stations: the Target and Materials Test (TMT) station and the Subcritical Multiplier (SCM) test station. The two test stations share common hot-cell facilities for post-irradiation examination. It is expected the TMT will come online first, closely followed by the SCM. The TMT will provide the capability to: - Irradiate small samples of proposed ATW (accelerator-driven transmutation of waste) fuels and materials at prototypic flux, temperature, and coolant conditions (requires intense source of neutrons). - Perform transient testing. - Test liquid (lead-bismuth) and solid spallation targets with water, sodium, or helium coolant. - Test generation-IV fuels for advance nuclear systems (requires high-intensity thermal flux). - Irradiate fission product transmutation targets. - Test advanced fuel and coolant combinations, including helium, water, sodium, and lead-bismuth. - Produce isotopes for commercial and medical applications. - Perform neutron physics experiments. The SCM will provide the capability to: - Irradiate large samples of proposed ATW

  19. Professional soldier assessment of a rifle-mounted target hand-off system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levesque, J.; Banko, K.; Binsch, O.

    2015-01-01

    The miniaturization of digital image acquisition and processing hardware, positional sensors, and batteries has enabled the creation of assisted targeting systems light enough to be integrated onto small firearms to increase the probability of soldiers detecting and hitting targets. As well, the

  20. Experimental study of the nucleon spin structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litmaath, M.F.

    1996-05-07

    After introducing the theoretical framework, which includes DIS, the Quark Parton Model (QPM) and QCD, we describe the implementation of the experiment. The SMC uses a beam of 190 GeV naturally polarized muons, scattering off nucleons in a large cryogenic target containing protons or deuterons that are polarized through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP). The target material is located in two cells in a row, with opposite polarizations. Every 5 hours the polarizations of both cells are reversed. The target polarization is measured by an NMR system. The polarization of the beam is measured in a polarimeter, located downstream of the main experimental setup. (orig.).

  1. Experimental study of the nucleon spin structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litmaath, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    After introducing the theoretical framework, which includes DIS, the Quark Parton Model (QPM) and QCD, we describe the implementation of the experiment. The SMC uses a beam of 190 GeV naturally polarized muons, scattering off nucleons in a large cryogenic target containing protons or deuterons that are polarized through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP). The target material is located in two cells in a row, with opposite polarizations. Every 5 hours the polarizations of both cells are reversed. The target polarization is measured by an NMR system. The polarization of the beam is measured in a polarimeter, located downstream of the main experimental setup. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of the Neutron Generator and Target for the LSDTS System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Je; Lee, Yong Deok; Song, Jae Hoon; Song, Kee Chan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    A preliminary analysis was performed based on the literatures and the patents for the neutron generators and targets for the lead slowing down time spectrometer (LSDTS) system. It was found that local neutron generator did not exhibit enough neutron intensity such as 1E+12 n/s, which is a minimum requirement for the LSDTS system to overcome curium backgrounds. However, a neutron generator implemented with an electron accelerator may provide a higher intensity around 1E+13 n/s and it is required to investigate further including a detail analysis. In addition to the neutron generator, a study on target was performed with the Monte Carlo simulation. In the study, an optimal design of target was suggested to provide a high neutron yield and a better thermal resistance. The suggested target consists several cylindrical plates with a certain cooling gap, which have increasing thickness and increasing radius.

  3. The application of carbon nanotubes in target drug delivery systems for cancer therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wuxu; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Yingge

    2011-10-01

    Among all cancer treatment options, chemotherapy continues to play a major role in killing free cancer cells and removing undetectable tumor micro-focuses. Although chemotherapies are successful in some cases, systemic toxicity may develop at the same time due to lack of selectivity of the drugs for cancer tissues and cells, which often leads to the failure of chemotherapies. Obviously, the therapeutic effects will be revolutionarily improved if human can deliver the anticancer drugs with high selectivity to cancer cells or cancer tissues. This selective delivery of the drugs has been called target treatment. To realize target treatment, the first step of the strategies is to build up effective target drug delivery systems. Generally speaking, such a system is often made up of the carriers and drugs, of which the carriers play the roles of target delivery. An ideal carrier for target drug delivery systems should have three pre-requisites for their functions: (1) they themselves have target effects; (2) they have sufficiently strong adsorptive effects for anticancer drugs to ensure they can transport the drugs to the effect-relevant sites; and (3) they can release the drugs from them in the effect-relevant sites, and only in this way can the treatment effects develop. The transporting capabilities of carbon nanotubes combined with appropriate surface modifications and their unique physicochemical properties show great promise to meet the three pre-requisites. Here, we review the progress in the study on the application of carbon nanotubes as target carriers in drug delivery systems for cancer therapies.

  4. Ovarian cancer and the immune system - The role of targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Taylor B; Buchsbaum, Donald J; Straughn, J Michael; Randall, Troy D; Arend, Rebecca C

    2016-08-01

    The majority of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer are diagnosed with advanced disease. While many of these patients will respond initially to chemotherapy, the majority will relapse and die of their disease. Targeted therapies that block or activate specific intracellular signaling pathways have been disappointing. In the past 15years, the role of the immune system in ovarian cancer has been investigated. Patients with a more robust immune response, as documented by the presence of lymphocytes infiltrating within their tumor, have increased survival and better response to chemotherapy. In addition, a strong immunosuppressive environment often accompanies ovarian cancer. Recent research has identified potential therapies that leverage the immune system to identify and destroy tumor cells that previously evaded immunosurveillance mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the role of the immune system in ovarian cancer and focus on specific pathways and molecules that show a potential for targeted therapy. We also review the ongoing clinical trials using targeted immunotherapy in ovarian cancer. The role of targeted immunotherapy in patients with ovarian cancer represents a field of growing research and clinical importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Target technologies for laser inertial confinement fusion: state-of-the-art and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Du Kai

    2013-01-01

    Targets are physical base of the laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) researches. The quality of the targets has extremely important influences on the reliabilities and degree of precision of the ICF experimental results. The characteristics of the ICF targets, such as complexity and microscale, high precision, determine that the target fabrication process must be a system engineering. This paper presents progresses on the fabrication technologies of ICF targets. The existing problem and the future needs of ICF target fabrication technologies are also discussed. (authors)

  6. Cnidarian Neurotoxic Peptides Affecting Central Nervous System Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Hernández-Guzmán, Ulises; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Natural products from animal venoms have been used widely in the discovery of novel molecules with particular biological activities that enable their use as potential drug candidates. The phylum Cnidaria (jellyfish, sea anemones, corals zoanthids, hydrozoans, etc.) is the most ancient venomous phylum on earth. Its venoms are composed of a complex mixture of peptidic compounds with neurotoxic and cytolitic properties that have shown activity on mammalian systems despite the fact that they are naturally targeted against fish and invertebrate preys, mainly crustaceans. For this reason, cnidarian venoms are an interesting and vast source of molecules with a remarkable activity on central nervous system, targeting mainly voltage-gated ion channels, ASIC channels, and TRPV1 receptors. In this brief review, we list the amino acid sequences of most cnidarian neurotoxic peptides reported to date. Additionally, we propose the inclusion of a new type of voltage-gated sea anemone sodium channel toxins based on the most recent reports.

  7. Experimental overview on small collision systems at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loizides, Constantin

    2016-12-15

    These conferences proceedings summarize the experimental findings obtained in small collision systems at the LHC, as presented in the special session on “QGP in small systems?” at the Quark Matter 2015 conference.

  8. Experimental investigation of the IFMIF target mock-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loginov, N.; Mikheyev, A.; Morozov, V.; Aksenov, Yu.; Arnol'dov, M.; Berensky, L.; Fedotovsky, V.; Chernov, V.; Nakamura, H.

    2009-01-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) lithium neutron target mock-ups have been constructed and tested at water and lithium test facilities in the IPPE of Russia. Jet velocity in both mock-ups was up to 20 m/s. Calculations and experiments showed lithium flow instability at conjunction point of straight and concave sections of the mock-up back wall. Water velocity profile across the mock-up width, jet thickness, and wave height were measured. The significant increase of thickness of both water and lithium jets near the mock-up sidewalls was observed. The influence of shape of the nozzle outlet part on jet stability was investigated. Lithium evaporation from the jet free surface was investigated as well as lithium deposition on vacuum pipe walls of the target mock-up. It was shown that these phenomena are not very critical for the target efficiency. The possibility of lithium denitration down to 2 ppm (at 10 ppm requested) by means of aluminium getter was shown. Two types of cold traps and plug indicators of impurities were tested. The results are presented in the paper.

  9. An experimental system for the study of ultrasound exposure of isolated blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarczyk, Anna; Rivens, Ian; Symonds-Tayler, Richard; Ter Haar, Gail; Van Bavel, E

    2013-01-01

    An experimental system designed for the study of the effects of diagnostic or therapeutic ultrasound exposure on isolated blood vessels in the presence or absence of intraluminal contrast agent is described. The system comprised several components. A microscope was used to monitor vessel size (and thus vessel functionality), and potential leakage of intraluminal 70 kDa FITC-dextran fluorescence marker. A vessel chamber allowed the mounting of an isolated vessel whilst maintaining its viability, with pressure regulation for the control of intraluminal pressure and induction of flow for the infusion of contrast microbubbles. A fibre-optic hydrophone sensor mounted on the vessel chamber using a micromanipulator allowed pre-exposure targeting of the vessel to within 150 µm, and monitoring of acoustic cavitation emissions during exposures. Acoustic cavitation was also detected using changes in the ultrasound drive voltage and by detection of audible emissions using a submerged microphone. The suitability of this system for studying effects in the isolated vessel model has been demonstrated using a pilot study of 6 sham exposed and 18 high intensity focused ultrasound exposed vessels, with or without intraluminal contrast agent (SonoVue) within the vessels. (paper)

  10. New experimental model for single liver lobe hyperthermia in small animals using non-directional microwaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț Tudorancea

    Full Text Available Our aim was to develop a new experimental model for in vivo hyperthermia using non-directional microwaves, applicable to small experimental animals. We present an affordable approach for targeted microwave heat delivery to an isolated liver lobe in rat, which allows rapid, precise and stable tissue temperature control.A new experimental model is proposed. We used a commercial available magnetron generating 2450 MHz, with 4.4V and 14A in the filament and 4500V anodic voltage. Modifications were required in order to adjust tissue heating such as to prevent overheating and to allow for fine adjustments according to real-time target temperature. The heating is controlled using a virtual instrument application implemented in LabView® and responds to 0.1° C variations in the target. Ten healthy adult male Wistar rats, weighing 250-270 g were used in this study. The middle liver lobe was the target for controlled heating, while the rest of the living animal was protected.In vivo microwave delivery using our experimental setting is safe for the animals. Target tissue temperature rises from 30°C to 40°C with 3.375°C / second (R2 = 0.9551, while the increment is lower it the next two intervals (40-42°C and 42-44°C with 0.291°C/ s (R2 = 0.9337 and 0.136°C/ s (R2 = 0.7894 respectively, when testing in sequences. After reaching the desired temperature, controlled microwave delivery insures a very stable temperature during the experiments.We have developed an inexpensive and easy to manufacture system for targeted hyperthermia using non-directional microwave radiation. This system allows for fine and stable temperature adjustments within the target tissue and is ideal for experimental models testing below or above threshold hyperthermia.

  11. Slow extraction from the IHEP accelerator by internal target scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimov, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    The existing slow extraction system is not able to satisfy the required quality of the beam time structure in the intensity region 10 10 - 10 11 ppp. Calculations on simulation of slow extraction by internal target scattering are presented. Two regime of slow extraction are analysed: nonresonant and resonant extraction by target scattering. Resonant extraction by target scattering is able to ensure intensity of extracted beam up to 10 11 . The agreement between calculations and experimental data is good enough. The calculation of extraction possibility by thin W-target scattering are also presented. In this case the extraction efficiency is about 85%. 15 refs., 6 figs

  12. Graphite targets at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Rotating polycrystalline and stationary pyrolytic graphite target designs for the LAMPF experimental area are described. Examples of finite element calculations of temperatures and stresses are presented. Some results of a metallographic investigation of irradiated pyrolytic graphite target plates are included, together with a brief description of high temperature bearings for the rotating targets

  13. Photoacoustic Experimental System to Confirm Infrared Absorption Due to Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Monjushiro, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kasai, Toshio; Harris, Harold H.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental system for detecting infrared absorption using the photoacoustic (PA) effect is described. It is aimed for use at high-school level to illustrate the difference in infrared (IR) absorption among the gases contained in the atmosphere in connection with the greenhouse effect. The experimental system can be built with readily…

  14. TargetMiner: microRNA target prediction with systematic identification of tissue-specific negative examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Mitra, Ramkrishna

    2009-10-15

    Prediction of microRNA (miRNA) target mRNAs using machine learning approaches is an important area of research. However, most of the methods suffer from either high false positive or false negative rates. One reason for this is the marked deficiency of negative examples or miRNA non-target pairs. Systematic identification of non-target mRNAs is still not addressed properly, and therefore, current machine learning approaches are compelled to rely on artificially generated negative examples for training. In this article, we have identified approximately 300 tissue-specific negative examples using a novel approach that involves expression profiling of both miRNAs and mRNAs, miRNA-mRNA structural interactions and seed-site conservation. The newly generated negative examples are validated with pSILAC dataset, which elucidate the fact that the identified non-targets are indeed non-targets.These high-throughput tissue-specific negative examples and a set of experimentally verified positive examples are then used to build a system called TargetMiner, a support vector machine (SVM)-based classifier. In addition to assessing the prediction accuracy on cross-validation experiments, TargetMiner has been validated with a completely independent experimental test dataset. Our method outperforms 10 existing target prediction algorithms and provides a good balance between sensitivity and specificity that is not reflected in the existing methods. We achieve a significantly higher sensitivity and specificity of 69% and 67.8% based on a pool of 90 feature set and 76.5% and 66.1% using a set of 30 selected feature set on the completely independent test dataset. In order to establish the effectiveness of the systematically generated negative examples, the SVM is trained using a different set of negative data generated using the method in Yousef et al. A significantly higher false positive rate (70.6%) is observed when tested on the independent set, while all other factors are kept the

  15. Drugs and drug delivery systems targeting amyloid-β in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Robinson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder with no cure and limited treatment solutions that are unable to target any of the suspected causes. Increasing evidence suggests that one of the causes of neurodegeneration is the overproduction of amyloid beta (Aβ and the inability of Aβ peptides to be cleared from the brain, resulting in self-aggregation to form toxic oligomers, fibrils and plaques. One of the potential treatment options is to target Aβ and prevent self-aggregation to allow for a natural clearing of the brain. In this paper, we review the drugs and drug delivery systems that target Aβ in relation to Alzheimer's disease. Many attempts have been made to use anti-Aβ targeting molecules capable of targeting Aβ (with much success in vitro and in vivo animal models, but the major obstacle to this technique is the challenge posed by the blood brain barrier (BBB. This highly selective barrier protects the brain from toxic molecules and pathogens and prevents the delivery of most drugs. Therefore novel Aβ aggregation inhibitor drugs will require well thought-out drug delivery systems to deliver sufficient concentrations to the brain.

  16. Experimental approaches to heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obayashi, H.; Fujii-e, Y.; Yamaki, T.

    1986-01-01

    As a feasibility study on heavy-ion-beam induced inertial fusion (HIF) approach, a conceptual plant design called HIBLIC-I has been worked out since 1982. The characteristic features of this design are summarized. To experimentally confirm them and prove them at least in principle, considerations are made on possible experimental programs to give substantial information on these critical phenomena. In HIBLIC-I, an accelerator complex is adopted as driver system to provide 6 beams of 208 Pb +1 ions at 15 GeV, which will be simultaneously focussed on a single shell, three layered target. The target is designed to give an energy gain of 100, so that the total beam energy of 4 MJ with 160 TW power may release 400 MJ fusion energy. A reactor chamber is cylindrical with double-walled structure made of HT-9. There are three layers of liquid Li flow inside the reactor. The innermost layer forms a Li curtain which is effective to recover the residual cavity pressure. A thick upward flow serves as coolant and tritium breeder. Tritium will be recovered by yttrium gettering system. A driver system is operated at the repetition rate of 10 Hz and supplies beams for 10 reactor chambers. Then the plant yield of fusion power becomes 4000 MWt, corresponding a net electric output of 1.5 GW. Experimental programs related to HIBLIC-I is described and discussed, including those for heavy-ion-beam experiments and proposals for lithium curtain by electron beam to clarify the key phenomena in HIBLIC-I cavity. (Nogami, K.)

  17. Synchronised laser chaos communication: statistical investigation of an experimental system

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrance, Anthony J.; Papamarkou, Theodore; Uchida, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    The paper is concerned with analyzing data from an experimental antipodal laser-based chaos shift-keying communication system. Binary messages are embedded in a chaotically behaving laser wave which is transmitted through a fiber-optic cable and are decoded at the receiver using a second laser synchronized with the emitter laser. Instrumentation in the experimental system makes it particularly interesting to be able to empirically analyze both optical noise and synchronization error as well a...

  18. Experimental investigation of the thermal hydraulics in lead bismuth eutectic-helium experimental loop of an accelerator-driven system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Wenxuan; Wang, Yong Wei; Li, Xun Feng; Huai, Xiulan; Cal, Jun [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2016-10-15

    The heat transfer characteristics between liquid lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) and helium are of great significance for the two-loop cooling system based on an accelerator-driven system (ADS). This paper presents an experimental study on the resistance characteristics and heat transfer performance in a LBE-helium experimental loop of ADS. Pressure drops in the LBE loop, the main heat transfer, and the coupled heat transfer characteristics between LBE and helium are investigated experimentally. The temperature of LBE has a significant effect on the LBE thermo-physical properties, and is therefore considered in the prediction of pressure drops. The results show that the overall heat transfer coefficient increases with the increasing helium flow rate and the decreasing inlet temperature of helium. Increasing the LBE Reynolds number and LBE inlet temperature promotes the heat transfer performance of main heat transfer and thus the overall heat transfer coefficient. The experimental results give an insight into the flow and heat transfer properties in a LBE-helium heat exchanger and are helpful for the optimization of an ADS system design.

  19. Experimental study of hydronic panels system and its environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Nestor Fonseca [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    An experimental analysis of hydronic cooling or heating ceiling panels coupled to the building is present in this investigation as a part of the commissioning study of this system. Two test chambers are adapted in a way to reproduce the interaction of the system to the building (windows, internal thermal loads distribution, building structure and ventilation). A series of experimental tests were performed in which the main objective is to observe the influence of parameters such as the water mass flow rate, supply water temperature, thermal load distribution, window and ventilation system effects on the hydronic ceiling capacity and comfort conditions. Test results show that the influence of asymmetric surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the window effect is not negligible. Then, it is clear that the cooling hydronic ceiling must be evaluated coupled to the building systems and structure. (author)

  20. Experimental study of hydronic panels system and its environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor, E-mail: nestorfonseca5@hotmail.co [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    An experimental analysis of hydronic cooling or heating ceiling panels coupled to the building is present in this investigation as a part of the commissioning study of this system. Two test chambers are adapted in a way to reproduce the interaction of the system to the building (windows, internal thermal loads distribution, building structure and ventilation). A series of experimental tests were performed in which the main objective is to observe the influence of parameters such as the water mass flow rate, supply water temperature, thermal load distribution, window and ventilation system effects on the hydronic ceiling capacity and comfort conditions. Test results show that the influence of asymmetric surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the window effect is not negligible. Then, it is clear that the cooling hydronic ceiling must be evaluated coupled to the building systems and structure.

  1. Experimental validation of plant peroxisomal targeting prediction algorithms by systematic comparison of in vivo import efficiency and in vitro PTS1 binding affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulding, Nicola S; Chowdhary, Gopal; Deus, Mara J; Baker, Alison; Reumann, Sigrun; Warriner, Stuart L

    2015-03-13

    Most peroxisomal matrix proteins possess a C-terminal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1). Accurate prediction of functional PTS1 sequences and their relative strength by computational methods is essential for determination of peroxisomal proteomes in silico but has proved challenging due to high levels of sequence variability of non-canonical targeting signals, particularly in higher plants, and low levels of availability of experimentally validated non-canonical examples. In this study, in silico predictions were compared with in vivo targeting analyses and in vitro thermodynamic binding of mutated variants within the context of one model targeting sequence. There was broad agreement between the methods for entire PTS1 domains and position-specific single amino acid residues, including residues upstream of the PTS1 tripeptide. The hierarchy Leu>Met>Ile>Val at the C-terminal position was determined for all methods but both experimental approaches suggest that Tyr is underweighted in the prediction algorithm due to the absence of this residue in the positive training dataset. A combination of methods better defines the score range that discriminates a functional PTS1. In vitro binding to the PEX5 receptor could discriminate among strong targeting signals while in vivo targeting assays were more sensitive, allowing detection of weak functional import signals that were below the limit of detection in the binding assay. Together, the data provide a comprehensive assessment of the factors driving PTS1 efficacy and provide a framework for the more quantitative assessment of the protein import pathway in higher plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental investigation of system effects in stressed-skin elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Stang, B.; Isaksson, T.; Hansson, M.

    What kind of behaviour can be expected from stressed-skin elements at failure? To answer this question was a primary objective of the experimental investigation presented in this report. Systems of 3 roof units, each made of 5 parallel beams, have been tested for load-carrying capacity and behavi......What kind of behaviour can be expected from stressed-skin elements at failure? To answer this question was a primary objective of the experimental investigation presented in this report. Systems of 3 roof units, each made of 5 parallel beams, have been tested for load-carrying capacity...

  3. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental results on neutron production in the spallation target QUINTA irradiated with 660 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khushvaktov, J.H.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Adam, J.; Vrzalova, J.; Baldin, A.A.; Furman, W.I.; Gustov, S.A.; Kish, Yu.V.; Solnyshkin, A.A.; Stegailov, V.I.; Tichy, P.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.M.; Tyutyunnikov, S.I.; Zavorka, L.; Svoboda, J.; Zeman, M.; Vespalec, R.; Wagner, V.

    2017-01-01

    The activation experiment was performed using the accelerated beam of the Phasotron accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR). The natural uranium spallation target QUINTA was irradiated with protons of energy 660 MeV. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the FLUKA and Geant4 codes. The number of leakage neutrons from the sections of the uranium target surrounded by the lead shielding and the number of leakage neutrons from the lead shield were determined. The total number of fissions in the setup QUINTA were determined. Experimental values of reaction rates for the produced nuclei in the "1"2"7I sample were obtained, and several values of the reaction rates were compared with the results of simulations by the FLUKA and Geant4 codes. The experimentally determined fluence of neutrons in the energy range of 10-200 MeV using the (n, xn) reactions in the "1"2"7I(NaI) sample was compared with the results of simulations. Possibility of transmutation of the long-lived radionuclide "1"2"9I in the QUINTA setup was estimated. [ru

  4. 12C fragmentation at 95 MeV per nucleon for hadron-therapy. Experimental study and simulation with thick PMMA targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunn, B.

    2010-11-01

    A study of the 12 C fragmentation at 95 MeV per nucleon on thick PMMA targets is presented on this document. This study is motivated by the development of a new technique for irradiation of malignant tumours: the carbon ion therapy. The purpose of this work is to compare experimental data against nuclear models used in GEANT4 tool-kit. The aim is to determine if the models are sufficiently predictive to the criteria of hadron-therapy. To achieve this goal, a first experiment was performed at GANIL with a 12 C beam at 95 MeV/u and thick PMMA targets. This experiment has achieved the production rates, angular and energy distributions of different fragments produced in nuclear collisions. Comparisons between experimental data and simulated results obtained using the binary intra-nuclear cascade (BIC) and quantum molecular dynamics model (QMD) available in GEANT4 have been performed. These comparisons show the inability of the tested models to reproduce carbon fragmentation at 95 MeV per nucleon with the accuracy required in hadron-therapy. (author)

  5. Novel Therapeutic Targets for Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: current state-of-the-art on systemic arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Elisardo C; Gava, Agata L; Graceli, Jones B; Balarini, Camille M; Campagnaro, Bianca P; Pereira, Thiago Melo C; Meyrelles, Silvana S

    2016-01-01

    The usefulness of selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) is well known, first for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction and more recently for pulmonary hypertension. The discovery that PDE5 is present in the systemic artery endothelium and smooth muscle cells led investigators to test the extra sexual effects of sildenafil, the first and most investigated PDE5 inhibitor, in diseases affecting the systemic arteries. Cumulative data from experimental and clinical studies have revealed beneficial effects of sildenafil on systemic arterial hypertension and its target organs, such as the heart, kidneys and vasculature. An important effect of sildenafil is reduction of hypertension and improvement of endothelial function in experimental models of hypertension and hypertensive subjects. Interestingly, in angiotensin-dependent hypertension, its beneficial effects on endothelial and kidney dysfunctions seem to at least in part be caused by its ability to decrease the levels of angiotensin II and increase angiotensin 1-7, in addition to improving nitric oxide bioavailability and diminishing reactive oxygen species. Another remarkable finding on the effects of sildenafil comes from studies in apolipoprotein E knockout mice, a model of atherosclerosis that closely resembles human atherosclerotic disease. In this review, we focus on the promising beneficial effects of sildenafil for treating systemic high blood pressure, especially resistant hypertension, and the endothelial dysfunction that is present in hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  6. Drug-targeting methodologies with applications: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstreuer, Clement; Feng, Yu; Childress, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery to solid tumors is a very active research area, focusing mainly on improved drug formulation and associated best delivery methods/devices. Drug-targeting has the potential to greatly improve drug-delivery efficacy, reduce side effects, and lower the treatment costs. However, the vast majority of drug-targeting studies assume that the drug-particles are already at the target site or at least in its direct vicinity. In this review, drug-delivery methodologies, drug types and drug-delivery devices are discussed with examples in two major application areas: (1) inhaled drug-aerosol delivery into human lung-airways; and (2) intravascular drug-delivery for solid tumor targeting. The major problem addressed is how to deliver efficiently the drug-particles from the entry/infusion point to the target site. So far, most experimental results are based on animal studies. Concerning pulmonary drug delivery, the focus is on the pros and cons of three inhaler types, i.e., pressurized metered dose inhaler, dry powder inhaler and nebulizer, in addition to drug-aerosol formulations. Computational fluid-particle dynamics techniques and the underlying methodology for a smart inhaler system are discussed as well. Concerning intravascular drug-delivery for solid tumor targeting, passive and active targeting are reviewed as well as direct drug-targeting, using optimal delivery of radioactive microspheres to liver tumors as an example. The review concludes with suggestions for future work, considereing both pulmonary drug targeting and direct drug delivery to solid tumors in the vascular system. PMID:25516850

  7. Cable systems for experimental facilities in JAERI TANDEM ACCELERATOR BUILDING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukihashi, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Tadashi; Takekoshi, Eiko

    1979-03-01

    Measuring cable systems for experimental facilities in JAERI TANDEM ACCELERATOR BUILDING were completed recently. Measures are taken to prevent penetration of noises into the measuring systems. The cable systems are described in detail, including power supplies and grounding for the measuring systems. (author)

  8. Impact of experimentation in thermodynamic studies of some metallic and oxidic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aune R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of experimentation as an ingredient to CALPHAD assessments is brought out in the present paper and is illustrated in the case of a number of metallic and oxidic systems. Two types of experimental techniques have been used in the present laboratory for thermodynamic studies, and the details are presented. The results obtained together with the assessed phase diagram in the case of a few selected systems are presented. It was shown that careful experimentation has brought new features in the case of carbide systems involving Mn, and a new 4-phase equilibrium in the case of Ni-W-O system. New data with regard to the thermodynamic activities of FeO-containing slag systems and sulphide capacities of multicomponent slags, obtained by gas equilibration method, are also presented. A thermodynamic software, THERMOSLAG© based on the experimental data has been found to be extremely useful by the steel industries is also discussed.

  9. Many particle magnetic dipole-dipole and hydrodynamic interactions in magnetizable stent assisted magnetic drug targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cregg, P.J.; Murphy, Kieran; Mardinoglu, Adil; Prina-Mello, Adriele

    2010-01-01

    The implant assisted magnetic targeted drug delivery system of Aviles, Ebner and Ritter is considered both experimentally (in vitro) and theoretically. The results of a 2D mathematical model are compared with 3D experimental results for a magnetizable wire stent. In this experiment a ferromagnetic, coiled wire stent is implanted to aid collection of particles which consist of single domain magnetic nanoparticles (radius ∼10nm). In order to model the agglomeration of particles known to occur in this system, the magnetic dipole-dipole and hydrodynamic interactions for multiple particles are included. Simulations based on this mathematical model were performed using open source C++ code. Different initial positions are considered and the system performance is assessed in terms of collection efficiency. The results of this model show closer agreement with the measured in vitro experimental results and with the literature. The implications in nanotechnology and nanomedicine are based on the prediction of the particle efficiency, in conjunction with the magnetizable stent, for targeted drug delivery.

  10. Ultrasound image based visual servoing for moving target ablation by high intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Joonho; Koizumi, Norihiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Sugita, Naohiko

    2017-12-01

    Although high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a promising technology for tumor treatment, a moving abdominal target is still a challenge in current HIFU systems. In particular, respiratory-induced organ motion can reduce the treatment efficiency and negatively influence the treatment result. In this research, we present: (1) a methodology for integration of ultrasound (US) image based visual servoing in a HIFU system; and (2) the experimental results obtained using the developed system. In the visual servoing system, target motion is monitored by biplane US imaging and tracked in real time (40 Hz) by registration with a preoperative 3D model. The distance between the target and the current HIFU focal position is calculated in every US frame and a three-axis robot physically compensates for differences. Because simultaneous HIFU irradiation disturbs US target imaging, a sophisticated interlacing strategy was constructed. In the experiments, respiratory-induced organ motion was simulated in a water tank with a linear actuator and kidney-shaped phantom model. Motion compensation with HIFU irradiation was applied to the moving phantom model. Based on the experimental results, visual servoing exhibited a motion compensation accuracy of 1.7 mm (RMS) on average. Moreover, the integrated system could make a spherical HIFU-ablated lesion in the desired position of the respiratory-moving phantom model. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our US image based visual servoing technique in a HIFU system for moving target treatment. © 2016 The Authors The International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Endocannabinoid System: A Multi-Facet Therapeutic Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rimplejeet; Ambwani, Sneha R; Singh, Surjit

    2016-01-01

    the therapeutic targets for both cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists. One challenge is to develop drugs that target only cannabinoid receptors in a particular tissue and another is to invent drugs that act selectively on cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood brain barrier. Besides this, development of the suitable dosage forms with maximum efficacy and minimum adverse effects is also warranted. Another angle to be introspected for therapeutic abilities of this group of drugs is non-CB1 and non-CB2 receptor targets for cannabinoids. In order to successfully exploit the therapeutic potential of endocannabinoid system, it is imperative to further characterize the endocannabinoid system in terms of identification of the exact cellular location of cannabinoid receptors and their role as "protective" and "disease inducing substance", time-dependent changes in the expression of cannabinoid receptors.

  12. Cannonball target experiment with the GEKKO laser system at ILE Osaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.; Azechi, H.; Fujiwara, E.

    1985-01-01

    The GEKKO series glass laser systems are now in operation for the Cannonball target experiments. GEKKO XII is a twelve-beam 30 kJ, 50 TW laser provided with two target chambers. Three types of GEKKO lasers cover the UV, blue, green and red frequency ranges. The Cannonball target displays an excellent performance in implosion. Two kinds of Cannonball target are proposed: the plasma Cannonball and the radiation Cannonball. The neutron yield is 4x10 10 , and the DT fuel density attains 10 g.cm -3 . Laser-to-X-ray conversion has been investigated. Cryogenic target implosion has been performed by using a tailored laser pulse to produce the flush at the core. Various kinds of new diagnostics are being developed. (author)

  13. Implosion physics, alternative targets design and neutron effects on inertial fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Perlado, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    A new radiation transport code has been coupled with an existing multimaterial fluidynamics code using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) and its testing is presented, solving ray effect and shadow problems in SN classical methods. Important advances in atomic physics, opacity calculations and NLTE calculations, participating in significant experiments (LULI/France), have been obtained. Our new 1D target simulation model allows considering the effect of inverse Compton scattering in DT x targets (x<3%) working in a catalytic regime, showing the effectiveness of such tritium-less targets. Neutron activation of all natural elements in IFE reactors for waste management and that of target debris in NIF-type facilities have been completed. Pulse activation in structural walls is presented with a new modeling. Tritium atmospheric dispersion results indicate large uncertainties in environmental responses and needs to treat the two chemical forms. We recognise recombination barriers (metastable defects) and compute first systematic high-energy displacement cascade analysis in SiC, and radiation damage pulses by atomistic models in metals. Using Molecular Dynamics we explain the experimental evidence of low-temperature amorphization by damage accumulation in SiC. (author)

  14. Theoretical and experimental evaluation of an indirect-fired GAX cycle cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, V.H.; Vidal, A. [Posgrado en Ingenieria, Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Apdo. Postal 34, 62580 Temixco Morelos (Mexico); Best, R.; Garcia-Valladares, O. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Apdo. Postal 34, 62580 Temixco Morelos (Mexico); Velazquez, N. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Calle de la Normal S/N, Insurgentes Este, 21280 Mexicali, BC (Mexico)

    2008-06-15

    A theoretical and experimental evaluation of an indirect-fired GAX-Prototype Cooling System (GAX-PCS), using ammonia-water as the working fluid, is presented. The GAX-PCS was designed for a cooling capacity of 10.6 kW (3 tons). A simulation model was developed, calibrated and validated with experimental values in order to predict the performance of the system outside the design parameters. Experimental results were obtained using thermal oil, at temperatures from 180 to 195 C, as heating source. An internal heat recovery in the system of {proportional_to}55% with respect to the total heat supplied in the generator was obtained. Also the performance of the GAX absorption system, integrated to a micro gas turbine (MGT) as a cogeneration system was simulated. Overall efficiencies for the cogeneration system from 29% to 49% were obtained for cooling loads from 5 kW to 20 kW, respectively. With the theoretical and experimental study of the proposed cycle, it is concluded that the GAX-PCS presents potential to compete technically in the Mexican air conditioning market. (author)

  15. Concept and experimental studies on fuel and target for minor actinides and fission products transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prunier, C; Guerin, Y [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d` Etudes des Combustibles; Salvatores, M [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires; Zaetta, A [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d` Etudes des Reacteurs

    1994-12-31

    High activity long-lived radionuclides in nuclear wastes, namely minor actinides (americium and neptunium) are in large amount generated by current nuclear reactive. The destruction of these radionuclides is a part of the French SPIN (Partitioning and Burning) program consistent with the determination to send a minimum amount of harmful products for final storage. Transmutation concepts are defined for neptunium and americium taking into account fuel cycle strategies. Neptunium destruction does not pose any major problems. It`s a by-product of uranium consumption, as plutonium and in despite of a slight gamma activity due to the protactinium 233 it`s quite easy to handle. Diluting neptunium in the mixed oxide fuels (MOX) should not be an obstacle for fabrication, in-pile behaviour and reprocessing either. Consequently we make the proposal of homogeneous mode of neptunium in MOX which should be soon explored in the experimental OSIRIS reactor and in the Phenix and Superphenix reactors. The analysis is more complex for the multi isotope americium. Its destruction is difficult because of gamma radioactivity which complicates fabrication. Experiments in Phenix and calculation showed that Phenix reactor offers a good potential for americium incineration, but similar data do not exist for PWR. It will remain a well known difficulty for fabrication and reprocessing. In this case we have to put a real new face to the fabrication flow-sheet of americium compounds and we propose to develop the heterogeneous mode. Targets choice are defined in term of: -safety, considering fuel reaction with cladding and water sodium, -transmutation rate, limited by target behaviour, in FR`s (Phenix), PWR`s (OSIRIS) and HFR (Petten), -reprocessing, checking the solubility of such targets by Purex process. So, at the beginning of our program the account has been on improving fuel and targets properties related to safety and fuel cycle. (authors). 4 figs.

  16. Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Integrated Tri-generation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Eda

    Energy demand in the world is increasing with population growth and higher living standards. Today, the need for energy requires a focus on renewable sources without abandoning fossil fuels. Efficient use of energy is one of the most important tasks in modern energy systems to achieve. In addition to the energy need, growing environmental concerns are linked with energy is emerged. Multi-purpose energy generation allows a higher efficiency by generating more outputs with the same input in the same system. Tri-generation systems are expected to provide at least three commodities, such as heating, cooling, desalination, storable fuel production and some other useful outputs, in addition to power generation. In this study, an experimental investigation of gasification is presented and two integrated tri-generation systems are proposed. The first integrated tri-generation system (System 1) utilizes solar energy as input and the outputs are power, fresh water and hot water. It consists of four sub-systems, namely solar power tower system, desalination system, Rankine cycle and organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The second integrated tri-generation system (System 2) utilizes coal and biomass as input and the outputs are power, fuel and hot water. It consists of five sub-systems: gasification plant, Brayton cycle, Rankine cycle, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis plant and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Experimental investigation includes coal and biomass gasification, where the experimental results of synthesis gas compositions are utilized in the analysis of the second systems. To maximize efficiency, heat losses from the system should be minimized through a recovery system to make the heat a useful commodity for other systems, such as ORCs which can utilize the low-grade heat. In this respect, ORCs are first analyzed for three different configurations in terms of energy and exergy efficiencies altering working fluids to increase the power output. Among two types of coal and one type

  17. Tritium and ignition target management at the National Ignition Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draggoo, Vaughn

    2013-06-01

    Isotopic mixtures of hydrogen constitute the basic fuel for fusion targets of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A typical NIF fusion target shot requires approximately 0.5 mmoles of hydrogen gas and as much as 750 GBq (20 Ci) of 3H. Isotopic mix ratios are specified according to the experimental shot/test plan and the associated test objectives. The hydrogen isotopic concentrations, absolute amounts, gas purity, configuration of the target, and the physical configuration of the NIF facility are all parameters and conditions that must be managed to ensure the quality and safety of operations. An essential and key step in the preparation of an ignition target is the formation of a ~60 μm thick hydrogen "ice" layer on the inner surface of the target capsule. The Cryogenic Target Positioning System (Cryo-Tarpos) provides gas handling, cyro-cooling, x-ray imaging systems, and related instrumentation to control the volumes and temperatures of the multiphase (solid, liquid, and gas) hydrogen as the gas is condensed to liquid, admitted to the capsule, and frozen as a single spherical crystal of hydrogen in the capsule. The hydrogen fuel gas is prepared in discrete 1.7 cc aliquots in the LLNL Tritium Facility for each ignition shot. Post-shot hydrogen gas is recovered in the NIF Tritium Processing System (TPS). Gas handling systems, instrumentation and analytic equipment, material accounting information systems, and the shot planning systems must work together to ensure that operational and safety requirements are met.

  18. Optical system for Argus 355-nm 90-mm aperture target-illumination experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.C.; Boyd, R.; Hermes, G.; Hildum, J.S.; Linford, G.; Martin, W.E.

    1982-02-01

    The requirements of laser alignment, crystal tuning, target alignment, and laser beam diagnosis are provided by this optical system. Initial setup and preshot alignment techniques are discussed. Layout and operation are contrasted with the 532 nm target experiments.

  19. Automated Navigation System based on Weapon-Target Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairudin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Operating of weapon on the tank is mostly by manually. It is not desired performance for a critical operation. An automatic control system is required to operate the weapon with the target while maintaining the accuracy. In this paper has designed an automatic weapon control system using object image proccessing. Various an image processing methods used to improve the weapon accuracy to obtain the intended target. The method used in digital image processing is the Camshift motion tracking method. This method is compared with the Lucas Canade motion tracking method. This comparison is conducted to found more precise results between the two methods. Results of object image processing are used to control the direction of the weapon that towards the desired goal. The results show that the implementation of the Lucas Canade motion tracking method using fire simulation tools have been successful. The performance of the Lucas Canade motion tracking methods is better than the CamShift method. Using Lucas Canade method for weapon controller is accordance with the purposes.

  20. Drug repurposing to target Ebola virus replication and virulence using structural systems pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Martin, Che; Fan, Raymond; Bourne, Philip E; Xie, Lei

    2016-02-18

    The recent outbreak of Ebola has been cited as the largest in history. Despite this global health crisis, few drugs are available to efficiently treat Ebola infections. Drug repurposing provides a potentially efficient solution to accelerating the development of therapeutic approaches in response to Ebola outbreak. To identify such candidates, we use an integrated structural systems pharmacology pipeline which combines proteome-scale ligand binding site comparison, protein-ligand docking, and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation. One thousand seven hundred and sixty-six FDA-approved drugs and 259 experimental drugs were screened to identify those with the potential to inhibit the replication and virulence of Ebola, and to determine the binding modes with their respective targets. Initial screening has identified a number of promising hits. Notably, Indinavir; an HIV protease inhibitor, may be effective in reducing the virulence of Ebola. Additionally, an antifungal (Sinefungin) and several anti-viral drugs (e.g. Maraviroc, Abacavir, Telbivudine, and Cidofovir) may inhibit Ebola RNA-directed RNA polymerase through targeting the MTase domain. Identification of safe drug candidates is a crucial first step toward the determination of timely and effective therapeutic approaches to address and mitigate the impact of the Ebola global crisis and future outbreaks of pathogenic diseases. Further in vitro and in vivo testing to evaluate the anti-Ebola activity of these drugs is warranted.

  1. A computational framework for modeling targets as complex adaptive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eugene; Santos, Eunice E.; Korah, John; Murugappan, Vairavan; Subramanian, Suresh

    2017-05-01

    Modeling large military targets is a challenge as they can be complex systems encompassing myriad combinations of human, technological, and social elements that interact, leading to complex behaviors. Moreover, such targets have multiple components and structures, extending across multiple spatial and temporal scales, and are in a state of change, either in response to events in the environment or changes within the system. Complex adaptive system (CAS) theory can help in capturing the dynamism, interactions, and more importantly various emergent behaviors, displayed by the targets. However, a key stumbling block is incorporating information from various intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) sources, while dealing with the inherent uncertainty, incompleteness and time criticality of real world information. To overcome these challenges, we present a probabilistic reasoning network based framework called complex adaptive Bayesian Knowledge Base (caBKB). caBKB is a rigorous, overarching and axiomatic framework that models two key processes, namely information aggregation and information composition. While information aggregation deals with the union, merger and concatenation of information and takes into account issues such as source reliability and information inconsistencies, information composition focuses on combining information components where such components may have well defined operations. Since caBKBs can explicitly model the relationships between information pieces at various scales, it provides unique capabilities such as the ability to de-aggregate and de-compose information for detailed analysis. Using a scenario from the Network Centric Operations (NCO) domain, we will describe how our framework can be used for modeling targets with a focus on methodologies for quantifying NCO performance metrics.

  2. Performance of target detection algorithm in compressive sensing miniature ultraspectral imaging compressed sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalin, Daniel; Oiknine, Yaniv; August, Isaac; Blumberg, Dan G.; Rotman, Stanley R.; Stern, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Compressive sensing theory was proposed to deal with the high quantity of measurements demanded by traditional hyperspectral systems. Recently, a compressive spectral imaging technique dubbed compressive sensing miniature ultraspectral imaging (CS-MUSI) was presented. This system uses a voltage controlled liquid crystal device to create multiplexed hyperspectral cubes. We evaluate the utility of the data captured using the CS-MUSI system for the task of target detection. Specifically, we compare the performance of the matched filter target detection algorithm in traditional hyperspectral systems and in CS-MUSI multiplexed hyperspectral cubes. We found that the target detection algorithm performs similarly in both cases, despite the fact that the CS-MUSI data is up to an order of magnitude less than that in conventional hyperspectral cubes. Moreover, the target detection is approximately an order of magnitude faster in CS-MUSI data.

  3. The Effusive-Flow Properties of Target/Vapor-Transport Systems for Radioactive Ion Beam Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, Yoko; Liu, Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive atoms produced by the ISOL technique must diffuse from a target, effusively flow to an ion source, be ionized, be extracted, and be accelerated to research energies in a time commensurate with the lifetime of the species of interest. We have developed a fast valve system (closing time ~100 us) that can be used to accurately measure the effusion times of chemically active or inactive species through arbitrary geometry and size vapor transport systems with and without target material in the reservoir. The effusive flow times are characteristic of the system and thus serve as figures of merit for assessing the quality of a given vapor transport system as well as for assessing the permeability properties of a given target design. This article presents effusive flow data for noble gases flowing through a target reservoir and ion source system routinely used to generate radioactive species at the HRIBF with and without disks of 6 times and 10 times compressed Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Foam (RVCF) with...

  4. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David

    2012-01-31

    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  5. Windowless Electron Beam Experimental Irradiation WEBExplr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyse, J.

    2009-01-01

    The design of the MYRRHA/XT-ADS, the European eXperimental Accelerator Driven System for the demonstration of Transmutation, includes a high power windowless spallation target operating with liquid LBE (Lead-Bismuth Eutectic) that will be irradiated with a 600 MeV proton beam at currents of up to 2.5 mA. When considering such a high power windowless target design, a number of questions need to be addressed, such as the stability of the free surface flow and its ability to remove the power deposited by the proton beam by forced convection, the compatibility of a large hot LBE reservoir with the beam line vacuum and the outgassing of the LBE in the spallation target circuit. These issues have been studied during previous experiments supported by numerical simulations. Another crucial point in the development of the spallation target is the demonstration of the safe and stable operation of the free LBE surface during irradiation with a high power proton beam. As a first step in this program, the WEBExpIr (Windowless target Electron Beam Experimental Irradiation) experiment was set up. The purpose of the WEBExpIr experiment was to investigate the influence of LBE surface heating caused by a charged particle beam in a situation representative of the MYRRHA/XT-ADS. More in particular, we wanted to assess possible free surface distortion or shockwave effects in nominal conditions and during sudden beam on/off transient situations, as well as possible enhanced evaporation

  6. What role can information play in improved equity in Pakistan's irrigation system? Evidence from an experimental game in Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reid. Bell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Indus Basin Irrigation System suffers significant inequity in access to surface water across its millions of users. Information, i.e., monitoring and reporting of water availability, may be of value in improving conditions across the basin, and we investigated this via an experimental game of water distribution in Punjab, Pakistan. We found evidence that flow information allowed players to take more effective action to target overuse, and that overall activities that might bring social disapproval were reduced with information. However, we did not find any overall improvement in equity across the system, suggesting that information on its own might not be sufficient to lead to better water distribution among irrigators.

  7. Capture reactions at astrophysically relevant energies: extended gas target experiments and GEANT simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kölle, V; Braitmayer, S E; Mohr, P J; Wilmes, S; Staudt, G; Hammer, J W; Jäger, M; Knee, H; Kunz, R; Mayer, A

    1999-01-01

    Several resonances of the capture reaction sup 2 sup 0 Ne(alpha, gamma) sup 2 sup 4 Mg were measured using an extended windowless gas target system. Detailed GEANT simulations were performed to derive the strength and the total width of the resonances from the measured yield curve. The crucial experimental parameters, which are mainly the density profile in the gas target and the efficiency of the gamma-ray detector, were analyzed by a comparison between the measured data and the corresponding simulation calculations. The excellent agreement between the experimental data and the simulations gives detailed insight into these parameters. (author)

  8. Comprehensive target populations for current active safety systems using national crash databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of active safety systems is to prevent or mitigate collisions. A critical component in the design of active safety systems is the identification of the target population for a proposed system. The target population for an active safety system is that set of crashes that a proposed system could prevent or mitigate. Target crashes have scenarios in which the sensors and algorithms would likely activate. For example, the rear-end crash scenario, where the front of one vehicle contacts another vehicle traveling in the same direction and in the same lane as the striking vehicle, is one scenario for which forward collision warning (FCW) would be most effective in mitigating or preventing. This article presents a novel set of precrash scenarios based on coded variables from NHTSA's nationally representative crash databases in the United States. Using 4 databases (National Automotive Sampling System-General Estimates System [NASS-GES], NASS Crashworthiness Data System [NASS-CDS], Fatality Analysis Reporting System [FARS], and National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey [NMVCCS]) the scenarios developed in this study can be used to quantify the number of police-reported crashes, seriously injured occupants, and fatalities that are applicable to proposed active safety systems. In this article, we use the precrash scenarios to identify the target populations for FCW, pedestrian crash avoidance systems (PCAS), lane departure warning (LDW), and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) or vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) systems. Crash scenarios were derived using precrash variables (critical event, accident type, precrash movement) present in all 4 data sources. This study found that these active safety systems could potentially mitigate approximately 1 in 5 of all severity and serious injury crashes in the United States and 26 percent of fatal crashes. Annually, this corresponds to 1.2 million all severity, 14,353 serious injury (MAIS 3+), and 7412 fatal crashes. In addition

  9. Experimental studies of water hammer in propellant feed system of reaction control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanish Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water hammer pressure transient produces large dynamic forces which can damage the pipes and other assemblies in the feed line of a reaction control system (RCS. It has led to the failure of pressure transducers monitoring the manifold pressure in the feed line of RCS. Therefore, water hammer studies have been carried out to understand its effect in feed line. Feedline system has been simplified to develop a mathematical model and experiments have been carried out at extensive levels. The mathematical model was developed considering pipe of uniform c/s and moving liquid-gas interface. The experimental studies have been done using water as working medium instead of actual propellant. The studies showed that rate of pressurization have a very critical role on the water hammer amplitude. Sensitivity studies have been also carried out to study the effect of density, friction and initial liquid column length on water hammer amplitude. Keywords: Water hammer, Reaction control system (RCS, Propellant feed system, Experimental study, Testing

  10. The Italian R and D and industrial program for an accelerator driven system experimental plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta, M.; Gherardi, G.; Buono, S.; Cinotti, L.

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), coupling an accelerator with a target and a sub-critical reactor, could simultaneously burn minor actinides and transmute long-lived fission products, while producing a consistent amount of electrical energy. A team of Italian R and D organizations and industries has set up a network of coordinated programs addressed to study the design issues of an 80 MW th Experimental Facility. The present memo focalizes the attention on some results obtained by the R and D activities and by the ongoing industrial short term activities aiming at the preparation of the proposed preliminary design, leaving the deal to define the details of the subsequent medium term activities to the expected common program in the European context. (author)

  11. Experimental StudyHigh Altitude Forced Convective Cooling of Electromechanical Actuation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    34 Massachusetts Institute of Technology , 1989. [3] FedBizOps.Gov, " Integrated Vehicle Energy Technology (INVENT) Development Program for the 6th...AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2016-0043 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY—HIGH ALTITUDE FORCED CONVECTIVE COOLING OF ELECTROMECHANICAL ACTUATION SYSTEMS Evan M. Racine...TITLE AND SUBTITLE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY—HIGH ALTITUDE FORCED CONVECTIVE COOLING OF ELECTROMECHANICAL ACTUATION SYSTEMS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house

  12. Microcomputer-aided monitor for liquid hydrogen target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitami, T.; Watanabe, K.

    1983-03-01

    A microcomputer-aided monitor for a liquid hydrogen target system has been designed and tested. Various kinds of input data such as temperature, pressure, vacuum, etc. are scanned in a given time interval. Variation with time in any four items can be displayed on CRT and, if neccessary, printed out on a sheet of recording paper. (author)

  13. Experimental use of iteratively designed rotation invariant correlation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, D.W.; Ochoa, E.; Schils, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    Iteratively designed filters are incorporated into an optical correlator for position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognition of target images. The filters exhibit excellent discrimination because they are designed to contain full information about the target image. Numerical simulations and experiments demonstrate detection of targets that are corrupted with random noise (SNR≅0.5) and also partially obscured by other objects. The complex valued filters are encoded in a computer generated hologram and fabricated directly using an electron-beam system. Experimental results using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for real-time input show excellent agreement with analytical and numerical computations

  14. Cavitation damage prediction for the JSNS mercury target vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoe, Takashi, E-mail: naoe.takashi@jaea.go.jp; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Teshigawara, Makoto; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2016-01-15

    The liquid mercury target system for the Japan Spallation Neutron Source (JSNS) at the Materials and Life science experimental Facility (MLF) in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is designed to produce pulsed neutrons. The mercury target vessel in this system, which is made of type 316L stainless steel, is damaged by pressure wave-induced cavitation due to proton beam bombardment. Currently, cavitation damage is considered to be the dominant factor influencing the service life of the target vessel rather than radiation damage. In this study, cavitation damage to the interior surface of the target vessel was predicted on the basis of accumulated damage data from off-beam and on-beam experiments. The predicted damage was compared with the damage observed in a used target vessel. Furthermore, the effect of injecting gas microbubbles on cavitation damage was predicted through the measurement of the acoustic vibration of the target vessel. It was shown that the predicted depth of cavitation damage is reasonably coincident with the observed results. Moreover, it was confirmed that the injection of gas microbubbles had an effect on cavitation damage.

  15. Elucidating antimalarial drug targets/mode-of-action by application of system biology technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Becker, J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available targets/mode-of-action by application of systems biology technologies J BECKER, L MTWISHA, B CRAMPTON AND D MANCAMA CSIR Biosciences, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa Email: JBecker@csir.co.za – www.csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Malaria is one... The objective of this study was to use systems biology tools to unravel the drug target/mode-of-action (MoA) of an antimalarial drug (cyclohexylamine) with a known drug target/MoA, by analysing differential expression profiles of drug treated vs untreated...

  16. Drone Detection with Chirp‐Pulse Radar Based on Target Fluctuation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung‐Kwan Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a pulse radar system to detect drones based on a target fluctuation model, specifically the Swerling target model. Because drones are small atypical objects and are mainly composed of non‐conducting materials, their radar cross‐section value is low and fluctuating. Therefore, determining the target fluctuation model and applying a proper integration method are important. The proposed system is herein experimentally verified and the results are discussed. A prototype design of the pulse radar system is based on radar equations. It adopts three different pulse modes and a coherent pulse integration to ensure a high signal‐to‐noise ratio. Outdoor measurements are performed with a prototype radar system to detect Doppler frequencies from both the drone frame and blades. The results indicate that the drone frame and blades are detected within an instrumental maximum range. Additionally, the results show that the drone's frame and blades are close to the Swerling 3 and 4 target models, respectively. By the analysis of the Swerling target models, proper integration methods for detecting drones are verified and can thus contribute to increasing in detectability.

  17. Set membership experimental design for biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvel Skylar W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental design approaches for biological systems are needed to help conserve the limited resources that are allocated for performing experiments. The assumptions used when assigning probability density functions to characterize uncertainty in biological systems are unwarranted when only a small number of measurements can be obtained. In these situations, the uncertainty in biological systems is more appropriately characterized in a bounded-error context. Additionally, effort must be made to improve the connection between modelers and experimentalists by relating design metrics to biologically relevant information. Bounded-error experimental design approaches that can assess the impact of additional measurements on model uncertainty are needed to identify the most appropriate balance between the collection of data and the availability of resources. Results In this work we develop a bounded-error experimental design framework for nonlinear continuous-time systems when few data measurements are available. This approach leverages many of the recent advances in bounded-error parameter and state estimation methods that use interval analysis to generate parameter sets and state bounds consistent with uncertain data measurements. We devise a novel approach using set-based uncertainty propagation to estimate measurement ranges at candidate time points. We then use these estimated measurements at the candidate time points to evaluate which candidate measurements furthest reduce model uncertainty. A method for quickly combining multiple candidate time points is presented and allows for determining the effect of adding multiple measurements. Biologically relevant metrics are developed and used to predict when new data measurements should be acquired, which system components should be measured and how many additional measurements should be obtained. Conclusions The practicability of our approach is illustrated with a case study. This

  18. Design of the target area for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.J.; Karpenko, V.P.; Adams, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    The preliminary design of the target area for the National Ignition Facility has been completed. The target area is required to meet a challenging set of engineering system design requirements and user needs. The target area must provide the appropriate conditions before, during, and after each shot. The repeated introduction of large amounts of laser energy into the chamber and subsequent target emissions represent new design challenges for ICF facility design. Prior to each shot, the target area must provide the required target illumination, target chamber vacuum, diagnostics, and optically stable structures. During the shot, the impact of the target emissions on the target chamber, diagnostics, and optical elements is minimized and the workers and public are protected from excessive prompt radiation doses. After the shot, residual radioactivation is managed to allow the required accessibility. Diagnostic data is retrieved, operations and maintenance activities are conducted, and the facility is ready for the next shot. The target area subsystems include the target chamber, target positioner, structural systems, target diagnostics, environmental systems, and the final optics assembly. The engineering design of the major elements of the target area requires a unique combination of precision engineering, structural analysis, opto-mechanical design, random vibration suppression, thermal stability, materials engineering, robotics, and optical cleanliness. The facility has been designed to conduct both x- ray driven targets and to be converted at a later date for direct drive experiments. The NIF has been configured to provide a wide range of experimental environments for the anticipated user groups of the facility. The design status of the major elements of the target area is described

  19. Design of experimental system for supercritical CO2 fracturing under confining pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Lu, Q.; Li, X.; Yang, B.; Zheng, Y.; Shi, L.; Shi, X.

    2018-03-01

    Supercritical CO2 has the characteristics of low viscosity, high diffusion and zero surface tension, and it is considered as a new fluid for non-polluting and non-aqueous fracturing which can be used for shale gas development. Fracturing refers to a method of utilizing the high-pressure fluid to generate fractures in the rock formation so as to improve the oil and gas flow conditions and increase the oil and gas production. In this article, a new type of experimental system for supercritical CO2 fracturing under confining pressure conditions is designed, which is based on characteristics of supercritical CO2, shale reservoir and down-hole environment. The experimental system consists of three sub-systems, including supercritical CO2 generation system, supercritical CO2 fracturing system and data analysis system. It can be used to simulate supercritical CO2 fracturing under geo-stress conditions, thus to study the rock initiation pressure, the formation of the rock fractures, fractured surface morphology and so on. The experimental system has successfully carried out a series of supercritical CO2 fracturing experiments. The experimental results confirm the feasibility of the experimental system and the high efficiency of supercritical CO2 in fracturing tight rocks.

  20. Theoretical Design and First Test in Laboratory of a Composite Visual Servo-Based Target Spray Robotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjie Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to spray onto the canopy of interval planting crop, an approach of using a target spray robot with a composite vision servo system based on monocular scene vision and monocular eye-in-hand vision was proposed. Scene camera was used to roughly locate target crop, and then the image-processing methods for background segmentation, crop canopy centroid extraction, and 3D positioning were studied. Eye-in-hand camera was used to precisely determine spray position of each crop. Based on the center and area of 2D minimum-enclosing-circle (MEC of crop canopy, a method to calculate spray position and spray time was determined. In addition, locating algorithm for the MEC center in nozzle reference frame and the hand-eye calibration matrix were studied. The processing of a mechanical arm guiding nozzle to spray was divided into three stages: reset, alignment, and hovering spray, and servo method of each stage was investigated. For preliminary verification of the theoretical studies on the approach, a simplified experimental prototype containing one spray mechanical arm was built and some performance tests were carried out under controlled environment in laboratory. The results showed that the prototype could achieve the effect of “spraying while moving and accurately spraying on target.”

  1. Nighttime assaults: using a national emergency department monitoring system to predict occurrence, target prevention and plan services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellis Mark A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency department (ED data have the potential to provide critical intelligence on when violence is most likely to occur and the characteristics of those who suffer the greatest health impacts. We use a national experimental ED monitoring system to examine how it could target violence prevention interventions towards at risk communities and optimise acute responses to calendar, holiday and other celebration-related changes in nighttime assaults. Methods A cross-sectional examination of nighttime assault presentations (6.01 pm to 6.00 am; n = 330,172 over a three-year period (31st March 2008 to 30th March 2011 to English EDs analysing changes by weekday, month, holidays, major sporting events, and demographics of those presenting. Results Males are at greater risk of assault presentation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.14, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] 3.11-3.16; P 2 = 0.918; P  Conclusions To date, the role of ED data has focused on helping target nightlife police activity. Its utility is much greater; capable of targeting and evaluating multi-agency life course approaches to violence prevention and optimising frontline resources. National ED data are critical for fully engaging health services in the prevention of violence.

  2. Web based system architecture for long pulse remote experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras, E. de las; Lastra, D.; Vega, J.; Castro, R.; Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.

    2010-01-01

    Remote experimentation (RE) methods will be essential in next generation fusion devices. Requirements for long pulse RE will be: on-line data visualization, on-line data acquisition processes monitoring and on-line data acquisition systems interactions (start, stop or set-up modifications). Note that these methods are not oriented to real-time control of fusion plant devices. INDRA Sistemas S.A., CIEMAT (Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas) and UPM (Universidad Politecnica de Madrid) have designed a specific software architecture for these purposes. The architecture can be supported on the BeansNet platform, whose integration with an application server provides an adequate solution to the requirements. BeansNet is a JINI based framework developed by INDRA, which makes easy the implementation of a remote experimentation model based on a Service Oriented Architecture. The new software architecture has been designed on the basis of the experience acquired in the development of an upgrade of the TJ-II remote experimentation system.

  3. [Research and application of microcontroller system for target controlled infusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuke; Dou, Jianhong; Zhang, Xingan; Wang, Ruosong

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents a microcontroller system for target controlled infusion according to pharmacodynamic parameters of intravenous anesthetics. It can control the depth of anesthesia by adjusting the level of plasma concentrations. The system has the advantages of high precision, extending power and easy manipulation. It has been used in the clinical anesthesia.

  4. Targeting Strategies for the Combination Treatment of Cancer Using Drug Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kydd, Janel; Jadia, Rahul; Velpurisiva, Praveena; Gad, Aniket; Paliwal, Shailee; Rai, Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells have characteristics of acquired and intrinsic resistances to chemotherapy treatment—due to the hostile tumor microenvironment—that create a significant challenge for effective therapeutic regimens. Multidrug resistance, collateral toxicity to normal cells, and detrimental systemic side effects present significant obstacles, necessitating alternative and safer treatment strategies. Traditional administration of chemotherapeutics has demonstrated minimal success due to the non-specificity of action, uptake and rapid clearance by the immune system, and subsequent metabolic alteration and poor tumor penetration. Nanomedicine can provide a more effective approach to targeting cancer by focusing on the vascular, tissue, and cellular characteristics that are unique to solid tumors. Targeted methods of treatment using nanoparticles can decrease the likelihood of resistant clonal populations of cancerous cells. Dual encapsulation of chemotherapeutic drug allows simultaneous targeting of more than one characteristic of the tumor. Several first-generation, non-targeted nanomedicines have received clinical approval starting with Doxil® in 1995. However, more than two decades later, second-generation or targeted nanomedicines have yet to be approved for treatment despite promising results in pre-clinical studies. This review highlights recent studies using targeted nanoparticles for cancer treatment focusing on approaches that target either the tumor vasculature (referred to as ‘vascular targeting’), the tumor microenvironment (‘tissue targeting’) or the individual cancer cells (‘cellular targeting’). Recent studies combining these different targeting methods are also discussed in this review. Finally, this review summarizes some of the reasons for the lack of clinical success in the field of targeted nanomedicines. PMID:29036899

  5. Targeting Strategies for the Combination Treatment of Cancer Using Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janel Kydd

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells have characteristics of acquired and intrinsic resistances to chemotherapy treatment—due to the hostile tumor microenvironment—that create a significant challenge for effective therapeutic regimens. Multidrug resistance, collateral toxicity to normal cells, and detrimental systemic side effects present significant obstacles, necessitating alternative and safer treatment strategies. Traditional administration of chemotherapeutics has demonstrated minimal success due to the non-specificity of action, uptake and rapid clearance by the immune system, and subsequent metabolic alteration and poor tumor penetration. Nanomedicine can provide a more effective approach to targeting cancer by focusing on the vascular, tissue, and cellular characteristics that are unique to solid tumors. Targeted methods of treatment using nanoparticles can decrease the likelihood of resistant clonal populations of cancerous cells. Dual encapsulation of chemotherapeutic drug allows simultaneous targeting of more than one characteristic of the tumor. Several first-generation, non-targeted nanomedicines have received clinical approval starting with Doxil® in 1995. However, more than two decades later, second-generation or targeted nanomedicines have yet to be approved for treatment despite promising results in pre-clinical studies. This review highlights recent studies using targeted nanoparticles for cancer treatment focusing on approaches that target either the tumor vasculature (referred to as ‘vascular targeting’, the tumor microenvironment (‘tissue targeting’ or the individual cancer cells (‘cellular targeting’. Recent studies combining these different targeting methods are also discussed in this review. Finally, this review summarizes some of the reasons for the lack of clinical success in the field of targeted nanomedicines.

  6. System design overview of JAXA small supersonic experimental airplane (NEXST-1)

    OpenAIRE

    Takami, Hikaru; 高見 光

    2007-01-01

    The system of JAXA small supersonic experimental airplane (NEXST-1: National EXperimental Supersonic Transport-1) has been briefly explained. Some design problems that the designers have encountered have also been briefly explained.

  7. Experimental analyses of dynamical systems involving shape memory alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; Savi, Marcelo A.; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of shape memory alloys (SMAs) in dynamical systems has an increasing importance in engineering especially due to their capacity to provide vibration reductions. In this regard, experimental tests are essential in order to show all potentialities of this kind of systems. In this work, SMA ...

  8. An experimental system for release simulation of internal stores in a supersonic wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic parameters obtained from separation experiments of internal stores in a wind tunnel are significant in aircraft designs. Accurate wind tunnel tests can help to improve the release stability of the stores and in-flight safety of the aircrafts in supersonic environments. A simulative system for free drop experiments of internal stores based on a practical project is provided in this paper. The system contains a store release mechanism, a control system and an attitude measurement system. The release mechanism adopts a six-bar linkage driven by a cylinder, which ensures the release stability. The structure and initial aerodynamic parameters of the stores are also designed and adjusted. A high speed vision measurement system for high speed rolling targets is utilized to measure the pose parameters of the internal store models and an optimizing method for the coordinates of markers is presented based on a priori model. The experimental results show excellent repeatability of the system, and indicate that the position measurement precision is less than 0.13 mm, and the attitude measurement precision for pitch and yaw angles is less than 0.126°, satisfying the requirements of practical wind tunnel tests. A separation experiment for the internal stores is also conducted in the FL-3 wind tunnel of China Aerodynamics Research Institute.

  9. Design and implement of infrared small target real-time detection system based on pipeline technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lihui; Wang, Yongzhong; He, Yongqiang

    2007-01-01

    The detection for motive small target in infrared image sequence has become a hot topic nowadays. Background suppress algorithm based on minim gradient median filter and temporal recursion target detection algorithm are introduced. On the basis of contents previously mentioned, a four stages pipeline structure infrared small target detection process system, which aims at characters of algorithm complexity, large amounts of data to process, high frame frequency and exigent real-time character in this kind of application, is designed and implemented. The logical structure of the system was introduced and the function and signals flows are programmed. The system is composed of two FPGA chips and two DSP chips of TI. According to the function of each part, the system is divided into image preprocess stage, target detection stage, track relation stage and image output stage. The experiment of running algorithms on the system presented in this paper proved that the system could meet acquisition and process of 50Hz 240x320 digital image and the system could real time detect small target with a signal-noise ratio more than 3 reliably. The system achieves the characters of large amount of memory, high real-time processing, excellent extension and favorable interactive interface.

  10. CFD Analysis of the Active Part of the HYPER Spallation Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam-il Tak; Chungho Cho; Tae-Yung Song

    2006-01-01

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is developing an accelerator driven system (ADS) named HYPER (HYbrid Power Extraction Reactor) for a transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes. One of the challenging tasks for the HYPER system is to design a large spallation target having a beam power of 15∼25 MW. The present paper focuses on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the active part of the HYPER target. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using a commercial code CFX 5.7.1. Several advanced turbulence models with different grid structures were applied. The CFX results show the significant impact of the turbulence model on the window temperature. It is concluded that experimental verifications are very important for the design of the HYPER target. (authors)

  11. A liquid He-3 target system for use at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassell, D.K.; Abegg, R.; Murdoch, B.T.; van Oers, W.J.H.; Soukup, J.

    1981-04-01

    A liquid 3 He target system with remote instrumentation and handling capabilities has been developed for experiments using the 180-525 MeV TRIUMF cyclotron. Helium-3 gas is liquefied by means of a 4 He cryostat into a cylindrical target cell (4.4 cm diameter, 1.6 cm thick) and maintained during operation at approximately 1.6 K. This provides an areal target density of approximately 2.7 x 10 22 He-3 nuclei/cm 2 (128 mg/cm 2 ), suitable for intermediate energy proton scattering. (author)

  12. Super liquid density target designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.L.; Bailey, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    The success of laser fusion depends on obtaining near isentropic compression of fuel to very high densities and igniting this fuel. To date, the results of laser fusion experiments have been based mainly on the exploding pusher implosion of fusion capsules consisting of thin glass microballoons (wall thickness of less than 1 micron) filled with low density DT gas (initial density of a few mg/cc). Maximum DT densities of a few tenths of g/cc and temperatures of a few keV have been achieved in these experiments. We will discuss the results of LASNEX target design calculations for targets which: (a) can compress fuel to much higher densities using the capabilities of existing Nd-glass systems at LLL; (b) allow experimental measurement of the peak fuel density achieved

  13. Targeted electrohydrodynamic printing for micro-reservoir drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Tae Heon; Kim, Jin Bum; Yang, Da Som; Ryu, WonHyoung; Park, Yong-il

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic drug delivery systems consisting of a drug reservoir and microfluidic channels have shown the possibility of simple and robust modulation of drug release rate. However, the difficulty of loading a small quantity of drug into drug reservoirs at a micro-scale limited further development of such systems. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing was employed to fill micro-reservoirs with controlled amount of drugs in the range of a few hundreds of picograms to tens of micrograms with spatial resolution of as small as 20 µm. Unlike most EHD systems, this system was configured in combination with an inverted microscope that allows in situ targeting of drug loading at micrometer scale accuracy. Methylene blue and rhodamine B were used as model drugs in distilled water, isopropanol and a polymer solution of a biodegradable polymer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Also tetracycline-HCl/DI water was used as actual drug ink. The optimal parameters of EHD printing to load an extremely small quantity of drug into microscale drug reservoirs were investigated by changing pumping rates, the strength of an electric field and drug concentration. This targeted EHD technique was used to load drugs into the microreservoirs of PDMS microfluidic drug delivery devices and their drug release performance was demonstrated in vitro. (paper)

  14. Power load limits of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X target elements-comparison of experimental results and design values for power loads up to the critical heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H; Boeswirth, B; Boscary, J; Leuprecht, A; Plankensteiner, A

    2007-01-01

    The power load limits of the WENDELSTEIN7-X divertor target elements were experimentally evaluated with heat loads considerably exceeding the expected operating conditions. The water-cooled elements are designed for steady-state heat flux of 10 MW m -2 and to remove a power load up to 100 kW. The elements must allow a limited operation time at 12 MW m -2 steady-state and should not fail for short pulses of up to 15 MW m -2 for cooling conditions in the subcooled nucleate boiling regime. In the framework of the qualification phase, pre-series target elements were loaded up to 24 MW m -2 without loss of CFC tiles. A critical heat flux at the target of 31 MW m -2 was achieved. The paper discusses the results of the tests performed at the high heat flux test facility GLADIS. The experimental results compared to transient nonlinear fine element method (FEM) calculations confirm a high thermal safety margin of the target design sufficient for plasma operation in W7-X

  15. Microchimeric cells in systemic lupus erythematosus: targets or innocent bystanders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, A M

    2006-01-01

    During pregnancy maternal and fetal cells commute back and forth leading to fetal microchimerism in the mother and maternal microchimerism in the child that can persist for years after the birth. Chimeric fetal and maternal cells can be hematopoietic or can differentiate into somatic cells in multiple organs, potentially acting as targets for 'autoimmunity' and so have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases that resemble graft-versus-host disease after stem cell transplantation. Fetal cells have been found in women with systemic lupus erythematosus, both in the blood and a target organ, the kidney, suggesting that they may be involved in pathogenesis. Future studies will address how the host immune system normally tolerates maternal and fetal cells or how the balance may change during autoimmunity.

  16. An infrared small target detection method based on multiscale local homogeneity measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jinyan; Qu, Shaocheng; Wei, Yantao; Zhang, Liming; Deng, Lizhen

    2018-05-01

    Infrared (IR) small target detection plays an important role in the field of image detection area owing to its intrinsic characteristics. This paper presents a multiscale local homogeneity measure (MLHM) for infrared small target detection, which can enhance the performance of IR small target detection system. Firstly, intra-patch homogeneity of the target itself and the inter-patch heterogeneity between target and the local background regions are integrated to enhance the significant of small target. Secondly, a multiscale measure based on local regions is proposed to obtain the most appropriate response. Finally, an adaptive threshold method is applied to small target segmentation. Experimental results on three different scenarios indicate that the MLHM has good performance under the interference of strong noise.

  17. A charge-pump 60kV modulator for the ISOLDE target extraction voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, R A; Fowler, A; Gaudillet, H; Gharsa, T; Schipper, J

    2015-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN provides radioactive ion beams to a number of experimental stations. These ions are produced by a metal target, floating at 60 kV, which is impacted by a 1.4 GeV high intensity proton beam. The ions are then accelerated by a grounded extraction electrode to 60 keV, before transport to the experimental area. During proton beam impact extremely high ionisation of the volume around the target gives rise to significant leakage current which results in loss of charge on the effective target capacitance of approximately 6 nF. If short life-time isotopes are to be studied, the 60 kV must be re-established within a maximum of 10 ms. Recharging the target capacitance to 60 kV and to the required stability of better than 10-4 precludes a direct charging system and an alternative method of re-establishing the 60 kV is used. The present system [1], in operation since 1991, employs a resonant circuit which is triggered 35 µs prior to beam impact. This circuit transfers the charge on the effec...

  18. Contribution of self-motion perception to acoustic target localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Brosch, M; Panichi, R; Botti, F; Grassi, S; Troiani, D

    2005-05-01

    The findings of this study suggest that acoustic spatial perception during head movement is achieved by the vestibular system, which is responsible for the correct dynamic of acoustic target pursuit. The ability to localize sounds in space during whole-body rotation relies on the auditory localization system, which recognizes the position of sound in a head-related frame, and on the sensory systems, namely the vestibular system, which perceive head and body movement. The aim of this study was to analyse the contribution of head motion cues to the spatial representation of acoustic targets in humans. Healthy subjects standing on a rotating platform in the dark were asked to pursue with a laser pointer an acoustic target which was horizontally rotated while the body was kept stationary or maintained stationary while the whole body was rotated. The contribution of head motion to the spatial acoustic representation could be inferred by comparing the gains and phases of the pursuit in the two experimental conditions when the frequency was varied. During acoustic target rotation there was a reduction in the gain and an increase in the phase lag, while during whole-body rotations the gain tended to increase and the phase remained constant. The different contributions of the vestibular and acoustic systems were confirmed by analysing the acoustic pursuit during asymmetric body rotation. In this particular condition, in which self-motion perception gradually diminished, an increasing delay in target pursuit was observed.

  19. Summary: Experimental validation of real-time fault-tolerant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R. K.; Choi, G. S.

    1992-01-01

    Testing and validation of real-time systems is always difficult to perform since neither the error generation process nor the fault propagation problem is easy to comprehend. There is no better substitute to results based on actual measurements and experimentation. Such results are essential for developing a rational basis for evaluation and validation of real-time systems. However, with physical experimentation, controllability and observability are limited to external instrumentation that can be hooked-up to the system under test. And this process is quite a difficult, if not impossible, task for a complex system. Also, to set up such experiments for measurements, physical hardware must exist. On the other hand, a simulation approach allows flexibility that is unequaled by any other existing method for system evaluation. A simulation methodology for system evaluation was successfully developed and implemented and the environment was demonstrated using existing real-time avionic systems. The research was oriented toward evaluating the impact of permanent and transient faults in aircraft control computers. Results were obtained for the Bendix BDX 930 system and Hamilton Standard EEC131 jet engine controller. The studies showed that simulated fault injection is valuable, in the design stage, to evaluate the susceptibility of computing sytems to different types of failures.

  20. Overview of the Neutron experimental facilities at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This presentation gives an overview of the neutron experimental facilities at LANSCE. The layout is mentioned in detail, with a map of the south-side experimental facilities, information on Target-4 and the Lujan Center. Then it goes into detail about neutron sources, specifically continuous versus pulsed. Target 4 is then discussed. In conclusion, we have introduced the south-side experimental facilities in operation at LANSCE. 1L target and Target 4 provide complementary neutron energy spectra. Two spallation neutron sources taken together cover more than 11 orders of magnitude in neutron energy.

  1. Simulation-based optimal Bayesian experimental design for nonlinear systems

    KAUST Repository

    Huan, Xun

    2013-01-01

    The optimal selection of experimental conditions is essential to maximizing the value of data for inference and prediction, particularly in situations where experiments are time-consuming and expensive to conduct. We propose a general mathematical framework and an algorithmic approach for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models; in particular, we focus on finding sets of experiments that provide the most information about targeted sets of parameters.Our framework employs a Bayesian statistical setting, which provides a foundation for inference from noisy, indirect, and incomplete data, and a natural mechanism for incorporating heterogeneous sources of information. An objective function is constructed from information theoretic measures, reflecting expected information gain from proposed combinations of experiments. Polynomial chaos approximations and a two-stage Monte Carlo sampling method are used to evaluate the expected information gain. Stochastic approximation algorithms are then used to make optimization feasible in computationally intensive and high-dimensional settings. These algorithms are demonstrated on model problems and on nonlinear parameter inference problems arising in detailed combustion kinetics. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  2. Penalty dynamic programming algorithm for dim targets detection in sensor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dayu; Xue, Anke; Guo, Yunfei

    2012-01-01

    In order to detect and track multiple maneuvering dim targets in sensor systems, an improved dynamic programming track-before-detect algorithm (DP-TBD) called penalty DP-TBD (PDP-TBD) is proposed. The performances of tracking techniques are used as a feedback to the detection part. The feedback is constructed by a penalty term in the merit function, and the penalty term is a function of the possible target state estimation, which can be obtained by the tracking methods. With this feedback, the algorithm combines traditional tracking techniques with DP-TBD and it can be applied to simultaneously detect and track maneuvering dim targets. Meanwhile, a reasonable constraint that a sensor measurement can originate from one target or clutter is proposed to minimize track separation. Thus, the algorithm can be used in the multi-target situation with unknown target numbers. The efficiency and advantages of PDP-TBD compared with two existing methods are demonstrated by several simulations.

  3. Penalty Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Dim Targets Detection in Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Guo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect and track multiple maneuvering dim targets in sensor systems, an improved dynamic programming track-before-detect algorithm (DP-TBD called penalty DP-TBD (PDP-TBD is proposed. The performances of tracking techniques are used as a feedback to the detection part. The feedback is constructed by a penalty term in the merit function, and the penalty term is a function of the possible target state estimation, which can be obtained by the tracking methods. With this feedback, the algorithm combines traditional tracking techniques with DP-TBD and it can be applied to simultaneously detect and track maneuvering dim targets. Meanwhile, a reasonable constraint that a sensor measurement can originate from one target or clutter is proposed to minimize track separation. Thus, the algorithm can be used in the multi-target situation with unknown target numbers. The efficiency and advantages of PDP-TBD compared with two existing methods are demonstrated by several simulations.

  4. Synergistic target combination prediction from curated signaling networks: Machine learning meets systems biology and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Huey Eng; Bhowmick, Sourav S; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Given a signaling network, the target combination prediction problem aims to predict efficacious and safe target combinations for combination therapy. State-of-the-art in silico methods use Monte Carlo simulated annealing (mcsa) to modify a candidate solution stochastically, and use the Metropolis criterion to accept or reject the proposed modifications. However, such stochastic modifications ignore the impact of the choice of targets and their activities on the combination's therapeutic effect and off-target effects, which directly affect the solution quality. In this paper, we present mascot, a method that addresses this limitation by leveraging two additional heuristic criteria to minimize off-target effects and achieve synergy for candidate modification. Specifically, off-target effects measure the unintended response of a signaling network to the target combination and is often associated with toxicity. Synergy occurs when a pair of targets exerts effects that are greater than the sum of their individual effects, and is generally a beneficial strategy for maximizing effect while minimizing toxicity. mascot leverages on a machine learning-based target prioritization method which prioritizes potential targets in a given disease-associated network to select more effective targets (better therapeutic effect and/or lower off-target effects); and on Loewe additivity theory from pharmacology which assesses the non-additive effects in a combination drug treatment to select synergistic target activities. Our experimental study on two disease-related signaling networks demonstrates the superiority of mascot in comparison to existing approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Precise focusing and diagnosis technology for laser beams in ICF target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qixiang

    1999-01-01

    The precise focusing and diagnosis experimental system for laser beams in ICF target chamber is introduced. The system is controlled by computer. In process of focusing a series data of displacement in axial direction and relative area of focus spots are acquired. According to the functional curvature the accurate position of focal plane is determined. The construction of the system is simple, the system is controlled conveniently and runs quickly

  6. Optimization of the internal target system of the C V-28 cyclotron at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Sumair Gouveia de

    1996-01-01

    The C V-28 cyclotron at IPEN-CNEN/S P is used mainly for radioisotope production to be utilized in nuclear medicine for diagnostic purposes. Among these radioisotopes we can cite 67 Ga and 111 In, which are obtained by irradiation of Zn and Cd solid targets. Up to now, the irradiations were performed in the external beam line, which has limitations in beam current due to the extraction system, that can at best extract between 50 and 70% of the produced beam. This is a critical point for an efficient radioisotope production. A possible solution to achieve high beam currents is a system that allows the irradiation of these solid targets with the internal beam. In this case, the total produced beam can be used. For this, the objective of this work was to modify and improve the internal target system of the C V-28 Cyclotron, which had three critical points in the original project, that made the system useless. First, the transport of the target to the irradiation position was modified: the pneumatic tube was changed to a motor drive service. Secondly, the target cooling system was improved. Third and the most critical, the modification on the locking system of the target holder that could bring the cyclotron tank to atmosphere. These modifications implied on a change in all logical sequence of the target control. With these modifications the system became more versatile and showed more reproducibility and reliability than the original internal target system. The loss of mass in natural Zn targets irradiated with currents up to 80 μA was negligible. The production yield of 67 Ga obtained, at EOB, was 21.2 MBq/μAh (0.57 mCi/μAh), that is in good agreement with those obtained in the irradiation with external beams. (author)

  7. Designing and modeling a centrifugal microfluidic device to separate target blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Amir; Selahi, AmirAli; Madadelahi, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study is to design a novel and efficient portable lab-on-a-CD (LOCD) microfluidic device for separation of specific cells (target cells) using magnetic beads. In this study the results are shown for neutrophils as target cells. However, other kinds of target cells can be separated in a similar approach. The designed microfluidics can be utilized as a point of care system for neutrophil detection. This microfluidic system employs centrifugal and magnetic forces for separation. After model validation by the experimental data in the literature (that may be used as a design tool for developing centrifugo-magnetophoretic devices), two models are presented for separation of target cells using magnetic beads. The first model consists of one container in the inlet section and two containers in the outlets. Initially, the inlet container is filled with diluted blood sample which is a mixture of red blood cells (RBCs) plus neutrophils which are attached to Magnetic beads. It is shown that by using centrifugal and magnetic forces, this model can separate all neutrophils with recovery factor of ~100%. In the second model, due to excess of magnetic beads in usual experimental analysis (to ensure that all target cells are attached to them) the geometry is improved by adding a third outlet for these free magnetic beads. It is shown that at angular velocity of 45 rad s-1, recovery factor of 100% is achievable for RBCs, free magnetic beads and neutrophils as target cells.

  8. The 30/20 GHz experimental communications satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivo, J. N.

    NASA is continuing to pursue an agressive satellite communications technology development program focused on the 30/20 GHz frequency band. A review of the program progress to date is presented. Included is a discussion of the technology program status as well as a description of the experimental system concept under study. Expected system performance characteristics together with spacecraft and payload configuration details including weight and power budget is presented. Overall program schedules of both the technology development and the flight system development are included.

  9. Integrative Analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 Target Sites in the Human HBB Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR system has emerged as a powerful customizable artificial nuclease to facilitate precise genetic correction for tissue regeneration and isogenic disease modeling. However, previous studies reported substantial off-target activities of CRISPR system in human cells, and the enormous putative off-target sites are labor-intensive to be validated experimentally, thus motivating bioinformatics methods for rational design of CRISPR system and prediction of its potential off-target effects. Here, we describe an integrative analytical process to identify specific CRISPR target sites in the human β-globin gene (HBB and predict their off-target effects. Our method includes off-target analysis in both coding and noncoding regions, which was neglected by previous studies. It was found that the CRISPR target sites in the introns have fewer off-target sites in the coding regions than those in the exons. Remarkably, target sites containing certain transcriptional factor motif have enriched binding sites of relevant transcriptional factor in their off-target sets. We also found that the intron sites have fewer SNPs, which leads to less variation of CRISPR efficiency in different individuals during clinical applications. Our studies provide a standard analytical procedure to select specific CRISPR targets for genetic correction.

  10. Technology of solid-fuel-layer targets for laser-fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musinski, D.L.; Henderson, T.M.; Pattinson, T.R.; Tarvin, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus which produces uniform solid-fuel layers in glass-shell targets for laser irradiation is described. A low-power cw laser pulse is used to vaporize the fuel within a previously frozen target which is maintained in a cold-helium environment by a cryogenic shroud. The rapid refreezing that follows the pulse forms a uniform fuel layer on the inner surface of the glass shell. This apparatus and technique meet the restrictions imposed by the experimental target chamber. The method does not perturb the target position; nor does it preclude the usual diagnostic experimets since the shroud is retracted before the main laser pulse arrives. Successful laser irradiation and implosion of solid-fuel-layer targets at KMSF have confirmed the effectiveness and reliability of this system and extended the range of laser-target-interaction studies in the cryogenic regime

  11. Cryogenic-laser-fusion target implosion studies performed with the OMEGA uv-laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, F.J.; Letzring, S.A.; Verdon, C.P.; Skupsky, S.; Keck, R.L.; Knauer, J.P.; Kremens, R.L.; Bradley, D.K.; Kessler, T.; Delettrez, J.; and others.

    1989-01-01

    A series of direct-drive laser-fusion implosion experiments was performed on cryogenically cooled, DT-filled glass microballoons with the OMEGA 24-beam uv (351-nm) laser system. The targets consisted of glass microballoons having radii of 100 to 150 μm, wall thicknesses of 3 to 7 μm, filled with DT gas at pressures of 75 to 100 atm. The targets were cooled to below the freezing point of DT, in situ, by a cryogenic target system. The targets were irradiated by approximately 1 to 1.2 kJ of uv light in 650-ps Gaussian pulses. The on-target irradiation uniformity was enhanced for these experiments by the use of distributed phase plates, which brought the estimated irradiation nonuniformities to ∼12% (σ rms ). Target performance was diagnosed by an array of x-ray, plasma, and nuclear instruments. The measured target performance showed ∼70% absorption, thermonuclear yields of 10 6 to 10 8 neutrons, and final fuel areal densities of 20 to 40 mg/cm 2 for the optimum targets examined in these experiments. Fuel densities at the time of thermonuclear neutron production, inferred from direct measurements of the fuel areal density, were in the range of 20 to 50 g/cm 3 (100 to 200 times the density of liquid DT) for the optimum targets

  12. Design and Experimental Study of an Over-Under TBCC Exhaust System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianwei; Xu, Jinglei; Zhang, Liuhuan

    2014-01-01

    Turbine-based combined-cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems have been a topic of research as a means for more efficient flight at supersonic and hypersonic speeds. The present study focuses on the fundamental physics of the complex flow in the TBCC exhaust system during the transition mode as the turbine exhaust is shut off and the ramjet exhaust is increased. A TBCC exhaust system was designed using methods of characteristics (MOC) and subjected to experimental and computational study. The main objectives of the study were: (1) to identify the interactions between the two exhaust jet streams during the transition mode phase and their effects on the whole flow-field structure; (2) to determine and verify the aerodynamic performance of the over-under TBCC exhaust nozzle; and (3) to validate the simulation ability of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software according to the experimental conditions. Static pressure taps and Schlieren apparatus were employed to obtain the wall pressure distributions and flow-field structures. Steady-state tests were performed with the ramjet nozzle cowl at six different positions at which the turbine flow path were half closed and fully opened, respectively. Methods of CFD were used to simulate the exhaust flow and they complemented the experimental study by providing greater insight into the details of the flow field and a means of verifying the experimental results. Results indicated that the flow structure was complicated because the two exhaust jet streams interacted with each other during the exhaust system mode transition. The exhaust system thrust coefficient varied from 0.9288 to 0.9657 during the process. The CFD simulation results agree well with the experimental data, which demonstrated that the CFD methods were effective in evaluating the aerodynamic performance of the TBCC exhaust system during the mode transition.

  13. Experimental evaluation of improved dual temperature hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Yamato; Uchida, Shunsuke

    1984-01-01

    A proposed dual temperature hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction system between water and hydrogen gas is evaluated experimentally. The proposed system is composed of low temperature co-current reactors for reaction between water mists and hydrogen gas and high temperature co-current reactors for reaction between water vapor and hydrogen gas. Thus, operation is possible under atmospheric pressure with high reaction efficiency. Using the pilot test system which is composed of ten low temperature (30 0 C) reaction units and ten high temperature (200 0 C) reaction units, an experimental separation of deuterium from light water is carried out. The enrichment factor under steady state conditions, its dependency on operating time, and the reaction period necessary to obtain the steady state enrichment factor are determined experimentally and compared with calculations. It is shown that separation ability in a multistage reaction system can be estimated by numerical calculation using actual reaction efficiency in a unit reactor. (author)

  14. Monitoring system for an experimental facility using GMDH methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Moraes, Davi Almeida [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bueno, Elaine Inacio, E-mail: martinez@ipen.br, E-mail: dmoraes@dk8.com.br, E-mail: ebueno@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This work presents a Monitoring System developed based on the GMDH - Group Method of Data Handling methodology to be used in an Experimental Test Facility. GMDH is a combinatorial multi-layer algorithm in which a network of layers and nodes is generated using a number of inputs from the data stream being evaluated. The GMDH network topology has been traditionally determined using a layer by layer pruning process based on a pre-selected criterion of what constitutes the best nodes at each level. The traditional GMDH method is based on an underlying assumption that the data can be modeled by using an approximation of the Volterra Series or Kolmorgorov-Gabor polynomial. The Fault Test Experimental Facility was designed to simulate a PWR nuclear power plant and is composed by elements that correspond to the pressure vessel, steam generator, pumps of the primary and secondary reactor loops. The nuclear reactor core is represented by an electrical heater with different values of power. The experimental plant will be fully instrumented with sensors and actuators, and the data acquisition system will be constructed in order to enable the details of the temporal analysis of process variables. The Fault Test Experimental Facility can be operated to generate normal and fault data. These failures can be added initially with small magnitude, and their magnitude being increasing gradually in a controlled way. The database will interface with the plant supervisory system SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) that provides the data through standard interface. (author)

  15. Monitoring system for an experimental facility using GMDH methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Moraes, Davi Almeida; Bueno, Elaine Inacio

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a Monitoring System developed based on the GMDH - Group Method of Data Handling methodology to be used in an Experimental Test Facility. GMDH is a combinatorial multi-layer algorithm in which a network of layers and nodes is generated using a number of inputs from the data stream being evaluated. The GMDH network topology has been traditionally determined using a layer by layer pruning process based on a pre-selected criterion of what constitutes the best nodes at each level. The traditional GMDH method is based on an underlying assumption that the data can be modeled by using an approximation of the Volterra Series or Kolmorgorov-Gabor polynomial. The Fault Test Experimental Facility was designed to simulate a PWR nuclear power plant and is composed by elements that correspond to the pressure vessel, steam generator, pumps of the primary and secondary reactor loops. The nuclear reactor core is represented by an electrical heater with different values of power. The experimental plant will be fully instrumented with sensors and actuators, and the data acquisition system will be constructed in order to enable the details of the temporal analysis of process variables. The Fault Test Experimental Facility can be operated to generate normal and fault data. These failures can be added initially with small magnitude, and their magnitude being increasing gradually in a controlled way. The database will interface with the plant supervisory system SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) that provides the data through standard interface. (author)

  16. Targeted drug delivery to magnetic implants for therapeutic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellen, Benjamin B.; Forbes, Zachary G.; Halverson, Derek S.; Fridman, Gregory; Barbee, Kenneth A.; Chorny, Michael; Levy, Robert; Friedman, Gary

    2005-01-01

    A new method for locally targeted drug delivery is proposed that employs magnetic implants placed directly in the cardiovascular system to attract injected magnetic carriers. Theoretical simulations and experimental results support the assumption that using magnetic implants in combination with externally applied magnetic field will optimize the delivery of magnetic drug to selected sites within a subject

  17. Local and Systemic Inflammatory Responses to Experimentally Induced Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Shaneen J.; Seymour, Gregory J.; Ford, Pauline J.

    2013-01-01

    This study profiled the local and systemic inflammatory responses to experimentally induced gingivitis. Eight females participated in a 21-day experimental gingivitis model followed by a 14-day resolution phase. Bleeding on probing and plaque index scores were assessed before, during, and after resolution of gingival inflammation, and samples of saliva, GCF, and plasma were collected. Samples were assessed for biomarkers of inflammation using the BioPlex platform and ELISA. There were no significant changes in GCF levels of cytokines during the experimental phase; however, individual variability in cytokine profiles was noted. During resolution, mean GCF levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α decreased and were significantly lower than baseline levels (P = 0.003, P = 0.025, and P = 0.007, resp.). Furthermore, changes in GCF levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α during resolution correlated with changes in plaque index scores (r = 0.88, P = 0.004; r = 0.72, P = 0.042; r = 0.79, P = 0.019, resp.). Plasma levels of sICAM-1 increased significantly during the experimental phase (P = 0.002) and remained elevated and significantly higher than baseline levels during resolution (P gingivitis adds to the systemic inflammatory burden of an individual. PMID:24227893

  18. Disruptions in large value payment systems: an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, K.; Bosman, R.; Heijmans, R.; van Winden, F.

    2010-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the behaviour of banks in a large value payment system. More specifically,we look at 1) the reactions of banks to disruptions in the payment system, 2) the way in which the history of disruptions affects the behaviour of banks (path dependency) and 3) the effect

  19. Disruptions in large value payment systems: An experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, K.; Bosman, R.; Heijmans, R.; van Winden, F.; Hellqvist, M.; Laine, T.

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the behaviour of banks in a large value payment system. More specifically, we look at 1) the reactions of banks to disruptions in the payment system, 2) the way in which the history of disruptions affects the behaviour of banks (path dependency) and 3) the effect

  20. Real-Time Signal Processing for Multiantenna Systems: Algorithms, Optimization, and Implementation on an Experimental Test-Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haustein Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A recently realized concept of a reconfigurable hardware test-bed suitable for real-time mobile communication with multiple antennas is presented in this paper. We discuss the reasons and prerequisites for real-time capable MIMO transmission systems which may allow channel adaptive transmission to increase link stability and data throughput. We describe a concept of an efficient implementation of MIMO signal processing using FPGAs and DSPs. We focus on some basic linear and nonlinear MIMO detection and precoding algorithms and their optimization for a DSP target, and a few principal steps for computational performance enhancement are outlined. An experimental verification of several real-time MIMO transmission schemes at high data rates in a typical office scenario is presented and results on the achieved BER and throughput performance are given. The different transmission schemes used either channel state information at both sides of the link or at one side only (transmitter or receiver. Spectral efficiencies of more than 20 bits/s/Hz and a throughput of more than 150 Mbps were shown with a single-carrier transmission. The experimental results clearly show the feasibility of real-time high data rate MIMO techniques with state-of-the-art hardware and that more sophisticated baseband signal processing will be an essential part of future communication systems. A discussion on implementation challenges towards future wireless communication systems supporting higher data rates (1 Gbps and beyond or high mobility concludes the paper.

  1. Interacting with target tracking algorithms in a gaze-enhanced motion video analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Motion video analysis is a challenging task, particularly if real-time analysis is required. It is therefore an important issue how to provide suitable assistance for the human operator. Given that the use of customized video analysis systems is more and more established, one supporting measure is to provide system functions which perform subtasks of the analysis. Recent progress in the development of automated image exploitation algorithms allow, e.g., real-time moving target tracking. Another supporting measure is to provide a user interface which strives to reduce the perceptual, cognitive and motor load of the human operator for example by incorporating the operator's visual focus of attention. A gaze-enhanced user interface is able to help here. This work extends prior work on automated target recognition, segmentation, and tracking algorithms as well as about the benefits of a gaze-enhanced user interface for interaction with moving targets. We also propose a prototypical system design aiming to combine both the qualities of the human observer's perception and the automated algorithms in order to improve the overall performance of a real-time video analysis system. In this contribution, we address two novel issues analyzing gaze-based interaction with target tracking algorithms. The first issue extends the gaze-based triggering of a target tracking process, e.g., investigating how to best relaunch in the case of track loss. The second issue addresses the initialization of tracking algorithms without motion segmentation where the operator has to provide the system with the object's image region in order to start the tracking algorithm.

  2. A novel algorithm for finding optimal driver nodes to target control complex networks and its applications for drug targets identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Shi, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Cheng-Ming; Zeng, Tao; Chen, Luonan

    2018-01-19

    The advances in target control of complex networks not only can offer new insights into the general control dynamics of complex systems, but also be useful for the practical application in systems biology, such as discovering new therapeutic targets for disease intervention. In many cases, e.g. drug target identification in biological networks, we usually require a target control on a subset of nodes (i.e., disease-associated genes) with minimum cost, and we further expect that more driver nodes consistent with a certain well-selected network nodes (i.e., prior-known drug-target genes). Therefore, motivated by this fact, we pose and address a new and practical problem called as target control problem with objectives-guided optimization (TCO): how could we control the interested variables (or targets) of a system with the optional driver nodes by minimizing the total quantity of drivers and meantime maximizing the quantity of constrained nodes among those drivers. Here, we design an efficient algorithm (TCOA) to find the optional driver nodes for controlling targets in complex networks. We apply our TCOA to several real-world networks, and the results support that our TCOA can identify more precise driver nodes than the existing control-fucus approaches. Furthermore, we have applied TCOA to two bimolecular expert-curate networks. Source code for our TCOA is freely available from http://sysbio.sibcb.ac.cn/cb/chenlab/software.htm or https://github.com/WilfongGuo/guoweifeng . In the previous theoretical research for the full control, there exists an observation and conclusion that the driver nodes tend to be low-degree nodes. However, for target control the biological networks, we find interestingly that the driver nodes tend to be high-degree nodes, which is more consistent with the biological experimental observations. Furthermore, our results supply the novel insights into how we can efficiently target control a complex system, and especially many evidences on the

  3. Passive Target Tracking in Non-cooperative Radar System Based on Particle Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuo; TAO Ran

    2006-01-01

    We propose a target tracking method based on particle filtering(PF) to solve the nonlinear non-Gaussian target-tracking problem in the bistatic radar systems using external radiation sources. Traditional nonlinear state estimation method is extended Kalman filtering (EKF), which is to do the first level Taylor series extension. It will cause an inaccuracy or even a scatter estimation result on condition that there is either a highly nonlinear target or a large noise square-error. Besides, Kalman filtering is the optimal resolution under a Gaussian noise assumption, and is not suitable to the non-Gaussian condition. PF is a sort of statistic filtering based on Monte Carlo simulation that is using some random samples (particles) to simulate the posterior probability density of system random variables. This method can be used in any nonlinear random system. It can be concluded through simulation that PF can achieve higher accuracy than the traditional EKF.

  4. REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDELINES FOR NSLS EXPERIMENTAL BEAM LINE VACUUM SYSTEMS-REVISION B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOERSTER, C.

    1999-01-01

    Typical beam lines are comprised of an assembly of vacuum valves and shutters referred to as a ''front end'', optical elements to monochromatize, focus and split the photon beam, and an experimental area where a target sample is placed into the photon beam and data from the interaction is detected and recorded. Windows are used to separate sections of beam lines that are not compatible with storage ring ultra high vacuum. Some experimental beam lines share a common vacuum with storage rings. Sections of beam lines are only allowed to vent up to atmospheric pressure using pure nitrogen gas after a vacuum barrier is established to protect ring vacuum. The front end may only be bled up when there is no current in the machine. This is especially true on the VUV storage ring where for most experiments, windows are not used. For the shorter wavelength, more energetic photons of the x-ray ring, beryllium windows are used at various beam line locations so that the monochromator, mirror box or sample chamber may be used in a helium atmosphere or rough vacuum. The window separates ring vacuum from the environment of the downstream beam line components. The stored beam lifetime in the storage rings and the maintenance of desirable reflection properties of optical surfaces depend upon hydrocarbon-free, ultra-high vacuum systems. Storage ring vacuum systems will operate at pressures of ∼ 1 x 10 -10 Torr without beam and ∼ 1 x 10 -9 Torr with beam. Systems are free of hydrocarbons in the sense that no pumps, valves, etc. containing organics are used. Components are all-metal, chemically cleaned and bakeable. To the extent that beam lines share a common vacuum with the storage ring, the same criteria will hold for beam line components. The design philosophy for NSLS beam lines is to use all-metal, hydrocarbon-free front end components and recommend that experimenters use this approach for common vacuum hardware downstream of front ends. O-ring-sealed valves, if used, are not

  5. DNA repair systems as targets of cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Gatzidou, Elisavet; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and a potent carcinogen implicated in tumor development through occupational and environmental exposure. Recent evidence suggests that proteins participating in the DNA repair systems, especially in excision and mismatch repair, are sensitive targets of Cd toxicity. Cd by interfering and inhibiting these DNA repair processes might contribute to increased risk for tumor formation in humans. In the present review, the information available on the interference of Cd with DNA repair systems and their inhibition is summarized. These actions could possibly explain the indirect contribution of Cd to mutagenic effects and/or carcinogenicity

  6. Towards a comprehensive system of methodological considerations for cities' climate targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramers, Anna; Wangel, Josefin; Johansson, Stefan; Höjer, Mattias; Finnveden, Göran; Brandt, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Climate targets for cities abound. However, what these targets really imply is dependent on a number of decisions regarding system boundaries and methods of calculation. In order to understand and compare cities' climate targets, there is a need for a generic and comprehensive framework of key methodological considerations. This paper identifies eight key methodological considerations for the different choices that can be made when setting targets for GHG emissions in a city and arranges them in four categories: temporal scope of target, object for target setting, unit of target, and range of target. To explore how target setting is carried out in practice, the climate targets of eight European cities were analysed. The results showed that these targets cover only a limited part of what could be included. Moreover, the cities showed quite limited awareness of what is, or could be, include in the targets. This makes comparison and benchmarking between cities difficult. - Highlights: • Cities' climate targets are almost impossible to compare and benchmark. • There is a need for consistent protocols and frameworks supporting target setting. • A framework with key methodological considerations for cities' climate targets is identified. • The framework is used to explore the climate targets for eight European cities. • The difference between production- and consumption based accounting is illustrated in a new way

  7. Molecular Composition Analysis of Distant Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This document is the Final Report for NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I Grant 15-NIAC16A-0145, titled Molecular Composition Analysis of Distant Targets. The research was focused on developing a system concept for probing the molecular composition of cold solar system targets, such as Asteroids, Comets, Planets and Moons from a distant vantage, for example from a spacecraft that is orbiting the target (Hughes et al., 2015). The orbiting spacecraft is equipped with a high-power laser, which is run by electricity from photovoltaic panels. The laser is directed at a spot on the target. Materials on the surface of the target are heated by the laser beam, and begin to melt and then evaporate, forming a plume of asteroid molecules in front of the heated spot. The heated spot glows, producing blackbody illumination that is visible from the spacecraft, via a path through the evaporated plume. As the blackbody radiation from the heated spot passes through the plume of evaporated material, molecules in the plume absorb radiation in a manner that is specific to the rotational and vibrational characteristics of the specific molecules. A spectrometer aboard the spacecraft is used to observe absorption lines in the blackbody signal. The pattern of absorption can be used to estimate the molecular composition of materials in the plume, which originated on the target. Focusing on a single spot produces a borehole, and shallow subsurface profiling of the targets bulk composition is possible. At the beginning of the Phase I research, the estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the system was TRL-1. During the Phase I research, an end-to-end theoretical model of the sensor system was developed from first principles. The model includes laser energy and optical propagation, target heating, melting and evaporation of target material, plume density, thermal radiation from the heated spot, molecular cross section of likely asteroid materials, and estimation of the

  8. Magnetic chitosan nanoparticles as a drug delivery system for targeting photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yun; Chen Zhilong; Yang Xiaoxia; Huang Peng; Zhou Xinping; Du Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become an increasingly recognized alternative to cancer treatment in clinic. However, PDT therapy agents, namely photosensitizer (PS), are limited in application as a result of prolonged cutaneous photosensitivity, poor water solubility and inadequate selectivity, which are encountered by numerous chemical therapies. Magnetic chitosan nanoparticles provide excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity and water solubility without compromising their magnetic targeting. Nevertheless, no previous attempt has been reported to develop an in vivo magnetic drug delivery system with chitosan nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) monitored targeting photodynamic therapy. In this study, magnetic targeting chitosan nanoparticles (MTCNPs) were prepared and tailored as a drug delivery system and imaging agents for PS, designated as PHPP. Results showed that PHPP-MTCNPs could be used in MRI monitored targeting PDT with excellent targeting and imaging ability. Non-toxicity and high photodynamic efficacy on SW480 carcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo were achieved with this method at the level of 0-100 μM. Notably, localization of nanoparticles in skin and hepatic tissue was significantly less than in tumor tissue, therefore photosensitivity and hepatotoxicity can be attenuated.

  9. Magnetron co-sputtering system for coating ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, E.J.; Meyer, S.F.; Halsey, W.G.; Jameson, G.T.; Wittmayer, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    Fabrication of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets requires deposition of various types of coatings on microspheres. The mechanical strength, and surface finish of the coatings are of concern in ICF experiments. The tensile strength of coatings can be controlled through grain refinement, selective doping and alloy formation. We have constructed a magnetron co-sputtering system to produce variable density profile coatings with high tensile strength on microspheres

  10. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity while targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The principle strategy to improve cancer selectivity is to couple therapeutic agents to tumour-targeting vectors. In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), the cytotoxic portion of the conjugates normally contains a therapeutic radiometal immobilised by a bifunctional chelator. The aim is therefore to use as ligand-targeted therapeutics vectors coupled to Auger-, alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. An advantage of using radiation instead of chemotherapeutics as the cytotoxic agent is the so called 'crossfire effect'. This allows sterilisation of tumour cells that are not directly targeted due to heterogeneity in target molecule expression or inhomogeneous vector delivery. However, before the targeting ligands can be selected, the target molecule on the tumour has to be selected. It should be uniquely expressed, or at least highly overexpressed, on or in the target cells relative to normal tissues. The target should be easily accessible for ligand delivery and should not be shed or down- regulated after ligand binding. An important property of a receptor (or antigen) is its potential to be internalized upon binding of the ligand. This provides an active uptake mechanism and allows the therapeutic agent to be trapped within the tumour cells. Molecular targets of current interest include: Receptors: G-protein coupled receptors are overexpressed on many major human tumours. The prototype of these receptors are somatostatin receptors which show very high density in neuroendocrine tumours, but there are many other most interesting receptors to be applied for TRT. The targeting ligands for these receptors are

  11. Critical Path Driven Cosynthesis for Heterogeneous Target Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn-Jørgensen, Peter; Madsen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a critical path driven algorithm to produce a static schedule of a single-rate system onto a heterogeneous target architecture. Our algorithm is a list based scheduling algorithm which concurrently assigns tasks to processors and allocates nets to interprocessor communication........ Experimental results show that our algorithm is able to find good results, as compared to other methods, in small amount of CPU time....

  12. Polarization Calculation and Underwater Target Detection Inspired by Biological Visual Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In challenging underwater environments, the polarization parameter maps calculated by the Stokes model are characterized by the high noise and error, harassing the underwater target detection tasks. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel bionic polarization calculation and underwater target detection method by modeling the visual system of mantis shrimps. This system includes many operators including a polarization-opposition calculation, a factor optimization and a visual neural network model. A calibration learning method is proposed to search the optimal value of the factors in the linear subtraction model. Finally, a six-channel visual neural network model is proposed to detect the underwater targets. Experimental results proved that the maps produced by the polarization-opposition parameter is more accurate and have lower noise than that produced by the Stokes parameter, achieving better performance in underwater target detection tasks.

  13. Experimental systems of integrated and organic wheat production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives and significance of integrated and organic farming are briefly discussed. In wheat production, the cropping methods involved are then described and compared to those of a conventional system. Initial results from an experimental farm at Nagele, The Netherlands, indicate that by an

  14. False targets vs. redundancy in homogeneous parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    System defense against natural threats and disasters that have a stochastic nature includes providing redundancy and protecting system elements. The defense against strategic intentional attacks can also include deploying false targets aimed at misleading the attacker. Distribution of the available resources among different defensive means is an important problem that arises in organizing the defense of complex civil infrastructures, industrial systems or military objects. The article considers defense resource allocation in a system exposed to external intentional attack. The expected damage caused by the attack is evaluated as system unsupplied demand. The defender distributes its limited resource between deploying redundant genuine elements and false elements, both of which are targets of attack. The attacker attacks a subset of the elements and distributes its limited resource evenly among the attacked elements. Two cases are considered: in the first one the number of attacked elements and the vulnerability of each genuine element are fixed and the defense resource distribution is determined as a solution of an optimization problem; in the second one the number of attacked elements is the attacker's free choice variable and the element's vulnerability depends on a contest determined by the defender's and attacker's resources allocated to each element. The defender's optimal resource distribution strategy is determined as a solution of a two-period minmax game. It is shown that the optimal number of genuine elements decreases monotonically with the growth of the element cost and vulnerability, whereas the optimal number of false elements demonstrates non-monotonic behavior. The contest intensity is an important factor influencing the optimal defense resource distribution. It cannot be ignored when the defense strategy is determined, and it thus also impacts the attack strategy

  15. SU-F-T-211: Evaluation of a Dual Focusing Magnet System for the Treatment of Small Proton Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, TT; McAuley, GA; Heczko, S; Slater, J [Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Wroe, A [Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate magnetic focusing for small volume proton targets using a doublet combination of quadrupole rare earth permanent magnet Halbach cylinder assemblies Methods: Monte Carlo computer simulations were performed using the Geant4 toolkit to compare dose depositions of proton beams transported through two focusing magnets or in their absence. Proton beams with energies of 127 MeV and initial diameters of 5, 8 and 10 mm were delivered through two identical focusing magnets similar to those currently in experimental use at Loma Linda University Medical Center. Analogous experiments used optimized configurations based on the simulation results. Dose was measured by a diode detector and Gafchromic EBT3 film and compared to simulation data. Based on results from the experimental data, an additional set of simulations was performed with an initial beam diameter of 18 mm and a two differing length magnets (40mm & 68mm). Results: Experimental data matched well with Monte Carlo simulations. However, under conditions necessary to produce circular beam spots at target depth, magnetically focused beams using two identical 40 mm length magnets did not meet all of our performance criteria of circular beam spots, improved peak to entrance (P/E) dose ratios and dose delivery efficiencies. The simulations using the longer 68 mm 2nd magnet yielded better results with 34% better P/E dose ratio and 20–50% better dose delivery efficiencies when compared to unfocused 10 mm beams. Conclusion: While magnetic focusing using two magnets with identical focusing power did not yield desired results, ongoing Monte Carlo simulations suggest that increasing the length of the 2nd magnet to 68 mm could improve P/E dose ratios and dose efficiencies. Future work includes additional experimental validation of the longer 2nd magnet setup as well as experiments with triplet magnet systems. This project was sponsored with funding from the Department of Defense (DOD# W81XWH-BAA-10-1).

  16. Maintenance Effectiveness and Target Observation System and its ERP Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon, Han Seong; Kim, Gi Yong; Seo, Mi Ro; Jeong, Hun Jong; Choi, Kwang Hee; Hong, Sung Yull

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance effectiveness and target observation system (MENTOS) is a maintenance rule (MR) implementation software for plant personnel to collect, edit, store, and analyze all information required for the MR implementation. Potential users and the developers of MENTOS have decided that MENTOS is implemented in the ERP system of KHNP. This article describes MENTOS briefly and introduces the ERP interface of MENTOS

  17. Upgrade of general control system employed for Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility of J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Akihiko; Sakai, Kenji; Ooi, Motoki; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Takada, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    The General Control System (GCS) of the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) of J-PARC controls various devices of a pulsed spallation neutron source and a muon target which are driven by proton beams with energy of 3 GeV and a power of 1 MW, neutron instruments of 23 neutron beam lines and muon instruments of 4 secondary muon beam lines under a network of the control system of accelerators. The current GCS has performed its function as designed since operating MLF was started in 2008. However, it has a weakness that it costs very much in the maintenance because of its poor flexibility on Operating System (OS) and software versions. For example, all computers composed of the GCS must be replaced when the OS is upgraded. For improving the potential flexibility of the GCS in maintenance in view of sustainable long-term operation, therefore, we have re-examined the framework software and those employed for individual functions of GCS under the condition of current functions so as to control all local control panels by plural exclusive PCs, and acquire, store and distribute operation data over 7000 items in the suitable data format. Furthermore, we have made a prototype of an upgraded GCS and evaluated its concrete performances with true data/information such as data transmission speed from PLCs, control functions from operating windows, storage capability of data server and long-term stability/reliability of the system. In conclusion, we decided to adopt following softwares for the upgraded GCS: Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) as framework software, Takebishi-made OPC server as data input/output module, Control System Studio (CSS) as user interface window and PostgreSQL as the data storage server. (author)

  18. Physics of subcritical multiplying regions and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.

    1996-01-01

    The coupling of a particle accelerator with a spallation target and with a subcritical multiplying region has been proposed in the fifties and is called here a hybrid system. This article gives some ideas about the energetic balance of such a system. The possibilities of experimental validation of some properties of a subcritical multiplying region by using MASURCA facility at CEA-Cadarache are examined. The results of a preliminary experiment called MUSE are presented. (A.C.)

  19. Personality trait inferences of Turkish immigrant and neutral targets: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, Gro M; Bye, Hege H; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-12-01

    The study investigated whether personality traits attributed to immigrant targets differ from personality inferences made for a neutral target, and whether trait attributions differ for assimilated and integrated immigrant targets. Participants (n = 340) were randomized to one of three conditions in which they read the same story about a person, but where the person was described as either: (a) an assimilated Turkish immigrant; (b) an integrated Turkish immigrant; or (c) neutral (no nationality or religious practice indicated). Subsequently, they rated the personality of the described person on the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (observer rating version) and completed the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (Impression Management scale) with reference to themselves. Both immigrant targets were rated as significantly higher on extraversion and lower on neuroticism than the neutral target. The integrated target was rated as more open than the neutral target, and as higher than the assimilated target on neuroticism when controlling for impression management. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  20. The skeletal endocannabinoid system: clinical and experimental insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Bitya; Gabet, Yankel

    2016-05-01

    Recently, there has been a rapidly growing interest in the role of cannabinoids in the regulation of skeletal remodeling and bone mass, addressed in basic, translational and clinical research. Since the first publications in 2005, there are more than 1000 publications addressing the skeletal endocannabinoid system. This review focuses on the roles of the endocannabinoid system in skeletal biology via the cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2 and others. Endocannabinoids play important roles in bone formation, bone resorption and skeletal growth, and are sometimes age, gender, species and strain dependent. Controversies in the literature and potential therapeutic approaches targeting the endocannabinoid system in skeletal disorders are also discussed.

  1. Online Energy Management Systems for Microgrids: Experimental Validation and Assessment Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Meng, Lexuan; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz

    2018-01-01

    operating costs and load disconnections. The whole energy management system has been tested experimentally in a test bench under both grid-connected and islanded mode. Also, its performance has been proved considering severe mismatches in forecast generation and load. Several experimental results have...

  2. Simulation and experimental study of a solar heat pump desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawlader, M.N.A.; Tjandra, Tobias Bestari [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National Univ. of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-07-01

    With the rising price of oil and gas, the energy cost of desalination process increases significantly. Also, the consumption of fuel to provide thermal and electrical energy in a desalination process will pollute the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to find a new source of energy which is clean and renewable. Solar energy fulfills this challenge to a great extent. An experimental rig was constructed in order to investigate the use of solar energy in desalination. A series of experiments were performed under the meteorological conditions of Singapore. A simulation study was then performed for the system, and comparisons of the predicted and experimental results showed good agreement. The experimental system is capable of producing 1 liter of water per hour. The system has a coefficient of performance that varies from 5 to 9, and a performance ratio of 0.6 to 1.38. (orig.)

  3. Directions for reactor target design based on the US heavy ion fusion systems assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.; Dudziak, D.; Magelssen, G.; Zuckerman, D.; Dreimeyer, D.

    1986-01-01

    We studied areas of major uncertainty in target design using the cost of electricity as our figure of merit. Net electric power from the plant was fixed at 1000 MW to eliminate large effects due to economies of scale. The system is relatively insensitive to target gain. Factors of three changes in gain cause only 8 to 12% changes in electricity cost. An increase in the peak power needed to drive targets poses only a small cost risk, but requires many more beamlets be transported to the target. A shortening of the required ion range causes both cost and beamlet difficulties. A factor of 4 decrease in the required range at a fixed driver energy increases electricity cost by 44% and raises the number of beamlets to 240. Finally, the heavy ion fusion system can accommodate large increases in target costs. To address the major uncertainties, target design should concentrate on the understanding requirements for ion range and peak driver power

  4. Real-time Non-linear Target Tracking Control of Wheeled Mobile Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wenyong

    2006-01-01

    A control strategy for real-time target tracking for wheeled mobile robots is presented. Using a modified Kalman filter for environment perception, a novel tracking control law derived from Lyapunov stability theory is introduced. Tuning of linear velocity and angular velocity with mechanical constraints is applied. The proposed control system can simultaneously solve the target trajectory prediction, real-time tracking, and posture regulation problems of a wheeled mobile robot. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking control laws.

  5. Toward a Cooperative Experimental System Development Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kyng, Morten; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1997-01-01

    This chapter represents a step towards the establishment of a new system development approach, called Cooperative Experimental System Development (CESD). CESD seeks to overcome a number of limitations in existing approaches: specification oriented methods usually assume that system design can...... be based solely on observation and detached reflection; prototyping methods often have a narrow focus on the technical construction of various kinds of prototypes; Participatory Design techniques—including the Scandinavian Cooperative Design (CD) approaches—seldom go beyond the early analysis....../design activities of development projects. In contrast, the CESD approach is characterized by its focus on: active user involvement throughout the entire development process; prototyping experiments closely coupled to work-situations and use-scenarios; transforming results from early cooperative analysis...

  6. Experimentally studied dynamic dose interplay does not meaningfully affect target dose in VMAT SBRT lung treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stambaugh, Cassandra [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Nelms, Benjamin E. [Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Dilling, Thomas; Stevens, Craig; Latifi, Kujtim; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo; Feygelman, Vladimir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: The effects of respiratory motion on the tumor dose can be divided into the gradient and interplay effects. While the interplay effect is likely to average out over a large number of fractions, it may play a role in hypofractionated [stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT)] treatments. This subject has been extensively studied for intensity modulated radiation therapy but less so for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), particularly in application to hypofractionated regimens. Also, no experimental study has provided full four-dimensional (4D) dose reconstruction in this scenario. The authors demonstrate how a recently described motion perturbation method, with full 4D dose reconstruction, is applied to describe the gradient and interplay effects during VMAT lung SBRT treatments.Methods: VMAT dose delivered to a moving target in a patient can be reconstructed by applying perturbations to the treatment planning system-calculated static 3D dose. Ten SBRT patients treated with 6 MV VMAT beams in five fractions were selected. The target motion (motion kernel) was approximated by 3D rigid body translation, with the tumor centroids defined on the ten phases of the 4DCT. The motion was assumed to be periodic, with the period T being an average from the empirical 4DCT respiratory trace. The real observed tumor motion (total displacement ≤8 mm) was evaluated first. Then, the motion range was artificially increased to 2 or 3 cm. Finally, T was increased to 60 s. While not realistic, making T comparable to the delivery time elucidates if the interplay effect can be observed. For a single fraction, the authors quantified the interplay effect as the maximum difference in the target dosimetric indices, most importantly the near-minimum dose (D{sub 99%}), between all possible starting phases. For the three- and five-fractions, statistical simulations were performed when substantial interplay was found.Results: For the motion amplitudes and periods obtained from

  7. High heat flux tests of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X pre-series target elements - experimental evaluation of the thermo-mechanical behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H.; Boeswirth, B.; Boscary, J.; Plankensteiner, A.; Schedler, B.

    2006-01-01

    The HHF testing of WENDELSTEIN 7-X pre-series target elements is an indispensable step in the qualification of the manufacturing process. The finally 890 divertor target elements are made of an actively water-cooled CuCrZr heat sink covered with flat tiles of CFC NB31 as plasma facing material. A set of 20 full scale pre-series elements was manufactured by PLANSEE to validate the materials and manufacturing technologies prior to the start of the series production. Due to the large mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion for CFC and CuCrZr - resulting in high residual stresses as well as high operation-induced stresses - the bonding zone between CFC and CuCrZr was detected to be the most critical issue for the operational behaviour of the target elements. To achieve a sufficiently high manufacturing quality together with a high lifetime during operation thermal testing of full scale mockups was performed in combination with extensive FEM analyses. In both cases heat loads were applied similar to the expected heat loads in W7-X. All pre-series elements were tested in the ion beam test facility GLADIS. The elements were tested with 100 cycles of 10 MW/m 2 and several elements with even higher cycle numbers and heat loads up to 24 MW/m 2 . The instrumentation of the targets (thermocouples, strain gages) and the infrared camera observation of the heat loaded surface allow an experimental evaluation of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the tested elements. The main result is a good agreement between experimental data and numerically computed predictions. Hot spots were, however, observed at the edges of several tiles during the HHF tests indicating local bonding problems. Therefore, a programme of fully 3D nonlinear thermal-mechanical FEM calculations was started to evaluate the thermo-mechanical behavior of the target elements with special focus on the optimization of the stress situation in the bonding zone between the CFC and the CuCrZr heat sink. This

  8. Environmental Management System Objectives & Targets Results Summary - FY 2015.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, Douglas W

    2016-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL's operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established Sandia Corporation and SNL Site-specific objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY 2015.

  9. Enhancement of the efficiency of magnetic targeting for drug delivery: Development and evaluation of magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Quanliang; Han Xiaotao; Li Liang

    2011-01-01

    Deep magnetic capture and clinical application are the current trends for magnetic targeted drug delivery system. More promising and possible strategies are needed to overcome the current limitations and further improve the magnetic targeting technique. Recent advances in the development of targeting magnet system show promise in progressing this technology from the laboratory to the clinic. Starting from well-known basic concepts, current limitations of magnetic targeted drug delivery system are analyzed. Meanwhile, the design concepts and evaluations of some effective improvements in magnet system are discussed and reviewed with reference to (i) reasonable design of magnet system; (ii) control modes of magnet system used to generate dynamical magnetic fields; and (iii) magnetic field driving types. - Research Highlights: → The current limitations of MTDDS for deep capture and clinical application are analyzed. → The development of magnet system shows promise in progressing MTDDS to clinical application. → The design concepts and evaluations of improvements in magnet system are reviewed and discussed. → The key to improve magnet system lies in controllable magnets and different excitations.

  10. Experimental Study of an SWH System with V-Shaped Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaluddin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is known as an environmentally friendly energy source with a wide range of applications. This energy can be utilized in various applications such as domestic and industrial water heating using solar water heating (SWH systems. The thermal performance of an SWH system using a V-shaped absorber plate is presented in this study. Two SWH systems with different absorber plates, i.e. a flat-plate and a V-shaped plate, have been investigated experimentally. First, the absorptivity of the absorber plates was calculated analytically. The optimum V-shaped configuration with angle at β = 21° (V-shaped dimensions t = 4 cm and l = 4 cm was determined from various V-shaped plate absorbers based on their absorptivity and applied in the experimental study. Two SWH systems were installed and tested at a low flowrate of 0.5 L/min and at a high flowrate of 2 L/min. The results showed that the SWH system with V-shaped plate absorber had a 3.6-4.4% better performance compared with that of the system with flat-plate absorber.

  11. An Experimental Metagenome Data Management and AnalysisSystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowitz, Victor M.; Korzeniewski, Frank; Palaniappan, Krishna; Szeto, Ernest; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2006-03-01

    The application of shotgun sequencing to environmental samples has revealed a new universe of microbial community genomes (metagenomes) involving previously uncultured organisms. Metagenome analysis, which is expected to provide a comprehensive picture of the gene functions and metabolic capacity of microbial community, needs to be conducted in the context of a comprehensive data management and analysis system. We present in this paper IMG/M, an experimental metagenome data management and analysis system that is based on the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system. IMG/M provides tools and viewers for analyzing both metagenomes and isolate genomes individually or in a comparative context.

  12. Liquid helium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.; Kitami, T.; Torikoshi, M.

    1984-12-01

    A liquid helium target system has been built and used for the experiment on the reaction 4 He(γ, p). The target system has worked satisfactorily; the consumption rate of liquid helium is 360 ml/h and the cryogenic system retains liquid helium for about ten hours. The structure, operation and performance of the target system are reported. (author)

  13. Parameter and state estimation of experimental chaotic systems using synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, John C.; Bryant, Paul H.; Creveling, Daniel R.; Klein, Sallee R.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2009-07-01

    We examine the use of synchronization as a mechanism for extracting parameter and state information from experimental systems. We focus on important aspects of this problem that have received little attention previously and we explore them using experiments and simulations with the chaotic Colpitts oscillator as an example system. We explore the impact of model imperfection on the ability to extract valid information from an experimental system. We compare two optimization methods: an initial value method and a constrained method. Each of these involves coupling the model equations to the experimental data in order to regularize the chaotic motions on the synchronization manifold. We explore both time-dependent and time-independent coupling and discuss the use of periodic impulse coupling. We also examine both optimized and fixed (or manually adjusted) coupling. For the case of an optimized time-dependent coupling function u(t) we find a robust structure which includes sharp peaks and intervals where it is zero. This structure shows a strong correlation with the location in phase space and appears to depend on noise, imperfections of the model, and the Lyapunov direction vectors. For time-independent coupling we find the counterintuitive result that often the optimal rms error in fitting the model to the data initially increases with coupling strength. Comparison of this result with that obtained using simulated data may provide one measure of model imperfection. The constrained method with time-dependent coupling appears to have benefits in synchronizing long data sets with minimal impact, while the initial value method with time-independent coupling tends to be substantially faster, more flexible, and easier to use. We also describe a method of coupling which is useful for sparse experimental data sets. Our use of the Colpitts oscillator allows us to explore in detail the case of a system with one positive Lyapunov exponent. The methods we explored are easily

  14. An experimental system for coiled tubing partial underbalanced drilling (CT-PUBD) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H. Z.; Ji, Z. S.; Zhao, H. Q.; Chen, Z. L.; Zhang, H. Z.

    2018-05-01

    To improve the rate of penetration (ROP) in hard formations, a new high-speed drilling technique called Coiled Tubing Partial Underbalanced Drilling (CT-PUBD) is proposed. This method uses a rotary packer to realize an underbalanced condition near the bit by creating a micro-annulus and an overbalanced condition at the main part of the annulus. A new full-scale laboratory experimental system is designed and set up to study the hydraulic characteristics and drilling performance of this method. The system is composed of a drilling system, circulation system, and monitor system, including three key devices, namely, cuttings discharge device, rotary packer, and backflow device. The experimental results showed that the pressure loss increased linearly with the flow rate of the drilling fluid. The high drilling speed of CT-PUBD proved it a better drilling method than the conventional drilling. The experimental system may provide a fundamental basis for the research of CT-PUBD, and the results proved that this new method is feasible in enhancing ROP and guaranteeing the drilling safety.

  15. Experimental non-classicality of an indivisible quantum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapkiewicz, Radek; Li, Peizhe; Schaeff, Christoph; Langford, Nathan K; Ramelow, Sven; Wieśniak, Marcin; Zeilinger, Anton

    2011-06-22

    In contrast to classical physics, quantum theory demands that not all properties can be simultaneously well defined; the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is a manifestation of this fact. Alternatives have been explored--notably theories relying on joint probability distributions or non-contextual hidden-variable models, in which the properties of a system are defined independently of their own measurement and any other measurements that are made. Various deep theoretical results imply that such theories are in conflict with quantum mechanics. Simpler cases demonstrating this conflict have been found and tested experimentally with pairs of quantum bits (qubits). Recently, an inequality satisfied by non-contextual hidden-variable models and violated by quantum mechanics for all states of two qubits was introduced and tested experimentally. A single three-state system (a qutrit) is the simplest system in which such a contradiction is possible; moreover, the contradiction cannot result from entanglement between subsystems, because such a three-state system is indivisible. Here we report an experiment with single photonic qutrits which provides evidence that no joint probability distribution describing the outcomes of all possible measurements--and, therefore, no non-contextual theory--can exist. Specifically, we observe a violation of the Bell-type inequality found by Klyachko, Can, Binicioğlu and Shumovsky. Our results illustrate a deep incompatibility between quantum mechanics and classical physics that cannot in any way result from entanglement.

  16. Experimental study on the penetration effect of ceramics composite projectile on ceramic / A3 steel compound targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di-qi Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the penetration of projectiles into ceramic composite armors, the nose of 30 mm standard projectile was replaced by a toughened ceramic nose, and the performance of ceramic-nose projectiles penetrating into ceramic/A3 steel composite targets has been experimentally researched. According to impact dynamics theory,, the performances of 30 mm ceramic-nose projectile and 30 mm standard projectile penetrating into the ceramic/A3 steel composite targets were analyzed and compared using DOP method, especially focusing on the effects made by different nose structures and materials. The aperture and depth of perforation of projectile into the armor plates as well as the residual mass of bullet core under the same conditions were comparatively analyzed. A numerical simulation was built and computed by ANSYS/LS-DYNA. Based on the simulated results, the penetration performance was further analyzed in terms of the residual mass of bullet core. The results show that the ceramic nose has a great effect on the protection of bullet core.

  17. Designing and modeling a centrifugal microfluidic device to separate target blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Selahi, AmirAli; Madadelahi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design a novel and efficient portable lab-on-a-CD (LOCD) microfluidic device for separation of specific cells (target cells) using magnetic beads. In this study the results are shown for neutrophils as target cells. However, other kinds of target cells can be separated in a similar approach. The designed microfluidics can be utilized as a point of care system for neutrophil detection. This microfluidic system employs centrifugal and magnetic forces for separation. After model validation by the experimental data in the literature (that may be used as a design tool for developing centrifugo-magnetophoretic devices), two models are presented for separation of target cells using magnetic beads. The first model consists of one container in the inlet section and two containers in the outlets. Initially, the inlet container is filled with diluted blood sample which is a mixture of red blood cells (RBCs) plus neutrophils which are attached to Magnetic beads. It is shown that by using centrifugal and magnetic forces, this model can separate all neutrophils with recovery factor of ∼100%. In the second model, due to excess of magnetic beads in usual experimental analysis (to ensure that all target cells are attached to them) the geometry is improved by adding a third outlet for these free magnetic beads. It is shown that at angular velocity of 45 rad s −1 , recovery factor of 100% is achievable for RBCs, free magnetic beads and neutrophils as target cells. (paper)

  18. Targeted Mutagenesis in Rice Using TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masaki; Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Toki, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs), such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (Cas9) system, are powerful tools for understanding gene function and for developing novel traits in plants. In plant species for which transformation and regeneration systems using protoplasts are not yet established, direct delivery to nuclei of SSNs either in the form of RNA or protein is difficult. Thus, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of SSN expression constructs in cultured cells is a practical means of delivering targeted mutagenesis in some plant species including rice. Because targeted mutagenesis occurs stochastically in transgenic cells and SSN-mediated targeted mutagenesis often leads to no selectable phenotype, identification of highly mutated cell lines is a critical step in obtaining regenerated plants with desired mutations.

  19. Quality Assurance of Ultrasound Imaging Systems for Target Localization and Online Setup Corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, Wolfgang A.; Orton, Nigel P.

    2008-01-01

    We describe quality assurance paradigms for ultrasound imaging systems for target localization (UISTL). To determine the absolute localization accuracy of a UISTL, an absolute coordinate system can be established in the treatment room and spherical targets at various depths can be localized. To test the ability of such a system to determine the magnitude of internal organ motion, a phantom that mimics the human male pelvic anatomy can be used to simulate different organ motion ranges. To assess the interuser variability of ultrasound (US) guidance, different experienced users can independently determine the daily organ shifts for the same patients for a number of consecutive fractions. The average accuracy for a UISTL for the localization of spherical targets at various depths has been found to be 0.57 ± 0.47 mm in each spatial dimension for various focal depths. For the phantom organ motion test it was found that the true organ motion could be determined to within 1.0 mm along each axis. The variability between different experienced users who localized the same 5 patients for five consecutive fractions was small in comparison to the indicated shifts. In addition to the quality assurance tests that address the ability of a UISTL to accurately localize a target, a thorough quality assurance program should also incorporate the following two aspects to ensure consistent and accurate localization in daily clinical use: (1) adequate training and performance monitoring of users of the US target localization system, and (2) prescreening of patients who may not be good candidates for US localization

  20. CRISPRpred: A flexible and efficient tool for sgRNAs on-target activity prediction in CRISPR/Cas9 systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Khaledur Rahman

    Full Text Available The CRISPR/Cas9-sgRNA system has recently become a popular tool for genome editing and a very hot topic in the field of medical research. In this system, Cas9 protein is directed to a desired location for gene engineering and cleaves target DNA sequence which is complementary to a 20-nucleotide guide sequence found within the sgRNA. A lot of experimental efforts, ranging from in vivo selection to in silico modeling, have been made for efficient designing of sgRNAs in CRISPR/Cas9 system. In this article, we present a novel tool, called CRISPRpred, for efficient in silico prediction of sgRNAs on-target activity which is based on the applications of Support Vector Machine (SVM model. To conduct experiments, we have used a benchmark dataset of 17 genes and 5310 guide sequences where there are only 20% true values. CRISPRpred achieves Area Under Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (AUROC-Curve, Area Under Precision Recall Curve (AUPR-Curve and maximum Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC as 0.85, 0.56 and 0.48, respectively. Our tool shows approximately 5% improvement in AUPR-Curve and after analyzing all evaluation metrics, we find that CRISPRpred is better than the current state-of-the-art. CRISPRpred is enough flexible to extract relevant features and use them in a learning algorithm. The source code of our entire software with relevant dataset can be found in the following link: https://github.com/khaled-buet/CRISPRpred.

  1. An experimental study of the correlates and consequences of perceiving oneself to be the target of gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S; Chu, Hui

    2010-10-01

    An experimental methodology was used to test hypotheses concerning the effects of contextual, cognitive-developmental, and individual difference factors on children's views of whether they have been the target of gender discrimination and the possible consequent effect of such views on two forms of state self-esteem: performance and social acceptance. Children (N=108, 5-11 years of age) completed theory of mind and gender attitude measures and a drawing task. Next, children received feedback that was designed to appear either gender biased (discrimination condition) or nonbiased (control condition). Children's attributions for the feedback and state self-esteem were assessed. As expected, children reported having been the target of gender discrimination more often in the discrimination condition than in the control condition. Older and more cognitively advanced children made fewer attributions to discrimination than their peers. Perceptions of discrimination were associated with higher performance state self-esteem and, among egalitarian children, lower social state self-esteem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Implementation Of Vision-Based Landing Target Detection For VTOL UAV Using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei Ei Nyein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents development and implementation of a real-time vision-based landing system for VTOL UAV. We use vision for precise target detection and recognition. A UAV is equipped with the onboard raspberry pi camera to take images and raspberry pi platform to operate the image processing techniques. Today image processing is used for various applications in this paper it is used for landing target extraction. And vision system is also used for take-off and landing function in VTOL UAV. Our landing target design is used as the helipad H shape. Firstly the image is captured to detect the target by the onboard camera. Next the capture image is operated in the onboard processor. Finally the alert sound signal is sent to the remote control RC for landing VTOL UAV. The information obtained from vision system is used to navigate a safe landing. The experimental results from real tests are presented.

  3. Experimental research control software system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, I A; Kovalenko, A G; Vystavkin, A N

    2014-01-01

    A software system, intended for automation of a small scale research, has been developed. The software allows one to control equipment, acquire and process data by means of simple scripts. The main purpose of that development is to increase experiment automation easiness, thus significantly reducing experimental setup automation efforts. In particular, minimal programming skills are required and supervisors have no reviewing troubles. Interactions between scripts and equipment are managed automatically, thus allowing to run multiple scripts simultaneously. Unlike well-known data acquisition commercial software systems, the control is performed by an imperative scripting language. This approach eases complex control and data acquisition algorithms implementation. A modular interface library performs interaction with external interfaces. While most widely used interfaces are already implemented, a simple framework is developed for fast implementations of new software and hardware interfaces. While the software is in continuous development with new features being implemented, it is already used in our laboratory for automation of a helium-3 cryostat control and data acquisition. The software is open source and distributed under Gnu Public License.

  4. Experimental research control software system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, I. A.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Vystavkin, A. N.

    2014-05-01

    A software system, intended for automation of a small scale research, has been developed. The software allows one to control equipment, acquire and process data by means of simple scripts. The main purpose of that development is to increase experiment automation easiness, thus significantly reducing experimental setup automation efforts. In particular, minimal programming skills are required and supervisors have no reviewing troubles. Interactions between scripts and equipment are managed automatically, thus allowing to run multiple scripts simultaneously. Unlike well-known data acquisition commercial software systems, the control is performed by an imperative scripting language. This approach eases complex control and data acquisition algorithms implementation. A modular interface library performs interaction with external interfaces. While most widely used interfaces are already implemented, a simple framework is developed for fast implementations of new software and hardware interfaces. While the software is in continuous development with new features being implemented, it is already used in our laboratory for automation of a helium-3 cryostat control and data acquisition. The software is open source and distributed under Gnu Public License.

  5. An experimental and theoretical model of children’s search behavior in relation to target conspicuity and spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosetti, Marcos Francisco; Pacheco-Cobos, Luis; Larralde, Hernán; Hudson, Robyn

    2010-11-01

    This work explores search trajectories of children attempting to find targets distributed on a playing field. This task, of ludic nature, was developed to test the effect of conspicuity and spatial distribution of targets on the searcher’s performance. The searcher’s path was recorded by a Global Positioning System (GPS) device attached to the child’s waist. Participants were not rewarded nor their performance rated. Variation in the conspicuity of the targets influenced search performance as expected; cryptic targets resulted in slower searches and longer, more tortuous paths. Extracting the main features of the paths showed that the children: (1) paid little attention to the spatial distribution and at least in the conspicuous condition approximately followed a nearest neighbor pattern of target collection, (2) were strongly influenced by the conspicuity of the targets. We implemented a simple statistical model for the search rules mimicking the children’s behavior at the level of individual (coarsened) steps. The model reproduced the main features of the children’s paths without the participation of memory or planning.

  6. Developing plan and pre-conceptual design of target system for JAERI`s high intensity neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Ryutaro; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Ishikura, Syuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nakamura, Fumito; Uchida, Shoji

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents an outline of developing plan of a target system and topics obtained by a pre-conceptual design, which aims to establish a technology base of the target system and to make clear a system concept. In the plan, two types of target - solid and mercury targets - are to be developed for a neutron scattering facility. Information obtained through the development shall be applied to designs of an irradiation and a transmutation facilities. Through the pre-conceptual design, system arrangement, scale etc. were made clear: total weight will be 12000 ton, and 26 beam lines with beam shutters will be equipped for 4 moderators. Engineering problems were also made clear through the design; high flux heat removal, dynamic stress caused by thermal shock and pressure wave, loop technology for the mercury target and a slurry moderator consisting of methane pellets and liquefied hydrogen. We are now constructing new test apparatuses and arranging computer codes for solving these problems. (author)

  7. An Analytic Model for the Success Rate of a Robotic Actuator System in Hitting Random Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Stuart

    2015-11-20

    Autonomous robotic systems are increasingly being used in a wide range of applications such as precision agriculture, medicine, and the military. These systems have common features which often includes an action by an "actuator" interacting with a target. While simulations and measurements exist for the success rate of hitting targets by some systems, there is a dearth of analytic models which can give insight into, and guidance on optimization, of new robotic systems. The present paper develops a simple model for estimation of the success rate for hitting random targets from a moving platform. The model has two main dimensionless parameters: the ratio of actuator spacing to target diameter; and the ratio of platform distance moved (between actuator "firings") to the target diameter. It is found that regions of parameter space having specified high success are described by simple equations, providing guidance on design. The role of a "cost function" is introduced which, when minimized, provides optimization of design, operating, and risk mitigation costs.

  8. [The research on a pocket microcontroller system for target controlled infusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Ke; Zhang, Xin-An; Zhang, Yan-Wu; Wu, Qun-Ling; Dou, Jian-Hong; Wang, Rou-Shong

    2005-05-01

    This paper present a microcontroller system for target controlled infusion according to pharmacodynamic parameters of intravenous anesthetics. It can control the depth of anesthesia by adjusting the level of plasma concentrations. The system has the advantages of high precision, extended function and easy operation. It has been now used in the clinical anesthesia.

  9. Multi-target consensus circle pursuit for multi-agent systems via a distributed multi-flocking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Huiqin; Chen, Shiming; Lai, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the multi-target consensus pursuit problem of multi-agent systems. For solving the problem, a distributed multi-flocking method is designed based on the partial information exchange, which is employed to realise the pursuit of multi-target and the uniform distribution of the number of pursuing agents with the dynamic target. Combining with the proposed circle formation control strategy, agents can adaptively choose the target to form the different circle formation groups accomplishing a multi-target pursuit. The speed state of pursuing agents in each group converges to the same value. A Lyapunov approach is utilised to analyse the stability of multi-agent systems. In addition, a sufficient condition is given for achieving the dynamic target consensus pursuit, and which is then analysed. Finally, simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  10. Structured cylindrical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of experimental concepts using high-energy heavy-ion beams in cylindrical targets have been studied through numerical simulation. With an accelerator planned for GSl, plasma temperatures of 100 eV can be reached by cylindrical compression, using inhomogeneous hollow-shell targets. Magnetic insulation, using external fields, has been explored as an aid in reaching high core temperatures. Experiments on collision-pumped x-ray laser physics are also discussed. (ii) Two-dimensional PlC code simulations of homogeneous solid targets show hydrodynamic effects not found in previous 1-D calculations. (iii) Preliminary ideas for an experiment on non-equilibrium heavy-ion charge-states using an existing accelerator and a pre-formed plasma target are outlined. (author)

  11. Structured cylindrical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.; Lackner-Russo, D.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Hoffmann, I.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of experimental concepts using high-energy heavy-ion beams in cylindrical targets have been studied through numerical simulation. With an accelerator planned for GSl, plasma temperatures of 100 eV can be reached by cylindrical compression, using inhomogenous hollow-shell targets. Magnetic insulation, using external fields, has been explored as an aid in reaching high core temperatures. Experiments on collision-pumped x-ray laser physics are also discussed. (ii) Two-dimensional PlC code simulations of homogeneous solid targets show hydrodynamic effects not found in previous l-D calculations. (iii) Preliminary ideas for an experiment on non-equilibrium heavy-ion charge-states using an existing accelerator and a pre-formed plasma target are outlined. (author)

  12. Design of a control system for HIRFL-CSRe internal target facility in Lanzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanyu; Liu Wufeng; Shao Caojie; Lin Feiyu; Zhang Jianchuan; Xiao Wenjun

    2010-01-01

    It is described in this paper the design of the control system for HIRFL-CSRe internal target facility, in which there are many different kinds of units need to be monitored and controlled. The control system is composed of several subsystems which are designed to control the gas-jet temperature, chamber vacuum, valves and molecular pumps. A human-computer interaction interface is also realized to do the data acquisition, data processing and display. The whole system has been working stably and safely, it fully meets the requirements of physical experiments in the internal target facility. In January of 2010, the first physics experiment of the radioactive electron capture was finished successfully with the aids of this control system. (authors)

  13. miR-539-5p inhibits experimental choroidal neovascularization by targeting CXCR7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yifan; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Xi; Shen, Minqian; Yuan, Fei

    2018-03-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) has been previously confirmed to participate in the formation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) via its receptor, CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4; CXCR7 is a recently identified receptor for SDF-1. The molecular mechanisms and therapeutic value of CXCR7 in CNV remain undefined. In this study, experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown-Norway pigmented rats, and aberrant CXCR7 overexpression was detected in the retinal pigment epithelial/choroid/sclera tissues of laser-injured eyes. Blockade of CXCR7 activation via CXCR7 knockdown or neutralizing Ab administration inhibited SDF-1-induced cell survival and the tubular formation of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) in vitro and reduced CNV leakage and lesion size in vivo. By using microRNA array screening and bioinformatic analyses, we identified miR-539-5p as a regulator of CXCR7. Transfection of HRMECs and choroid-retinal endothelial (RF/6A) cells with the miR-539-5p mimic inhibited their survival and tube formation, whereas CXCR7 overexpression rescued the suppressive effect of miR-539-5p. The antiangiogenic activities of the miR-539-5p mimic were additionally demonstrated in vivo by intravitreal injection. ERK1/2 and AKT signaling downstream of CXCR7 is involved in the miR-539-5p regulation of endothelial cell behaviors. These findings suggest that the manipulation of miR-539-5p/CXCR7 levels may have important therapeutic implications in CNV-associated diseases.-Feng, Y., Wang, J., Yuan, Y., Zhang, X., Shen, M., Yuan, F. miR-539-5p inhibits experimental choroidal neovascularization by targeting CXCR7.

  14. Mechanical design and development of a high power target system for the SLC Positron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, E.; Mansour, D.; Porter, T.; Sax, W.; Szumillo, A.

    1991-12-01

    In order to bring the SLC Positron Source luminosity up to design specifications, the previous (stationary) positron target had to be replaced with a version which could reliably dissipate the higher power levels and cyclic pulsed thermal stresses of the high intensity 33GeV electron beam. In addition to this basic requirement, the new target system had to meet SLAC's specifications for Ultra High Vacuum, be remotely controllable, ''radiation hard,'' and designed in such a way that it could be removed and replaced quickly and easily with minimum personnel exposure to radiation. It was also desirable to integrate the target and collection components into a compact, easily manufacturable, and easily maintainable module. This paper briefly summarize the mechanical design and development of the new modular target system, its associated controls and software, alignment, and the quick removal system. Operational experience gained with the new system over the first running cycle is also summarized

  15. Control System Design for Active Lubrication with Theoretical and Experimental Examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Scalabrin, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work focuses on the theoretical and experimental behavior of rigid rotors controlled by tilting-pad journal bearings with active oil injection. Initially the mathematical model of the active bearing is presented: The equations that describe the dynamics of hydraulic actuators are introduced...... system of the active bearing based on root locus curves. The active system stability is analyzed by calculating its eigenvalues and frequency response curves. The theoretical and experimental results show that this kind of bearing can significantly reduce the vibration level of rotating machinery....

  16. Targeted gene deletion of miRNAs in mice by TALEN system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shuji; Sato, Tempei; Ito, Yoshiaki; Yamashita, Satoshi; Kato, Tomoko; Kawasumi, Miyuri; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Igarashi, Arisa; Kato, Tomomi; Tamano, Moe; Asahara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Mice are among the most valuable model animal species with an enormous amount of heritage in genetic modification studies. However, targeting genes in mice is sometimes difficult, especially for small genes, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and targeting genes in repeat sequences. Here we optimized the application of TALEN system for mice and successfully obtained gene targeting technique in mice for intergenic region and series of microRNAs. Microinjection of synthesized RNA of TALEN targeting each gene in one cell stage of embryo was carried out and injected oocytes were transferred into pseudopregnant ICR female mice, producing a high success rate of the targeted deletion of miRNA genes. In our condition, TALEN RNA without poly(A) tail worked better than that of with poly(A) tail. This mutated allele in miRNA was transmitted to the next generation, suggesting the successful germ line transmission of this targeting method. Consistent with our notion of miRNAs maturation mechanism, in homozygous mutant mice of miR-10a, the non- mutated strand of miRNAs expression was completely diminished. This method will lead us to expand and accelerate our genetic research using mice in a high throughput way.

  17. Systemic combinatorial peptide selection yields a non-canonical iron-mimicry mechanism for targeting tumors in a mouse model of human glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Ozawa, Michael G.; Moya, Catherine A.; Driessen, Wouter H.P.; Barbu, E. Magda; Nishimori, Hiroyuki; Soghomonyan, Suren; Flores, Leo G.; Liang, Xiaowen; Paolillo, Vincenzo; Alauddin, Mian M.; Basilion, James P.; Furnari, Frank B.; Bogler, Oliver; Lang, Frederick F.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Höök, Magnus; Gelovani, Juri G.; Sidman, Richard L.; Cavenee, Webster K.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2010-01-01

    The management of CNS tumors is limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a vascular interface that restricts the passage of most molecules from the blood into the brain. Here we show that phage particles targeted with certain ligand motifs selected in vivo from a combinatorial peptide library can cross the BBB under normal and pathological conditions. Specifically, we demonstrated that phage clones displaying an iron-mimic peptide were able to target a protein complex of transferrin and transferrin receptor (TfR) through a non-canonical allosteric binding mechanism and that this functional protein complex mediated transport of the corresponding viral particles into the normal mouse brain. We also showed that, in an orthotopic mouse model of human glioblastoma, a combination of TfR overexpression plus extended vascular permeability and ligand retention resulted in remarkable brain tumor targeting of chimeric adeno-associated virus/phage particles displaying the iron-mimic peptide and carrying a gene of interest. As a proof of concept, we delivered the HSV thymidine kinase gene for molecular-genetic imaging and targeted therapy of intracranial xenografted tumors. Finally, we established that these experimental findings might be clinically relevant by determining through human tissue microarrays that many primary astrocytic tumors strongly express TfR. Together, our combinatorial selection system and results may provide a translational avenue for the targeted detection and treatment of brain tumors. PMID:21183793

  18. Cetuximab-conjugated nanodiamonds drug delivery system for enhanced targeting therapy and 3D Raman imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Chen, Xin; Wang, Hong; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Meiling; Fu, Yang; Yu, Yuan; Zhi, Jinfang

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a multicomponent nanodiamonds (NDs)-based targeting drug delivery system, cetuximab-NDs-cisplatin bioconjugate, combining both specific targeting and enhanced therapeutic efficacy capabilities, is developed and characterized. The specific targeting ability of cetuximab-NDs-cisplatin system on human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells is evaluated through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blocking experiments, since EGFR is over-expressed on HepG2 cell membrane. Besides, cytotoxic evaluation confirms that cetuximab-NDs-cisplatin system could significantly inhibit the growth of HepG2 cells, and the therapeutic activity of this system is proven to be better than that of both nonspecific NDs-cisplatin conjugate and specific EGF-NDs-cisplatin conjugate. Furthermore, a 3-dimensional (3D) Raman imaging technique is utilized to visualize the targeting efficacy and enhanced internalization of cetuximab-NDs-cisplatin system in HepG2 cells, using the NDs existing in the bioconjugate as Raman probes, based on the characteristic Raman signal of NDs at 1332 cm -1 . These advantageous properties of cetuximab-NDs-cisplatin system propose a prospective imaging and treatment tool for further diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. CCTop: An Intuitive, Flexible and Reliable CRISPR/Cas9 Target Prediction Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Stemmer

    Full Text Available Engineering of the CRISPR/Cas9 system has opened a plethora of new opportunities for site-directed mutagenesis and targeted genome modification. Fundamental to this is a stretch of twenty nucleotides at the 5' end of a guide RNA that provides specificity to the bound Cas9 endonuclease. Since a sequence of twenty nucleotides can occur multiple times in a given genome and some mismatches seem to be accepted by the CRISPR/Cas9 complex, an efficient and reliable in silico selection and evaluation of the targeting site is key prerequisite for the experimental success. Here we present the CRISPR/Cas9 target online predictor (CCTop, http://crispr.cos.uni-heidelberg.de to overcome limitations of already available tools. CCTop provides an intuitive user interface with reasonable default parameters that can easily be tuned by the user. From a given query sequence, CCTop identifies and ranks all candidate sgRNA target sites according to their off-target quality and displays full documentation. CCTop was experimentally validated for gene inactivation, non-homologous end-joining as well as homology directed repair. Thus, CCTop provides the bench biologist with a tool for the rapid and efficient identification of high quality target sites.

  20. Neighborhood Regularized Logistic Matrix Factorization for Drug-Target Interaction Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Wu, Min; Miao, Chunyan; Zhao, Peilin; Li, Xiao-Li

    2016-02-01

    In pharmaceutical sciences, a crucial step of the drug discovery process is the identification of drug-target interactions. However, only a small portion of the drug-target interactions have been experimentally validated, as the experimental validation is laborious and costly. To improve the drug discovery efficiency, there is a great need for the development of accurate computational approaches that can predict potential drug-target interactions to direct the experimental verification. In this paper, we propose a novel drug-target interaction prediction algorithm, namely neighborhood regularized logistic matrix factorization (NRLMF). Specifically, the proposed NRLMF method focuses on modeling the probability that a drug would interact with a target by logistic matrix factorization, where the properties of drugs and targets are represented by drug-specific and target-specific latent vectors, respectively. Moreover, NRLMF assigns higher importance levels to positive observations (i.e., the observed interacting drug-target pairs) than negative observations (i.e., the unknown pairs). Because the positive observations are already experimentally verified, they are usually more trustworthy. Furthermore, the local structure of the drug-target interaction data has also been exploited via neighborhood regularization to achieve better prediction accuracy. We conducted extensive experiments over four benchmark datasets, and NRLMF demonstrated its effectiveness compared with five state-of-the-art approaches.

  1. Orally active-targeted drug delivery systems for proteins and peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuying; Yu, Miaorong; Fan, Weiwei; Gan, Yong; Hovgaard, Lars; Yang, Mingshi

    2014-09-01

    In the past decade, extensive efforts have been devoted to designing 'active targeted' drug delivery systems (ATDDS) to improve oral absorption of proteins and peptides. Such ATDDS enhance cellular internalization and permeability of proteins and peptides via molecular recognition processes such as ligand-receptor or antigen-antibody interaction, and thus enhance drug absorption. This review focuses on recent advances with orally ATDDS, including ligand-protein conjugates, recombinant ligand-protein fusion proteins and ligand-modified carriers. In addition to traditional intestinal active transport systems of substrates and their corresponding receptors, transporters and carriers, new targets such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and β-integrin are also discussed. ATDDS can improve oral absorption of proteins and peptides. However, currently, no clinical studies on ATDDS for proteins and peptides are underway, perhaps due to the complexity and limited knowledge of transport mechanisms. Therefore, more research is warranted to optimize ATDDS efficiency.

  2. Chromosomal Targeting by the Type III-A CRISPR-Cas System Can Reshape Genomes in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jing; Wang, Wanying; Sun, Baolin

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat [CRISPR]-CRISPR-associated protein [Cas]) systems can provide protection against invading genetic elements by using CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) as a guide to locate and degrade the target DNA. CRISPR-Cas systems have been classified into two classes and five types according to the content of cas genes. Previous studies have indicated that CRISPR-Cas systems can avoid viral infection and block plasmid transfer. Here we show that chromosomal targeting by the Staphylococcus aureus type III-A CRISPR-Cas system can drive large-scale genome deletion and alteration within integrated staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ). The targeting activity of the CRISPR-Cas system is associated with the complementarity between crRNAs and protospacers, and 10- to 13-nucleotide truncations of spacers partially block CRISPR attack and more than 13-nucleotide truncation can fully abolish targeting, suggesting that a minimal length is required to license cleavage. Avoiding base pairings in the upstream region of protospacers is also necessary for CRISPR targeting. Successive trinucleotide complementarity between the 5' tag of crRNAs and protospacers can disrupt targeting. Our findings reveal that type III-A CRISPR-Cas systems can modulate bacterial genome stability and may serve as a high-efficiency tool for deleting resistance or virulence genes in bacteria. IMPORTANCE Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that can cause a wide range of infections in humans. Studies have suggested that CRISPR-Cas systems can drive the loss of integrated mobile genetic elements (MGEs) by chromosomal targeting. Here we demonstrate that CRISPR-mediated cleavage contributes to the partial deletion of integrated SCC mec in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), which provides a strategy for the treatment of MRSA infections. The spacer within artificial CRISPR arrays should contain more than 25 nucleotides for immunity, and consecutive

  3. Integrated Solution of a Back Office System for Serious Games Targeted at Physiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Martins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Serious games targeted at physiotherapy can be a solution to help the physical therapy professionals. However, the entire game management, in its various aspects, is under the professional’s responsibility. One way to reduce the professional management work will be to integrate a Back Office system in the game. Following this trend, the purpose of this paper is to present a modular Back Office system for centralized management of one or more games targeted at physical therapy.

  4. INTERACTION OF A 24 GeV PROTON BEAM WITH A MUON COLLIDER MERCURY JET TARGET EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND THERMODYNAMIC ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMOS, N.; KIRK, H.; FINFROCK, C.; GREENE, G.; LUDEWIG, H.; MCDONALD, K.; MOKHOV, N.

    2001-01-01

    A muon collider or a neutrino factory based on a muon storage ring require intense beams of muons that can be generated by a 1-4 MW proton beam incident on a moving target inside a 20-T solenoid magnet, with a mercury jet as a preferred example. This paper addresses the thermodynamic interaction of the intense proton beam with the proposed mercury jet target, and the consequences of the generated pressure waves on the target integrity. Specifically, a 24 GeV proton beam with approximately 16 TP (1 TP = 10 12 protons) per pulse and a pulse length of 2 ns will interact with a 1 cm diameter mercury jet within the 20-Tesla magnetic field. In one option, a train of six such proton pulses is to be delivered on target within 2 micros, in which case the state of the mercury jet following the interaction with each pulse is critical. Using the equation of state for mercury from the SESAME library, in combination with the energy deposition rates calculated the by the hadron interaction code MARS, the induced 3-D pressure field in the target is estimated. The consequent pressure wave propagation and attenuation in the mercury jet is calculated using a transient analysis based on finite element modeling, and the state of the mercury jet at the time of arrival of the subsequent pulse is assessed. Issues associated with the use of a liquid metal jet as a target candidate are addressed. Lastly, some experimental results from the BNL E951 experiment are presented and discussed

  5. Power supply control system for experimental physical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelepukin, S.A.; Osipov, Eh.V.; Petrov, V.S.; Sergeev, V.A.; Uglekov, V.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    A multichannel (to 1024 channels) system for control of power supply voltage is descrited. The system consists of an analog commulator, a digital voltmeter and a special controller. The controller serves at the same time as an interface for connecting the system as a ''unit'' of the VECTOR and SUMMA unified electronic systems. The system has been realized for control of the photomultiplier power supply voltage of the MARK multipurpose experimental device (256 channels, the measurement accuracy is 0.2%, the measuring time is 500 ms per point). Software devised for the HP-2100 computer permits automatical comparison of photomultiplier power supply voltages with sample ones in the mode of continuous control of a single voltage or in the mode of programmed selection of voltages to provide the control in arbitrary order or automatic scanning

  6. Preferential lentiviral targeting of astrocytes in the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fassler

    Full Text Available The ability to visualize and genetically manipulate specific cell populations of the central nervous system (CNS is fundamental to a better understanding of brain functions at the cellular and molecular levels. Tools to selectively target cells of the CNS include molecular genetics, imaging, and use of transgenic animals. However, these approaches are technically challenging, time consuming, and difficult to control. Viral-mediated targeting of cells in the CNS can be highly beneficial for studying and treating neurodegenerative diseases. Yet, despite specific marking of numerous cell types in the CNS, in vivo selective targeting of astrocytes has not been optimized. In this study, preferential targeting of astrocytes in the CNS was demonstrated using engineered lentiviruses that were pseudotyped with a modified Sindbis envelope and displayed anti-GLAST IgG on their surfaces as an attachment moiety. Viral tropism for astrocytes was initially verified in vitro in primary mixed glia cultures. When injected into the brains of mice, lentiviruses that displayed GLAST IgG on their surface, exhibited preferential astrocyte targeting, compared to pseudotyped lentiviruses that did not incorporate any IgG or that expressed a control isotype IgG. Overall, this approach is highly flexible and can be exploited to selectively target astrocytes or other cell types of the CNS. As such, it can open a window to visualize and genetically manipulate astrocytes or other cells of the CNS as means of research and treatment.

  7. Proceedings of 19. symposium on experimental radiotherapy and clinical radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Michael; Dahm-Daphi, Jochen; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Petersen, Cordula; Rodemann, H. Peter; Zips, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The proceedings include review contributions on radio-oncology, and new radiation technologies and molecular prediction; and poster sessions on the following topics: hypoxia; molecular mechanisms of radiation resistance; molecular targeting; DNA repair; biological imaging; biology of experimental radiations; normal tissue toxicity; modern radiotherapy; tumor hypoxia and metabolic micro milieu; immune system and radiotherapy.

  8. Experimental analysis and dynamic simulation of a novel high-temperature solar cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonomano, Annamaria; Calise, Francesco; D’Accadia, Massimo Dentice; Ferruzzi, Gabriele; Frascogna, Sabrina; Palombo, Adolfo; Russo, Roberto; Scarpellino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper presents an innovative high temperature solar cooling system. • The system is based on novel flat-plate evacuated solar thermal collectors. • Results of an experimental campaign in Saudi Arabia are reported. • A dynamic simulation model and a detailed economic analyses are developed. • Results show that the collector and the system as a whole exhibit excellent performance. - Abstract: This paper presents experimental and numerical analyses of a novel high-temperature solar cooling system based on innovative flat-plate evacuated solar thermal collectors (SC). This is the first solar cooling system, including a double-effect absorption chiller, which is based on non-concentrating solar thermal collectors. The aim of the paper is prove the technical and economic feasibility of the system, also presenting a comparison with a conventional technology, based on concentrating solar thermal collectors. To this scope, an experimental setup has been installed in Saudi Arabia. Here, several measurement devices are installed in order to monitor and control all the thermodynamic parameters of the system. The paper presents some of the main results of this experimental campaign, showing temperatures, powers, energies and efficiencies for a selected period. Experimental results showed that collector peak efficiency is higher than 60%, whereas daily average efficiency is around 40%. This prototypal solar cooling system has been numerically analysed, developing a dynamic simulation model aiming at predicting system performance. For a representative operating period, numerical data were compared with the experimental one, showing an excellent accuracy of the model. A similar system, equipped with Parabolic Trough solar thermal collectors (PTC) was also simulated in order to compare the novel solar collectors with such reference technology. For both systems a detailed thermo-economic model has been implemented in order to perform such comparison also

  9. Investigation of analytical and experimental behavior of nuclear facility ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.; Ricketts, C.I.; Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Horak, H.L.; Martin, R.A.; Tang, P.K.; Gregory, W.S.

    1979-01-01

    The behavior of nuclear facility ventilation systems subjected to both natural and man-caused accidents is being investigated. The purpose of the paper is to present a program overview and highlight recent results of the investigations. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting accident-induced gas dynamics and test facilities to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. A unique test facility and recently obtained structural limits for high efficiency particulate air filters are reported

  10. Inter-cooler in solar-assisted refrigeration system: Theory and experimental verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hui-Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An inter-cooler in the solar-assisted refrigeration system was investigated experimentally and theoretically, and the theoretical prediction was fairly in good agreement with the experimental data. The influence of pipe diameter, tooth depth, and spiral angle of inter-cooler on the performance of the refrigerant system was analyzed. It was concluded that heat transfer is influenced deeply by the structure parameters of inter-cooler, and the heat transfer capacity increases with tooth depth and spiral angle increasing, and decreases with tooth apex angle increasing.

  11. Design of the FMIT lithium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassberger, J.A.; Annese, C.E.; Greenwell, R.K.; Ingham, J.G.; Miles, R.R.; Miller, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    Development of the liquid lithium target for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility is described. The target concept, major design goals and design requirements are presented. Progress made in the research and development areas leading to detailed design of the target is discussed. This progress, including experimental and analytic results, demonstrates that the FMIT target design is capable of meeting its major design goals and requirements

  12. Exploiting off-targeting in guide-RNAs for CRISPR systems for simultaneous editing of multiple genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Raphael; Gatto, Francesco; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Bioinformatics tools to design guide-RNAs (gRNAs) in Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats systems mostly focused on minimizing off-targeting to enhance efficacy of genome editing. However, there are circumstances in which off-targeting might be desirable to target multiple ge...

  13. Experimental and computational investigation of lateral gauge response in polycarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Jim; Harris, Ernst; Hazell, Paul; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Winter, Ronald; Wood, David; Owen, Gareth

    2011-06-01

    Polycarbonate's use in personal armour systems means its high strain-rate response has been extensively studied. Interestingly, embedded lateral manganin stress gauges in polycarbonate have shown gradients behind incident shocks, suggestive of increasing shear strength. However, such gauges need to be embedded in a central (typically) epoxy interlayer - an inherently invasive approach. Recently, research has suggested that in such metal systems interlayer/target impedance may contribute to observed gradients in lateral stress. Here, experimental T-gauge (Vishay Micro-Measurements® type J2M-SS-580SF-025) traces from polycarbonate targets are compared to computational simulations. This work extends previous efforts such that similar impedance exists between the interlayer and matrix (target) interface. Further, experiments and simulations are presented investigating the effects of a ``dry joint'' in polycarbonate, in which no encapsulating medium is employed.

  14. Mechanical technology unique to laser fusion experimental systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    Hardware design for laser fusion experimental machines has led to a combination of engineering technologies that are critical to the successful operation of these machines. These large opto-mechanical systems are dependent on extreme cleanliness, accommodation to efficient maintenance, and high stability. These three technologies are the primary mechanical engineering criteria for laser fusion devices

  15. System for automatic x-ray-image analysis, measurement, and sorting of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, R.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Willenborg, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the Automatic X-Ray Image Analysis and Sorting (AXIAS) system which is designed to analyze and measure x-ray images of opaque hollow microspheres used as laser fusion targets. The x-ray images are first recorded on a high resolution film plate. The AXIAS system then digitizes and processes the images to accurately measure the target parameters and defects. The primary goals of the AXIAS system are: to provide extremely accurate and rapid measurements, to engineer a practical system for a routine production environment and to furnish the capability of automatically measuring an array of images for sorting and selection

  16. Targeted multidrug delivery system to overcome chemoresistance in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Y

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yuan Tang,1 Fariborz Soroush,1 Zhaohui Tong,2 Mohammad F Kiani,1 Bin Wang1,3 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Widener University, Chester, PA, USA Abstract: Chemotherapy has been widely used in breast cancer patients to reduce tumor size. However, most anticancer agents cannot differentiate between cancerous and normal cells, resulting in severe systemic toxicity. In addition, acquired drug resistance during the chemotherapy treatment further decreases treatment efficacy. With the proper treatment strategy, nanodrug carriers, such as liposomes/immunoliposomes, may be able to reduce undesired side effects of chemotherapy, to overcome the acquired multidrug resistance, and to further improve the treatment efficacy. In this study, a novel combinational targeted drug delivery system was developed by encapsulating antiangiogenesis drug bevacizumab into liposomes and encapsulating chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX into immunoliposomes where the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 antibody was used as a targeting ligand. This novel combinational system was tested in vitro using a HER2 positive and multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line (BT-474/MDR, and in vivo using a xenograft mouse tumor model. In vitro cell culture experiments show that immunoliposome delivery led to a high cell nucleus accumulation of DOX, whereas free DOX was observed mostly near the cell membrane and in cytoplasm due to the action of P-gp. Combining liposomal bevacizumab with immunoliposomal DOX achieved the best tumor growth inhibition and the lowest toxicity. Tumor size decreased steadily within a 60-day observation period indicating a potential synergistic effect between DOX and bevacizumab through the targeted delivery. Our findings clearly indicate that tumor growth was significantly

  17. Experimentation and evaluation of advanced integrated system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M.; Garrigus, K.; Gottschalck, J.; Rinearson, L.; Longee, E.

    1980-09-01

    This final report examines the implementation of a time-phased test bed for experimentation and evaluation of advanced system concepts relative to the future Defense Switched Network (DSN). After identifying issues pertinent to the DSN, a set of experiments which address these issues are developed. Experiments are ordered based on their immediacy and relative importance to DSN development. The set of experiments thus defined allows requirements for a time phased implementation of a test bed to be identified, and several generic test bed architectures which meet these requirements are examined. Specific architecture implementations are costed and cost/schedule profiles are generated as a function of experimental capability. The final recommended system consists of two separate test beds: a circuit switch test bed, configured around an off-the-shelf commercial switch, and directed toward the examination of nearer term and transitional issues raised by the evolving DSN; and a packet/hybrid test bed, featuring a discrete buildup of new hardware and software modules, and directed toward examination of the more advanced integrated voice and data telecommunications issues and concepts.

  18. Systems biology approaches and tools for analysis of interactomes and multi-target drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrattenholz, André; Groebe, Karlfried; Soskic, Vukic

    2010-01-01

    Systems biology is essentially a proteomic and epigenetic exercise because the relatively condensed information of genomes unfolds on the level of proteins. The flexibility of cellular architectures is not only mediated by a dazzling number of proteinaceous species but moreover by the kinetics of their molecular changes: The time scales of posttranslational modifications range from milliseconds to years. The genetic framework of an organism only provides the blue print of protein embodiments which are constantly shaped by external input. Indeed, posttranslational modifications of proteins represent the scope and velocity of these inputs and fulfil the requirements of integration of external spatiotemporal signal transduction inside an organism. The optimization of biochemical networks for this type of information processing and storage results in chemically extremely fine tuned molecular entities. The huge dynamic range of concentrations, the chemical diversity and the necessity of synchronisation of complex protein expression patterns pose the major challenge of systemic analysis of biological models. One further message is that many of the key reactions in living systems are essentially based on interactions of moderate affinities and moderate selectivities. This principle is responsible for the enormous flexibility and redundancy of cellular circuitries. In complex disorders such as cancer or neurodegenerative diseases, which initially appear to be rooted in relatively subtle dysfunctions of multimodal physiologic pathways, drug discovery programs based on the concept of high affinity/high specificity compounds ("one-target, one-disease"), which has been dominating the pharmaceutical industry for a long time, increasingly turn out to be unsuccessful. Despite improvements in rational drug design and high throughput screening methods, the number of novel, single-target drugs fell much behind expectations during the past decade, and the treatment of "complex

  19. Texture orientation-based algorithm for detecting infrared maritime targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Dong, Lili; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Houde; Xu, Wenhai

    2015-05-20

    Infrared maritime target detection is a key technology for maritime target searching systems. However, in infrared maritime images (IMIs) taken under complicated sea conditions, background clutters, such as ocean waves, clouds or sea fog, usually have high intensity that can easily overwhelm the brightness of real targets, which is difficult for traditional target detection algorithms to deal with. To mitigate this problem, this paper proposes a novel target detection algorithm based on texture orientation. This algorithm first extracts suspected targets by analyzing the intersubband correlation between horizontal and vertical wavelet subbands of the original IMI on the first scale. Then the self-adaptive wavelet threshold denoising and local singularity analysis of the original IMI is combined to remove false alarms further. Experiments show that compared with traditional algorithms, this algorithm can suppress background clutter much better and realize better single-frame detection for infrared maritime targets. Besides, in order to guarantee accurate target extraction further, the pipeline-filtering algorithm is adopted to eliminate residual false alarms. The high practical value and applicability of this proposed strategy is backed strongly by experimental data acquired under different environmental conditions.

  20. Experimental grid connected PV system power analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaoui, Smail; Abdeladim, Kamel; Arab, Amar Hadj; Boulahchich, Saliha; Amrouche, Said Ould; Yassaa, Noureddine

    2018-05-01

    Almost 80 % of Algerian territory is appropriate for the exploitation of solar energy. The Algerian energetic strategy provides a substantial injection of PV electricity to the national grid. Currently, about 344 MWp of PV arrays which corresponds approximately to 2,34 km2 of module surfaces, are connected on electricity grid over the national territory. The Algerian Northern regions are characterized by strong pollution and high humidity. These phenomena affect the energetic productivity of PV generator. The objective of our study is to analyze experimental grid connected PV system power in coastal locations. Hence, experiments have been conducted on three identical PV systems to determine the electrical performances. Transformer-less inverters are the most attractive for the ground-based photovoltaic (PV) system due to their efficiencies, reduced cost and weight. Besides, the absence of the galvanic isolation generates problems of capacitive leakage current on the AC side and the degradation of the insulation resistance on the DC side of the inverter. In this work, experimental study of the behavior of single-phase inverters without transformers is presented. The main objective of this work is to study the degradation of the insulation resistance at the input of the inverter, and the capacitive leakage current at the output of the inverter. This study was achieved at the CDER on a rainy day of 15/03/2017, on the first PV plant connected to the low voltage network in Algeria. This investigation can help forecasting the PV array energetic production by taking into account natural conditions.

  1. Experimental and theoretical study of the residual nuclide production in 40-2600 MeV proton-irradiated thin targets of ads structure materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titarenko, Yu.E.; Batyaev, V.F.; Belonozhenko, A.A.; Borovlev, S.P.; Butko, M.A.; Florya, S.N.; Pavlov, K.V.; Rogov, V.I.; Tikhonov, R.S.; Titarenko, A.Yu.; Zhivun, V.M.

    2011-10-01

    The Project is aimed at experimental and theoretical studying the independent and cumulative yields of residual radioactive nuclei produced in high-energy proton-irradiated structure materials intended for constructing the high-power Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) with a high-current proton accelerator. The Project is an extension of the researches carried out earlier under the ISTC Projects #017, #839, and #2002 which provided more 10000 residual nuclide production cross sections mainly in materials intended to use as target materials of the ADS. This Project includes 57 measurement runs carried out using the 97 targets made only of the ADS structural materials of both monoisotopic ( 56 Fe, 93 Nb, 181 Ta) and natural ( nat Cr, nat Ni, nat W) compositions within minutely fractionated proton energy range, namely, at 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, 0.15, 0.25, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.6GeV. All the targets were irradiated using the ITEP U-10 proton synchrotron. The experimental nuclide yields are determined by the direct γ-spectrometry and α-spectrometry methods. As a result, 3839 cumulative and independent yields of residual β-radioactive product nuclei with lifetimes range from 6 minutes to 10 years as well as 12 cumulative yields of α- radioactive 148 Gd whose lifetime is 74.6 years have been measured. Besides, the cross sections for the 27 Al(p,x) 22 Na , 27 Al(p,x) 24 Na and 27 Al(p,x) 7 Be monitor reactions have been measured at the same proton energies with the use of the current transformer technique. The γ-spectrometer resolution is 1.8 keV in the 1332 keV 60 Co γ-line. The experimental γ-spectra were processed by the GENIE2000 code. The γ-lines were identified, and the cross sections calculated, by the ITEP-developed SIGMA code using the PCNUDAT database. The proton fluence was monitored by the 27 Al(p,x) 22 Na reaction. Measurement data have been compared with the calculation results of the BERTINI and ISABEL models of MCNPX code, CEM03.02, INCL 4.2, INCL4

  2. An experimental Dutch keyboard-to-speech system for the speech impaired

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deliege, R.J.H.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental Dutch keyboard-to-speech system has been developed to explor the possibilities and limitations of Dutch speech synthesis in a communication aid for the speech impaired. The system uses diphones and a formant synthesizer chip for speech synthesis. Input to the system is in

  3. REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDELINES FOR NSLS EXPERIMENTAL BEAM LINE VACUUM SYSTEMS-REVISION B.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOERSTER,C.

    1999-05-01

    Typical beam lines are comprised of an assembly of vacuum valves and shutters referred to as a ''front end'', optical elements to monochromatize, focus and split the photon beam, and an experimental area where a target sample is placed into the photon beam and data from the interaction is detected and recorded. Windows are used to separate sections of beam lines that are not compatible with storage ring ultra high vacuum. Some experimental beam lines share a common vacuum with storage rings. Sections of beam lines are only allowed to vent up to atmospheric pressure using pure nitrogen gas after a vacuum barrier is established to protect ring vacuum. The front end may only be bled up when there is no current in the machine. This is especially true on the VUV storage ring where for most experiments, windows are not used. For the shorter wavelength, more energetic photons of the x-ray ring, beryllium windows are used at various beam line locations so that the monochromator, mirror box or sample chamber may be used in a helium atmosphere or rough vacuum. The window separates ring vacuum from the environment of the downstream beam line components. The stored beam lifetime in the storage rings and the maintenance of desirable reflection properties of optical surfaces depend upon hydrocarbon-free, ultra-high vacuum systems. Storage ring vacuum systems will operate at pressures of {approximately} 1 x 10{sup {minus}10} Torr without beam and {approximately} 1 x 10{sup {minus}9} Torr with beam. Systems are free of hydrocarbons in the sense that no pumps, valves, etc. containing organics are used. Components are all-metal, chemically cleaned and bakeable. To the extent that beam lines share a common vacuum with the storage ring, the same criteria will hold for beam line components. The design philosophy for NSLS beam lines is to use all-metal, hydrocarbon-free front end components and recommend that experimenters use this approach for common vacuum hardware

  4. Plasma density remote control system of experimental advanced superconductive tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingxin; Luo Jiarong; Li Guiming; Wang Hua; Zhao Dazheng; Xu Congdong

    2007-01-01

    In Tokamak experiments, experimental data and information on the density control are stored in the local computer system. Therefore, the researchers have to be in the control room for getting the data. Plasma Density Remote Control System (DRCS), which is implemented by encapsulating the business logic on the client in the B/S module, conducts the complicated science computation and realizes the synchronization with the experimental process on the client. At the same time, Web Services and Data File Services are deployed for the data exchange. It is proved in the experiments that DRCS not only meets the requirements for the remote control, but also shows an enhanced capability on the data transmission. (authors)

  5. Sequences by Metastable Attractors: Interweaving Dynamical Systems and Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Hutt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Metastable attractors and heteroclinic orbits are present in the dynamics of various complex systems. Although their occurrence is well-known, their identification and modeling is a challenging task. The present work reviews briefly the literature and proposes a novel combination of their identification in experimental data and their modeling by dynamical systems. This combination applies recurrence structure analysis permitting the derivation of an optimal symbolic representation of metastable states and their dynamical transitions. To derive heteroclinic sequences of metastable attractors in various experimental conditions, the work introduces a Hausdorff clustering algorithm for symbolic dynamics. The application to brain signals (event-related potentials utilizing neural field models illustrates the methodology.

  6. Calculation and experimental investigation of multi-component ceramic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rother, M.

    1994-12-01

    This work shows a way to combine thermodynamic calculations and experiments in order to get useful information on the constitution of metal/non-metal systems. Many data from literature are critically evaluated and used as a basis for experiments and calculations. The following multi-component systems are treated: 1. Multi-component systems of 'ceramic' materials with partially metallic bonding (carbides, nitrides, oxides, borides, carbonitrides, borocarbides, oxinitrides of the 4-8th transition group metals) 2. multi-component systems of non-metallic materials with dominant covalent bonding (SiC, Si 3 N 4 , SiB 6 , BN, Al 4 C 3 , Be 2 C) 3. multi-component systems of non-metallic materials with dominant heteropolar bonding (Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , BeO, SiO 2 , ZrO 2 ). The interactions between 1. and 2., 2. and 3., 1. and 3. are also considered. The latest commercially available programmes for the calculation of thermodynamical equilibria and phase diagrams are evaluated and compared considering their facilities and limits. New phase diagrams are presented for many presently unknown multi-component systems; partly known systems are completed on the basis of selected thermodynamic data. The calculations are verified by experimental investigations (metallurgical and powder technology methods). Altogether 690 systems are evaluated, 126 are calculated for the first time and 52 systems are experimentally verified. New data for 60 ternary phases are elaborated by estimating the data limits for the Gibbs energy values. A synthesis of critical evaluation of literature, calculations and experiments leads to new important information about equilibria and reaction behaviour in multi-component systems. This information is necessary to develop new stable and metastable materials. (orig./MM) [de

  7. Hydraulic investigation on free surface flow of windowless target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chen; Gu Hanyang

    2015-01-01

    The formation and control of free surface are the most essential parts in the studies of windowless target in ACCELERATOR-DRIVEN sub-critical system (ADS). Water model experiments and 360° full scale three dimensional simulations were conducted. The experimental study demonstrates that the free surface is significantly affected by the inlet flow velocity and outlet pressure. The length of free surface decreases in the second order with the increase of inlet flow velocity, while it decreases linearly with the outlet pressure. The structure and feature of flow field were investigated. The results show that the free surface is vulnerable to the vortex movement. Transient simulations were performed with volume of fluid (VOF) method, large eddy simulation (LES) and the pressure implicit with splitting of operators (PISO) algorithm. The simulation results agree qualitatively well with the experimental data related to both free surface flow and flow field. These simulation models and methods are proved to be applicable in the hydraulic simulations of liquid heavy metal target. (authors)

  8. Multi-window dialogue system of data processing for experimental setup VASSILISSA in PAW environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A.N.; Vakatov, D.V.; Veselski, M.; Eremin, A.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Khasanov, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Multi-window dialogue system for processing data acquired from experimental setup VASSILISSA is presented. The system provides friendly user's interface for experimental data conversion, selection and preparing for graphic analysis with PAW. 7 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  9. [Advances of tumor targeting peptides drug delivery system with pH-sensitive activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yin-yun; Li, Li; Huang, Hai-feng; Gou, San-hu; Ni, Jing-man

    2016-05-01

    The pH-sensitive peptides drug delivery systems, which target to acidic extracellular environment of tumor tissue, have many advantages in drug delivery. They exhibit a high specificity to tumor and low cytotoxicity, which significantly increase the efficacy of traditional anti-cancer drugs. In recent years the systems have received a great attention. The pH-sensitive peptides drug delivery systems can be divided into five types according to the difference in pH-responsive mechanism,type of peptides and carrier materials. This paper summarizes the recent progresses in the field with a focus on the five types of pH-sensitive peptides in drug delivery systems. This may provide a guideline to design and application of tumor targeting drugs.

  10. Programmable removal of bacterial strains by use of genome-targeting CRISPR-Cas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Ahmed A; Klumpe, Heidi E; Luo, Michelle L; Selle, Kurt; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Beisel, Chase L

    2014-01-28

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems in bacteria and archaea employ CRISPR RNAs to specifically recognize the complementary DNA of foreign invaders, leading to sequence-specific cleavage or degradation of the target DNA. Recent work has shown that the accidental or intentional targeting of the bacterial genome is cytotoxic and can lead to cell death. Here, we have demonstrated that genome targeting with CRISPR-Cas systems can be employed for the sequence-specific and titratable removal of individual bacterial strains and species. Using the type I-E CRISPR-Cas system in Escherichia coli as a model, we found that this effect could be elicited using native or imported systems and was similarly potent regardless of the genomic location, strand, or transcriptional activity of the target sequence. Furthermore, the specificity of targeting with CRISPR RNAs could readily distinguish between even highly similar strains in pure or mixed cultures. Finally, varying the collection of delivered CRISPR RNAs could quantitatively control the relative number of individual strains within a mixed culture. Critically, the observed selectivity and programmability of bacterial removal would be virtually impossible with traditional antibiotics, bacteriophages, selectable markers, or tailored growth conditions. Once delivery challenges are addressed, we envision that this approach could offer a novel means to quantitatively control the composition of environmental and industrial microbial consortia and may open new avenues for the development of "smart" antibiotics that circumvent multidrug resistance and differentiate between pathogenic and beneficial microorganisms. Controlling the composition of microbial populations is a critical aspect in medicine, biotechnology, and environmental cycles. While different antimicrobial strategies, such as antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides, and lytic bacteriophages, offer partial solutions

  11. Targeting the orexinergic system: Mainly but not only for sleep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orexin receptors belong to the big family of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that constitute the main targets in the modern pharmacological approaches. Although the orexinergic system is involved in a variety of processes, treating sleep-wakefulness disorders such as narcolepsy and insomnia, remains the main ...

  12. Experimental investigation of neutron generation in thick target blocks of Pb, Hg and W with 0.4 to 2.5 GeV proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, U.; Enke, M.; Filges, D.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed experimental neutron data relevant to the design of the target station of neutron spallation sources have been gathered by the NESSI-collaboration at the COSY accelerator in FZ Juelich. Numerous neutron multiplicity distributions and reaction probabilities have been measured for 0.4 to 2.5 GeV protons bombarding highly segmented target blocks from Pb, Hg and W of up to 35 cm in length and 15 cm in diameter with the intention to provide a comprehensive data base for the improvement and validation of existing reaction simulation codes. (author)

  13. Progress on LMJ targets for ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherfils-Clerouin, C; Boniface, C; Bonnefille, M; Dattolo, E; Galmiche, D; Gauthier, P; Giorla, J; Laffite, S; Liberatore, S; Loiseau, P; Malinie, G; Masse, L; Masson-Laborde, P E; Monteil, M C; Poggi, F; Seytor, P; Wagon, F; Willien, J L, E-mail: catherine.cherfils@cea.f [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2009-12-15

    Targets designed to produce ignition on the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) are being simulated in order to set specifications for target fabrication. The LMJ experimental plans include the attempt of ignition and burn of an ICF capsule with 160 laser beams, delivering up to 1.4 MJ and 380 TW. New targets needing reduced laser energy with only a small decrease in robustness have then been designed for this purpose. Working specifically on the coupling efficiency parameter, i.e. the ratio of the energy absorbed by the capsule to the laser energy, has led to the design of a rugby-ball shaped cocktail hohlraum; with these improvements, a target based on the 240-beam A1040 capsule can be included in the 160-beam laser energy-power space. Robustness evaluations of these different targets shed light on critical points for ignition, which can trade off by tightening some specifications or by preliminary experimental and numerical tuning experiments.

  14. Progress on LMJ targets for ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherfils-Clerouin, C; Boniface, C; Bonnefille, M; Dattolo, E; Galmiche, D; Gauthier, P; Giorla, J; Laffite, S; Liberatore, S; Loiseau, P; Malinie, G; Masse, L; Masson-Laborde, P E; Monteil, M C; Poggi, F; Seytor, P; Wagon, F; Willien, J L

    2009-01-01

    Targets designed to produce ignition on the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) are being simulated in order to set specifications for target fabrication. The LMJ experimental plans include the attempt of ignition and burn of an ICF capsule with 160 laser beams, delivering up to 1.4 MJ and 380 TW. New targets needing reduced laser energy with only a small decrease in robustness have then been designed for this purpose. Working specifically on the coupling efficiency parameter, i.e. the ratio of the energy absorbed by the capsule to the laser energy, has led to the design of a rugby-ball shaped cocktail hohlraum; with these improvements, a target based on the 240-beam A1040 capsule can be included in the 160-beam laser energy-power space. Robustness evaluations of these different targets shed light on critical points for ignition, which can trade off by tightening some specifications or by preliminary experimental and numerical tuning experiments.

  15. Experimental support at proton--proton colliding beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, K.

    1977-01-01

    Proton--proton colliding beam facilities have a number of special features which increase the importance of support for experiments when compared to fixed target accelerators: (1) the laboratory system is very close to the center-of-mass system; this affects the geometry and general size of the experiments; (2) the primary p--p interaction is inaccessible, that is, it takes place in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber; and (3) the experiment detection system is necessarily inside the machine structure and becomes very closely linked to it in many respects. An overall picture is given of experimental support based on experience at the CERN ISR under the following headings: Experimental Areas, Scheduling, Intersection Vacuum Chambers, Machine Background, and Magnets for Experiments. The first two of these topics concern the requirements in space and time of an experiment, while the last three are all related to the close interaction between experiment and machine

  16. Experimental and thermodynamic study of the Er-H-Zr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascaro, A.

    2012-01-01

    This work at CEA is being achieved in the framework of the development of an innovating concept including the neutronic solid burnable poison, such as erbium, inside the cladding of pressurized water reactors. These new claddings are constituted by a liner of a zirconium base alloy slightly enriched in erbium between two liners of industrial zirconium alloys. Into the reactor core, the water dissociates at the surface of the cladding. So it is interesting to evaluate the interactions between the hydrogen released and the Zr-Er alloy. To do so, the Er-H-Zr ternary system has to be determined such similarly to its associated binaries. This can be done by experimental determination and by thermodynamic modelling. Both techniques were used in this work. Er-Zr and H-Zr have already been studied experimentally and modelled, but the Er-H binary system is almost unknown. So, we studied it experimentally. Then, it has been modelled using the Calphad method. We obtain a new evaluation of the Er-H binary system with phases limits rather different than what has been proposed in the literature. In order to determine the phase limits and, the potential existence of a ternary compound in the Er-H-Zr ternary system, an experimental study has been carried out. An original technique has been used to obtain the chemical compositions: ERDA combined with RBS. In this study, we propose a new isothermal section at 350 C of the Er-H-Zr ternary system. About the modelling, the compatibility of the three modelled binaries has been checked in order to optimize the ternary system by the projection of the three binaries. The calculation obtained is in good agreement with the experimental isothermal section at 350 C determined in our work. Finally, uniaxial tensile test campaigns have been conducted to evaluate the impact of erbium and/or hydrogen on the mechanical properties of an industrial zirconium pure alloy. We evidenced a hardening effect of erbium and hydrogen but these effects are not

  17. Real-time numerical simulation with high efficiency for an experimental reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Shuling; Li Fu; Li Sifeng; Chu Xinyuan

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a systematic and efficient method for numerical real-time simulation of an experimental reactor. The reactor models were built based on the physical characteristics of the experimental reactor, and several real-time simulation approaches were discussed and compared in the paper. How to implement the real-time reactor simulation system in Windows platform for the sake of hardware-in-loop experiment for the reactor power control system was discussed. (authors)

  18. NIF pointing and centering systems and target alignment using a 351 nm laser source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boege, S.J.; Bliss, E.S.; Chocol, C.J.; Holdener, F.R.; Miller, J.L.; Toeppen, J.S.; Vann, C.S.; Zacharias, R.A.

    1996-10-01

    The operational requirements of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) place tight constraints upon its alignment system. In general, the alignment system must establish and maintain the correct relationships between beam position, beam angle, laser component clear apertures, and the target. At the target, this includes adjustment of beam focus to obtain the correct spot size. This must be accomplished for all beamlines in a time consistent with planned shot rates and yet, in the front end and main laser, beam control functions cannot be initiated until the amplifiers have sufficiently cooled so as to minimize dynamic thermal distortions during and after alignment and wavefront optimization. The scope of the task dictates an automated system that implements parallel processes. We describe reticle choices and other alignment references, insertion of alignment beams, principles of operation of the Chamber Center Reference System 2048 and Target Alignment Sensor, and the anticipated alignment sequence that will occur between shots

  19. Light-ion spectroscopy with exotic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, G.L.; Lanier, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding the rich and diverse aspects underlying the physics of nuclear structure requires a variety of experimental techniques. In our laboratory, we have concentrated on experimental techniques using light-ion probes and isotopes that are technically difficult to fabricate into targets. In particular, our studies of p-, d-, and t-induced nuclear reactions on the radioactive targets of 152,154 Eu and 148 Gd have illuminated some very specific and very interesting features of nuclear structure near the N = 89 shape-transition region

  20. Experimentally studied dynamic dose interplay does not meaningfully affect target dose in VMAT SBRT lung treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, Cassandra; Nelms, Benjamin E; Dilling, Thomas; Stevens, Craig; Latifi, Kujtim; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2013-09-01

    The effects of respiratory motion on the tumor dose can be divided into the gradient and interplay effects. While the interplay effect is likely to average out over a large number of fractions, it may play a role in hypofractionated [stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT)] treatments. This subject has been extensively studied for intensity modulated radiation therapy but less so for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), particularly in application to hypofractionated regimens. Also, no experimental study has provided full four-dimensional (4D) dose reconstruction in this scenario. The authors demonstrate how a recently described motion perturbation method, with full 4D dose reconstruction, is applied to describe the gradient and interplay effects during VMAT lung SBRT treatments. VMAT dose delivered to a moving target in a patient can be reconstructed by applying perturbations to the treatment planning system-calculated static 3D dose. Ten SBRT patients treated with 6 MV VMAT beams in five fractions were selected. The target motion (motion kernel) was approximated by 3D rigid body translation, with the tumor centroids defined on the ten phases of the 4DCT. The motion was assumed to be periodic, with the period T being an average from the empirical 4DCT respiratory trace. The real observed tumor motion (total displacement ≤ 8 mm) was evaluated first. Then, the motion range was artificially increased to 2 or 3 cm. Finally, T was increased to 60 s. While not realistic, making T comparable to the delivery time elucidates if the interplay effect can be observed. For a single fraction, the authors quantified the interplay effect as the maximum difference in the target dosimetric indices, most importantly the near-minimum dose (D99%), between all possible starting phases. For the three- and five-fractions, statistical simulations were performed when substantial interplay was found. For the motion amplitudes and periods obtained from the 4DCT, the interplay effect

  1. Experimentally studied dynamic dose interplay does not meaningfully affect target dose in VMAT SBRT lung treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambaugh, Cassandra; Nelms, Benjamin E.; Dilling, Thomas; Stevens, Craig; Latifi, Kujtim; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of respiratory motion on the tumor dose can be divided into the gradient and interplay effects. While the interplay effect is likely to average out over a large number of fractions, it may play a role in hypofractionated [stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT)] treatments. This subject has been extensively studied for intensity modulated radiation therapy but less so for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), particularly in application to hypofractionated regimens. Also, no experimental study has provided full four-dimensional (4D) dose reconstruction in this scenario. The authors demonstrate how a recently described motion perturbation method, with full 4D dose reconstruction, is applied to describe the gradient and interplay effects during VMAT lung SBRT treatments.Methods: VMAT dose delivered to a moving target in a patient can be reconstructed by applying perturbations to the treatment planning system-calculated static 3D dose. Ten SBRT patients treated with 6 MV VMAT beams in five fractions were selected. The target motion (motion kernel) was approximated by 3D rigid body translation, with the tumor centroids defined on the ten phases of the 4DCT. The motion was assumed to be periodic, with the period T being an average from the empirical 4DCT respiratory trace. The real observed tumor motion (total displacement ≤8 mm) was evaluated first. Then, the motion range was artificially increased to 2 or 3 cm. Finally, T was increased to 60 s. While not realistic, making T comparable to the delivery time elucidates if the interplay effect can be observed. For a single fraction, the authors quantified the interplay effect as the maximum difference in the target dosimetric indices, most importantly the near-minimum dose (D 99% ), between all possible starting phases. For the three- and five-fractions, statistical simulations were performed when substantial interplay was found.Results: For the motion amplitudes and periods obtained from the

  2. Experimental characterization of a concentrating photovoltaic system varying the light concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renno, C.; Petito, F.; Landi, G.; Neitzert, H.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental characterization of a concentrating photovoltaic system. • Analysis of the point-focus concentrating system performances. • Photovoltaic system parameters as function of the concentration factor. - Abstract: The concentrating photovoltaic system represents one of the most promising solar technologies because it allows a more efficient energy conversion. When a CPV system is designed, the main parameter which has to be considered is the concentration factor that affects both the system energy performances and its configuration. An experimental characterization of a CPV system previously realized at the University of Salerno, is presented in this paper considering several aspects related to the optical configuration, the concentration factor and the solar cell used. In particular, the parameters of an Indium Gallium Phosphide/Gallium Arsenide/Germanium triple-junction solar cell are investigated as function of the concentration factor determined by means of an experimental procedure that uses different optical configurations. The maximum concentration factor reached by the CPV system is 310 suns. The cell parameters dependence on the concentration is reported together with an electroluminescence analysis of the Indium Gallium Phosphide/Gallium Arsenide/Germanium cell. A monitoring of the electrical power provided by the system during its working is also presented corresponding to different direct irradiance values. A mean power of 2.95 W with an average efficiency of 32.8% is obtained referring to a mean irradiance of 930 W/m"2; lower values are obtained when the irradiance is highly fluctuating. The concentrating photovoltaic system electric energy output is estimated considering different concentration levels; the maximal obtained value is 23.5 W h on a sunny day at 310×. Finally, the temperature of the triple-junction solar cell is evaluated for different months in order to evaluate the potential annual thermal energy production

  3. Peptide and low molecular weight proteins based kidney targeted drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Hailiang; Dang, Ruili; Jiang, Pei

    2018-05-30

    Renal disease is a worldwide public health problem, and unfortunately, the therapeutic index of regular drugs is limited. Thus, it is a great need to develop effective treatment strategies. Among the reported strategies, kidney-targeted drug delivery system is a promising method to increase renal efficacy and reduce extra-renal toxicity. In recent years, working as vehicles for targeted drug delivery, low molecular weight proteins (LMWP) and peptide have received immense attention due to their many advantages, such as selective accumulation in kidney, high drug loading capability, control over routes of biodegradation, convenience in modification at the amino terminus, and good biocompatibility. In this review, we describe the current LMWP and peptide carriers for kidney targeted drug delivery systems. In addition, we discuss different linking strategies between carriers and drugs. Furthermore, we briefly outline the current status and attempt to give an outlook on the further study. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Targeted gene deletion of miRNAs in mice by TALEN system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Takada

    Full Text Available Mice are among the most valuable model animal species with an enormous amount of heritage in genetic modification studies. However, targeting genes in mice is sometimes difficult, especially for small genes, such as microRNAs (miRNAs and targeting genes in repeat sequences. Here we optimized the application of TALEN system for mice and successfully obtained gene targeting technique in mice for intergenic region and series of microRNAs. Microinjection of synthesized RNA of TALEN targeting each gene in one cell stage of embryo was carried out and injected oocytes were transferred into pseudopregnant ICR female mice, producing a high success rate of the targeted deletion of miRNA genes. In our condition, TALEN RNA without poly(A tail worked better than that of with poly(A tail. This mutated allele in miRNA was transmitted to the next generation, suggesting the successful germ line transmission of this targeting method. Consistent with our notion of miRNAs maturation mechanism, in homozygous mutant mice of miR-10a, the non- mutated strand of miRNAs expression was completely diminished. This method will lead us to expand and accelerate our genetic research using mice in a high throughput way.

  5. Monitoring system for automation of experimental researches in cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzinovski, Mikolaj; Trajchevski, Neven; Filipovski, Velimir; Tomov, Mite; Cichosz, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    This study presents procedures being performed when projecting and realizing experimental scientific researches by application of the automated measurement system with a computer support in all experiment stages. A special accent is placed on the measurement system integration and mathematical processing of data from experiments. Automation processes are described through the realized own automated monitoring system for research of physical phenomena in the cutting process with computer-aided data acquisition. The monitoring system is intended for determining the tangential, axial and radial component of the cutting force, as well as average temperature in the cutting process. The hardware acquisition art consists of amplifiers and A/D converters, while as for analysis and visualization software for P C is developed by using M S Visual C++. For mathematical description researched physical phenomena CADEX software is made, which in connection with MATLAB is intended for projecting processing and analysis of experimental scientific researches against the theory for planning multi-factorial experiments. The design and construction of the interface and the computerized measurement system were done by the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Skopje in collaboration with the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies in Skopje and the Institute of Production Engineering and Automation, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland. Gaining own scientific research measurement system with free access to hardware and software parts provides conditions for a complete control of the research process and reduction of interval of the measuring uncertainty of gained results from performed researches.

  6. Experimental database retrieval system 'DARTS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Tetsuo; Tani, Keiji; Haginoya, Hirobumi; Naito, Shinjiro.

    1989-02-01

    In JT-60, a large tokamak device of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), a plasma is fired for 5 ∼ 10 seconds at intervals of about 10 minutes. The each firing is called a shot. Plasma diagnostic data are edited as JT-60 experimental database at every shot cycle and are stored in a large-scale computer (FACOM-M780). Experimentalists look up the data for specific shots which they want to analyze and consider. As the total number of shots increases, they find a difficulty in the looking-up work. In order that they can easily access to their objective shot data or shot group data by using a computer terminal, 'DARTS' (DAtabase ReTrieval System) has been developed. This report may provide enough information on DARTS handling for users. (author)

  7. Ground target geolocation based on digital elevation model for airborne wide-area reconnaissance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Chuan; Ding, Yalin; Xu, Yongsen; Xiu, Jihong

    2018-01-01

    To obtain the geographical position of the ground target accurately, a geolocation algorithm based on the digital elevation model (DEM) is developed for an airborne wide-area reconnaissance system. According to the platform position and attitude information measured by the airborne position and orientation system and the gimbal angles information from the encoder, the line-of-sight pointing vector in the Earth-centered Earth-fixed coordinate frame is solved by the homogeneous coordinate transformation. The target longitude and latitude can be solved with the elliptical Earth model and the global DEM. The influences of the systematic error and measurement error on ground target geolocation calculation accuracy are analyzed by the Monte Carlo method. The simulation results show that this algorithm can improve the geolocation accuracy of ground target in rough terrain area obviously. The geolocation accuracy of moving ground target can be improved by moving average filtering (MAF). The validity of the geolocation algorithm is verified by the flight test in which the plane flies at a geodetic height of 15,000 m and the outer gimbal angle is <47°. The geolocation root mean square error of the target trajectory is <45 and <7 m after MAF.

  8. Nanomedicine and experimental tuberculosis: facts, flaws, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rajesh; Ahmad, Zahoor

    2011-06-01

    Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems form the crux of nanomedicine and are suitable for targeting chronic diseases such as tuberculosis. Extensive experimental data supports the possibility of intermittent chemotherapy with key first-line as well as second-line antituberculosis drugs by employing synthetic or natural carriers, chiefly polymers. Besides sustained release of drugs in plasma and organs, other potential advantages of the system include the possibility of selecting various routes of chemotherapy; reduction in drug dosage, adverse effects, and drug interactions; and targeting drug-resistant and latent bacteria. On the other hand, the choice of carrier, large-scale production, stability, and toxicity of the formulation are some of the major issues that merit immediate attention and resolution. Nevertheless, keeping in view the hurdles in new antituberculosis drug development, nanomedicine has provided a sound platform and a ray of hope for an onslaught against tuberculosis. Tuberculosis remains a major public health concern worldwide. In this paper, the role and significance of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems are discussed for targeting tuberculosis, including strains that are drug resistant with conventional methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An Experimental Seismic Data and Parameter Exchange System for Tsunami Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Hanka, W.; Saul, J.; Weber, B.; Becker, J.; Heinloo, A.; Hoffmann, M.

    2009-12-01

    For several years GFZ Potsdam is operating a global earthquake monitoring system. Since the beginning of 2008, this system is also used as an experimental seismic background data center for two different regional Tsunami Warning Systems (TWS), the IOTWS (Indian Ocean) and the interim NEAMTWS (NE Atlantic and Mediterranean). The SeisComP3 (SC3) software, developed within the GITEWS (German Indian Ocean Tsunami Early Warning System) project, capable to acquire, archive and process real-time data feeds, was extended for export and import of individual processing results within the two clusters of connected SC3 systems. Therefore not only real-time waveform data are routed to the attached warning centers through GFZ but also processing results. While the current experimental NEAMTWS cluster consists of SC3 systems in six designated national warning centers in Europe, the IOTWS cluster presently includes seven centers, with another three likely to join in 2009/10. For NEAMTWS purposes, the GFZ virtual real-time seismic network (GEOFON Extended Virtual Network -GEVN) in Europe was substantially extended by adding many stations from Western European countries optimizing the station distribution. In parallel to the data collection over the Internet, a GFZ VSAT hub for secured data collection of the EuroMED GEOFON and NEAMTWS backbone network stations became operational and first data links were established through this backbone. For the Southeast Asia region, a VSAT hub has been established in Jakarta already in 2006, with some other partner networks connecting to this backbone via the Internet. Since its establishment, the experimental system has had the opportunity to prove its performance in a number of relevant earthquakes. Reliable solutions derived from a minimum of 25 stations were very promising in terms of speed. For important events, automatic alerts were released and disseminated by emails and SMS. Manually verified solutions are added as soon as they become

  10. An analytical approach of thermodynamic behavior in a gas target system on a medical cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Pouyan; Zacchia, Nicholas A; Buckley, Ken; Bénard, François; Schaffer, Paul; Martinez, D Mark; Hoehr, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed to study the thermo-mechanical behavior of gas targets used to produce medical isotopes, assuming that the system reaches steady-state. It is based on an integral analysis of the mass and energy balance of the gas-target system, the ideal gas law, and the deformation of the foil. The heat transfer coefficients for different target bodies and gases have been calculated. Excellent agreement is observed between experiments performed at TRIUMF's 13 MeV cyclotron and the model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculation of the Fe-Mg-Mn and Fe-Mg-Ni systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peisheng; Zhao, Jingrui; Xu, Honghui; Liu, Shuhong; Ouyang, Hongwu [Central South Univ., Hunan (China). State Key Lab. of Powder Metallurgy; Du, Yong [Central South Univ., Hunan (China). State Key Lab. of Powder Metallurgy; Harbin Institute of Technology (China). State Key Lab. of Advanced Welding Production Technology; Gang, Tie; Fen, Jicai [Harbin Institute of Technology (China). State Key Lab. of Advanced Welding Production Technology; Zhang, Lijun [Central South Univ., Hunan (China). State Key Lab. of Powder Metallurgy; Bochum Univ. (Germany). ICAMS Inst.; He, Cuiyun [Guangxi Univ. (China). College of Physical Science and Technology

    2011-01-15

    Based on the thermodynamic calculations extrapolated from the corresponding binary sub-systems, four decisive alloys in the Fe-Mg-Mn system and three in the Fe-Mg-Ni system were selected and prepared using a powder metallurgy method to measure the isothermal sections at 500 C in both systems. The prepared samples were annealed at 500 C, and then subjected to X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry as well as electron probe microanalysis. Taking into account the presently obtained experimental data and the experimental data available in the literature, thermodynamic modeling was performed for the above systems. It was found that a direct extrapolation from the corresponding three binary systems can well reproduce all the experimental data in the Fe-Mg-Mn system, while two thermodynamic parameters are needed in the Fe-Mg-Ni system to fit all the experimental data. The liquidus projections and reaction schemes for the Fe-Mg-Mn and Fe-Mg-Ni systems are also presented. (orig.)

  12. New software of the control and data acquisition system for the Nuclotron internal target station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isupov, A.Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The control and data acquisition system for the Internal Target Station (ITS) of the Nuclotron (LHEP, JINR) is implemented. The new software is based on the ngdp framework under the Unix-like operating system FreeBSD to allow easy network distribution of the on-line data collected from ITS, as well as the internal target remote control

  13. Circular Orbit Target Capture Using Space Tether-Net System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The space tether-net system for on-orbit capture is proposed in this paper. In order to research the dynamic behaviors during system deployment, both free and nonfree deployment dynamics in circular orbit are developed; the system motion with respect to Local Vertical and Local Horizontal frame is also researched with analysis and simulation. The results show that in the case of free deployment, the capture net follows curve trajectories due to the relative orbit dynamic perturbation, and the initial deployment velocities are planned by state transformation equations for static and floating target captures; in the case of non-free deployment, the system undergoes an altitude libration along the Local Vertical, and the analytical solutions that describe the attitude libration are obtained by using variable separation and integration. Finally, the dynamics of postdeployment system is also proved marginally stable if the critical initial conditions are satisfied.

  14. Calculation and experimental verification of the RBE-weighted dose for scanned ion beams in the presence of target motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmel, A; Rietzel, E; Kraft, G; Durante, M; Bert, C

    2011-01-01

    We present an algorithm suitable for the calculation of the RBE-weighted dose for moving targets with a scanned particle beam. For verification of the algorithm, we conducted a series of cell survival measurements that were compared to the calculations. Calculation of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with respect to tumor motion was included in the treatment planning procedure, in order to fully assess its impact on treatment delivery with a scanned ion beam. We implemented an algorithm into our treatment planning software TRiP4D which allows determination of the RBE including its dependence on target tissue, absorbed dose, energy and particle spectra in the presence of organ motion. The calculations are based on time resolved computed tomography (4D-CT) and the corresponding deformation maps. The principal of the algorithm is illustrated in in silico simulations that provide a detailed view of the different compositions of the energy and particle spectra at different target positions and their consequence on the resulting RBE. The calculations were experimentally verified with several cell survival measurements using a dynamic phantom and a scanned carbon ion beam. The basic functionality of the new dose calculation algorithm has been successfully tested in in silico simulations. The algorithm has been verified by comparing its predictions to cell survival measurements. Four experiments showed in total a mean difference (standard deviation) of −1.7% (6.3%) relative to the target dose of 9 Gy (RBE). The treatment planning software TRiP is now capable to calculate the patient relevant RBE-weighted dose in the presence of target motion and was verified against cell survival measurements.

  15. Application of the dynamically allocated virtual clustering management system to emulated tactical network experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Kelvin

    2014-06-01

    The U.S Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has built a "Network Science Research Lab" to support research that aims to improve their ability to analyze, predict, design, and govern complex systems that interweave the social/cognitive, information, and communication network genres. Researchers at ARL and the Network Science Collaborative Technology Alliance (NS-CTA), a collaborative research alliance funded by ARL, conducted experimentation to determine if automated network monitoring tools and task-aware agents deployed within an emulated tactical wireless network could potentially increase the retrieval of relevant data from heterogeneous distributed information nodes. ARL and NS-CTA required the capability to perform this experimentation over clusters of heterogeneous nodes with emulated wireless tactical networks where each node could contain different operating systems, application sets, and physical hardware attributes. Researchers utilized the Dynamically Allocated Virtual Clustering Management System (DAVC) to address each of the infrastructure support requirements necessary in conducting their experimentation. The DAVC is an experimentation infrastructure that provides the means to dynamically create, deploy, and manage virtual clusters of heterogeneous nodes within a cloud computing environment based upon resource utilization such as CPU load, available RAM and hard disk space. The DAVC uses 802.1Q Virtual LANs (VLANs) to prevent experimentation crosstalk and to allow for complex private networks. Clusters created by the DAVC system can be utilized for software development, experimentation, and integration with existing hardware and software. The goal of this paper is to explore how ARL and the NS-CTA leveraged the DAVC to create, deploy and manage multiple experimentation clusters to support their experimentation goals.

  16. Physics-based mathematical models for quantum devices via experimental system identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, S G; Oi, D K L; Devitt, S J [Department of Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Rd, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan)], E-mail: sgs29@cam.ac.uk

    2008-03-15

    We consider the task of intrinsic control system identification for quantum devices. The problem of experimental determination of subspace confinement is considered, and simple general strategies for full Hamiltonian identification and decoherence characterization of a controlled two-level system are presented.

  17. Safety concept for spallation target system. JAERI/KEK joint project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Kaminaga, M.; Haga, K.; Kinoshita, H.; Hino, R.

    2001-01-01

    A MW-class mercury target of the spallation target generates much larger amounts of radioactive nuclides than existing spallation neutron sources. To estimate the maximum level of public exposure under the guillotine break of mercury pipelines that is one of the major accidents of the target system, the hazard analyses were carried out by using a transportation model which considers heat transmission of mercury decay heat, diffusion of evaporated radioactive nuclides, etc. In the analyses, mercury, iodine, bromine and noble gas were selected as the effective source term because of their high vapor pressures and activation levels. From the preliminary analytical results obtained under the conservative conditions of 2 m/s of the air velocity around the mercury leakage area, the maximum level of the public exposure was approximately 5.8 x 10 -3 mSv. This level is negligible in comparison with 1 mSV one-year natural radiation exposure. (author)

  18. [sgRNA design for the CRISPR/Cas9 system and evaluation of its off-target effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Sheng-song; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Li-sheng; Li, Guang-lei; Zhao, Chang-zhi; Ni, Pan; Zhao, Shu-hong

    2015-11-01

    The third generation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing technology has been successfully applied to genome modification of various species including animals, plants and microorganisms. How to improve the efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing and reduce its off-target effects has been extensively explored in this field. Using sgRNA (Small guide RNA) with high efficiency and specificity is one of the critical factors for successful genome editing. Several software have been developed for sgRNA design and/or off-target evaluation, which have advantages and disadvantages respectively. In this review, we summarize characters of 16 kinds online and standalone software for sgRNA design and/or off-target evaluation and conduct a comparative analysis of these different kinds of software through developing 38 evaluation indexes. We also summarize 11 experimental approaches for testing genome editing efficiency and off-target effects as well as how to screen highly efficient and specific sgRNA.

  19. Containment atmosphere cooling system for experimental fast reactor 'JOYO'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Mikio; Hoshi, Akio; Sato, Morihiko; Takeuchi, Kaoru

    1979-01-01

    The experimental fast reactor ''JOYO'', the first sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan, achieved the initially licensed full power operation (50 MW) in July 1978 and is now under steady operation. Toshiba has participated in the construction of this reactor as a leading manufacturer and supplied various systems. This article outlines the design philosophy, system concepts and the operating experience of the containment atmosphere cooling system which has many design interfaces throughout the whole plant and requires especially high reliability. The successful performance of this system