WorldWideScience

Sample records for tannin-formaldehyde gel decontamination

  1. Chemical Gel for Surface Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Moon, J. K.; Won, H. J.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, C. K.

    2010-01-01

    Many chemical decontamination processes operate by immersing components in aggressive chemical solutions. In these applications chemical decontamination technique produce large amounts of radioactive liquid waste. Therefore it is necessary to develop processes using chemical gels instead of chemical solutions, to avoid the well-known disadvantages of chemical decontamination techniques while retaining their high efficiency. Chemical gels decontamination process consists of applying the gel by spraying it onto the surface of large area components (floors, walls, etc) to be decontaminated. The gel adheres to any vertical or complex surface due to their thixotropic properties and operates by dissolving the radioactive deposit, along with a thin layer of the gel support, so that the radioactivity trapped at the surface can be removed. Important aspects of the gels are that small quantities can be used and they show thixitropic properties : liquid during spraying, and solid when stationary, allowing for strong adherence to surfaces. This work investigates the decontamination behaviors of organic-based chemical gel for SS 304 metallic surfaces contaminated with radioactive materials

  2. Systematic studies of tannin-formaldehyde aerogels: preparation and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral-Labat, Gisele; Szczurek, Andrzej; Fierro, Vanessa; Pizzi, Antonio; Celzard, Alain

    2013-02-01

    Gelation of tannin-formaldehyde (TF) solutions was systematically investigated by changing pH and concentration of TF resin in water. In this way we constructed the TF phase diagram, from which chemical hydrogels could be described, and also synthesized thermoreversible tannin-based hydrogels. Conditions of non-gelation were also determined. Hydrogels were dried in supercritical CO2, leading to a broad range of TF aerogels. The latter were investigated for volume shrinkage, total porosity, micro-, meso- and macropore volumes, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, microscopic texture, mechanical and thermal properties. All these properties are discussed in relation to each other, leading to an accurate and self-consistent description of these bioresource-based highly porous materials. The conditions for obtaining the highest BET surface area or mesopore volume were determined and explained in relation to the preparation conditions. The highest BET surface area, 880 m2 g-1, is remarkably high for organic aerogels derived from a natural resource.

  3. Thixotropic corrosive gels for nuclear decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargues, St.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was the development of corrosive gels for metallic surface decontamination. These gels formulation, based on a powerful oxidant (the cerium IV), the nitric acid, a mineral charge (silica) and a non ionic surface-active, has been developed according to the specific constraints of the nuclear industry. The objective was to prepare thixotropic gels becoming liquid after shacking to allow an easy pulverization and coming again solid to permit a perfect adhesion on the metallic surface. This rheological study of the gels has been completed by an evaluation of their corrosive properties. The last part of the work presents an industrial utilization during two years. (A.L.B.)

  4. Development of strippable gel for surface decontamination applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.; Sandhya, U.; Khot, S.A.; Srinivas, C.

    2015-07-01

    Strippable gels are an attractive option for decontamination of surfaces particularly when materials are to be reused after decontamination. The process in general results in good decontamination performance with minimal secondary waste generation. This paper reports on development of strippable gel formulation using polyvinyl alcohol as the gel former. Peeling behavior of the gel film improved when glycerol was used as plasticizer. Incorporation of decontaminating agents is essential for the gel to be effective, so a number of decontaminating agents were screened based on their miscibility with the gel, smooth peeling, and good decontamination performance. Based on this study, a strippable gel, ‘INDIGEL’ was formulated as a potential candidate for surface decontamination applications. Extensive trials on evaluation of decontamination performance of Indigel were done on simulated surfaces like stainless steel tray, stainless steel fume hood, PVC floor, granite and ceramic table tops. Results show that Indigel is highly effective for decontamination of surfaces contaminated with all types of radionuclides. Simplicity of its use coupled with good decontamination ability will find application in nuclear and other chemical industries. (author)

  5. Properties of resorcinol-tannin-formaldehyde copolymer resins prepared from the bark extracts of Taiwan acacia and China fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Jau; Lan, Wei-Chuan

    2006-01-01

    Resorcinol-tannin-formaldehyde copolymer resins (RTF) were prepared by using the bark extracts of Taiwan acacia (Acacia confusa) and China fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) to substitute part of the resorcinol. From the results, the content of reactive phenolic materials in Taiwan acacia and China fir bark extracts were 51.6% and 46.5%, respectively. Aromatic compounds were the main components in the bark extracts showed by FT-IR analysis. The conventional synthesis condition used for RF resin was certainly not suitable for the RTF copolymer resin. It should be formed the novolak RF prepolymer by reacting the resorcinol with formaldehyde at the first stage, and then the bark extracts added and underwent the copolymerization reaction under acidic condition at the second-stage. The RTF copolymer resins prepared had cold-setting capability. They had higher viscosity, shorter gel time as compared with the RF resin. The RTF copolymer resins could be carried out the gluing application immediately after the hardener was added and had bonding strength the same as RF resin. But the RTF copolymer resins had worse stability and shorter shelf life than RF resin.

  6. New decontamination techniques: chemical gels, electropolishing and abrasives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunel, G.; Gauchon, J.P.; Kervegant, Y.; Josso, F.

    1991-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear installations requires decontamination techniques that are efficient, simple to apply and producing a small amount of wastes, which are easy to process. With a view to this, three decontamination methods, which appear to be particularly suited to decommissioning, have been studied. These three methods are: - spraying of gels carrying chemical decontaminating agents, - electropolishing with a swab device, - abrasives blasting. After parametric tests on non-radioactive and active samples, the industrial application of these methods in the dismantling of installations was studied. These industrial applications concern: - decontamination of pieces coming from the German BWR ISAR by immersion and gel spraying, - decontamination, mainly by gel spraying, and dismantling of the BRENNILIS bituminisation plant, - decontamination of part of the cooling circuit of the graphite gas reactor G2 by gel spraying, - decontamination of a component of the FBR SuperPhenix, using dry abrasives blasting. During the first three applications, generated secondary wastes volume and form were determined. 33 tabs., 16 figs., 12 refs

  7. Study of the characterization and formulation of the decontamination gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Youn Bong; Bang, In Bae; Bae, Bong Moon; Oh, Gyu Hwan

    2011-04-01

    To develop a chemical gel decontamination technology for a removal of non-fixed contaminants during the maintenance and decommissioning works of high radiation hot cells which have been used for a recycling or treatment of spent fuels we have prepare gels with CAB-O-SIL M-5 or Aerosil 380 as viscosifier and some non-ionic surfactants such as diethylene glycol hexyl ether, triethylene glycol dodecyl ether, polyethylene glycol 600, and triethylene glycol butyl ether. Surfactants are playing important roles in manipulating the properties of decontamination the gels. We have found the CAB-O-SIL with triethylene glycol butyl ether and Aerosil with triethylene glycol dodecyl ether systems promising for the decontamination work

  8. Liquids, gels, foams and supercritical fluids: four states of matter for radioactive decontamination of solids - 59158

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Sylvain; Causse, Jeremy; Fournel, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: To face the future challenges in the nuclear industry as dismantling and decommissioning, the Advanced Decontamination Processes Laboratory (Laboratoire des Procedes Avances de Decontamination - LPAD) from the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is developing new radioactive decontamination of solids processes to protect workers and to reduce strongly the quantity of secondary wastes produced. We have focused in the last past years on the use of four states of matter to develop new patented nuclear decontamination processes: micellar aqueous solutions, gels, foams and supercritical fluids. The conference gives an overview of these four ways to decontaminate a solid surface. The major applications and results obtained on real decontamination operations will be presented for each process. First, micellar solutions based on copolymers blocks surfactants are presented for radioactive degreasing. The advantage to formulate self-drying and cracking gels films sprayed on metallic surfaces is then detailed. For decontamination foams, an approach using new additives polymers or particles- is defended to obtain high life time foams that are able to treat huge and complex shape materials such as fission products tanks or steam generator. At the end, original works to treat textiles or gloves boxes using surfactants in CO 2 supercritical fluid are given. Finally, the major challenges to develop more secure processes and to reach a better decontamination efficiency are given. (authors)

  9. EPR Spectroscopy Investigation of Cu2+ Ions Adsorbed in Tannin-Formaldehyde Resins of Mimosa (Acacia mearnsii Bark Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo H. Herbst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical environment of Cu2+ ions adsorbed in tannin-formaldehyde resins of Acacia mearnsii bark extracts, prepared from polybutene, is investigated by EPR spectroscopy at 300 K. The spectrum is simulated considering two isolated axial Cu(II species (Species 1: A∥=16.50(5 mT, A⊥=1.20(10 mT, g∥=2.28(1, and g⊥=2.08(1; Species 2: A∥=15.00(5 mT, A⊥=1.50(10 mT, g∥=2.32(1, and g⊥=2.05(2, superposed to a broad line (giso=2.14(1; linewidth = 30.0(5 mT assigned to Cu(II aggregates. Measurements at 77 K did not improve spectral resolution. Heating at 413 K changes the hyperfine parameters of Species 2 (A∥=14.20(5 mT, A⊥=1.20(10 mT, g∥=2.33(1, and g⊥=2.07(2 and slightly modifies the parameters of the broad line (giso=2.11(2; linewidth = 40.00(50 mT but does not change Species 1, assigned to Cu(II species immobilized into resin pores in cathecolate-type coordination sites. Species 2 is assigned to Cu(II species immobilized at the outer resin surface. Upon extended heating, a reversible formation of semiquinone-type paramagnetic radicals (giso=2.0037(1 is observed, assigned to the partial collapse of the resin polymeric network.

  10. Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montford, B.

    1975-01-01

    Development of special techniques has permitted the use of mild decontamination processes for the CANDU type reactor primary coolant circuit, overcoming many of the problems associated with conventional decontamination processes, which use strong, acidic reagents. (Author)

  11. Superabsorbing gel for actinide, lanthanide, and fission product decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael D.; Mertz, Carol J.

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides an aqueous gel composition for removing actinide ions, lanthanide ions, fission product ions, or a combination thereof from a porous surface contaminated therewith. The composition comprises a polymer mixture comprising a gel forming cross-linked polymer and a linear polymer. The linear polymer is present at a concentration that is less than the concentration of the cross-linked polymer. The polymer mixture is at least about 95% hydrated with an aqueous solution comprising about 0.1 to about 3 percent by weight (wt %) of a multi-dentate organic acid chelating agent, and about 0.02 to about 0.6 molar (M) carbonate salt, to form a gel. When applied to a porous surface contaminated with actinide ions, lanthanide ions, and/or other fission product ions, the aqueous gel absorbs contaminating ions from the surface.

  12. Role of pluronics on rheological, drying and crack initiation of 'suckable' gels of decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousquet, C.

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this work was to understand the role of an addition of pluronics on the rheological behaviour, the drying and the fracturing of 'suckable' gels used for nuclear decontamination. The system studied was an aqueous suspension of silica (100 g/L of Aerosil 380) in a strong acidic medium (HNO 3 /H 3 PO 4 1.5 mol/L/1.5 mol/L) in presence of pluronics. Pluronics are amphiphilic tri-blocks copolymers composed of ethylene poly-oxide blocks and of propylene poly-oxide. The first part of this study deals with the characterization of the rheological properties of the gels. From viscosity retaking measurements, flow rheo-grams analysis and the viscoelastic properties of the gels, have been determined an improvement of the rheological properties of the gels significant from the addition of 5 g/L of copolymer. In a second part, the determination of adsorption isotherms coupled to small angles neutrons diffusion measurements has revealed that copolymers are adsorbed flat on silica in bridging the aggregates between them and that the improvement of the rheological behaviour of the gels is due to the increase of the bonds density of the gelled lattice. Moreover, beyond 10 g/L, the adsorption saturation of copolymers at the surface of the silica prevents the bridging of the aggregates which induces the gel destabilization. The last part of this work deals with the characterization of characteristic values of drying and of crack initiation of gels. Then is revealed a relation between the drying kinetics and the formation of cracks in the gel layer. Moreover, the study of the evolution of stresses in the gel layer during time allows to reveal that the addition of pluronics to the formulation of gels allows to improve the gel resistance to the crack initiation and to the delamination. (O.M.)

  13. Rheological and structural characterization of colloidal gels used for nuclear decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, Romain

    2013-01-01

    During the exploitation of a nuclear plant, or all other installation which uses radioactive materials, maintenance tasks or decommissioning operations are mandatory in order to preserve people health and environment. Among existing processes, decontaminating gels have been development by CEA in order to overcome the drawbacks of the traditionally used methods. These colloidal gels were originally formulated in an empirical way; however, the knowledge of their structures is important as it rules all the rheological behaviors of the material. The way these gels flow is an important parameter to the process and our laboratory measurements can be transposed to the industrial world. Moreover, other composition refinements have been developed in order to extend their field of use and efficiency. (author) [fr

  14. Pulp revascularization after root canal decontamination with calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Adriana de Jesus; Lins, Fernanda Freitas; Nagata, Juliana Yuri; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi; de Almeida, José Flávio Affonso; de Souza-Filho, Francisco José

    2013-03-01

    Pulp revascularization may be considered a promising alternative for necrotic immature teeth. Many studies have accomplished passive decontamination associated with an antibiotic paste. To date, there is no report evaluating calcium hydroxide associated with 2% chlorhexidine gel for revascularization therapy. The aim of this case report was to describe a new proposal for pulp revascularization with mechanical decontamination and intracanal medication composed of calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine gel. The patient, a 9-year-old girl, suffered an intrusion associated with pulp exposure caused by an enamel-dentin fracture in her maxillary left central incisor. After diagnosis, treatment consisted of revascularization therapy with gentle manual instrumentation of the cervical and medium thirds of the root in addition to intracanal medication with calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine gel for 21 days. In the second session, a blood clot was stimulated up to the cervical third of the root canal. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA; Angelus, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil) was used for cervical sealing of the canal. Coronal sealing was performed with temporary filling material and composite resin. During the follow-up period, the root canal space showed a progressive decrease in width, mineralized tissue deposition on root canal walls, and apical closure. A cone-beam computed tomography scan taken at the 2-year follow-up confirmed these findings and did not show complete root canal calcification. This new proposal for revascularization therapy with 2% chlorhexidine gel may be used for the treatment of necrotic immature root canals. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sol-gel derived flexible silica aerogel as selective adsorbent for water decontamination from crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi Mahani, A; Motahari, S; Mohebbi, A

    2017-10-11

    Oil spills are the most important threat to the sea ecosystem. The present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of sol-gel parameters on seawater decontamination from crude oil by use of flexible silica aerogel. To this goal, methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) based silica aerogels were prepared by two-step acid-base catalyzed sol-gel process, involving ambient pressure drying (APD) method. To investigate the effects of sol-gel parameters, the aerogels were prepared under two different acidic and basic pH values (i.e. 4 and 8) and varied ethanol/MTMS molar ratios from 5 to 15. The adsorption capacity of the prepared aerogels was evaluated for two heavy and light commercial crude oils under multiple adsorption-desorption cycles. To reduce process time, desorption cycles were carried out by using roll milling for the first time. At optimum condition, silica aerogels are able to uptake heavy and light crude oils with the order of 16.7 and 13.7, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of pluronics on rheological, drying and crack initiation of 'suckable' gels of decontamination; Role des pluronics sur les proprietes rheologiques, de sechage et de fracturation des gels 'aspirables' de decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousquet, C

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this work was to understand the role of an addition of pluronics on the rheological behaviour, the drying and the fracturing of 'suckable' gels used for nuclear decontamination. The system studied was an aqueous suspension of silica (100 g/L of Aerosil 380) in a strong acidic medium (HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} 1.5 mol/L/1.5 mol/L) in presence of pluronics. Pluronics are amphiphilic tri-blocks copolymers composed of ethylene poly-oxide blocks and of propylene poly-oxide. The first part of this study deals with the characterization of the rheological properties of the gels. From viscosity retaking measurements, flow rheo-grams analysis and the viscoelastic properties of the gels, have been determined an improvement of the rheological properties of the gels significant from the addition of 5 g/L of copolymer. In a second part, the determination of adsorption isotherms coupled to small angles neutrons diffusion measurements has revealed that copolymers are adsorbed flat on silica in bridging the aggregates between them and that the improvement of the rheological behaviour of the gels is due to the increase of the bonds density of the gelled lattice. Moreover, beyond 10 g/L, the adsorption saturation of copolymers at the surface of the silica prevents the bridging of the aggregates which induces the gel destabilization. The last part of this work deals with the characterization of characteristic values of drying and of crack initiation of gels. Then is revealed a relation between the drying kinetics and the formation of cracks in the gel layer. Moreover, the study of the evolution of stresses in the gel layer during time allows to reveal that the addition of pluronics to the formulation of gels allows to improve the gel resistance to the crack initiation and to the delamination. (O.M.)

  17. Radioactive decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This Code of Practice covers: (a) the decontamination of plant items, buildings and associated equipment; (b) decontamination of protective clothing; (c) simple personal decontamination; and (d) the basic mechanisms of contamination and their influence on decontaminability. (author)

  18. New decontamination techniques generating a low volume of effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document presents some decontamination techniques, their principles, characteristics and advantages and provides references on the subject. Techniques as foam and spray foam decontamination, dry steam decontamination, electro-decontamination and gel decontamination are presented. A presentation of TRIADE, cleanup dismantling servicing, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  19. Oxidizing gel formulation for nuclear decontamination: rheological and acidic properties of the organic matrix and its ozonolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouy, E.

    2003-10-01

    An acidic and oxidizing gel was formulated with a purely organic matrix, xanthan gum, at low concentrations (1 to 2 wt %). This polymer gel was investigated in various media (aqueous, acidic and ceric) by means of rheology: shear thinning behaviour, thixotropy, yield stress... Evidences of unexpected rheological properties in highly concentrated media show that xanthan is quite convenient for industrial projection of this type of gel on metallic walls in nuclear plants, notwithstanding its time-limited resistance to oxidation (about a few hours). Complexation mechanisms between ceric species and polar sites of the polymer led us to characterise acidic properties of our xanthan sample by potentiometric titration and 1 H NMR techniques. The matrix was finally treated by ozonolysis to suppress organic residues, as required to handle nuclear wastes. In acidic medium, ozonolysis of the gel was achieved successfully while in acidic and ceric medium this process showed limited efficiency, needing further investigation to be clarified. (author)

  20. Environmental decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C. (eds.)

    1981-02-01

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination. (DLS)

  1. Environmental decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C.

    1981-02-01

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination

  2. NPP decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedov, V.M.; Senin, E.V.; Nesterenko, A.P.; Zakharova, E.V.

    1988-01-01

    Decontamination methods for NPP with LWGR and WWER reactors are considered. Circuits iof NPP with LWGR are decontaminated with solutions on the basis of oxalic acid and hydrogen peroxide with addition of nitrate-ions, whereas WWER with complexones followed treatment with strong oxidizers. As a result of decontamination γ-background of the equipment decreases 5-100 fold. The instruments and room surfaces are decontaminated using vapour-ejecting sprayers, hydromonitors and special baths with solutions on the basis of mineral acids and complexones with various additions, which can be used for stainless and carbon steels, coatings of epoxide enamels and plastifiers. Methods of dry decontamination using easily peeled off coatings on the basis of polyvinyl alcohol and other materials lately are widely used for NPP room decontamination. Small metallic parts of surface are decontaminated by electrochemical method. Different mixtures of mineral and organic acids, as well as caustic potash and boric acid, are used as electrolytes

  3. Surface decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S. da; Teixeira, M.V.

    1986-06-01

    The general methods of surface decontamination used in laboratory and others nuclear installations areas, as well as the procedures for handling radioactive materials and surfaces of work are presented. Some methods for decontamination of body external parts are mentioned. The medical supervision and assistance are required for internal or external contamination involving or not lesion in persons. From this medical radiation protection decontamination procedures are determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Enzymatic decontamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Prusińska-Kurstak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper is devoted to the methods of decontamination of weapons of mass destruction (biological and chemical, based on the use of protein catalysts of chemical reactions — enzymes. This paper presents the possibility of using enzymes to neutralize the harmful and destructive to the environment and human chemicals used in weapons of mass destruction. The mechanism of the enzymatic reaction is showed. These are the possibilities of using lysozyme as destructor dangerous bacteria (E. coli, anthrax Bacillus anthracis and their spores. The advantages and disadvantages of chemical and enzymatic methods of decontamination have been compared. It was found that under certain conditions the enzymes can be an alternative to chemical methods of decontamination of weapons of mass destruction.[b]Keywords[/b]: decontamination, weapons of mass destruction, enzymes

  5. Skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrle, G.

    1975-01-01

    A general survey of skin decontamination is given. The success of every decontamination treatments depends mainly on the speed, but also on the care, with which the action is taken. The best way to remove the skin contaminants is thorough washing under lukewarm running water with mild soap and a soft brush. This washing is to be repeated several times for a period of several minutes. If results are not satisfactory, light duty detergents and wetting agents available commercially may also be used. Some solutions which have proved useful are mentioned. The decontamination solutions are best used in the order given. When one has no satisfactory decontamination effect, the next one is to be used. If necessary, these agents must be used several times in the stated order as long as this does not involve too much strain for the skin. All the decontamination measures mentioned refer, of course, to intact healthy skin. After decontamination has been completed, the skin should be treated with a protective cream

  6. Decontamination of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-seven papers were presented at this conference in five sessions. Topics covered include regulation, control and consequences of decontamination; decontamination of components and facilities; chemical and non-chemical methods of decontamination; and TMI decontamination experience

  7. Site decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicker, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the several DOE sites that have been radiologically decontaminated under the auspices of the Nevada Operations Office are three whose physical characteristics are unique. These are the Tatum Dome Test Site (TDTS) near Hattiesburg, Mississippi; a location of mountainous terrain (Pahute Mesa) on the Nevada Test Site; and the GNOME site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. In each case the contamination, the terrain, and the climate conditions were different. This presentation includes a brief description of each site, the methods used to perform radiological surveys, the logistics required to support the decontamination (including health physics and sample analysis), and the specific techniques used to reduce or remove the contamination

  8. A study on dry decontamination using ion exchange polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ki Jung; Ahn, Byung Gil

    1997-12-01

    Through the project of {sup A} study on dry decontamination using ion exchange polymer{sup ,} the followings were investigated. 1. Highly probable decontamination technologies for the decontamination were investigated. 2. Development of gel type decontamination agent using ion-exchange resin powder (mixed type) as an ion exchanger. 3. Manufacturing of contaminated specimens (5 kinds) with Cs-137 solution and dust / Cs-137 solution. 4. Decontamination performance evaluation of the manufactured agent. 5. Analysis of composition (XRF) and the structure of surface of specimens (optic micrography). (author). 20 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Chemical surface decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexa, J.

    1978-12-01

    A brief analysis of the decontamination process and some general rules of the chemical decontamination of surfaces are reported. About 30 decontamination procedures developed by UJV are presented in an annex. (author)

  10. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  11. Oxidizing gel formulation for nuclear decontamination: rheological and acidic properties of the organic matrix and its ozonolysis; Formulation d'un gel oxydant a matrice organique applicable a la decontamination nucleaire: proprietes rheologiques, acido-basiques et ozonolyse de la matrice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouy, E

    2003-10-15

    An acidic and oxidizing gel was formulated with a purely organic matrix, xanthan gum, at low concentrations (1 to 2 wt %). This polymer gel was investigated in various media (aqueous, acidic and ceric) by means of rheology: shear thinning behaviour, thixotropy, yield stress... Evidences of unexpected rheological properties in highly concentrated media show that xanthan is quite convenient for industrial projection of this type of gel on metallic walls in nuclear plants, notwithstanding its time-limited resistance to oxidation (about a few hours). Complexation mechanisms between ceric species and polar sites of the polymer led us to characterise acidic properties of our xanthan sample by potentiometric titration and {sup 1}H NMR techniques. The matrix was finally treated by ozonolysis to suppress organic residues, as required to handle nuclear wastes. In acidic medium, ozonolysis of the gel was achieved successfully while in acidic and ceric medium this process showed limited efficiency, needing further investigation to be clarified. (author)

  12. Ontario Hydro decontamination experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, C.S.; Patterson, R.W.; Upton, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Ontario Hydro currently operates 18 nuclear electric generating units of the CANDU design with a net capacity of 12,402 MW(e). An additional 1,762 MW(e) is under construction. The operation of these facilities has underlined the need to have decontamination capability both to reduce radiation fields, as well as to control and reduce contamination during component maintenance. This paper presents Ontario Hydro decontamination experience in two key areas - full heat transport decontamination to reduce system radiation fields, and component decontamination to reduce loose contamination particularly as practised in maintenance and decontamination centres. (author)

  13. Biodegradation of concrete intended for their decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jestin, A.

    2005-05-01

    The decontamination of sub-structural materials represents a stake of high importance because of the high volume generated. It is agreed then to propose efficient and effective processes. The process of bio-decontamination of the hydraulic binders leans on the mechanisms of biodegradation of concretes, phenomenon characterized in the 40's by an indirect attack of the material by acids stem from the microbial metabolism: sulphuric acid (produced by Thiobacillus), nitric acid (produced by Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) and organic acids (produced by fungi). The principle of the bio-decontamination process is to apply those microorganisms on the surface of the contaminated material, in order to damage its surface and to retrieve the radionuclides. One of the multiple approaches of the process is the use of a bio-gel that makes possible the micro-organisms application. (author)

  14. Chemical decontamination method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Hitoshi.

    1996-01-01

    Metal wastes contaminated by radioactive materials are contained in a rotational decontamination vessel, and the metal wastes are rotated therein while being in contact with a slight amount of a decontamination liquid comprising a mineral acid. As the mineral acid, a mixed acid of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and fluoric acid is preferably used. Alternatively, chemical decontamination can also be conducted by charging an acid resistant stirring medium in the rotational decontamination vessel. The surface of the metal wastes is uniformly covered by the slight amount of decontamination liquid to dissolve the surface layer. In addition, heat of dissolution generated in this case is accumulated in the inside of the rotational decontamination vessel, the temperature is elevated with no particular heating, thereby enabling to obtain an excellent decontamination effect substantially at the same level as in the case of heating the liquid to 70degC in a conventional immersion decontamination method. Further, although contact areas between the metal wastes and the immersion vessel are difficult to be decontaminated in the immersion decontamination method, all of areas can be dissolved uniformly in the present invention. (T.M.)

  15. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  16. Gross decontamination experiment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment

  17. Decontamination of radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despotovic, R.; Music, S.; Subotic, B.; Wolf, R.H.H.

    1979-01-01

    Removal of radioactive isotopes under controlled conditions is determined by a number of physical and chemical properties considered radiocontaminating and by the characteristics of the contaminated object. Determination of quantitative and qualitative factors for equilibrium in a contamination-decontamination system provides the basis for rational and successful decontamination. The decontamination of various ''solid/liquid'' systems is interesting from the scientific and technological point of view. These systems are of great importance in radiation protection (decontamination of various surfaces, liquids, drinking water, fixation or collection of radiocontaminants). Different types of decontamination systems are discussed. The dependence of rate and efficiency of the preparation conditions and on the ageing of the scavenger is described. The influence of coagulating electrolyte on radioactive isotope fixation efficiency was also determined. The fixation of fission radionuclide on oxide scavengers has been studied. The connection between fundamental investigations and practical decontamination of the ''solid/liquid'' systems is discussed. (author)

  18. Decontamination techniques for dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, J.R.; Lorin; Courtois, C.; Gauchon, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Decontamination is one step of dismantling operations which can be necessary to optimize dismantling wastes management. Choice of a decontamination process follows experiments from laboratory scale to pilote scale, and takes into account needed decontamination efficiency, secondary wastes balance, difficulties and cost of industrial operations. Some examples of process development and industrial applications are indicated for gas cooled reactor G2 and fast breeder reactor Rapsodie

  19. NPOx Decontamination System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, K.; Demmer, R.; Argyle, M.; Ancho, M.; Hai-Pao, J.

    2002-02-25

    The nitric acid/potassium permanganate/oxalic acid (NPOx) Phase II system is being prepared for remote operation at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Several tests have been conducted to prepare the system for remote operation. This system performs very well with high decontamination efficiencies and very low quantities of waste generated during decontamination.

  20. Influence of Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaack, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the influence of several decontamination techniques on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. There are different kinds of decontamination methods like mechanical and chemical processes. The techniques specified, and their potential to change measured characteristics like the isotope vector of the contamination is demonstrated. It is common for all these processes, that the contamination is removed from the surface. Slightly adhered nuclides can be removed more effectively than strongly sticking nuclides. Usually a mixture of these nuclides forms the contamination. Problematically any kind of decontamination will influence the nuclide distribution and the isotope vector. On the one hand it is helpful to know the nuclide distribution and the isotope vector for the radiological characterization of the nuclear facility and on the other hand this information will be changed in the decontamination process. This is important especially for free release procedures, radiation protection and waste management. Some questions on the need of decontamination have been discussed. (authors)

  1. Separations canyon decontamination facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershey, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Highly radioactive process equipment is decontaminated at the Savannah River Plant in specially equipped areas of the separations canyon building so that direct mechanical repairs or alterations can be made. Using these facilities it is possible to decontaminate and repair equipment such as 10- x 11-ft storage tanks, 8- x 8-ft batch evaporator pots and columns, 40-in. Bird centrifuges, canyon pumps and agitators, and various canyon piping systems or ''jumpers.'' For example, centrifuge or evaporator pots can be decontaminated and rebuilt for about 60 percent of the 1974 replacement cost. The combined facilities can decontaminate and repair 6 to 10 pieces of major equipment per year. Decontamination time varies with type of equipment and radioactivity levels encountered

  2. Separations canyon decontamination facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershey, J.H.

    1975-05-01

    Highly radioactive process equipment is decontaminated at the Savannah River Plant in specially equipped areas of the separations canyon buildings so that direct mechanical repairs or alterations can be made. Using these facilities it is possible to decontaminate and repair equipment such as 10- x 11-ft storage tanks, 8- x 8-ft batch evaporator pots and columns, 40-in. Bird centrifuges, canyon pumps and agitators, and various canyon piping systems or ''jumpers.'' For example, centrifuge or evaporator pots can be decontaminated and rebuilt for about 60 percent of the 1974 replacement cost. The combined facilities can decontaminate and repair 6 to 10 pieces of major equipment per year. Decontamination time varies with type of equipment and radioactivity levels encountered. (U.S.)

  3. Biodegradation of concrete intended for their decontamination; Biodegradation de matrices cimentaires en vue de leur decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jestin, A

    2005-05-15

    The decontamination of sub-structural materials represents a stake of high importance because of the high volume generated. It is agreed then to propose efficient and effective processes. The process of bio-decontamination of the hydraulic binders leans on the mechanisms of biodegradation of concretes, phenomenon characterized in the 40's by an indirect attack of the material by acids stem from the microbial metabolism: sulphuric acid (produced by Thiobacillus), nitric acid (produced by Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) and organic acids (produced by fungi). The principle of the bio-decontamination process is to apply those microorganisms on the surface of the contaminated material, in order to damage its surface and to retrieve the radionuclides. One of the multiple approaches of the process is the use of a bio-gel that makes possible the micro-organisms application. (author)

  4. Technical Improvements to an Absorbing Supergel for Radiological Decontamination in Tropical Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mertz, Carol J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kivenas, Nadia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); demmer, Rick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) developed a superabsorbing gel-based process (SuperGel) for the decontamination of cesium from concrete and other porous building materials. Here, we report on results that tested the gel decontamination technology on specific concrete and ceramic formulations from a coastal city in Southeast Asia, which may differ significantly from some U.S. sources. Results are given for the evaluation of americium and cesium sequestering agents that are commercially available at a reasonable cost; the evaluation of a new SuperGel formulation that combines the decontamination properties of cesium and americium; the variation of the contamination concentration to determine the effects on the decontamination factors with concrete, tile, and brick samples; and pilot-scale testing (0.02–0.09 m2 or 6–12 in. square coupons).

  5. PWR decontamination feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silliman, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    The decontamination work which has been accomplished is reviewed and it is concluded that it is worthwhile to investigate further four methods for decontamination for future demonstration. These are: dilute chemical; single stage strong chemical; redox processes; and redox/chemical in combination. Laboratory work is recommended to define the agents and processes for demonstration and to determine the effect of the solvents on PWR materials. The feasibility of Indian Point 1 for decontamination demonstrations is discussed, and it is shown that the system components of Indian Point 1 are well suited for use in demonstrations

  6. Long lasting decontamination foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  7. Nuclear reactor decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torok, John.

    1982-01-01

    A new method for decontaminating and removing corrosion products from nuclear reactors was developed which involves first oxidizing insoluble metal oxides on the contaminated surfaces with ozone to make them more soluble in water or acid solutions. The method is effective on chromium (III) oxide and can be used to decontaminate iron-, chromium-, and nickel-containing alloys such as are used in PWRs. The solubilized metal oxides are then dissolved in ozone-saturated water. Mild acidic decontamination reagents in low concentrations in water are used to remove the remaining surface oxides. Insoluble material is filtered from the aqueous solution, and both dissolved metals and the decontamination reagent are removed with cation and anion-exchange resins

  8. Food decontamination using nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research indicates that nanomaterials including nanoemulsions are promising decontamination media for the reduction of food contaminating pathogens. The inhibitory effect of nanoparticles for pathogens could be due to deactivate cellular enzymes and DNA; disrupting of membrane permeability; and/...

  9. Challenges in decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengal, P.R.; Davis, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The recovery of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 facilities has transformed decontamination from traditional ''mop-and-bucket'' cleaning into an advanced technology. The decontamination of the reactor building and auxiliary and fuel handling building required the development of new methodologies, adaptation of equipment from other fields, and the development of new equipment to meet the projects goals. Experience at TMI-2 has resulted in the development of techniques for; radiological characterization with wide angle detectors and autoradiograhic techniques for the determination of sources and depth of contamination penetration, coatings and base surface removal with ultra-high-pressure water dissolution chemicals and mechanical scabblers (paint-chipping devices), and surface decontamination with high-pressure steam vacuum extraction. This paper presents an overview of the development of decontamination technology and its impact on the TMI-2 program. The benefits of expanding the TMI-2 experience to general use in the nuclear industry are discussed

  10. Advance in radioactive decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basteris M, J. A.; Farrera V, R.

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present work was to determine if the application of the Na hypochlorite has some utility in the radioactive decontamination, in comparison with the water, detergent and alcohol. Several methods were compared for decontaminate the iodine 131 and technetium 99, the work table and the skin it was carried out an initial count with the Geiger Muller. Later on, in a single occasion, the areas were washed with abundant water, alcohol, clothes detergent and sodium hypochlorite (used commercially as domestic bleacher) without diluting. Observing that the percentage in the decrease of the counted radioactivity by the Geiger Muller, decreased in the following way: It was demonstrated that the Na hypochlorite presents the highest index of radioactive decontamination with 100% of effectiveness. The Na hypochlorite is an excellent substance that can be used with effectiveness and efficiency like decontamination element in the accident cases of radioactive contamination in the clinical laboratories of nuclear medicine. (Author)

  11. Concrete decontamination scoping tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report details the research efforts and scoping tests performed at the Idaho Chemical Process Plant using scabbling, chemical, and electro-osmotic decontamination techniques on radiologically contaminated concrete

  12. Decommissioning and Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaut, V.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's decommissioning and decontamination programme are (1) to develop, test and optimise the technologies and procedures for decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear installations in order to minimise the waste arising and the distributed dose; (2) to optimise the environmental impact; (3) to reduce the cost of the end-of-life of the installation; (4) to make these new techniques available to the industry; (5) to share skills and competences. The programme and achievements in 1999 are summarised

  13. Facility decontamination technology workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    Purpose of the meeting was to provide a record of experience at nuclear facilities, other than TMI-2, of events and incidents which have required decontamination and dose reduction activities, and to furnish GPU and others involved in the TMI-2 cleanup with the results of that decontamination and dose reduction technology. Separate abstracts were prepared for 24 of the 25 papers; the remaining paper had been previously abstracted

  14. Facility decontamination technology workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    Purpose of the meeting was to provide a record of experience at nuclear facilities, other than TMI-2, of events and incidents which have required decontamination and dose reduction activities, and to furnish GPU and others involved in the TMI-2 cleanup with the results of that decontamination and dose reduction technology. Separate abstracts were prepared for 24 of the 25 papers; the remaining paper had been previously abstracted. (DLC)

  15. Lessons Learned from Decontamination Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, JH

    2000-11-16

    This interim report describes a DOE project currently underway to establish what is known about decontamination of buildings and people and the procedures and protocols used to determine when and how people or buildings are considered ''clean'' following decontamination. To fulfill this objective, the study systematically examined reported decontamination experiences to determine what procedures and protocols are currently employed for decontamination, the timeframe involved to initiate and complete the decontamination process, how the contaminants were identified, the problems encountered during the decontamination process, how response efforts of agencies were coordinated, and the perceived social psychological effects on people who were decontaminated or who participated in the decontamination process. Findings and recommendations from the study are intended to aid decision-making and to improve the basis for determining appropriate decontamination protocols for recovery planners and policy makers for responding to chemical and biological events.

  16. Radioactive decontamination of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    After a recall of some definitions relating to decontamination techniques and of the regulation into effect, the principles to be respected to arrange rationally work zones are quoted while insisting more particularly on the types of coatings which facilitate maintenance operations and the dismantling of these installations. Then, the processes and equipments to use in decontamination units for routine or particular operations are described; the list of recommended chemical products to decontaminate the equipment is given. The influence of these treatments on the state and the duration of life of equipments is studied, and some perfectible methods are quoted. In the appendix, are given: the limits of surface contamination accepted in the centers; a standard project which defines the criteria of admissible residual contamination in wastes considered as cold wastes; some remarks on the interest that certain special ventilation and air curtain devices for the protection of operators working on apparatus generating contaminated dusts [fr

  17. Decommissioning and Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's decommissioning and decontamination programme are (1) to develop, test and optimise the technologies and procedures for decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear installations in order to minimise the waste arising and the distributed dose; (2) to optimise the environmental impact; (3) to reduce the cost of the end-of-life of the installation; (4) to make these new techniques available to the industry; (5) to share skills and competences. The programme and achievements in 1999 are summarised.

  18. A survey of decontamination processes applicable to DOE nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this survey was to select an appropriate technology for in situ decontamination of equipment interiors as part of the decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This selection depends on knowledge of existing chemical decontamination methods. This report provides an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. According to available information, aqueous systems are probably the most universally used method for decontaminating and cleaning metal surfaces. We have subdivided the technologies, on the basis of the types of chemical solvents, into acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and miscellaneous systems. Two miscellaneous chemical decontamination methods (electrochemical processes and foam and gel systems) are also described. A concise technical description of various processes is given, and the report also outlines technical considerations in the choice of technologies, including decontamination effectiveness, waste handing, fields of application, and the advantages and limitations in application. On the basis of this survey, six processes were identified for further evaluation. 144 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. A survey of decontamination processes applicable to DOE nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this survey was to select an appropriate technology for in situ decontamination of equipment interiors as part of the decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This selection depends on knowledge of existing chemical decontamination methods. This report provides an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. According to available information, aqueous systems are probably the most universally used method for decontaminating and cleaning metal surfaces. We have subdivided the technologies, on the basis of the types of chemical solvents, into acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and miscellaneous systems. Two miscellaneous chemical decontamination methods (electrochemical processes and foam and gel systems) are also described. A concise technical description of various processes is given, and the report also outlines technical considerations in the choice of technologies, including decontamination effectiveness, waste handing, fields of application, and the advantages and limitations in application. On the basis of this survey, six processes were identified for further evaluation. 144 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Decontamination of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Main sources and characteristics of wastes are discussed and basic data are given on the amount and nature of all wastes produced during the treatment of liquid and gaseous wastes in nuclear power plants with boiling (BWR), pressurized (PWR), and advanced gas-cooled (MGR) reactors of a 1,000 MW(e) installed power. A short comparison of methods used for liquid radioactive waste treatment is given. Methods are shortly described for solidification of concentrates, sludges, resin slurries, and for immobilization of radioactive substances in other solid wastes. An approach to the problem of waste storage in a densely populated country is given. The part dealing with surface decontamination problems is dedicated to contaminant sources in gas and water-cooled reactors, to decontaminating agents used in reactor technology, and to the description of most important methods used in decontamination practice. A short evaluation of protective coatings from the point of view of their further successful decontamination is given. (orig./HK) [de

  1. Decontaminant wash composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie-Swanson, J.

    1986-01-01

    A wash for removing skin contaminants such as cobalt-60 comprises an alkyl dimethyl betaine, a non-ionic surfactant and water. In the exemplified composition, the betaine and the non-ionic surfactant are mixed in equal proportions with a larger volume of distilled water and the resulting wash was found to be capable of decontaminating pork skin of cobalt-60 contaminant. (author)

  2. Sunflowers to decontaminate water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Sunflowers offer a new method of decontamination. 55 kilograms (dry weight) of sunflowers are able to decontaminate all the cesium 137 and the strontium 90 polluting a pond situated at one kilometer from Tchernobyl. These flowers are able to decrease 95% in 24 hours the uranium concentration in the american site of Ashtabula in Ohio getting this water from 350 parts by milliards to less than 5 parts by milliards. The radioactivity should stocked in the roots at concentrations 5 000 to 10 000 times higher than water concentration. The cost is cheaper than micro filtration and precipitation (2-6 dollars for 4 000 liters of water against 80 dollars for others technologies). when sunflowers are radioactive they can be reduced in dust and vitrified and stocked as solid radioactive wastes. (N.C.)

  3. Definition of a concrete bio-decontamination process in nuclear substructures; Biodegradation de matrices cimentaires en vue de leur decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jestin, A

    2005-05-15

    The decontamination of sub-structural materials represents a stake of high-importance because of the high volume generated. It is agreed then to propose efficient and effective processes. The process of bio-decontamination of the hydraulic binders leans on the mechanisms of biodegradation of concretes, phenomenon characterized in the 40's by an indirect attack of the material by acids stem from the microbial metabolism: sulphuric acid (produced by Thiobacillus), nitric acid (produced by Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) and organic acids (produced by fungi). The principle of the bio-decontamination process is to apply those micro-organisms on the surface of the contaminated material, in order to damage its surface and to retrieve the radionuclides. One of the multiple approaches of the process is the use of a bio-gel that makes possible the micro-organisms application. (author)

  4. Decommissioning and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadoumont, J.; Cantrel, E.; Valenduc, P.; Noynaert, L.

    2009-01-01

    The SCK-CEN has built a large know-how in decommissioning and decontamination, thanks to its BR3 decommissioning project. In 2007, the decommissioning activities at BR3 have been continued according to the strategy. This article discusses main realisations the following domains: decommissioning of the neutron shield tank and installation of new ventilation for the controlled area, dismantling of the former one and characterization of the stack

  5. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomasney, H.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. The primary objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach as a means to achieve ''release levels'' which could be consistent with unrestricted use of a decontaminated building. The secondary objectives were: To establish process parameters; to quantify the economics; to ascertain the ALARA considerations; and to evaluate wasteform and waste volume. The work carried out to this point has achieved promising results to the extent that ISOTRON reg-sign has been authorized to expand the planned activity to include the fabrication of a prototype version of a commercial device

  6. Decontamination impacts on solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Davis, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The increased occupational exposure resulting from the accumulation of activated corrosion products in the primary system of LWRs has led to the development of chemical methods to remove the contamination. In the past, the problem of enhanced migration of radionuclides away from trenches used to dispose of low-level radioactive waste, has been linked to the presence, at the disposal unit, of chelating or complexing agents such as those used in decontamination processes. These agents have further been found to reduce the normal sorptive capacity of soils for radionuclides. The degree to which these agents inhibit the normal sorptive processes is dependent on the type of complexing agent, the radionuclide of concern, the soil properties and whether the nuclide is present as a complex or is already sorbed to the soil. Since the quantity of reagent employed in a full system decontamination is large (200 to 25,000 kg), the potential for enhanced migration of radionuclides from a site used to dispose of the decontamination wastes should be addressed and guidelines established for the safe disposal of these wastes

  7. Local strategies for decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.; Ramzaev, V.; Antsypov, G.; Sobotovich, E.; Anisimova, L.

    1996-01-01

    The efficiencies of a great number of techniques for decontamination or dose reduction in contaminated areas have been investigated by several teams of E.C. and CIS scientists (ECP4 project). Modelling, laboratory and field experiments, t and return from experience allowed to assess radiological efficiencies (e.g. 'decontamination factor') and requirements for the operation of numerous practical solutions. Then, those data were supplemented with data on cost and waste generation in order to elaborate all the information for the optimization of decontamination strategies. Results will be presented for about 70 techniques. However, a technique cannot be compared to another from a generic point of view. Rather it is designed for a specific target and the best technology depends on the objectives. It has been decided to implement decision analyses on case studies, and the local conditions and objectives have been investigated. Individual doses ranged from 1 to 5 mSv, with contrasted contributions of internal and external doses. The desire to restore a normal activity in a partially depopulated settlement, and concerns about the recent increase in internal doses were typical incentives for action. The decision aiding analysis illustrated that actions can be usually recommended. Results are outlined here

  8. Application of selective inorganic sorbents to decontamination of NPP liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boguslavskij, V.B.; Galkin, V.M.; Kuz'mina, R.V.

    1987-01-01

    Sorbtion-selective and physico-chemical properties of the zirconium and titanium ferricyanides base spherical sorbents, produced by sol-gel technique, are studied. Results on the enlarged bench tests of these sorbents at decontamination of the Beloyarsk NPP low-active effluents off 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co are presented. Tests have shown high efficiency (by more, than one order) of decontamination of waste water, containing surface-active agents and detergents, off cesium radionuclides. Water decontamination for 60 Co is less effective

  9. Decontamination of TRU glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.H.

    1978-03-01

    Two glove boxes that had been used for work with transuranic nuclides (TRU) for about 12 years were decontaminated in a test program to collect data for developing a decontamination facility for large equipment highly contaminated with alpha emitters. A simple chemical technique consisting of a cycle of water flushes and alkaline permanganate and oxalic acid washes was used for both boxes. The test showed that glove boxes and similar equipment that are grossly contaminated with transuranic nuclides can be decontaminated to the current DIE nonretrievable disposal guide of <10 nCi TRU/g with a moderate amount of decontamination solution and manpower. Decontamination of the first box from an estimated 1.3 Ci to about 5 mCi (6 nCi/g) required 1.3 gallons of decontamination solution and 0.03 man-hour of work for each square foot of surface area. The second box was decontaminated from an estimated 3.4 Ci to about 2.8 mCi (4.2 nCi/g) using 0.9 gallon of decontamination solution and 0.02 man-hour for each square foot of surface area. Further reductions in contamination were achieved by repetitive decontamination cycles, but the effectiveness of the technique decreased sharply after the initial cycle

  10. Manual on decontamination of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The manual is intended for those who are responsible for the organization and implementation of decontamination programmes for facilities where radioactive materials are handled mainly on a laboratory scale. It contains information and guidelines on practical methods for decontaminating working spaces, equipment, laboratory benches and protective clothing. Useful information is also provided on the removal of loose skin contamination from personnel by mild, non-medical processes. Methods of removing skin contamination needing medical supervision, or of internal decontamination, which is entirely a medical process, are not covered in this manual. Large-scale decontamination of big nuclear facilities is also considered as outside its scope

  11. Full system decontamination. AREVAs experience in decontamination prior to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topf, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Minimizing collective radiation exposure and producing free-release material are two of the highest priorities in the decommissioning of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Full System Decontamination (FSD) is the most effective measure to reduce source term and remove oxide layer contamination within the plant systems. FSD is typically a decontamination of the primary coolant circuit and the auxiliary systems. In recent years AREVA NP has performed several FSDs in PWRs and BWRs prior to decommissioning by applying the proprietary CORD copyright family and AMDA copyright technology. Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination or CORD represents the chemical decontamination process while AMDA stands for Automated Mobile Decontamination Appliance, AREVA NPs decontamination equipment. Described herein are the excellent results achieved for the FSDs applied at the German PWRs Stade in 2004 and Obrigheim in 2007 and for the FSDs performed at the Swedish BWRs, Barsebaeck Unit 1 in 2007 and Barsebaeck Unit 2 in 2008. All four FSDs were performed using the AREVA NP CORD family decontamination technology in combination with the AREVA NP decontamination equipment, AMDA. (orig.)

  12. Decontamination solution development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.; Kjarmo, H.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study was conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Hanford Grout Technology Program (HGTP). The objective of this study was to identify decontamination solutions capable of removing radioactive contaminants and grout from the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) process equipment and to determine the impact of these solutions on equipment components and disposal options. The reference grout used in this study was prepared with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) and a dry blend consisting of 40 wt % limestone flour, 28 wt % blast furnace slag, 28 wt % fly ash, and 4 wt % type I/II Portland cement

  13. Unit for air decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano H, E.

    1991-02-01

    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)

  14. Decontamination of latex gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutot, P.; Schipfer, P.; Blachere, A.

    1969-01-01

    Initially the latex gloves used in controlled zones were processed after use as radioactive waste. In view of the continually increasing number used, however, the persons in charge of the SPRAR have considered the possibility of decontaminating the gloves and using them again after control. The recovery installations which have been developed were initially designed rather crudely and operated irregularly; they have been progressively improved as a result of the experience acquired; today they are more really an industrial concern, equipped with automatic machinery. In 1967 it has been possible with this set-up to recover 247000 pairs of gloves, representing nearly 70 per cent of the number treated. (author) [fr

  15. Chemical Decontaminant Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-20

    18 the decontaminant during application is required. It is recommended that a standard hard bristle toothbrush be used when testing coupons and...and Evah~ation Contmand!US Joint Science and Technology Office (JSTO) Armv Evaluation Command CATEC/AEC) Ci!J~-~jA) ~~1 ~ichae l rober 0 𔄃’" 11...34~’W.US.anny.miVsuitelfiles/22142943 and on the Natiooallnstitute of Standards and Technology (N!Sl) website at bttp://gsi.niSt.gov/globaVindcx.cfmiLI-4/L2

  16. Gel nano-particulates against radioactivity; Des nanoparticules en gel contre la radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deroin, Ph

    2004-11-01

    The Argonne research center (USA) has developed a 'super-gel' compound, a polymer close to those used in baby's diapers, which can reach a 90% efficiency in the radioactive decontamination of porous materials, like bricks or concrete. The contaminated materials are sprayed with a mixture of polymer gel and wetting agent with nano-particulates in suspension. Under the action of the wetting agent, radioactivity migrates from the pores to the gel and is trapped by the nano-particulates. The drying and recycling of the gel allows to reduce the volume of radioactive wastes. Short paper. (J.S.)

  17. Nova target chamber decontamination study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    An engineering study was performed to determine the most effective method for decontamination of the Nova target chamber. Manual and remote decontamination methods currently being used were surveyed. In addition, a concept that may not require in-situ decontamination was investigated. Based on the presently available information concerning material and system compatibility and particle penetration, it is recommended that a system of removable aluminum shields be considered. It is also recommended that a series of tests be performed to more precisely determine the vacuum compatibility and penetrability of other materials discussed in this report

  18. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomasney, H.L.; Yachmenev, V.

    1994-01-01

    Concrete structures which have been contaminated with uranium and other radioisotopes may be decontaminated using in-situ electrokinetic remediation. By placing an electrode cell on the concrete surface and using the concrete's rebar, a ground rod, or another surface cell as the counter electrode, the radioisotopes may be migrated from the concrete into this cell. The process is highly dependent upon the chemical parameters of the species involved; namely, the concrete, the contaminants, and the solubilizers used to mobilize the contaminants. In a preliminary study conducted at the K-25 Site of the Oak Ridge National Labs, an estimated removal of >40 percent of uranium has been observed for a short duration run. This removal occurred using traditional uranium solubilizers in contact with the contaminated surface

  19. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  20. Ultrasonic decontamination robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patenaude, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    An ultrasonic decontamination robot removes radioactive contamination from the internal surface of the inlet and outlet headers, divider plate, tube sheet, and lower portions of tubes of a nuclear power plant steam generator. A programmable microprocessor controller guides the movement of a robotic arm mounted in the header manway. An ultrasonic transducer having a solvent delivery subsystem through which ultrasonic action is achieved is moved by the arm over the surfaces. A solvent recovery suction tube is positioned within the header to remove solvent therefrom while avoiding interference with the main robotic arm. The solvent composition, temperature, pressure, viscosity, and purity are controlled to optimize the ultrasonic scrubbing action. The ultrasonic transducer is controlled at a power density, frequency, and on-off mode cycle such as to optimize scrubbing action within the range of transducer-to-surface distance and solvent layer thickness selected for the particular conditions encountered. Both solvent and transducer control actions are optimized by the programmable microprocessor. (author)

  1. Sensitive Equipment Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus Acidocaldarius is a Proficient Lactonase”, 32 BMC Res Notes. 2014; 7: 333. [30] S. Faure, B. Fournel, P. Fuentes and Y. Lallot...Method for Treating a Surface with a Treating Gel”, World Patent WO 03/008529, 2003. [31] S. Faure, P. Fuentes and Y. Lallot, “Vacuumable Gel for

  2. Zirconium Hydroxide-coated Nanofiber Mats for Nerve Agent Decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohee; Ying, Wu Bin; Jung, Hyunsook; Ryu, Sam Gon; Lee, Bumjae; Lee, Kyung Jin

    2017-03-16

    Diverse innovative fabrics with specific functionalities have been developed for requirements such as self-decontamination of chemical/biological pollutants and toxic nerve agents. In this work, Zr(OH) 4 -coated nylon-6,6 nanofiber mats were fabricated for the decontamination of nerve agents. Nylon-6,6 fabric was prepared via the electrospinning process, followed by coating with Zr(OH) 4 , which was obtained by the hydrolysis of Zr(OBu) 4 by a sol-gel reaction on nanofiber surfaces. The reaction conditions were optimized by varying the amounts of Zr(OBu) 4 ,the reaction time, and the temperature of the sol-gel reaction. The composite nanofibers show high decontamination efficiency against diisopropylfluorophosphate, which is a nerve agent analogue, due to its high nucleophilicity that aids in the catalysis of the hydrolysis of the phosphonate ester bonds. Composite nanofiber mats have a large potential and can be applied in specific fields such as military and medical markets. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Contamination and decontamination of skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    In external contamination the beta radiation dose is the prevalent component of the total dose absorbed by the skin. There exist four types of radionUclide bonds to the skin: mechanical retention of solid particles or solution on the surface and in the pores, physical adsorption of nondissociated molecules or colloids, the ion exchange effect, and chemisorption. Radionuclides then penetrate the skin by transfollicular transfer. The total amount of radioactive substances absorbed into the skin depends on the condition of the skin. Skin is decontaminated by washing with lukewarm water and soap or with special decontamination solutions. The most widely used components of decontamination solutions are detergents, chelaton, sodium hexametaphosphate, oxalic acid, citric acid. The main principles of the decontamination of persons are given. (M.D.)

  4. Presolidification treatment of decontamination wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habayeb, M.A.

    1982-02-01

    Unsatisfactory leaching performance of several solidified decontamination solutions indicated a need for presolidification treatments to reduce the water sensitivity of the active chemicals. Chemical treatments examined in this work include pH adjustment, precipitation and oxidation-reduction reactions. The reactions involved in these treatments are discussed. The most suitable presolidification treatment for each decontamination solution has been identified. Further research is needed to test the effectivenss of these treatments

  5. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system

  6. Random Vibration Analysis of the XM2l Decontaminant Pumper Module of the Modular Decontamination System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colclough, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    The XM21 Decontaminant Pumper module of the Modular Decontamination System was analyzed using finite element analysis techniques to show why the first design iteration passed transportation vibration...

  7. SAFETY STUDIES TO MEASURE EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS OF SPENT PLUTONIUM DECONTAMINATION CHEMICALS USING WET AND DRY DECONTAMINATION METHODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; JACKSON, G.W.; MINETTE, M.; EWALT, J.; COOPER, T.; SCOTT, P.; JONES, S.; SCHEELEY, R.

    2005-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford site in Eastern Washington is currently being decommissioned by Fluor Hanford. Chemicals being considered for dccontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids and sequestering agents. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal of the equipment as low level waste. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of chemical solutions as a spray on the contaminated surfaces, followed by a wipe-down with rags. Alternatively, a process of applying oxidizing Ce IV ions contained in a gel matrix and vacuuming a dry gel material is being evaluated. These processes effectively transfer the transuranic materials to rags or a gel matrix which is then packaged as TRU waste and disposed

  8. New decontamination technologies for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; McCoy, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    The technologies discussed represent a versatile collection of tools and approaches for environmental decontamination applications. The fixatives provide a means for gaining and maintaining control of large contaminated areas, for decontaminating large surface areas, and for protecting equipment and supplies used in decontamination operations. The other decontamination techniques together provide a method for removing loose surface contamination from almost all classes of materials and surfaces. These techniques should have wide application both as direct decontamination processes and for the cleaning of tools and equipment used in the decontamination operations

  9. Nuclear decontamination of personnel and material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehleisen, R. [Alfred Kaercher Gmbh and Co., Winnenden (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    Nuclear decontamination of personnel and material has to be carried out immediately after any contaminating incident. A safe decontamination will only be successful when a suitable decontamination system and effective decontamination agent are used. The aim hereby is, that personnel will not suffer from any acute somatic or late somatic effect and that material can be re-used again without any protective devices. Test results have shown, that personnel decontamination is more effective today due to new technologies. Also material decontamination, nowadays carried out with hot foam and high pressure units improves the deradiation result.

  10. Solving decontaminable flooring problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Pennsylvania Power and Light wanted to cover deteriorating concrete in unit 2 of its Susquehanna BWR with a smooth, durable, decontaminable coating. Traditionally, floors in the plant had been coated with epoxy paint, but many of these floors suffered delamination, and failed in three to five years. Painting with epoxy would also interrupt operations for as much as three days while the floor dried, yet critical instruments in some areas had to be monitored at least once per shift. In addition, conventional floor surface preparation produced dust and vibration around sensitive equipment. The solution was a dustless scabbling system for surface preparation, followed by the installation of a high-strength acrylic industrial floor known as Silakal. The work was carried out by Pentek. Silikal bonds to the underlying concrete, so that delamination of the floor will not occur even under severe traffic conditions. Another advantage of this type of flooring is that it cures in one hour, so floor resurfacing has only minimal impact on plant operations. (author)

  11. Decontamination and winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1984-12-01

    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  12. Decontaminating products for routine decontamination in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, K.

    2001-01-01

    Routine decontamination work that has to be carried out in practical operation includes the cleaning of all kinds of surfaces such as floors, walls and apparatus, the decontamination of professional clothes and of the personnel. In order to ensure a trouble-free functioning of plants for the treatment of waste water and concentrate in nuclear power plants, radioactive liquid wastes appearing in the controlled area should be compatible with the treatment methods in practice. Radioactive concentrates and resides obtained from the treatment methods are mixed with matrix materials like cement or bitumen or treated by roller frame drying and thus are conditioned for intermediate or final storage. Several requirements should be made on decontaminating agents used in the controlled area. Some of these physical-chemical criteria will be described in detail. (R.P.)

  13. Liquid decontaminants for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Klaus; Gojowczyk, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Decontaminants used in the nuclear field must meet a variety of requirements. On the one hand, the washing process must remove radioactive contamination and conventional dirt from the items washed. On the other hand, subsequent disposal of the washing water arisings must be feasible by the usual waste disposal pathway. One aspect of particular importance is unproblematic treatment of the radioactively contaminated waste water, as a rule low to medium active, whose final storage must be ensured. Decontaminants must not impair waste treatment processes, such as evaporation, filtration, and centrifuging, as well as further treatment of the concentrates and residues arising which are worked into matrix materials (cementation, bituminization), in drum drying or roller mill drying. For reasons of safety at work and environmental quality, also aspects of human toxicology and ecotoxicology must be taken into account. In this way, handling decontaminants will not jeopardize the health of personnel or cause potential long-term environmental damage. Liquid decontaminants, compared to powders, offer the advantage of automatic dosage. The liquid product is dosed accurately as a function of the washing program used. Liquid decontaminants can be handled safely in hot laundries without causing skin and eye contacts. (orig.)

  14. DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FACILITY REUSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, Steven J.; Blair, Danielle M.

    2003-01-01

    As nuclear research and production facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex are slated for deactivation and decommissioning (D and D), there is a need to decontaminate some facilities for reuse for another mission or continued use for the same mission. Improved technologies available in the commercial sector and tested by the DOE can help solve the DOE's decontamination problems. Decontamination technologies include mechanical methods, such as shaving, scabbling, and blasting; application of chemicals; biological methods; and electrochemical techniques. Materials to be decontaminated are primarily concrete or metal. Concrete materials include walls, floors, ceilings, bio-shields, and fuel pools. Metallic materials include structural steel, valves, pipes, gloveboxes, reactors, and other equipment. Porous materials such as concrete can be contaminated throughout their structure, although contamination in concrete normally resides in the top quarter-inch below the surface. Metals are normally only contaminated on the surface. Contamination includes a variety of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides and can sometimes include heavy metals and organic contamination regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes several advanced mechanical, chemical, and other methods to decontaminate structures, equipment, and materials

  15. Selective decontamination and antibiotic resistance in ICUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Nienke L.; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) have been associated with reduced mortality and lower ICU-acquired bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia rates in areas with low levels of antibiotic resistance. However, the effect of selective

  16. Precipitation process for supernate decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.M.; Kilpatrick, L.L.

    1982-11-01

    A precipitation and adsorption process has been developed to remove cesium, strontium, and plutonium from water-soluble, high-level radioactive waste. An existing waste tank serves as the reaction vessel and the process begins with the addition of a solution of sodium tetraphenylborate and a slurry of sodium titanate to the contained waste salt solution. Sodium tetraphenylborate precipitates the cesium and sodium titanate adsorbs the strontium and plutonium. The precipitate/adsorbate is then separated from the decontaminated salt solution by crossflow filtration. This new process offers significant capital savings over an earlier ion exchange process for salt decontamination. Chemical and small-scale engineering studies with actual waste are reported. The effect of many variables on the decontamination factors and filter performance are defined

  17. A new laser decontamination device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke J.

    2012-01-01

    A new laser decontamination device has been developed to evaporate instantly with almost no temperature rise and to clean up the radioisotope (RI) contaminated stainless steel components, devices and major structural objects of nuclear power station, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, accelerator facilities and the related ones. The laser decontamination device delivers the tightly focused laser light of GW/cm 2 just on the surface to clean up RI contained rust mold on and inside the stress corrosion cracks and corrosion pitting in the stainless steel-made components, devices and objects. The decontamination device is newly designed to measure three-dimensional surface map very quickly, and successfully to peel the three-dimensional irregular surface according to the measured map using the three dimensional fast scanner, displacement meter and laser system. In the cold tests, the device performed to peel off the surface of cans and multi-stepped plates very precisely, very uniformly and very quickly. (author)

  18. Decontamination of Subway Railcar and Related Materials ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report In the event of a biological incident in a transportation hub such as a subway system, effective remediation of railcars, subway tunnels and stations will require the use of various decontamination approaches. One potential decontamination tool that could be used in such an event is the fogging of sporicidal liquids. The study described in this report builds on previous fogging decontamination research, but with a focus on decontaminating subway railcars and related materials.

  19. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and (b...

  20. 40 CFR 170.250 - Decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.250 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.250 Decontamination. (a) Requirement. During any..., decontamination supplies for washing off pesticides and pesticide residues. (b) General conditions. (1) The...

  1. Electro-decontamination of cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Hadj-Hassine, S.

    2012-01-01

    The end of operations in nuclear facilities is followed by various decontamination and decommissioning operations. Similar to other electrochemical techniques such as re-alkalinisation and chloride extraction, an electrokinetic remediation process is being developed as a specific method for deeply contaminated concrete structures. Two cements, an ordinary Portland and a 30% slag cement, have been chosen for the conducted work.Mortars and concretes are contaminated by adding non-radioactive cesium in the batch water, cesium being a representative specie of deep encountered contaminants. The conducted experimental and numerical work have focused on three main aspects: characterizing and understanding the cesium transport mechanisms, assessing the electro-remediation process at lab-scale and evaluating the real scale constraints. Using existing knowledge of chloride transport mechanisms, experiments have been conducted to characterize the cesium interactions with cementitious phase and ionic transport in saturated materials. A numerical model have then been developed to describe the cesium transport, taking into account the ionic activity coefficients and interactions with solid phases. Indeed, lab-scale experiments have demonstrated that electro-remediation reduced to 20-50% the initially contained cesium after a three weeks treatment. Treated samples analysis confirmed that deeply diffused cesium is migrating to the surface. Moreover, conducted experiments showed the consistency between the different materials properties, applied currents and decontamination efficiency. A comparative analysis of experiments carried on samples with different shapes, formulations and contamination modes helped assessing and optimizing the process efficiency for various continuous and variable applied currents. Finally, electro-remediation experiments have also been carried on 1m 2 concrete slabs. Liquid catholyte and anolyte solutions are replaced by alumina gels and cellulose pastes

  2. Decontaminating reagents for radioactive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    A decontaminating reagent composition has been developed comprising EDTA, citric acid, oxalic acid, and formic acid. Formic acid inhibits the decomposition of both EDTA and citric acid, and yields oxalic acid as a result of its own radiolysis. The invention includes the improvement of initially incorporating formic acid in the mixture and maintaining the presence of formic acid by at least one further addition

  3. Soil decontamination at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.L.; Hayden, J.A.; Alford, C.E.; Kochen, R.L.; Stevens, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    A soils decontamination project was initiated, to remove actinides from soils at Rocky Flats. Wet screening, attrition scrubbing with Calgon at high pH, attrition scrubbing at low pH, and cationic flotation were investigated. Pilot plant studies were carried out. Conceptual designs have been generated for mounting the process in semi-trailers

  4. Decontamination in a Russian settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, C.L.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Barkovsky, A.N.

    1999-01-01

    Decontamination was carried out in an area with three houses in Novo Bobovichi, Bryansk region, Russia, in the autumn of 1995. It was demonstrated that significant reductions in the dose rate both indoor (DRF = 0.34) and outdoor (DRF = 0.20) can be achieved when a controlled cleaning is undertake...

  5. ORNL decontamination and decommissioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A program has been initiated at ORNL to decontaminate and decommission surplus or abandoned nuclear facilities. Program planning and technical studies have been performed by UCC-ND Engineering. A feasibility study for decommissioning the Metal Recovery Facility, a fuel reprocessing pilot plant, has been completed

  6. Decontamination processes for waste glass canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    The process which will be used to decontaminate waste glass canisters at the Savannah River Plant consists of: decontamination (slurry blasting); rinse (high-pressure water); and spot decontamination (high-pressure water plus slurry). No additional waste will be produced by this process because glass frit used in decontamination will be mixed with the radioactive waste and fed into the glass melter. Decontamination of waste glass canisters with chemical and abrasive blasting techniques was investigated. The ability of a chemical technique with HNO 3 -HF and H 2 C 2 O 4 to remove baked-on contamination was demonstrated. A correlation between oxide removal and decontamination was observed. Oxide removal and, thus, decontamination by abrasive blasting techniques with glass frit as the abrasive was proposed and demonstrated

  7. Decontamination in the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antsipov, G.V.; Matveenko, S.A.; Mirkhaidarov, A.Kh.

    2002-01-01

    To continue the decontamination work in the Republic of Belarus, which was carried out by the military troops, the state specialized enterprises were formed in Gomel and Mogilev in 1991. The organization and regulations were developed inside the country: instructions, rules, radiological and hygienic criteria and norms. The enterprises concentrated on decontamination of the most socially significant facilities: kindergartens, schools, medical institutions and industrial enterprises. During 9 years Gomel State Specialized Enterprise 'Polessje' decontaminated 130 kindergartens, schools and hospitals. The total decontaminated area was 450 000 m 2 . The ventilation systems and equipment at 27 industrial enterprises in Gomel were decontaminated. The practical decontamination methods for areas, buildings, roofs, industrial equipment, ventilation systems were developed and tested. The special rules for handling wastes contaminated with Cs were elaborated. The paper analyzes and sums up the acquired experience which is important for implementation of rehabilitation programs and improvement of decontamination methods. (author)

  8. Decontamination processes for waste glass canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1981-06-01

    The process which will be used to decontaminate waste glass canisters at the Savannah River Plant consists of: decontamination (slurry blasting); rinse (high-pressure water); and spot decontamination (high-pressure water plus slurry). No additional waste will be produced by this process because glass frit used in decontamination will be mixed with the radioactive waste and fed into the glass melter. Decontamination of waste glass canisters with chemical and abrasive blasting techniques was investigated. The ability of a chemical technique with HNO 3 -HF and H 2 C 2 O 4 to remove baked-on contamination was demonstrated. A correlation between oxide removal and decontamination was observed. Oxide removal and, thus, decontamination by abrasive blasting techniques with glass frit as the abrasive was proposed and demonstrated

  9. Definition of a concrete bio-decontamination process in nuclear substructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jestin, A.

    2005-05-01

    The decontamination of sub-structural materials represents a stake of high-importance because of the high volume generated. It is agreed then to propose efficient and effective processes. The process of bio-decontamination of the hydraulic binders leans on the mechanisms of biodegradation of concretes, phenomenon characterized in the 40's by an indirect attack of the material by acids stem from the microbial metabolism: sulphuric acid (produced by Thiobacillus), nitric acid (produced by Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) and organic acids (produced by fungi). The principle of the bio-decontamination process is to apply those micro-organisms on the surface of the contaminated material, in order to damage its surface and to retrieve the radionuclides. One of the multiple approaches of the process is the use of a bio-gel that makes possible the micro-organisms application. (author)

  10. Verification of wet blasting decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Sachito; Murayama, Kazunari; Yoshida, Hirohisa; Igei, Shigemitsu; Izumida, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Macoho Co., Ltd. participated in the projects of 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Ministry of the Environment' and 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Cabinet Office.' And we tested verification to use a wet blasting technology for decontamination of rubble and roads contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Company. As a results of the verification test, the wet blasting decontamination technology showed that a decontamination rate became 60-80% for concrete paving, interlocking, dense-grated asphalt pavement when applied to the decontamination of the road. When it was applied to rubble decontamination, a decontamination rate was 50-60% for gravel and approximately 90% for concrete and wood. It was thought that Cs-134 and Cs-137 attached to the fine sludge scraped off from a decontamination object and the sludge was found to be separated from abrasives by wet cyclene classification: the activity concentration of the abrasives is 1/30 or less than the sludge. The result shows that the abrasives can be reused without problems when the wet blasting decontamination technology is used. (author)

  11. Non-destructive decontamination of building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecek, Josef; Otahal, Petr

    2015-11-01

    For nondestructive radiation decontamination of surfaces it is necessary to use varnishes, such as ARGONNE, DG1101, DG1108, etc. This text evaluates the use of manufactured strippable coatings for radiation decontamination. To evaluate decontamination capability of such coatings the following varnishes were selected and subsequently used: AZ 1-700 and AXAL 1807S. The varnishes were tested on different building materials surfaces contaminated by short-term radioisotopes of Na-24 or La-140, in water soluble or water insoluble forms. Decontamination quality was assessed by the decontamination efficiency value, defined as the proportion of removed activity to the applied activity. It was found that decontamination efficiency of both used varnishes depends not only on the form of contaminant, but in the case of application of AXAL 1807S varnish it also depends on the method of its application on the contaminated surface. The values of the decontamination efficiency for AZ1-700 varnish range from 46% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 98% for the decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. The decontamination efficiency values determined for AXAL 1807S varnish range from 48% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 96% for decontamination of an insoluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. Comparing these values to the values given for the decontaminating varnishes we can conclude that AXAL 1807S varnish is possible to use on all materials, except highly porous materials, such as plasterboard or breeze blocks, or plastic materials. AZ 1-700 varnish can be used for all dry materials except plasterboard.

  12. Development and assessment of two decontamination processes: closed electropolishing system for decontamination of underwater surfaces -vibratory decontamination with abrasives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, E.; Fajardo, M.

    1992-01-01

    Two decontamination processes have been developed to decontaminate the stainless steel components of nuclear power plants. The first process uses an underwater closed electropolishing system for the decontamination of large stainless steel surfaces in flooded systems without loss of electrolyte. Large underwater contaminated areas can be treated with an electropolishing head covering an area of 2 m 2 in one step. The decontamination factors achieved with this technique range between 100 and 1000. The second process consists in the decontamination of nuclear components using vibratory equipment with self-cleaning abrasives generating a minimum quantity of waste. This technique may reach contamination factors similar to those obtained with other abrasive methods (brush abrasion, abrasive blasting, etc...). The obtained decontamination factors range between 5 and 50. Only a small quantity of waste is generated, which is treated and reduced in volume by filtration and evaporation

  13. Skin contamination - prevention and decontaminating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, K.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed examination is made of the structure of human skin. Measures were drawn up to prevent skin contamination in nuclear installations as well as contaminated skin was decontaminated from the personnel. By systematically applying these measures a significant level of success was achieved in preventing contamination in nuclear installations. Cases where more far-reaching chemical methods had to be used were kept to a minimum. (R.P.)

  14. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1994-01-01

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author)

  15. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamdar, S.N.; Harikumar, P.

    2008-01-01

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile ( 10 cycles, respectively, eliminating the coliforms to o C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature

  16. Chemical decontamination and melt densification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, R.L.; Griggs, B.; Kemper, R.S.; Nelson, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary studies on the chemical decontamination and densification of Zircaloy, stainless steel, and Inconel undissolved residues remaining after dissolution of the UO 2 --PuO 2 spent fuel material from sheared fuel bundles are reported. The studies were made on cold or very small samples to demonstrate the feasibility of the processes developed before proceeding to hot cell demonstrations with kg level of the sources. A promising aqueous decontamination method for Zr alloy cladding was developed in which oxidized surfaces are conditioned with HF prior to leaching with ammonium oxalate, ammonium citrate, ammonium fluoride, and hydrogen peroxide. Feasibility of molten salt decontamination of oxidized Zircaloy was demonstrated. A low melting alloy of Zircaloy, stainless steel, and Inconel was obtained in induction heated graphite crucibles. Segregated Zircaloy cladding sections were directly melted by the inductoslag process to yield a metal ingot suitable for storage. Both Zircaloy and Zircaloy--stainless steel--Inconel alloys proved to be highly satisfactory getters and sinks for recovered tritium

  17. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Decontamination of Drinking Water Infrastructure ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Brief This study examines the effectiveness of decontaminating corroded iron and cement-mortar coupons that have been contaminated with spores of Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii (B. globigii), which is often used as a surrogate for pathogenic B. anthracis (anthrax) in disinfection studies. Bacillus spores are persistent on common drinking water material surfaces like corroded iron, requiring physical or chemical methods to decontaminate the infrastructure. In the United States, free chlorine and monochloramine are the primary chemical disinfectants used by the drinking water industry to inactivate microorganisms. Flushing is also a common, easily implemented practice in drinking water distribution systems, although large volumes of contaminated water needing treatment could be generated. Identifying readily available alternative disinfectant formulations for infrastructure decontamination could give water utilities options for responding to specific types of contamination events. In addition to presenting data on flushing alone, which demonstrated the persistence of spores on water infrastructure in the absence of high levels of disinfectants, data on acidified nitrite, chlorine dioxide, free chlorine, monochloramine, ozone, peracetic acid, and followed by flushing are provided.

  19. Decontamination of burns contaminated with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vykouril, L.

    1986-01-01

    The suitability of various solutions for the decontamination of burnt skin and their efficiency were tested by experiments on rats. Tested was the decontamination of undisturbed skin, second degree skin burns and third degree skin burns. Decontamination solutions used included: distilled water, jodonal (an aqueous solution of iodine, ethoxylated nonylphenols, the copolymer of ethylene oxide with propylene oxide, and phosphoric acid) and a decontamination mixture of Sapon, Komplexon (trade names of detergents) and sodium hexametaphosphate. Decontamination efficiency was 68.4% for second degree burns and 47.1% for third degree burns. Most effective was the decontamination solution with an efficiency of 72%; the efficiency of jodonal was 67% and of water - 54%. Jodonal is the most suitable: in addition, it acts as a disinfectant and antiseptic. (M.D.)

  20. Geographic assistance of decontamination strategy elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydchuk, V.; Arapis, G.

    1996-01-01

    Those who elaborates the strategy of decontamination of vast territories is to take into consideration the heterogeneity of such elements of landscape as relief, lithology, humidity and types of soils and, vegetation, both on local and regional level. Geographic assistance includes evaluation of efficacy of decontamination technologies in different natural conditions, identification of areas of their effective application and definition of ecological damage, estimation of balances of the radionuclides in the landscapes to create background of the decontamination strategy

  1. EDF/CIDEN - ONECTRA: PWR decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayolle, P.; Orcel, H.; Wertz, L.

    2010-01-01

    In the context of PWR circuit renewal (expected in 2011) and their decontamination, an analysis of data coming from cartography and on site decontamination measurements as well as from premise modelling by means of the PANTHERE radioprotection code, is presented. Several French PWRs have been studied. After a presentation of code principles and operation, the authors discuss the radiological context of a workstation, and give an assessment of the annual dose associated with maintenance operations with or without decontamination

  2. Proceedings of the concrete decontamination workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.; Currier, A.J.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen papers were presented. These papers describe concrete surface removal methods and equipment, as well as experiences in decontaminating and removing both power and experimental nuclear reactors

  3. Properties and solidification of decontamination wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.S.; Piciulo, P.L.; Bowerman, B.S.; Adams, J.W.; Milian, L.

    1983-01-01

    LWRs will require one or more chemical decontaminations to achieve their designed lifetimes. Primary system decontamination is designed to lower radiation fields in areas where plant maintenance personnel must work. Chemical decontamination methods are either hard (concentrated chemicals, approximately 5 to 25 weight percent) or soft (dilute chemicals less than 1 percent by weight). These methods may have different chemical reagents, some tailor-made to the crud composition and many methods are and will be proprietary. One factor common to most commercially available processes is the presence of organic acids and chelates. These types of organic reagents are known to enhance the migration of radionuclides after disposal in a shallow land burial site. The NRC sponsors two programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory that are concerned with the management of decontamination wastes which will be generated by the full system decontamination of LWRs. These two programs focus on potential methods for degrading or converting decontamination wastes to more acceptable forms prior to disposal and the impact of disposing of solidified decontamination wastes. The results of the solidification of simulated decontamination resin wastes will be presented. Recent results on combustion of simulated decontamintion wastes will be described and procedures for evaluating the release of decontamination reagents from solidified wastes will be summarized

  4. Theory of soil decontamination in mixing liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, A.S.; Emets, E.P.; Poluehktov, P.P.; Rybakov, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    The theory of soil decontamination from radioactive pollution in mixing liquid flow is described. It is shown that there exists the threshold intensity of liquid mixing up to which there is no decontamination. Beyond the threshold and by increasing the mixing intensity the decontamination of large soil fractions is allowable whereby the higher is the mixing intensity and lower is the soil contamination, the laser is the characteristic decontamination time. The above theory is related to cases of uniform pollution of the particles surface

  5. Decontamination experiment of metals and floors of glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yu; Li Ye; Tan Zhaoyi; Wang Ping; Wen Wei; Qiu Yongmei

    2010-01-01

    The wiping decontamination and stripping coating decontamination were applied to decontaminate the floors and metals in the glove box polluted by tritium. The results show that the polluting level is lower than 20 Bq/cm 2 through wiping decontamination. The DFs are higher for decontaminating higher-polluted metals using two stripping coatings while the polluted-level is lower than 20 Bq/cm 2 for decontaminating lower-polluted metals. (authors)

  6. Decontamination of surfaces (1961); La decontamination des surfaces (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The continued expansion of atomic Energy has led the S.C.R.G.R. to extend simultaneously the recovery of materials contaminated by use in radio-active media. The importance of this aspect of atomic Energy was not immediately obvious to those concerned but is now fully recognized due to the cost of the materials and installations, and also to the time required for the construction of special equipment for the C.E.A. Another very important reason is the dangers associated with the handling of contaminated material. The S.C.R.G.R. attacked this problem from the point of view of these dangers. It later became apparent to the users, once the decontamination methods had proved their worth, that the process presented advantages from the material and cost-saving point of view. (author) [French] Le developpement toujours croissant de l'Energie atomique a conduit le S.C.R.G.R. a developper parallelement la recuperation des materiels contamines par leur emploi en milieu radioactif. Cet aspect de l'Energie atomique n'est pas apparu des le debut aux utilisateurs mais s'est tres vite impose etant donne, d'une part, le cout des installations et du materiel, d'autre part le temps necessaire a la fabrication d'un materiel special aux travaux du C.E.A., enfin et surtout, les risques associes a la manipulation d'un materiel contamine. Les risques seuls ont ete pris comme point de depart a l'examen de ce probleme par le S.C.R.G.R. puis avec le temps, les methodes de decontamination ayant fait leur preuve, les utilisateurs ont alors apercu les aspects materiels et la rentabilite de la decontamination. (auteur)

  7. Decontamination Technology Development for Nuclear Research Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Jung, Chong Hun; Choi, Wang Kyu; Won, Hui Jun; Kim, Gye Nam

    2004-02-01

    Technology development of surface decontamination in the uranium conversion facility before decommissioning, technology development of component decontamination in the uranium conversion facility after decommissioning, uranium sludge treatment technology development, radioactive waste soil decontamination technology development at the aim of the temporary storage soil of KAERI, Optimum fixation methodology derivation on the soil and uranium waste, and safety assessment methodology development of self disposal of the soil and uranium waste after decontamination have been performed in this study. The unique decontamination technology applicable to the component of the nuclear facility at room temperature was developed. Low concentration chemical decontamination technology which is very powerful so as to decrease the radioactivity of specimen surface under the self disposal level was developed. The component decontamination technology applicable to the nuclear facility after decommissioning by neutral salt electro-polishing was also developed. The volume of the sludge waste could be decreased over 80% by the sludge waste separation method by water. The electrosorption method on selective removal of U(VI) to 1 ppm of unrestricted release level using the uranium-containing lagoon sludge waste was tested and identified. Soil decontamination process and equipment which can reduce the soil volume over 90% were developed. A pilot size of soil decontamination equipment which will be used to development of real scale soil decontamination equipment was designed, fabricated and demonstrated. Optimized fixation methodology on soil and uranium sludge was derived from tests and evaluation of the results. Safety scenario and safety evaluation model were development on soil and uranium sludge aiming at self disposal after decontamination

  8. Mobile decontamination units-room for improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribordy, Pascale; Rocksén, David; Dellgar, Uno; Persson, Sven-Åke; Arnoldsson, Kristina; Ekåsen, Hans; Häggbom, Sune; Nerf, Ola; Ljungqvist, Asa; Gryth, Dan; Claesson, Ola

    2012-10-01

    Mobile decontamination units are intended to be used at the accident site to decontaminate persons contaminated by toxic substances. A test program was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of mobile decontamination units. The tests included functionality, methodology, inside environment, effects of wind direction, and decontamination efficacy. Three different types of units were tested during summer and winter conditions. Up to 15 test-persons per trial were contaminated with the imitation substances Purasolve ethyl lactate (PEL) and methyl salicylate (MES). Decontamination was carried out according to standardized procedures. During the decontamination trials, the concentrations of the substances inside the units were measured. After decontamination, substances evaporating from test-persons and blankets as well as remaining amounts in the units were measured. The air concentrations of PEL and MES inside the units during decontamination in some cases exceeded short-term exposure limits for most toxic industrial chemicals. This was a problem, especially during harmful wind conditions, i.e., wind blowing in the same direction as persons moving through the decontamination units. Although decontamination removed a greater part of the substances from the skin, the concentrations evaporating from some test-persons occasionally were high and potentially harmful if the substances had been toxic. The study also showed that blankets placed in the units absorbed chemicals and that the units still were contaminated five hours after the end of operations. After decontamination, the imitation substances still were present and evaporating from the contaminated persons, blankets, and units. These results indicate a need for improvements in technical solutions, procedures, and training.

  9. Thermoresponsive Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, M. Joan; Tomlins, P.; Sahota, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    An invited review and relates to the responsive gel used in the "artificial pancreas" work og INsmart, DMU. This article is an Open Access journal. Thermoresponsive gelling materials constructed from natural and synthetic polymers can be used to provide triggered action and therefore customised products such as drug delivery and regenerative medicine types as well as for other industries. Some materials give Arrhenius-type viscosity changes based on coil to globule transitions. Others ...

  10. Decontamination and decommissioning: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography contain information on decontamination and decommissioning included in the Department of Energy's Data Base from January 1981 through October 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: corporate author, personal author, subject, contract number, and report umber. (468 abstracts)

  11. Radiation decontamination of frozen chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Akhtar, T.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.

    1992-07-01

    In this report decontamination of frozen chicken has been discussed. The pathogenic bacteria present in poultry meats causes food infectious diseases. The spoilage microorganisms in poultry meat quickly render the meat unacceptable due to decomposition of the products resulting in off-odour and development of slime. Irradiation (2-5 kGy) and freezing has been found effective in eliminating various pathogens. These combination treatments were tested in local environment. The results indicated that radiation followed by freezing greatly protected quality of poultry meat during storage for 6 months. (A.B.)

  12. Decontamination and modification of liquid scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachan, S.R.; Soman, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    New techniques of decontaminating and recycling used radioactive liquid scintillators (LS) are discussed. Aromatic LS Tritel spiked with tritiated water was decontaminated with NaOH; single extraction gave a decontamination factor of about 90% and 3-4 extractions decontaminated the LS to background level. The counting efficiency of the decontaminated LS was about 88% of the fresh LS. A modification of hydrophobic toluene LS for use with aqueous samples is also described. The water holding capacity (WHC) of modified toluene/alcohol LS decreased while the counting efficiency increased with increasing concentration of toluene in LS; an optimum working range of around 50% toluene concentration was selected. The decontamination of used modified LS was achieved by a single washing with an excess amount of water. The counting efficiency of decontaminated LS was about 92% of the fresh LS. This recycling of used liquid scintillators after decontamination will not only save expenditure on LS but also help waste disposal problems as the radioactivity is contained in aqueous phase with reduced volume. (UK)

  13. Cost effectiveness of dilute chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeSurf, J.E.; Weyman, G.D.

    The basic principles of dilute chemical decontamination are described, as well as the method of application. Methods of computing savings in radiation dose and costs are presented, with results from actual experience and illustrative examples. It is concluded that dilute chemical decontamination is beneficial in many cases. It reduces radiation exposure of workers, saves money, and simplifies maintenance work

  14. Recent developments in chemical decontamination technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Chemical decontamination of parts of reactor coolant systems is a mature technology, used routinely in many BWR plants, but less frequently in PWRs. This paper reviews recent developments in the technology - corrosion minimization, waste processing and full system decontamination, including the fuel. Earlier work was described in an extensive review published in 1990.

  15. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities performed during FY98 and describes the planned activities for FY99. Accomplishments for FY98 include identifying and selecting decontamination, the screening of potential characterization technologies, development of minimum performance factors for the decontamination technology, and development and identification of Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Regulations (ARARs).

  16. PND fuel handling decontamination: facilities and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, R.Y.

    1996-01-01

    The use of various decontamination techniques and equipment has become a critical part of Fuel Handling maintenance work at Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Division. This paper presents an overview of the set up and techniques used for decontamination in the PND Fuel Handling Maintenance Facility and the effectiveness of each. (author). 1 tab., 9 figs

  17. Electrochemical decontamination system for actinide processing gloveboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedman, D.E.; Lugo, J.L.; Ford, D.K.; Nelson, T.O.; Trujillo, V.L.; Martinez, H.E.

    1998-03-01

    An electrolytic decontamination technology has been developed and successfully demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the decontamination of actinide processing gloveboxes. The technique decontaminates the interior surfaces of stainless steel gloveboxes utilizing a process similar to electropolishing. The decontamination device is compact and transportable allowing it to be placed entirely within the glovebox line. In this way, decontamination does not require the operator to wear any additional personal protective equipment and there is no need for additional air handling or containment systems. Decontamination prior to glovebox decommissioning reduces the potential for worker exposure and environmental releases during the decommissioning, transport, and size reduction procedures which follow. The goal of this effort is to reduce contamination levels of alpha emitting nuclides for a resultant reduction in waste level category from High Level Transuranic (TRU) to low Specific Activity (LSA, less than or equal 100 nCi/g). This reduction in category results in a 95% reduction in disposal and disposition costs for the decontaminated gloveboxes. The resulting contamination levels following decontamination by this method are generally five orders of magnitude below the LSA specification. Additionally, the sodium sulfate based electrolyte utilized in the process is fully recyclable which results in the minimum of secondary waste. The process bas been implemented on seven gloveboxes within LANL's Plutonium Facility at Technical Area 55. Of these gloveboxes, two have been discarded as low level waste items and the remaining five have been reused

  18. Evaluation of Hydrogel Technologies for the Decontamination ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report This current research effort was developed to evaluate intermediate level (between bench-scale and large-scale or wide-area implementation) decontamination procedures, materials, technologies, and techniques used to remove radioactive material from different surfaces. In the event of such an incident, application of this technology would primarily be intended for decontamination of high-value buildings, important infrastructure, and landmarks.

  19. The 3rd power unit roofing decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlenko, Yu.N.; Golubev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The most features of the 3rd power unit (PU) roofing decontamination are described: 1) the most active materials were thrown into the 4th PU ruins before the Ukrytie construction completion; 2) the decontamination was fulfilled using remote-controlled mechanisms and manual devices (the main part). 6 figs.; 1 tab

  20. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities performed during FY98 and describes the planned activities for FY99. Accomplishments for FY98 include identifying and selecting decontamination, the screening of potential characterization technologies, development of minimum performance factors for the decontamination technology, and development and identification of Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Regulations (ARARs)

  1. Testing and evaluation of eight decontamination chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, R.

    1994-09-01

    This report covers experimental work comparing eight different decontamination chemicals. Seven of these chemicals have some novelty, or are not currently in use at the ICPP. The eighth is a common ICPP decontamination reagent used as a baseline for effective comparison. Decontamination factors, waste generation values, and corrosion rates are tabulated for these chemicals. Recommendations are given for effective methods of non-sodium or low-sodium decontamination chemicals. The two most effective chemical for decontamination found in these test were a dilute hydrofluoric and nitric acid (HF/HNO{sub 3}) mixture and a fluoroboric acid solution. The fluoroboric acid solution (1 molar) was by far the most effective decontamination reagent, but suffered the problem of generating significant final calcine volume. The HF/HNO{sub 3} solution performed a very good decontamination of the SIMCON coupons while generating only small amounts of calcine volume. Concentration variables were also tested, and optimized for these two solutions. Several oxidation/reduction decon chemical systems were also tested. These systems were similar to the TURCO 4502 and TURCO 4521 solutions used for general decontamination at the ICPP. A low sodium alternative, nitric acid/potassium permanganate, to the ``high sodium`` TURCO 4502 was tested extensively, optimized and recommended for general ICPP use. A reductive chemical solution, oxalic acid/nitric acid was also shown to have significant advantages.

  2. Comparison of skin decontamination efficacy of commercial decontamination products following exposure to VX on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thors, L; Koch, M; Wigenstam, E; Koch, B; Hägglund, L; Bucht, A

    2017-08-01

    The decontamination efficacy of four commercially available skin decontamination products following exposure to the nerve agent VX was evaluated in vitro utilizing a diffusion cell and dermatomed human skin. The products included were Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL), the Swedish decontamination powder 104 (PS104), the absorbent Fuller's Earth and the aqueous solution alldecontMED. In addition, various decontamination procedures were assessed to further investigate important mechanisms involved in the specific products, e.g. decontamination removal from skin, physical removal by sponge swabbing and activation of degradation mechanisms. The efficacy of each decontamination product was evaluated 5 or 30 min after dermal application of VX (neat or diluted to 20% in water). The RSDL-lotion was superior in reducing the penetration of VX through human skin, both when exposed as neat agent and when diluted to 20% in water. Swabbing with the RSDL-sponge during 2 min revealed decreased efficacy compared to applying the RSDL-lotion directly on the skin for 30 min. Decontamination with Fuller's Earth and alldecontMED significantly reduced the penetration of neat concentration of VX through human skin. PS104-powder was insufficient for decontamination of VX at both time-points, independently of the skin contact time of PS104. The PS104-slurry (a mixture of PS104-powder and water), slightly improved the decontamination efficacy. Comparing the time-points for initiated decontamination revealed less penetrated VX for RSDL and Fuller's Earth when decontamination was initiated after 5 min compared to 30 min post-exposure, while alldecontMED displayed similar efficacy at both time-points. Decontamination by washing with water only resulted in a significant reduction of penetrated VX when washing was performed 5 min after exposure, but not when decontamination was delayed to 30 min post-exposure of neat VX. In conclusion, early initiated decontamination with the

  3. Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The objectives of this coordinated research programme (CRP) were to promote the exchange of information on the practical experience by Member States in decontamination and decommissioning. The scope of the programme included several areas of decontamination and decommissioning rather than focusing on a single aspect of it, in line with recommendation of the experts who participated in Phase 1 of the CRP. Experts felt that this format would generate better awareness of decontamination and decommissioning and would be more effective vehicle for the exchange of information by stimulating broader discussion on all aspects of decontamination and decommissioning. Special emphasis was given to the development of principles and methodologies to facilitate decommissioning and to the new methods and techniques for optimization of decontamination and disassembly of equipment. Refs, figs, tabs

  4. NRC regulations and positions concerning decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, C.

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission encourages the use of decontamination to reduce man-rem exposure. The Commission feels that there are several processes developed to the point where soft decontamination can be applied to an entire plant in the near future. A utility can do a decontamination under its own licence without coming in for regulatory review if the process does not involve a change in technical specifications for the plant or does not involve unreviewed safety questions. Prior verbal notification is required for some steam generator secondary side cleaning or for decontamination of individual components that have not been removed from the reactor using chemicals not normally added to the reactor coolant. Prior written notification is required for steam generator secondary side crevice cleaning or sludge removal at a dented unit, or for chemical decontamination of reactor coolant systems or safety-related systems using chemicals not normally added to the coolant

  5. Psychosocial considerations for mass decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemyre, L.; Johnson, C.; Corneil, W.

    2010-01-01

    Mass exposure to explosions, infectious agents, food-borne illnesses, chemicals or radiological materials may require mass decontamination that have critical psychosocial implications for the public and for both traditional and non-traditional responders in terms of impact and of response. Five main issues are common to mass decontamination events: (i) perception, (ii) somatisation, (iii) media role and communication, (iv) information sharing, (v) behavioural guidance and (vi) organisational issues. Empirical evidence is drawn from a number of cases, including Chernobyl; Goiania, Brazil; the sarin gas attack in Tokyo; the anthrax attacks in the USA; Three Mile Island; and by features of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome pandemic. In this paper, a common platform for mass casualty management is explored and suggestions for mass interventions are proposed across the complete event timeline, from pre-event threat and warning stages through to the impact and reconstruction phases. Implication for responders, health care and emergency infrastructure, public behaviour, screening processes, risk communication and media management are described. (authors)

  6. Concrete decontamination and demolition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.

    1980-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Environmental Control Technology, requested Nuclear Energy Services to prepare a handbook for the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of DOE-owned and commercially-owned radioactive facilities. the objective of the handbook is to provide the nuclear industry with guidance on the state-of-the-art methods and equipment available for decommissioning and to provide the means to estimate decommissioning costs and environmental impact. The methods available for concrete decontamination and demolition are summarized to provide an overview of some of the state-of-the-art techniques to be discussed at this workshop. The pertinent information on each method will include the selection factors such as the rate of performance in terms of concrete removal per unit time (cubic yards per day), manpower required by craft, unit cost (dollars per cubic yard) and the advantages and disadvantages. The methods included in this overview are those that have been routinely used in nuclear and nonnuclear applications or demonstrated in field tests. These methods include controlled blasting, wrecking ball or slab, backhoe mounted ram, flame torch, thermic lance, rock splitter, demolition compound, sawing, core stitch drilling, explosive cutting, paving breaker and power chisel, drill and spall, scarifying, water cannon and grinding

  7. Thermoresponsive Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Joan Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoresponsive gelling materials constructed from natural and synthetic polymers can be used to provide triggered action and therefore customised products such as drug delivery and regenerative medicine types as well as for other industries. Some materials give Arrhenius-type viscosity changes based on coil to globule transitions. Others produce more counterintuitive responses to temperature change because of agglomeration induced by enthalpic or entropic drivers. Extensive covalent crosslinking superimposes complexity of response and the upper and lower critical solution temperatures can translate to critical volume temperatures for these swellable but insoluble gels. Their structure and volume response confer advantages for actuation though they lack robustness. Dynamic covalent bonding has created an intermediate category where shape moulding and self-healing variants are useful for several platforms. Developing synthesis methodology—for example, Reversible Addition Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT and Atomic Transfer Radical Polymerisation (ATRP—provides an almost infinite range of materials that can be used for many of these gelling systems. For those that self-assemble into micelle systems that can gel, the upper and lower critical solution temperatures (UCST and LCST are analogous to those for simpler dispersible polymers. However, the tuned hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance plus the introduction of additional pH-sensitivity and, for instance, thermochromic response, open the potential for coupled mechanisms to create complex drug targeting effects at the cellular level.

  8. Decontamination techniques for BWR power generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Susumu

    1990-01-01

    The present report describes various techniques used for decontamination in BWR power generation plants. Objectives and requirements for decontamination in BWR power plants are first discussed focusing on reduction in dose, prevention of spread of contamination, cleaning of work environments, exposure of equipment parts for inspection, re-use of decontaminated resources, and standards for decontamination. Then, the report outlines major physical, chemical and electrochemical decontamination techniques generally used in BWR power generation plants. The physical techniques include suction of deposits in tanks, jet cleaning, particle blast cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, coating with special paints, and flushing cleaning. The chemical decontamination techniques include the use of organic acids etc. for dissolution of oxidized surface layers and treatment of secondary wastes such as liquids released from primary decontamination processes. Other techniques are used for removal of penetrated contaminants, and soft and hard cladding in and on equipment and piping that are in direct contact with radioactive materials used in nuclear power generation plants. (N.K.)

  9. Summary of decontamination cover manufacturing experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, G.B.; Berry, H.W.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination cover forming cracks and vent cup assembly leaks through the decontamination covers were early manufacturing problems. The decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield was as low as 55%. Applicable tooling and procedures were examined. All manufacturing steps from foil fabrication to final assembly leak testing were considered as possible causes or contributing factors to these problems. The following principal changes were made to correct these problems: (1) the foil annealing temperature was reduced from 1375 degrees to 1250 degrees C, (2) the decontamination cover fabrication procedure (including visual inspection for surface imperfections and elimination of superfluous operations) was improved, (3) the postforming dye penetrant inspection procedure was revised for increased sensitivity, (4) a postforming (prewelding) 1250 degrees C/1 h vacuum stress-relief operation was added, (5) a poststress relief (prewelding) decontamination cover piece-part leak test was implemented, (6) the hold-down fixture used during the decontamination cover-to-cup weld was modified, and concomitantly, and (7) the foil fabrication process was changed from the extruding and rolling of 63-mm-diam vacuum arc-remelted ingots (extrusion process) to the rolling of 19-mm-square arc-melted drop castings (drop cast process). Since these changes were incorporated, the decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield has been 91 %. Most importantly, more than 99% of the decontamination covers welded onto vent cup assemblies were acceptable. The drastic yield improvement is attributed primarily to the change in the foil annealing temperature from 1375 degrees to 1250 degrees C and secondarily to the improvements in the decontamination cover fabrication procedure

  10. Foam process for application of decontamination agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.M.; Miller, J.R.; Frazier, R.S.; Walter, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the results and observations of a study performed by the authors to parametrically evaluate the performance characteristics of a foam process for application of decontamination agents. The initial tests were established to assess foam quality. Subsequent tests determined the ability of the foam as a carrier of chemical systems, and established system operating parameters. The technique was then applied in an actual decontamination task to verify effectiveness of these established parameters and to determine decontamination reduction factors. 4 figures, 5 tables

  11. Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

    2001-07-01

    This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

  12. Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, M.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is analyzed in terms of area cleaned per unit time, and the comprehensive cost of decontamination per unit area is derived. Shielded equipment for measuring directional radiation and continuously monitoring decontamination work are described. Shielding of drivers' cabs and remote control vehicles is addressed

  13. Mechanical and chemical decontamination of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienhoefer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Decontamination does not mean more than a special technique of cleaning surfaces by methods well known in the industry. The main difference consists in the facts that more than just the visible dirt is to be removed and that radioactive contamination cannot be seen. Especially, intensive mechanical and chemical carry-off methods are applied to attack the surfaces. In order to minimize damages caused to the surfaces, the decontamination method is to adapt to the material and the required degree of decontamination. The various methods, their advantages and disadvantages are described, and the best known chemical solutions are shown. (orig./RW)

  14. Novel Protection and Decontamination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    destruction of a lipid target, with a bromide mediated mechanism, creating products similar to those observed during gamma ray decontamination. iii ...reaction (qRT-PCR) was conducted utilizing the Roche Lightcycler RNA Master SYBR Green 1 qRT-PCR kit ( Basel , Switzerland), using primers Den_F...pH 9 II 5 mM CTAC, 5% Isopropanol, 5 mM NH3, NaOH 2.5 mL 2.5 mL 250 uL 44.75 mL Solid NaOH pH 9 III 5 mM TTAC, 5% Ethanol, 5 mM 2.5 mL 2.5 mL

  15. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamdar, S.N. [Food Technology Division, FIPLY, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)], E-mail: snjam2@yahoo.com; Harikumar, P. [Food Technology Division, FIPLY, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2008-04-15

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile (<1 CFU/10 g tissue), while 5 and 10 kGy reduced the total bacterial count by 4 and 6 log{sub 10} cycles, respectively, eliminating the coliforms to <1 CFU/g of tissue. Analysis of organoleptic and biochemical parameters [proximate composition, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), lipid peroxidation (TBARS value), and levels of TCA soluble peptides and proteolytic enzyme] showed that gamma irradiation (20 kGy) followed by storage at 4 deg. C for 62 days induced no significant change (except lipid peroxidation) in the acceptability of poultry viscera. However, storage at ambient temperature (26 {sup o}C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature.

  16. Degradation and Decontamination of VX in Concrete

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, G. W; O'Connor, Richard J; Edwards, Jennifer L; Brevett, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    .... Water added to concrete samples containing sorbed VX to mimic precipitation and/or a potential decontamination strategy resulted in the desorption of copious amounts of VX into the water along...

  17. Testing and comparison of seventeen decontamination chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of seventeen decontamination chemicals. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, overall corrosion potential for plant equipment, interim waste generation and final waste generation

  18. Decontamination Supplies Under the Worker Protection Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employers at agricultural establishments must make sure that decontamination supplies for washing off pesticides and pesticide residues are available to workers and handlers. Learn about specific requirements for the type and location of these supplies.

  19. Degradation And Decontamination of VX in Concrete

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, George W; O'Connor, Richard J; Edwards, Jennifer L; Brevett, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    ... than 0.2 L drops. Water added to concrete samples containing sorbed VX to mimic precipitation and/or a potential decontamination strategy resulted in the desorption of copious amounts of VX into the water along...

  20. Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) is a trace contaminant control device based on non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma technology. Compared to...

  1. Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) is a trace contaminant control device based on non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma technology that operates...

  2. Surface decontamination using dry ice snow cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.D.; Park, K.H.; Lee, B.S.; Kim, Y.E.

    1999-01-01

    The water washing and steam blast cleaning method are currently used in nuclear power plants in decontamination. These methods produce lots of secondary wastes and tend to damage the work surface. A dry ice snow cleaning device with an adjustable nozzle was developed for the decontamination purpose. Glass with finger prints and scratched acrylic plastics surface with adsorbed oil-dust mixture were tested to see the cleaning ability of the developed device. Traces of finger prints and oil-dust mixture could not be detected after cleaning. The radioactivity of pump housing in a primary system of Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant was also tested. The maximum of 82% of radioactivity was reduced after dry ice snow cleaning. This device is expected to be used in decontamination of expensive electronic and optical instruments and detectors that cannot be decontaminated by water

  3. Processing method of chemical decontamination liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enda, Masami; Yaita, Yumi; Fujihata, Kenji; Sakai, Hitoshi

    1998-01-01

    A method of processing spent chemical decontamination liquid wastes containing an aminocarboxylic acid type chelating agent comprises a combination of a step of decomposing the chelating agent in the decontamination liquid wastes to gaseous carbon dioxide, water and an ammonium ion, a step of separating the ammonium ion and a step of neutralizing and solidifying the decontamination liquid wastes from which the ammonium ion is separated and removed. The decomposition is conducted by using an oxidizing means such as anodic oxidation, irradiation of UV rays, ozone or sodium peroxide. The ammonium ion is separated from the decontamination liquid wastes by an electrolytic (electric) dialysis method. Decomposition of EDTA and separation/removal of the ammonium ion as a decomposed product can be conducted simultaneously by the electrolytic dialysis. (N.H.)

  4. Testing and comparison of seventeen decontamination chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of seventeen decontamination chemicals. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, overall corrosion potential for plant equipment, interim waste generation and final waste generation.

  5. Tritium decontamination of machine components and walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.; Wong, K.Y.; Jalbert, R.A.; Shmayda, W.T.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium decontamination techniques for machine components and their application at tritium handling facilities are reviewed. These include commonly used methods such as vacuuming, purging, thermal desorption and isotopic exchange as well as less common methods such as chemical/electrochemical etching, plasma discharge cleaning, and destructive methods. Problems associated with tritium contamination of walls and use of protective coatings are reviewed. Tritium decontamination considerations at fusion facilities are discussed

  6. Processing of waste solutions from electrochemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, L.A.; Allen, R.P.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Hooper, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The use of electropolishing as a decontamination technique will be effective only if we can minimize the amount of secondary waste requiring disposal and economically recycle part of the decontamination electrolyte. Consequently, a solution purification method is needed to remove the dissolved contamination and metal in the electrolyte. This report describes the selection of a purification method for a phosphoric acid electrolyte from the following possible acid reclamation processes: ion exchange, solvent extraction, precipitation, distillation, electrolysis, and membrane separation

  7. LASL experience in decontamination of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlquist, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    This discussion represents one part of a major effort in soil decontamination at the Los Alamos site. A contaminated industrial waste line in the Los Alamos townsite was removed, and a plutonium incineration facility, and a filter building contaminated with actinium-227 were dismantled. The former plutonium handling facility has been decontaminated, and canyons and an old firing site contaminated with strontium-90 have been surveyed

  8. Depressurized pipes decontamination by using circulation foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerval, Frederique; Belz, Jacques; Renouf, Marjorie; Janneau, Patrice

    2012-09-01

    Decontamination of pipes remains a necessity in order to reduce the radiation level during maintenance or dismantling operations but it is not so easy to do it, especially in case of a long pipe network. To achieve this operation, the use of chemistry is one of the more relevant methods; moreover, the liquid waste production still remains an issue that it can be avoided by the use of decontamination foams. (authors)

  9. Collection of lectures delivered at decontamination course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The collection contains 10 lectures read at the decontamination workshop DEK '85 held between 29-31 Oct 1985 at the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez, all of which fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The workshop, whose first course was held in 1975, is destined for personnel of various institutions who are decontamination process users but also for designers of nuclear installations, personnel of safety of work inspectorates, hygiene services, etc. (Z.M.)

  10. Criteria and evaluation of three decontamination techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripp, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Past decontamination and solvent recovery activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), which is part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), have resulted in the accumulation of 1.5 million gallons of radioactively contaminated sodium-bearing liquid waste. Future decontamination activities at the ICPP could result in the production of 5 million gallons or more of sodium-bearing waste using the current decontamination techniques of chemical/water flushes and steam jet cleaning. This waste requires a large amount of cold chemical additive to process because the low melting temperatures of sodium and potassium salts cause agglomeration in the bed of the calciner vessel. Criteria have been established for evaluating methods and technologies available for decontaminating equipment and facilities. The criteria were weighted according to their relative importance using a Kepner-Tregoe Problem Solving process. These criteria were used to rank three decontamination techniques new to the ICPP: laser ablation, liquid abrasive blasting and CO{sub 2} pellet blasting, against the standard decontamination techniques of sodium-based chemical cleaning and water/steam jets used.

  11. Criteria and evaluation of three decontamination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Past decontamination and solvent recovery activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), which is part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), have resulted in the accumulation of 1.5 million gallons of radioactively contaminated sodium-bearing liquid waste. Future decontamination activities at the ICPP could result in the production of 5 million gallons or more of sodium-bearing waste using the current decontamination techniques of chemical/water flushes and steam jet cleaning. This waste requires a large amount of cold chemical additive to process because the low melting temperatures of sodium and potassium salts cause agglomeration in the bed of the calciner vessel. Criteria have been established for evaluating methods and technologies available for decontaminating equipment and facilities. The criteria were weighted according to their relative importance using a Kepner-Tregoe Problem Solving process. These criteria were used to rank three decontamination techniques new to the ICPP: laser ablation, liquid abrasive blasting and CO 2 pellet blasting, against the standard decontamination techniques of sodium-based chemical cleaning and water/steam jets used

  12. Report of decontamination at Tominari Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumi, S

    2016-12-01

    On 19 April 2011, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology designated 13 elementary schools, including Tominari Elementary School in Date city, as high-dose schools that needed to restrict outdoor activities due to the effects of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Approximately 1 week later, the municipal government took action to remove the topsoil from the school grounds, and the prohibition of outdoor activities at Tominari Elementary School was lifted. The school staff continued to work on decontaminating the surrounding areas using high-pressure washers and brushes. There were certain positive outcomes, but a more effective decontamination method was required. In July 2011, the municipal government started an environmental remediation project, both inside and outside the school buildings, with researchers and decontamination workers at Tominari Elementary School, involving members of the Parent-Teacher Association (PTA), local communities, and volunteers using various effective and specialised forms of decontamination. As a result, Tominari Elementary School was able to recommence swimming lessons at the end of the first semester, which had been thought to be impossible. This article will provide information about the importance of 'dialogue' for decontamination, how engagement of the experts gave members of the PTA and the local community a feeling of 'security and safety', and how the decontamination work was an ever-expanding collaborative work of a large number of people.

  13. Chemical decontamination for repair and decommissionning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demtroeder, P.; Neupert, D.

    1981-12-01

    The decontamination processes volatilization of metal-oxides and metal-alloys by reaction with aggressive gases and decontamination with strippable decontamination pastes have been tested experimentally. Tests have been made with inactive and radioactive samples, in order to assess the suitability of both decontamination processes. As the material is considerably damaged by decontamination through a gaseous-phase reaction, this process can only be used for special cases. The decontamination pastes developed by Nukem can be applied in all areas of nuclear technology in order to decontaminate radioactive components. Decontamination factors of 10 3 could be obtained after only one application of the pastes, which consist essentially of a decontamination compound, a thickening compound, a film former and other secondary chemicals. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Chemical cleaning, decontamination and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadiyar, H.S.; Das Chintamani; Gaonkar, K.B.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical cleaning of process equipments and pipings in chemical/petrochemical industries is necessitated for improving operation, for preventing premature failures and for avoiding contamination. In developing a chemical formulation for cleaning equipments, the important aspects to be considered include (i) effective removal of corrosion products and scales, (ii) minimum corrosion of the base metal, (iii) easy to handle chemicals and (iv) economic viability. As on date, a wide variety of chemical formulations are available, many of them are either proprietory or patented. For evolving an effective formulation, knowledge of the oxides of various metals and alloys on the one hand and acid concentration, complexing agents and inhibitors to be incorporated on the other, is quite essential. Organic acids like citric acid, acetic acid and formic acid are more popular ones, often used with EDTA for effective removal of corrosion products from ferrous components. The report enumerates some of the concepts in developing effective formulations for chemical cleaning of carbon steel components and further, makes an attempt to suggest simple formulations to be developed for chemical decontamination. (author). 6 refs., 3 fi gs., 4 tabs

  15. Decontamination of radionuclides on construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuleev, P.V.; Andrews, W.S.; Creber, K.A.M.; Velicogna, D.

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of materials can become contaminated by radionuclides, either from a terrorist attack or an industrial or nuclear accident. The final disposition of these materials depends, in large part, on the effectiveness of decontamination measures. This study reports on investigations into the decontamination of a selection of building materials. The aim has been to find an effective, easy-to-use and inexpensive decontamination system for radionuclides of cesium and cobalt, considering both the chemical and physical nature of these potential contaminants. The basic method investigated was surface washing, due to its ease and simplicity. In the present study, a basic decontamination formulation was modified by adding isotope-specific sequestering agents, to enhance the removal of cesium(I) and cobalt(II) from such construction materials as concrete, marble, aluminum and painted steel. Spiking solutions contained 134 Cs or 60 Co, which were prepared by neutron activation in the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor facility at the Royal Military College of Canada. Gamma spectroscopy was used to determine the decontamination efficiency. The results showed that the addition of sequestering agents generally improved the radiological decontamination. Although the washing of both cesium and cobalt from non-porous materials, such as aluminum and painted steel, achieved a 90-95 % removal, the decontamination of concrete and marble was more challenging, due to the porous nature of the materials. Nevertheless, the removal efficiency from 6-year-old concrete increased from 10 % to approximately 50 % for cobalt(II), and from 18 to 55 % for cesium(I), with the use of isotope binding agents, as opposed to a simple water wash. (author)

  16. Electrochemical ion exchange of LOMI decontamination solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, D.; Elder, G.R.

    1991-05-01

    The objective of the LOMI Electrochemical Ion Exchange (ELOMIX) process is to reduce the volume of waste arising from LOMI decontamination operations. This is achieved by using the conventional ion exchange resin as an intermediate, rather than a final waste form. Radioactive and metal ion constitutents removed during the decontamination are converted by the process to a metallic form. In its simplest form the ELOMIX cell consists of three compartments, (anode, cathode and resin) separated by cation permeable membranes. In the resin compartment, radioactive and chemical components are removed from the flowing solution by the resin. These components are then migrated under the influence of an electric field into the cathode compartment where metallic elements are deposited. After successful laboratory testing a pilot scale ELOMIX unit was constructed and shipped to Commonwealth Edison's Dresden Unit 2 LOMI decontamination in October 1990. The pilot-scale cell was tied in to the decontamination equipment. The cell operated successfully during three LOMI steps, processing a total of 165 resin bed volumes of solution, far exceeding the normal capacity of the ion exchange resin. Removal efficiencies for iron and radioactivity were good throughout the test. The ELOMIX unit was successfully operated in the time, operational and safety constraints of a reactor decontamination. The main benefits of the process are reduced waste volume, and greater chemical and radiation stability of the waste, which is particularly relevant to full system decontamination. Although the testing to date has focused on the LOMI process, the ELOMIX technique could in principle be applied to be other decontamination processes. 13 figs., 1 tab

  17. Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. PMID:21992527

  18. Residual methamphetamine in decontaminated clandestine drug laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Glen; Daniell, William; Treser, Charles

    2009-03-01

    This pilot cross-sectional study examined three previously decontaminated residential clandestine drug laboratories (CDLs) in Washington State to determine the distribution and magnitude of residual methamphetamine concentrations relative to the state decontamination standard. A total of 159 discrete random methamphetamine wipe samples were collected from the three CDLs, focusing on the master bedroom, bathroom, living room, and kitchen at each site. Additional samples were collected from specific non-random locations likely to be contacted by future residents (e.g., door knobs and light switches). Samples were analyzed for methamphetamine by EPA method 8270 for semivolatile organic chemicals. Overall, 59% of random samples and 75% of contact point samples contained methamphetamine in excess of the state decontamination standard (0.1 micro g/100 cm(2)). At each site, methamphetamine concentrations were generally higher and more variable in rooms where methamphetamine was prepared and used. Even compared with the less stringent standard adopted in Colorado (0.5 micro g/100cm(2)), a substantial number of samples at each site still demonstrated excessive residual methamphetamine (random samples, 25%; contact samples, 44%). Independent oversight of CDL decontamination in residential structures is warranted to protect public health. Further research on the efficacy of CDL decontamination procedures and subsequent verification of methods is needed.

  19. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; King, J. [U.S. Army Environmental Center

    2007-02-01

    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

  20. General recommendations for decontamination procedures to individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlenschlaeger, L.; Messerschmidt, J.P.

    1989-04-01

    The fundamental criteria in handling radioactive contaminated persons are discussed and methods of monitoring, including monitoring of contaminated wounds, as well as decontamination measures with reference to particularly exposed regions of the body are described. Each decontamination procedure has to be carried out cautiously and has to be stopped as soon as skin lesion would be ensured from too strong mechanical cleansing, in order to avoid any additional incorporation by an injured skin. As a rule, any residual radioactivity still adherent to the skin surface can be neglected as soon as avoidance of spreading of the contamination to surrounding areas is assured. Experience showed that contaminations with radioactive dust can be removed from the skin surface quite easily by such simple means like water and soap. Radioisotopes, however, as used in nuclear medicine, usually are having a higher adhesive effect to the skin surface, thus making conditions for decontamination more difficult. Measures related to the decontamination procedure such as monitoring, mode of sampling for bioassay in case of incidents, handling of waste resulting from decontamination, as well as self-protective aspects are discussed in the annex. (orig.) [de

  1. Reconventionalization following antibiotic decontamination in man and animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaij, D. van der; Vossen, J.M.; Korthals Altes, C.; Hartgrink, C.

    1977-01-01

    Antibiotic decontamination of the digestive tract can suppress or eliminate all microorganisms in this tract that are sensitive to the antibiotics used for decontamination. Experimental work in animals has indicated that colonization resistance (CR) decreases to extremely low values during

  2. Assessment of Environmentally Benign Decontaminant Towards Anthrax Spores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rastogi, Vipin K; Cheng, Tu-chen; Turetsky, Abe; Bartram, Phillip; Wagner, George

    2002-01-01

    .... Consequently, development of alternative decontaminants is urgently needed. Three environmentally benign decontaminant formulations, two based on hydrogen peroxide and a third based on hypochlorite, have recently been developed for CW agents...

  3. Decontamination trade study for the Light Duty Utility Arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Various methods were evaluated for decontaminating the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). Physical capabilities of each method were compared with the constraints and requirements for the LDUA Decontamination System. Costs were compared and a referred alternative was chosen

  4. PYROCHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION METHOD FOR REACTOR FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyers, A.G.

    1959-06-30

    A pyro-chemical method is presented for decontaminating neutron irradiated uranium and separating plutonium therefrom by contact in the molten state with a metal chloride salt. Uranium trichloride and uranium tetrachloride either alone or in admixture with alkaline metal and alkaline eanth metal fluorides under specified temperature and specified phase ratio conditions extract substantially all of the uranium from the irradiated uranium fuel together with certain fission products. The phases are then separated leaving purified uranium metal. The uranium and plutonium in the salt phase can be reduced to forin a highly decontaminated uraniumplutonium alloy. The present method possesses advantages for economically decontaminating irradiated nuclear fuel elements since irradiated fuel may be proccessed immediately after withdrawal from the reactor and the uranium need not be dissolved and later reduced to the metallic form. Accordingly, the uranium may be economically refabricated and reinserted into the reactor.

  5. Soil surface decontamination and revegetation progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, A.W.

    1981-01-01

    A review is given of work by Rockwell Hanford Operations related to large-area decontamination efforts. Rockwell has a Program Office which manages the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) efforts. Part of the program is involved with large-surface area cleanup in conjunction with surveillance and maintenance of retired sites and facilities. The other part is the decontamination and decommissioning of structures. There are 322 surplus contaminated sites and facilities for which Rockwell has responsibility on the Hanford Site. A Program Office was established for a disciplined approach to cleanup of these retired sites. There are three major projects: the first is surveillance and maintenance of the sites prior to D and D, the project under which the radiation area cleanup is contained. Another project is for contaminated-equipment volume reduction; size reduction with arc saw cut-up and volume reduction with a vacuum furnace meltdown are being used. The third major project is structural D and D

  6. Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material's decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting

  7. Surface decontamination using dry ice snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jungdong; Park, Kwangheon; Lee, Bumsik; Kim Yangeun

    1999-01-01

    An adjustable nozzle for controlling the size of dry ice snow was developed. The converging/diverging nozzle can control the size of snows from sub-microns to 10 micron size. Using the nozzle, a surface decontamination device was made. The removal mechanisms of surface contaminants are mechanical impact, partial dissolving and evaporation process, and viscous flow. A heat supply system is added for the prevention of surface ice layer formation. The cleaning power is slightly dependent on the size of snow. Small snows are the better in viscous flow cleaning, while large snows are slightly better in dissolving and sublimation process. Human oils like fingerprints on glass were easy to remove. Decontamination ability was tested using a contaminated pump-housing surface. About 40 to 80% of radioactivity was removed. This device is effective in surface-decontamination of any electrical devices like detector, controllers which cannot be cleaned in aqueous solution. (author)

  8. Training of skin decontamination and its results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasunaka, Hideo; Wadachi, Yoshiki.

    1976-01-01

    In the nuclear power and radioisotope handling facilities, one of the most important problems is a radioactive contamination on skin. Hand skin contamination occurs very often in the operation area and such surface contamination must be removed as soon as possible to prevent an internal contamination. From 1967 to 1975, training courses for skin decontamination had been held with total 536 of trainee based on the radiation protection manual at the Oarai Research Establishment of JAERI. In the training courses, fresh pig skin samples used instead of human skin were contaminated with 137 Cs, 131 I, 85 Sr, 60 Co, 144 Ce, 88 Y, 239 Pu, fission products and activated metal corrosion particles, respectively. These samples were washed practically by each trainee with the skin decontamination method recommended in the manual. Results obtained in the training showed that such training itself is a significant work and this skin decontamination method is an excellent first aid. (auth.)

  9. Decontamination tests on tritium-contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutot, P.; Schipfer, P.

    1967-01-01

    These tests are designed to try out various processes liable to be applied to the decontamination of a material contaminated with tritium. The samples are thin stainless- steel slabs contaminated in the laboratory with elements extracted from industrial installations. The measurement of the initial and residual activities is carried out using an open-window BERTHOLD counter. The best results are obtained by passing a current of pre-heated (300 deg. C) air containing water vapour. This process makes it possible to reach a decontamination factor of 99.5 per cent in 4 hours. In a vacuum, the operation has to be prolonged to 100 hours in order to obtain a decontamination factor of 99.2 per cent. Wet-chemical or electrolytic treatments are efficient but their use is limited by the inherent corrosion risks. A study of the reappearance of the contamination has made it possible to observe that this phenomenon occurs whatever the process used. (authors) [fr

  10. Experiences with decontaminating tritium-handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, J.L.; Garcia, F.; Garza, R.G.; Kanna, R.L.; Mayhugh, S.R.; Taylor, D.T.

    1992-01-01

    Tritium-handling apparatus has been decontaminated as part of the downsizing of the LLNL Tritium Facility. Two stainless-steel glove boxes that had been used to process lithium deuteride-tritide (LiDT) slat were decontaminated using the Portable Cleanup System so that they could be flushed with room air through the facility ventilation system. In this paper the details on the decontamination operation are provided. A series of metal (palladium and vanadium) hydride storage beds have been drained of tritium and flushed with deuterium, in order to remove as much tritium as possible. The bed draining and flushing procedure is described, and a calculational method is presented which allows estimation of the tritium remaining in a bed after it has been drained and flushed. Data on specific bed draining and flushing are given

  11. 40 CFR 761.79 - Decontamination standards and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination standards and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.79 Decontamination standards and procedures. (a) Applicability. This section establishes decontamination standards and procedures for removing PCBs, which are...

  12. 41 CFR 101-45.001 - Demilitarization and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... decontamination. 101-45.001 Section 101-45.001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property..., ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY § 101-45.001 Demilitarization and decontamination. (a... characteristics, or otherwise making it unfit for further use. (b) Demilitarization or decontamination of property...

  13. Radio decontamination experiences of pharmaceuticals products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Prieto, E.; Melo, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The possibilities for the radio decontamination radioimmunodetection of Mafenide 10% cream, Bariopac powder and Ranitidine raw material by means of the application of different dose level of gamma rays were studied. Microbiological and Physicochemical evaluations were carried out before and after the treatment . The industrial production was irradiated with 3 and 1 kGy as the adequate dose, in a continuous way. It was concluded that the application of ionising radiations with decontamination aims is an alternative to guarantee the microbiological quality of these pharmaceuticals

  14. Cadmium decontamination using in-house resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Sangita; Thalor, K.L; Prabhakar, S.; Srivastava, V.K.; Goswami, J.L.; Tewari, P.K.; Dhanpal, Pranav; Goswami, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    A selective and strong in-house chelator has been studied w.r.t. basic parameters like concentration, time, and elution. De-contamination of cadmium, mercury, chromium, lead etc by using high uptake values fro cadmium ions proves its selectivity with high elution ratio ensures further decontamination of run-off water during natural calamities. In three step cascade use the concentration of original cadmium solution (500 ppm) decocted to safe disposable attribute. This polymeric ligand exchanger displayed outlet effluent concentration to 1 ppm and less than 200 ppb when treated for inlet feed concentration of 50 ppm and 500 ppm respectively. (author)

  15. Reaction-diffusion models of decontamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    A contaminant, which also contains a polymer is in the form of droplets on a solid surface. It is to be removed by the action of a decontaminant, which is applied in aqueous solution. The contaminant is only sparingly soluble in water, so the reaction mechanism is that it slowly dissolves...... in the aqueous solution and then is oxidized by the decontaminant. The polymer is insoluble in water, and so builds up near the interface, where its presence can impede the transport of contaminant. In these circumstances, Dstl wish to have mathematical models that give an understanding of the process, and can...

  16. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Minea, R.

    2005-01-01

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties

  17. High pressure freon decontamination of remote equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    A series of decontamination tests using high pressure FREON 113 was conducted in the 200 Area of the Hanford site. The intent of these tests was to evaluate the effectiveness of FREON 113 in decontamination of manipulator components, tools, and equipment items contaminated with mixed fission products. The test results indicated that high pressure FREON 113 is very effective in removing fissile material from a variety of objects and can reduce both the quantity and the volume of the radioactive waste material presently being buried

  18. Study on the Decontamination of Radionuclides in Spent Phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Won, H. J.; Moon, J. K.

    2010-01-15

    The objective of the study is to confirm the possibility of further R and D thru pre-study on the decontamination technology for the safe, high decontamination factor, low waste arising and cost effective removal of radionuclide in spent phosphogypsum. The following contents were studied. 1) Decontamination of Radionuclide in Phosphogypsum - Effect of decontamination chemical formulation on Ra removal - Effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration on Ra removal - Effect of Sr concentration on Ra removal 2) Removal of Radionuclide in Liquid Waste from Decontamination of Phosphogypsum - Ra removal by chromate treatment - Ra removal by zeolite and ACF treatment

  19. Decontamination and dismantling at the CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the dismantling policy at the CEA (French Research Center on the atomic energy), the financing of the decontamination and the dismantling, the regulatory framework, the knowledge and the technology developed at the CEA, the radiation protection, the environment monitoring and the installations. (A.L.B.)

  20. LASL experience in decontamination of the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlquist, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1972 the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has been actively involved in land area surveys for radioactive contamination and has gained considerable experience in cleanup of lands considered to have unacceptable levels of radioactive contamination. Experience and means of arriving at recommendations for decontamination at levels as low as reasonably achievable.

  1. Decontamination and decorporation: the clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poda, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Decontamination and decorporation are quite interrelated when dealing with a contaminated person. Some clinical experiences from a transuranium production facility are offered. Skin decontamination is accomplished by washing with detergent and water. Stubborn cases are treated with sodium hypochlorite followed by rinsing, and emery cloth is used on more stubborn nail or finger pad contamination. If inhaled, the usual skin cleansing followed by nasal douche with normal saline decontaminates reachable areas and one of the DTPA salts given via aerosol both decontaminates and decorporates the inner recesses. Saline laxative reduces the time inhaled, and ingested particles remain in the gastro-intestinal tract. Conservatism prevails in general, but most persons found to have inhaled contamination are given a single chelation within the hour of discovery and if subsequently found to have over 10% M.P.P.B. of a soluble actinide are offered further chelation. Single dose chelation has been found to be relatively innocuous and usually sufficient. The longest case of chelation therapy spanned 2-1/4 years and encompassed 123 doses of CaNa-DTPA

  2. Decontamination of radioactive cesium in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanaga, Makoto; Oishi, Ayumi

    2013-01-01

    Decontamination of radioactive cesium from the agricultural soil was attempted by extraction method using potassium solution. The result of experiments using the soil artificially contaminated with 137 Cs showed that radioactive cesium was extracted by potassium solution. However, the extraction rate decreased when time after contamination passed. (author)

  3. Decontamination techniques for buildings, structures and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, M.P.; Clark, R.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides information on pollution protection. It describes decontamination process for such pertinent pollutants as asbestos, acids, explosives, cyanides, low level radiation, pesticides, P.C.B.'s and hazardous organic chemicals. The discussions include advantages, disadvantages, cost, effectiveness of the procedures and waste disposal

  4. LASL experience in decontamination of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlquist, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1972 the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has been actively involved in land area surveys for radioactive contamination and has gained considerable experience in cleanup of lands considered to have unacceptable levels of radioactive contamination. Experience and means of arriving at recommendations for decontamination at levels as low as reasonably achievable

  5. DWTF [decontamination and waste treatment facilities] assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimoni, A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study has been to evaluate the adequacy of present and proposed decontamination and waste treatment facilities (DWTF) at LLNL, to determine the cost effectiveness for proposed improvements, and possible alternatives for accomplishing these improvements. To the extent possible, we have also looked at some of the proposed environmental compliance and cleanup (ECC) projects

  6. MOBILE PHONES– DO WE NEED DECONTAMINATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketaki Prakash Ghatole

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Mobile phones have become a necessity in the present scenario. They are extensively used for communication, internet, images, education, you tube, banking, for sharing reports, X-rays in healthcare settings. On the other hand they are reported to be contaminated by micro-organisms and may act as source of infection. In our study we analysed the mobile phones of healthcare workers (HCW and college students for microbial contamination and also efficacy of sanitizers, wet wipes for decontamination. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 220 swabs were collected from 110 mobile phones of HCWs and 110 students. Swabs were cultured on 5% sheep blood agar; MacConkey agar and isolates were identified by standard protocol. RESULTS 91.8% of students and 89.1% of HCWs mobiles were contaminated. Organisms like Staphylococcus aureus, CONS, E. coli, Klebsiella aerogenes were isolated. HCWs mobiles showed higher number of potential pathogens. Decontamination by absolute alcohol, alcohol-based hand sanitizers decontaminated 96% of the mobile phones. Nonalcohol-based hand sanitizers and wet wipes were able to decontaminate 88% and 96% of the mobiles respectively. CONCLUSION Mobile phones of healthcare workers and also students were contaminated. Absolute alcohol could clean 96% mobiles of HCWs and 92% of students. Alcohol based hand sanitizers eliminated the organisms (96% as against non-alcohol-based sanitizers. (88%. It was also observed that wet wipes were effective in students’ groups. (96%.

  7. Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities

  8. Experiences with decontaminating tritium-handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, J.L.; Garcia, F.; Garza, R.G.; Kanna, R.L.; Mayhugh, S.R.; Taylor, D.T.

    1991-07-01

    Tritium-handling apparatus has been decontaminated as part of the shutdown of the LLNL Tritium Facility. Two stainless-steel gloveboxes that had been used to process lithium deuteride-tritide (LiDT) salt were decontaminated using the Portable Cleanup System so that they could be flushed with room air through the facility ventilation system. Further surface decontamination was performed by scrubbing the interior with paper towels and ethyl alcohol or Swish trademark. The surface contamination, as shown by swipe surveys, was reduced from 4x10 4 --10 6 disintegrations per minute (dpm)/cm 2 to 2x10 2 --4x10 4 dpm/cm 2 . Details on the decontamination operation are provided. A series of metal (palladium and vanadium) hydride storage beds have been drained of tritium and flushed with deuterium in order to remove as much tritium as possible. The bed draining and flushing procedure is described, and a calculational method is presented which allows estimation of the tritium remaining in a bed after it has been drained and flushed. Data on specific bed draining and flushing are given

  9. Decontamination of operational nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    In order to reduce the radiation fields around nuclear power plants, and, consequently, to limit the radiation exposure of and dose commitments to the operating and maintenance personnel, the contamination build-up should be kept to a minimum. The most fruitful approach, from the point of view of economics and efficiency, is to tackle the problems of contamination and decontamination in the design and construction phases of the reactor. To do this, knowledge gained from the operation of existing power reactors should be used to make improvements in new designs. New structural materials with low corrosion rates or whose constituents are not activated by neutrons should also be used. For older reactors, in most cases it is already too late to incorporate design changes without extensive and expensive modifications. For these plants, decontamination remains the most efficient way to reduce radiation fields. The aim of this report is to deal with the different decontamination methods that may be applied to nuclear power plant circuits and equipment during operation. The factors that have to be considered in determining the type and the extent of the methods used are the engineering and the planning of the decontamination operation and the treatment of the resulting waste generated during the process are also discussed

  10. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophilized products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, H.B.; Migdal, W.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for powder soups and sauces compose with lyophilized products. Technology of lyophilization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the products lyophilization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment. (author)

  11. Testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.L.; Ferguson, R.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination. It details WINCO contracted research and application of light ablation efforts by Ames Laboratory. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons and REALCON (actual radioactive metal coupons) under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, speed and application to plant process type equipment

  12. Testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, R.L.; Ferguson, R.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination. It details WINCO contracted research and application of light ablation efforts by Ames Laboratory. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons and REALCON (actual radioactive metal coupons) under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, speed and application to plant process type equipment.

  13. Removing water from gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, E.S.; Winter, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Water is removed from a gel material by contacting the gel material with an organic liquid and contacting the organic liquid with a gas such that water is taken up by the gas. The invention, in one embodiment, may be used to dry gel materials whilst maintaining an open porous network therein. In one example, the invention is applied to gel precipitated spheres containing uranium and plutonium. (author)

  14. Statistical sampling method for releasing decontaminated vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lively, J.W.; Ware, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Earth moving vehicles (e.g., dump trucks, belly dumps) commonly haul radiologically contaminated materials from a site being remediated to a disposal site. Traditionally, each vehicle must be surveyed before being released. The logistical difficulties of implementing the traditional approach on a large scale demand that an alternative be devised. A statistical method (MIL-STD-105E, open-quotes Sampling Procedures and Tables for Inspection by Attributesclose quotes) for assessing product quality from a continuous process was adapted to the vehicle decontamination process. This method produced a sampling scheme that automatically compensates and accommodates fluctuating batch sizes and changing conditions without the need to modify or rectify the sampling scheme in the field. Vehicles are randomly selected (sampled) upon completion of the decontamination process to be surveyed for residual radioactive surface contamination. The frequency of sampling is based on the expected number of vehicles passing through the decontamination process in a given period and the confidence level desired. This process has been successfully used for 1 year at the former uranium mill site in Monticello, Utah (a CERCLA regulated clean-up site). The method forces improvement in the quality of the decontamination process and results in a lower likelihood that vehicles exceeding the surface contamination standards are offered for survey. Implementation of this statistical sampling method on Monticello Projects has resulted in more efficient processing of vehicles through decontamination and radiological release, saved hundreds of hours of processing time, provided a high level of confidence that release limits are met, and improved the radiological cleanliness of vehicles leaving the controlled site

  15. Polymer gels and networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osada, Yoshihito; Khokhlov, A. R

    2002-01-01

    ... or magnetic field, etc.). It was realized that not only can polymer gels absorb and hold a considerable volume of liquids, but they can also be forced to expel the absorbed liquid in a controlled manner. Of particular interest are hydrogels, i.e., polymer gels, which swell extensively in water. The most common hydrogels are polyelectrolyte gels: ...

  16. Aptamers as the Agent in Decontamination Assays (Apta-Decontamination Assays: From the Environment to the Potential Application In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawethu Pascoe Bilibana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The binding specificity and affinity of aptamers have long been harnessed as the key elements in the development of aptamer-based assays, particularly aptasensing application. One promising avenue that is currently explored based on the specificity and affinity of aptamers is the application of aptamers in the decontamination assays. Aptamers have been successfully harnessed as the decontamination agents to remove contaminants from the environment and to decontaminate infectious elements. The reversible denaturation property inherent in aptamers enables the repeated usage of aptamers, which can immensely save the cost of decontamination. Analogous to the point-of-care diagnostics, there is no doubt that aptamers can also be deployed in the point-of-care aptamer-based decontamination assay, whereby decontamination can be performed anywhere and anytime for instantaneous decision-making. It is also prophesied that aptamers can also serve more than as a decontaminant, probably as a tool to capture and kill hazardous elements, particularly pathogenic agents.

  17. Decontamination of chemical warfare sulfur mustard agent simulant by ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Meysam; Yekta, Sina; Ghaedi, Hamed

    2016-07-01

    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been surveyed to decontaminate the chloroethyl phenyl sulfide as a sulfur mustard agent simulant. Prior to the reaction, ZnO NPs were successfully prepared through sol-gel method in the absence and presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA was utilized as a capping agent to control the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The formation, morphology, elemental component, and crystalline size of nanoscale ZnO were certified and characterized by SEM/EDX, XRD, and FT-IR techniques. The decontamination (adsorption and destruction) was tracked by the GC-FID analysis, in which the effects of polarity of the media, such as isopropanol, acetone and n-hexane, reaction time intervals from 1 up to 18 h, and different temperatures, including 25, 35, 45, and 55 °C, on the catalytic/decontaminative capability of the surface of ZnO NPs/PVA were investigated and discussed, respectively. Results demonstrated that maximum decontamination (100 %) occurred in n-hexane solvent at 55 °C after 1 h. On the other hand, the obtained results for the acetone and isopropanol solvents were lower than expected. GC-MS chromatograms confirmed the formation of hydroxyl ethyl phenyl sulfide and phenyl vinyl sulfide as the destruction reaction products. Furthermore, these chromatograms proved the role of hydrolysis and elimination mechanisms on the catalyst considering its surface Bronsted and Lewis acid sites. A non-polar solvent aids material transfer to the reactive surface acid sites without blocking these sites.

  18. Transport Phenomena in Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Tokita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel becomes an important class of soft materials since it can be seen in a wide variety of the chemical and the biological systems. The unique properties of gel arise from the structure, namely, the three-dimensional polymer network that is swollen by a huge amount of solvent. Despite the small volume fraction of the polymer network, which is usually only a few percent or less, gel shows the typical properties that belong to solids such as the elasticity. Gel is, therefore, regarded as a dilute solid because its elasticity is much smaller than that of typical solids. Because of the diluted structure, small molecules can pass along the open space of the polymer network. In addition to the viscous resistance of gel fluid, however, the substance experiences resistance due to the polymer network of gel during the transport process. It is, therefore, of importance to study the diffusion of the small molecules in gel as well as the flow of gel fluid itself through the polymer network of gel. It may be natural to assume that the effects of the resistance due to the polymer network of gel depends strongly on the network structure. Therefore, detailed study on the transport processes in and through gel may open a new insight into the relationship between the structure and the transport properties of gel. The two typical transport processes in and through gel, that is, the diffusion of small molecules due to the thermal fluctuations and the flow of gel fluid that is caused by the mechanical pressure gradient will be reviewed.

  19. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination.

  20. Chemical decontamination for decommissioning purposes. (Vigorous decontamination tests of steel samples in a special test loop)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregani, F.; Pascali, R.; Rizzi, R.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the research activities described was to develop vigorous decontamination techniques for decommissioning purposes, taking into account the cost of treatment of the radwaste, to achieve possibly unrestricted release of the treated components, and to obtain know-how for in situ hard decontamination. The decontamination procedures for strong decontamination have been optimized in static and dynamic tests (DECO-loop). The best values have been found for: (i) hydrochloric acid: 4 to 5% vol. at low temperature, 0.7 to 1% vol. at high temperature (80 0 C); (ii) hydrofluoric plus nitric acid: 1.5% vol. HF + 5% vol. HNO 3 at low temperature; 0.3 to 0.5% vol. HF + 2.5 to 5% vol. HNO 3 at high temperature. High flow rates are not necessary, but a good re-circulation of the solution is needed. The final contamination levels, after total oxide removal, are in accordance with limits indicated for unrestricted release of materials in some countries. The arising of the secondary waste is estimated. Decontamination of a 10 m 2 surface would typically produce 0.5 to 3.0 kg of dry waste, corresponding to 1.6 to 10 kg of concrete conditioned waste

  1. Decontamination of polypropylene fabrics by dry cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    Polypropylene fabrics can efficiently be decontaminated by dry cleaning in benzine or perchloroethylene, this also in case the fabric was greased in addition to radioactive contamination. For heavily soiled fabric, it is advantageous to first dry clean it and then wash it. The positive effect was confirmed of intensifiers on the cleaning process, especially of benzine soap. In practice, its concentration should be selected within 1 and 10 g.dm - 3 . Decontamination by dry cleaning and subsequent washing is advantageous in that that the resulting activity of waste water from the laundry is low. Radioactive wastes from the dry cleaning process have a low weight and can be handled as solid waste. (M.D.)

  2. Decontamination processes for waste glass canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1982-01-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently being designed to convert Savannah River Plant liquid, high-level radioactive waste into a solid form, such as borosilicate glass. To prevent the spread of radioactivity, the outside of the canisters of waste glass must have very low levels of smearable radioactive contamination before they are removed from the DWPF. Several techniques were considered for canister decontamination: high-pressure water spray, electropolishing, chemical dissolution, and abrasive blasting. An abrasive blasting technique using a glass frit slurry has been selected for use in the DWPF. No additional equipment is needed to process waste generated from decontamination. Frit used as the abrasive will be mixed with the waste and fed to the glass melter. In contrast, chemical and electrochemical techniques require more space in the DWPF, and produce large amounts of contaminated by-products, which are difficult to immobilize by vitrification

  3. PCB transformer decontamination - standards and protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The proper management and disposal of transformers to reduce human and environmental exposure to PCBs, is the subject of this document issued by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME). The Council is committed to a policy of phasing out the use of all polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Canada. Since there are no national standards in Canada for the decontamination of PCB transformers, this handbook was issued to provide guidelines to promote uniform practices and to set national approaches for resource recovery and technological developments in this area. The guide describes methods for decontamination of transformers, and safe approaches for re-use, recycling and landfilling of electrical transformers that contain PCBs and their components. 16 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  4. Electrochemical decontamination of Pu contaminated stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Pottinger, J.S.; Junkison, A.R.

    1983-08-01

    Electrochemical decontamination has been demonstrated to be very effective in removing plutonium nitrate contamination (0.5 μg cm -2 ) on stainless steels. The amount of metal dissolved to achieve a DF of 10 2 to 10 3 was 2 to 7 μm depending on the electrolyte used. In unstirred electrolytes 1M HNO 3 , 1M HNO 3 /0.1M NaF, 5M HNO 3 perform best. Under stirred electrolyte conditions, there is a general marginal fall in effectiveness except for 5M HNO 3 where there is a slight improvement. The optimum performance is a compromise between maximizing the electrolyte throwing power and minimizing substrate surface roughening during decontamination. (author)

  5. [Decontamination of organophosphorus compounds: Towards new alternatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, L; Jacquet, P; Elias, M; Daudé, D; Chabrière, E

    2017-05-01

    Organophosphorus coumpounds (OP) are toxic chemicals mainly used for agricultural purpose such as insecticides and were also developed and used as warfare nerve agents. OP are inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, a key enzyme involved in the regulation of the central nervous system. Chemical, physical and biological approaches have been considered to decontaminate OP. This review summarizes the current and emerging strategies that are investigated to tackle this issue with a special emphasis on enzymatic remediation methods. During the last decade, many studies have been dedicated to the development of biocatalysts for OP removal. Among these, recent reports have pointed out the promising enzyme SsoPox isolated from the archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus. Considering both its intrinsic stability and activity, this hyperthermostable enzyme is highly appealing for the decontamination of OP. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrodialytic decontamination of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a novel electrodialytic decontamination process for the selective removal of radioactive Cs from spent ion exchange resins containing large amounts of Li is described. The process involves passage of a dc electric current through a bed of the spent ion exchange resin in a specially designed electrodialytic cell. The radiocesium so removed from a volume of the spent resin is concentrated onto a much smaller volume of a Cs selective sorbent to achieve a significant radioactive waste volume reduction. Technical feasibility of the electrodialytic resin decontamination process has been demonstrated on a bench scale with a batch of simulated spent ion exchange resin and using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide as the Cs selective sorbent. A volume reduction factor between 10 and 17 has been estimated. The process appears to be economically attractive. Improvements in process economics can be expected from optimization of the process. Other possible applications of the EDRD process have been identified

  7. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Kedzia, B.; Holderna-Kedzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-01-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator ''Elektronika 10-10'' at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency

  8. Decontamination of lead by fusion (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutot, P.; Giachetto, L.; Capitaine, A.

    1962-01-01

    Various attempts to decontaminate using mechanical and chemical methods having given questionable results, a fusion method has been developed. The apparatus consists of a propane-heated oven fitted with a steel crucible of 1 400 kg capacity, with two ventilation systems, and with a vacuum gauge for preventing the diffusion of toxic gases. There are three operational controls : 1. On the samples taken before during and after the operation, 2. On the plugs taken from the ingots, 3. On the ingot itself. The continuous sanitary control is done by a radioactive aerosol recorder and by periodic sampling. This decontamination process will be improved, especially as far as the productivity and the safety precautions are concerned. (authors) [fr

  9. Room source management decontamination in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, D.; Montanez, Osvaldo

    1998-01-01

    A surface,work materials and tools contamination it produced for Ra-226 sources management in des use in Uruguayan radioactive waste and sources management and storage room specifically in the Uruguay Republic University in Nuclear Search Center. A surface contamination direct was performed measurement with Eberline alpha particles Contamat FHT 111M with 42 496/30 sounder. It found greater and least contamination grade in all cement floor as well as in tables where was managed with Ra-226 sources. A value measured surface contamination can see in the Room scheme with more 200 Bq/cm in extension small places. A segregation between work materials and tools considerate d free contamination was realized. The contaminated objects was separated for a future treatment. A proceeding followed in the decontamination was inhale, abrasion,sweep essays in different representative zones, obtain decontamination factors and residual activity

  10. Sol-Gel Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Multicomponent homogeneous, ultrapure noncrystalline gels/gel derived glasses are promising batch materials for the containerless glass melting experiments in microgravity. Hence, ultrapure, homogeneous gel precursors could be used to: (1) investigate the effect of the container induced nucleation on the glass forming ability of marginally glass forming compositions; and (2) investigate the influence of gravity on the phase separation and coarsening behavior of gel derived glasses in the liquid-liquid immiscibility zone of the nonsilicate systems having a high density phase. The structure and crystallization behavior of gels in the SiO2-GeO2 as a function of gel chemistry and thermal treatment were investigated. As are the chemical principles involved in the distribution of a second network former in silica gel matrix being investigated. The procedures for synthesizing noncrystalline gels/gel-monoliths in the SiO2-GeO2, GeO2-PbO systems were developed. Preliminary investigations on the levitation and thermal treatment of germania silicate gel-monoliths in the Pressure Facility Acoustic Levitator were done.

  11. Method for electrochemical decontamination of radioactive metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, Amy A [Augusta, GA

    2008-06-10

    A decontamination method for stripping radionuclides from the surface of stainless steel or aluminum material comprising the steps of contacting the metal with a moderately acidic carbonate/bicarbonate electrolyte solution containing sodium or potassium ions and thereafter electrolytically removing the radionuclides from the surface of the metal whereby radionuclides are caused to be stripped off of the material without corrosion or etching of the material surface.

  12. Decommissioning and decontamination (burial ground stabilization) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The decommissioning and decontamination of retired Hanford facilities and the future use of surrounding landscapes require isolation of contaminated wastes from the biosphere. Burial ground stabilization studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of physical barriers for isolating contaminated wastes in shallow-land burial sites from plants and animals. This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of using a layer of loose rock between the waste and the surface soil covering to prevent both plant root and animal penetrations

  13. Cladding hull decontamination process: preliminary development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griggs, B.; Bryan, G.H.

    1979-12-01

    An investigation of the chemical and radioactive properties of fuel hulls was conducted to assist in a decontamination process development effort. The removal of zirconium oxide layers from zirconium was accomplished by a treatment in 600 0 C HF followed by a dilute aqueous reagent. Similar treatment in fused alkali-zirconium fluoride salt baths was examined. A remotely operated small batch facility was developed and process parameters determined. 16 figures, 9 tables

  14. Methods of decontaminating surfaces and related compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Crosby, Daniel; Norton, Christopher J.

    2016-11-22

    A composition of matter includes water, at least one acid, at least one surfactant, at least one fluoride salt, and ammonium nitrate. A method of decontaminating a surface includes exposing a surface to such a composition and removing the composition from the surface. Other compositions of matter include water, a fatty alcohol ether sulfate, nitrilotriacetic acid, at least one of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride, ammonium nitrate, and gelatin.

  15. Vehicle for surface decontamination by electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, A.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns a remote controlled, electric powered vehicle for continuous decontamination of several supports forming an angle for instance the bottom and the walls of nuclear swimming pools. The vehicle is provided with all the means required for electropolishing (electrolyte, pumps, effluent recovery etc...) and two electropolishing units, one under the vehicle for horizontal surface treatment the other adjustable in height on a bracket for vertical surface treatment [fr

  16. Personnel decontamination and preventive skin care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Klaus; Gojowczyk, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Skin contamination arises from contact with contaminated aqueous solutions and from transmission of radioactively contaminated dirt particles. As long as the surface of the skin is neither inflamed nor showing any lesions, normally only a limited part of the top layer (epidermis), i.e. the upper layers of the stratum corneum, is contaminated. The intact horny layer has a barrier function protecting against the penetration of chemicals and dirt particles. The horny layer can be damaged by water, solvents, alkaline substances, and acids. In general, it is safe to say that the horny layer acts as a natural barrier to the penetration of liquid and particulate impurities into lower layers of the skin. As long as the horny layer is intact and free from lesions, the risk of incorporation can be considered low. When decontaminating and cleansing the skin, also in daily skin cleansing, care must be taken to prevent the acid protective layer and the horny layer from being compromised. Daily cleansing and cleansing for decontamination must be carried out with a mild, weakly acidic detergent. In addition, prevention should be achieved daily by applying a non-greasy skin lotion to protect the skin. Following a systematic regular regimen in skin cleansing and preventive skin care as well as a specific approach in skin decontamination and cleansing will avoid damage to the skin and remove any contamination incurred. This approach comprises a three-pronged concept, namely skin protection, cleansing and care. (orig.)

  17. Metallic surfaces decontamination by using laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moggia, Fabrice; Lecardonnel, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Metal surface cleaning appears to be one of the major priorities for industries especially for nuclear industries. The research and the development of a new technology that is able to meet the actual requirements (i.e. waste volume minimization, liquid effluents and chemicals free process...) seems to be the main commitment. Currently, a wide panel of technologies already exists (e.g. blasting, disk sander, electro-decontamination...) but for some of them, the efficiency is limited (e.g, Dry Ice blasting) and for others, the wastes production (liquid and/or solid) remains an important issue. One answer could be the use of a LASER light process. Since a couple of years, the Clean- Up Business Unit of the AREVA group investigates this decontamination technology. Many tests have been already performed in inactive (i.e. on simulants such as paints, inks, resins, metallic oxides) or active conditions (i.e. pieces covered with a thick metallic oxide layer and metallic pieces covered with grease). The paper will describe the results obtained in term of decontamination efficiency during all our validation process. Metallographic characterizations (i.e. SEM, X-ray scattering) and radiological analysis will be provided. We will also focus our paper on the future deployment of the LASER technology and its commercial use at La Hague reprocessing facility in 2013. (authors)

  18. Use of laser ablation in nuclear decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moggia, Fabrice; Lecardonnel, Xavier; Damerval, Frederique

    2012-09-01

    The development and the use of clean decontamination process appear to be one of the main priorities for industries especially for nuclear industries. This is especially due to the fact of wastes minimization which is one of the principal commitments. One answer would be to use a photonic process such as the LASER process. The principle of this process is based on the absorption, by the contaminant, of the photon's energy. This energy then will propagate into the material and create some mechanical waves responsible of the interfaces embrittlement and de-cohesion. As we can see, this process so called LASER ablation does not use any chemicals and allows us to avoid any production of liquid waste. Since now a couple of years, the Clean-Up Business Unit of AREVA group (BE/CL) investigates this new decontamination technology. Many tests have been done in inactive conditions on various simulants such as paints, inks, resins, metallic oxides firstly in order to estimate its efficiency but also to fully qualify it. After that, we decided to move on hot tests to fully validate this new process and to show its interest for the nuclear industry. Those hot tests have been done on two kinds of contaminated material (on tank pieces covered with a thick metallic oxide layer and on metallic pieces covered with grease). Some information such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray scattering spectroscopy and decontamination factors (DF) will be provided in this paper. (authors)

  19. Implication of remote technology for decontamination activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Irving, J.T.; Long, D.C.; Wagoner, H.

    1986-01-01

    The use of robotics or remote technologies to remove man from hostile environments has long been a driving objective for technology development within the nuclear power industry. The Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station is taking an organized approach to integrating remote technology into routine decontamination activities, non-processed radioactive waste disposal and special decontamination projects. Preliminary tests of an underwater robotic device for scrubbing and vacuuming was conducted at Nine Mile Point Unit 1 (NMP-1). The results of the test successfully provided proof of concept and identified improvements which would render the device acceptable for nuclear power station applications. Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation is undergoing a major radwaste retrofit project involving almost the entire Radwaste Building at NMP-1. The pre-demolition decontamination scenario was determined to be beneficial at reducing the project radiation exposure. Applications of remote technologies were identified to be cost beneficial for several project tasks including inspections, radiation survey mapping, debris sampling and removal, and video documentation. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the remote technologies application program at Nine Mile Point and present in detail results of the projects mentioned

  20. Vigorous decontamination tests of steel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostinelli, A.; Bregani, F.; Pascali, R.; Ronchetti, C.

    1982-01-01

    Among operative deCommissioning problems, the chemical decontamination of metallic surfaces of LWR, mainly with the use of high vigorous reagents, is being studied in particular. ENEL research activities, partially financed by the European Community Commission, began at the end of 1980, and are being developed by CRTN, Centro di Ricerca Termica e Nucleare, in close connection with ENEL-DPT and CISE. The main aim is the identification, development, and assessment of vigorous decontamination techniques taking into account the amount and disposal cost of liquid radwaste. The test materials come from the primary loop of the BWR-Garigliano plant. Activity levels, mainly due to 60 Co, range from about 0.01 μCi/cm 2 for predecontaminated material to some μCi/cm 2 for virgin material. Moreover, traces of 90 Sr-Y beta pure emitter and alpha emitters are monitored. Research is at first carried out by screening static tests for the optimization of etching static parameters (time, temperature, reagent concentrations). Reagent effectiveness will then be tested in a special experimental loop (DECO), in dynamic conditions simulating in-situ real procedures of decontamination. Hydrofluoric, nitric and hydrochloric acids and mixtures of them have been used for the first tests. Sometimes total oxide removal is possible, and when this takes place, the final contamination levels are in accordance with limits indicated for unrestricted release materials in some countries. 18 references, 13 figures, 5 tables

  1. Biotic Strategies for Toxic Heavy Metal Decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rupesh K; Sharma, Vinay

    2017-01-01

    In the modern age of globalization and fast industrialization, the environmental matters are fetching more and more annoyance for human being. Patents reveal that heavy metals occur in immobilized form in sediments and as aggregates in nature. However due to the different human activities like ore mining and industrial processes, the natural biogeochemical cycles are disordered instigating amplified deposition of heavy metals in aquatic environments. The most common pollution causing heavy metals are considered to be the mercury, arsenic, lead, copper, silver, cadmium. The goal of this work is to identify the biological action of heavy metal-contaminated water and sediments which can be categorized into bioaccumulation, biosorption, oxidation/ reduction, leaching, degradation, and phytoremediation. Among the various biological methods for decontamination of heavy metals from water, biosorption is known to be the most affordable, economical and efficient option for the management of capacious water bodies encompassing low concentrations of heavy metals. However, the physicochemical properties of the aquatic bodies that would extremely affect the performances of biosorbents should be prudently measured. The precipitation is efficient in decontamination/removal of relatively high concentrations of metals in water. The bioleaching of searched sediments in regulated systems is a speedy process as compared with phytoremediation. In order to decontaminate the heavy metals from water, biological methods are very proficient and useful. These methods can be very efficient in cleaning up environment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces

  3. Decontamination system study for the Tank Waste Retrieval System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutzel, T.; Manhardt, J.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's decontamination study in support of the Tank Waste Retrieval System (TWRS) development program. Problems associated with waste stored in existing single shell tanks are discussed as well as the justification for the TWRS program. The TWRS requires a decontamination system. The subsystems of the TWRS are discussed, and a list of assumptions pertinent to the TWRS decontamination system were developed. This information was used to develop the functional and operational requirements of the TWRS decontamination system. The requirements were combined with a comprehensive review of currently available decontamination techniques to produced a set of evaluation criteria. The cleaning technologies and techniques were evaluated, and the CO 2 blasting decontamination technique was chosen as the best technology for the TWRS

  4. Equipment decontamination: A brief survey of the DOE complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, C.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Chen, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1995-03-01

    Deactivation at DOE facilities has left a tremendous amount of contaminated equipment behind. In-situ methods are needed to decontaminate the interiors of the equipment sufficiently to allow either free release or land disposal. A brief survey was completed of the DOE complex on their needs for equipment decontamination with in-situ technology to determine (1) the types of contamination problems within the DOE complex, (2) decontamination processes that are being used or are being developed within the DOE, and (3) the methods that are available to dispose of spent decontamination solutions. In addition, potential sites for testing decontamination methods were located. Based on the information obtained from these surveys, the Rocky Flats Plant and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory appear to be best suited to complete the initial testing of the decontamination processes

  5. Equipment decontamination: A brief survey of the DOE complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C.; Chamberlain, D.B; Chen, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1995-03-01

    Deactivation at DOE facilities has left a tremendous amount of contaminated equipment behind. In-situ methods are needed to decontaminate the interiors of the equipment sufficiently to allow either free release or land disposal. A brief survey was completed of the DOE complex on their needs for equipment decontamination with in-situ technology to determine (1) the types of contamination problems within the DOE complex, (2) decontamination processes that are being used or are being developed within the DOE, and (3) the methods that are available to dispose of spent decontamination solutions. In addition, potential sites for testing decontamination methods were located. Based on the information obtained from these surveys, the Rocky Flats Plant and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory appear to be best suited to complete the initial testing of the decontamination processes.

  6. Decontamination measures for Fukushima prefecture. Fukushima prefecture measures for promoting decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Kouzou

    2013-01-01

    For Fukushima prefecture having suffered from significant damage associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake and the nuclear power plant accident, the decontamination work is the most urgent issue. The paper reports the present situation of the remediation acts of Fukushima Government done since the accident, particular emphasis on the removal of radioactive substances due to cesium 137 in the residential area. Government supports to promote the decontamination work and its operators, and encourages employers and employees in their efforts, to set up temporary storages of the produced radioactive wastes, to cultivate and improve technical supports for decontamination work and strengthen understanding and support of the local resident, thus providing the training course for the site supervisors, the person engaged in the work and management. (S. Ohno)

  7. Development of acidic processes for decontaminating LMFBR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, E.F.; Colburn, R.P.; Lutton, J.M.; Maffei, H.P.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of the DOE decontamination program is to develop a well characterized chemical decontamination process for application to LMFBR primary system components that subsequently permits contact maintenance and allows requalification of the components for reuse in reactors. The paper describes the subtasks of deposit characterization, development of requalification and process acceptance criteria, development of process evaluation techniques and studies which led to a new acidic process for decontaminating 304 stainless steel hot leg components

  8. Studies of decontamination using easy removable coatings technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oglaza, J.; Nowak, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The usefulness of removable coatings for decontamination of steel and epoxy-resin painted surfaces was examined. Natural latex, Revultex, butadiene-styrene latex as well as mixtures of latex with complexing agents and surfactants were used as decontaminating coats. The best decontamination was obtained by removable coatings of natural latex with EDTA additive for all surfaces and radionuclides tested. (author). 16 refs, 5 tabs

  9. Decontamination and dismantlement of Plant 7 at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertin, M.; Borgman, T.; Zebick, B.

    1994-01-01

    Decontamination and dismantlement (D ampersand D) tasks have been successfully completed on Plant 7 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The seven story facility was radiologically, chemically, and biologically contaminated. The work involved the D ampersand D work beginning with safe shutdown and gross decontamination, and ended with removal of the structural steel. A series of lessons learned were gained which include use of explosives, bidding tactics, safe shutdown, building decontamination and lockdown, use of seam climbers, etc

  10. Decontamination of two filter boxes after a fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerre, P.; Mestre, E.; Lafitte, T.

    1961-01-01

    As a primary filter of the venting system caught fire in a hot cell of the Laboratory of Examination of Irradiated Fuels, this filter (as well as the secondary filter) has been removed, wrapped in polyvinyl sheets, and transported into the decontamination station. The authors report the details of the handling and decontamination operations: modifications to the station arrangement, measures of radiation protection, decontamination and measurements, observations made when disassembling the filter and filter-boxes [fr

  11. Personal protective equipment and decontamination of adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Michael G; Cawthon, David

    2015-02-01

    Accurate identification of the hazardous material is essential for proper care. Efficient hospital security and triage must prevent contaminated victims from entering the emergency department (ED) and causing secondary contamination. The decontamination area should be located outside the ambulance entrance. Decontamination priorities are protection of the health care worker, utilization of Level C personal protective equipment, and proper decontamination of the exposed patient. Decontamination proceeds in a head-to-toe sequence. Run-off water is a hazardous waste. Hospital and Community Management Planning for these emergencies is essential for proper preparation and effective response to the hazardous materials incident. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Los Alamos DP West Plutonium Facility decontamination project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garde, R.; Cox, E.J.; Valentine, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The DP West Plutonium Facility operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decontaminated between April 1978 and April 1981. The facility was constructed in 1944 to 1945 to produce plutonium metal and fabricate parts for nuclear weapons. It was continually used as a plutonium processing and research facility until mid-1978. Decontamination operations included dismantling and removing gloveboxes and conveyor tunnels; removing process systems, utilities, and exhaust ducts; and decontaminating all remaining surfaces. This report describes glovebox and conveyor tunnel separations, decontamination techniques, health and safety considerations, waste management procedures, and costs of the operation

  13. Decontamination technologies for release from bioprocessing facilities. Part I. Introduction. Part II. Decontamination of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramanayake, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    Genetically engineered microorganisms are widely used in biotechnology. Wastewater from bioprocessing facilities will require treatment to ensure that effluents discharged into surface water or other waste streams are not a source of viable organisms or transmittable genetic material. The application of treatment technologies used in other industries to decontaminate the releases from biotechnology processing facilities was evaluated. Since published literature on the inactivation of recombinant-DNA organisms is very limited, information for bacteria, viruses, fungi and subcellular components was obtained. The data indicated that ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, heat, ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation offer good performance potential for decontamination of rDNA processing wastewater. 180 refs., 7 figs., 26 tabs

  14. GelTouch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miruchna, Viktor; Walter, Robert; Lindlbauer, David

    2015-01-01

    We present GelTouch, a gel-based layer that can selectively transition between soft and stiff to provide tactile multi-touch feedback. It is flexible, transparent when not activated, and contains no mechanical, electromagnetic, or hydraulic components, resulting in a compact form factor (a 2mm thin...... touchscreen layer for our prototype). The activated areas can be morphed freely and continuously, without being limited to fixed, predefined shapes. GelTouch consists of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel layer which alters its viscoelasticity when activated by applying heat (>32 C). We present three different...

  15. Transport Phenomena in Gel

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki Tokita

    2016-01-01

    Gel becomes an important class of soft materials since it can be seen in a wide variety of the chemical and the biological systems. The unique properties of gel arise from the structure, namely, the three-dimensional polymer network that is swollen by a huge amount of solvent. Despite the small volume fraction of the polymer network, which is usually only a few percent or less, gel shows the typical properties that belong to solids such as the elasticity. Gel is, therefore, regarded as a dilu...

  16. Design of a decontamination section of the post-irradiation examination laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homberger, Victor; Coronel, Ruben R.; Laumann, Victor; Perez, Jorge O.; Quinteros, Andrea N.; Ratner, Marcos

    1999-01-01

    The Post-Irradiation Examination Laboratory activities include the decontamination of expensive equipment of different sizes and weight, involving the complexity and extension of the necessary decontamination. A decontamination section has been designed for that purpose. (author)

  17. Cyanocobalamin Nasal Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to supply extra vitamin B12 to people who need unusually large amounts of this vitamin because they are pregnant or have certain diseases. ... Cyanocobalamin nasal gel will supply you with enough vitamin B12 only as ... it regularly. You may need to use cyanocobalamin nasal gel every week for ...

  18. Research on decontamination technology. Study on protective clothing for decontamination work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimoto, Kaoru; Endo, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    This report is a summary of study on protective clothing used for decontamination work of radioactive materials by conducting full-system testing in terms of protection performance. As a result of this study, we have validated that the protective clothing effectively inhibit particulate matter from attaching onto a body surface. (author)

  19. Modeling chemoresponsive polymer gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksenok, Olga; Deb, Debabrata; Dayal, Pratyush; Balazs, Anna C

    2014-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive gels are vital components in the next generation of smart devices, which can sense and dynamically respond to changes in the local environment and thereby exhibit more autonomous functionality. We describe recently developed computational methods for simulating the properties of such stimuli-responsive gels in the presence of optical, chemical, and thermal gradients. Using these models, we determine how to harness light to drive shape changes and directed motion in spirobenzopyran-containing gels. Focusing on oscillating gels undergoing the Belousov-Zhabotinksy reaction, we demonstrate that these materials can spontaneously form self-rotating assemblies, or pinwheels. Finally, we model temperature-sensitive gels that encompass chemically reactive filaments to optimize the performance of this system as a homeostatic device for regulating temperature. These studies could facilitate the development of soft robots that autonomously interconvert chemical and mechanical energy and thus perform vital functions without the continuous need of external power sources.

  20. Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF 6 . This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible

  1. Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    Since 1973, when the IAEA first introduced the subject of decontamination and decommissioning into its programme, twelve Agency reports reflecting the needs of the Member States on these topics have been published. These reports summarize the work done by various Technical Committees, Advisory Groups, and International Symposia. While the basic technology to accomplish decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) is fairly well developed, the Agency feels that a more rapid exchange of information and co-ordination of work are required to foster technology, reduce duplication of effort, and provide useful results for Member States planning D and D activities. Although the Agency's limited financial resources do not make possible direct support of every research work in this field, the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) creates a forum for outstanding workers from different Member States brought into closer contact with one another to provide for more effective interaction and, perhaps subsequently, closer collaboration. The first IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on decontamination and decommissioning was initiated in 1984. Nineteen experts from 11 Member States and two international organizations (CEC, OECD/NEA) took part in the three Research Co-ordination Meetings (RCM) during 1984-87. The final RCM took place in Pittsburgh, USA, in conjunction with the 1987 International Decommissioning Symposium (sponsored by the US DOE and organized in co-operation with the IAEA and OECD/NEA). The present document summarizes the salient features and achievements of the co-ordinated research work performed during the 1984-87 programme period. The document consists of two parts: Part 1, Summary of the three research co-ordination meetings and Part 2, Final submissions by participants on the research work performed during 1984-1987. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 7 reports presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Contactless decontamination of hair samples: cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restolho, José; Barroso, Mário; Saramago, Benilde; Dias, Mário; Afonso, Carlos A M

    2017-02-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have already been shown to provide efficient extraction media for several systems, and to capture volatile compounds, namely opiates. In this work, a novel, contactless, artefact-free extraction procedure for the removal of Δ 9 -tetrahrydrocannabinol (THC) from the surface of human hair is presented. To prepare in vitro cannabinoids-contaminated hair, samples were flushed with hashish smoke for 7 h. The decontamination experiments were carried at 100 °C for 24 h, according to the procedure previously described. Fifty-three ILs were screened and presented decontamination efficiencies ranging from 0 to 96 %. Although the majority of the ILs presented efficiencies above 90%, the 1-ethanol-3-methyl tetrafluoroborate (96%) was chosen for further process optimization. The Design of Experiments results demonstrated that all studied variables were significant for the process and the obtained optimum conditions were: 100 °C, 13 h and 175 mg of IL. In the work of Perrotin-Brunel et al. (J. Mol. Struct. 2011, 987, 67), it is demonstrated that, at 100 °C, full conversion of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into THC is obtained after 60 min. Since our decontamination takes place over 13 h at 100 °C, full conversion of THCA into THC is expected. Additionally, our method was compared with the method proposed by Cairns et al. (Forensic Sci. Int. 2004, 145, 97), through the analysis of 15 in vitro contaminated hair samples. The results demonstrated that with our method a mean extraction efficiency of 11 % higher was obtained. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Automated Single Cell Data Decontamination Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennessen, Kristin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Pati, Amrita [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Recent technological advancements in single-cell genomics have encouraged the classification and functional assessment of microorganisms from a wide span of the biospheres phylogeny.1,2 Environmental processes of interest to the DOE, such as bioremediation and carbon cycling, can be elucidated through the genomic lens of these unculturable microbes. However, contamination can occur at various stages of the single-cell sequencing process. Contaminated data can lead to wasted time and effort on meaningless analyses, inaccurate or erroneous conclusions, and pollution of public databases. A fully automated decontamination tool is necessary to prevent these instances and increase the throughput of the single-cell sequencing process

  4. Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    1996-01-01

    The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Hospital Decontamination: What Nurses Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brent

    2016-12-01

    Incidents involving the release of hazardous materials challenge medical providers with safely, quickly, and correctly removing contaminants from the victim. While doing so, the safety of the first receiver, current patients, bystanders, as well as the victim all have to be considered. Key challenges with hospital decontamination include, but are not limited to, selection of team members, training protocols, employee turnover, and funding. Best practices, based on the available literature and evidence, include administration buy-in and support; strong policy and procedure documentation; equipment maintenance programs; and team member recruitment, retention, and education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Decontamination of TRIGA Mark II reactor, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suseno, H.; Daryoko, M.; Goeritno, A.

    2002-01-01

    The TRIGA Mark II Reactor in the Centre for Research and Development Nuclear Technique Bandung has been partially decommissioned as part of an upgrading project. The upgrading project was carried out from 1995 to 2000 and is being commissioned in 2001. The decommissioning portion of the project included disassembly of some components of the reactor core, producing contaminated material. This contaminated material (grid plate, reflector, thermal column, heat exchanger and pipe) will be sent to the Decontamination Facility at the Radioactive Waste Management Development Centre. (author)

  7. Microwave-Based Water Decontamination System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor); Sognier, Marguerite (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system for decontaminating a medium. The system can include a medium having one or more contaminants disposed therein. The contaminants can be or include bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, and combinations thereof. A microwave energy radiation device can be positioned proximate the medium. The microwave energy radiation device can be adapted to generate a signal having a frequency from about 10 GHz to about 100 GHz. The signal can be adapted to kill one or more of the contaminants disposed within the medium while increasing a temperature of the medium by less than about 10 C.

  8. Stability of Decontamination Foam Containing Silica Nanoparticles and Viscosifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, In Ho; Jung, Chong Hun; Yoon, Suk Bon; Kim, Chorong; Jung, Jun Young; Park, Sang Yoon; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Wang Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This formulation can significantly decrease the amounts of chemical reagents and secondary waste. The advantage of decontamination foam is its potentially wide application for metallic walls, overhead surfaces, and the elements of complex components and facilities. In addition, foam is a good material for in situ decontamination because it generates low final waste volumes owing to its volume expansion. The application of foam allows for remote decontamination processing using only an injection nozzle and the equipment to generate the decontamination foam, which reduces operator exposure to high radioactivity. The decontamination efficiency can be enhanced by improving the contact time between chemical reagents and a contaminated surface through the addition of surfactants and viscosifiers into the decontamination foam. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of silica nanoparticles and a viscosifier on the foam stability and the dissolution behaviors of corroded specimens using a non-ionic surfactant. This study showed the effect of viscosifiers and nanoparticles on the foam stability when developing new formulations of decontamination foam. The addition of xanthan gum and the mixture of xanthan gum and silica nanoparticles (M-5) significantly increased the foam stability, compared to the surfactant solution alone. This result indicates that both the viscosifier and nanoparticles have a synergistic effect on the foam stability. As the contact time increased, the dissolution rate increased to become similar to the dissolution that contained decontamination liquid.

  9. The radiologic decontamination of metal surfaces with new emulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stjepanovic, N.; Mladenovic, V.; Lukovic, Z.; Ivkovic, S.

    1999-01-01

    The efficiencies of the emulsion FN-10 and FN-6 and detergent DV-60 in the radiological decontamination were investigated. The metal surfaces, clean and dirty, were contaminated with Cs-137, and decontaminated with water and appropriate solution. The most efficiency of DV-60 in both cases, was obtained. (author)

  10. The effects of selective decontamination in Dutch Intensive Care Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, E.A.N.

    2013-01-01

    Infections are an important complication in the treatment of critical ill patients in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and are associated with increased mortality, morbidity and health care costs. Selective Decontamination of the Digestive Tract (SDD) and Selective Oropharyngeal Decontamination (SOD) are

  11. Decontamination Study for Mixed Waste Storage Tanks RCRA Closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaphart, D.M.; Reed, S.R.; Rankin, W.N.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to close six underground tanks storing mixed waste under RCRA regulations. In support of this closure effort, a study was performed to determine the optimal method of decontaminating these tanks to meet the closure requirements. Items consaidered in the evaluation of the decontamination methods included effectiveness, compatibility with existing waste residues, possible cleaning solution disposal methods, and cost

  12. Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Kwon, H. S.; Kim, G. N. and others

    1999-03-01

    Through the project of 'Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology', the followings were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Development of environmental restoration technology. (author)

  13. Decontamination between dismantling of the Rapsodie primary coolant circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, J.R.; Gauchon, J.P.; Antoine, P.

    1991-01-01

    The large-scale decontamination of FBR sodium loops is a novel task, as only a limited number of laboratory-scale results are available to date. The principal objective of this work is to develop a suitable decontamination procedure for application to the primary loops of the RAPSODIE fast breeder reactor as part of decommissionning to Stage 2

  14. Microbial decontamination of cosmetic products by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, S.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The microbiological quality of cosmetic products (skin creams, massage gels and hair lotion) and the effect of gamma irradiation on this quality were investigated.The effectiveness of these cosmetic products with the tested pathogenic microorganisms was also examined. Total bacterial counts (TBC) of examined cosmetic products ranged between 5 cfu/g or ml. Most cosmetic products evaluated were free from mold and yeast. Spore forming bacteria (SFB) were low and ranged between 2 cfu/g or ml. The enterobacteriaceae (Ent) group was generally absent from the examined cosmetic products except for one sample (varic, skin cream) which contained 7x10 3 cfu/g. All cosmetic products studied were free from Pseudomonas species, Aeromonas hydrophila; Bacillus cereus; Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella species. Only one sample (varic, skin cream) contained E. coli (2x10 2 cfu/g). Enterococcus faecalis was found in three samples of cosmetic products tested (maxi care, panol and varic creams) and the counts were 7x10 2 , 2x10 2 and 5x10 4 cfu/g, respectively. Also Staphylococcus aureus was found in the same three samples and the counts were in the range of 2-3x10 2 cfu/g. The effectiveness of cosmetic products with the tested pathogenic bacteria differs according to the type of cosmetic products examined . The irradiation dose of 6 kGy was very effective in microbial decontamination and elimination of pathogenic bacteria in cosmetic products for enhancing health quality and ensuring safety of these products.

  15. Decontamination treatment of the skin contamined with radiation iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milivojevicj, K.; Stojanovicj, D.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the possibility of decontamination of the skin contamined with solution of radiodine, which is a very important radiocontaminant in accidental situations. The decontamination effect has been examined in dependence on means applied, state of contact barriere, duration time of contamination, as well as on time of decontamination performance. Efficiency of decontamination treatment has been evaluated on the basis of the penetrated quantities of radioactive iodine and residual activite in the contaminated region. The results obtained show, that duration time of contamination has an important influence on degree of internal contamination with radioiodine. By use of detergent and soap a high efficiency of decontamination treatment has been obtained. Appliance of the commercial protective cream gives not expressive prophylactic effect

  16. Decontamination of Belarus research reactor installation by strippable coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronik, N.I.; Shatilo, N.N.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop new strippable coatings using water-based solutions of polyvinyl alcohol and active additives for decontamination of research reactor equipment. The employment of strippable coatings makes it possible to minimize the quantity of liquid radioactive waste. The selection of strippable decontaminating coatings was carried out on the basis of general requirements to decontaminating solutions: successfully dissolve corrosion deposits; ensure the desorption of radionuclides from the surfaces and the absence of resorption; introduce minimal corrosion effect of construction materials; to be relatively cheap and available in reagents. The decontaminating ability and adhesion properties of these coatings depending on metal and deposit sorts were investigated. Research on the chemical stability of solid wastes was carried out. The data obtained were the base for recommendations on waste management procedure for used films and pastes. A full-scale case-study analysis was performed for comparing strippable coatings with decontaminating solutions. (author)

  17. Effect of decontamination on nuclear power plant primary circuit materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezina, M.; Kupca, L.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of repeated decontamination on the properties of structural materials of the WWER-440 primary coolant circuit was examined. Three kinds of specimens of 08Kh18Ni10T steel were used for radioactivity-free laboratory experiments; they included material obtained from assembly additions to the V-2 nuclear power plant primary piping, and a sheet of the CSN 17247 steel. Various chemical, electrochemical and semi-dry electrochemical decontamination procedures were tested. Chemical decontamination was based on the conventional AP(20/5)-CITROX(20/20) procedure and its variants; NP-CITROX type procedures with various compositions were also employed. Solutions based on oxalic acid were tested for the electrochemical and semi-dry electrochemical decontamination. The results of measurements of mass losses of the surfaces, of changes in the corrosion resistance and in the mechanical properties of the materials due to repeated decontamination are summarized. (Z.S.). 12 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  18. Evaluation of Five Decontamination Methods for Filtering Facepiece Respirators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Michael S.; Eimer, Benjamin C.; Shaffer, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the availability of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) during an influenza pandemic. One possible strategy to mitigate a respirator shortage is to reuse FFRs following a biological decontamination process to render infectious material on the FFR inactive. However, little data exist on the effects of decontamination methods on respirator integrity and performance. This study evaluated five decontamination methods [ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), ethylene oxide, vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP), microwave oven irradiation, and bleach] using nine models of NIOSH-certified respirators (three models each of N95 FFRs, surgical N95 respirators, and P100 FFRs) to determine which methods should be considered for future research studies. Following treatment by each decontamination method, the FFRs were evaluated for changes in physical appearance, odor, and laboratory performance (filter aerosol penetration and filter airflow resistance). Additional experiments (dry heat laboratory oven exposures, off-gassing, and FFR hydrophobicity) were subsequently conducted to better understand material properties and possible health risks to the respirator user following decontamination. However, this study did not assess the efficiency of the decontamination methods to inactivate viable microorganisms. Microwave oven irradiation melted samples from two FFR models. The remainder of the FFR samples that had been decontaminated had expected levels of filter aerosol penetration and filter airflow resistance. The scent of bleach remained noticeable following overnight drying and low levels of chlorine gas were found to off-gas from bleach-decontaminated FFRs when rehydrated with deionized water. UVGI, ethylene oxide (EtO), and VHP were found to be the most promising decontamination methods; however, concerns remain about the throughput capabilities for EtO and VHP

  19. Decontamination issues related to museum operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waller, E.J. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, School of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada); Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC Canada), Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Cole, D.; Jamieson, T. [Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC Canada), Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Museums in Canada have been found to possess radioactive items. The origin of the radiation can be broadly categorized as either natural (generally radioactive ores) and anthropogenic (generally luminous gauges). Radioactive ores, bearing naturally occurring uranium and thorium, can generate radiation fields many times greater than the ambient background levels. In addition, they will increase the ambient radon level and potentially generate loose contamination. Radioluminescent gauges, especially bearing radium (Ra-226), can also generate significant radiation fields. This is especially true if many gauges are located in close proximity. In addition, the radon may outgas from these gauges, and generate a loose contamination problem in enclosed spaces (such as display cases). In this paper, we discuss the specific results of radiological decontamination investigations at three museums, namely The Canadian Museum of Nature (in Aylmer) and the RCAF Memorial Museum (in Trenton) and the Quebec Air and Space Museum (in Montreal). The primary conclusion is that museums holding radioactive materials will have the requirement to be surveyed for loose contamination periodically with the potential for periodic decontamination caused by radon out-gassing, public access to displays bearing radioactive material must be restricted, and comprehensive radiation safety programs at museum facilities must be developed. (author)

  20. A Simple Decontamination Approach Using Hydrogen ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal article To evaluate the use of relatively low levels of hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV) for the inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores within an indoor environment. Methods and Results: Laboratory-scale decontamination tests were conducted using bacterial spores of both B. anthracis Ames and Bacillus atrophaeus inoculated onto several types of materials. Pilot-scale tests were also conducted using a larger chamber furnished as an indoor office. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) humidifiers filled with aqueous solutions of 3% or 8% hydrogen peroxide were used to generate the HPV inside the mock office. The spores were exposed to the HPV for periods ranging from 8 hours up to one week. Conclusions: Four to seven day exposures to low levels of HPV (average air concentrations of approximately 5-10 parts per million) were effective in inactivating B. anthracis spores on multiple materials. The HPV can be generated with COTS humidifiers and household H2O2 solutions. With the exception of one test/material, B. atrophaeus spores were equally or more resistant to HPV inactivation compared to those from B. anthracis Ames. Significance and Impact of Study: This simple and effective decontamination method is another option that could be widely applied in the event of a B. anthracis spore release.

  1. Project n.4: local strategies for decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Ph.; Antsypov, G.; Sobotovich, E.; Anisimova, L.

    1995-01-01

    The efficiencies of a great number of techniques for decontamination or dose reduction in contaminated areas have been investigated by several teams of E.C. and CIS scientists (ECP4 project). Modelling, laboratory and field experiments, and a return from experience from the area contaminated by the Chernobyl accident allowed to assess radiological efficiencies and requirements for the operation of numerous practical solutions. Then those data were supplemented with data on cost and waste generation in order to elaborate all the information for the optimisation of decontamination strategies. Results are presented for about 70 techniques. However, a technique cannot be compared to another from a generic point of view. Rather it is designed for a specific target and the best technology depends on the objectives. It has been decided to implement decision analyses on case studies and the local conditions and objectives have been investigated. Individual doses ranged from 1 to 5 mSv, with the contrasted contributions of internal and external doses. The desire to restore a normal activity in a partially depopulated settlement and concerns about the recent increase in internal doses were typical incentives for action. The decision aiding analysis illustrated that actions can be usually recommended. Results are outlined. (authors)

  2. A remotely operated robot for decontamination tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudar, A.M.; Vandewalle, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Engineers in the Robotics Development Group at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) have developed a robot which will be used to decontaminate a pipe gallery of a tank farm used for nuclear waste storage. Personnel access is required into this pipe gallery to inspect existing pipes and perform repairs to secondary containment walls around the tank farm. Presently, the pipe gallery is littered with debris of various sizes and its surface is contaminated with activity levels up to 2.5E6 DPM (disintegrations per minute) alpha and exposure levels as high as 20 Rad/hr. Cleaning up this pipe gallery win be the mission of an all-hydraulic robotic vehicle developed in-house at WSRC caged the ''Remote Decon'' robot. The Remote Decon is a tracked vehicle which utilizes skid steering and features a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) manipulator arm, a five-DOF front end loader type bucket with a rotating brush for scrubbing and decontaminating surfaces, and a three-DOF pan/tilt mechanism with cameras and lights. The Remote Decon system is connected to a control console via a 200 foot tethered cable. The control console was designed with ergonomics and simplicity as the main design factors and features three joysticks, video monitors, LED panels, and audible alarms

  3. Irradiation decontamination of soy protein flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiating; Feng Min; Liu Chunquan; Jin Yudong; Yang Ping

    2008-01-01

    This paper reported decontaminative effects of irradiation on the soy protein flour quality, including main nutrient components, sensitivity of urea enzyme and sensory index. The results show that the irradiation treatment is very effective in eliminating microorganism in soy protein flour. The higher the dose was, the more microorganisms were eliminated. At least 53% microorganisms were eliminated at 2.0 kGy irradiation. Eliminating ratios of 95%, 97% and 100% were obtained at applied doses 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kGy, respectively. The content of protein, crude fiber, total sugar and amino acid (except Leu) and urea enzyme would not vary much in the ranged of 2 to 8kGy. But the content of crude fat and lecithin in irradiated soy protein flour is significant different (at 0.01 level), and the content of isoflavone significantly decreased (at 0.05 level). Irradiation will not change the sensory index of soy protein flour much when irradiation dose is lower than 6.0 kGy. It was concluded that the optimal dose for bacteria decontamination of soy protein flour is in the range of 3.0 ∼ 5.0 kGy for the sake of various quality factors. (authors)

  4. Project n.4: local strategies for decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Ph. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Ramzaev, V. [Branch of Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Karchovka, Bryandk (Russian Federation); Antsypov, G. [Chernobyl State Committee of the Republic of Belarus, (Belarus); Sobotovich, E. [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore formation, Kiev (Ukraine); Anisimova, L. [EMERCOM, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The efficiencies of a great number of techniques for decontamination or dose reduction in contaminated areas have been investigated by several teams of E.C. and CIS scientists (ECP4 project). Modelling, laboratory and field experiments, and a return from experience from the area contaminated by the Chernobyl accident allowed to assess radiological efficiencies and requirements for the operation of numerous practical solutions. Then those data were supplemented with data on cost and waste generation in order to elaborate all the information for the optimisation of decontamination strategies. Results are presented for about 70 techniques. However, a technique cannot be compared to another from a generic point of view. Rather it is designed for a specific target and the best technology depends on the objectives. It has been decided to implement decision analyses on case studies and the local conditions and objectives have been investigated. Individual doses ranged from 1 to 5 mSv, with the contrasted contributions of internal and external doses. The desire to restore a normal activity in a partially depopulated settlement and concerns about the recent increase in internal doses were typical incentives for action. The decision aiding analysis illustrated that actions can be usually recommended. Results are outlined. (authors). 23 refs.

  5. Survey of decontamination and decommissioning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusler, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Reports and articles on decommissioning have been reviewed to determine the current technology status and also attempt to identify potential decommissioning problem areas. It is concluded that technological road blocks, which limited decommissioning facilities in the past have been removed. In general, techniques developed by maintenance in maintaining the facility have been used to decommission facilities. Some of the more promising development underway which will further simplify decommissioning activities are: electrolytic decontamination which simplifies some decontaminating operations; arc saw and vacuum furnace which reduce the volume of metallic contaminated material by a factor of 10; remotely operated plasma torch which reduces personnel exposure; and shaped charges, water cannon and rock splitters which simplify concrete removal. Areas in which published data are limited are detailed costs identifying various components included in the total cost and also the quantity of waste generated during the decommissioning activities. With the increased awareness of decommissioning requirements as specified by licensing requirements, design criteria for new facilities are taking into consideration final decommissioning of buildings. Specific building design features will evolve as designs are evaluated and implemented

  6. Effect of gingival and dental plaque antiseptic decontamination on nosocomial infections acquired in the intensive care unit: a double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourrier, François; Dubois, Didier; Pronnier, Philippe; Herbecq, Patrick; Leroy, Olivier; Desmettre, Thibaut; Pottier-Cau, Elodie; Boutigny, Hervé; Di Pompéo, Christophe; Durocher, Alain; Roussel-Delvallez, Micheline

    2005-08-01

    To document the effect of gingival and dental plaque antiseptic decontamination on the rate of nosocomial bacteremias and respiratory infections acquired in the intensive care unit (ICU). Prospective, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy study. Six ICUs: three in university hospitals and three in general hospitals. A total of 228 nonedentulous patients requiring endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, with an anticipated length of stay > or =5 days. Antiseptic decontamination of gingival and dental plaque with a 0.2% chlorhexidine gel or a placebo gel, three times a day, during the entire ICU stay. Demographic and clinical characteristics, organ function data (Logistic Organ Dysfunction score), severity of condition (Simplified Acute Physiologic Score), and dental plaque status were assessed at baseline and until 28 days. Bacteriologic sampling of dental plaque and saliva was done every 5 days, and blood, tracheal aspirate, and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures were performed when appropriate. The primary efficacy end point was the incidence of bacteremia, bronchitis, and ventilator-associated pneumonia, expressed as a percentage and per 1000 ICU days. All baseline characteristics were similar between the treated and the placebo groups. The incidence of nosocomial infections was 17.5% (13.2 per 1000 ICU days) in the placebo group and 18.4% (13.3 per 1000 ICU days) in the plaque antiseptic decontamination group (not significant). No difference was observed in the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia per ventilator or intubation days, mortality, length of stay, and care loads (secondary end points). On day 10, the number of positive dental plaque cultures was significantly lower in the treated group (29% vs. 66%; p dental plaque were not eradicated by the antiseptic decontamination. No side effect was reported. Gingival and dental plaque antiseptic decontamination significantly decreased the oropharyngeal colonization by aerobic

  7. Decontamination tests on tritium-contaminated materials; Essais de decontamination de materiel contamine par du tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutot, P.; Schipfer, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1967-07-01

    These tests are designed to try out various processes liable to be applied to the decontamination of a material contaminated with tritium. The samples are thin stainless- steel slabs contaminated in the laboratory with elements extracted from industrial installations. The measurement of the initial and residual activities is carried out using an open-window BERTHOLD counter. The best results are obtained by passing a current of pre-heated (300 deg. C) air containing water vapour. This process makes it possible to reach a decontamination factor of 99.5 per cent in 4 hours. In a vacuum, the operation has to be prolonged to 100 hours in order to obtain a decontamination factor of 99.2 per cent. Wet-chemical or electrolytic treatments are efficient but their use is limited by the inherent corrosion risks. A study of the reappearance of the contamination has made it possible to observe that this phenomenon occurs whatever the process used. (authors) [French] Ces essais ont pour but d'experimenter divers procedes susceptibles d'etre appliques a la decontamination du materiel contamine par du tritium. Les echantillons sont constitues par des plaquettes d'acier inoxydable contamines en laboratoire et par des elements extraits d'installations industrielles. Les mesures d'activites initiales et residuelles sont effectuees au moyen d'un compteur BERTHOLD a fenetre ouverte. Les meilleurs resultats sont obtenus par balayage d'air prechauffe a 300 deg. C et additionne de vapeur d'eau. Ce procede permet d'atteindre en 4 heures un facteur de decontamination de 99,5 pour cent. Sous vide, l'operation doit etre poursuivie pendant 100 heures pour porter le facteur de decontamination a 99,2 pour cent. Les traitements par voie chimique humide et par voie electrolytique sont efficaces mais la corrosion qu'ils risquent d'engendrer limite considerablement leur champ d'application. Une etude sur la resurgence de la

  8. Situations of decontamination promotion activities. Efforts by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Fukushima Revitalization Headquarters, Decontamination Promotion Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Takahiko; Ito, Kei; Takizawa, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    As for the decontamination of the soil contaminated with radioactive materials, decontamination is on the way in compliance with the 'Act on Special Measures Concerning the Handling of Environmental Pollution by Radioactive Materials by the NPS Accident Associated with the Tohoku District - Off the Pacific Ocean' (hereinafter, the Act on Special Measures). Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), as the party concerned to the accident, is cooperating with decontamination activities conducted by countries and municipalities under the Act on Special Measures. Total number of people cooperated by the Decontamination Promotion Office amounts to about 120,000 people. The cooperation to the decontamination by countries and municipalities covers the following fields: provision of knowledge of radiation, training of site management and supervisors, and proposal such as the decontamination method suitable for the site. As cooperation to various monitoring, there is a traveling monitoring that performs radiation measurement from the vehicles. As cooperation in the farming and industrial resumption toward the reconstruction, the group has implemented support for the distribution promotion of the holdup that was stuck in distribution due to contamination with radioactive substances. As decontamination related technology, the following are performed: (1) preparation of radiation understanding promotion tool, (2) development of precise individual dose measurement technology, and (3) development and utilization of decontamination effect analysis program. In the future, this group will perform the follow-up for decontamination, and measures toward the lifting of evacuation order. It will install the basis to perform various technical analyses on decontamination, and will further intensify technical cooperation. (A.O.)

  9. Periodic mesoporous silica gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.T.; Martin, J.E.; Odinek, J.G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    We have synthesized monolithic particulate gels of periodic mesoporous silica by adding tetramethoxysilane to a homogeneous alkaline micellar precursor solution. The gels exhibit 5 characteristic length scales over 4 orders of magnitude: fractal domains larger than the particle size (>500 nm), particles that are {approximately}150 to 500 nm in diameter, interparticle pores that are on the order of the particle size, a feature in the gas adsorption measurements that indicates pores {approximately}10-50 nm, and periodic hexagonal arrays of {approximately}3 nm channels within each particle. The wet gel monoliths exhibit calculated densities as low as {approximately}0.02 g/cc; the dried and calcined gels have bulk densities that range from {approximately}0.3-0.5 g/cc. The materials possess large interparticle ({approximately}1.0-2.3 cc/g) and intraparticle ({approximately}0.6 cc/g) porosities.

  10. Gel purification of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Timothy W

    2013-02-01

    For many applications, including size selection of RNAs and purification of in vitro transcription products, it is necessary to purify RNAs on a denaturing gel. This procedure describes how to purify transcripts that have been synthesized in vitro. It is useful for labeled or unlabeled RNAs when sufficient mass is present. It can also be used to isolate small RNAs. In general, RNA purification by denaturing gel electrophoresis is practical only when the size of the desired RNA is 600 nucleotides or less.

  11. Conformance Improvement Using Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, Randall S.; Schrader, Richard; II Hagstrom, John; Wang, Ying; Al-Dahfeeri, Abdullah; Gary, Raven; Marin; Amaury; Lindquist, Brent

    2002-09-26

    This research project had two objectives. The first objective was to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective was to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil.

  12. Synthesis and study of anhydro-cyclodextrins: application to decontamination in biological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pailler, J.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Per anhydro α-cyclodextrin exhibits in vivo and in vitro cation complexing properties. Furthermore, they have a high affinity for heavy toxic cations, while a quite negligible affinity for physiological cations (Na + , Ca 2+ , K + ), that is to say a great selectivity. In order to apply these properties for biological decontamination, several alkyl derivatives were prepared by substitution at the 2 position and their cation complexing properties studied by 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. Superficial tension measurements, 1 H-NMR spectroscopy and gel formation showed that the properties of per anhydro cyclodextrin were tightly related with Log P, which also controlled their interactions with membranes. Membranes interactions are studied by surface plasmon resonance using BIAcore, 31 P-NMR and 2 H-NMR spectroscopies. (author) [fr

  13. Method for separating constituents from solution employing a recyclable Lewis acid metal-hydroxy gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    This invention permits radionuclides, heavy metals, and organics to be extracted from solution by scavenging them with an amorphous gel. In the preferred embodiment, a contaminated solution (e.g. from soil washing, decontamination, or groundwater pumping) is transferred to a reaction vessel. The contaminated solution is contacted by the sequestering reagent which might contain for example, aluminate and EDTA anions in a 2.5 M NaOH solution. The pH of the reagent bearing solution is lowered on contact with the contaminated solution, or for example by bubbling carbon dioxide through it, causing an aluminum hydroxide gel to precipitate as the solution drops below the range of 1.8 to 2.5 molar NaOH (less than pH 14). This precipitating gel scavenges waste contaminants as it settles through solution leaving a clean supernatant which is then separated from the gel residue by physical means such as centrifugation, or simple settling. The gel residue containing concentrated contaminants is then redissolved releasing contaminants for separations and processing. This is a critical point: the stabilized gel used in this invention is readily re-dissolved by merely increasing the pH above the gels phase transition to aqueous anions. Thus, concentrated contaminants trapped in the gel can be released for convenient separation from the sequestering reagent, and said reagent can then be recycled.

  14. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards and...

  15. Use of citric acid for large parts decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies have been performed to identify and evaluate chemical decontamination agents to replace ammonium carbonate, an environmentally unacceptable compound, in the decontamination facility for large process equipment at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Preliminary screening of over 40 possible decontamination agents on the basis of efficiency, availability, toxicity, cost, corrosiveness, and practicality indicated sodium carbonate and citric acid to be the most promising. Extensive laboratory studies were performed with these two reagents. Corrosion rates, decontamination factors, uranium recovery efficiencies, technetium ( 99 Tc)/ion exchange removal effects, and possible environmental impacts were determined or investigated. Favorable results were found in all areas. Detailed monitoring and analysis during two-week trial periods in which sodium carbonate and citric acid were used in the large parts decontamination facility resulted in similar evaluation and conclusions. Because it has cleaning properties not possessed by sodium carbonate, and because it eliminated several operational problems by incorporating two acidic decontamination reagents (citric and nitric acids) instead of one basic reagent (sodium or ammonium carbonate) and one acidic reagent (nitric acid), citric acid was selected for one-year field testing. On the basis of its excellent performance in the field tests, citric acid is recommended as a permanent replacement for ammonium carbonate in the decontamination facility for large process equipment

  16. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geuther, W.J.

    1995-04-03

    This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site.

  17. [Decontamination of ocular globes--comparison of three methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeico, Veronica; Cotea, Aurora; Zemba, M

    2003-01-01

    Determination of the success degree of the three decontamination methods for the purpose of choosing the decontamination method before the prelevation of the cornea for its best preservation. The studied decontamination methods were: 1. Immersion of the ocular globe in Betadina (polividon--iod) 2. Immersion of the ocular globe in Silver Nitrate 3. Washing of the ocular globe with Gentamicina. 30 animal eyes (pig) were used, 10 for each method. A bacteriological sample was prelevated from each ocular globe, before and after the decontamination. Afterwards the cornea was immersed in solution of Inosol type, following the indicator of the Inosol for 10 days. In each conjunctival the microbial population was present before the decontamination. Positive samples existed after the decontamination for every method, microbial concentration being however greatly reduced in the first 2 samples. The contamination of the conservation environment occurred for a cornea in the case of Betadine, for 2 cornea in the case of Silver Nitrate and for 7 corneas in the case of Gentamicin. 1. Decontamination with Gentamicin 33 mg/ml solution is inefficient. 2. The efficacy of Silver Nitrate and Betadine solution is similarly. 3. The best option is immersion of the globe in Betadine solution.

  18. Preconceptual design of the gas-phase decontamination demonstration cart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munday, E.B.

    1993-12-01

    Removal of uranium deposits from the interior surfaces of gaseous diffusion equipment will be a major portion of the overall multibillion dollar effort to decontaminate and decommission the gaseous diffusion plants. Long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas-phase decontamination is being developed at the K-25 Site as an in situ decontamination process that is expected to significantly lower the decontamination costs, reduce worker exposure to radioactive materials, and reduce safeguard concerns. This report documents the preconceptual design of the process equipment that is necessary to conduct a full-scale demonstration of the LTLT method in accordance with the process steps listed above. The process equipment and method proposed in this report are not intended to represent a full-scale production campaign design and operation, since the gas evacuation, gas charging, and off-gas handling systems that would be cost effective in a production campaign are not cost effective for a first-time demonstration. However, the design presented here is expected to be applicable to special decontamination projects beyond the demonstration, which could include the Deposit Recovery Program. The equipment will therefore be sized to a 200 ft size 1 converter (plus a substantial conservative design margin), which is the largest item of interest for gas phase decontamination in the Deposit Recovery Program. The decontamination equipment will allow recovery of the UF 6 , which is generated from the reaction of ClF 3 with the uranium deposits, by use of NaF traps

  19. Experimental studies on decontamination in first aid for contaminated wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Ogaki, Kazushi; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1982-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the decontamination procedures in first aid for wounds contaminated with radionuclides. Abrasion of mouse skin was contaminated with 58 CoCl 2 . Irrigation by decontamination fluids began at 2 min after administration of the radionuclide and continued for 14 min. Tap water, 0.5% Hyamine solution or 10% Ca-DTPA solution were used as the decontamination fluids. Radioactivities of whole body, wounded skin surface and washed solution were measured with an animal counter with 5 cm NaI(Tl) and a well-type auto-gamma-counter. Decontamination effectiveness were expressed as follows: (1) absorption rate of radionuclide through the wound and (2) residual rate of radionuclide on the wound. More than 20% of the radionuclide applied on the wounded skin was absorbed in 15 min after contamination. The absorption rate decreased to 2% by the decontamination procedures. The Ca-DTPA solution reduced the residual rate of radionuclide on the wounds. The results suggested that the decontamination for the contaminated wounds should begin as soon as possible. Irrigation with 0.5% Hyamine solution has been advocated for the decontamination in the first aid. (author)

  20. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geuther, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site

  1. Experience in decontamination of the equipment of NPP's with the WWER-440 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaban-Irmenin, Yu.V.

    1981-01-01

    Different methods of decontamination at NPPs are briefly characterized. Decontamination of the removable part of the main circulation pump (MCP) of the WWER-440 reactor is considered as an example of removable equipment decontamination. A design of the decontamination bath of the removable MCP elements and the applied chemical agents are described. A decontamination flowsheet of the Novovoronezh NPP steam generator (SG) is considered as an example of the autonomic decontamination system. The SG decontamination modes, principal flowsheets of a hydromonitor, steam-ejection sprayer and steam-emulsion device are described [ru

  2. Health physics and industrial hygiene aspects of decontamination as a precursor to decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Card, C.J.; Hoenes, G.R.; Munson, L.F.; Halseth, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting a comprehensive study of the impacts, benefits and effects of decontamination as a precursor to decommissioning for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program deals primarily with chemical cleaning of light-water reactor (LWR) systems that will not be returned to operation. A major section of this study defines the health physics and industrial hygiene and safety concerns during decontamination operations. The primary health physics concerns include providing adequate protection for workers from radiation sources which are transported by the decontamination processes, estimating and limiting radioactive effluents to the environment and maintaining operations in accordance with the ALARA philosophy. Locating and identifying the areas of contamination and measuring the radiation exposure rates throughout the reactor primary system are fundamental to implementing these health physics goals. The principal industrial hygiene and safety concerns stem from the fact that a nuclear power plant is being converted for a time to a chemical plant which will contain large volumes of chemical solutions

  3. Understanding Mechanism of Photocatalytic Microbial Decontamination of Environmental Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabilal Regmi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Several photocatalytic nanoparticles are synthesized and studied for potential application for the degradation of organic and biological wastes. Although these materials degrade organic compounds by advance oxidation process, the exact mechanisms of microbial decontamination remains partially known. Understanding the real mechanisms of these materials for microbial cell death and growth inhibition helps to fabricate more efficient semiconductor photocatalyst for large-scale decontamination of environmental wastewater or industries and hospitals/biomedical labs generating highly pathogenic bacteria and toxic molecules containing liquid waste by designing a reactor. Recent studies on microbial decontamination by photocatalytic nanoparticles and their possible mechanisms of action is highlighted with examples in this mini review.

  4. Methods and techniques for decontamination design and construction of facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, X.; Cohen, S.

    1986-01-01

    TECHNICATOME and STMI have jointly solved a wide range of problems specific to decontamination from the very design studies up to operation. TECHNICATOME has brought its expertise in the design and construction of nuclear facilities concerned in particular with decontamination and radwaste management. STMI is an experienced operator with expertise in designing tools and developing advanced techniques in the same fields. The expertise of both companies in this field cumulated for many years has resulted in developing techniques and tools adapted to most of the decontamination problems including specific cases [fr

  5. Decontamination Technologies, Task 3, Urban Remediation and Response Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser,J.; Sullivan, T.

    2009-06-30

    In the aftermath of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD, also known as a dirty bomb) it will be necessary to remediate the site including building exteriors and interiors, equipment, pavement, vehicles, personal items etc. Remediation will remove or reduce radioactive contamination from the area using a combination of removing and disposing of many assets (including possible demolition of buildings), decontaminating and returning to service other assets, and fixing in place or leaving in place contamination that is deemed 'acceptable'. The later will require setting acceptable dose standards, which will require negotiation with all involved parties and a balance of risk and cost to benefit. To accomplish the first two, disposal or decontamination, a combination of technologies will be deployed that can be loosely classified as: Decontamination; Equipment removal and size reduction; and Demolition. This report will deal only with the decontamination technologies that will be used to return assets to service or to reduce waste disposal. It will not discuss demolition, size reduction or removal technologies or equipment (e.g., backhoe mounted rams, rock splitter, paving breakers and chipping hammers, etc.). As defined by the DOE (1994), decontamination is removal of radiological contamination from the surfaces of facilities and equipment. Expertise in this field comes primarily from the operation and decommissioning of DOE and commercial nuclear facilities as well as a small amount of ongoing research and development closely related to RDD decontamination. Information related to decontamination of fields, buildings, and public spaces resulting from the Goiania and Chernobyl incidents were also reviewed and provide some meaningful insight into decontamination at major urban areas. In order to proceed with decontamination, the item being processed needs to have an intrinsic value that exceeds the cost of the cleaning and justifies the exposure of any workers

  6. Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Langish, S.W.; Skinner, C.H.; Ciebiera, L.P.

    2005-01-01

    In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. The motivational force for tritium decontamination by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination

  7. Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Langish, S.W.; Skinner, C.H.; Ciebiera, L.P.

    2004-01-01

    In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. Tritium decontamination, by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying motivational forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination

  8. Report on decontamination of the heavy water system - Annex 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    After dying, the air was introduced into the heavy water system including both heat exchangers. The whole system excluding the pump 'Avala' was filled with 7% acid solution. After 3 days, this solution was removed and the system was filled with 1% solution which remained in the system for 6 hours. The analysis of decontamination effects showed that the whole procedure should be repeated. Parts of the taken apart pump were decontaminated. Washing of the heavy water system was done by cold, then by warm water and finally by distilled water. The pH value was permanently controlled. The achieved decontamination results are shown in a separate report [sr

  9. Decontamination Technologies, Task 3, Urban Remediation and Response Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.; Sullivan, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the aftermath of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD, also known as a dirty bomb) it will be necessary to remediate the site including building exteriors and interiors, equipment, pavement, vehicles, personal items etc. Remediation will remove or reduce radioactive contamination from the area using a combination of removing and disposing of many assets (including possible demolition of buildings), decontaminating and returning to service other assets, and fixing in place or leaving in place contamination that is deemed 'acceptable'. The later will require setting acceptable dose standards, which will require negotiation with all involved parties and a balance of risk and cost to benefit. To accomplish the first two, disposal or decontamination, a combination of technologies will be deployed that can be loosely classified as: Decontamination; Equipment removal and size reduction; and Demolition. This report will deal only with the decontamination technologies that will be used to return assets to service or to reduce waste disposal. It will not discuss demolition, size reduction or removal technologies or equipment (e.g., backhoe mounted rams, rock splitter, paving breakers and chipping hammers, etc.). As defined by the DOE (1994), decontamination is removal of radiological contamination from the surfaces of facilities and equipment. Expertise in this field comes primarily from the operation and decommissioning of DOE and commercial nuclear facilities as well as a small amount of ongoing research and development closely related to RDD decontamination. Information related to decontamination of fields, buildings, and public spaces resulting from the Goiania and Chernobyl incidents were also reviewed and provide some meaningful insight into decontamination at major urban areas. In order to proceed with decontamination, the item being processed needs to have an intrinsic value that exceeds the cost of the cleaning and justifies the exposure of any workers during the

  10. Decision Analysis System for Selection of Appropriate Decontamination Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Boudreaux, J.F.; Chinta, S.; Zanakis, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    The principal objective for designing Decision Analysis System for Decontamination (DASD) is to support DOE-EM's endeavor to employ the most efficient and effective technologies for treating radiologically contaminated surfaces while minimizing personnel and environmental risks. DASD will provide a tool for environmental decision makers to improve the quality, consistency, and efficacy of their technology selection decisions. The system will facilitate methodical comparisons between innovative and baseline decontamination technologies and aid in identifying the most suitable technologies for performing surface decontamination at DOE environmental restoration sites

  11. Decision Analysis System for Selection of Appropriate Decontamination Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Boudreaux, J.F.; Chinta, S.; Zanakis, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    The principal objective for designing Decision Analysis System for Decontamination (DASD) is to support DOE-EM's endeavor to employ the most efficient and effective technologies for treating radiologically contaminated surfaces while minimizing personnel and environmental risks. DASD will provide a tool for environmental decision makers to improve the quality, consistency, and efficacy of their technology selection decisions. The system will facilitate methodical comparisons between innovative and baseline decontamination technologies and aid in identifying the most suitable technologies for performing surface decontamination at DOE environmental restoration sites.

  12. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

    2008-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Articles and reports in this issue include: D and D technical paper summaries; The role of nuclear power in turbulent times, by Tom Chrisopher, AREVA, NP, Inc.; Enthusiastic about new technologies, by Jack Fuller, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; It's important to be good citizens, by Steve Rus, Black and Veatch Corporation; Creating Jobs in the U.S., by Guy E. Chardon, ALSTOM Power; and, and, An enviroment and a community champion, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovations article is titled Best of the best TIP achievement 2008, by Edward Conaway, STP Nuclear Operating Company.

  13. Uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues facing the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management is the cleanup of the three gaseous diffusion plants. In October 1992, Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund to accomplish this task. This mission is being undertaken in an environmentally and financially responsible way by: devising cost-effective technical solutions; producing realistic life-cycle cost estimates, based on practical assumptions and thorough analysis; generating coherent long-term plans which are based on risk assessments, land use, and input from stakeholders; and, showing near-term progress in the cleanup of the gaseous diffusion facilities at Oak Ridge

  14. A study on implementation plan of decontamination and decommissioning R and D and evaluation of KAERI soil decontamination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. H.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.

    2001-08-01

    A. Decontamination Technology Development of Uranium Conversion Facility. Understanding of uranium conversion facility and related decontamination technologies, and analysis of current status of decontamination technologies. Establishment of the objective and research items of the middle and long term R and D project. Discussion of the erformance plan and about the methodology for connection with the project of environmental restoration of uranium conversion facility B. Treatment Technology Development of Uranium Sludge Analysis of the domestic and overseas research development status. Suggestion of treatment methodology of uranium slurry and cooperative R and D among industries, universities and research institute. Establishment of the objective and research items of the middle and long term R and D project. Discussion about the performance plan and about the methodology for connection with the project of environmental restoration of uranium conversion facility C. Decommissioning Technology Development Analysis of the domestic and overseas research development status and the overview of decommissioning technologies. Establishment of the objective and research items of the middle and long term R and D project. Discussion about the performance plan and about the methodology for connection with the project of TRIGA decommissioning D. Evaluation of KAERI Soil Decontamination Technology. Evaluation of soil decontamination process and the liquid decontamination waste treatment technology. Performance of soil decontamination test using solvent flushing test equipment for evaluation of residual radioactivity after decontami- nation and modeling of the results

  15. An experimental study on decontamination by surface condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Hae

    1974-01-01

    Surface decontamination is one of the very important problem to be completely solved in the isotope laboratory where there is always the possibility of radioactive contamination, i.e., on the floors, walls, working tables and benches etc., Isotope laboratories require surface covering of material which can be easily and effectively decontaminated. These experiment were done to find an effective decontamination procedure for kind of surfaces which usually are found in radioisotope laboratories and the best type of surface material, that is, one which is easily decontaminated from the point of view of radiation health and safely. This study is presented to guide radioisotope laboratories in Korea which may need to renovate existing unsafe facilities. In some contaminated facilities entirely new installations may be required. Twelve types of surface material are used for study in this experiment. These include 10 cm square of stainless steel, aluminum, ceramic and mosaic tiles, glass, acrylic, formica board, asphalt tile and coated wood with 4 kinds of paints. Stepwise decontamination was performed with various decontamination procedures following a spill of I 1 31 on the center of the surface material being tested. Twelve different decontamination procedures were tested. These included wet wiping with water and detergent, or dry wiping, or removing with gummed paper. Additional chemical procedures used 10% solution of hydrochloric acid, or surface acid, or ammonium citrate, or potassium iodide, or acetone or carbon tetrachloride. The final testing method was abrasion of the test surfaces. Brief analysis of experimental results on the decontaminability on the tested surface showed: 1. Metallic surfaces such as stainless steel or aluminum, or glass, or a piece of ceramic tile or acrylic are recommended as the surface materials for isotope laboratories because these are easily decontaminated by wet wiping only. 2. Formica board, asphalt tile and wood are not easily

  16. Phase 2 microwave concrete decontamination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.; Foster, D. Jr.; Wilson, C.T.; Schaich, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The authors report on the results of the second phase of a four-phase program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop a system to decontaminate concrete using microwave energy. The microwave energy is directed at the concrete surface through the use of an optimized wave guide antenna, or applicator, and this energy rapidly heats the free water present in the interstitial spaces of the concrete matrix. The resulting steam pressure causes the surface to burst in much the same way popcorn pops in a home microwave oven. Each steam explosion removes several square centimeters of concrete surface that are collected by a highly integrated wave guide and vacuum system. The authors call this process the microwave concrete decontamination, or MCD, process. In the first phase of the program the principle of microwaves concrete removal concrete surfaces was demonstrated. In these experiments, concrete slabs were placed on a translator and moved beneath a stationary microwave system. The second phase demonstrated the ability to mobilize the technology to remove the surfaces from concrete floors. Area and volume concrete removal rates of 10.4 cm 2 /s and 4.9 cm 3 /S, respectively, at 18 GHz were demonstrated. These rates are more than double those obtained in Phase 1 of the program. Deeper contamination can be removed by using a longer residence time under the applicator to create multiple explosions in the same area or by taking multiple passes over previously removed areas. Both techniques have been successfully demonstrated. Small test sections of painted and oil-soaked concrete have also been removed in a single pass. Concrete with embedded metal anchors on the surface has also been removed, although with some increased variability of removal depth. Microwave leakage should not pose any operational hazard to personnel, since the observed leakage was much less than the regulatory standard

  17. Study of Thorium Phosphate Diphosphate (TPD) formation in nitric medium for the decontamination of high activity actinides bearing effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousselle, Jerome

    2004-01-01

    Considering several activities in the nuclear industry and research, several low-level liquids wastes (LLLW) containing actinides in nitric medium must be decontaminated before being released in the environment. These liquid wastes mainly contain significant amounts of uranium(VI), neptunium(V) and plutonium(IV). In this work, two chemical ways were studied to decontaminate LLLW then to incorporate simultaneously uranium, neptunium and plutonium in the Thorium Phosphate Diphosphate (TPD). Both ways started from a nitric solution containing thorium and the actinides considered, present at their lower stable oxidation state. The first way consisted in the initial precipitation of actinide and thorium mixed oxalate. After drying the mixture containing the powder and phosphoric acid under dried argon, a poly-phase system was obtained. It was mainly composed by a thorium-actinide oxalate-phosphate. This mixture was transformed into a TPDAn solid solution (An = U, Np and/or Pu) by heating treatment at 1200 deg. C under inert atmosphere. The second way consisted in the precipitation of a precursor of TPD, identified as the Thorium Phosphate Hydrogen Phosphate loaded with the actinides considered. The gel initially formed by mixing concentrated phosphoric acid solution with the nitric actinide solution was heated at 90 - 160 deg. C in a closed PTFE container for several weeks. It led to the TPDAn solid solutions after heating at 1100 deg. C in air or under inert argon. The efficiency of both processes was evaluated through the determination of the decontamination for each actinide considered. Considering the encouraging results obtained for both kinds of processes, some complementary studies are now required before performing the effective decontamination of real Low-Level Liquid Waste using one of the methods proposed. (author) [fr

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF THE BACTERIA DECONTAMINATING ELEME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    INTRODUCTION. The Company processes natural gas liquids, wh occur in association with crude oil, m ... PCR amplified DNA was separated by Denaturing Gradient Gel E tive evaluation of primers for PCR amplification of .... sterile forceps, the filter membrane was picked and inserted into a water bead tube. Four milliliters ...

  19. Selective digestive tract decontamination and selective oropharyngeal decontamination and antibiotic resistance in patients in intensive-care units: an open-label, clustered group-randomised, crossover study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smet, A.M. de; Kluytmans, J.A.; Blok, H.E.; Mascini, E.M.; Benus, R.F.; Bernards, A.T.; Kuijper, E.J.; Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.; Jansz, A.R.; Jongh, B.M. de; Asselt, G.J. van; Frenay, I.H.; Thijsen, S.F.; Conijn, S.N.; Kaan, J.A.; Arends, J.P.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Bootsma, M.C.; Bonten, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previously, we assessed selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) on survival and prevention of bacteraemia in patients in intensive-care units. In this analysis, we aimed to assess effectiveness of these interventions for

  20. Selective digestive tract decontamination and selective oropharyngeal decontamination and antibiotic resistance in patients in intensive-care units : an open-label, clustered group-randomised, crossover study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, Anne Marie G. A.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.; Blok, Hetty E. M.; Mascini, Ellen M.; Benus, Robin F. J.; Bernards, Alexandra T.; Kuijper, Ed J.; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine A.; Jansz, Arjan R.; de Jongh, Bartelt M.; van Asselt, Gerard J.; Frenay, Ine H. M. E.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; Conijn, Simon N. M.; Kaan, Jan A.; Arends, Jan P.; Sturm, Patrick D. J.; Bootsma, Martin C. J.; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    Background Previously, we assessed selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) on survival and prevention of bacteraemia in patients in intensive-care units. In this analysis, we aimed to assess effectiveness of these interventions for prevention

  1. Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betty, Rita G [Rio Rancho, NM; Tucker, Mark D [Albuquerque, NM; Brockmann, John E [Albuquerque, NM; Lucero, Daniel A [Albuquerque, NM; Levin, Bruce L [Tijeras, NM; Leonard, Jonathan [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-09-06

    Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

  2. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described.

  3. Improvement in ultraviolet based decontamination rate using meta-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enaki, Nicolae A.; Bazgan, Sergiu; Ciobanu, Nellu; Turcan, Marina; Paslari, Tatiana; Ristoscu, Carmen; Vaseashta, Ashok; Mihailescu, Ion N.

    2017-09-01

    We propose a method of decontamination using photon-crystals consisting of microspheres and fiber optics structures with various geometries. The efficient decontamination using the surface of the evanescent zone of meta-materials opens a new perspective in the decontamination procedures. We propose different topological structures of meta-materials to increase the contact surface of UV radiation with contaminated liquid. Recent observation of the trapping of dielectric particles along the fibers help us propose a new perspective on the new possibilities to trap the viruses, bacteria and other microorganisms from liquids, in this special zone, where the effective UV coherent Raman decontamination becomes possible. The nonlinear theory of the excitation of vibration modes of bio-molecule of viruses and bacteria is revised, taking into consideration the bimodal coherent states in coherent Raman excitation of biomolecules.

  4. System decontamination as a tool to control radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riess, R.; Bertholdt, H.O. [Siemens Power Generation Group, Erlangen (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    Since chemical decontamination of the Reactor Coolant Systems (RCS) and subsystems has the highest potential to reduce radiation fields in a short term this technology has gained an increasing importance. The available decontamination process at Siemens, i.e., the CORD processes, will be described. It is characterized by using permanganic acid for preoxidation and diluted organic acid for the decontamination step. It is a regenerative process resulting in very low waste volumes. This technology has been used frequently in Europe and Japan in both RCS and subsystems. An overview will be given i.e. on the 1993 applications. This overview will include plant, scope, date of performance, system volume specal features of the process removed activities, decon factor time, waste volumes, and personnel dose during decontamination. This overview will be followed by an outlook on future developments in this area.

  5. Effects of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) on the gut resistome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelow, E.; Bello Gonzalez, T.D.G.; Versluis, D.; Oostdijk, E.A.N.; Ogilvie, L.A.; Mourik, van M.S.M.; Oosterink, L.; Passel, van M.W.J.; Smidt, H.; D’Andrea, M.M.; Been, de M.; Jones, B.V.; Willems, R.J.L.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Schaik, W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) is an infection prevention measure for critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) that aims to eradicate opportunistic pathogens from the oropharynx and intestines, while sparing the anaerobic flora, by the application of

  6. Decontamination by water jet, chemical and electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauchon, J.P.; Mordenti, P.; Bezia, C.; Fuentes, P.; Kervegant, Y.; Munoz, C.; Pierlas, C.

    1986-01-01

    The decontamination tests have been carried out on samples coming from representative specimens from primary circuit of the PWR and on samples coming from the emergency feed water piping of the German BWR (Isar). The oxide found in PWR primary loops can only be removed by a two steps process. The initial embrittling step is particularly effective in hot alkaline permanganate medium. Oxidation by ozone treatment is less effective. The second step involves chemical erosion of the metal in nitrofluoric acid in conjonction with ultrasonic agitation. Among the reagents used, only oxalic acid is suitable for electrolytic decontamination. Among the reagents possible for decontamination of the Isar specimens (ferritic steel lined with hematite) halogenous acid in mixture without or with oxygenated water, sulfuric acid, the formic acid/formaldehyde mixture are chosen. Metal erosion with high pressure jet as well as the decontamination efficiency on parts lined with hematite have made possible to determine the best conditions. 33 figs, 29 refs

  7. Hand decontamination in clinical practice: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Ruth; Pegram, Anne; Woodward, Sue

    2017-04-27

    Hand decontamination is known to significantly reduce the spread of hospital-acquired infections but, despite a wealth of guidelines and education campaigns, evidence suggests that many healthcare workers are non-compliant with hand decontamination. The behaviours that prevent hand decontamination are complex. Studies look at attitudes towards dirt, disgust, self-protective hand washing and familiarity with patients. Self-protection behaviours manifest themselves in washing hands more often after certain tasks. Professional issues are also reported to have an impact on hand decontamination, mainly lack of time, heavy workloads, understaffing and frequency of admissions to the clinical area. Further research needs to be undertaken to include comparison between self-reported studies and observational studies, as it has been shown that healthcare workers may rationalise their behaviour and that self-reporting can be unreliable.

  8. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.W.

    1963-11-01

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  9. Advance in radioactive decontamination; Avances en descontaminacion radiactiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basteris M, J. A. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Diagnostico por Laboratorio y Gabinete, Av. Cupules No. 232, Col. Garcia Gineres, 97070 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Farrera V, R., E-mail: basteris@prodigy.net.m [Hospital de Especialidades de la UMAE, Centro Medico Nacional Ignacio Garcia Tellez, Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Calle 34 x 41, Exterrenos el Fenix s/n, Col. Industrial, 91750 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    The objective of the present work was to determine if the application of the Na hypochlorite has some utility in the radioactive decontamination, in comparison with the water, detergent and alcohol. Several methods were compared for decontaminate the iodine 131 and technetium 99, the work table and the skin it was carried out an initial count with the Geiger Muller. Later on, in a single occasion, the areas were washed with abundant water, alcohol, clothes detergent and sodium hypochlorite (used commercially as domestic bleacher) without diluting. Observing that the percentage in the decrease of the counted radioactivity by the Geiger Muller, decreased in the following way: It was demonstrated that the Na hypochlorite presents the highest index of radioactive decontamination with 100% of effectiveness. The Na hypochlorite is an excellent substance that can be used with effectiveness and efficiency like decontamination element in the accident cases of radioactive contamination in the clinical laboratories of nuclear medicine. (Author)

  10. Rapid ATP-Glow for Biological Decontamination Efficacy Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ho, Winston

    2003-01-01

    Report developed under STTR contract for topic "Army02-T016". A plate count method has been traditionally used to determine the effectiveness of anti-microbial agents in decontamination efficacy testing...

  11. Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) Decontamination of VX, GD, and HD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, George W; Sorrick, David C; Procell, Lawrence R; Hess, Zoe A; Brickhouse, Mark D; McVey, Iain F; Schwartz, Lewis I

    2003-01-01

    Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) has been utilized for more than a decade to sterilize clean rooms and pharmaceutical processing equipment and, quite recently, to decontaminate anthrax-ridden buildings...

  12. Modification of the Decontamination Facility at the Kruemmel NPP - 13451

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klute, Stefan; Kupke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In February 2009, Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH was awarded the contract for the design, manufacture, delivery and construction of a new Decontamination Facility in the controlled area for Kruemmel NPP. The new decontamination equipment has been installed according to the state of art of Kruemmel NPP. The existing space required the following modification, retrofitting and reconstruction works: - Demounting of the existing installation: to create space for the new facility it was necessary to dismantle the old facility. The concrete walls and ceilings were cut into sizes of no more than 400 kg for ease of handling. This enabled decontamination so largest possible amount could be released for recycling. All steel parts were cut into sizes fitting for iron-barred boxes, respecting the requirement to render the parts decontaminable and releasable. - Reconstructing a decontamination facility: Reconstruction of a decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies was conducted using pressurized air with abrasives (glass beads or steel shots). The walls were equipped with sound protection, the inner walls were welded gap-free to prevent the emergence of interstices and were equipped with changeable wear and tear curtains. Abrasive processing unit positioned underneath the dry blasting box adjacent to the two discharge hoppers. A switch has been installed for the separation of the glass beads and the steel shot. The glass beads are directed into a 200 l drum for the disposal. The steel shot was cleaned using a separator. The cleaned steel shot was routed via transportation devices to the storage container, making it available for further blasting operations. A decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies using high pressure water technology was provided by new construction. Water pressures between 160 bar and 800 bar can be selected. The inner

  13. Active Polymer Gel Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Hashimoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many kinds of stimuli-responsive polymer and gels have been developed and applied to biomimetic actuators or artificial muscles. Electroactive polymers that change shape when stimulated electrically seem to be particularly promising. In all cases, however, the mechanical motion is driven by external stimuli, for example, reversing the direction of electric field. On the other hand, many living organisms can generate an autonomous motion without external driving stimuli like self-beating of heart muscles. Here we show a novel biomimetic gel actuator that can walk spontaneously with a wormlike motion without switching of external stimuli. The self-oscillating motion is produced by dissipating chemical energy of oscillating reaction. Although the gel is completely composed of synthetic polymer, it shows autonomous motion as if it were alive.

  14. Chlorhexidine decontamination of sputum for culturing Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Shady; Drancourt, Michel

    2015-08-05

    Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the gold standard method for the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, after effective decontamination. We evaluated squalamine and chlorhexidine to decontaminate sputum specimens for the culture of mycobacteria. Eight sputum specimens were artificially infected with 10(5) colony-forming units (cfu)/mL Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans as contaminants. In the second step, we tested chlorhexidine-based decontamination on 191 clinical specimens, (Chlorhexidine, 0.1, 0.5 and 0.7 %). In a last step, growth of contaminants and mycobacteria was measured in 75 consecutive sputum specimens using the routine NALC-NaOH decontamination protocol or with 0.7 % chlorhexidine decontamination and an inoculation on Coletsos medium. In the artificially model, contaminants grew in 100 % of the artificially infected sputum specimens decontaminated using 100 mg/mL squalamine, in 62.5 % of specimens decontaminated using N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine-Sodium Hydroxide (NALC-NaOH), and in 0 % of specimens decontaminated using 0.1 %, 0.35 %, or 1 % chlorhexidine (P  1.4.10(2) cfu M. tuberculosis when any concentration of chlorhexidine was used (P decontamination method, 8/75 (10.7 %) specimens yielded M. tuberculosis colonies with a time to detection of 17.5 ± 3 days and an 8 % contamination rate. Additionally, 14 specimens yielded mycobacteria colonies (12 M. tuberculosis, and 2 Mycobacterium bolletii) (18.7 %) (P = 0.25), which has yielded a 100 % sensitivity for the chlorhexidine protocol. Time to detection was of 15.86 ± 4.7 days (P = 0.39) and a 0 % contamination rate (P decontamination is superior to the standard NALC-NaOH method in the isolation of M. tuberculosis from sputum specimens. We currently use 0.7 %-chlorhexidine for the routine decontamination of sputum specimens for the isolation of M. tuberculosis and non

  15. Cesium powder and pellets inner container decontamination method determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The cesium powder and pellets inner container is to be performance tested per the criteria specified in Section 4.0 of HNF-2399, ''Design, Fabrication, and Assembly Criteria for Cesium Powder and Pellet Inner Container.'' The test criteria specifies that the inner container be water tight during decontamination of the exterior surface. Three prototypes will be immersed into a pool of water to simulate a water decontamination process

  16. Design of a tritium decontamination workstation based on plasma cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniazzi, A.B.; Shmayda, W.T.; Fishbien, B.F.

    1993-01-01

    A design for a tritium decontamination workstation based on plasma cleaning is presented. The activity of tritiated surfaces are significantly reduced through plasma-surface interactions within the workstation. Such a workstation in a tritium environment can routinely be used to decontaminate tritiated tools and components. The main advantage of such a station is the lack of low level tritiated liquid waste. Gaseous tritiated species are the waste products with can with present technology be separated and contained

  17. Method and coating composition for protecting and decontaminating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhold, D C; Peterson, M D

    1959-03-10

    A protective coating useful in the decontamination of surfaces exposed to radioactive substances is described. This coating is placed on the surface before use and is soluble in water, allowing its easy removal in the event decontamination becomes necessary. Suitable coating compositions may be prepared by mixing a water soluble carbohydrate such as sucrose or dextrin, together with a hygroscopic agent such as calcium chloride or zinc chloride.

  18. Study of decontamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.M.; Gopinathan, E.; Bhagwath, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    A brief introduction to the study of contamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints used as coating for structural materials in the nuclear industry is given. The general composition of paints such as epoxy, vinyl, alkyd, phenolic, chlesimated rubber, etc. is given. Method of sample preparation, processing and actual evaluation of decontaminability are described. The results have been discussed in terms of decontamination factors. Some recommendations based on the performance of the paints studied are also included. (K.B.)

  19. Magnetite Dissolution Performance of HYBRID-II Decontamination Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seonbyeong; Lee, Woosung; Won, Huijun; Moon, Jeikwon; Choi, Wangkyu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we conducted the magnetite dissolution performance test of HYBRID-II (Hydrazine Based Reductive metal Ion Decontamination with sulfuric acid) as a part of decontamination process development. Decontamination performance of HYBRID process was successfully tested with the results of the acceptable decontamination factor (DF) in the previous study. While following-up studies such as the decomposition of the post-decontamination HYBRID solution and corrosion compatibility on the substrate metals of the target reactor coolant system have been continued, we also seek for an alternate version of HYBRID process suitable especially for decommissioning. Inspired by the relationship between the radius of reacting ion and the reactivity, we replaced the nitrate ion in HYBRID with bigger sulfate ion to accommodate the dissolution reaction and named HYBRID-II process. As a preliminary step for the decontamination performance, we tested the magnetite dissolution performance of developing HYBRID-II process and compared the results with those of HYBRID process. HYBRID process developed previously is known have the acceptable decontamination performance, but the relatively larger volume of secondary waste induced by anion exchange resin to treat nitrate ion is the one of the problems related in the development of HYBRID process to be applicable. Therefore we alternatively devised HYBRID-II process using sulfuric acid and tested its dissolution of magnetite in numerous conditions. From the results shown in this study, we can conclude that HYBRID-II process improves the decontamination performance and potentially reduces the volume of secondary waste. Rigorous tests with metal oxide coupons obtained from reactor coolant system will be followed to prove the robustness of HYBRID-II process in the future

  20. A chemical decontamination process for PWR primary circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, D.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory experiments and loop decontamination tests were performed to select a decontamination process and to try to optimize it. Results were good on Inconel 82 and 308L stainless steel but lower on Inconel 600. Simultaneous use of ultrasonic waves gave good results on Inconel 600 in laboratory experiments, but this was not confirmed in loop experiments on contaminated materials, taken from French nuclear power plants. (author)

  1. Considerations about house decontamination in Goiania: limits and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.J. da; Delgado, J.U.; Luiz, M.T.B.; Cunha, P.G.; Barros, P.D. de

    1988-01-01

    We are considering some aspects related to the decontamination activities about 50 houses affected by Cs-137 in Goiania city. We described the way these contaminations occurred, the instruments used and the procedures. We also discuss the dose limits establised in the decontamination and the consequences resulting from this action. We call attention to the fact that not only the technical aspects in such activities bu also the psycho-social implications resulting from them are specially important. (author) [pt

  2. Full system chemical decontamination concept for Kori Unit 1 decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Doo Ho; Kwon, Hyuk Chul; Kim, Deok Ki [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Kori Unit 1, the first PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) plant in Korea, began its commercial operation in 1978 and will permanently shut down on June 18, 2017. After moving the spent fuels to SFP (Spent Fuel Pool) system, Kori Unit 1 will perform a full system chemical decontamination to reduce radiation levels inside the various plant systems. This paper will describe the operation concept of the full system chemical decontamination for Kori Unit 1 based on experiences overseas.

  3. Demonstration recommendations for accelerated testing of concrete decontamination methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, K.S.; Ally, M.R.; Brown, C.H.; Morris, M.I.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    A large number of aging US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facilities located throughout the US require deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning. Although several technologies are available commercially for concrete decontamination, emerging technologies with potential to reduce secondary waste and minimize the impact and risk to workers and the environment are needed. In response to these needs, the Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods project team described the nature and extent of contaminated concrete within the DOE complex and identified applicable emerging technologies. Existing information used to describe the nature and extent of contaminated concrete indicates that the most frequently occurring radiological contaminants are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}U (and its daughters), {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, and tritium. The total area of radionuclide-contaminated concrete within the DOE complex is estimated to be in the range of 7.9 {times} 10{sup 8} ft{sup 2}or approximately 18,000 acres. Concrete decontamination problems were matched with emerging technologies to recommend demonstrations considered to provide the most benefit to decontamination of concrete within the DOE complex. Emerging technologies with the most potential benefit were biological decontamination, electro-hydraulic scabbling, electrokinetics, and microwave scabbling.

  4. Reducing Risk of Salmonellosis through Egg Decontamination Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthirathne, Thilini Piushani; Ross, Kirstin; Fallowfield, Howard; Whiley, Harriet

    2017-03-22

    Eggs have a high nutritional value and are an important ingredient in many food products. Worldwide foodborne illnesses, such as salmonellosis linked to the consumption of eggs and raw egg products, are a major public health concern. This review focuses on previous studies that have investigated the procedures for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. Studies exploring pasteurization and decontamination methods were investigated. Gamma irradiation, freeze drying, hot air, hot water, infra-red, atmospheric steam, microwave heating and radiofrequency heating are all different decontamination methods currently considered for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. However, each decontamination procedure has different effects on the properties and constituents of the egg. The pasteurization processes are the most widely used and best understood; however, they influence the coagulation, foaming and emulsifying properties of the egg. Future studies are needed to explore combinations of different decontamination methods to produce safe eggs without impacting the protein structure and usability. Currently, eggs which have undergone decontamination processes are primarily used in food prepared for vulnerable populations. However, the development of a decontamination method that does not affect egg properties and functionality could be used in food prepared for the general population to provide greater public health protection.

  5. Demonstration recommendations for accelerated testing of concrete decontamination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, K.S.; Ally, M.R.; Brown, C.H.; Morris, M.I.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    A large number of aging US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facilities located throughout the US require deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning. Although several technologies are available commercially for concrete decontamination, emerging technologies with potential to reduce secondary waste and minimize the impact and risk to workers and the environment are needed. In response to these needs, the Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods project team described the nature and extent of contaminated concrete within the DOE complex and identified applicable emerging technologies. Existing information used to describe the nature and extent of contaminated concrete indicates that the most frequently occurring radiological contaminants are 137 Cs, 238 U (and its daughters), 60 Co, 90 Sr, and tritium. The total area of radionuclide-contaminated concrete within the DOE complex is estimated to be in the range of 7.9 x 10 8 ft 2 or approximately 18,000 acres. Concrete decontamination problems were matched with emerging technologies to recommend demonstrations considered to provide the most benefit to decontamination of concrete within the DOE complex. Emerging technologies with the most potential benefit were biological decontamination, electro-hydraulic scabbling, electrokinetics, and microwave scabbling

  6. Anthrax Sampling and Decontamination: Technology Trade-Offs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Phillip N.; Hamachi, Kristina; McWilliams, Jennifer; Sohn, Michael D.

    2008-09-12

    The goal of this project was to answer the following questions concerning response to a future anthrax release (or suspected release) in a building: 1. Based on past experience, what rules of thumb can be determined concerning: (a) the amount of sampling that may be needed to determine the extent of contamination within a given building; (b) what portions of a building should be sampled; (c) the cost per square foot to decontaminate a given type of building using a given method; (d) the time required to prepare for, and perform, decontamination; (e) the effectiveness of a given decontamination method in a given type of building? 2. Based on past experience, what resources will be spent on evaluating the extent of contamination, performing decontamination, and assessing the effectiveness of the decontamination in abuilding of a given type and size? 3. What are the trade-offs between cost, time, and effectiveness for the various sampling plans, sampling methods, and decontamination methods that have been used in the past?

  7. Decontamination and recovery of materials at nuclear facilities - operating history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, P.J.; Ackeroyd, J.

    1995-01-01

    Non-Destructive Cleaning Mobile C0 2 Decontamination Facilities have more than 120 months of operational time conducting radioactive decontamination at Nuclear Power Stations and U.S. Department of Energy sites. During this time we have compiled an extensive database on what has been decontaminated and the cost savings realized. Over these past five years, NDC has decontaminated items ranging from a 1040 megawatt generator at a nuclear power station after an explosion and fire in the generator, to over 3 1/2 million pounds of contaminated tools and parts at nuclear power stations for over twenty customers. The cost savings at the generator cleaning was in the tens of millions of dollars and the cost savings from cleaning over 31/2 million pounds of contaminated tools and parts is over 70 million dollars. One U.S. Department of Energy decontamination project at the Hanford Reservation saved 5 million dollars in a 14 month decontamination project. The key to achieving these results is the NDC Technology that we developed and patented and use every day with these kind of results. (author)

  8. The costs and effectiveness of various decontamination procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.A.; Haywood, S.M.; Brown, J.

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge of the cost and effectiveness of decontamination techniques is necessary to optimise the implementation of this countermeasure. These factors vary depending upon the nature of the land affected. There is a great deal of data available on the cost and efficacy of specific decontamination techniques on particular surfaces, but little information for combinations of techniques in real environments. This paper describes the preliminary stages of a project, in progress at the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), aimed at providing this information, for inner city, residential and rural areas. The efficacies of individual decontamination processes on specific surfaces were from the available literature. The NRPB EXPURT (EXPosure from Urban Radionuclide Transfer) compartmental model was used to determine the effectiveness of a number of representative decontamination programmes; each programme represents a combination of common decontamination techniques which may be applied to the various surfaces comprising an inner-city, residential or rural environment, ie, paving, walls, roofs and soil. The effectiveness of each programme was measured in terms of the reduction in dose, or dose rate, to an individual in that environment, taking account of the building characteristics, and the occupancy of the population in these buildings. The costs of each programme were derived, based on data available in current literature on the cost of the constituent decontamination techniques. Representative cost and effectiveness data are presented and their application is discussed

  9. Introduction of new decontamination techniques using carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwang Heon; Kim, Hak Won; Kim, Hong Du; Koh, Moon Sung; Kim, Yang Eun; Lee, Bum Sik; Park, Hyun Taek

    2001-01-01

    Green technology is being developed up to a point that is feasible not only in an environmental sense, but also in an economical veiwpoint. This paper introduces two case studies that applied green technology into nuclear industry. 1) Nuclear laundry: A laundry machine that uses liquid and supercritical CO 2 as a solvent for decontamination of contaminated working dresses in nuclear power plants was developed. The machine consists of a 16 liter reactor, a recovery system with compressors, and storage tanks. All CO 2 used in cleaning is fully recovered and reused in next cleaning, resulting in no production of secondary nuclear waste, Decontamination factor is still lower than that in the methods currently used in the plant. Nuclear laundry using CO 2 looks promising with technical improvements-surfactants and mechanical agitation. 2) CO 2 nozzle decontamination: An adjustable nozzle for controlling the size of dry ice snow was developed. Using the developed nozzle, a surface decontamination device was made. Human oils like fingerprints on glass were easy to remove. Decontamination ability was tested using a contaminated pump-housing surface. About 40 to 80% of radioactivity was removed. This device is effective in surface-decontamination of any electrical devices like detector, controllers which cannot be cleaned in aqueous solution

  10. 3D MR gel dosimetry with lung equivalent gel; 3D MR-Gel-Dosimetrie mit lungenaequivalentem Gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, J.; Solleder, M.; Schiessl, I.; Bogner, L.; Herbst, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Regensburg Univ. (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The MR gel dosimetry is used to verify complex 3D treatment plans. Till now this method served only for dose evaluation in homogeneous phantoms. On the way to build a heterogeneous anthropomorphic gel phantom, a lung equivalent gel with the density 0.4 g/cm{sup 3} was developed. First experiments show a 1.55 times higher dose reponse in the low density gel (LD gel). The comparison of a dose distribution in a gel/LD gel/gel slab phantom with Monte Carlo calculations shows good agreement within 5%. More over the accuray of the measuring device magnetic resonance imager was studied in respect to the now exclusive digital image processing with the software MRD (MR dosimetry). Because of the dimensions of the Fricke gel phantom an artefact correction, based on the data from the unirradiated phantom proved to be essential. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die MR-Gel-Dosimetrie zur Verifikation komplexer 3D-Bestrahlungsplaene wurde bislang ausschliesslich in homogenen Phantomen durchgefuehrt. Auf dem Wege zum Bau eines inhomogenen Humanoid-Gel-Phantoms wurde ein lungenaequivalentes Gel mit der Dichte 0,4 g/cm{sup 3} entwickelt. Erste Messungen zeigen ein um den Faktor 1,55 hoeheres Ansprechvermoegen in dem low-density-Gel (LD-Gel). Der Vergleich einer gemessen Dosisverteilung in einem Gel/LD-Gel/Gel Schichtphantom als einfaches Thoraxmodell mit Monte-Carlo-Rechnungen zeigt eine gute Uebereinstimmung innerhalb 5%. Ausserdem wurden Untersuchungen zur Messgenauigkeit des Kernspintomographen im Rahmen der nun ausschliesslich digitalen Auswertung mit Hilfe des Programms MRD (MR-Dosimetrie) durchgefuehrt. Es zeigt sich, dass eine Artefaktkorrektur auf der Basis einer Messung des unbestrahlten Phantoms bei grossen Fricke-Gel-Phantomen notwendig ist. (orig.)

  11. DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY SPENT FUEL CLADDING HULLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T; John Mickalonis, J

    2006-09-27

    The reprocessing of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) generates a Zircaloy cladding hull waste which requires disposal as a high level waste in the geologic repository. The hulls are primarily contaminated with fission products and actinides from the fuel. During fuel irradiation, these contaminants are deposited in a thin layer of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) which forms on the cladding surface at the elevated temperatures present in a nuclear reactor. Therefore, if the hulls are treated to remove the ZrO{sub 2} layer, a majority of the contamination will be removed and the hulls could potentially meet acceptance criteria for disposal as a low level waste (LLW). Discard of the hulls as a LLW would result in significant savings due to the high costs associated with geologic disposal. To assess the feasibility of decontaminating spent fuel cladding hulls, two treatment processes developed for dissolving fuels containing zirconium (Zr) metal or alloys were evaluated. Small-scale dissolution experiments were performed using the ZIRFLEX process which employs a boiling ammonium fluoride (NH{sub 4}F)/ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) solution to dissolve Zr or Zircaloy cladding and a hydrofluoric acid (HF) process developed for complete dissolution of Zr-containing fuels. The feasibility experiments were performed using Zircaloy-4 metal coupons which were electrochemically oxidized to produce a thin ZrO{sub 2} layer on the surface. Once the oxide layer was in place, the ease of removing the layer using methods based on the two processes was evaluated. The ZIRFLEX and HF dissolution processes were both successful in removing a 0.2 mm (thick) oxide layer from Zircaloy-4 coupons. Although the ZIRFLEX process was effective in removing the oxide layer, two potential shortcomings were identified. The formation of ammonium hexafluorozirconate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}) on the metal surface prior to dissolution in the bulk solution could hinder the decontamination

  12. Comparison of Four Skin Decontamination Procedures Using Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) Following Cutaneous VX Exposure in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    RSDL) Following Cutaneous VX Exposure in Guinea Pigs Irwin Koplovitz Susan Schulz Julia Morgan Robert Reed Edward Clarkson C. Gary Hurst...Decontamination Procedures Using Reactive Skin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) Following Cutaneous VX Exposure in Guinea Pigs 5b... pigs were used as subjects. Neat, liquid VX was applied to the clipped skin of the left flank. Two minutes after VX application, the exposure site

  13. based gel polymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 29, No. 7, December 2006, pp. 673–678. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 673. Investigation on poly (vinylidene fluoride) based gel polymer electrolytes ... (Alamgir and Abraham 1993; Sukeshini et al 1996; Ra- jendran and Uma ... Yang et al 1996; Ramesh and Arof 2001) and such elec- trolytes exhibit ...

  14. gel template method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TiO2 nanotubes have been synthesized by sol–gel template method using alumina membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, UV absorption spectrum and X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to investigate the structure, morphology and optical ...

  15. Inactivation of microorganisms within collagen gel biomatrices using pulsed electric field treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sarah; Maclean, Michelle; Anderson, John G; MacGregor, Scott J; Grant, M Helen

    2012-02-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment was examined as a potential decontamination method for tissue engineering biomatrices by determining the susceptibility of a range of microorganisms whilst within a collagen gel. High intensity pulsed electric fields were applied to collagen gel biomatrices containing either Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae or the spores of Aspergillus niger. The results established varying degrees of microbial PEF susceptibility. When high initial cell densities (10(6)-10(7) CFU ml(-1)) were PEF treated with 100 pulses at 45 kV cm(-1), the greatest log reduction was achieved with S. cerevisiae (~6.5 log(10) CFU ml(-1)) and the lowest reduction achieved with S. epidermidis (~0.5 log(10) CFU ml(-1)). The results demonstrate that inactivation is influenced by the intrinsic properties of the microorganism treated. Further investigations are required to optimise the microbial inactivation kinetics associated with PEF treatment of collagen gel biomatrices.

  16. Decontamination of the HFR dismantling cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloes, K.; Husmann, K.; Hardt, P. von der.

    1976-05-01

    The Commission of the European Communities operates in the Petten Establishment of the Joint Research Centre (EURATOM), a 45 MW light-water cooled materials testing reactor, the HFR. Inside the reactor containment building, on top of a side wing of the main pool, a hot cell had been constructed for the dismantling, of irradiated equipment, and brought into active service in July 1966. Early in 1973, the cell was contaminated by 0.1 to 1 Ci of Po 210 , originating from an irradiation capsule containing Bi impregnated graphite specimens. Due to the elevated radiotoxicity of this isotope, and to numerous potential ways of spreading out the contamination it was decided to stop routine operation of the cell until a satisfactory degree of decontamination had been reached. Two years have been spent for preparation of specialized equipment and thorough clean-up and overhaul work of the cell. It went back into normal operation on February 21st, 1975 and has since then been working very successfully

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Ricky Lynn [Idaho National Laboratory; Reese, Stephen Joseph [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-03-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. Several practical, easily deployable methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using a surrogate contaminant and americium (241Am), were developed and tested. The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent practical, quantitatively. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, mechanical grinding, strippable coatings, and fixative barriers), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and water washing is easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (~2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from water washed coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever contamination is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  18. Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, C. L.; Mori, M. N.; Kodama, Yasko; Oikawa, H.; Sampa, M. H. O.

    2007-11-01

    The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry—GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases.

  19. Kit systems for granulated decontamination formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2010-07-06

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field. The formulation can be pre-mixed and pre-packaged as a multi-part kit system, where one or more of the parts are packaged in a powdered, granulated form for ease of handling and mixing in the field.

  20. Mobile workstation for decontamination and decommissioning operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, W.L.; Osborn, J.F.; Thompson, B.R.

    1993-10-01

    This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D ampersand D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The project has three phases. In this the first phase, an existing teleoperated worksystem, the Remote Work Vehicle (developed for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement), was enhanced for telerobotic performance of several D ampersand D operations. Its ability to perform these operations was then assessed through a series of tests in a mockup facility that contained generic structures and equipment similar to those that D ampersand D work machines will encounter in DOE facilities. Building upon the knowledge gained through those tests and evaluations, a next generation mobile worksystem, the RWV II, and a more advanced controller will be designed, integrated and tested in the second phase, which is scheduled for completion in January 1995. The third phase of the project will involve testing of the RWV II in the real DOE facility

  1. Decontamination and Decommissioning Equipment Tracking System (DDETS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.

    1994-07-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy (DOE)(EM-50), the Scientific Computing Unit developed a prototype system to track information and data relevant to equipment and tooling removed during decontamination and decommissioning activities. The DDETS proof-of-concept tracking system utilizes a one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) bar coding technology to retain and track information such as identification number, manufacturer, requisition information, and various contaminant information, etc. The information is encoded in a bar code, printed on a label and can be attached to corresponding equipment. The DDETS was developed using a proven relational database management system which allows the addition, modification, printing, and deletion of data. In addition, communication interfaces with bar code printers and bar code readers were developed. Additional features of the system include: (a) Four different reports available for the user (REAPS, transaction, and two inventory), (b) Remote automated inventory tracking capabilities, (c) Remote automated inventory tracking capability (2D bar codes allow equipment to be scanned/tracked without being linked to the DDETS database), (d) Edit, update, delete, and query capabilities, (e) On-line bar code label printing utility (data from 2D bar codes can be scanned directly into the data base simplifying data entry), and (f) Automated data backup utility. Compatibility with the Reportable Excess Automated Property System (REAPS) to upload data from DDETS is planned

  2. Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, C.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Lineu Prestes 2.242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br; Mori, M.N.; Kodama, Yasko; Oikawa, H.; Sampa, M.H.O. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Lineu Prestes 2.242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry-GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases.

  3. Decontamination of Cuban oysters using irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros Despaigne, E.; Leyva Castillo, V.; Martinez, L.L.; Lara Ortiz, C.; Castillo Rodriguez, E.

    2001-01-01

    Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) collected on the Cuban coast near Havana were examined for contamination with Vibrio cholerae and other potentially pathogenic Vibrio species. The strains thus isolated were characterized and identified to species following standard methods, and their radiation resistance (D 10 ) was determined in pure culture. The Vibrio species most often isolated were V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and V. Alginolyticus. Representative cultures from each species were later used to inoculate shucked oysters to determine the optimal radiation dose that would ensure elimination of 10 8 colony forming units (CFU)/g. The highest proportion of isolates were identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. algynoliticus. Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae were isolated from 50% of samples, but no V. cholerae O1 was identified. D 10 values calculated for the various strains were low in relation to those in the literature. The radiation dose for decontaminating heavily inoculated (10 8 CFU/g) oysters was 1.2 kGy. (author)

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  5. Mobile worksystems for decontamination and dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, J.; Bares, L.C.; Thompson, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    Many DOE nuclear facilities have aged beyond their useful lifetimes. They need to be decommissioned in order to be safe for human presence in the short term, to eventually recover valuable materials they contain, and ultimately to be transitioned to alternative uses or green field conditions. Decontamination and dismantlement are broad classes of activities that will enable these changes to occur. Most of these facilities - uranium enrichment plants, weapons assembly plants, research and production reactors, and fuel recycling facilities - are dormant, though periodic inspection, surveillance and maintenance activities within them are on-going. DOE estimates that there are over 5000 buildings that require deactivation to reduce the costs of performing such work with manual labor. In the long term, 1200 buildings will be decommissioned, and millions of metric tons of metal and concrete will have to be recycled or disposed of The magnitude of the problem calls for new approaches that are far more cost effective than currently available techniques. This paper describes two technologies that are viable solutions for facility D ampersand D

  6. Oxidation of Ce(III) in Foam Decontaminant by Ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Yoon, I. H.; Choi, W. K.; Moon, J. K.; Yang, H. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. S. [Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A nanoparticle-based foam decontaminant is composed of a surfactant and nanoparticles for the generation and maintenance of foam, and a chemical decontamination agent made of Ce(IV) dissolved in nitric acid. Ce(IV) will be reduced to Ce(III) through the decontamination process. Oxidizing cerium(III) can be reused as a decontamination agent, Ce(IV). Oxidation treatment technology by ozone uses its strong oxidizing power. It can be regarded as an environmentally friendly process, because ozone cannot be stored and transported like other industrial gases (because it quickly decays into diatomic oxygen) and must therefore be produced on site, and used ozone can decompose immediately. The ozonation treatment of Ce(III) in foam decontaminant containing a surfactant is necessary for the effective regeneration of Ce(III). Thus, the present study was undertaken to determine the optimal conditions for ozonation treatment in the regeneration of Ce(III) into Ce(IV) in the nanoparticle-based foam decontaminant containing surfactant. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal conditions for ozonation treatment in the regeneration of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) in nanoparticle-based foam decontaminant containing a TBS surfactant. The oxidation conversion rate of Ce(III) was increased with an increase in the flow rate of the gas mixture and ozone injection amount. The oxidation time required for the 100% oxidation conversion of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) at a specific ozone injection amount can be predicted from these experimental data.

  7. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination.

  8. Research and development activities of the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgungstechnik on the decontamination of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dippel, T.; Hentschel, D.; Kunze, S.

    1983-06-01

    After developing a procedure for the ''Testing of Surface Coating Materials for the Decontamination'' about 900 different surface coating materials had been tested and evaluated for the domestic and foreign industry. The results prove the following basic facts: Surface coatings, low in porosity, forming a smooth surface and containing limited amounts of filler are in the majority very effectively decontaminated if they are prepared of chemically stable, water repellent materials; Decontamination results are drastically poorer if the degree of filling of the materials is high especially if hygroscopic fillers and/or hygroscopic colouring matters are used. Currently available cleansers and washing powders used for decontamination did not fulfill the three basic demands for a decontamination agent: high efficiency, small foam generation and sufficient thermal stability. Therefore for the decontamination of walls, floors, etc. a water delutable, liquid cleanser was developed. In the same context a washing powder was optimized for the decontamination of contaminated clothing. The experiments on the decontamination of stainless steels ended up with the formulation of a pickling paste. Furthermore all investigations were aimed at a minimization of the waste generation by the decontamination process. This resulted in decontamination techniques, in which the decontaminating agents were applied in thin layers. A comparison of the currently practiced dipping technique with the coating technique showed that the latter one gave the better decontamination results and that the amount of decontamination waste was reduced. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Biopolymer gels containing fructooligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Karen Cristina Guedes; Sato, Ana Carla Kawazoe

    2017-11-01

    The influence of the addition of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) in an external gelated alginate/gelatin biopolymer matrix, was evaluated in order to produce biopolymeric structures with functional effects. Solutions were characterized regarding their rheological properties, macrogels regarding their microstructure and mechanical properties and microgels were characterized in relation to their particle size distribution and morphology. Close relationship was found between the microstructure, rheological and mechanical properties of the biopolymeric systems. An increased viscosity and accentuated elastic and pseudoplastic behavior were associated to denser microstructures. The FOS addition caused changes in the evaluated properties, resulting in more cohesive structures, with smaller pores and higher viscosity, compared to alginate-gelatin gels. The addition of 3% FOS to biopolymeric system provided an optimal condition, allowing the formation of stronger gels, with smaller pores and beads with smaller sizes, indicating the potential use of these functional systems as texture modifiers or encapsulation systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Amlôt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS. The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit.

  11. Alpha Decontamination and Disassembly Pilot Facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, B.A.; Clark, H.E.

    1985-04-01

    The Alpha Decontamination and Disassembly (AD and D) Pilot Facility was built to develop and demonstrate a reference process for the decontamination and size reduction of noncombustible transuranic (TRU) waste. The goals of the reference process were to remove >99% of the surface contamination to the high-level waste tanks, and to achieve volume reduction factors greater than 15:1. Preliminary bench-scale decontamination work was accomplished at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), establishing a reference decontamination process. Initially, the pilot facility did not achieve the decontamination goals. As the program continued, and modifications to the process were made, coupon analysis idicated that 99% of the surface contamination was removed to the high-level drain system. Prior to the AD and D Pilot Facility, no size reduction work had been done at SRL. Several other Department of Energy (DOE) facilities were experimenting with plasma arc torches for size reduction work. Their methods were employed in the AD and D hot cell with moderate success. The experimental work concluded with recommendations for further testing of other size reduction techniques. 11 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Joseph R.; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS). The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing) of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit. PMID:23202768

  13. Development of remote electrochemical decontamination for hot cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Junkison, A.R.; Pottinger, J.S.; Lain, M.J.; Neville, M.D.; Dawson, R.K.; Fletcher, P.A.; Fenn-Tye, I.A.

    1993-01-01

    Electrochemical dissolution into nitric acid has been developed as a decontamination process for metallic items, both for immersion and in-situ use. Not only is the spent electrolyte compatible with existing waste treatment routes, potentially yielding an immobilized product volume of 0.6 dm 3 /m 2 area treated, but it also suppresses any hydrogen production. Both processes have been developed from laboratory to microprocessor-controlled pilot-scale units, which have been demonstrated successfully for the treatment of genuine waste, reducing activity levels to background. For stainless steel substrates, the immersion tank process uses low current densities (10-50 A/m 2 ) in 1-5M HN0 3 for the treatment of extended areas. Decontamination factors > 10 4 can be achieved in two hours. The in-situ technique uses electropolishing in 6M HN0 3 at 1-2 A/cm 2 in an engineered head. Decontamination factors > 10 3 can be achieved in only 20 seconds. This device has also shown potential for incorporation into an integrated monitoring/decontaminating system under robotic control. Both techniques may be used remotely as a way of reducing man-dose and improving productivity during decontamination. Additional cost savings can be made over currently used techniques through the decategorization of the bulk of the waste volume, and the volume reduction of waste for interim storage and geological disposal

  14. Electrochemical Decontamination of Painted and Heavily Corroded Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczak, S.; Anderson, J.; Dziewinski, J.

    1998-01-01

    The radioactive metal wastes that are generated from nuclear fuel plants and radiochemical laboratories are mainly contaminated by the surface deposition of radioactive isotopes. There are presently several techniques used in removing surface contamination involving physical and chemical processes. However, there has been very little research done in the area of soiled, heavily oxidized, and painted metals. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been developing electrochemical procedures for the decontamination of bare and painted metal objects. These methods have been found to be effective on highly corroded as well as relatively new metals. This study has been successful in decontaminating projectiles and shrapnel excavated during environmental restoration projects after 40+ years of exposure to the elements. Heavily corroded augers used in sampling activities throughout the area were also successfully decontaminated. This process has demonstrated its effectiveness and offers several advantages over the present metal decontamination practices of media blasting and chemical solvents. These advantages include the addition of no toxic or hazardous chemicals, low operating temperature and pressure, and easily scaleable equipment. It is in their future plans to use this process in the decontamination of gloveboxes destined for disposal as TRU waste

  15. Radiological decontamination, survey, and statistical release method for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwill, M.E.; Lively, J.W.; Morris, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    Earth-moving vehicles (e.g., dump trucks, belly dumps) commonly haul radiologically contaminated materials from a site being remediated to a disposal site. Traditionally, each vehicle must be surveyed before being released. The logistical difficulties of implementing the traditional approach on a large scale demand that an alternative be devised. A statistical method for assessing product quality from a continuous process was adapted to the vehicle decontamination process. This method produced a sampling scheme that automatically compensates and accommodates fluctuating batch sizes and changing conditions without the need to modify or rectify the sampling scheme in the field. Vehicles are randomly selected (sampled) upon completion of the decontamination process to be surveyed for residual radioactive surface contamination. The frequency of sampling is based on the expected number of vehicles passing through the decontamination process in a given period and the confidence level desired. This process has been successfully used for 1 year at the former uranium millsite in Monticello, Utah (a cleanup site regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act). The method forces improvement in the quality of the decontamination process and results in a lower likelihood that vehicles exceeding the surface contamination standards are offered for survey. Implementation of this statistical sampling method on Monticello projects has resulted in more efficient processing of vehicles through decontamination and radiological release, saved hundreds of hours of processing time, provided a high level of confidence that release limits are met, and improved the radiological cleanliness of vehicles leaving the controlled site

  16. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  17. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project

  18. Skin decontamination cream for radiological contaminants: Formulation development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Wadood; Kotta, Sabna; Rana, Sudha; Ansari, Shahid Husain; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased use of the radioactive materials in the field of research, medical, nuclear power plant, and industry has increased the risk of accidental exposure. Intentional use of the radioisotopes by terrorist organizations could cause exposure/contamination of a number of the population. In view of the accidental contamination, there is a need to develop self-usable decontamination formulations that could be used immediately after contamination is suspected. Materials and Methods: Present work was planned to optimize and develop self-usable radiation decontamination cream formulation. Various pharmaceutical parameters were characterized. 99mTc-sodium pertechnetate was used as radiocontaminant. Static counts were recorded before and after decontamination using single photon emission computed tomography. Results: Decontamination efficacy of the cream was found to be 42% ± 3% at 0-0.5 h after the exposure. Primary skin irritancy test was satisfactory as no erythema or edema was observed visually after 2 weeks of the formulation application. Conclusion: The decontamination studies proved the potential of EDTA to remove the radiological contaminants effectively. PMID:23799206

  19. Skin decontamination cream for radiological contaminants: Formulation development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Wadood; Kotta, Sabna; Rana, Sudha; Ansari, Shahid Husain; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Increased use of the radioactive materials in the field of research, medical, nuclear power plant, and industry has increased the risk of accidental exposure. Intentional use of the radioisotopes by terrorist organizations could cause exposure/contamination of a number of the population. In view of the accidental contamination, there is a need to develop self-usable decontamination formulations that could be used immediately after contamination is suspected. Present work was planned to optimize and develop self-usable radiation decontamination cream formulation. Various pharmaceutical parameters were characterized. (99m)Tc-sodium pertechnetate was used as radiocontaminant. Static counts were recorded before and after decontamination using single photon emission computed tomography. Decontamination efficacy of the cream was found to be 42% ± 3% at 0-0.5 h after the exposure. Primary skin irritancy test was satisfactory as no erythema or edema was observed visually after 2 weeks of the formulation application. The decontamination studies proved the potential of EDTA to remove the radiological contaminants effectively.

  20. Report on practical use of new decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Hideyuki; Ono, Masahiro

    2000-03-01

    For removing surface contamination of a solid waste with radioactivity, technology of laser cleaning and vacuum arc cleaning has the possibility to obtain the high decontamination rate. We made a research for practical uses of these methods as a new cleaning technology from published papers and patents. From these results, we discussed about an applicability of laser cleaning and vacuum arc cleaning to decontaminate a body of centrifugal separator. At first, we investigate the solid surface cleaning technology with a laser or a vacuum arc from published papers in the world and the patents in Japan. The results were listed in tables. Each information was abstracted into a technical data sheet and sorted into a related technology (system or equipment). We also investigate the decontamination technology by the same way and the results were abstracted into technical data sheets and sorted into related technologies, too. As an application of the above research, we considered the process and the system for decontaminating a body of centrifugal separators (cylinders). In the system, the cleaning head is set inside the cylinder and the inner surface contaminated by radioactivity is removed by the irradiation of a YAG laser, a CO2 laser or a vacuum arc. The cylinder is rotated by rotational rings and moved towards the direction of the central axis and the whole inner surface of the cylinder is cleaned with a constant cleaning rate. We also estimated the costs of each decontamination technology. (author)

  1. Chiromagnetic nanoparticles and gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Jihyeon; Santos, Uallisson S.; Chekini, Mahshid; Cha, Minjeong; de Moura, André F.; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2018-01-01

    Chiral inorganic nanostructures have high circular dichroism, but real-time control of their optical activity has so far been achieved only by irreversible chemical changes. Field modulation is a far more desirable path to chiroptical devices. We hypothesized that magnetic field modulation can be attained for chiral nanostructures with large contributions of the magnetic transition dipole moments to polarization rotation. We found that dispersions and gels of paramagnetic Co3O4 nanoparticles with chiral distortions of the crystal lattices exhibited chiroptical activity in the visible range that was 10 times as strong as that of nonparamagnetic nanoparticles of comparable size. Transparency of the nanoparticle gels to circularly polarized light beams in the ultraviolet range was reversibly modulated by magnetic fields. These phenomena were also observed for other nanoscale metal oxides with lattice distortions from imprinted amino acids and other chiral ligands. The large family of chiral ceramic nanostructures and gels can be pivotal for new technologies and knowledge at the nexus of chirality and magnetism.

  2. RMDF leach-field decontamination. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.W.; Marzec, J.M.; Stelle, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the decontamination effort was to place the Radioactive Materials Disposal Facility (RMDF) leach field in a condition suitable for release for unrestricted use. Radioactively contaminated soil was excavated from the leach field to produce a condition of contamination as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The contaminated soil was boxed and shipped to an NRC-licensed burial site at Beatty, Nevada, and to the DOE burial site at Hanford, Washington. The soil excavation project successfully reduced the contamination level in the leach field to background levels, except for less than 0.6 mCi of Sr-90 and trace amounts of Cs-137 that are isolated in cracks in the bedrock. The cracks are greater than 10 ft below the surface and have been sealed with a bituminous asphalt mastic. A pathways analysis for radiation exposure to humans from the remaining radionuclides was performed, assuming intensive home gardening, and the results show that the total first year whole body dose equivalent would be about 0.1 mrem/year. This dose equivalent is a projection for the hypothetical ingestion of vegetables grown on the site. Assuming that an average adult consumes 64 kg of green leafy vegetables per year and that the entire yearly supply could be grown on the site, the amount of ingested Sr-90 and Cs-137 is calculated to be 1100 pCi/year and 200 pCi/year. This ingested quantity would produce a total first year whole body dose equivalent of 0.10 mrem, using the accepted soil-to-plant transfer factors of 0.0172 and 0.010 for Sr-90 and Cs-137, respectively. The whole body dose equivalent exposure value of 0.1 mrem/year is far below the tentative limit established by NRC of 5 mrem/year for areas released for unrestricted use

  3. Decontamination by cleaning with fluorocarbon surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, R.; Benson, C.E.; Meyers, E.S.; Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1994-02-01

    In the nuclear industry, facilities and their components inevitably become contaminated with radioactive materials. This report documents the application of a novel particle-removal process developed by Entropic Systems, Inc. (ESI), to decontaminate critical instruments and parts that are contaminated with small radioactive particles that adhere to equipment surfaces. The tests were performed as a cooperative effort between ESI and the Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ESI developed a new, environmentally compatible process to remove small particles from solid surfaces that is more effective than spraying or sonicating with CFC-113. This process uses inert perfluorinated liquids as working media; the liquids have zero ozone-depleting potential, are nontoxic and nonflammnable, and are generally recognized as nonhazardous materials. In the ESI process, parts to be cleaned are first sprayed or sonicated with a dilute solution of a high-molecular-weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid to effect particle removal. The parts are then rinsed with the perfluorinated liquid to remove the fluorocarbon surfactant applied in the first step, and the residual rinse liquid is then evaporated from the parts into an air or nitrogen stream from which it is recovered. Nuclear contamination is inherently a surface phenomenon. The presence of radioactive particles is responsible for all ''smearable'' contamination and, if the radioactive particles are small enough, for some of the fixed contamination. Because radioactivity does not influence the physical chemistry of particle adhesion, the ESI process should be just as effective in removing radioactive particles as it is in removing nonradioactive particles

  4. Decontamination Systems Information and Reseach Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Echol E

    1998-04-01

    The following paragraphs comprise the research efforts during the first quarter of 1998 (January 1 - March 31). These tasks have been granted a continuation from the 1997 work and will all end in June 1998. This report represents the last technical quarterly report deliverable for the WVU Cooperative Agreement - Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Final reports for all of the 1997 projects will be submitted afterwards as one document. During this period, groundwater extraction operations were completed on Task 1.6 - Pilot Scale Demonstration of TCE Flushing Through PVDs at the DOE/RMI Extrusion Plant. The data have been evaluated and graphs are presented. The plot of TCE Concentration versus Time shows that the up-gradient groundwater monitoring well produced consistent levels of TCE contamination. A similar trend was observed for the down-gradient wells via grab samples tested. Groundwater samples from the PVD test pad Zone of Influence showed consistent reductions in TCE concentrations with respect to time. In addition, a natural pulse frequency is evident which will have a significant impact on the efficiency of the contaminant removal under natural groundwater advection/diffusion processes. The relationships between the PVD Extraction Flow Rate versus Cumulative Time shows a clear trend in flow rate. Consistent values between 20 to 30 g.p.m. at the beginning of the extraction duration, to less than 10 g.p.m. by the end of the extraction cycle are observed. As evidenced by the aquifer's diminishing recharge levels, the PVD extraction is affecting the response of the aquifer's natural attenuation capability. Progress was also marked on the Injection and Circulation of Potable Water Through PVDs task. Data reduction from this sequence of testing is ongoing. Work planned for next quarter includes completing the Injection / Extraction of potable water task and beginning the Surfactant Injection and removal task.

  5. Riser equipment decontamination engineering task plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    On October 15, 1998, two Characterization Project Operations (CPO) employees were found to have contaminated clothing. An operator had 300,000-dpm/100cm2 beta/gamma, no alpha, contamination on his coat sleeve and a Radiation Control Technician (RCT) had 10,000 dpm/100cm2 beta/gamma, no alpha, on his shirt sleeve. The CPO swing shift crew was working in TX tank farm, performing sampling activities at 241-TX-113. TX tank farm is a ''clean farm'' and does not require anti-contamination clothing for entry. The CPO personnel were dressed in normal work clothes. An operator and an RCT were performing a pre-job survey that involved removing bagging around the riser equipment. When the RCT saw that the contamination readings from smear samples of the riser equipment were greater than expected, the job was suspended. Crew members were then directed to areas of lower background radiation for personnel surveys. During personnel surveys, reportable contamination was found on the coat sleeve of the operator who had been involved in the pre-job survey and on the shirt sleeve of the RCT who had been involved in the pre-job survey. No other personnel were found to be contaminated. Because of this off normal event Characterization Engineering was given the following corrective action: Examine the process methodology used for core sampling operations to determine practicality and potential long-term advantages of reducing personnel contact with contaminated equipment. This Engineering Task Plan ensures that LMHC 1998a, Corrective Action No.7 is completely addressed by Characterization Engineering. The deliverable is an Engineering Study that evaluates decontamination of riser equipment components and considers additional engineered features to reduce potential exposure to workers operating the riser equipment. This engineering study shall also address any released design features that have failed to be implemented

  6. Establishing the irradiation dose for paper decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moise, Ioan Valentin; Virgolici, Marian; Negut, Constantin Daniel; Manea, Mihaela; Alexandru, Mioara; Trandafir, Laura; Zorila, Florina Lucica; Talasman, Catalina Mihaela; Manea, Daniela; Nisipeanu, Steluta; Haiducu, Maria; Balan, Zamfir

    2012-01-01

    Museums, libraries and archives are preserving documents that are slowly degrading due to the inherent ageing of the cellulose substrate or to the technological errors of the past (acid paper, iron gall ink). Beside this, large quantities of paper are rapidly damaged by biological attacks following natural disasters and improper storage conditions. The treatment of paper documents with ionizing radiation can be used for mass decontamination of cultural heritage items but conservators and restaurators are still reserved because of the radiation induced degradation. We conducted a study for establishing the dose needed for the effective treatment of paper documents, taking into account the biological burden and the irradiation effects on paper structure. We used physical testing specific to paper industry and less destructive analytical methods (thermal analysis). Our results show that an effective treatment can be performed with doses lower than 10 kGy. Old paper appears to be less affected by gamma radiation than recent paper but the sampling is highly affected by the non-uniform degree of the initial degradation status. The extent of testing for degradation and the magnitude of acceptable degradation should take into account the biological threat and the expected life time of the paper documents. - RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: ► For doses <15 kGy, the measurement uncertainty of mechanical properties is higher than the radiation induced degradation. ► The statistics of measuring induced degradation may be improved by testing both mechanical properties and thermal decomposition of paper. ►Because of the large variability of paper samples, testing to only one irradiation dose has no or reduced relevance. ►It was choused for the irradiation of paper items from archives and collections a dose range of 5–7 kGy.

  7. Riser equipment decontamination engineering task plan; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    On October 15, 1998, two Characterization Project Operations (CPO) employees were found to have contaminated clothing. An operator had 300,000-dpm/100cm2 beta/gamma, no alpha, contamination on his coat sleeve and a Radiation Control Technician (RCT) had 10,000 dpm/100cm2 beta/gamma, no alpha, on his shirt sleeve. The CPO swing shift crew was working in TX tank farm, performing sampling activities at 241-TX-113. TX tank farm is a ''clean farm'' and does not require anti-contamination clothing for entry. The CPO personnel were dressed in normal work clothes. An operator and an RCT were performing a pre-job survey that involved removing bagging around the riser equipment. When the RCT saw that the contamination readings from smear samples of the riser equipment were greater than expected, the job was suspended. Crew members were then directed to areas of lower background radiation for personnel surveys. During personnel surveys, reportable contamination was found on the coat sleeve of the operator who had been involved in the pre-job survey and on the shirt sleeve of the RCT who had been involved in the pre-job survey. No other personnel were found to be contaminated. Because of this off normal event Characterization Engineering was given the following corrective action: Examine the process methodology used for core sampling operations to determine practicality and potential long-term advantages of reducing personnel contact with contaminated equipment. This Engineering Task Plan ensures that LMHC 1998a, Corrective Action No.7 is completely addressed by Characterization Engineering. The deliverable is an Engineering Study that evaluates decontamination of riser equipment components and considers additional engineered features to reduce potential exposure to workers operating the riser equipment. This engineering study shall also address any released design features that have failed to be implemented

  8. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Donald C; Ares, Manuel; Hannon, Gregory J; Nilsen, Timothy W

    2010-06-01

    Perhaps the most important and certainly the most often used technique in RNA analysis is gel electrophoresis. This technique is generally applicable for RNA detection, quantification, purification by size, and quality assessment. Because RNAs are negatively charged, they migrate toward the anode in the presence of electric current. The gel acts as a sieve to selectively impede the migration of the RNA in proportion to its mass, given that its mass is generally proportional to its charge. Because mass is approximately related to chain length, the length of an RNA is more generally determined by its migration. In addition, topology (i.e., circularity) can affect migration, making RNAs appear longer on the gel than they actually are. Gels are used in a wide variety of techniques, including Northern blotting, primer extension, footprinting, and analyzing processing reactions. They are invaluable as preparative and fractionating tools. There are two common types of gel: polyacrylamide and agarose. For most applications, denaturing acrylamide gels are most appropriate. These gels are extremely versatile and can resolve RNAs from ~600 to RNA-protein complexes, native gels are appropriate. The only disadvantage to acrylamide gels is that they are not suitable for analyzing large RNAs (> or =600 nt); for such applications, agarose gels are preferred. This protocol describes how to prepare, load, and run polyacrylamide gels for RNA analysis.

  9. Selective decontamination of the oropharynx and the digestive tract in ICU patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, A.M.G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Selective Digestive tract Decontamination (SDD) and Selective Oropharyngeal Decontamination (SOD) are effective infection prevention measures in intensive care patients, but reported effects on patient outcome are conflicting and the effects on infections and respiratory tract

  10. Experiments to determine the efficiency of two standard decontamination procedures for radiocarbon samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, D.R.

    1980-02-01

    Laboratory tests were made to decontaminate radiocarbon samples containing known amounts of contamination. Results for both acid-alkali treatment and acid hydrolysis indicate that decontamination is not 100% efficient

  11. Radioactive contamination of some rubber or plastic surfaces by fission products. Decontamination tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestre, E.; Sautiez, N.

    1957-10-01

    With the objective of notably addressing the contamination and decontamination of gloves and floor covering, this report first presents some characteristics of contaminating radioactive materials (nature, physical and chemical condition), of contaminated surfaces (surface condition, surface nature), and of decontamination processes (physical, chemical or mechanical action). It describes the operational modality implemented to test decontamination processes on various glove or flooring materials: sample preparation, counting, decontamination, reproducibility of decontamination tests, results in terms of activity reduction. It more precisely describes the tested samples: short gloves, gloves from glove boxes, floor and wall coverings. Results are presented and discussed in terms of sample susceptibility to contamination, and of decontamination, but also for re-contamination tests after a Nab-based decontamination (susceptibility to contamination, decontamination gain)

  12. Gastrointestinal decontamination of dogs treated with total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Heidt, P.J.; Zurcher, C.

    1981-01-01

    Procedures for total and selective gastrointestinal decontamination of dogs are described. The selective procedure removed only Gram negative aerobic bacteria, yeast and fungi. Dogs receiving total decontamination were less susceptible to the GI syndrome following total body irradiation (TBI) than

  13. Effectiveness of Vaporous Hydrogen Peroxide for the Decontamination of Representative Military Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dutt, D. L; Turetsky, A. L; Brickhouse, M; Pfarr, J. W; McVey, I. F; Meilander, S. L; Janick, A. J; Schulte, S. L; Dallmier, A. W

    2004-01-01

    .... While many chemical decontamination methods, including aqueous hydrogen peroxide, have been used or are under development for direct application, few vaporous methods are being evaluated for decontamination efficacy (McDonnell, G. et al., 2002...

  14. Criteria for the evaluation of a dilute decontamination demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzPatrick, V.F.; Divine, J.R.; Hoenes, G.R.; Munson, L.F.; Card, C.J.

    1981-12-01

    This document provides the prerequisite technical information required to evaluate and/or develop a project to demonstrate the dilute chemical decontamination of the primary coolant system of light water reactors. The document focuses on five key areas: the basis for establishing programmatic prerequisites and the key decision points that are required for proposal evaluation and/or RFP (Request for Proposal) issuance; a technical review of the state-of-the-art to identify the potential impacts of a reactor's primary-system decontamination on typical BWR and PWR plants; a discussion of the licensing, recertification, fuel warranty, and institutional considerations and processes; a preliminary identification and development of the selection criteria for the reactor and the decontamination process; and a preliminary identification of further research and development that might be required

  15. A dry ice jet system for decontamination of painted metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ye; Zhang Dong; Wang Ping; Li Taowen; Sun Yu; Zhao Dan; Tan Zhaoyi

    2012-01-01

    In this work, decontamination of painting on metal surface by dry ice jet was carried out. The influence of jet parameters on decontamination efficiency was examined. The results showed that the painting weight loss decreased with increasing speed of jet movement. The optimized parameters were target distance of 25 mm, jet angle of 63 degree, and the pressure of 0.6 -0.7 MPa, with a filtration efficiency of over 99% and 5.8-9.0 μm particle sizes of the aerosol. For the painted samples polluted by 137 Cs and 235 U, the decontamination effect is excellent. For the polluted plumbum kettles,this method is effective. Therefore, the dry ice jet is an excellent technology for painting on metal surface. (authors)

  16. Systems analysis of decontamination options for civilian vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, Greg W.; Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this project, which was supported by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) Chemical and Biological Division (CBD), was to investigate options for the decontamination of the exteriors and interiors of vehicles in the civilian setting in order to restore those vehicles to normal use following the release of a highly toxic chemical. The decontamination of vehicles is especially challenging because they often contain sensitive electronic equipment, multiple materials some of which strongly adsorb chemical agents, and in the case of aircraft, have very rigid material compatibility requirements (i.e., they cannot be exposed to reagents that may cause even minor corrosion). A systems analysis approach was taken examine existing and future civilian vehicle decontamination capabilities.

  17. Effectiveness of Spray-Based Decontamination Methods for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report The objective of this project was to assess the effectiveness of spray-based common decontamination methods for inactivating Bacillus (B.) atrophaeus (surrogate for B. anthracis) spores and bacteriophage MS2 (surrogate for foot and mouth disease virus [FMDV]) on selected test surfaces (with or without a model agricultural soil load). Relocation of viable viruses or spores from the contaminated coupon surfaces into aerosol or liquid fractions during the decontamination methods was investigated. This project was conducted to support jointly held missions of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Within the EPA, the project supports the mission of EPA’s Homeland Security Research Program (HSRP) by providing relevant information pertinent to the decontamination of contaminated areas resulting from a biological incident.

  18. Biophysical Evaluation of Food Decontamination Effects on Tissue and Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Duelund, Lars; Brewer, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    that there are no contradictions between data obtained by either approach. However, the biophysical methods draw a much more nuanced picture of the effects and efficiency of the investigated decontamination method, revealing, e.g., an exponential dose/response relationship between SonoSteam® treatment time and changes in collagen...... consumer responses or meeting legislative contamination limits. However, in the often very costly, optimization process of a new method, more quantitative and unbiased results are invaluable. In this study, we employed a biophysical approach for the investigation of qualitative and quantitative changes...... in both food surface and bacteria upon surface decontamination by SonoSteam®. SonoSteam® is a recently developed method of food surface decontamination, which employs steam and ultrasound for effective heat transfer and short treatment times, resulting in significant reduction in surface bacteria. We...

  19. Elimination of the consequences of the accident and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The actions taken for the decontamination of the equipments and compartments of the nuclear power plant after the Chernobylsk reactor accident are presented. As a result of these actions the contamination levels of the surfaces have been reduced from 10 6 to 2000-8000 β-part/(cm 2 .min) and gamma radiation levels dropped from 10-600 mR/h to 2-10 mR/h. As a result of the power plant site decontamination the overall gamma level around the first unit was reduced to 20-30 mR/h. The actions taken for the decontamination of the 30 km zone and the prospects for its return to economic activity are also presented

  20. Optimization of the decontamination in EDF PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, P.; Dupin, M.; Buisine, D.; Buet, J.F.; Brunel, V.

    2002-01-01

    The optimisation of decontamination in EDF PWR power plants is the result of a permanent collaborative work between the plant operators, the subcontractors, central services of nuclear power division of EDF. This collaborative work enables the saving of all the feedback experience. The main operations carried out on nuclear sites like mechanical decontamination of valves, use of the ''EMMAC'' process on big components (replacement of steam generator, hydraulic parts of the reactor coolant pumps), use of foam on pools walls and divers in highly contaminated pools have been discussed. This paper shows that the choice of decontamination processes is very dependant on the components, on the dose rate reduction to be aimed and on the possibility to treat the waste on site. (authors)

  1. Heavy metal decontamination of sludges and soils. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, J.

    1993-06-01

    This research project deals with decontamination technology for contaminated soil and sediments. A pilot plant for the decontamination of soil contaminated with heavy metals has been erected and is operated. The process is arranged in two steps: - heavy metal contaminated solid is decontaminted with acidic extraction. - the heavy metals are separated in a recyclable formation from the process solution you gain in the first process step. Heavy metal contaminated soil, heavy metal contaminated sediments (habour sediments) as well as residue from a soil regeneration plant have been successfully decontaminated in the pilot plan. An adaption of the process is necessary for various materials. High rates of mobilisation of heavy metals (e.g. lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, zinc) were obtained, especially with soil which contains less organic matter. (orig.). 54 figs., 30 tabs., 45 refs [de

  2. Theory structure on 'decontamination technology for primary coolant loop of in-service pressurized water reactors'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xianyu

    1996-07-01

    Theory structure on 'Decontamination Technology for Primary Coolant Loop of In-Service Pressurized Water Reactors' is proposed. The paper aims at systematizing the experiences accumulated abroad in the development of decontamination over a long period of time and raising them to the level of instructive theory, so as to help form 'Decontamination Technology for Primary Coolant Loop of In-Service Pressurized Water Reactors', turn 'skill' into 'science', and stop acting blindly in the development of decontamination. (26 refs., 5 figs.)

  3. Decomposition Technology Development of Organic Component in a Decontamination Waste Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Oh, W. Z.; Won, H. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K

    2007-11-15

    Through the project of 'Decomposition Technology Development of Organic Component in a Decontamination Waste Solution', the followings were studied. 1. Investigation of decontamination characteristics of chemical decontamination process 2. Analysis of COD, ferrous ion concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration 3. Decomposition tests of hardly decomposable organic compounds 4. Improvement of organic acid decomposition process by ultrasonic wave and UV light 5. Optimization of decomposition process using a surrogate decontamination waste solution.

  4. Dry Ice Blast Decontamination to in-service equipment in Japanese PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    MHI had developed several mechanical decontamination methods. Mechanical decontamination is beneficial when it is applied to equipment whose surface is narrow. Especially in terms of secondary waste reduction, MHI started the study of application of Dry Ice Blast Decontamination to actual PWR plant. This paper provides an introduction to Dry Ice Blast Decontamination principle, its system and actual application result to PWR plant. (J.P.N.)

  5. Decontamination Options for Drinking Water Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raber, E; Burklund, A

    2010-02-16

    Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination options for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were: (1) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus); (2) spore concentration in suspension (10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} spores/ml); (3) chemical characteristics of decontaminant [sodium dicholor-s-triazinetrione dihydrate (Dichlor), hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate (Oxone), sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS{reg_sign}]; (4) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%); and (5) decontaminant exposure time (10 min to 24 hr). Results from 162 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5%, and Dichlor and sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2%, were effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting EPA's biocide standard of greater than a 6 log kill after a 10-minute exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS{reg_sign} and Oxone were less effective decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for biocides. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult.

  6. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K.

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology

  7. Radiotherapy gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C.

    2002-01-01

    shapes and sizes while sparing normal tissue. The situation is further complicated if the normal tissues are critical organs or are particularly sensitive to radiation. Radiotherapy techniques employed to obtain a closer conformation of the dose distribution to the tumour volume are referred to as conformal radiotherapy techniques. The clinical implementation of conformal therapy has been delayed by limitations in the verification of conformal dose distributions calculated by treatment planning systems prior to the irradiation of the patient and the verification of complex treatments during its delivery to the patient. There are several aspects of conformal therapy that complicate dose verification. To achieve the dose distributions conforming to complex 3D volumes, high dose gradients arise in the treatment volume. Further, overdose or underdose regions can exist when separate radiation fields are used to deliver additional radiation. These aspects require that practical dose measurement (dosimetry) techniques be able to integrate dose over time and easily measure dose distributions in 3D with high spatial resolution. Traditional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, thermoluminescent dosimeters and radiographic film do not fulfil these requirements. Novel gel dosimetry techniques are being developed in which dose distributions can potentially be determined in vitro in 3D using anthropomorphic phantoms to simulate a clinically irradiated situation. As long ago as the 1950's, radiation-induced colour change in dyes was used to investigate radiation doses in gels. It was subsequently shown that radiation induced changes in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation properties of gels infused with conventional Fricke dosimetry solutions could be measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In Fricke gels, Fe 2+ ions in ferrous sulphate solutions are usually dispersed throughout a gelatin, agarose or PVA matrix. Radiation-induced changes in the dosimeters are considered to

  8. Study of decontamination and waste management technologies for contaminated rural and forest environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebenkov, A.; Davydchuk, V.; Firsakova, S.; Jouve, A.; Kutlakhmedov, Y.; Rose, K.; Zhouchenko, T.; Antzypaw, G.

    1996-01-01

    Pilot and demonstrative scale in situ trials of several decontamination technologies proposed in the framework of ECP-4 project were carried out in real conditions of Chernobyl Zone. Their results proved that industrial scale decontamination of various types of land is feasible. The management of radioactive waste arising from decontamination techniques can be provided by ecologically sound and efficient technologies

  9. 48 CFR 1523.303-71 - Decontamination of Government-furnished property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Decontamination of... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-71 Decontamination of..., Decontamination of Government-Furnished Property, when it is anticipated that a Contractor will use Government...

  10. Final report on the decontamination of the Curium Source Fabrication Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaich, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    The Curium Source Fabrication Facility (CSFF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was decontaminated to acceptable contamination levels for maintenance activities, using standard decontamination techniques. Solid and liquid waste volumes were controlled to minimize discharges to the ORNL waste systems. This program required two years of decontamination effort at a total cost of approximately $700K. 5 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  11. Radioactive decontamination for the terrorism attacks from 'dirty bomb'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhilan; Wang Shanqiang; Ma Xinhua

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive contamination source term characteristics for the terrorism attacks from 'dirty bomb' and its special demands of decontamination technology are analyzed in this paper. The development and direction of decontamination technology are also discussed. The suggestions are advanced, which decontaminate radioactive contamination caused by the terrorism attacks from 'dirty bomb'. (authors)

  12. Laser decontamination of metallic - Metallic surfaces decontamination by using Laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moggia, F.; Objois, L.; Toulemonde, V.

    2014-01-01

    Within the next years, the volume of metallic contaminated with radionuclides will get higher. In that way, the development of new efficient decontamination methods appears to be a promising challenge for industrials as AREVA. Today, even if a few methods already exist, some of them point out a lack of efficiency and for the others, a production of secondary waste not compatible with the actual requirements. Based on this observation, we started the study of a new process based on the Laser technology. This technology is very promising in terms of effectiveness and waste minimization. Since a couple of years we went through an intensive experimental program (including active and non active tests, metallographic observations...) to fully describe this technology and also to prove its interest for our industry. (authors)

  13. Mycotoxin Decontamination of Food: Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma versus "Classic" Decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojnik, Nataša; Cvelbar, Uroš; Tavčar-Kalcher, Gabrijela; Walsh, James L; Križaj, Igor

    2017-04-28

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several filamentous fungi, which frequently contaminate our food, and can result in human diseases affecting vital systems such as the nervous and immune systems. They can also trigger various forms of cancer. Intensive food production is contributing to incorrect handling, transport and storage of the food, resulting in increased levels of mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxins are structurally very diverse molecules necessitating versatile food decontamination approaches, which are grouped into physical, chemical and biological techniques. In this review, a new and promising approach involving the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma is considered, which may overcome multiple weaknesses associated with the classical methods. In addition to its mycotoxin destruction efficiency, cold atmospheric pressure plasma is cost effective, ecologically neutral and has a negligible effect on the quality of food products following treatment in comparison to classical methods.

  14. Mycotoxin Decontamination of Food: Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma versus “Classic” Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojnik, Nataša; Cvelbar, Uroš; Tavčar-Kalcher, Gabrijela; Walsh, James L.; Križaj, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several filamentous fungi, which frequently contaminate our food, and can result in human diseases affecting vital systems such as the nervous and immune systems. They can also trigger various forms of cancer. Intensive food production is contributing to incorrect handling, transport and storage of the food, resulting in increased levels of mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxins are structurally very diverse molecules necessitating versatile food decontamination approaches, which are grouped into physical, chemical and biological techniques. In this review, a new and promising approach involving the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma is considered, which may overcome multiple weaknesses associated with the classical methods. In addition to its mycotoxin destruction efficiency, cold atmospheric pressure plasma is cost effective, ecologically neutral and has a negligible effect on the quality of food products following treatment in comparison to classical methods. PMID:28452957

  15. Decontamination of abandoned sites. An introduction into the problems of land decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundt, K.

    1991-01-01

    Starting from a brief overview of the history of origin of soil and ground water pollution in Berlin and its surroundings by gas, chemical, and petroleum works, old landfills, manufactories of arms and ammunition as well as gasoline depots or sites of gasoline depots, the brochure describes the legal situation and procedure (list of 'intervention' values) and goes on to outline the situation regarding the ground under Berlin, existing pollutants, and methods for dealing with land contamination. In five abandoned sites (waste oil refinery, copper refinery, waste solvent treatment plant, asphalt factory and drugs factory), different methods for eliminating soil and ground water contamination were used. Their efficacy is assessed on the basis of their soil and pollutant-specific suitability; the decontamination achieved is indicated. (BBR) [de

  16. Concrete decontamination by Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    EHS is being developed for decontaminating concrete structures from radionuclides, organic substances, and hazardous metals. EHS involves the generation of powerful shock waves and intense cavitation by a strong pulsed electric discharge in a water layer at the concrete surface; high impulse pressure results in stresses which crack and peel off a concrete layer of controllable thickness. Scabbling produces contaminated debris of relatively small volume which can be easily removed, leaving clean bulk concrete. Objective of Phase I was to prove the technical feasibility of EH for controlled scabbling and decontamination of concrete. Phase I is complete

  17. Decontamination of radioactive contaminated protective wear using dry cleaning solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthiah, Pushpa; Chitra, S.; Paul, Biplob

    2013-01-01

    Liquid waste generated by conventional decontamination of radioactive contaminated cotton protective wear using detergent affects the chemical treatment of the plant. To reduce the generation of aqueous detergent waste, dry cleaning of cotton protective wear, highly soiled with oil and grease towards decontamination was tried with organic solvents. Mineral turpentine oil (MTO) among various other organic solvents was identified as a suitable organic solvent. As MTO leaves characteristic odour on the cloth, various commercial fragrances for the removal of the odour were tried. Application of the optimised dry cleaning solvent and commercial fragrance was adopted in plant scale operation. (author)

  18. Economies of capacity use in decontamination of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Lawson, Lartey Godwin; Lund, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the economies of capacity use regarding hot water decontamination to reduce postslaughter risk of pathogens in meat, taking interfarm heterogeneities of Salmonella risk and costs of transportation into account, using Denmark as a case study. If risk reduction goals are stated...... at the processing plant level, then the exploitation of the favorable cost-effectiveness properties of hot water slaughtering requires fairly ambitious risk reduction goals and thus high use of decontamination capacity. If instead risk reduction goals are formulated for the sector as a whole, the cost...

  19. Physicochemical characteristics of PFC surfactants for dry decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Jin; Lee, Chi Woo [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Even the trace amount of the used nuclear fuels of high radioactivity are hazardous to the earth and humans. Perfluorocarbons and perfluorocarbon surfactants are emerging to be efficient chemicals in the dry decontamination process of the used fuels of high radioactivity. The theme was undertaken to increase the knowledge on perfluorocarbon surfactants to develop the perfluorocarbon system in the dry decontamination process in Korea. Several cationic and anionic pfc surfactants were synthesized. Effects of pfc surfactants on electrochemical etching of silicon were investigated to form porous silicons. Forces were measured between silicon surfaces and AFM tip in the absence and presence of pfc surfactants. 7 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  20. Development of a strategy for decontamination of an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, K.G.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 lead to high level contamination in urban areas in different parts of Europe and showed the importance of preparedness in the optimisation of any mitigatory interference. To meet this demand, a method for development of a decontamination strategy for urban areas has been developed based on measurements of radionuclide distribution in the urban environment after the Chernobyl accident, calculations of dose and experimentally obtained data on effectiveness and cost of practicable clean-up procedures. The approach highlights where decontamination would be of greatest benefit in terms of dose reduction and cost. (author)

  1. Concrete decontamination by Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    EHS is being developed for decontaminating concrete structures from radionuclides, organic substances, and hazardous metals. EHS involves the generation of powerful shock waves and intense cavitation by a strong pulsed electric discharge in a water layer at the concrete surface; high impulse pressure results in stresses which crack and peel off a concrete layer of controllable thickness. Scabbling produces contaminated debris of relatively small volume which can be easily removed, leaving clean bulk concrete. Objective of Phase I was to prove the technical feasibility of EH for controlled scabbling and decontamination of concrete. Phase I is complete.

  2. Electron beam irradiation for biological decontamination of Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasoveanu, Mirela [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)]. E-mail: mirela@infim.ro; Nemtanu, Monica [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Minea, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grecu, Maria Nicoleta [National Institute for Materials Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mazilu, Elena [Hofigal SA (Romania); Radulescu, Nora [Hofigal SA (Romania)

    2005-10-15

    The Cyanobacterium Spirulina is commercialized for its use in health foods and for therapeutic purposes due to its valuable constituents particularly proteins and vitamins. The aim of the paper is to study the Spirulina platensis behaviour when it is electron beam irradiated for biological decontamination. Microbial load, antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition, electron spin resonance (ESR) and UV-Vis spectra were measured for doses up to 80 kGy. The results were correlated with doses in order to find where decontamination is efficient, keeping the Spirulina qualities.

  3. Electron beam irradiation for biological decontamination of Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasoveanu, Mirela; Nemtanu, Monica; Minea, R.; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Mazilu, Elena; Radulescu, Nora

    2005-10-01

    The Cyanobacterium Spirulina is commercialized for its use in health foods and for therapeutic purposes due to its valuable constituents particularly proteins and vitamins. The aim of the paper is to study the Spirulina platensis behaviour when it is electron beam irradiated for biological decontamination. Microbial load, antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition, electron spin resonance (ESR) and UV-Vis spectra were measured for doses up to 80 kGy. The results were correlated with doses in order to find where decontamination is efficient, keeping the Spirulina qualities.

  4. PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOR OF 238PU RELEVANT TO DECONTAMINATION OF BUILDING 235-F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A.; Kane, M.

    2009-11-24

    experience at PuFF indicates that the Pu-238 contamination was observed to move along surfaces and through High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters over time. Recent research into the phenomenon known as alpha recoil offers a potential explanation for this observed behavior. Momentum is conserved when an alpha particle is ejected from a Pu-238 atom due to radioactive decay. Consequently, the entire particle of which that Pu-238 atom is a constituent experiences a movement similar to the recoil of a gun when a bullet is ejected. Furthermore, the particle often fractures in response to Pu-238 atom disintegration (yielding an alpha particle), with a small particle fragment also being ejected in order to conserve momentum. This process results in the continuous size reduction and transport of particles containing Pu-238 atoms, thus explaining movement of contamination along surfaces and through HEPA filters. A better understanding of the thermal behavior of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} particles is needed to inform the planning process for the PuFF D&D project at the 235-F facility. There has been a concern that the surface temperature of individual particles may be high enough to cause problems with decontamination equipment and materials as a result of heat generation due to radioactive decay. A calculation under conservative assumptions shows that the surface temperature of particles less than about 100 {micro}m diameter is not appreciably above ambient. Since most particles in PuFF are on order of 1 {micro}m in diameter, the effect of particle surface temperature on decontamination equipment and materials is expected to be minimal. The result of this calculation also indicates that thermal imaging, which has been under consideration as a method to monitor the progress of system decontamination efforts would not likely be effective. The use of strippable coating was suggested as a possible alternative to other decontamination techniques. One particular system (i.e., Decon Gel

  5. Contribution to the study of external contamination by radioactive products: skin contamination by radioactive cobalt in soluble form and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tymen, H.

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the behavior of the radioactive cobalt isotopes, which are present in reactor coolant systems of a pressurized water reactor (PWR), in the case of occupational skin exposure, and to study different therapies. Our experimental approach stems from standardized methods in skin pharmacology. In a first step, a physico-chemical study of a primary coolant water was carried out to characterize the soluble fraction of radio-cobalt and its skin affinity. The second step consisted in quantifying the diffusion through the skin, in vivo and in vitro in rats, and in vitro in human. Parallel experiments were carried out to study biokinetics of cobalt in rats, after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous injection. Whatever the route of administration, cobalt diffuses easily in the organism. On the contrary, its skin absorption is very limited. In a fourth step, the influence of the skin injuries on absorption was estimated in vivo on rat skin. Several skin models were developed to standardize different injuries: excoriation, heat burns (convection, conduction) and chemical burns (acid or alkaline). Biokinetics study over 24 hours and histological study have shown a relation between skin absorption and stratum corneum alteration. In the latest step of this work, we compared the efficacy of various decontaminating agents administered under different galenic forms. Per (3, 6- anhydro, 2-O-carboxy-methyl)-α-cyclo-dextrin exhibited a significant efficacy for cobalt decontamination of skin. This macromolecule was tested in aqueous solution, in agarose gel and loaded on 'functionalized' fibers intended for development of new decontaminating tissues. (author)

  6. A simple and feasible method of effectiveness evaluation on radioactive decontamination action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lin; Geng Xiaobing; Sun Jian; Wang Jihong; Guo Lijun

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive decontamination is a vital task in nuclear emergency response. The assessment of decontamination effectiveness is of great importance to decision-making. An index system for effectiveness evaluation of radioactive decontamination action in nuclear emergency response is produced. A method of decontamination effectiveness evaluation based on analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is presented. Index weights are determined through analytic hierarchy process. And scores of objects in each hierarchy are judged by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. Then comprehensive effectiveness of the top object can be obtained, which can offer a basis for decision-making of decontamination action. (authors)

  7. Development of waste minimization and decontamination technologies at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.L.; Archibald, K.E.; Demmer, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Emphasis on the minimization of decontamination secondary waste has increased because of restrictions on the use of hazardous chemicals and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) waste handling issues. The Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co. (LITCO) Decontamination Development Subunit has worked to evaluate and introduce new performed testing, evaluations, development and on-site demonstrations for a number of novel decontamination techniques that have not yet previously been used at the ICPP. This report will include information on decontamination techniques that have recently been evaluated by the Decontamination Development Subunit

  8. Some experiences on effect of external decontamination in the prevention of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovic, D.B.; Milivojevic, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations are included experimental materials in the frame of decontamination of normal and damaged skin contaminated with radioiodine or radiocaesium and acquired experiences in human practice as external decontamination of persons contaminated with different radionuclides working at RA Vinca reactor and in laboratories which produce and use radionuclides, as well as after Chernobyl accident. In experimental conditions the efficiency of decontamination based on evaluation of the total body burden of radionuclides and residual radioactivity in the decontaminated region. In human praxis the decontamination treatment presents the most effective medico-prophylactic procedure in the prevention of local and total irradiation

  9. Development of waste minimization and decontamination technologies at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, R.L.; Archibald, K.E.; Demmer, R.L. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Emphasis on the minimization of decontamination secondary waste has increased because of restrictions on the use of hazardous chemicals and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) waste handling issues. The Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co. (LITCO) Decontamination Development Subunit has worked to evaluate and introduce new performed testing, evaluations, development and on-site demonstrations for a number of novel decontamination techniques that have not yet previously been used at the ICPP. This report will include information on decontamination techniques that have recently been evaluated by the Decontamination Development Subunit.

  10. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  11. Thoria sol-gel processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.B.

    1978-10-01

    Alternate fuel fabrication techniques are being developed at WNRE as part of the thorium fuel cycle program. The sol-gel techniques are attractive and this report assembles and summarizes information relating to thoria sol-gel fuels. Some background information on the behaviour and advantages of sol-gel fuel forms is presented, followed by a review of relevant colloid chemistry and an explanation of the fundamental steps of sol-gel processes. Finally, several variants to the basic process are reviewed and evaluated. (author)

  12. Radiotherapy gel dosimetry: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation therapy or radiotherapy is a common form of cancer treatment. Recent advances in radiotherapy such as intensity modulated radiation therapy indicate that treatment outcomes may be improved. The principle limitation of these more advanced techniques of radiation therapy is the ability to quantify the absorbed radiation dose to the tumour which is related to the 3- dimensional geometry of the tumour. The main advances in 3-dimensional radiation dosimetry are the development of radiation sensitive polymer gel dosimeters. The use of radiation sensitive gels for radiation dosimetry in cancer therapy was first suggested in the 1950s. It was subsequently shown in 1984 that radiation induced changes in nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation properties of gels infused with conventional Fricke dosimetry solutions could be measured. Due to diffusion-related limitations in the use of Fricke gels, alternative polymer gel dosimeters were subsequently suggested in 1992. Since then, both magnetic resonance and optical imaging techniques have been used to evaluate polymer gel dosimeters to produce three-dimensional radiation dose distributions. More recently the uses of x-ray computer tomography and vibrational spectroscopy have also been demonstrated as valuable techniques in the evaluation of these dosimetry gels. Although not yet used routinely clinically, applications of these radiologically soft-tissue equivalent gel dosimeters have been shown to have great potential in the evaluation of complex radiation dose distributions. A review of 3-dimensional radiotherapy gel dosimetry is presented

  13. Use of selective digestive tract decontamination in European intensive cares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis Miranda, D; Citerio, G; Perner, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that the use of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) reduces mortality. However, fear for increasing multi drug resistance might prevent wide acceptance. A survey was performed among the units registered in the European Registry for Intensive Care...

  14. History of decontamination after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Takashi; Onodera, Hideaki; Morishita, Satoru; Kato, Sei

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude 9.0 earthquake (the Great East Japan Earthquake) hit Japan on March 11, 2011 brought tsunami hazard as well as a nuclear accident in addition to the seismic hazard. A wide area of the eastern Japan was contaminated by radioactive materials released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Company. In response to the unprecedented situation of the radioactive pollution after the accident, the Act on Special Measures Concerning the Handling of Radioactive Pollution was enacted in August 2011. The Ministry of the Environment (MOE) has formulated a set of guidelines by the end of 2011 to provide information on how to store and manage contaminated waste. In addition, the MOE established 'The Policies for the Decontamination of Specific Areas (Decontamination Roadmap)' in January 2012. As a result, the radiation dose rate has decreased by approximately 46% in the residential area of Naraha town. The MOE will have been promoting decontamination and construction of interim storage facilities which are able to store and manage the removed soils and incineration ashes generated from decontamination works. (author)

  15. Dilute chemical decontamination resins and the mixed waste issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denault, R.P.; Hallman, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The decontamination of reactor primary systems, sub-systems and components is an important method used to reduce the occupational radiation exposure of nuclear plant personnel. The waste produced by the application of this technology is mainly solid in the form of ion exchange resins. As a result of a recent agreement between the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), all radioactive waste must meet EPA burial criteria. The chemicals used in a decontamination and certain metals dissolved during the process, primarily chromium, could render the waste hazardous as well as radioactive or more commonly called a mixed waste. This paper defines mixed waste as described in the EPA directive 9432.00-2, and examine the criteria by which waste is categorized as hazardous. The decontamination waste resin generated by two processes, the CAN-DEREM and the LOMI process, is described in detail. Waste data obtained from decontaminations performed by LN Technologies Corporation including chemical, metal and radionuclide loadings on resins from both PWR and BWR applications are presented

  16. The decontamination of IFD containment using remote handling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stopford, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the method by which a specific decontamination requirement for the Irradiated Fuel Dismantling (IFD) Cell No. 2 at Torness Power Station was addressed. The design brief required conventional manually operated equipment to be used and the design process used a computer modelling tool to develop the equipment design and to analyse its operation. The paper reviews the background to the decontamination requirement in the Upper Containment Box (UCB) of the cell. All handling activities and tie bar cutting operations are undertaken in this area resulting in the UCB floor becoming a focal point for contamination. The original decontamination equipment proved inadequate owing to changes in the UCB and, consequently, manual decontamination became necessary. Principal considerations for the introduction of equipment to the containment were the availability of suitable access points, the limited operating space and the normal operational requirements of the cell equipment itself. The design involved using a Master Slave Manipulator (MSM) as a remote handling tool which controlled and directed a support arm carrying a vacuum nozzle. (author)

  17. Atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Selwyn, Gary S.

    2001-01-01

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber is described. The apparatus is useful for decontaminating sensitive equipment and materials, such as electronics, optics and national treasures, which have been contaminated with chemical and/or biological warfare agents, such as anthrax, mustard blistering agent, VX nerve gas, and the like. There is currently no acceptable procedure for decontaminating such equipment. The apparatus may also be used for sterilization in the medical and food industries. Items to be decontaminated or sterilized are supported inside the chamber. Reactive gases containing atomic and metastable oxygen species are generated by an atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge in a He/O.sub.2 mixture and directed into the region of these items resulting in chemical reaction between the reactive species and organic substances. This reaction typically kills and/or neutralizes the contamination without damaging most equipment and materials. The plasma gases are recirculated through a closed-loop system to minimize the loss of helium and the possibility of escape of aerosolized harmful substances.

  18. Solid Waste Decontamination by Thermal Desorption and Catalytic Oxidation Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Olga; Topka, Pavel; Soukup, Karel; Jirátová, Květa; Váňová, H.; Kaštánek, František

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 9 (2014), s. 1279-1282 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/059 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : thermal desorption * catalytic oxidation * soil decontamination Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2014

  19. PND fuel handling decontamination program: specialized techniques and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, R.; Hobbs, K.; Minnis, M.; Graham, K.

    1995-01-01

    The use of various decontamination techniques and equipment has become a critical part of Fuel Handling maintenance work at the Pickering Nuclear Station, an eight unit CANDU station located about 30 km east of Toronto. This paper presents an overview of the set up and techniques used for cleaning in the PND Fuel Handling Maintenance Facility, and the results achieved. (author)

  20. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  1. Pilot plant for the radioactive decontamination of spent oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores E, R.M.; Ortiz O, H.V.; Cisneros L, L.; Lopez G, R.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the operation parameters obtained in the laboratory of oil storage are presented, as well as the operations which shape the pilot plant, the design criteria and the basic design of the core equipment of the developed process. Finally, the comparative results obtained the decontamination process of oil are given as well as laboratory scale. (Author)

  2. Decontamination of Bacillus spores adhered to iron and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal Article This study examines the effectiveness of decontaminating Bacillus globigii spores attached to corroded iron and cement-mortar coupons with free chlorine at two pH levels, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, peracetic acid (PAA) and acidified nitrite, followed by flushing.

  3. Minimal impact, waterless decontamination technologies for improving food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogen contamination of produce, meats, poultry, shellfish, and other foods remains an ongoing concern. Chemical sanitizers are widely employed for foods and food contact surfaces. However, there is growing interest in the development of minimal impact, waterless decontamination processes that wil...

  4. UK fast reactor components. Sodium removal decontamination and requalification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, D.M.; Bray, J.A.; Newson, I.H.

    1978-01-01

    Extensive experience gained at the U.K.A.E.A. Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment is being applied to form the basis of the plant to be provided for sodium removal, decontamination, and requalification of components in future commercial fast reactors. In the first part of a three part paper, the factors to be taken into account, showing the UK philosophy and approach to maintenance and repair operations are discussed. In the second part, PFR facilities for sodium removal and decontamination are described and some examples are given of cleaning components such as pumps, charge machine, cold trap baskets, and steam generator units. Similar facilities at DFR are briefly described. In the third part of the paper a short description is given of the Harwell mass transfer loop, currently used to study the deposition of activated stainless steel corrosion products. Decontamination method for pipework specimens cut from the loop are described and results of first screening tests of various chemical decontaminants are presented. (U.K.)

  5. The Ultimate Hacker: SETI Signals May Need to Be Decontaminated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.

    2004-06-01

    Biological contamination from space is a remote but recognized possibility. SETI signals might also contain harmful information. Some argue that a SETI signal could not contaminate a terrestrial computer because the idiosyncratic computer logic and code constitute an impenetrable firewall. Suggestions are given below on how to probe these arguments and decontaminate SETI signals.

  6. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory decontamination and decommissioning summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Topics covered concern the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) work performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during FY 1979 and include both operations and development projects. Briefly presented are the different types of D and D projects planned and the D and D projects completed. The problems encountered on these projects and the development program recommended are discussed

  7. Low level radioactive liquid waste decontamination by electrochemical way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronche, E.

    1994-10-01

    As part of the work on decontamination treatments for low level radioactive aqueous liquid wastes, the study of an electro-chemical process has been chosen by the C.E.A. at the Cadarache research centre. The first part of this report describes the main methods used for the decontamination of aqueous solutions. Then an electro-deposition process and an electro-dissolution process are compared on the basis of the decontamination results using genuine radioactive aqueous liquid waste. For ruthenium decontamination, the former process led to very high yields (99.9 percent eliminated). But the elimination of all the other radionuclides (antimony, strontium, cesium, alpha emitters) was only favoured by the latter process (90 percent eliminated). In order to decrease the total radioactivity level of the waste to be treated, we have optimized the electro-dissolution process. That is why the chemical composition of the dissolved anode has been investigated by a mixture experimental design. The radionuclides have been adsorbed on the precipitating products. The separation of the precipitates from the aqueous liquid enabled us to remove the major part of the initial activity. On the overall process some operations have been investigated to minimize waste embedding. Finally, a pilot device (laboratory scale) has been built and tested with genuine radioactive liquid waste. (author). 77 refs., 41 tabs., 55 figs., 4 appendixes

  8. Natural sorbents for decontamination of objects of urban territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movchan, N.; Fedorenko, Yu.; Zlobenko, B.; Spigoun, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an information about the use of film coverings, based on natural sorbents, in decontamination of buildings, contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. This method has incontrovertible advantages in the beginning period after the accident and can be used for cleaning considerable areas of urban territories

  9. Decontamination of Wastewater Contaminated by Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštánek, František; Kaštánek, P.; Demnerová, K.; Maléterová, Ywetta

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2004), s. 131-138 ISSN 0273-1223 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : decontamination * hydrogen peroxide * underground water Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.586, year: 2004

  10. Safety assessment of the Area 6 Decontamination Pad and Laundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilton, M.W.; Orcutt, J.A.

    1984-10-01

    The Safety Assessment of the Area 6 Decontamination Pad and Laundry, prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1A, identifies and evaluates potential radiation and chemical hazards to personnel, and impacts on the environment. Site and facility characteristics, as well as routine and nonroutine operations are discussed. Hypothetical incidents and accidents are described and evaluated. 3 figures, 1 table

  11. Experiences during the decontamination process of areas surrounding to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, G.

    2014-10-01

    In this work the experience gained during the decontamination of areas surrounding to Fukushima NPP, rugged during the earthquake and tsunami in 2011 and caused the contamination with fission products in these areas is described. Actions taken by the Japanese government are reported and some of the techniques used, the intervention levels and the progress made and disposal techniques considered are presented. (Author)

  12. Review of decontamination techniques in relation to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.M.; Wakefield, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    A review is presented of decontamination procedures currently in use in relation to the decommissioning of nuclear plant. Contributions were invited from Canada, France, Japan, Sweden, USA and the UK and are appended. They present an overview of the techniques employed in each country and identify areas of future development. (author)

  13. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract reduces pneumonia and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Lenneke E. M.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2010-01-01

    Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) has been subject of numerous randomized controlled trials in critically ill patients. Almost all clinical trials showed SDD to prevent pneumonia. Nevertheless, SDD has remained a controversial strategy. One reason for why clinicians remained

  14. Summary of sodium removal and decontamination programs in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, O.P.; Brehm, W.F.

    1978-01-01

    The goals of the United States Department of Energy sodium removal and decontamination programs are: 1) to identify plant requirements and develop safe effective processes for sodium removal, both for experimental facilities and for reactor components; 2) to develop effective decontamination processes for removing deposited radioactivity; 3) to establish and put into use a set of workable criteria for requalification and return to service of components after sodium removal and decontamination; 4) to design, build and operate facilities in which to perform the sodium removal and decontamination operations. This paper gives a summary of progress toward each of these goals; details will be presented in other papers at this meeting. Three basic processes for sodium removal have been investigated extensively: the use of water vapor in an inert carrier gas, the use of an alcohol-type reagent, and evaporation. The process development work on the first two processes has been essentially completed. The evaporative process is still under development, but preliminary parameters have been established

  15. Environmental and occupational hazards associated with decontamination solutions (a)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanthal, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the reagents employed in the decontamination of reactor coolant systems are potentially hazardous. Potential exposure to decontamination agents by operating personnel, or members of the general population, could occur during use, processing, transportation to, or disposal at a low-level waste site. Federal and state agencies have promulgated regulations relevant to the disposal of decontamination solution waste to prevent acute or chronic exposures. In particular, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Transportation (DOT), Department of Labor - Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), State of South Carolina, State of Nevada, and the State of Washington have such regulations. These regulations may impact on the choice of decontamination solutions, operations procedures, processing methods, or disposal methods. Laws and regulations relate to both chemically hazardous, or toxic materials and to radioactive hazards. Laws which regulate the exposure of workers and the general public to effluents and emissions during processing, disposal and transport have been abstracted. As a result of these regulations, utilities are required to obtain permits to perform monitoring and sampling of personnel and the on-site and off-site environment, provide proper protective clothing and ventilation, make certain the solutions are properly contained during use, storage and processing, and destroy and/or properly immobilize the residues for disposal. Waste treatment processes such as neutralization, ion exchange, evaporation, incineration, etc., must not produce, nor result in hazardous emissions, effluents, residues, or hazards to workers. The laws also stipulate record keeping and documentation

  16. Irradiation as a method for decontaminating food. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, J

    1998-11-10

    Despite substantial efforts in avoidance of contamination, an upward trend in the number of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses caused by nonsporeforming pathogenic bacteria are reported in many countries. Good hygienic practices can reduce the level of contamination but the most important pathogens cannot presently be eliminated from most farms nor is it possible to eliminate them by primary processing, particularly from those foods which are sold raw. Several decontamination methods exist but the most versatile treatment among them is the processing with ionizing radiation. Decontamination of food by ionizing radiation is a safe, efficient, environmentally clean and energy efficient process. Irradiation is particularly valuable as an endproduct decontamination procedure. Radiation treatment at doses of 2-7 kGy--depending on condition of irradiation and the food--can effectively eliminate potentially pathogenic nonsporeforming bacteria including both long-time recognized pathogens such as Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus as well as emerging or "new" pathogens such as Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes or Escherichia coli O157:H7 from suspected food products without affecting sensory, nutritional and technical qualities. Candidates of radiation decontamination are mainly poultry and red meat, egg products, and fishery products. It is a unique feature of radiation decontamination that it can also be performed when the food is in a frozen state. With today's demand for high-quality convenience foods, irradiation in combination with other processes holds a promise for enhancing the safety of many minimally processed foods. Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations with doses of 3-10 kGy proved to be a viable alternative to fumigation with microbicidal gases. Radiation treatment at doses of 0.15-0.7 kGy under specific conditions appears to be feasible also for control of many foodborne parasites, thereby making infested foods safe

  17. Decontamination Processes for Restorative Operations and as a Precursor to Decommissioning: A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J. L.; Divine, J. R.

    1981-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an comprehensive literature review of actual reactor decontamination processes that are currently available. In general, any decontamination process should be based on the following criteria: effectiveness, efficiency, safety, and waste production. The information that was collected and analyzed has been divided into three major categories of decontamination: chemical, mechanical, and electrochemical. Chemical methods can be further classified as either low-concentration, singlestep processes or high-concentration, single- or multistep processes. Numerous chemical decontamination methods are detailed. Mechanical decontamination methods are usually restricted to the removal of a contaminated surface layer, whlch limits their versatility; several mechanical decontamination methods are described. Electrochemical decontamination. is both fast and easily controlled, and numerous processes that have been used in industry for many years are discussed. Information obtained from this work is tabulated in Appendix A for easy access, and a bibliography and a glossary have been provided.

  18. Aggressive chemical decontamination tests on small valves from the Garigliano BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregani, F.

    1990-01-01

    In order to check the effectiveness of direct chemical decontamination on small and complex components, usually considered for storage without decontamination because of the small amount, some tests were performed on the DECO experimental loop. Four small stainless steel valves from the primary system of the Garigliano BWR were decontaminated using mainly aggressive chemicals such as HC1, HF, HNO 3 and their mixtures. On two valves, before the treatment with aggressive chemicals, a step with soft chemical (oxalic and citric acid mixture) was performed in order to see whether a softening action enhances the following aggressive decontamination. Moreover, in order to increase as much as possible the decontamination effectiveness, a decontamination process using ultrasounds jointly with aggressive chemicals was investigated. After an intensive laboratory testing programme, two smaller stainless steel valves from the primary system of the Garigliano BWR were decontaminated using ultrasounds in aggressive chemical solutions

  19. NTA-based formulation for the chemical decontamination of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufus, A.L.; Sathyaseelan, V.S.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid)-based chemical formulations are often employed for the decontamination of nuclear reactor coolant systems. However, its use in the dilute chemical decontamination (DCD) process operated in regenerative mode indicated several drawbacks. Hence, the search for a better decontaminant was imperative. Some of the potential amino carboxylic acids were explored for their suitability as a decontamination formulation constituent. NTA (nitrilo tri-acetic acid) was found to be a better substitute for EDTA with respect to properties that are relevant to DCD such as interaction of decontaminants and their metal complexes with ion exchange resins, oxide dissolution, corrosion compatibility of structural materials, and radiation stability. The studies revealed that better decontamination factors would be obtained if NTA-based formulations were used for the decontamination process. (author)

  20. Pathogen Decontamination of Food Crop Soil: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtler, Joshua B

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to delineate means of decontaminating soil. This information might be used to mitigate soil-associated risks of foodborne pathogens. The majority of the research in the published literature involves inactivation of plant pathogens in soil, i.e., those pathogens harmful to fruit and vegetable production and ornamental plants. Very little has been published regarding the inactivation of foodborne human pathogens in crop soil. Nevertheless, because decontamination techniques for plant pathogens might also be useful methods for eliminating foodborne pathogens, this review also includes inactivation of plant pathogens, with appropriate discussion and comparisons, in the hopes that these methods may one day be validated against foodborne pathogens. Some of the major soil decontamination methods that have been investigated and are covered include chemical decontamination (chemigation), solarization, steaming, biofumigation, bacterial competitive exclusion, torch flaming, microwave treatment, and amendment with biochar. Other innovative means of inactivating foodborne pathogens in soils may be discovered and explored in the future, provided that these techniques are economically feasible in terms of chemicals, equipment, and labor. Food microbiology and food safety researchers should reach out to soil scientists and plant pathologists to create links where they do not currently exist and strengthen relationships where they do exist to take advantage of multidisciplinary skills. In time, agricultural output and the demand for fresh produce will increase. With advances in the sensitivity of pathogen testing and epidemiological tracebacks, the need to mitigate preharvest bacterial contamination of fresh produce will become paramount. Hence, soil decontamination technologies may become more economically feasible and practical in light of increasing the microbial safety of fresh produce.

  1. Radiocesium decontamination of a riverside in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikiori, Tatsuhiro; Suzuki, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    Extensive decontamination measures have been implemented in the area affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster. Typical decontamination measures, such as removing topsoil of several centimeters in depth, are not suitable for rivers where contaminated sediments have been deposited. A decontamination measure was tested that considered the spatial distribution of radiocesium at the lower part of a tributary of the Abukuma River in Fukushima. The radiocesium distribution in the flood channel was vertically and horizontally highly heterogeneous. In some parts, the activity concentration was high (>10 kBq/kg for 137 Cs) even at depths of 25 cm in the sediment. This may be due to plant growth in the flood channel favoring the deposition of sediment with high activity concentration. On the basis of the radiocesium distribution, the flood channel sediment was removed to a depth of 15-35 cm, which accumulated the most radiocesium (>3.0 kBq/kg for the sum of 134 Cs and 137 Cs). The upper 5 cm of soil was removed from the dike slopes. The river bed was not decontaminated because the activity concentration was low (decontamination measure reduced the air dose rate by a factor of approximately two, demonstrating the effectiveness of our measures. Annual external doses were calculated for when this part of the dike and the flood channel is used for commuting to school and outdoor education. The doses during the activities at the test site accounted for only 1-2% of the value during daily life in the surrounding area, indicating that radiation exposure during riverside activities is limited. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Decontamination of radioactive clothing using microemulsion in carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jaeryong; Jang, Jina; Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Hongdoo; Kim, Hakwon [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Sanghak; Yoon, Weonseob [Ulchin Nuclear Power Site, Ulchin (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear power is intrinsically a clean energy source due to its high energy density and low generation of waste. However, as the nuclear industry grows, a variety of radioactive wastes are increased gradually. Major subjects include contaminated components, tools, equipment, containers and facilities as well as nuclear waste such as uranium scrap and radioactive clothing. The radioactive waste can be classified by its creation. There are Trans-Uranium Nuclides (TRU), Fission Products (FP) and corrosion products. Nuclear decontamination has become an important issue in the nuclear industry. The conventional methods have some problems such as the production of secondary wastes and the use of toxic solvents. We need to develop a new method of decontamination and suggest a use of microemulsion in carbon dioxide to overcome these disadvantages. The microemulsion is the clear solution that contains the water, surfactant and carbon dioxide. The surfactant surrounded the droplet into carbon dioxide and this state is thermodynamically stable. That is, the microemulsion has a structure similar to that of a conventional water-based surfactant system. Generally, the size of droplet is about 5 {approx} 10nm. The microemulsion is able to decontaminate radioactive waste so that the polar substance is removed by water and the non-polar substance is removed by carbon dioxide. After the decontamination process, the microemulsion is separated easily to surfactant and water by decreasing the pressure under the cloud point. This way, only radioactive wastes are left in the system. Cleaned carbon dioxide is then collected and reused. Thus, there are no secondary wastes. Carbon dioxide is considered an alternative process medium. This is because it is non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive and easy to handle. Additionally, the tunable properties of carbon dioxide through pressure and temperature control are versatile for use in extracting organic materials. In this paper, we examine the

  3. Fighting Ebola through Novel Spore Decontamination Technologies for the Military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Doona

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractRecently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF, the World Health Organization (WHO, Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH, and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs, a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned. The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2 produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army – Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established nonthermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers

  4. Development of the dry decontamination technique using plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Seo, Yong Dae; Lee, Dong Uk; Jeon, Sang Hwan; Jung, Young Suk [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced dry decontamination method, dry decontamination technique using gaseous plasma is studied. Scopes of the research are 1) literature survey and case studies of the international R and D activities and industrial application, 2) contaminant characteristics analysis, 3) feasibility and applicability study of the unit techniques, 4) process development study on the plasma decontamination, 5) plasma diagnostics and quantitative analysis by QMS and OES, and 6) design of (microwave) plasma torch system. The major research results are as belows. The maximum etching rate of UO{sub 2} is achieved to be 0.8 {mu}m/min. under 300 deg C, 150 W CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} r.f. plasma maintaining the optimum ratio of CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} of four, and that of Co and Mo is 0.06 {mu}m/min. and 1.9 {mu}m/min., respectively, under 380 deg C, 220 W CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} r.f. plasma. The optimum process for the dry decontamination of TRU, CP, and or FP nuclides, therefore, requires the optimum gas composition above 350 deg C and 220W power. It is also demonstrated that this optimum process can be extrapolated to atmospheric high power torch system. In conclusion, if plasma power and temperature increases with maintaining the optimum gas composition, this dry decontamination techniques must be definitely effective and efficient. 17 refs., 62 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  5. Plasma Decontamination of Space Equipment for Planetary Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hubertus; Barczyk, Simon; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klaempfl, Tobias; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia; Weber, Peter

    The search for extraterrestrial life is one of the most challenging science topics for the next decades. Space missions, like ExoMars, plan to land and search for biological remnants on planets and moons in our nearby Solar system. Planetary protection regulations defined by COSPAR prevent that during the mission biological contamination of the bodies occur through the space probes. Therefore decontamination of the probes and more general space equipment is necessary before the launch. The up-to-date accepted decontamination procedure originate from the old NASA Viking missions and use dry heat (T>110°C for 30h) - a technology not well suited for sensitive equipment nowadays. We investigated in a study financed by the German Space Agency* cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) as an alternative for such decontamination. It is well known that CAP can kill bacteria or spores within seconds or minutes, respectively, if the plasma is in direct contact with the treated sample. This procedure might also be quite aggressive to the treated surface materials. Therefore, we developed an afterglow CAP device specially designed for the soft treatment of space equipment. Afterglow plasma produced by a SMD device in air is transported into a “larger” treatment chamber where the samples are positioned. It could be shown that samples of different bacteria and spores, the latter defined by COSPAR as a means to show the effectiveness of the decontamination process, positioned on different materials (steel, Teflon, quartz) could be effectively inactivated. The surface materials were investigated after the plasma treatment to identify etching or deposition problems. The afterglow in the treatment chamber could even overcome obstacles (tubes of different height and diameter) which simulate more complicated structures of the relevant surfaces. Up to now, CAP looks like a quite promising alternative to decontaminate space equipment and need to be studied in greater detail in the near future

  6. Decontamination of radioactive clothing using microemulsion in carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jaeryong; Jang, Jina; Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Hongdoo; Kim, Hakwon; Yim, Sanghak; Yoon, Weonseob

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power is intrinsically a clean energy source due to its high energy density and low generation of waste. However, as the nuclear industry grows, a variety of radioactive wastes are increased gradually. Major subjects include contaminated components, tools, equipment, containers and facilities as well as nuclear waste such as uranium scrap and radioactive clothing. The radioactive waste can be classified by its creation. There are Trans-Uranium Nuclides (TRU), Fission Products (FP) and corrosion products. Nuclear decontamination has become an important issue in the nuclear industry. The conventional methods have some problems such as the production of secondary wastes and the use of toxic solvents. We need to develop a new method of decontamination and suggest a use of microemulsion in carbon dioxide to overcome these disadvantages. The microemulsion is the clear solution that contains the water, surfactant and carbon dioxide. The surfactant surrounded the droplet into carbon dioxide and this state is thermodynamically stable. That is, the microemulsion has a structure similar to that of a conventional water-based surfactant system. Generally, the size of droplet is about 5 ∼ 10nm. The microemulsion is able to decontaminate radioactive waste so that the polar substance is removed by water and the non-polar substance is removed by carbon dioxide. After the decontamination process, the microemulsion is separated easily to surfactant and water by decreasing the pressure under the cloud point. This way, only radioactive wastes are left in the system. Cleaned carbon dioxide is then collected and reused. Thus, there are no secondary wastes. Carbon dioxide is considered an alternative process medium. This is because it is non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive and easy to handle. Additionally, the tunable properties of carbon dioxide through pressure and temperature control are versatile for use in extracting organic materials. In this paper, we examine the

  7. Decontamination technique developed for complex shape contamination and its application. Suspension fluidized electro-polishing decontamination technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadenuma, Katsuyoshi; Arai, Osamu; Hishinuma, Yukio

    2000-01-01

    We developed new suspension fluidized electro-polishing decontamination technique that the anodizing reaction electro-polishing reaction) progresses on the surface of object without electrical power input. Two electrodes are set in electrolyte that partitions by a porous membrane. After putting graphite particles into the positive side and flowing, take the polishing subject in the solution and input the electrical power. The etching effect is increased by adding a grinding material's particle or ultrasonic treatment. The radioactive substances in the materials or in the oxide layer on the surface of materials are dissolved and removed. The metal ions and radioactive elements reduce on the negative pole and change to metals. At the same time, positive graphite changes to neutral one. So that, neutral graphite can be used many times. The decontamination treatment of main structure materials in the atomic power plant was carried out. The residual activity was 0.03 Bq/g, from 3000 to 5000 or more DF, the marvelous values. This method can be applied to decontamination in the tube and the equipment far apart, industries, the dissolution method of plutonium and decontamination of radioactive contaminant metal waste in the nuclear facility. (S.Y.)

  8. Rheology and structure of milk protein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Visschers, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies on gel formation and rheology of milk gels are reviewed. A distinction is made between gels formed by aggregated casein, gels of `pure` whey proteins and gels in which both casein and whey proteins contribute to their properties. For casein' whey protein mixtures, it has been shown

  9. Gel placement in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Vermolen; J. Bruining; C.J. van Duijn (Hans)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyse advective transport of polymers, crosslinkers and gel, taking into account non-equilibrium gelation, gel adsorption and crosslinker precipitation. In absence of diffusion/dispersion the resulting model consists of hyperbolic transport-reaction equations. These

  10. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G.; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-01-01

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of Bacillus

  11. Molten salts as stripping media for radioactive superficial decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira Lainetti, Paulo Ernesto [Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente - CQMA, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 C. Universitaria Sao Paulo - SP, CEP- 5508-000 (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The main practical difficulty associated to the task of the dismantling and decommissioning of the IPEN's old Nuclear Fuel Cycle facilities has been the big amount of radioactive waste generated in the dismantling operations. The waste is mainly in the form of contaminated carbon steel structures. In the IPEN, the presence of contamination in the equipments, structures and buildings, although restricted to low and medium activity levels, constituted an important concern due, on one hand, to the great volume of radioactive wastes generated during the operations. In the other hand, it should be outstanding that the capacity of radioactive wastes stockpiling in IPEN found been exhausted. Basically, for the facilities dismantling operations, the main radionuclides of interest, from the radioprotection point of view, are U of natural isotopic composition and thorium-232. In function of the large waste volume generated in the dismantling operations, the main concerns and focuses of research and technological development in the IPEN's Chemical and Environmental Center - CQMA - have been the effluent and waste treatment subjects, besides the development of some special decontamination techniques, since most old nuclear fuel cycle facilities are installed in the CQMA's area. It should be stood out that, in scenery of reduction of the importance of the nuclear program in the Institution, occurred in the nineties and in the first half of the present decade, there was a significant reduction of sections previously engaged in the activities as, for instance, the decontamination area. That section would be of vital importance for the execution of any D and D program. In this context, the reduction of the radioactive waste volume has a significant impact in the decommissioning costs and in the amount of material to be stored. For these reasons, in spite of the role of the CQMA has not ever been the treatments of radioactive wastes or decontamination, several new

  12. Showering effectiveness for human hair decontamination of the nerve agent VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse, Denis; Wartelle, Julien; Cruz, Catherine

    2015-05-05

    In this work, our goals were to establish whether hair decontamination by showering one hour post-exposure to the highly toxic organophosphate nerve agent VX was effective, whether it required the addition of a detergent to water and, if it could be improved by using the adsorbent Fuller's Earth (FE) or the Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) 30 min prior to showering. Hair exposure to VX and decontamination was performed by using an in vitro model. Hair showering led to 72% reduction of contamination. Addition of detergent to water slightly increased the decontamination effectiveness. Hair treatment with FE or RSDL improved the decontamination rate. Combination of FE use and showering, which yielded a decontamination factor of 41, was demonstrated to be the most effective hair decontamination procedure. Hair wiping after showering was shown to contribute to hair decontamination. Altogether, our results highlighted the importance of considering hair decontamination as an important part of body surface decontamination protocols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface decontamination using microemulsion of F-AOT in liquid/supercritical CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, C. H.; Gho, M. S.; Park, G. H.; Kim, H. D.; Kim, H. W.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional chemical decontamination method for surface decontamination cause not only the 2nd radioactive wastes, but also corrosion and defect on the surface of equipment. If CO 2 is used as a solvent for decontamination of radioactive contaminants, the waste can be effectively reduced by recycling of CO 2 where only contaminants are left as wastes during evaporation of CO 2 . Polar material can be dissolved by microemulsion using F-AOT and HNO 3 (1M). We use these two technique for surface decontamination. Cu and Ni specimens made by electroplating Conventional chemical decontamination method for surface decontamination cause not only the 2nd radioactive wastes, but also corrosion and defect on the surface of equipment. If CO 2 is used as a solvent for decontamination of radioactive contaminants, the waste can be effectively reduced by recycling of CO 2 where only contaminants are left as wastes during evaporation of CO 2 . Polar material can be dissolved by microemulsion using F-AOT and HNO 3 (1M). We use these two technique for surface decontamination. Cu and Ni specimens made by electroplating on the QCM surface. The QCM was used for the quantitative analysis. In the case of Cu, The 0.054μg/sec and 0.024μg/sec of decontamination efficiency were obtained in LCO 2 /ScCO 2 microemulsion respectively. The 0.066μg/sec of decontamination efficiency was obtained in the case of Ni

  14. The impact of skin decontamination on the time window for effective treatment of percutaneous VX exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, M J A; van den Berg, R M; de Jong, A L; van der Schans, M J; Noort, D; Langenberg, J P

    2017-04-01

    The main goal of the present study was to obtain insight into depot formation and penetration following percutaneous VX poisoning, in order to identify an appropriate decontamination window that can enhance or support medical countermeasures. The study was executed in two phases, using the hairless guinea pig as an animal model. In the first phase the effect of various decontamination regimens on levels of free VX in skin and plasma were studied as well as on blood cholinesterase levels. Animals were exposed to 0.5 mg/kg VX and were not decontaminated (control), decontaminated with RSDL once at 15 or 90 min after exposure or three times at 15, 25 and 35 (10-min interval) or 15, 45 and 75 min after exposure (30-min interval). There was no significant effect of any of the decontamination regimens on the 6-h survival rate of the animals. However, all animals that had been decontaminated 15 min after exposure, showed a survival rate of more than 90%, compared to 50-60% in animals that were not decontaminated or decontaminated at 90 min after exposure. In the second phase of the study, hairless guinea pigs were exposed to 1 mg/kg VX on the shoulder, followed either by decontamination with RSDL (10 min interval), conventional treatment on indication of clinical signs or a combination thereof. It appeared that a thorough, repeated decontamination alone could not save the majority of the animals. A 100% survival rate was observed in the group that received a combination of decontamination and treatment. In conclusion, the effects of VX exposure could be influenced by various RSDL decontamination regimens. The results in freely moving animals showed that skin decontamination, although not fully effective in removing all VX from the skin and skin depot is crucial to support pharmacological intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the “ladder-pipe system” for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination. PMID:27442794

  16. Assessing cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Despite the enormous cost of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, it is not clear what levels of reduction in external radiation exposure are possible in the Special Decontamination Area, the Intensive Contamination Survey Areas and the whole of Fukushima. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture in its entirety. Using a geographic information system, we calculated the costs of removal, storage containers, transport, and temporary and interim storage facilities as well as the reduction in air dose rate for a cumulative external exposure for 9000 1 km × 1 km mesh units incorporating 51 municipalities. The decontamination cost for the basic scenario, for which forested areas within 20 m of habitation areas were decontaminated, was JPY2.53–5.12 trillion; the resulting reduction in annual external dose was about 2500 person-Sv. The transport, storage, and administrative costs of decontamination waste and removed soil reached JPY1.55–2.12 trillion under this scenario. Although implementing decontamination of all forested areas provides some major reductions in the external radiation dose for the average inhabitant, decontamination costs could potentially exceed JPY16 trillion. These results indicate that technologies for reducing the volume of decontamination waste and removed soil should be considered to reduce storage costs and that further discussions about forest decontamination policies are needed. - Highlights: • Evaluation of cost and effectiveness of decontaminating Fukushima Prefecture. • Reductions in external exposure under various decontamination scenarios were similar. • Decontamination costs for the basic scenario were estimated at JPY2.53–5.12 trillion.

  17. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherginskaya, S.A.; Cann, I.K.O.; Mackie, R.I.

    2005-01-01

    It is worthwhile considering that only some 30 species make up the bulk of the bacterial population in human faeces at any one time based on the classical cultivation-based approach. The situation in the rumen is similar. Thus, it is practical to focus on specific groups of interest within the complex community. These may be the predominant or the most active species, specific physiological groups or readily identifiable (genetic) clusters of phylogenetically related organisms. Several 16S rDNA fingerprinting techniques can be invaluable for selecting and monitoring sequences or phylogenetic groups of interest and are described below. Over the past few decades, considerable attention was focussed on the identification of pure cultures of microbes on the basis of genetic polymorphisms of DNA encoding rRNA such as ribotyping, amplified fragment length polymorphism and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. However, many of these methods require prior cultivation and are less suitable for use in analysis of complex mixed populations although important in describing cultivated microbial diversity in molecular terms. Much less attention was given to molecular characterization of complex communities. In particular, research into diversity and community structure over time has been revolutionized by the advent of molecular fingerprinting techniques for complex communities. Denaturing or temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE/TGGE) methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of human, pig, cattle, dog and rodent intestinal populations

  18. Environmental Assessment for decontamination and dismantlement, Pinellas Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1092) of the proposed decontamination and dismantlement of the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. Under the Decontamination and Dismantlement EA, the DOE proposes to clean up facilities, structures, and utilities; dismantle specific structures; and mitigate or eliminate any environmental impacts associated with the cleanup, dismantlement, and related activities. Related activities include utilization of specific areas by new tenants prior to full-scale cleanup. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  19. The decontamination effects of gamma irradiation on the edible gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Junjie; Shen, Weiqiao; Bao, Jinsong; Chen, Qinglong

    2000-01-01

    The decontamination effects of gamma irradiation on the edible gelatin were studied. The results indicated that the bacterium and mold in the gelatin decreased significantly with the dose of 5 kGy treatment. However, the content of crude protein, microelement, amino acid in the gelatin remained unchanged under the irradiation of 4 and 8 kGy. The viscosity of the gelatin decreased with the increase of the irradiation dose, but the gelatin with a dose of 5 kGy treatment still accorded with the standard of the second-order class. These results suggested that the optimum irradiation dose for edible gelatin for the purpose of decontamination was in the range 3-5 kGy. (author)

  20. Environmental Assessment for decontamination and dismantlement, Pinellas Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1092) of the proposed decontamination and dismantlement of the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. Under the Decontamination and Dismantlement EA, the DOE proposes to clean up facilities, structures, and utilities; dismantle specific structures; and mitigate or eliminate any environmental impacts associated with the cleanup, dismantlement, and related activities. Related activities include utilization of specific areas by new tenants prior to full-scale cleanup. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  1. Radio decontamination of hair conditioner for capillary ammniotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romay, Z.; Otero, I.; Chavez, A.; Torriente, I.

    1996-01-01

    The Hair conditioner, which belongs to the group of cosmetic products Dr Miyares Cao, was artificially contaminated, kept at different values of temperature (-20 oC , 0 oC and +20 oC ) and irradiated to different doses (6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25 and 30 kGy) and 25 oC for studying the effect of gamma radiation on it and the possibility of use of this technology for its decontamination. The radiobiological parameters of the contaminator and the quality of irradiated products were determined. Was conclude that the product maintain its organolepthics characteristics and others quality parameters after irradiated to 20 kGy and +20 oC of temperature before irradiation. Finally, the decontamination of studied product was obtained by means its irradiation to 16.2 kGy

  2. Decontamination of concrete, with particular reference to flame scarfing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeling, W.; Boedeker, B.; Rose, K.; Schaller, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    When decommissioned nuclear power stations are demolished, the contaminated surface layers must be removed, if it is not intended to dismantle and store the entire structure. The economies of this operation are important since the contaminated areas can be very large. The aim of this report is to give an outline of existing methods of concrete decontamination. Both stripping and non-stripping methods are described, though the latter are relatively unimportant for the purposes of demolition. Particular reference is made to flame scarfing, which has been tested by Salzgitter AG/Noell as part of the Community research programme 'Decommissioning of nuclear power plants'. The effectiveness of flame scarfing as a method of decontaminating concrete has been established by tests at the decommissioned nuclear power plant Gundremmingen KRB-A. (author)

  3. Decontamination of a plutonium laboratory after a contamination accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francioni, W.M.; Haenni, F.

    1985-02-01

    On the 24th May 1983, a minor explosion occured in a glovebox at the hotlaboratories of the Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Re-search (EIR). The incident occured during the evaporation of waste slurries associated with the Institute's mixed carbide fuel programme. It resulted in a breaching of the glovebox seals and in heavy contamination of the laboratory housing the box. In this report the problems of decontaminating the laboratory concerned are presented, especially those problems associated with re-contamination during the cleanup process. The experience gained from the decontamination exercise are discussed and details of the costs and resulting quantities of radwaste are also presented. The most important information concerning the incident are also related. (author)

  4. Testing of a portable ultrahigh pressure water decontamination system (UHPWDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovell, A.; Dahlby, J.

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the tests done with a portable ultrahigh pressure water decontamination system (UHPWDS) on highly radioactively contaminated surfaces. A small unit was purchased, modified, and used for in-situ decontamination to change the waste level of the contaminated box from transuranic (TRU) waste to low- level waste (LLW). Low-level waste is less costly by as much as a factor of five or more if compared with TRU waste when handling, storage, and disposal are considered. The portable unit we tested is commercially available and requires minimal utilities for operation. We describe the UHPWDS unit itself, a procedure for its use, the results of the testing we did, and conclusions including positive and negative aspects of the UHPWDS

  5. Decontamination analysis of the NUWAX-83 accident site using DECON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawil, J.J.

    1983-11-01

    This report presents an analysis of the site restoration options for the NUWAX-83 site, at which an exercise was conducted involving a simulated nuclear weapons accident. This analysis was performed using a computer program deveoped by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The computer program, called DECON, was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are used in this report demonstrate its potential usefulness as a site restoration planning tool. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: (1) employing a Quick-Vac option, under which selected surfaces are vacuumed before they can be rained on; (2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; (3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; (4) requiring specific methods to be used on selected surfaces; (5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and (6) varying of the cleanup standards according to expected exposure to surface

  6. Decontamination and free release of reactor pond furniture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, S.P.; Sanders, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the Stage 1 decommissioning project for the Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR) at AEA Technology's Winfrith site in the UK, the 20 fuel racks in the fuel pond are to be removed. At Winfrith, considerable experience of waste disposal via the free release (below regulatory concern) route has been built up. Using a redundant rack, a trial was carried out to assess the technical and economic feasibility of the decontamination/free release route. An electrochemical process was employed. The trial successfully demonstrated technical feasibility, and an economic assessment concluded that the route can be justified financially. Therefore a decision was taken to dispose of all the racks by decontamination and free release. (Author)

  7. Decontamination and Decommissioning activities photobriefing book FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is dedicated to the safe and cost effective D{ampersand}D of surplus nuclear facilities. There is currently a backlog of more than 7,000 contaminated US Department of Energy facilities nationwide. Added to this are 110 licensed commercial nuclear power reactors operated by utilities learning to cope with deregulation and an aging infrastructure that supports the commercial nuclear power industry, as well as medical and other uses of radioactive materials. With this volume it becomes easy to understand the importance of addressing the unique issues and objectives associated with the D{ampersand}D of surplus nuclear facilities. This photobriefing book summarizes the decontamination and decommissioning projects and activities either completed or continuing at the ANL-E site during the year.

  8. The International Atomic Energy Agency's program on decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feraday, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA) is developing an integrated information base that will systematically cover the technical, regulatory, radiation protection, planning, and economic aspects related to the decontamination and decommissioning (D/D) of nuclear facilities. The object of this program is to assist member states in developing the required expertise, equipment, and programs so that they can decommission their nuclear facilities in a safe, timely, and cost-effective manner. In addition to providing information, the IAEA encourages research and provides technical assistance in the form of expert missions, equipment design and procurement, etc., to assist member states in implementing their D/D programs. The technology contained in some recent IAEA reports is reviewed, including the decontamination, segmentation, and demolition of concrete and steel; the recycle/reuse of components from decommissioning; and the reduction of occupational exposures in D/D and the regulatory process in decommissioning. The IAEA's future program is briefly reviewed

  9. Laser-based characterization and decontamination of contaminated facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, K.H.; Hunter, B.V.; Grace, J.E.; Pellin, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Leidich, H.F.; Kugler, T.R. [Lumonics Corp., Livonia, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This study examines the application of laser ablation to the characterization and decontamination of painted and unpainted concrete and metal surfaces that are typical of many facilities within the US Department of Energy complex. The utility of this promising technology is reviewed and the essential requirements for efficient ablation extracted. Recent data obtained on the ablation of painted steel surfaces and concrete are presented. The affects of beam irradiance, ablation speed and efficiency, and characteristics of the aerosol effluent are discussed. Characterization of the ablated components of the surface offers the ability of concurrent determination of the level of contamination. This concept can be applied online where the ablation endpoint can be determined. A conceptual system for the characterization and decontamination of surfaces is proposed.

  10. Development of chemical decontamination for low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Seigo; Omata, Kazuo; Obinata, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Yoshihiko; Kanamori, Osamu.

    1995-01-01

    During routine intermittent inspection and maintenance at nuclear power plants, a considerable quantity of low level radioactive waste is generated requiring release from the nuclear site or treating additionally. To decontaminate this waste for safe release from the nuclear power plant, the first step could be washing the waste in Methylene chloride, CH 2 Cl 2 , to remove most of the paint coating. However, CH 2 Cl 2 washing does not completely remove the paint coating from the waste, which in the next step is shot blasted with plastic bead media to loose and remove the remaining paint coating. Following in succession, in the third step, the waste is washed in a chelate solution, after which most waste is decontaminated and suitable to be released for recycling. The residual chelate solution may be decomposed into nontoxic carbon dioxide and water by an electrolysis process and then safely discharged into the environment. (author)

  11. Decontamination method and device for radiation contaminated product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Kenji; Ohinata, Hiroshi; Omata, Kazuo; Sato, Toshihiko; Nakajima, Yoshihiko; Ichikawa, Seigo.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, radiation contaminated products generated during shot peening are decontaminated by a chelating agent, and the chelating agent is removed from the radiation contaminated products. Then the temperature of the radiation contaminated products is elevated by hot blowing at a temperature higher than a boiling point of the solvent. Then, a solvent is added to the radiation contaminated products and the solvent is evaporated abruptly. The solution of the chelating agent remained while being deposited thereto is removed by evaporation to remove it from the radiation contaminated products together with the solvent. With such procedures, all of the decontamination steps can be completed in one device without requiring a large space or not moving the radiation contaminated products on every step. (T.M.)

  12. Decontamination and decommissioning of small-bore pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackmann, E.K.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to aggressively decontaminate to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) free-release limits, verify the effectiveness, and prove releasability of contaminated piping systems are tasks that became a major concern for Westinghouse during the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) decommissioning project. The problem is especially acute for small-bore piping systems [2.5- to 7.6-cm (1- to 3-in.) diameter] with multiple elbows. Westinghouse, and its wholly owned subsidiary, Scientific Ecology Group, being one of the two primary contractors for decommissioning the FSV nuclear generating station [330-MW(electric) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, operated from 1979 to 1989], encountered this problem and developed equipment and methodologies to successfully decontaminate, survey, and decommission this piping

  13. Biofilm mediated decontamination of pollutants from the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we highlight beneficial use of microbial biofilms in remediation of environmental pollutants by bioremediation. Bioremediation is an environment friendly, cost effective, sustainable technology that utilizes microbes to decontaminate and degrade a wide variety of pollutants into less harmful products. Relative to free-floating planktonic cells, microbes existing in biofilm mode are advantageous for bioremediation because of greater tolerance to pollutants, environmental stress and ability to degrade varied harsh pollutants via diverse catabolic pathways. In biofilm mode, microbes are immobilized in a self-synthesized matrix which offers protection from stress, contaminants and predatory protozoa. Contaminants ranging from heavy metals, petroleum, explosives, pesticides have been remediated using microbial consortia of biofilms. In the industry, biofilm based bioremediation is used to decontaminate polluted soil and groundwater. Here we discuss conventional and newer strategies utilizing biofilms in environmental remediation.

  14. Physico-Chemical Dynamics of Nanoparticle Formation during Laser Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, M.D.

    2005-06-01

    Laser-ablation based decontamination is a new and effective approach for simultaneous removal and characterization of contaminants from surfaces (e.g., building interior and exterior walls, ground floors, etc.). The scientific objectives of this research are to: (1) characterize particulate matter generated during the laser-ablation based decontamination, (2) develop a technique for simultaneous cleaning and spectroscopic verification, and (3) develop an empirical model for predicting particle generation for the size range from 10 nm to tens of micrometers. This research project provides fundamental data obtained through a systematic study on the particle generation mechanism, and also provides a working model for prediction of particle generation such that an effective operational strategy can be devised to facilitate worker protection.

  15. Decontamination of Radionuclides from Concrete During and After Thermal Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazant, Z.P.

    1998-01-01

    The objective was to clarify from the theoretical viewpoint the mechanical, diffusional, thermodynamic and electromagnetic aspects of the decontaminations problem, by means of developing a powerful computational model to evaluate the effect of a very rapid heating regime on the on the contaminated concrete walls or slabs. The practical objective was to assess the feasibility of the microwave heating scheme envisaged and determine its suitable parameters such as power and duration. This objective was complementary to, but separate from, the chemical and nuclear aspects of long-time processes that led to the contamination and various conceivable alternative methods of decontamination which were investigated by Dr. Brian Spalding of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with whom the start-up phase of this project was coordinated

  16. Melt-decontamination method for radioactive metal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Hisao; Izumida, Tatsuo; Kondo, Yasuo; Fujii, Norihisa; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki.

    1997-01-01

    When metals contaminated by radioactive materials are melted by heating with addition of slugs, the weight ratio of basic slugs to acidic slugs constituting the molten slugs is controlled to from 0.5 to 0.3, and the transfer of radioactive materials in the molten metals to the slug phase is promoted. Then, Co, Ni and/or Cr as radioactive materials are removed. The temperature of the molten metals is controlled to higher than the melting point of the metals and lower than the decomposition point of oxides of the radioactive materials. With such procedures, not only Co but also a plurality of nuclides to be removed from the radioactive metal wastes can be decontaminated simultaneously, the operation is simplified and the amount of secondary wastes upon decontamination can be reduced. (T.M.)

  17. Laser-based characterization and decontamination of contaminated facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, K.H.; Hunter, B.V.; Grace, J.E.; Pellin, M.J.; Leidich, H.F.; Kugler, T.R.

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the application of laser ablation to the characterization and decontamination of painted and unpainted concrete and metal surfaces that are typical of many facilities within the US Department of Energy complex. The utility of this promising technology is reviewed and the essential requirements for efficient ablation extracted. Recent data obtained on the ablation of painted steel surfaces and concrete are presented. The affects of beam irradiance, ablation speed and efficiency, and characteristics of the aerosol effluent are discussed. Characterization of the ablated components of the surface offers the ability of concurrent determination of the level of contamination. This concept can be applied online where the ablation endpoint can be determined. A conceptual system for the characterization and decontamination of surfaces is proposed

  18. Low concentration NP preoxidation condition for PWR decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Fuduan; Yu Degui; Lu Jingju; Ding Dejun; Zhao Yukun

    1991-02-01

    To use preoxidation condition with low concentration NP (nitric acid permanganate) instead of conventional high concentration AP (alkline permanganate ) for PWR oxidation decontamination (POD) was summarized. Experiments including three parts have been performed. The defilming performance and decontamination factor of preoxidation with low concentration NP, which is 100, 10 times lower than that of AP are better than that with high concentration AP. The reason has been studied with the aid of prefilmed specimens of corrosion potential measuring in NP solution and chromium release in NP and AP solutions. The behaviour of alloy 13 prefilmed specimen in NP preoxidation solution is different from 18-8 ss and Incoloy 800. In the low acidity, the corrosion potential moves toward positive direction as the acidity becomes high

  19. Decontamination techniques using liquid/supercritical CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K. H.; Kim, H. D.; Kim, H. W.; Ko, M. S.; Yoon, C. H.

    2003-01-01

    A major problem of nuclear energy is the production of radioactive wastes. Need for more environmentally favorable method to decontaminate radioactive contaminants make the use of liquid/supercritical CO 2 as a solvent medium. In removing radioactive metallic contaminants under CO 2 solvent, two methods - use of chelating ligands and that of water in CO 2 emulsion- are possible. In the chelating ligand method, a combination of ligands that can make synergistic effects seems important. We discuss about the properties of microemulsion formed by F-AOT and that by non-ionic surfactant. By adding acid in water core, decontamination of metallic parts, soils were possible. The rate of metal surface dissolution to the microemulsion solution was measured by QCM. The possibility of recovering the surfactants after use is also mentioned

  20. Uranium decontamination of common metals by smelting, a review (handbook)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mautz, E.W.; Briggs, G.G.; Shaw, W.E.; Cavendish, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    The published and unpublished literature relating to the smelting of common metals scrap contaminated with uranium-bearing compounds has been searched and reviewed. In general, standard smelting practice produces ingots having a low uranium content, particularly for ferrous, nickel, and copper metals or alloys. Aluminum recovered from uranium contaminated scrap shows some decontamination by smelting but the uranium content is not as low as for other metals. Due to the heterogeneous nature and origin of scrap metals contaminated with uranium, information is frequently missing as to the extent of the initial contamination and the degree of decontamination obtained. The uranium content of the final cast ingots is generally all that is available. Results are summarized below by the primary composition of the uranium contaminated scrap metal. (U.S.)