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Sample records for takeuchi approach eqn

  1. The Quotient Category of a Graded Morita-Takeuchi Context

    F. CASTA(N)O IGLESIAS; C. N(A)ST(A)SESCU

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a graded equivalence between the quotient categories defined by any graded Morita Takeuchi context via certain modifications of the graded cotensor functors. As a consequence, we show a commutative diagram that establish the relation between the closed objects of the categories grC and MC, where C is a graded coalgebra.

  2. The Education of a Librarian and Educator: Professor Satoru Takeuchi of Japan

    Williams, Robert V.

    2015-01-01

    The early life and professional career of Dr. Satoru Takeuchi, a noted Japanese librarian, educator, and author, are explored here within the context of Japanese library education since World War II. Professor Takeuchi, now retired from the University of Library and Information Science (ULIS) in Tsukuba, Japan, has been an influential educator,…

  3. Existential participation in Reality and the Ontodialogical focus - exemplified with Heidegger's, Takeuchi's and Corbin's interpretation of existence and death

    Garsdal, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    it means to be human. I will try to illustrate this by presenting three different "gnostic" existential interpretations of death, namely Heidegger's idea of existence (or Dasein) as being-to-death, Tanabe/Takeuchi's Buddhist-inspired idea of existence as being neither-dead-nor-alive, and Henry Corbin...

  4. Studies on the Asian sawflies of Formosempria Takeuchi (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, with notes on the suitability of F. varipes Takeuchi as a biological control agent for skunk vine, Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae in Florida

    David Smith

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Formosempria Takeuchi, 1929, is distributed in southeastern Asia from Taiwan and China to Vietnam, Myanmar, and possibly northern India. Three species are included: F. crassicornis Wei & Nie, 2002, F. shanensis Malaise, 1961, and F. varipes Takeuchi, 1929 (= F. annamensis Malaise, 1961, syn. n.; = F. metallica Wei, 2003, syn. n.. Formosempria varipes was reared from larvae feeding on Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae in Hong Kong and was a potential biological agent for the invasive P. foetida in Florida. Larval feeding tests indicate more than one species of Paederia are suitable hosts for F. varipes and further study for use as a biological control agent in Florida is unwarranted. Descriptions and illustration of the species are given, and life history notes on F. varipes are presented.

  5. MODELO SECI E “BA” DE NONAKA E TAKEUCHI APLICADO À AREA DE CONTROLADORIA

    Sergio de Miranda Simãozinho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos atuais sobre gestão do conhecimento estão mais focados nos profissionais e departamentos que desenvolvem produtos e serviços. Para tentar preencher a lacuna nas pesquisas, investigamos a gestão do conhecimento com 138 profissionais do departamento de Controladoria atuantes em um grupo brasileiro de comunicação, especificamente a responder qual é a validade empírica do Modelo SECI e Ba de Nonaka e Takeuchi para explicar a forma como os profissionais da área de Controladoria adquirem e compartilham conhecimento. Para isso, utilizamos uma análise fatorial confirmatória a qual validou estatisticamente a escala desenvolvida para medir as diferentes etapas do modelo SECI e também uma análise de correlação entre este modelo e os diferentes tipos de Ba. Também utilizamos a pesquisa qualitativa, onde os resultados do survey foram discutidos com seis profissionais de forma a obter maiores explicações sobre os resultados. Os principais resultados indicam que o aprendizado formal tem menor importância e o “aprender fazendo” é uma das principais formas de aquisição de conhecimento, e a interação com colegas na rotina do trabalho possui grande relevância na aquisição e compartilhamento de conhecimentos. Por outro lado, o contexto virtual não se mostrou tão eficaz. O estudo inova por validar uma escala do modelo SECI e Ba aplicável a área de controladoria, além de combinar método quantitativo com qualitativo

  6. Filosofia e Gestão do Conhecimento: um estudo do conhecimento na perspectiva de Nonaka e Takeuchi

    Luiz Tatto

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo apresenta um estudo sobre a relação entre a filosofia, o conhecimento e a gestão, segundo a concepção de Nonaka e Takeuchi reflete sua relevância para o desenvolvimento do saber pensar e fazer no contexto das organizações. Também estuda as origens históricas da gestão, reconhecendo os pressupostos assumidos pelo conhecimento. O procedimento metodológico partiu da necessidade de examinar os conceitos de conhecimento presentes na filosofia e na gestão do conhecimento, privilegiando os estudos realizados por Nonaka e Takeuchi e identificando suas diferenças e semelhanças. O estudo indicou que a concepção do conhecimento presente na gestão do conhecimento surgiu da filosofia e nas organizações, assumindo um conceito resultante das experiências particulares e das práticas cotidianas nas organizações.

  7. Análise da técnica de takeuchi usada para o tratamento da origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar Analysis of the takeuchi procedure for the treatment of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery

    Andrea Weirich Lenzi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Avaliação dos casos de origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar operados com a técnica de Takeuchi, analisando o resultado cirúrgico imediato e tardio e a morbidade destes pacientes. OBJETIVO: Relato uma série de casos de origem anômala da artéria coronária esquerda do tronco pulmonar operados com a técnica de Takeuchi. Métodos: Realizou-se a análise com coleta de dados dos prontuários de doze pacientes submetidos à correção cirúrgica no período de 1981 a 2003. RESULTADOS: A idade média dos pacientes foi de 5,9 ± 1,7 meses. A clínica preponderante foi insuficiência cardíaca, principalmente nos lactentes. O eletrocardiograma inicial em dez casos mostrou onda Q em DI e aVL e sinais de isquemia miocárdica. No ecocardiograma, observaram-se padrão de miocardiopatia dilatada em seis pacientes e insuficiência mitral. A idade média da correção cirúrgica foi de 31,8 ± 14,3 meses. A mortalidade cirúrgica imediata foi de 16% (dois pacientes por disfunção cardíaca. No acompanhamento ambulatorial, houve a melhora da sintomatologia e das alterações isquêmicas no eletrocardiograma, retorno da função cardíaca e melhora da insuficiência mitral. Durante o acompanhamento, três casos evoluíram com estenose supravalvar pulmonar. CONCLUSÃO: A suspeita clínica dessa cardiopatia deve ser feita em todo lactente com insuficiência cardíaca. A correção cirúrgica com o emprego da técnica de Takeuchi se mostra eficaz, com baixo índice de mortalidade. Após a correção, há um retorno à normalidade da função cardíaca e a melhora da insuficiência mitral.BACKGROUND: Evaluation of a case series of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery corrected with the Takeuchi procedure, analyzing their immediate and late surgical outcomes as well as the related morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To report a case series of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the

  8. Una interpretación del concepto de gestión del conocimiento de Nonaka y Takeuchi usando la ficción literaria

    Rosalba Frías Navarro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como propósito presentar el rol de la ficción literaria -narrativa, metáfora y analogía- en contextos organizacionales tales como la investigación y la práctica de la gestión por medio de su uso para la interpretación del concepto de gestión de conocimiento planteado por Nonaka y Takeuchi (1995. Esta información es de utilidad para los investigadores, tanto de las ciencias sociales y de las ciencias humanas, como para los directivos o estrategas de las organizaciones, ya que se tiene la oportunidad de explorar el potencial de la ficción no solamente como una “forma de entretenimiento” sino como un medio de transferencia de conocimiento al interior de las organizaciones.

  9. Information-Based Approach to Unsupervised Machine Learning

    2013-06-19

    points can be predicted. A common assumption in supervised learning is that the training input points follow the same probability distribution as the...1995; Vapnik, 1998; Duda et al., 2001; Hastie et al., 2001; Schölkopf & Smola, 2002). However, this common assumption is not fulfilled, for example...regularization parameter λ) so that the generalization error is minimized (Akaike, 1970; Mallows , 1973; Akaike, 1974; Takeuchi, 1976; Schwarz, 1978; Rissanen

  10. Process Mechanism and Approach for Knowledge Transfer within R&D Unit%企业研发团队内部技术知识转移的过程机理与途径研究

    疏礼兵

    2012-01-01

    在有关知识转移过程机制的国内外研究基础上,着重从团队层面揭示了企业研发团队内部技术知识转移的一般过程和内在机理,进而借用NONAKA等的模型思想,设计了研发团队内部技术知识转移的途径框架,解析知识转移的具体途径和方式,从研发团队内部技术知识转移视角为我国企业自主性技术创新绩效提升提供了几点思路.%The transfer of knowledge has become the key foundation to build competitive advantage for many organizations. Based on related literature review, this paper reveals the general process and inherent mechanism of technological knowledge transfer from the dimension of R&D unit. Then the framework of transfer ways within R&D unit is designed through using the model of Nonaka and Takeuchi to explain the specific approaches and means of technological knowledge transfer. Finally some ideas are provided for improvement of Chinese enterprises' independent innovation from the perspective of internal knowledge transfer performance of R&D unit.

  11. Experimental/Computational Approach to Accommodation Coefficients and its Application to Noble Gases on Aluminum Surface (Preprint)

    2009-02-03

    instead of nand Tc in Eqn. (9), onc can obtain the expression for the total radiometric force OIl the plate ( II ) Note that the contributions from the...that includes the force resulting; from the pressure difference between the hot and the cold sides of the vane, and ( ii ) the shear force on the...G. Koppenwallncr, D. Johannsmcicr, H. Klinkrad, M. Ivanov, A. Kashkovsky, "A rarefied aerodynamic modelling system for earth sateHites ( RAMSES )," Fmc

  12. Analysis of the relation between knowledge engineering and knowledge management based on the Nonaka and Takeuchi models

    Christian Reyes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Knowledge Management is fundamental in the creation of value within the companies, being at the present time a new form to obtain competitive advantages in specific market. Also, for the process of value creation is necessary to use specifics Information Technologies that they allow to reach the objectives drawn up when implementing a Knowledge Management project. In this sense, one of the more complete and efficient Information Technologies is the Knowledge Based System that as well comprises of the Knowledge Engineering. This article tries to analyze the existing relation between Knowledge Management, a specific model of knowledge creation, the Knowledge Based System and how this Information Technologies play a very important role in the creation, codification and transference of knowledge.

  13. Capability approach

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    Lærebogen er den første samlede danske præsentation af den af Amartya Sen og Martha Nussbaum udviklede Capability Approach. Bogen indeholder en præsentation og diskussion af Sen og Nussbaums teoretiske platform. I bogen indgår eksempler fra såvel uddannelse/uddannelsespolitik, pædagogik og omsorg....

  14. Pedagogical approaches

    Lund Larsen, Lea

    in formal settings, but in most teaching settings, the teachers act alone and develop their pedagogical approaches/- teaching strategies with no synchronous sparring from a colleague. Adult learners have particular needs and characteristics that their teachers must be able to address (cf. Knowles...

  15. 关于H-模余代数的Morita-Takeuchi关系%On Morita-Takeuchi context of module H-coalgebras

    郑乃峰

    2005-01-01

    设H是Hopf代数,C是H-模余代数.首先利用余积分的概念,诱导C的右H-余模结构,再由此诱导C的左H0-模结构,令(-C)=C/Kerε∥0C,则建立了C×H×H0与C及C×H与-C间的Morita-Takeuchi关系.

  16. Complementary Health Approaches

    ... on some complementary approaches, such as acupuncture and yoga, but there have been fewer studies on other approaches, so much less is known about them. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is sponsoring research to learn more about ...

  17. Evaluating six soft approaches

    Lene Sørensen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

  18. The sustainable livelihoods approach

    Oelofse, Myles; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2008-01-01

    food chain has on producers and their families, an analysis was conducted of the use of the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA). The SLA provides a holistic and integrative approach which researchers can use as the overriding frame for their research. The application of the approach is recommended...... as it enables us to maintain important elements of the sustainability vision, yet emphasises that a number of assets influence farmers' livelihoods and it maintains the focus on salience, legitimacy, and credibility in the research....

  19. Intradural anterior transpetrosal approach.

    Ichimura, Shinya; Hori, Satoshi; Hecht, Nils; Czabanka, Marcus; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The standard anterior transpetrosal approach (ATPA) for petroclival lesions is fundamentally an epidural approach and has been practiced for many decades quite successfully. However, this approach has some disadvantages, such as epidural venous bleeding around foramen ovale. We describe here our experience with a modified technique for anterior petrosectomy via an intradural approach that overcomes these disadvantages. Five patients with petroclival lesions underwent surgery via the intradural ATPA. The intraoperative hallmarks are detailed, and surgical results are reported. Total removal of the lesions was achieved in two patients with petroclival meningioma and two patients with pontine cavernoma, whereas subtotal removal was achieved in one patient with petroclival meningioma without significant morbidity. No patient experienced cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The intradural approach is allowed to tailor the extent of anterior petrosectomy to the individually required exposure, and the surgical procedure appeared to be more straightforward than via the epidural route. Caveats encountered with the approach were the temporal basal veins that could be spared as well as identification of the petrous apex due to the lack of familial epidural landmarks. The risk of injury to the temporal bridging veins is higher in this approach than in the epidural approach. Intradural approach is recommended in patients with a large epidural venous route, such as sphenobasal and sphenopetrosal vein. Navigation via bone-window computed tomography is useful to identify the petrous apex.

  20. Evaluating six soft approaches

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  1. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  2. A Comparison on the Audiolingual Approach and the Communicative Approach

    代海娜

    2015-01-01

    Audiolingual approach and communicative approach are two important approaches in language teaching.In this paper,some differences and both advantages and diadvantages will be discussed.Thus,to conduct the important usage of approachs in language teaching.

  3. The TLC Approach.

    Welker, William A.

    2002-01-01

    Notes how the author has developed the Teaching and Learning Cues (TLC) approach, an offspring of textbook organizational patterns instruction that stresses the significance of certain words and phrases in reading. Concludes that with the TLC approach, students learn to appreciate the important role cue words and phrases play in understanding…

  4. Stuttering-Psycholinguistic Approach

    Hategan, Carolina Bodea; Anca, Maria; Prihoi, Lacramioara

    2012-01-01

    This research promotes psycholinguistic paradigm, it focusing in delimitating several specific particularities in stuttering pathology. Structural approach, on language sides proves both the recurrent aspects found within specialized national and international literature and the psycholinguistic approaches dependence on the features of the…

  5. Approaches to understand culture

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Rauner, Felix

    1996-01-01

    Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed.......Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed....

  6. Articulating Design Approaches?

    Kensing, Finn; Bødker, Keld; Simonsen, Jesper

    We are working on an approach for designing CSCW systems since we advocate the importance of generalizing from own work practice as designers and from studies of designers working under industrial conditions. We use the term approach as something in between commodified methods and isolated techni...

  7. Modular Approach for Ethics

    Wyne, Mudasser F.

    2010-01-01

    It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

  8. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  9. The oblique S parameter in higgsless electroweak models

    Rosell, Ignasi

    2012-01-01

    We present a one-loop calculation of the oblique S parameter within Higgsless models of electroweak symmetry breaking. We have used a general effective Lagrangian with at most two derivatives, implementing the chiral symmetry breaking SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R -> SU(2)_{L+R} with Goldstones, gauge bosons and one multiplet of vector and axial-vector resonances. The estimation is based on the short-distance constraints and the dispersive approach proposed by Peskin and Takeuchi.

  10. Introducing Systems Approaches

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Systems Approaches to Managing Change brings together five systems approaches to managing complex issues, each having a proven track record of over 25 years. The five approaches are: System Dynamics (SD) developed originally in the late 1950s by Jay Forrester Viable Systems Model (VSM) developed originally in the late 1960s by Stafford Beer Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA: with cognitive mapping) developed originally in the 1970s by Colin Eden Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) developed originally in the 1970s by Peter Checkland Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) developed originally in the late 1970s by Werner Ulrich

  11. Otoplasty: A graduated approach.

    Foda, H M

    1999-01-01

    Numerous otoplastic techniques have been described for the correction of protruding ears. Technique selection in otoplasty should be done only after careful analysis of the abnormal anatomy responsible for the protruding ear deformity. A graduated surgical approach is presented which is designed to address all contributing factors to the presenting auricular deformity. The approach starts with the more conservative cartilage-sparing suturing techniques, then proceeds to incorporate other more aggressive cartilage weakening maneuvers. Applying this approach resulted in better long-term results with less postoperative lateralization than that encountered on using the cartilage-sparing techniques alone.

  12. Hormonal approach in Hirsutism

    Abdullah, Nusratuddin

    2015-01-01

    Hinsutism is a clinical sign that primarily indicate androgen excess and open caused hy relatively benign junctional conditions. Hirsutism requires a careful and systematic clinical evaluation coztoleal with a rational approach to treatment. Initiate therapy only in patients who give informed consent after a complete explanation of the potential benejits and risks of a particular treatment and alternative approaches. The goals ofthe correct management of hirsutism are to ame...

  13. The electronic approach VSCF

    Hladky, Mark

    The advantages of the high-power electronic approach to variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) systems are examined. It is shown, in particular, how the inherent flexibility of the VSCF approach allows it to be configured for different applications, contributing to the evolution towards the more electric aircraft. The discussion covers criteria for selection, aircraft electric power system architectures, power level, performance, reliability, and maintainability. The future trends of the VSCF converter technology are also briefly discussed.

  14. Sustainable fashion: New approaches

    Niinimäki, Kirsi

    2013-01-01

    This publication is intended to be used as a source of inspiration for designers and companies, and all stakeholders whose interest lies in the area of sustainable fashion. While the strategies for sustainability are complex and approaches are many, this publication presents only a few ways to approach sustainable fashion. I hope the publication offers inspiration on how to make positive change in current practices and how to effect new mindsets, creating transformative fashion. Theoretica...

  15. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

  16. Análisis de la relación entre la ingeniería del conocimiento y la gestión del conocimiento en base al modelo de Nonaka y Takeuchi

    2005-01-01

    La utilización de la Gestión del Conocimiento es fundamental en la creación de valor dentro de las empresas, siendo hoy por hoy una nueva forma de obtener ventajas competitivas en un mercado específico. Asimismo para el proceso de creación de valor es necesaria la utilización de Tecnologías de Información específicas, que permitan alcanzar los objetivos trazados al implementar un proyecto de Gestión del Conocimiento. En este sentido una de las Tecnologías de Información más completas ...

  17. Personal Approaches to Career Planning.

    DeMont, Billie; DeMont, Roger

    1983-01-01

    Identifies four approaches to career planning based on situational leadership theory: the network approach, self-help approach, engineering approach, and mentor approach. Guidelines for the selection of a planning method based on the nature of the work environment and personal preference are discussed. (JAC)

  18. Approaching a Postcolonial Arctic

    Jensen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This article explores different postcolonially configured approaches to the Arctic. It begins by considering the Arctic as a region, an entity, and how the customary political science informed approaches are delimited by their focus on understanding the Arctic as a region at the service...... of the contemporary neoliberal order. It moves on to explore how different parts of the Arctic are inscribed in a number of sub-Arctic nation-state binds, focusing mainly on Canada and Denmark. The article argues that the postcolonial can be understood as a prism or a methodology that asks pivotal questions to all...... approaches to the Arctic. Yet the postcolonial itself is characterised by limitations, not least in this context its lack of interest in the Arctic, and its bias towards conventional forms of representation in art. The article points to the need to develop a more integrated critique of colonial and neo...

  19. Approaches to Methadone Treatment

    Järvinen, Margaretha

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyses methadone treatment in Copenhagen – as it is described by methadone users and staff at different outpatient centres. The starting point is a theoretical model distinguishing between two different approaches to methadone treatment: ‘palliative’ and ‘curative’. Included...... in the model are three dimensions (1) treatment goals at the methadone centres (abstinence vs. stabilisation) (2) treatment focus (focus on addiction vs. focus on the consequences of addiction) and (3) conceptualisation of methadone (methadone as similar to or different from heroin). The paper shows...... that there is a discrepancy between the attitudes of the staff and those of the users. While the staff favour an almost clear-cut palliative approach to methadone treatment, defining curative goals as both unrealistic and as belonging to the past, the users prefer an approach that does not exclude the goal of abstinence...

  20. Life History Approach

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2015-01-01

    as in everyday life. Life histories represent lived lives past, present and anticipated future. As such they are interpretations of individuals’ experiences of the way in which societal dynamics take place in the individual body and mind, either by the individual him/herself or by another biographer. The Life...... History approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy...... of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main theoretical understandings of language, body and mind. My article will present the reflections on the use of life history based methodology in learning and education research as a kind of learning story of research work....

  1. Technical approach document

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  2. Radiolab - three different approaches

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2012-01-01

    different scholarly approaches to sound studies. The object was selected by Torben Sangild, who was familiar with the chosen context: the signature of the US radio programme and podcast Radiolab. The two other participants did not know the context and chose to analyse the sound object without further...... object with a global audience, taken from one of the most popular podcasts worldwide, accessible on the internet. Finally, it is a piece of functional sound design, rather than a work of art, which raises the question of context more clearly. The result is three rather different approaches: 1) a process...

  3. Financial Management: An Organic Approach

    Laux, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Although textbooks present corporate finance using a topical approach, good financial management requires an organic approach that integrates the various assignments financial managers confront every day. Breaking the tasks into meaningful subcategories, the current article offers one approach.

  4. Marxian Approaches to Education.

    Carnoy, Martin

    Traditional Marxist approaches to the state relegate superstructural institutions like the school to a minor role in the process of social change. More recent theories like those of Gramsci, Althusser, and Poulantzas raise the state and the class struggle in the state apparatuses to a much more prominent position: superstructure, including the…

  5. Islamic approach in counseling.

    Hanin Hamjah, Salasiah; Mat Akhir, Noor Shakirah

    2014-02-01

    A religious approach is one of the matters emphasized in counseling today. Many researchers find that there is a need to apply the religious element in counseling because religion is important in a client's life. The purpose of this research is to identify aspects of the Islamic approach applied in counseling clients by counselors at Pusat Kaunseling Majlis Agama Islam Negeri Sembilan (PKMAINS). In addition, this research also analyses the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS with reference to al-Quran and al-Sunnah. This is a qualitative research in the form of case study at PKMAINS. The main method used in this research is interview. The research instrument used is interview protocol. The respondents in this study include 9 counselors who serve in one of the counseling centers in Malaysia. This study also uses questionnaire as an additional instrument, distributed to 36 clients who receive counseling service at the center. The findings of the study show that the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS may be categorized into three main aspects: aqidah (faith), ibadah (worship/ultimate devotion and love for God) and akhlaq (moral conduct). Findings also show that the counseling in these aspects is in line with Islamic teachings as contained in al-Quran and al-Sunnah.

  6. Implementation of Communicative Approach

    Jabeen, Shazi Shah

    2014-01-01

    In the contemporary age of high professional requirements such as excellent communicative skills, the need for successful learning of communicative skills of English language suggests communicative ability to be the goal of language teaching. In other words, to teach English language using communicative approach becomes essential. Studies to…

  7. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  8. Adopting a Pluricentric Approach

    van Kerckvoorde, Colette

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for a "D-A-CH" approach, which stands for Germany (D), Austria (A), and Switzerland (CH), in language classes from the introductory level on. I begin by tracing the emergence and development of distinct Standard Swiss and Austrian German varieties. I then discuss marketing efforts for Swiss and Austrian German, and…

  9. Evaluating six soft approaches

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s inter...

  10. The Capability Approach

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2011-01-01

    textabstract In its most general description, the capability approach is a flexible and multi-purpose normative framework, rather than a precise theory of well-being, freedom or justice. At its core are two normative claims: first, the claim that the freedom to achieve well-being is of primary mora

  11. Approaches to acceptable risk

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  12. Domain Approach: An Alternative Approach in Moral Education

    Vengadasalam, Chander; Mamat, Wan Hasmah Wan; Mail, Fauziah; Sudramanian, Munimah

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the domain approach in moral education in an upper secondary school in Malaysia. Moral Education needs a creative and an innovative approach. Therefore, a few forms of approaches are used in the teaching-learning of Moral Education. This research describes the use of domain approach which comprises the moral domain…

  13. Rail transport systems approach

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  14. A Personal Approach

    Kellyn Weir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the process of taking a personal approach to my son’s problems with computer games. As a psychology student, I should have been in a good position to explore the paradoxical emotions and this situation of conflict. Yet I was also aware that relating closely to the people we are studying has long been a taboo even in qualitative research. I nevertheless adopted a collaborative methodology in which I balanced a dual role of parent and researcher. Taking a personal approach, allowing intimate, reciprocal negotiation, I was not only able to put this taboo to the rare empirical test but also achieved an insight that would otherwise have not been available to me. By engaging in dialogue and encouraging the ability to object, a first-person plural (We, position was achieved in which an understanding of this situation developed and has transferred to our everyday lives.

  15. Sociocultural approach to textbook

    Pešić Jelena M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an overview of textbook research at the Institute of psychology, intended to postulate socio-cultural approach to textbook. Shifting the textbook from classical pedagogical-psychological context into the broader and more inspiring cultural context, has led to the conceptualization of textbook as a cultural-supportive system of individual development. We consider firstly, the theoretical background of this conception, founded in Vygotskian idea of cultural mediation of development and then, its operationalization through the concept of cultural-supportive tools. The transfer from theory to practice is presented through the most important practical implications, such as defining the genre specificities of textbook and principles of educational design of textbooks. As a distinctive issue, we also consider the way this approach to textbook (theoretical articulation, analytical concepts, and practical implications contributes to development of socio-cultural paradigm in psychology.

  16. Thermodynamics an engineering approach

    Cengel, Yunus A

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, eighth edition, covers the basic principles of thermodynamics while presenting a wealth of real-world engineering examples so students get a feel for how thermodynamics is applied in engineering practice. This text helps students develop an intuitive understanding by emphasizing the physics and physical arguments. Cengel and Boles explore the various facets of thermodynamics through careful explanations of concepts and use of numerous practical examples and figures, having students develop necessary skills to bridge the gap between knowledge and the confidence to properly apply their knowledge. McGraw-Hill is proud to offer Connect with the eighth edition of Cengel/Boles, Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach. This innovative and powerful new system helps your students learn more efficiently and gives you the ability to assign homework problems simply and easily. Problems are graded automatically, and the results are recorded immediately. Track individual stude...

  17. Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach

    Affinita, Antonio; Catalani, Loredana; Cecchetto, Giovanna; De Lorenzo, Gianfranco; Dilillo, Dario; Donegani, Giorgio; Fransos, Lucia; Lucidi, Fabio; Mameli, Chiara; Manna, Elisa; Marconi, Paolo; Mele, Giuseppe; Minestroni, Laura; Montanari, Massimo; Morcellini, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this...

  18. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    Foss, Nicolai

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...... apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment between knowledge transactions with diverse characteristics and governance structures and mechanisms...

  19. The Branding Management Approaches

    YAKOUBI; Mohamed Lamine

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract]We wil try to present,through the display of the various branding concepts and theories, the different branding management approaches.This wil present the different visions of the discipline depending on the author to try and demonstrate their differences,at first, and their complementarities at last to help the different branding management practitioners (brand managers,marketing managers,advertisers,media-planners……) apprehend the right brand positioning strategy to engage.

  20. Towards a Tectonic Approach

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Mortensen, Sophie Bondgaard

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing environmental and legislative demands to reduce energy consumption, not only new constructions but also the existing urban fabric is about to change radically in the coming decades. Existing buildings cannot simply be restored but must undergo a transformation to comply with ...... the building envelope as an aesthetic ‘gesture’, this paper discusses the architectural challenges related to energy renovation in a Danish context and tectonic design method as an approach to these challenges in everyday practice....

  1. APPROACHES FOR SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING

    G(U)NTHER Seliger; SEBASTIAN Kernbaum; MARCO Zettl

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable development is a holistic approach harmonizing ecological, economical and socio-political needs with respect to the superior objective of enhancing human living standards. Thereby the availability of natural resources and the conservation of the ecosystems have to be considered that future generations have the possibility to meet their own needs. A long-term economical development demands the transition from a source-sink economy to a cycle economy as a result of limited resources, limited environmental capacities to absorb waste and emissions as well as increasing needs of a growing population. A reference model for sustainability in manufacturing is presented and used to illustrate sustainable approaches with respect to management, technology, process and product. Adaptation of products and components is a vital element for supporting efficient reuse of products and components. Consequently adaptation contributes to the ambitious goals of sustainability. Technological enablers for adaptation as modularity, information and communication technology are exemplarily introduced. Moreover, approaches for disseminating knowledge in sustainability are given.

  2. Multivariate Bioclimatic Ecosystem Change Approaches

    2015-02-06

    conclude that an analogous patch did not exist. It must exist somewhere, but some of the other MVA techniques were restricted by the mathematical ...found that the Primarily Analogous Multivariate approach developed during this research clearly distinguished itself from the other five approaches in...Principally Analogous Multivariate (PAM) approach ............................................... 29 4.6.1 Introduction to the PAM approach

  3. [Approaches to radial shaft].

    Bartoníček, J; Naňka, O; Tuček, M

    2015-10-01

    In the clinical practice, radial shaft may be exposed via two approaches, namely the posterolateral Thompson and volar (anterior) Henry approaches. A feared complication of both of them is the injury to the deep branch of the radial nerve. No consensus has been reached, yet, as to which of the two approaches is more beneficial for the proximal half of radius. According to our anatomical studies and clinical experience, Thompson approach is safe only in fractures of the middle and distal thirds of the radial shaft, but highly risky in fractures of its proximal third. Henry approach may be used in any fracture of the radial shaft and provides a safe exposure of the entire lateral and anterior surfaces of the radius.The Henry approach has three phases. In the first phase, incision is made along the line connecting the biceps brachii tendon and the styloid process of radius. Care must be taken not to damage the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm.In the second phase, fascia is incised and the brachioradialis identified by the typical transition from the muscle belly to tendon and the shape of the tendon. On the lateral side, the brachioradialis lines the space with the radial artery and veins and the superficial branch of the radial nerve running at its bottom. On the medial side, the space is defined by the pronator teres in the proximal part and the flexor carpi radialis in the distal part. The superficial branch of the radial nerve is retracted together with the brachioradialis laterally, and the radial artery medially.In the third phase, the attachment of the pronator teres is identified by its typical tendon in the middle of convexity of the lateral surface of the radial shaft. The proximal half of the radius must be exposed very carefully in order not to damage the deep branch of the radial nerve. Dissection starts at the insertion of the pronator teres and proceeds proximally along its lateral border in interval between this muscle and insertion of the supinator

  4. Peritonitis: laparoscopic approach

    Agresta Ferdinando

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopy has became as the preferred surgical approach to a number of different diseases because it allows a correct diagnosis and treatment at the same time. In abdominal emergencies, both components of treatment – exploration to identify the causative pathology and performance of an appropriate operation – can often be accomplished via laparoscopy. There is still a debate of peritonitis as a contraindication to this kind of approach. Aim of the present work is to illustrate retrospectively the results of a case-control experience of laparoscopic vs. open surgery for abdominal peritonitis emergencies carried out at our institution. Methods From January 1992 and January 2002 a total of 935 patients (mean age 42.3 ± 17.2 years underwent emergent and/or urgent surgery. Among them, 602 (64.3% were operated on laparoscopically (of whom 112 -18.7% – with peritonitis, according to the presence of a surgical team trained in laparoscopy. Patients with a history of malignancy, more than two previous major abdominal surgeries or massive bowel distension were not treated Laparoscopically. Peritonitis was not considered contraindication to Laparoscopy. Results The conversion rate was 23.2% in patients with peritonitis and was mainly due to the presence of dense intra-abdominal adhesions. Major complications ranged as high as 5.3% with a postoperative mortality of 1.7%. A definitive diagnosis was accomplished in 85.7% (96 pat. of cases, and 90.6% (87 of these patients were treated successfully by Laparoscopy. Conclusion Even if limited by its retrospective feature, the present experience let us to consider the Laparoscopic approach to abdominal peritonitis emergencies a safe and effective as conventional surgery, with a higher diagnostic yield and allows for lesser trauma and a more rapid postoperative recovery. Such features make Laparoscopy a challenging alternative to open surgery in the management algorithm for abdominal

  5. Mitochondrial diseases: therapeutic approaches.

    DiMauro, Salvatore; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2007-06-01

    Therapy of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is woefully inadequate, despite great progress in our understanding of the molecular bases of these disorders. In this review, we consider sequentially several different therapeutic approaches. Palliative therapy is dictated by good medical practice and includes anticonvulsant medication, control of endocrine dysfunction, and surgical procedures. Removal of noxious metabolites is centered on combating lactic acidosis, but extends to other metabolites. Attempts to bypass blocks in the respiratory chain by administration of electron acceptors have not been successful, but this may be amenable to genetic engineering. Administration of metabolites and cofactors is the mainstay of real-life therapy and is especially important in disorders due to primary deficiencies of specific compounds, such as carnitine or coenzyme Q10. There is increasing interest in the administration of reactive oxygen species scavengers both in primary mitochondrial diseases and in neurodegenerative diseases directly or indirectly related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Aerobic exercise and physical therapy prevent or correct deconditioning and improve exercise tolerance in patients with mitochondrial myopathies due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Gene therapy is a challenge because of polyplasmy and heteroplasmy, but interesting experimental approaches are being pursued and include, for example, decreasing the ratio of mutant to wild-type mitochondrial genomes (gene shifting), converting mutated mtDNA genes into normal nuclear DNA genes (allotopic expression), importing cognate genes from other species, or correcting mtDNA mutations with specific restriction endonucleases. Germline therapy raises ethical problems but is being considered for prevention of maternal transmission of mtDNA mutations. Preventive therapy through genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis is

  6. Experimental approaches and applications

    Crasemann, Bernd

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  7. The collaboratory approach

    Peskin, A.M.

    1997-04-01

    A {open_quotes}collaboratory{close_quotes} has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students.

  8. [Regenerative approach for COPD].

    Kubo, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    No treatment to cure of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is available. Regenerative medicine is one of promising areas for this intractable disease. Several reagents and growth factors are known to promote lung regeneration in small animal models. However, regenerative medicines for human lungs are not achieved yet. Recent advances in stem cell biology and tissue engineering have expanded our understanding of lung endogenous stem cells, and this new knowledge provides us with new ideas for future regenerative therapy for lung diseases. Although lungs are the most challenging organ for regenerative medicine, our cumulative knowledge of lung regeneration and of endogenous progenitor cells makes clear the possibilities for regenerative approach to COPD.

  9. Approaching Service Innovation Patterns

    Andrea NAGY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analyzing the types of innovation in the field of services. First, the concept of innovation is defined and second, field literature is reviewed from the perspective of service innovation. The main types of innovation are identified based on several attempts at defining innovation, the most notable being Schumpeter’s. Thus, it is possible to approach concepts such as product and process innovation, incremental and radical innovation. Another aim has been to regard service innovation as a standout type of innovation.

  10. URBAN POLITICS: KEY APPROACHES

    Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities

  11. Papilledema. An updated approach.

    Yaney González Yglesias

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The term papilledema refers to the edema that appears in the optic papilla after intracranial hypertension. Some of its most frequent causes are intracranial lesions, hydrocephaly, thrombosis venous sinus and meningitis. The increase of intracranial tension is related with the results of the eye´s fundus examination, which are classified differently: incipient, established, chronic, and atrophic, depending on its severity or development. It is indispensable to carry out imaging tests before performing lumbar puncture. This article is an approach to the diagnosis and treatment of this gnoseological entity.

  12. [Cystic pyeloureteritis. Our approach].

    Castillo Jimeno, J M; González de Garibay, A S; Ruiz Rubio, J L; Sebastián Borruel, J L

    1992-05-01

    We report a case of massive cystic pyeloureteritis that had been diagnosed by ureterorenoscopy in a patient with recurrent urinary infection and episodes of nephritic colic. The reports published in the literature indicate there is no specific treatment for this disease whose etiology is unknown. Its pathogenesis has not been well-established and it is difficult to distinguish from other urothelial filling defects. Although it has also been reported that it may progress to malignancy, we believe that the therapeutic approach should be conservative.

  13. Revitalizing the setting approach

    Bloch, Paul; Toft, Ulla; Reinbach, Helene Christine

    2014-01-01

    -based. Based on a presentation of ¿Health and Local Community¿, a supersetting initiative addressing the prevention of lifestyle diseases in a Danish municipality, the paper discusses the potentials and challenges of supporting local community interventions using the supersetting approach......BackgroundThe concept of health promotion rests on aspirations aiming at enabling people to increase control over and improve their health. Health promotion action is facilitated in settings such as schools, homes and work places. As a contribution to the promotion of healthy lifestyles, we have...

  14. Diagnostic approaches for cholangiocarcinoma

    2008-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinomas arise from the epithelial cells of the bile ducts and are associated with poor prognosis. Despite new diagnostic approaches, the definite diagnosis of this malignancy continues to be challenging. Cholangiocarcinomas often grow longitudinally along the bile duct rather than in a radial direction. Thus, large tumor masses are frequently absent and imaging techniques, including ultrasound, CT, and MRI have only limited sensitivity. Tissue collection during endoscopic (ERCP) and/or percutaneous transhepatic (PTC) procedures are usually used to confirm a definitive diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. However, forceps biopsy and brush cytology provide positive results for malignancy in about only 50% of patients. Percutaneous and peroral cholangioscopy using fiber-optic techniques were therefore developed for direct visualization of the biliary tree, yielding additional information about endoscopic appearance and tumor extension, as well as a guided biopsy acquistion. Finally, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) complements endoscopic and percutaneous approaches and may provide a tissue diagnosis of tumors in the biliary region through fine- needle aspiration. In the future, new techniques allowing for early detection, including molecular markers, should be developed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity in this increasing tumor entity.

  15. Interstage Flammability Analysis Approach

    Little, Jeffrey K.; Eppard, William M.

    2011-01-01

    The Interstage of the Ares I launch platform houses several key components which are on standby during First Stage operation: the Reaction Control System (ReCS), the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) and the J-2X with the Main Propulsion System (MPS) propellant feed system. Therefore potentially dangerous leaks of propellants could develop. The Interstage leaks analysis addresses the concerns of localized mixing of hydrogen and oxygen gases to produce deflagration zones in the Interstage of the Ares I launch vehicle during First Stage operation. This report details the approach taken to accomplish the analysis. Specified leakage profiles and actual flammability results are not presented due to proprietary and security restrictions. The interior volume formed by the Interstage walls, bounding interfaces with the Upper and First Stages, and surrounding the J2-X engine was modeled using Loci-CHEM to assess the potential for flammable gas mixtures to develop during First Stage operations. The transient analysis included a derived flammability indicator based on mixture ratios to maintain achievable simulation times. Validation of results was based on a comparison to Interstage pressure profiles outlined in prior NASA studies. The approach proved useful in the bounding of flammability risk in supporting program hazard reviews.

  16. Approaches for Stereo Matching

    Takouhi Ozanian

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the last decade's development of the computational stereopsis for recovering three-dimensional information. The main components of the stereo analysis are exposed: image acquisition and camera modeling, feature selection, feature matching and disparity interpretation. A brief survey is given of the well known feature selection approaches and the estimation parameters for this selection are mentioned. The difficulties in identifying correspondent locations in the two images are explained. Methods as to how effectively to constrain the search for correct solution of the correspondence problem are discussed, as are strategies for the whole matching process. Reasons for the occurrence of matching errors are considered. Some recently proposed approaches, employing new ideas in the modeling of stereo matching in terms of energy minimization, are described. Acknowledging the importance of computation time for real-time applications, special attention is paid to parallelism as a way to achieve the required level of performance. The development of trinocular stereo analysis as an alternative to the conventional binocular one, is described. Finally a classification based on the test images for verification of the stereo matching algorithms, is supplied.

  17. Modular Approach to Spintronics.

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Ganguly, Samiran; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-06-11

    There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiment we establish a set of elemental modules representing diverse materials and phenomena. These elemental modules can be integrated seamlessly to model composite devices involving both spintronic and nanomagnetic phenomena. We envision the library of modules to evolve both by incorporating new modules and by improving existing modules as the field progresses. The primary contribution of this paper is to establish the ground rules or protocols for a modular approach that can build a lasting bridge between materials scientists and circuit designers in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics.

  18. Advanced intelligence and mechanism approach

    ZHONG Yixin

    2007-01-01

    Advanced intelligence will feature the intelligence research in next 50 years.An understanding of the concept of advanced intelligence as well as its importance will be provided first,and detailed analysis on an approach,the mechanism approach.suitable to the advanced intelligence research will then be flolowed.And the mutual relationship among mechanism approach,traditional approaches existed in artificial intelligence research,and the cognitive informatics will be discussed.It is interesting to discover that mechanism approach is a good one to the Advanced Intelligence research and a tmified form of the existed approaches to artificial intelligence.

  19. The Point Approach and the Phrase Approach to Vocabulary Learning

    刘梦媛

    2013-01-01

      As is known to all, vocabulary acquisition plays an essential role in English learning. However, it was supposed very dif⁃ficult to many Chinese learners. For the reason that so many kinds of approaches exists in the real life, English learners are always do not know which one is suitable and more effective. To solve this problem, the paper will analyze two approaches (point approach and phrase approach) for you.

  20. Integration a functional approach

    Bichteler, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    This book covers Lebesgue integration and its generalizations from Daniell's point of view, modified by the use of seminorms. Integrating functions rather than measuring sets is posited as the main purpose of measure theory. From this point of view Lebesgue's integral can be had as a rather straightforward, even simplistic, extension of Riemann's integral; and its aims, definitions, and procedures can be motivated at an elementary level. The notion of measurability, for example, is suggested by Littlewood's observations rather than being conveyed authoritatively through definitions of (sigma)-algebras and good-cut-conditions, the latter of which are hard to justify and thus appear mysterious, even nettlesome, to the beginner. The approach taken provides the additional benefit of cutting the labor in half. The use of seminorms, ubiquitous in modern analysis, speeds things up even further. The book is intended for the reader who has some experience with proofs, a beginning graduate student for example. It might...

  1. Editorial: Approaching 125.

    Goodman, Sherryl

    2012-02-01

    With this issue, beginning Volume 121, the editorial team shifts from the strong leadership of David Watson to a team under my direction. Approaching 125 years of publication, the Journal of Abnormal Psychology has earned its place as the preeminent outlet for research in psychopathology. With gratitude to the newly assembled team of associate editors (AEs), consulting editors, and ad hoc reviewers, I look forward to guiding the journal through this next term. Nine well-respected scholars have agreed to serve as AEs: Timothy Brown, Laurie Chassin, Jeff Epstein, Jutta Joormann, Pamela Keel, Kate Keenan, Scott Lilienfeld, Angus MacDonald, and Michael Young. The new team is dedicated to working tirelessly to maintain and enhance the journal's esteemed tradition of excellence. Given the well-established strengths of the journal, I will not suggest any fundamental changes.

  2. Towards a Dual Approach

    Holli, Anne Maria; Harder, Mette Marie Stæhr

    2016-01-01

    countries acknowledged as forerunners in gender equality, which also have ‘fairly strong’ parliamentary standing committees. The results show that both committees on gender equality can be regarded as ‘feminist’ in character and both interact with relevant civil society organisations. Their impact......Drawing on insights from state feminism and legislative studies on parliamentary committees, this article develops a dual approach for the comparative analysis of committees on gender equality. Empirically, it compares the standing committees on gender equality in Denmark and Finland, two Nordic...... as measured by legislative outputs and oversight differs, however, in line with differing committee system characteristics: the Finnish committee has more impact on legislative outputs while the Danish committee has more impact on overseeing government....

  3. Material Modelling - Composite Approach

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1997-01-01

    , and internal stresses caused by drying shrinkage with experimental results reported in the literature on the mechanical behavior of mature concretes. It is then concluded that the model presented applied in general with respect to age at loading.From a stress analysis point of view the most important finding......This report is part of a research project on "Control of Early Age Cracking" - which, in turn, is part of the major research programme, "High Performance Concrete - The Contractor's Technology (HETEK)", coordinated by the Danish Road Directorate, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1997.A composite......-rheological model of concrete is presented by which consistent predictions of creep, relaxation, and internal stresses can be made from known concrete composition, age at loading, and climatic conditions. No other existing "creep prediction method" offers these possibilities in one approach.The model...

  4. Therapeutic approaches for shankopathies.

    Wang, Xiaoming; Bey, Alexandra L; Chung, Leeyup; Krystal, Andrew D; Jiang, Yong-Hui

    2014-02-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the current treatments for these disorders are mostly focused on behavioral and educational approaches. The considerable clinical and molecular heterogeneity of ASD present a significant challenge to the development of an effective treatment targeting underlying molecular defects. Deficiency of SHANK family genes causing ASD represent an exciting opportunity for developing molecular therapies because of strong genetic evidence for SHANK as causative genes in ASD and the availability of a panel of Shank mutant mouse models. In this article, we review the literature suggesting the potential for developing therapies based on molecular characteristics and discuss several exciting themes that are emerging from studying Shank mutant mice at the molecular level and in terms of synaptic function.

  5. [Orthopedic approach to asymmetry].

    Bardinet, Etienne; Duhart, Anne-Marie

    2002-06-01

    Asymmetry being a clinical manifestation of various pathologies, the orthopedic attitude greatly varies from one practitioner to another. Thanks to a better knowledge of the etiopathogenesis, the orthopedic approach in some particular cases reveals very effective, either alone or together with other therapeutics. In mandibular laterodeviations most often consecutive to a maxillary contraction, the best treatment is to expand maxilla which will allow a mandibular centric repositioning. This therapy is often achieved early to limit the asymmetric expression of growth and normalize the dental eruption. In unilateral condylar hypoplasias of variable extension, from a simple defect in condylar growth to a hemifacial microsomia, the therapeutic attitude has mostly evolved. A surgical orthodontic protocol can integrate an increasingly significant orthopedic phase in the course of time. Some authors show that a surgical case may be treated originally only with the help of orthopedics. The devices used are of activator or hyperpropulsor type. In unilateral condylar hyperplasias, orthopedic therapy must be considered with reservations.

  6. Microscopic approach to polaritons

    Skettrup, Torben

    1981-01-01

    contrary to experimental experience. In order to remove this absurdity the semiclassical approach must be abandoned and the electromagnetic field quantized. A simple microscopic polariton model is then derived. From this the wave function for the interacting exciton-photon complex is obtained...... zero while the polarization field per polariton is essentially the excitonic dipole moment per unit volume. From the wave function of the polariton it is seen that in a very broad spectral range around the resonance the polariton is essentially an exciton that travels through the crystal with the speed...... of light of the crystal. The introduction of damping smears out the excitonic spectra. The wave function of the polariton, however, turns out to be very independent of damping up to large damping values. Finally, this simplified microscopic polariton model is compared with the exact solutions obtained...

  7. Bioengineering a conceptual approach

    Pavlovic, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    This book explores critical principles and new concepts in bioengineering, integrating the biological, physical and chemical laws and principles that provide a foundation for the field. Both biological and engineering perspectives are included, with key topics such as the physical-chemical properties of cells, tissues and organs; principles of molecules; composition and interplay in physiological scenarios; and the complex physiological functions of heart, neuronal cells, muscle cells and tissues. Chapters evaluate the emerging fields of nanotechnology, drug delivery concepts, biomaterials, and regenerative therapy. The leading individuals and events are introduced along with their critical research. Bioengineering: A Conceptual Approach is a valuable resource for professionals or researchers interested in understanding the central elements of bioengineering. Advanced-level students in biomedical engineering and computer science will also find this book valuable as a secondary textbook or reference.

  8. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  9. Management practice: phenomenological approach

    Myriam Siqueira da Cunha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has the aim of understanding the lived experiences by managers in relation to organizational changes in an enterprise in the food area, located in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The role of managers has been constantly evaluated and their capacity of continuous learning and also the ability of transforming the learning in good organizational results is reacquired every instant. In this work, my intention is to show, using an interpretative analysis, real and practical situations, from lived experiences. The methodological way followed was the hermeneutic phenomenological approach, trying to give a global and a contextual treatment to the theme. The results achieved offer subsides for a new look over the management practice and point out the importance of the study of what is lived, as an inspiration source for the strategic decisions in the enterprises.

  10. Approaching attometer laser vibrometry

    Rembe, Christian; Kadner, Lisa; Giesen, Moritz [Research and Development, Polytec GmbH, Polytec Platz 1-7, 76337 Waldbronn (Germany)

    2014-05-27

    The heterodyne two-beam interferometer has been proven to be the optimal solution for laser-Doppler vibrometry regarding accuracy and signal robustness. The theoretical resolution limit for a two-beam interferometer of laser class 3R (up to 5 mW visible measurement-light) is in the regime of a few femtometer per square-root Hertz and well suited to study vibrations in microstructures. However, some new applications of RF-MEM resonators, nanostructures, and surface-nano-defect detection require resolutions beyond that limit. The resolution depends only on the noise and the sensor sensitivity to specimen displacements. The noise is already defined in nowadays systems by the quantum nature of light for a properly designed optical sensor and more light would lead to an inacceptable influence like heating of a very tiny structure. Thus, noise can only be improved by squeezed-light techniques which require a negligible loss of measurement light which is impossible for almost all technical measurement tasks. Thus, improving the sensitivity is the only possible path which could make attometer laser vibrometry possible. Decreasing the measurement wavelength would increase the sensitivity but would also increase the photon shot noise. In this paper, we discuss an approach to increase the sensitivity by assembling an additional mirror between interferometer and specimen to form an optical cavity. A detailed theoretical analysis of this setup is presented and we derive the resolution limit, discuss the main contributions to the uncertainty budget, and show a first experiment proving the sensitivity amplification of our approach.

  11. SOME REFLECTIONS ON STRUCTURAL APPROACH

    GuiQingyang

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is intended to expound the advantages and disadvantages of the trathtional Structural Approach in the Chinese context and discuss the necessity and feasibility of implementing the Communicative Approach and the Self--service Approach,both of which evaluate highly the position of subjective activity in learning and bring the obligation of professional development back to learners themselves,KEY WORD approach structural communicative self service critique adaptadopt

  12. A Narrative Approach to Research

    Bell, Anne

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I present a narrative approach to environmental education research. This approach evolved through a dynamic interplay between research questions, theory, experience, conversation, and reflection. I situate the approach with respect to narrative inquiry and clarify the key conceptual metaphors underpinning my study, including…

  13. Approach focused on people

    Roa Ruben

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Family and community medicine assumes a new epistemological landmark that also provides the use of instruments and tools related to it. This care model permits carrying out a visit where all categories which the health-disease process is expressed are present. Family Medicine intends to combine both visions and, for such, it gifts elements to incorporate disease as an essential part of our patient's approach systematic being the main focus the approach by problems, which is nothing but that which concerns the individual, his family or the physician, or all of them, and at times there will be nuisances while at other times, there will be diseases, and mil in other instances, all of them will co-exist. It is known that the impact of a health problem on an individual affects not only himself, but also his surroundings. In turn, the environment around this individual can act as the origin or perpetuator of the crisis, or else serve to help in solving the conflict. Distinct tools serve the purpose of knowing the context in which health crisis is developed, such as: genogram, individual and family vital cycle. Every time two people communicate, the agreement or disagreement generate possible variables. In the physician-patient relationship, this is no exception. Values, beliefs, feelings, and information of each individual different and physicians not necessarily in agreement in several issues during a visit. The objective is the need to achieve a minimum of agreements so that this visit has therapeutic effectiveness, thus being if/rpm -taw to find a common territory. Relations in general involve power; care, feelings, trust and goals. The objective in this type of relationship must be obviously shared ly both and cannot be any other than that of achieving, the highest level of health to our patient. So, our specialty, considered of low complexity, becomes a highly cognitive complexity, special and there is no doubt that it is a lot easier to handle

  14. APPROACH TO ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

    Gholamreza ZAMANI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic acidemias, also known as organic acidurias, are a group of disorders characterized by increased excretion of organic acids in urine. They result primarily from deficiencies of specific enzymes in the breakdown pathways of amino acids or from enzyme deficiencies in beta oxidation of fatty acids or carbohydrate metabolism. Organic acids also are found in the urine of some patients with mitochondrial disease.Most organic acidemias become clinically apparent during the newborn period or early infancy. After an initial period of well-being, affected children develop a life-threatening episode of metabolic acidosis characterized by an increased anion gap. This presenting episode may be mistaken for sepsis, and if unrecognized, is associated with significant mortality.Children with an organic acidemia are susceptible to metabolic decompensation during episodes of increased catabolism, such as intercurrent illness, trauma, or surgery. Parents and clinicians must be well informed about the initial signs of decompensation and trained in applying an emergency regimen . Surgeons and anesthesiologists should be aware of potential complications and their prevention during anesthesia and surgery.Diagnosis has been facilitated through the use of gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and tandem mass spectrometry .Prenatal diagnosis is available for most disorders by detection of diagnostic compounds in amniotic fluid; by analysis of enzyme activities in amniocytes or chorionic villi; by molecular analysis; or by a combination of the three . Diagnosis also may be made through newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry .Laboratory findings are an essential part of the diagnostic approach to organic acidemias. In most organic acidemias, metabolism of glucose, ketone bodies, and ammonia is deranged primarily or secondarily, in addition to derangement of the acid-base balance. Hypoglycemia, lactic and/or ketoacidosis, and hyperammonemia of varying

  15. Text Steganographic Approaches: A Comparison

    Monika Agarwal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents three novel approaches of text steganography. The first approach uses the theme ofmissing letter puzzle where each character of message is hidden by missing one or more letters in a wordof cover. The average Jaro score was found to be 0.95 indicating closer similarity between cover andstego file. The second approach hides a message in a wordlist where ASCII value of embedded characterdetermines length and starting letter of a word. The third approach conceals a message, withoutdegrading cover, by using start and end letter of words of the cover. For enhancing the security of secretmessage, the message is scrambled using one-time pad scheme before being concealed and cipher text isthen concealed in cover. We also present an empirical comparison of the proposed approaches with someof the popular text steganographic approaches and show that our approaches outperform the existingapproaches.

  16. Approaches to refractory epilepsy

    Jerome Engel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological conditions, and 30 to 40% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are not controlled by medication. Patients are considered to have refractory epilepsy if disabling seizures continue despite appropriate trials of two antiseizure drugs, either alone or in combination. At this point, patients should be referred to multidisciplinary epilepsy centers that perform specialized diagnostic testing to first determine whether they are, in fact, pharmacoresistant, and then, if so, offer alternative treatments. Apparent pharmacoresistance can result from a variety of situations, including noncompliance, seizures that are not epileptic, misdiagnosis of the seizure type or epilepsy syndrome, inappropriate use of medication, and lifestyle issues. For patients who are pharmacoresistant, surgical treatment offers the best opportunity for complete freedom from seizures. Surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes have been identified, but patients with more complicated epilepsy can also benefit from surgical treatment and require more specialized evaluation, including intracranial EEG monitoring. For patients who are not surgical candidates, or who are unwilling to consider surgery, a variety of other alternative treatments can be considered, including peripheral or central neurostimulation, ketogenic diet, and complementary and alternative approaches. When such alternative treatments are not appropriate or effective, quality of life can still be greatly improved by the psychological and social support services offered by multidisciplinary epilepsy centers. A major obstacle remains the fact that only a small proportion of patients with refractory epilepsy are referred for expert evaluation and treatment.

  17. Halitosis: the multidisciplinary approach.

    Bollen, Curd M L; Beikler, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Halitosis, bad breath or oral malodour are all synonyms for the same pathology. Halitosis has a large social and economic impact. For the majority of patients suffering from bad breath, it causes embarrassment and affects their social communication and life. Moreover,halitosis can be indicative of underlying diseases. Only a limited number of scientific publications were presented in this field until 1995. Ever since, a large amount of research is published, often with lack of evidence. In general, intraoral conditions, like insufficient dental hygiene, periodontitis or tongue coating are considered to be the most important cause (85%) for halitosis. Therefore, dentists and periodontologists are the first-line professionals to be confronted with this problem. They should be well aware of the origin, the detection and especially of the treatment of this pathology. In addition, ear-nose-throat-associated (10%) or gastrointestinal/endocrinological (5%) disorders may contribute to the problem. In the case of halitophobia, psychiatrical or psychological problems may be present. Bad breath needs a multidisciplinary team approach: dentists, periodontologists, specialists in family medicine, ear-nose-throat surgeons, internal medicine and psychiatry need to be updated in this field, which still is surrounded by a large taboo.Multidisciplinary bad breath clinics offer the best environment to examine and treat this pathology that affects around 25% of the whole population. This article describes the origin, detection and treatment of halitosis, regarded from the different etiological origins.

  18. APPROACHES TO PUBLIC INTEGRITY

    Simona-Roxana ULMAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Both concepts, integrity and public integrity, are always asked qualities in the social and economic environment, but they are never well defined. In this context, finding precise definitions and offering an ample explanation of the concepts are desired and useful for both economic theoretical and practical levels and become the aim of the present paper. Without a good understanding of a concept, no one is capable to attain it. In this context, it is impossible to ask for a public sector of integrity if both public actors and the citizens do not know what it really means. Therefore, the public actors first have to understand what integrity really supposes, and, then, to be capable to respect its principles. Taking into consideration the effects of public integrity or, on its opposite, of the divergence from it, especially represented by the phenomenon of corruption, on the economy at the macro, but also, on the micro level, public integrity in itself becomes a real economic problem that is aimed to be extensively analyzed through our interdisciplinary approach.

  19. The Community Reinforcement Approach.

    Meyers, Robert J; Smith, Jane Ellen; Lash, Denise N

    2003-01-01

    This chapter reviews two behavioral substance abuse treatments: The Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) and Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT). Both of these programs were built on the concept that an individual's recovery is greatly affected by his or her unique environment. This environment, or reinforcing "community," is composed of family, friends, work/school, social activities, and perhaps spiritual affiliations. CRA, the first of these two programs to be developed, was created specifically for the problem drinker (Hunt & Azrin, 1973). The goal of CRA is to rearrange multiple aspects of an individual's "community" so that a clean and sober lifestyle is more rewarding than one that is dominated by alcohol and drugs. Subsequently, CRAFT was developed for the many individuals with substance abuse problems who are vehemently opposed to treatment (Institute of Medicine, 1990). CRAFT works through concerned family members and friends of these treatment refusers in an effort to get them to seek therapy (Sisson & Azrin, 1986). Descriptions and the empirical support for CRA and CRAFT follow.

  20. Radiolab - three different approaches

    Ola Stockfelt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The three papers in this ‘suite’ have a special background and context. At the 2010 conference SoundActs in Aarhus the three panellists were each given the task to provide a paper with an analysis of the same sound object, thus exhibiting and contrasting different scholarly approaches to sound studies. The object was selected by Torben Sangild, who was familiar with the chosen context: the signature of the US radio programme and podcast Radiolab. The two other participants did not know the context and chose to analyse the sound object without further contextual investigation. This object was chosen for several reasons. First of all, it is brief (less than 17 seconds, which meant that it was possible to make a detailed analysis; at the same time, though, it is relatively complex, which means that it can accommodate three different analyses. It is a sound object with a global audience, taken from one of the most popular podcasts worldwide, accessible on the internet. Finally, it is a piece of functional sound design, rather than a work of art, which raises the question of context more clearly. The result is three rather different approaches: 1 a process analysis, observing analytical listening strategies towards the constructed object, 2 a vocal analysis, regarding the sound object as a polyphony of voices, and 3 a contextual analysis, framing the sound object as a radio signature. Ola Stockfelt analyses the sound object as something that is constructed via his own repeated listening process – as a scholarly-analytical analysis of the subjective act of creating meaning. He draws on presumptions and prejudices, demonstrating the impossibility of a purely structural listening. The analysis relates these hermeneutical reflections to formal musicological observations of harmony, timbre, space and rhythm in some detail. Ansa Lønstrup’s paper analyses the sound object as a polyphony of voices. Her analysis is inspired by two phenomenologists

  1. Constructional Approach as Compared with Projectionist Approach to Argument Structure

    戴好运

    2016-01-01

    Projectionist accounts of argument structure give verb's semantic representation a central role in sentence interpretation, it is held that the argument structure and alternations related with a verb are always the product of its semantic representation. However, a circularity problem arises. To solve this problem, Goldberg (1995)'s constructional approach proposed that argument structure patterns are linguistic units in their own right. This paper attempts to make a comparison between projectionist approach and constructional approach to argument structure and discuss constructional approach's advantage in reducing verb senses and avoiding circularity.

  2. Defining biocultural approaches to conservation.

    Gavin, Michael C; McCarter, Joe; Mead, Aroha; Berkes, Fikret; Stepp, John Richard; Peterson, Debora; Tang, Ruifei

    2015-03-01

    We contend that biocultural approaches to conservation can achieve effective and just conservation outcomes while addressing erosion of both cultural and biological diversity. Here, we propose a set of guidelines for the adoption of biocultural approaches to conservation. First, we draw lessons from work on biocultural diversity and heritage, social-ecological systems theory, integrated conservation and development, co-management, and community-based conservation to define biocultural approaches to conservation. Second, we describe eight principles that characterize such approaches. Third, we discuss reasons for adopting biocultural approaches and challenges. If used well, biocultural approaches to conservation can be a powerful tool for reducing the global loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  3. Ablative Approaches for Pulmonary Metastases.

    Boyer, Matthew J; Ricardi, Umberto; Ball, David; Salama, Joseph K

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary metastases are common in patients with cancer for which surgery is considered a standard approach in appropriately selected patients. A number of patients are not candidates for surgery due to a medical comorbidities or the extent of surgery required. For these patients, noninvasive or minimally invasive approaches to ablate pulmonary metastases are potential treatment strategies. This article summarizes the rationale and outcomes for non-surgical treatment approaches, including radiotherapy, radiofrequency and microwave ablation, for pulmonary metastases.

  4. Amplitude dependent closest tune approach

    Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Franchi, Andrea; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations in the LHC point to the existence of an amplitude dependent closest tune approach. However this dynamical behavior and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This effect is highly relevant for the LHC as an unexpectedly closest tune approach varying with amplitude modifies the frequency content of the beam and, hence, the Landau damping. Furthermore the single particle stability would also be affected by this effect as it would modify how particles with varying amplitudes approach and cross resonances. We present analytic derivations that lead to a mechanism generating an amplitude dependent closest tune approach.

  5. Managerial Approach to Public Administration

    Cristina Maria MORA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of themanagerial approach to public administration,starting from the distinction identified by someauthors between management and administration.The paper has a twofold structure: in the firstsections it provides a theoretical conceptualframework for approaching the issue of themanagerial approach to public administration;in the following sections, the authors discuss themanagerial approach with regard to the Romanianadministrative sector. In the conclusion section,the paper tries to offer an answer to the questionwhere do we stand as a country with regard tothe implementation of the managerial approachin public administration. While some progress hasbeen made, there are nonetheless steps that stillneed to be taken..

  6. New Approaches to Final Cooling

    Neuffer, David [Fermilab

    2014-11-10

    A high-energy muon collider scenario require a “final cooling” system that reduces transverse emittances by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of the alternative approach. A more explicit understanding of solenoidal cooling beam dynamics is introduced.

  7. Recent approaches to immune networks

    Boer, R.J. de; Neumann, A.U.; Perelson, A.S.; Segel, L.A.; Weisbuch, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Jerne (1974) proposed that the immune system has important network characteristics that are similar in many respects to neural networks. This paper outlines some recent approaches taken by the authors and their colleagues toward the analysis of immune networks. Other approaches have been omitted owi

  8. ADOPT COMMUNICATIVE APPROACHES IN CET

    LinSitan

    2004-01-01

    How to make CET tailored to the requirements of thesociety is a topic of great significance. This paper is meant toexplore the advantages of adopting communicative approaches inCET( College English Teaching ) by comparing communicativeapproaches with traditional ones and presenting our practice ofemploying communicative approaches as well as the result.

  9. Geometry: A Flow Proof Approach.

    McMurray, Robert

    The inspiration for this text was provided by an exposure to the flow proof approach to a proof format as opposed to the conventional two-column approach. Historical background is included, to provide a frame of reference to give the student an appreciation of the subject. The basic constructions are introduced early and briefly, to aid the…

  10. [Endoscopic approaches to the orbit].

    Cebula, H; Lahlou, A; De Battista, J C; Debry, C; Froelich, S

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the use of endoscopic endonasal approaches to the pituitary has increased considerably. The endoscopic endonasal and transantral approaches offer a minimally invasive alternative to the classic transcranial or transconjunctival approaches to the medial aspect of the orbit. The medial wall of the orbit, the orbital apex, and the optic canal can be exposed through a middle meatal antrostomy, an anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy, and a sphenoidotomy. The inferomedial wall of the orbit can be also perfectly visualized through a sublabial antrostomy or an inferior meatal antrostomy. Several reports have described the use of an endoscopic approach for the resection or the biopsy of lesions located on the medial extraconal aspect of the orbit and orbital apex. However, the resection of intraconal lesions is still limited by inadequate instrumentation. Other indications for the endoscopic approach to the orbit are the decompression of the orbit for Graves' ophthalmopathy and traumatic optic neuropathy. However, the optimal management of traumatic optic neuropathy remains very controversial. Endoscopic endonasal decompression of the optic nerve in case of tumor compression could be a more valid indication in combination with radiation therapy. Finally, the endoscopic transantral treatment of blowout fracture of the floor of the orbit is an interesting option that avoids the eyelid or conjunctive incision of traditional approaches. The collaboration between the neurosurgeon and the ENT surgeon is mandatory and reduces the morbidity of the approach. Progress in instrumentation and optical devices will certainly make this approach promising for intraconal tumor of the orbit.

  11. A Critique of Interactional Approach

    Bao Fang

    2011-01-01

    Interactional approach is a very important theory in second language acquisition, including the input hypothesis and interaction hypothesis. This article first presents an exposition of these two hypotheses, and continues with a critical evaluation of them. Finally, the article concludes with the pedagogical implications of the approach.

  12. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc. [2]. Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass [3]. Recent discoveries have raised attention to mitochondrial biogenesis as a potential target to treat diseases which up to date do not have an efficient cure. Mitochondria, as the major ROS producer and the major antioxidant producer exert a crucial role within the cell mediating processes such as apoptosis, detoxification, Ca2+ buffering, etc. This pivotal role makes mitochondria a potential target to treat a great variety of diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis can be pharmacologically manipulated. This issue tries to cover a number of approaches to treat several diseases through triggering mitochondrial biogenesis. It contains recent discoveries in this novel field, focusing on advanced mitochondrial therapies to chronic and degenerative diseases, mitochondrial diseases, lifespan extension, mitohormesis, intracellular signaling, new pharmacological targets and natural therapies. It contributes to the field by covering and gathering the scarcely reported pharmacological approaches in the novel and promising field of mitochondrial biogenesis. There are several diseases that have a mitochondrial origin such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and the Kearns- Sayre syndrome (KSS

  13. Integrating Communicative Approaches with Traditional Approaches in ELT

    陈超

    2013-01-01

    Traditional y, English teaching in China is dominated by a teacher-centered, grammar-translation and audio-lingual method and an emphasis on rote learning. In an attempt to find out what are the most appropriate teaching methods for Chinese students in schools, the paper presents that the best method is to integrate communicative approaches to the teaching of English with traditional Chinese methods. It shows that integrating communicative approaches with the traditional approaches can real y help the students develop their communicative competence.

  14. Surgical Approaches to Breast Augmentation: The Transaxillary Approach.

    Strock, Louis L

    2015-10-01

    The transaxillary approach to breast augmentation has the advantage of allowing breast implants to be placed with no incisions on the breasts. There has been a general perception of a lack of technical control compared with the inframammary approach. This article presents the transaxillary approach from the perspective of the technical control gained with the aid of an endoscope, which allows precise creation of the tissue pocket with optimal visualization. The aspects of technique that allow optimal technical control are discussed, in addition to postoperative processes that aid in stabilizing the device position and allow consistent and predictable outcomes.

  15. Lexical Approach to English Teaching

    刘朝彦

    2001-01-01

    @@ 0. Introduction Advances in computer analysis of the English language have shown that lexical patterns are widespread in language use. Some researchers call them "lexical phrases" (Nattinger and DeCarrico,1992) or "lexical chunks" (Lewis, 1993); others use the term "multi-word chunks" or just "chunks"of language. Whatever the terms are, they are characteristic of language use and language acquisition and present advantages for language teaching and learning. The lexical approach to English teaching has received interest in recent years as an alternative to grammar-based approaches. The lexical approach concentrates on developing learners' skills in understanding and using words and word combinations.

  16. Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    Agger, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well...... as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....

  17. THE APPROACHING TRAIN DETECTION ALGORITHM

    S. V. Bibikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with detection algorithm for rail vibroacoustic waves caused by approaching train on the background of increased noise. The urgency of algorithm development for train detection in view of increased rail noise, when railway lines are close to roads or road intersections is justified. The algorithm is based on the method of weak signals detection in a noisy environment. The information statistics ultimate expression is adjusted. We present the results of algorithm research and testing of the train approach alarm device that implements the proposed algorithm. The algorithm is prepared for upgrading the train approach alarm device “Signalizator-P".

  18. Vanpooling: the three major approaches

    Sears, P.M.

    1979-08-01

    The manual provides technical assistance to existing or prospective vanpool sponsors. It is designed to help them promote vanpooling in its three major approaches: employer sponsored, third party sponsored, and driver owned and operated. The first chapter is an overview of vanpooling and a second chapter, on vanpool marketing, is addressed to ridesharing coordinators and others whose responsibilities include the promotion of vanpooling. Some fact sheets on the three approaches provide convenient summaries of the needs and opportunities of each approach and suggest solutions to practical problems likely to be encountered in starting new vanpool programs.

  19. A Biosemiotic Approach to Health

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    approaches are invaluable. The aim is to find a common platform that serves in treating human persons as undivided wholes. Since semiosis (viz. the meaningful interpretation of cues, signals, events or states) is vital to communication at both levels, the resulting sign-process is a viable choice......By replacing the traditional chemical approach to the understanding of body function by a sign-theoretic or semiotic approach, biosemiotics enters a no-man’s-land between biological and social domains of human life. The aim is not to subsume the social under the biological or vice versa; both...

  20. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  1. Approaches to Teaching Organizational Communication.

    Applebaum, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses fundamental problems in selecting an approach to organizational communications; the purpose of an organizational communication course; the structure and content of organizational communication coursework; and teaching strategies used in the basic course in organizational communication. (RS)

  2. An Approach to Interface Synthesis

    Madsen, Jan; Hald, Bjarne

    1995-01-01

    may contain the re-use of existing modules). The interface synthesis approach describes the basic transformations needed to transform the server interface description into an interface description on the client side of the communication medium. The synthesis approach is illustrated through a point......Presents a novel interface synthesis approach based on a one-sided interface description. Whereas most other approaches consider interface synthesis as optimizing a channel to existing client/server modules, we consider the interface synthesis as part of the client/server module synthesis (which......-to-point communication, but is applicable to synthesis of a multiple client/server environment. The interface description is based on a formalization of communication events....

  3. Classical approach in quantum physics

    Solov'ev, Evgeni A

    2010-01-01

    The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom recently discovered with the help of Poincar$\\acute{\\mathrm{e}}$ section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treating as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semicla...

  4. Radiological Approach to Forefoot Pain

    Sai Chung Ho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forefoot pain is a common clinical complaint in orthopaedic practice. In this article, we discuss the anatomy of the forefoot, clinical and radiological approaches to forefoot pain, and common painful forefoot disorders and their associated radiological features.

  5. Team Approach to Pain Relief

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Team Approach to Pain Relief Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... Roberts is seen here with some of the team members, (left to right) Dr. Berger, Jacques Bolle, ...

  6. Necrotizing fasciitis: an alternative approach

    Percival, R.; Hargreaves, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    Three cases of necrotizing fasciitis are presented. The initial management of necrotizing fasciitis remains undisputed. However, following a limited success with a conventional treatment policy, a more radical approach with immediate skin grafting following debridement is suggested.

  7. Abstract Cauchy problems three approaches

    Melnikova, Irina V

    2001-01-01

    Although the theory of well-posed Cauchy problems is reasonably understood, ill-posed problems-involved in a numerous mathematical models in physics, engineering, and finance- can be approached in a variety of ways. Historically, there have been three major strategies for dealing with such problems: semigroup, abstract distribution, and regularization methods. Semigroup and distribution methods restore well-posedness, in a modern weak sense. Regularization methods provide approximate solutions to ill-posed problems. Although these approaches were extensively developed over the last decades by many researchers, nowhere could one find a comprehensive treatment of all three approaches.Abstract Cauchy Problems: Three Approaches provides an innovative, self-contained account of these methods and, furthermore, demonstrates and studies some of the profound connections between them. The authors discuss the application of different methods not only to the Cauchy problem that is not well-posed in the classical sense, b...

  8. A Mathematical Approach to Hybridization

    Matthews, P. S. C.; Thompson, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an approach to hybridization which exploits the similarities between the algebra of wave functions and vectors. This method will account satisfactorily for the number of orbitals formed when applied to hybrids involving the s and p orbitals. (GS)

  9. Potential alternative approaches to xenotransplantation.

    Mou, Lisha; Chen, Fengjiao; Dai, Yifan; Cai, Zhiming; Cooper, David K C

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing worldwide shortage of organs and cells for transplantation in patients with end-stage organ failure or cellular dysfunction. This shortage could be resolved by the transplantation of organs or cells from pigs into humans. What competing approaches might provide support for the patient with end-stage organ or cell failure? Four main approaches are receiving increasing attention - (i) implantable mechanical devices, although these are currently limited almost entirely to devices aimed at supporting or replacing the heart, (ii) stem cell technology, at present directed mainly to replace absent or failing cells, but which is also fundamental to progress in (iii) tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, in which the ultimate aim is to replace an entire organ. A final novel potential approach is (iv) blastocyst complementation. These potential alternative approaches are briefly reviewed, and comments added on their current status and whether they are now (or will soon become) realistic alternative therapies to xenotransplantation.

  10. Simplified Approach to Inspection Planning

    Bloch, Allan; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M. H.

    2000-01-01

    A simplified and practically applicable approach for risk based inspection planning of fatigue sensitive structural details is presented. The basic idea behind the approach is that the fatigue sensitive details are categorized according to their stress intensity factors and their design fatigue l...... of steel structures. The validity of the proposed approach is illustrated through a study regarding inspection planning of offshore structures....... life to service life ratio, i.e. the fatigue design factor (FDF) and SN curve. When the reserve strength ratio (RSR) and the corresponding probability of total structural failure given fatigue failure of the considered detail is known it is possible to make a generic description of fatigue sensitive...... structural details and thereby develop pre-made inspection plans in tables which depend on relative cost of inspections, repairs and failures. Due to the simplicity of the format of the developed inspection plans the proposed approach has a high potential in code making for the design and maintenance...

  11. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications

    Jazar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

  12. Approaches for assessing sustainable remediation

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment, while minimizing the indirect cost of remediation to the environment, society and economy. This paper presents an overview of available approaches for assessing the sustainability of alternative...... remediation strategies for a contaminated site. Most approaches use multi-criteria assessment methods (MCA) to structure a decision support process. Different combinations of environmental, social and economic criteria are employed, and are assessed either in qualitative or quantitative forms with various...... tools such as life cycle assessment and cost benefit analysis. Stakeholder involvement, which is a key component of sustainable remediation, is conducted in various ways. Some approaches involve stakeholders directly in the evaluation or weighting of criteria, whereas other approaches only indirectly...

  13. The Database State Machine Approach

    1999-01-01

    Database replication protocols have historically been built on top of distributed database systems, and have consequently been designed and implemented using distributed transactional mechanisms, such as atomic commitment. We present the Database State Machine approach, a new way to deal with database replication in a cluster of servers. This approach relies on a powerful atomic broadcast primitive to propagate transactions between database servers, and alleviates the need for atomic comm...

  14. Deformation analysis: The Fredericton approach

    Vrečko, Anja; Ambrožič, Tomaž

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the Fredericton approach to deformation analysis is presented. It is possible to use several deformation models to determine the differences between the geodetic observations or between the coordinates of points in geodetic network in more epochs. The most appropriate deformation model has been chosen based on statistical testing and available information about dynamics at the area of interest. First, a theoretical background of the approach ...

  15. Bounding approaches to system identification

    Norton, John; Piet-Lahanier, Hélène; Walter, Éric

    1996-01-01

    In response to the growing interest in bounding error approaches, the editors of this volume offer the first collection of papers to describe advances in techniques and applications of bounding of the parameters, or state variables, of uncertain dynamical systems. Contributors explore the application of the bounding approach as an alternative to the probabilistic analysis of such systems, relating its importance to robust control-system design.

  16. Anteromedial Approach to the Orbit

    DEDA, Haluk; Ugur, Hasan Çaglar; Yorulmaz, Irfan; Kucuk, Babur

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the surgical results of the anteromedial approach for treatment of orbital lesions in 16 patients. Pre- and postoperatively, all patients underwent a complete physical examination focusing on the head and neck area including a thorough ophthalmologic evaluation, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The surgical approach was limited to a medial orbitotomy in five patients; the remaining 11 patients underwent a medial orbitotomy combined with an external...

  17. Approaches toward learning in physiotherapy

    L. Keiller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the approaches toward learning of undergraduate Physiotherapy students in a PBl module to enhance facilitation of learning at the Stellenbosch University, Division of Physiotherapy in South Africa. This quantitative, descriptive study utilized the revised Two-factor Study Process Questionnaire (r-SPQ-2f to evaluate the study cohorts’ approaches toward learning in the module. results of the data instruments were analysed statistically and discussed in a descriptive manner. There were a statistically significant greater number of students who adopted a deep approach toward learning at the commencement of the academic year. Students showed a trend toward an increase in their intrinsic interest in the learning material as the module progressed. Students in the Applied Physiotherapy module (ATP started to shift their focus from a surface learning approach to a deep learning approach. further research is needed to determine the long-term changes in approach toward learning and the possible determinants of these changes. This can be done in conjunction with the implementation of quality assurance mechanisms for learning material and earlier preparation of students for the change in the learning environment.

  18. Comparison of bed shear under non-breaking and breaking solitary waves

    JayaKumar, S.; Baldock, T.E.

    function following linear wave theory as shown in eqn 3. For waves following shallow water wave theory, the velocity can be obtained using eqn 4. )sinh( )()( kh HU ω ωω = [3] )()( ωω HdgU = [4] The total force (τ T ) (eqn. 5) measured... linear wave theory the pressure force can be calculated as shown in eqn. 8. prbT τττ += [5] platepr thickness x p ∂ ∂ =τ [6] platepr thickness x g ∂ ∂ = η ρτ [7] )cosh( )( )( kh H ghP ω ρω = [8] where, H(ω) and P...

  19. Approach

    Guido Pinto Aguirre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este documento es investigar y re-estimar los efectos de los patrones de lactancia, salud y estado nutricional de la mujer y consumo de energía sobre la duración del retorno de la fertilidad de postparto (es decir, retorno de la menstruación de postparto utilizando toda la información relevante en el estudio longitudinal del Instituto de Nutrición de Centroamérica y Panamá y un procedimiento de estimación más adecuado (modelos de riesgo. Los datos utilizados provienen del Estudio Longitudinal llevado a cabo en Guatemala entre 1967 y 1979. En este artículo se utiliza un modelo de riesgo con varios estados que reconoce diferentes caminos y estados en el proceso del retorno de la fertilidad de postparto. El modelo descansa en la existencia de cinco estados (lactancia total, lactancia parcial, destete, mortalidad infantil y menstruación. También incluye de manera explícita nutrición maternal y consumo de energía de la mujer como elementos estratégicos del modelo. El estudio encontró que los efectos de los patrones de lactancia, nutrición de la madre y patrones de trabajo de la mujer (consumo de energía sobre la fertilidad en las áreas rurales de Guatemala son fuertes y significativos. La contribución de este artículo es mostrar que la aplicación de los modelos de riesgo con múltiples estados proporciona estimados que son consistentes con hipótesis que relacionan patrones de lactancia, estado nutricional maternal y estresores maternales externos a procesos que aceleran (desaceleran el retorno de ciclos menstruales normales.

  20. approach

    D. J. Rodabaugh

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of the first detailed and systematic study of the family of fifth order implicit linear multistep methods requiring function evaluations at four backpoints are given. Also described is a practical and efficient nonlinear optimization procedure which made it possible to locate in a precise manner the methods of this type which possess optimal ranges of relative stability in the sense-that the corresponding relative stability regions contain maximal disks centered at the origin.

  1. Bayesian Approach for Inconsistent Information.

    Stein, M; Beer, M; Kreinovich, V

    2013-10-01

    In engineering situations, we usually have a large amount of prior knowledge that needs to be taken into account when processing data. Traditionally, the Bayesian approach is used to process data in the presence of prior knowledge. Sometimes, when we apply the traditional Bayesian techniques to engineering data, we get inconsistencies between the data and prior knowledge. These inconsistencies are usually caused by the fact that in the traditional approach, we assume that we know the exact sample values, that the prior distribution is exactly known, etc. In reality, the data is imprecise due to measurement errors, the prior knowledge is only approximately known, etc. So, a natural way to deal with the seemingly inconsistent information is to take this imprecision into account in the Bayesian approach - e.g., by using fuzzy techniques. In this paper, we describe several possible scenarios for fuzzifying the Bayesian approach. Particular attention is paid to the interaction between the estimated imprecise parameters. In this paper, to implement the corresponding fuzzy versions of the Bayesian formulas, we use straightforward computations of the related expression - which makes our computations reasonably time-consuming. Computations in the traditional (non-fuzzy) Bayesian approach are much faster - because they use algorithmically efficient reformulations of the Bayesian formulas. We expect that similar reformulations of the fuzzy Bayesian formulas will also drastically decrease the computation time and thus, enhance the practical use of the proposed methods.

  2. Solid mechanics a variational approach

    Dym, Clive L

    2013-01-01

    Solid Mechanics: A Variational Approach, Augmented Edition presents a lucid and thoroughly developed approach to solid mechanics for students engaged in the study of elastic structures not seen in other texts currently on the market. This work offers a clear and carefully prepared exposition of variational techniques as they are applied to solid mechanics. Unlike other books in this field, Dym and Shames treat all the necessary theory needed for the study of solid mechanics and include extensive applications. Of particular note is the variational approach used in developing consistent structural theories and in obtaining exact and approximate solutions for many problems.  Based on both semester and year-long courses taught to undergraduate seniors and graduate students, this text is geared for programs in aeronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering, and in engineering science. The authors’ objective is two-fold: first, to introduce the student to the theory of structures (one- and two-dimensional) as ...

  3. Understanding SARS with Wolfram Approach

    Da-WeiLI; Yu-XiPAN; YunDUAN; Zhen-DeHUNG; Ming-QingXU; LinHE

    2004-01-01

    Stepping acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as another type of disease has been threatening mankind since late last year. Many scientists worldwide are making great efforts to study the etiology of this disease with different approaches. 13 species of SARS virus have been sequenced. However, most people still largely rely on the traditional methods with some disadvantages. In this work, we used Wolfram approach to study the relationship among SARS viruses and between SARS viruses and other types of viruses, the effect of variations on the whole genome and the advantages in the analysis of SARS based on this novel approach. As a result, the similarities between SARS viruses and other coronaviruses are not really higher than those between SARS viruses and non-coronaviruses.

  4. Variational Approach to Molecular Kinetics.

    Nüske, Feliks; Keller, Bettina G; Pérez-Hernández, Guillermo; Mey, Antonia S J S; Noé, Frank

    2014-04-08

    The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the molecular dynamics propagator (or transfer operator) contain the essential information about the molecular thermodynamics and kinetics. This includes the stationary distribution, the metastable states, and state-to-state transition rates. Here, we present a variational approach for computing these dominant eigenvalues and eigenvectors. This approach is analogous to the variational approach used for computing stationary states in quantum mechanics. A corresponding method of linear variation is formulated. It is shown that the matrices needed for the linear variation method are correlation matrices that can be estimated from simple MD simulations for a given basis set. The method proposed here is thus to first define a basis set able to capture the relevant conformational transitions, then compute the respective correlation matrices, and then to compute their dominant eigenvalues and eigenvectors, thus obtaining the key ingredients of the slow kinetics.

  5. A general approach to bosonization

    Girish S Setulur; V Meera

    2007-10-01

    We summarize recent developments in the field of higher dimensional bosonization made by Setlur and collaborators and propose a general formula for the field operator in terms of currents and densities in one dimension using a new ingredient known as a `singular complex number'. Using this formalism, we compute the Green function of the homogeneous electron gas in one spatial dimension with short-range interaction leading to the Luttinger liquid and also with long-range interactions that lead to a Wigner crystal whose momentum distribution computed recently exhibits essential singularities. We generalize the formalism to finite temperature by combining with the author's hydrodynamic approach. The one-particle Green function of this system with essential singularities cannot be easily computed using the traditional approach to bosonization which involves the introduction of momentum cutoffs, hence the more general approach of the present formalism is proposed as a suitable alternative.

  6. City evacuations an interdisciplinary approach

    Binner, Jane; Branicki, Layla; Galla, Tobias; Jones, Nick; King, James; Kolokitha, Magdalini; Smyrnakis, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Evacuating a city is a complex problem that involves issues of governance, preparedness education, warning, information sharing, population dynamics, resilience and recovery. As natural and anthropogenic threats to cities grow, it is an increasingly pressing problem for policy makers and practitioners.   The book is the result of a unique interdisciplinary collaboration between researchers in the physical and social sciences to consider how an interdisciplinary approach can help plan for large scale evacuations.  It draws on perspectives from physics, mathematics, organisation theory, economics, sociology and education.  Importantly it goes beyond disciplinary boundaries and considers how interdisciplinary methods are necessary to approach a complex problem involving human actors and increasingly complex communications and transportation infrastructures.   Using real world case studies and modelling the book considers new approaches to evacuation dynamics.  It addresses questions of complexity, not only ...

  7. Toward predicate approaches to modality

    Stern, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    In this volume, the author investigates and argues for, a particular answer to the question: What is the right way to logically analyze modalities from natural language within formal languages? The answer is: by formalizing modal expressions in terms of predicates. But, as in the case of truth, the most intuitive modal principles lead to paradox once the modal notions are conceived as predicates. The book discusses the philosophical interpretation of these modal paradoxes and argues that any satisfactory approach to modality will have to face the paradoxes independently of the grammatical category of the modal notion. By systematizing modal principles with respect to their joint consistency and inconsistency, Stern provides an overview of the options and limitations of the predicate approach to modality that may serve as a useful starting point for future work on predicate approaches to modality. Stern also develops a general strategy for constructing philosophically attractive theories of modal notions conce...

  8. The narrative approach in Bioethics

    Mario Picozzi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the narrative approach in Bioethics is more and more considered and used. In our paper we would like to explain why – when we need to take a decision – it is essential and crucial that the patient tells his own history; we also indicate the main consequences that this approach has with reference to the choices at the bed of the patient. Selected Papers of the Congress “Narrative Based Medicine and Communication in Clinical Practice” · Cagliari, Italy · April 14th, 2014 Guest Editors: Massimiliano Zonza, Vassilios Fanos, Gian Paolo Donzelli

  9. Elementary calculus an infinitesimal approach

    Keisler, H Jerome

    2012-01-01

    This first-year calculus book is centered around the use of infinitesimals, an approach largely neglected until recently for reasons of mathematical rigor. It exposes students to the intuition that originally led to the calculus, simplifying their grasp of the central concepts of derivatives and integrals. The author also teaches the traditional approach, giving students the benefits of both methods.Chapters 1 through 4 employ infinitesimals to quickly develop the basic concepts of derivatives, continuity, and integrals. Chapter 5 introduces the traditional limit concept, using approximation p

  10. Systems biology approach to bioremediation

    Chakraborty, Romy; Wu, Cindy H.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2012-06-01

    Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ‘black box’ in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Finally, understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ‘black box’.

  11. A practical approach to TQI.

    Perras, S T; Mattern, M

    1994-04-01

    Total quality improvement (TQI) is a refreshing new approach to leadership that can be applied to a dialysis setting. The team approach to prospective data analysis is used for problem solution and reevaluation. Adapting theory to daily practical application can be successfully done using time, energy, and full senior management commitment. Staff education and involvement are essential to successful program implementation. Evaluation tools are easily adapted to analyze common dialysis problems. The initial time invested in education and data collection can be great but results in a streamlined process.

  12. International Approaches to Clinical Costing

    Chapman, Christopher; Kern, Anja; Laguecir, Aziza

    This report has been commissioned by both HFMA and Monitor and the work has been led by Imperial College Business School’s Health Management Group. The report compares current approaches to costing, primarily across Europe. The findings reveal wide-ranging practices and uses for costing data......, and provide opportunities for all healthsystems to learn and potentially improve their own approaches. The HFMA hopes to build on this initial baselining exercise to understand more about how key issues are being tackled in some of the health systems that have made the most progress with costing....

  13. Real analysis a constructive approach

    Bridger, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A unique approach to analysis that lets you apply mathematics across a range of subjects This innovative text sets forth a thoroughly rigorous modern account of the theoretical underpinnings of calculus: continuity, differentiability, and convergence. Using a constructive approach, every proof of every result is direct and ultimately computationally verifiable. In particular, existence is never established by showing that the assumption of non-existence leads to a contradiction. The ultimate consequence of this method is that it makes sense-not just to math majors but also to students from a

  14. A Psycho-Societal Approach

    Mellon, Karsten

    This is a project about Danish vocational bachelor students admitted on the basis of an Individual Competency Assessment (VPL/IKV) in light of a Psycho-Societal Approach. The core idea of this paper is to present a PhD project which aims to contribute findings regarding students enrolled in a Dan......This is a project about Danish vocational bachelor students admitted on the basis of an Individual Competency Assessment (VPL/IKV) in light of a Psycho-Societal Approach. The core idea of this paper is to present a PhD project which aims to contribute findings regarding students enrolled...

  15. Indecisiveness: A Dynamic, Integrative Approach.

    Johnson, Douglas Paul

    1990-01-01

    Responds to case of Sondra presented in Career Development Quarterly (September 1990). Suggests that her inability to decide on a career may be rooted in long-term personality style, poor ego strength, noisome family dynamics, and/or developmental delay. Recommends an integrative approach incorporating both personal and career counseling. (PVV)

  16. Writing Approaches of Graduate Students

    Lavelle, Ellen; Bushrow, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The writing approach framework provides a comprehensive perspective on college-level academic writing based on the relationship of writers' beliefs and strategies to the quality of written outcomes. However, despite increased demands for more and better writing at the graduate level, little is known about graduate-level writing processes or about…

  17. Model based feature fusion approach

    Schwering, P.B.W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years different sensor data fusion approaches have been analyzed and evaluated in the field of mine detection. In various studies comparisons have been made between different techniques. Although claims can be made for advantages for using certain techniques, until now there has been no si

  18. Multiaxial diagnosis: An integral approach

    Adalberto Campo Arias

    2003-01-01

    All patients must be diagnosed with an integral, multiaxial or bio-psycho-social model. This approach makes possible understanding biological,personality, social, and cultural factor or background of ill people. Multiaxial perspective gives diagnosis more accurate and reliable. Moreover, it makes clinical practice more warm and humane.

  19. Eight Approaches to Language Teaching.

    Doggett, Gina

    Important features of eight second language teaching methods--grammar-translation, direct, audiolingual, the Silent Way, Suggestopedia, community language learning, Total Physical Response, and the communicative approach--are summarized . A chart outlines characteristics of these aspects of the methods: goals, teacher and student roles, the…

  20. Early Writing: A Developmental Approach.

    Goetz, Elizabeth; And Others

    This document consists of four papers on the acquisition of writing skills by young children. The first paper provides a historical and developmental perspective on early writing. Children's development of manual dexterity is briefly overviewed and aspects of the educational approaches of Pestalozzi, Montessori, Chomsky, Rogers and Ashton-Warner…

  1. Institutional Planning: A Systems Approach.

    Adamson, Willie D.

    This four-chapter report explores the possible contributions of a systems approach to institutional planning. After introductory comments, Chapter I reviews the management theory of Henry Fayol, which emphasizes management tasks, such as planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling, which are "universal" regardless of the level…

  2. Force approach to radiation reaction

    López, Gustavo V., E-mail: gulopez@udgserv.cencar.udg.mx

    2016-02-15

    The difficulty of the usual approach to deal with the radiation reaction is pointed out, and under the condition that the radiation force must be a function of the external force and is zero whenever the external force be zero, a new and straightforward approach to radiation reaction force and damping is proposed. Starting from the Larmor formula for the power radiated by an accelerated charged particle, written in terms of the applied force instead of the acceleration, an expression for the radiation force is established in general, and applied to the examples for the linear and circular motion of a charged particle. This expression is quadratic in the magnitude of the applied force, inversely proportional to the speed of the charged particle, and directed opposite to the velocity vector. This force approach may contribute to the solution of the very old problem of incorporating the radiation reaction to the motion of the charged particles, and future experiments may tell us whether or not this approach point is in the right direction.

  3. Force approach to radiation reaction

    López, Gustavo V.

    2016-02-01

    The difficulty of the usual approach to deal with the radiation reaction is pointed out, and under the condition that the radiation force must be a function of the external force and is zero whenever the external force be zero, a new and straightforward approach to radiation reaction force and damping is proposed. Starting from the Larmor formula for the power radiated by an accelerated charged particle, written in terms of the applied force instead of the acceleration, an expression for the radiation force is established in general, and applied to the examples for the linear and circular motion of a charged particle. This expression is quadratic in the magnitude of the applied force, inversely proportional to the speed of the charged particle, and directed opposite to the velocity vector. This force approach may contribute to the solution of the very old problem of incorporating the radiation reaction to the motion of the charged particles, and future experiments may tell us whether or not this approach point is in the right direction.

  4. Using Natural Approach Teaching Techniques.

    Whitman, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Describes a beginning foreign language class applying the principles of Stephen Krashen's "Natural Approach" and James Asher's "Total Physical Response" method. Initially students carry out the instructor's commands in the form of actions rather than being required to speak. In later stages role play and simple discussions are…

  5. Bilingual Approaches to Language Learning

    MaryMcgroarty; NorthernArizonaUniversity

    2003-01-01

    “Billingual Approaches to Language Learning” describes the various bilingual models found at different levels(elementary,secondary,post-secondary,and adult education),identifying key instructional features and emphasizing the drive for quality instruction.The paper makes reference to consideration of the political contexts as well as pedagogical factors affecting the choices and outcomes related to bilingual instruction.

  6. The Labelling Approach to Deviance.

    Rains, Prudence M.; Kitsuse, John L.; Duster, Troy; Freidson, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    This reprint of one chapter from the 1975 text, "Issues in the Classification of Children" by Nicholas Hobbs and others, addresses the theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues involved in the "labeling" approach to the sociology of deviance. It examines the social process of classification, the use of classification in social agencies,…

  7. Approach to the bleeding newborn

    1998-01-01

    Bleeding in the newborn can lead to serious cardiovascular and neurological effects. Routine administration of vitamin K has reduced the incidence of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, but abnormal bleeding can occur in babies from many causes. A practical approach to the diagnosis and treatment of bleeding in the newborn is described in this article.

  8. Teaching Ethics: A Direct Approach.

    Penn, William Y., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Compares five designs of an undergraduate ethics course at Saint Edward's University (Texas) in a 5-year study involving 318 students. Reveals the effectiveness of directly targeting and teaching in tandem the elements of moral reasoning. Bases study on Lawrence Kohlberg's moral development theory. Argues that this approach best develops moral…

  9. Theoretical Approaches to Political Communication.

    Chesebro, James W.

    Political communication appears to be emerging as a theoretical and methodological academic area of research within both speech-communication and political science. Five complimentary approaches to political science (Machiavellian, iconic, ritualistic, confirmational, and dramatistic) may be viewed as a series of variations which emphasize the…

  10. Comparative Psychology: An Epigenetic Approach.

    Greenberg, Gary

    1987-01-01

    A comparative psychology course oriented around the themes of phylogeny and ontogeny is described. The course emphasizes the evolution and development of behavioral processes and includes a discussion of the concept of integrative levels and Schneirla's approach/withdrawal theory. The course evaluates genetic determinism and stresses the principle…

  11. Early Intervention Approaches. Chapter 9.

    1996

    This collection of papers presented at a 1996 conference on children's mental health focuses on early intervention approaches. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Child Maltreatment and Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol and Other Drugs: Some Preliminary Findings" (Patrick A. Curtis and Mary Wood Schneider); (2) "Evaluation…

  12. A Complexity Approach for Steganalysis

    Bahi, Jacques M; Heam, Pierre-Cyrille

    2011-01-01

    In this proposal for the Journ\\`ees Codes et St\\'eganographie 2012, we define a new rigorous approach for steganalysis based on the complexity theory. It is similar to the definitions of security that can be found for hash functions, PRNG, and so on. We propose here a notion of \\emph{secure hiding} and we give a first secure hiding scheme.

  13. Classical approach in atomic physics

    Solov'ev, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincaré section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormgroup symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well.

  14. Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Ferrari, Loris

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

  15. Geometrical approach to fluid models

    Kuvshinov, B. N.; Schep, T. J.

    1997-01-01

    Differential geometry based upon the Cartan calculus of differential forms is applied to investigate invariant properties of equations that describe the motion of continuous media. The main feature of this approach is that physical quantities are treated as geometrical objects. The geometrical notio

  16. Cleft Palate; A Multidiscipline Approach.

    Stark, Richard B., Ed.

    Nineteen articles present a multidisciplinary approach to the management of facial clefts. The following subjects are discussed: the history of cleft lip and cleft palate surgery; cogenital defects; classification; the operation of a cleft palate clinic; physical examination of newborns with cleft lip and/or palate; nursing care; anesthesia;…

  17. APPROACH TO SMALL FAMILY NORM

    Nonibala

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Idea of approach to maintain small family norm in the family and so to the society is the hope for almost all of the couples as the saying -"Small family is a happy family". And every couple always thinks and plan for a safer and better future.

  18. APPROACH TO SMALL FAMILY NORM

    Nonibala

    2014-01-01

    The Idea of approach to maintain small family norm in the family and so to the society is the hope for almost all of the couples as the saying -"Small family is a happy family". And every couple always thinks and plan for a safer and better future.

  19. Classical approach in atomic physics

    Solov' ev, E.A. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincare section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormalization group symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well. (author)

  20. Dental approach to craniofacial syndromes

    Kjær, Inger

    2012-01-01

    is essential for insight into craniofacial syndromes. The dentition, thus, becomes central in diagnostics and evaluation of the pathogenesis. Developmental fields can explore and advance the concept of dental approaches to craniofacial syndromes. Discussion. As deviations in teeth persist and do not reorganize...

  1. Three Approaches to Evaluation Research.

    Rafter, David O.

    1984-01-01

    Three common evaluation models are the scientific, interactive, and hybrid. A study of evaluation projects mandated by the Wisconsin legislature revealed that the hybrid model was most effective in achieving policy planning and policy control utilization, the interactive approach provided aid to individual utilization, and the scientific approach…

  2. Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope…

  3. A Freudian Approach to Education.

    Gartner, Sandra L.

    This document offers the point of view that Bruno Bettelheim's writings, based on Sigmund Freud's approach to education, suggest the most practical applications for achieving positive results within the classroom. The overall result of a student being taught all through school by the Freudian method would be an extremely positive one. Such a…

  4. A Psychoanalytic Approach to Fieldwork

    Ramvi, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on what both psychoanalysis and anthropology have in common: the emphasis on the researcher's own experience. An ethnographic fieldwork will be used to illustrate how a psychoanalytical approach unfolds the material when studying conditions for learning from experience among teachers in two Norwegian junior high schools, and…

  5. Behavioral approach to list decoding

    Polderman, Jan Willem; Kuijper, Margreta

    2002-01-01

    List decoding may be translated into a bivariate interpolation problem. The interpolation problem is to find a bivariate polynomial of minimal weighted degree that interpolates a given set of pairs taken from a finite field. We present a behavioral approach to this interpolation problem. With the da

  6. Approaching Environmental Issues in Architecture

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2013-01-01

    The research presented here takes its point of departure in the design process with a specific focus on how it is approached when designing energy efficient architecture. This is done through a case-study of a design process in a Danish architectural office. This study shows the importance of hav...

  7. Laparoscopic approach to retrorectal cyst

    Petra Gunkova; Lubomir Martinek; Jan Dostalik; Igor Gunka; Petr Vavra; Miloslav Mazur

    2008-01-01

    Retrorectal cysts are rare benign lesions in the presacral space which are frequently diagnosed in middle-aged females. We report here our experience with two symptomatic female patients who were diagnosed as having a retrorectal cyst and managed using a laparoscopic approach. The two patients were misdiagnosed as having an ovarian cystic lesion after abdominal ultrasonography. Computer tomograghy (CT) scan was mandatory to establish the diagnosis. The trocar port site was the same in both patients. An additional left oophorectomy was done for a coexisting ovarian cystic lesion in one patient in the same setting. There was no postoperative morbidity or mortality and the two patients were discharged on the 5th and 6th post operative days, respectively. Our cases show that laparoscopic management of retrorectal cysts is a safe approach. It reduces surgical trauma and offers an excellent tool for perfect visualization of the deep structures in the presacral space.

  8. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  9. Bayesian approach to rough set

    Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to training rough set models using Bayesian framework trained using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The prior probabilities are constructed from the prior knowledge that good rough set models have fewer rules. Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling is conducted through sampling in the rough set granule space and Metropolis algorithm is used as an acceptance criteria. The proposed method is tested to estimate the risk of HIV given demographic data. The results obtained shows that the proposed approach is able to achieve an average accuracy of 58% with the accuracy varying up to 66%. In addition the Bayesian rough set give the probabilities of the estimated HIV status as well as the linguistic rules describing how the demographic parameters drive the risk of HIV.

  10. New Approaches to Reliability Assessment

    Ma, Ke; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    of energy. New approaches for reliability assessment are being taken in the design phase of power electronics systems based on the physics-of-failure in components. In this approach, many new methods, such as multidisciplinary simulation tools, strength testing of components, translation of mission profiles......Power electronics are facing continuous pressure to be cheaper and smaller, have a higher power density, and, in some cases, also operate at higher temperatures. At the same time, power electronics products are expected to have reduced failures because it is essential for reducing the cost......, and statistical analysis, are involved to enable better prediction and design of reliability for products. This article gives an overview of the new design flow in the reliability engineering of power electronics from the system-level point of view and discusses some of the emerging needs for the technology...

  11. Ecosystemic approaches to land degradation

    Puigdefabregas, J.; Barrio, G. del; Hill, J.

    2009-07-01

    Land degradation is recognized as the main outcome of desertification. However available procedures for its assessment are still unsatisfactory because are often too costly for surveying large areas and rely on specific components of the degradation process without being able to integrate them in a unique process. One of the objectives of De Survey project is designing and implementing operational procedures for desertification surveillance, including land degradation. A strategic report was compiled and reproduced here for selecting the most appropriate approaches to the project conditions. The report focuses on using attributes of ecosystem maturity as a natural way to integrate the different drivers of land degradation in simple indices. The review surveys different families of attributes concerned with water and energy fluxes through the ecosystem, its capacity to sustain biomass and net primary productivity, and its capacity to structure the space. Finally, some conclusions are presented about the choice criteria of the different approaches in the framne of operational applications. (Author) 20 refs.

  12. Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques

    Ferreira, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

  13. Communicative Approach and Educational Success

    Wang Jianfang

    2001-01-01

    The quality and benefit of college English teaching is, to some extent, decided by what methodological approach it employs. The current teaching syllabus adopts the communicative approach, which is well established as the dominant theoretical model in college English teaching. This paper tries to discuss these characteristics and explain why the model, procedure and links of college English teaching in the classroom are so vital to improve the language and communicative abilities of students. The teaching methods cannot and should not be fixed. It is restricted by the English levels and learning strategies of students,and by the academic quality and teaching ideas of teachers. A good teacher is such and flexibly to help his students attain the goal that syllabus demands.

  14. Computational approaches for systems metabolomics.

    Krumsiek, Jan; Bartel, Jörg; Theis, Fabian J

    2016-06-01

    Systems genetics is defined as the simultaneous assessment and analysis of multi-omics datasets. In the past few years, metabolomics has been established as a robust tool describing an important functional layer in this approach. The metabolome of a biological system represents an integrated state of genetic and environmental factors and has been referred to as a 'link between genotype and phenotype'. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in statistical analysis methods for metabolomics data in combination with other omics layers. We put a special focus on complex, multivariate statistical approaches as well as pathway-based and network-based analysis methods. Moreover, we outline current challenges and pitfalls of metabolomics-focused multi-omics analyses and discuss future steps for the field.

  15. THE PROCESS APPROACH TO WRITING

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionIn China.the method for teaching writing for science students is always regarded as most difficult.Howto teach writing and to comment on or mark students’writing are frequently discussed topics.In thispaper.I will report on what I have done in my writing class.Process ApproachThe‘process approach’to writing is not a new approach:it has been around since the early 1970s.It isalso called a‘multiple drafts process’and consists of generating ideas(pre-writing/input):writing a firstdraft with an emphasis on content(to‘discover’meaning/author’s ideas):writing second and third(andpossibly more)drafts to revise ideas and ways to communicate of these ideas.

  16. An approach to risk assessment

    Simonsen, L.; Lund, S. P.; Hass, Ulla

    1998-01-01

    indicate that numerous persons are exposed in the working as well as in the general environment to several chemicals, for which almost no data on the effect on subtle neurophysiological functions are available. Development of an approach to risk assessment dealing with this problem is a major challenge...... in the nineties. Different approaches to risk assessment are discussed, the quality of the databases available for hazard assessment are evaluated, and the needs for further research are identified. (C) 1996 Intox Press, Inc.......A strategy for delineating risk factors from use of neurotoxic chemicals was applied to the Danish working environment. An analysis using this strategy disclosed the need for internationally adopted criteria for neurotoxicity, and consequently a working group was established by the Nordic Council...

  17. Direct Approach to Quantum Tunneling

    Andreassen, Anders; Farhi, David; Frost, William; Schwartz, Matthew D.

    2016-12-01

    The decay rates of quasistable states in quantum field theories are usually calculated using instanton methods. Standard derivations of these methods rely in a crucial way upon deformations and analytic continuations of the physical potential and on the saddle-point approximation. While the resulting procedure can be checked against other semiclassical approaches in some one-dimensional cases, it is challenging to trace the role of the relevant physical scales, and any intuitive handle on the precision of the approximations involved is at best obscure. In this Letter, we use a physical definition of the tunneling probability to derive a formula for the decay rate in both quantum mechanics and quantum field theory directly from the Minkowski path integral, without reference to unphysical deformations of the potential. There are numerous benefits to this approach, from nonperturbative applications to precision calculations and aesthetic simplicity.

  18. 'Academic literacies approaches to genre'?

    Brian Street

    Full Text Available I provide an overview of approaches to writing referred to as 'academic literacies' building on broader traditions, such as New Literacy Studies, and I draw out the relevance of such traditions for the ways in which lecturers provide support to their students with regard to the writing requirements of the University. I offer three case studies of the application of academic literacies approaches to programmes concerned with supporting student writing, in the UK and the USA. I briefly conclude by asking how far these accounts and this work can be seen to bring together many of the themes raised at SIGET conferences - including academic literacies and its relation to genre theories - and express the hope that it opens up trajectories for future research and collaboration of the kind they were founded to develop.

  19. Hydraulic Modeling of Lock Approaches

    2016-08-01

    cation was that the guidewall design changed from a solid wall to one on pilings in which water was allowed to flow through and/or under the wall ...develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for the Army, the...magnitudes and directions at lock approaches for open river conditions. The meshes were developed using the Surface- water Modeling System. The two

  20. Review og pattern matching approaches

    Manfaat, D.; Duffy, Alex; Lee, B. S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a review of pattern matching techniques. The application areas for pattern matching are extensive, ranging from CAD systems to chemical analysis and from manufacturing to image processing. Published techniques and methods are classified and assessed within the context of three...... key issues: pattern classes, similiarity types and mathing methods. It has been shown that the techniques and approaches are as diverse and varied as the applications....

  1. Practical approaches in accident analysis

    Stock, M.

    An accident analysis technique based on successive application of structural response, explosion dynamics, gas cloud formation, and plant operation failure mode models is proposed. The method takes into account the nonideal explosion characteristic of a deflagration in the unconfined cloud. The resulting pressure wave differs significantly from a shock wave and the response of structures like lamp posts and walls can differ correspondingly. This gives a more realistic insight into explosion courses than a simple TNT-equivalent approach.

  2. [Diagnostic approach to infectious endocarditis].

    Parize, Perrine; Mainardi, Jean-Luc

    2012-04-01

    Major advances in imaging and microbiological procedures have changed the diagnostic approach of infective endocarditis. New imaging tools have improved the search of local complications, systemic embolism and diagnosis of infection of cardiac devices. Moreover, microbiological diagnosis has been transformed by molecular techniques as long as these procedures have highlighted microorganisms thus far neglected by classical techniques. Despite these advances, endocarditis remained a clinical diagnosis which still depends on a high index of clinical suspicion.

  3. Ermakov approach for minisuperspace oscillators

    Rosu, H. C.; Socorro, J.

    1999-01-01

    The WDW equation of arbitrary Hartle-Hawking factor ordering for several minisuperspace universe models, such as the pure gravity FRW and Taub ones, is mapped onto the dynamics of corresponding classical oscillators. The latter ones are studied by the classical Ermakov invariant method, which is a natural aproach in this context. For the more realistic case of a minimally coupled massive scalar field, one can study, within the same type of approach, the corresponding squeezing features as a p...

  4. Sociocultural epidemiology: an essential approach.

    Paul Hersch-Martínez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of an inclusive epidemiological approach, capable to attend the diverse dimensions involved in health damage as a reflective phenomenon of society is analyzed. The range of perspectives involved requires an inclusive methodological scope and applicative channels, in order to deal with sanitary realities systematically related to culture and social organization. Some constitutive elements of sociocultural epidemiology are underlined, shaping an operative proposal that can enhance the relationship between disciplines and sectors regarding specific outstanding public health problems.

  5. Study of Chunks Input Approach

    马静

    2003-01-01

    This paper is to describe and investigate Chunks (Lexical Phrases ) Input Approach in vocabulary learning strategies by means of achievement tests,questionnaire surveys and interviews. The study is to reveal how different learners combine different vocabulary learning strategies in their learning process. With the data collected, the author of this paper discusses and summarizes learners' individual differences in selecting vocabulary learning strategies with the hope of giving new insights into English teaching and learning.

  6. A Viable Systems Engineering Approach

    2010-04-01

    methodology was not meeting the needs of the sponsors • The Agile approach Scrum was selected as the only viable solution for managing project...Self-organized teams Slide 11 Source: Agile Alliance (http://www.agilealliance.org/) Scrum Applied to Systems Engineering • Scrum is a framework for...ceremonies • A Scrum project is a series of iterations or Sprints where every 2-4 weeks produces fully developed requirements, functional analyses, and

  7. Algebraic Approach to Baryon Structure

    Leviatan, A

    1996-01-01

    We present an algebraic approach to the internal structure of baryons in terms of three constituents. We investigate a collective model in which the nucleon is regarded as a rotating and vibrating oblate top with a prescribed distribution of charges and magnetization. We contrast the collective and single-particle descriptions of baryons and compare the predictions of the model with existing data on masses, electromagnetic elastic and transition form factors and strong decays widths.

  8. Tasting Beijing ,Approaching Olympic Games

    2007-01-01

    @@ Sponsored by Beijing Tour Administration, co-organized by Singapore Conference and Exhibition Administration Service Co., Ltd. and Beijing Relation Exhibition Co., Ltd., "2007 Beijing International Tour Expo" was held in Beijing in June. Commissioner Du Jiang gave a presentation with the opening ceremmony, and pointed out that with the theme of "Tasting Beijing, Approaching Olympic Games", the expo was a platform of promoting the communication and cooperation between the Chinese and foreign tourism industries.

  9. APPROACHES ON THE COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE

    Ioan PETRIŞOR; Natalia Ana STRĂIN (SILAŞ)

    2013-01-01

    Within this study, we approached the concept of "competitive intelligence" (CI), which we consider a key element for the success of a business, especially in the current period, characterized by numerous economic and financial turbulence. According to Society of Competitive Intelligence (SCIP), competitive intelligence is defined as a method of ethical and moral collection, analysis and dissemination of information regarding the competitive environment, opportunities, vulnerabilities, and int...

  10. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-01-01

    The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs) increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of import...

  11. New endoscopic approaches in IBD

    Helmut Neumann; Markus F Neurath; Jonas Mudter

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in endoscopic imaging techniques have revolutionized the diagnostic approach of patients with inflammatory bowel disease(IBD).New,emerging endoscopic imaging techniques visualized a plethora of new mucosal details even at the cellular and subcellular level.This review offers an overview about new endoscopic techniques,including chromoendoscopy,magnification endoscopy,spectroscopy,confocal laser endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy in the face of IBD.

  12. An efficient iris segmentation approach

    Gomai, Abdu; El-Zaart, A.; Mathkour, H.

    2011-10-01

    Iris recognition system became a reliable system for authentication and verification tasks. It consists of five stages: image acquisition, iris segmentation, iris normalization, feature encoding, and feature matching. Iris segmentation stage is one of the most important stages. It plays an essential role to locate the iris efficiently and accurately. In this paper, we present a new approach for iris segmentation using image processing technique. This approach is composed of four main parts. (1) Eliminating reflections of light on the eye image based on inverting the color of the grayscale image, filling holes in the intensity image, and inverting the color of the intensity image to get the original grayscale image without any reflections. (2) Pupil boundary detection based on dividing an eye image to nine sub-images and finding the minimum value of the mean intensity for each sub-image to get a suitable threshold value of pupil. (3) Enhancing the contrast of outer iris boundary using exponential operator to have sharp variation. (4) Outer iris boundary localization based on applying a gray threshold and morphological operations on the rectangular part of an eye image including the pupil and the outer boundaries of iris to find the small radius of outer iris boundary from the center of pupil. The proposed approach has been tested on CASIA v1.0 iris image database and other collected iris image database. The experimental results show that the approach is able to detect pupil and outer iris boundary with high accuracy results approximately 100% and reduce time consuming.

  13. Alternative systematic approaches to training

    1995-01-01

    This handbook is approved for use by all DOE Components and contractors. The handbook was prepared primarily for DOE nuclear facilities, but the information can be effectively used by any other type of facility. DOE nuclear, DOE non-nuclear, commercial nuclear reactor, fuel fabrication, chemical processing, or other types of facilities may also apply the principles of this approach and find it useful and applicable to local needs. The handbook provides DOE and contractor operating organizations with concepts and guidance regarding the use of alternative techniques to implement a systematic approach to training (SAT). The techniques described in this handbook are endorsed by DOE and use of the guidance in this handbook is appropriate for establishment of technical training programs at DOE nuclear facilities. The use of guidance on selection and implementation of appropriate training approaches after consideration of job complexity, the consequences of error based on risk/hazard potential, and available training media should result in effective and efficient training programs. The information presented in this handbook can be used to grade the level of effort and formality used in developing training programs.

  14. Proteomic approaches to bacterial differentiation

    Norbeck, Angela D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Elias, Dwayne A.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-12-01

    While genomic approaches have been applied for the detection and identification of individual bacteria within microbial communities, analogous proteomics approaches have been effectively precluded due to their inherent complexity. An in silico assessment of peptides that could potentially be present in the proteomes of artificial simple and complex communities was performed to evaluate the effect of proteome complexity on species detection. A mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach was employed to experimentally detect and validate the predicted tryptic peptides initially identified as distinctive within the simple community. An assessment of peptide distinctiveness and the potential for mapping to a particular bacterium within a community was made throughout each step of the study. A second in silico assessment of peptide distinctiveness for a complex community of 25 microorganisms was conducted to investigate the levels of instrumental performance that would be required to experimentally detect these peptides, as well as how performance varied with complexity (e.g., the number of different microorganisms). The experimental data for a simple community showed that it is feasible to predict, observe, and to quantify distinctive peptides from one organism in the presence of at least a 100-fold greater abundance of another, thus yielding putative markers for identifying a bacterium of interest. This work represents a first step towards quantitative proteomic characterization of complex microbial communities and the possible development of community wide markers of perturbations to such communities.

  15. Proteomic approaches to bacterial differentiation

    Norbeck, Angela D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Elias, Dwayne A.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-01-02

    While genomic approaches have been applied to the detection and identification of individual bacteria within microbial communities, analogous proteomics approaches have been effectively precluded due to the inherent complexity. An in silico assessment of peptides derived from artificial simple and complex communities was performed to evaluate the effect of proteome complexity on species detection. Detection and validation of predicted peptides initially identified as distinctive within the simple community was experimentally performed using a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach. An assessment of peptide distinctiveness and the potential for mapping to a particular bacterium within a community was made throughout each step of the study. A second assessment performed in silico of peptide distinctiveness for a complex community of 25 microorganisms was also conducted. The experimental data for a simple community, and the in silico data for a complex community revealed that it is feasible to predict, observe, and quantify distinctive peptides from one organism in the presence of at least a 100-fold greater abundance of another, thus yielding putative markers for the identification of a bacterium of interest. This work represents a first step towards quantitative proteomic characterization of complex microbial communities.

  16. New approaches in GMO detection.

    Querci, Maddalena; Van den Bulcke, Marc; Zel, Jana; Van den Eede, Guy; Broll, Hermann

    2010-03-01

    The steady rate of development and diffusion of genetically modified plants and their increasing diversification of characteristics, genes and genetic control elements poses a challenge in analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). It is expected that in the near future the picture will be even more complex. Traditional approaches, mostly based on the sequential detection of one target at a time, or on a limited multiplexing, allowing only a few targets to be analysed at once, no longer meet the testing requirements. Along with new analytical technologies, new approaches for the detection of GMOs authorized for commercial purposes in various countries have been developed that rely on (1) a smart and accurate strategy for target selection, (2) the use of high-throughput systems or platforms for the detection of multiple targets and (3) algorithms that allow the conversion of analytical results into an indication of the presence of individual GMOs potentially present in an unknown sample. This paper reviews the latest progress made in GMO analysis, taking examples from the most recently developed strategies and tools, and addresses some of the critical aspects related to these approaches.

  17. An abstract approach to music.

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  18. Nonpharmaceutical approaches to pain management.

    Corti, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    A nonpharmaceutical approach to managing pain is one that does not employ a medication. The use of such approaches, in conjunction with pharmaceuticals as part of multimodal methods to managing pain, is becoming more popular as evidence is emerging to support their use. Cold therapy, for one, is used to reduce the inflammation and tissue damage seen in acute injuries and can be very effective at reducing acute pain. Incorporating the use of superficial heat therapy when treating pain associated with chronic musculoskeletal conditions is often employed as heat increases blood flow, oxygen delivery, and tissue extensibility. Acupuncture is gaining acceptance in veterinary medicine. Research is confirming that release of endogenous endorphins and enkephalins from the application of needles at specific points around the body can effectively control acute and chronic pain. The use of 2 newer therapies-extracorporeal shockwave therapy and platelet-rich plasma-represent an attempt to eliminate the causes of pain at the tissue level by promoting tissue healing and regeneration. Reviewed in this article, these therapies are intended to be used in conjunction with pharmaceuticals as part of a multimodal approach to pain management.

  19. Computer Algebra, Instrumentation and the Anthropological Approach

    Monaghan, John

    2007-01-01

    This article considers research and scholarship on the use of computer algebra in mathematics education following the instrumentation and the anthropological approaches. It outlines what these approaches are, positions them with regard to other approaches, examines tensions between the two approaches and makes suggestions for how work in this…

  20. Fuzzy multiple linear regression: A computational approach

    Juang, C. H.; Huang, X. H.; Fleming, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational approach for performing fuzzy regression. In contrast to Bardossy's approach, the new approach, while dealing with fuzzy variables, closely follows the conventional regression technique. In this approach, treatment of fuzzy input is more 'computational' than 'symbolic.' The following sections first outline the formulation of the new approach, then deal with the implementation and computational scheme, and this is followed by examples to illustrate the new procedure.

  1. THE ECLECTIC APPROACH AND ITS USE

    1994-01-01

    Introduction The field of ELT is constantly changing, so how shall we deal with the various approaches to ELT in China? To answer this question, I shall firstly define the eclectic approach, then look at reasons for using this approach. Finally, I shall focus on its practical use in senior middle school English teaching. What is the Eclectic Approach? The eclectic approach is a technique which applies varying teaching methods to specific situations.

  2. Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems

    Terrado, E.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

  3. Local approach to quantum entanglement

    Ho-Chih, Lin

    Quantum entanglement is the key property that makes quantum information theory different from its classical counterpart and is also a valuable physical resource with massive potential for technological applications. However, our understanding of entanglement is still far from com plete despite intense research activities. Like other physical resources, the first step towards exploiting them fully is to know how to quantify. There are many reasons to focus on the en tanglement of continuous-variable states since the underlying degrees of freedom of physical systems carrying quantum information are frequently continuous, rather than discrete. Much of the effort has been concentrated on Gaussian states, because these are common as the ground or thermal states of optical modes. Within this framework, many interesting topics have been stud ied and some significant progress made. Nevertheless, non-Gaussian states are also extremely important this is especially so in condensed-phase systems, where harmonic behaviour in any degree of freedom is likely to be only an approximation. So far, there is little knowledge about the quantification of entanglement in non-Gaussian states. This thesis aims to contribute to the active field of research in quantum entanglement by introducing a new approach to the analysis of entanglement, especially in continuous-variable states, and shows that it leads to the first systematic quantification of the (local) entanglement in arbitrary bipartite non-Gaussian states. By applying this local approach, many new insights can be gained. Notably, local entanglements of systems with smooth wavefunctions are fully characterised by the derived simple expressions, provided the wavefunction is known. The local (logarithmic) negativity of any two-mode mixed states can be directly computed from the closed-form formulae given. For multi-mode mixed states, this approach provides a scheme that permits much simpler numerical computation for quantifying

  4. Computational approaches for drug discovery.

    Hung, Che-Lun; Chen, Chi-Chun

    2014-09-01

    Cellular proteins are the mediators of multiple organism functions being involved in physiological mechanisms and disease. By discovering lead compounds that affect the function of target proteins, the target diseases or physiological mechanisms can be modulated. Based on knowledge of the ligand-receptor interaction, the chemical structures of leads can be modified to improve efficacy, selectivity and reduce side effects. One rational drug design technology, which enables drug discovery based on knowledge of target structures, functional properties and mechanisms, is computer-aided drug design (CADD). The application of CADD can be cost-effective using experiments to compare predicted and actual drug activity, the results from which can used iteratively to improve compound properties. The two major CADD-based approaches are structure-based drug design, where protein structures are required, and ligand-based drug design, where ligand and ligand activities can be used to design compounds interacting with the protein structure. Approaches in structure-based drug design include docking, de novo design, fragment-based drug discovery and structure-based pharmacophore modeling. Approaches in ligand-based drug design include quantitative structure-affinity relationship and pharmacophore modeling based on ligand properties. Based on whether the structure of the receptor and its interaction with the ligand are known, different design strategies can be seed. After lead compounds are generated, the rule of five can be used to assess whether these have drug-like properties. Several quality validation methods, such as cost function analysis, Fisher's cross-validation analysis and goodness of hit test, can be used to estimate the metrics of different drug design strategies. To further improve CADD performance, multi-computers and graphics processing units may be applied to reduce costs.

  5. Approach to Mars Field Geology

    Muehlberger, William; Rice, James W.; Parker, Timothy; Lipps, Jere H.; Hoffman, Paul; Burchfiel, Clark; Brasier, Martin

    1998-01-01

    The goals of field study on Mars are nothing less than to understand the processes and history of the planet at whatever level of detail is necessary. A manned mission gives us an unprecedented opportunity to use the immense power of the human mind to comprehend Mars in extraordinary detail. To take advantage of this opportunity, it is important to examine how we should approach the field study of Mars. In this effort, we are guided by over 200 years of field exploration experience on Earth as well as six manned missions exploring the Moon.

  6. Specialist approaches to managing lipoedema.

    Fetzer, Amy

    2016-04-01

    While there is no proven cure for lipoedema, early detection is key as specialist treatments, complemented by self-management techniques, can improve symptoms and prevent progression. There is no universal approach as the correct treatment or treatments will depend on each patient's particular circumstances; however, when chosen early and appropriately, interventions can provide huge benefits. The most common treatments in the management of lipoedema include compression, manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), tumescent liposuction, intermittent pneumatic compression therapy (IPC), kinesio taping, deep oscillation therapy, and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).

  7. A Logical Approach to Entanglement

    Das, Abhishek

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we innovate a logical approach to develop an intuition regarding the phenomenon of quantum entanglement. In the vein of the logic introduced we substantiate that particles that were entangled in the past will be entangled in perpetuity and thereby abide a rule that restricts them to act otherwise. We also introduce a game and by virtue of the concept of Nash equilibrium we have been able to show that entangled particles will mutually correspond to an experiment that is performed on any one of the particle.

  8. Fundamental approach to discrete mathematics

    Acharjya, DP

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: The book `Fundamental Approach to Discrete Mathematics` is a required part of pursuing a computer science degree at most universities. It provides in-depth knowledge to the subject for beginners and stimulates further interest in the topic. The salient features of this book include: Strong coverage of key topics involving recurrence relation, combinatorics, Boolean algebra, graph theory and fuzzy set theory. Algorithms and examples integrated throughout the book to bring clarity to the fundamental concepts. Each concept and definition is followed by thoughtful examples.

  9. Understanding and Approaching Muslim Visibilities

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2011-01-01

    of the effects of multiculturalism in larger national debates, a situation affecting research engagement with the community. In the last part of my article I describe my dialogical approaches for engaging with the community, thus situating the article within wider discussions of research self....... Another path, which I pursue here, is to situate the activism of Muslims in the historical fabric of the neighbourhood(s) in which they live, in this case the Copenhagen neighbourhood of Nrrebro. Given that Muslims and others use Nrrebro as they do, this neighbourhood has become a prominent example...

  10. Cognitive reasoning a formal approach

    Anshakov, Oleg M

    2010-01-01

    Dealing with uncertainty, moving from ignorance to knowledge, is the focus of cognitive processes. Understanding these processes and modelling, designing, and building artificial cognitive systems have long been challenging research problems. This book describes the theory and methodology of a new, scientifically well-founded general approach, and its realization in the form of intelligent systems applicable in disciplines ranging from social sciences, such as cognitive science and sociology, through natural sciences, such as life sciences and chemistry, to applied sciences, such as medicine,

  11. Operational gaming an international approach

    Ståhl, Ingolf

    1983-01-01

    Operational Gaming: An International Approach focuses on various research on this method of systems analysis. The text points out the value of this method in decision making, planning, and in the implementation of policies. The book presents a survey that highlights the connection of experimental gaming, game theory, and operational gaming. The value of gaming as a balancing method in assessing multifaceted computer models, most notably about their assumptions on human behavior, is noted. The book also offers an overview of gaming in other countries, such as Bulgaria, Soviet Union, and Japan,

  12. Ermakov approach for minisuperspace oscillators

    Rosu, H C

    1999-01-01

    The WDW equation of arbitrary Hartle-Hawking factor ordering for several minisuperspace universe models, such as the pure gravity FRW and Taub ones, is mapped onto the dynamics of corresponding classical oscillators. The latter ones are studied by the classical Ermakov invariant method, which is a natural aproach in this context. For the more realistic case of a minimally coupled massive scalar field, one can study, within the same type of approach, the corresponding squeezing features as a possible means of describing cosmological evolution. Finally, we comment on the analogy with the accelerator physics

  13. Experimental design a chemometric approach

    Deming, SN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in a paperback edition is a book which has been described as ``...an exceptionally lucid, easy-to-read presentation... would be an excellent addition to the collection of every analytical chemist. I recommend it with great enthusiasm.'' (Analytical Chemistry). Unlike most current textbooks, it approaches experimental design from the point of view of the experimenter, rather than that of the statistician. As the reviewer in `Analytical Chemistry' went on to say: ``Deming and Morgan should be given high praise for bringing the principles of experimental design to the level of the p

  14. Computer Networks A Systems Approach

    Peterson, Larry L

    2011-01-01

    This best-selling and classic book teaches you the key principles of computer networks with examples drawn from the real world of network and protocol design. Using the Internet as the primary example, the authors explain various protocols and networking technologies. Their systems-oriented approach encourages you to think about how individual network components fit into a larger, complex system of interactions. Whatever your perspective, whether it be that of an application developer, network administrator, or a designer of network equipment or protocols, you will come away with a "big pictur

  15. Atomic Approaches to Defect Thermochemistry

    1992-04-30

    ATOMIC APPROACHES TO DEFECT THERMOCHEMISTRY (AFOSR-89-0309) for period 1 April 1989 to 31 March 1992 Submitted by Professor James A. Van Vechten and...could be very much less. Thus, the GaAs lattice is indeed found to be stiff. Positron annihilation experiments (17) also teach us that GaAs samples...to be less for Si than for Ge. Experience with chemical trends of bond strengths, as well as the empirical literature, teach us that the H bond

  16. Computational approaches to energy materials

    Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

    2013-01-01

    The development of materials for clean and efficient energy generation and storage is one of the most rapidly developing, multi-disciplinary areas of contemporary science, driven primarily by concerns over global warming, diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, the need for energy security, and increasing consumer demand for portable electronics. Computational methods are now an integral and indispensable part of the materials characterisation and development process.   Computational Approaches to Energy Materials presents a detailed survey of current computational techniques for the

  17. Formalistic approaches to A & P

    赵倩

    2014-01-01

    A&P is a famous short story. Its simple words, the unique point of view and skillful writing technique are expressed successfully. Besides, the first-person narrator is also a good point. From Sammy’s eyes, readers can learn the character’s characteristics. Another point is the usage of symbol, the name of the store, A&P, it shows that people’s life is rich, but their spirit is barren. This article tries to analyze it by formalistic approaches.

  18. Real Analysis A Historical Approach

    Stahl, Saul

    2011-01-01

    A provocative look at the tools and history of real analysis This new edition of Real Analysis: A Historical Approach continues to serve as an interesting read for students of analysis. Combining historical coverage with a superb introductory treatment, this book helps readers easily make the transition from concrete to abstract ideas. The book begins with an exciting sampling of classic and famous problems first posed by some of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Archimedes, Fermat, Newton, and Euler are each summoned in turn, illuminating the utility of infinite, power, and trigonome

  19. Location theory a unified approach

    Nickel, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Although modern location theory is now more than 90 years old, the focus of researchers in this area has been mainly problem oriented. However, a common theory, which keeps the essential characteristics of classical location models, is still missing.This monograph addresses this issue. A flexible location problem called the Ordered Median Problem (OMP) is introduced. For all three main subareas of location theory (continuous, network and discrete location) structural properties of the OMP are presented and solution approaches provided. Numerous illustrations and examples help the reader to bec

  20. Fission approach to cluster radioactivity

    D N Poenaru; R A Gherghescu

    2015-09-01

    Fission theory is used to explain decay. Also, the analytical superasymmetric fission (ASAF) model is successfully employed to make a systematic search and to predict, with other models, cluster radioactivity. The macroscopic–microscopic method is illustrated for the superheavy nucleus 286Fl. Then a few results of the theoretical approach of decay (ASAF, UNIV and semFIS models), cluster decay (ASAF and UNIV) and spontaneous fission dynamics are described with Werner–Wheeler and cranking inertia. UNIV denotes universal curve and semFIS the fission-based semiempirical formula.

  1. Orthodontic-periodontics interdisciplinary approach.

    Vinod, K; Reddy, Y Giridhar; Reddy, Vinay P; Nandan, Hemant; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2012-01-01

    In this present era, when a significant number of patients seeking orthodontic treatment are adults, importance of multidisciplinary treatment approach cannot be overemphasized. Higher susceptibility of plaque accumulation in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment makes involvement of periodontist almost unavoidable. Also, orthodontic treatment frequently results in undesirable periodontal changes which require immediate attention. More recently, orthodontics has been used as an adjunct to periodontics to increase connective tissue support and alveolar bone height. The purpose of this article is to review the adverse effects of orthodontic treatment on the periodontal tissues and to discuss the mutually beneficial relationship shared between the two specialties.

  2. Nanothermodynamics: a subdivision potential approach

    R. Moussavi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available  Classical thermodynamic laws and relations have been developed for macroscopic systems that satisfy the thermodynamic limit. These relations are challenged as the system size decreases to the scale of nano-systems, in which thermodynamic properties are overshadowed by system size, and the usual classical concepts of extensivity and intensivity are no longer valid. The challenges to the classical thermodynamics in relation to small systems are demonstrated, and via the approach introduced by Hill, the concept of sub-division potential is clarified in details. The fundamental thermodynamic relations are obtained using a rational-based method.

  3. The calculus a genetic approach

    Toeplitz, Otto

    2007-01-01

    When first published posthumously in 1963, this book presented a radically different approach to the teaching of calculus.  In sharp contrast to the methods of his time, Otto Toeplitz did not teach calculus as a static system of techniques and facts to be memorized. Instead, he drew on his knowledge of the history of mathematics and presented calculus as an organic evolution of ideas beginning with the discoveries of Greek scholars, such as Archimedes, Pythagoras, and Euclid, and developing through the centuries in the work of Kepler, Galileo, Fermat, Newton, and Leibniz. Through this unique a

  4. 'Lean' approach gives greater efficiency.

    Call, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Adapting the 'Lean' methodologies used for many years by many manufacturers on the production line - such as in the automotive industry - and deploying them in healthcare 'spaces' can, Roger Call, an architect at Herman Miller Healthcare in the US, argues, 'easily remedy many of the inefficiencies' found within a healthcare facility. In an article that first appeared in the September 2013 issue of The Australian Hospital Engineer, he explains how 'Lean' approaches such as the 'Toyota production system', and 'Six Sigma', can be harnessed to good effect in the healthcare sphere.

  5. Educational approaches for discouraging plagiarism.

    Fischer, Beth A; Zigmond, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Suggested approaches to reduce the occurrence of plagiarism in academia, particularly among trainees. These include (1) educating individuals as to the definition of plagiarism and its consequences through written guidelines, active discussions, and practice in identifying proper and improper citation practices; (2) distributing checklists that break the writing task into more manageable steps, (3) requiring the submission of an outline and then a first draft prior to the deadline for a paper; (4) making assignments relevant to individual interests; and (5) providing trainees with access to software programs that detect plagiarism.

  6. A new approach to magic

    Čvorović Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the example of traditional practices of magic to suggest ways to incorporate cultural behaviors within the evolutionary paradigm. The first suggestion is to restrict hypotheses to only identifiable variables. This means avoiding the temptation of following the nonevolutionary social sciences in the practice of basing explanations on unverifiable guesses about what beliefs (or memes in evolutionary jargon may or may not inhabit people's brains. In contrast with previous explanations that magical practices result from beliefs and memes whose primarily purpose is to reduce anxiety, we propose that magic is a form of communication that promotes cooperation and often avoids anti-social behavior. This effect of increased cooperation could explain why traditional forms of magic have probably existed and had significant positive consequences for the participants. To be effective as a means of communication, magical rituals must specify both the content of the message and the receiver of the message. Although the content of the communicative message differs with different types of magic, all magical acts serve a purpose to influence the behavior of the party involved and that is the most significant identifiable effect of such behavior. An advantage of this approach over many previous explanations of magic is that because it focuses on identifiable phenomena, the definitions and explanations used in this approach can be falsified.

  7. Approach/avoidance in dreams.

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams.

  8. Systematic approach to thermal leptogenesis

    Frossard, T.; Kartavtsev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Garny, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hohenegger, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, LPPC, BSP (Switzerland); Mitrouskas, D. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    In this work we study thermal leptogenesis using non-equilibrium quantum field theory. Starting from fundamental equations for correlators of the quantum fields we describe the steps necessary to obtain quantum kinetic equations for quasiparticles. These can easily be compared to conventional results and overcome conceptional problems inherent in the canonical approach. Beyond CP-violating decays we include also those scattering processes which are tightly related to the decays in a consistent approximation of fourth order in the Yukawa couplings. It is demonstrated explicitly how the S-matrix elements for the scattering processes in the conventional approach are related to two- and three-loop contributions to the effective action. We derive effective decay and scattering amplitudes taking medium corrections and thermal masses into account. In this context we also investigate CP-violating Higgs decay within the same formalism. From the kinetic equations we derive rate equations for the lepton asymmetry improved in that they include quantum-statistical effects and medium corrections to the quasiparticle properties.

  9. Interdisciplinary Approach in Engineering Education

    Anda Zeidmane

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the scientific literature available on the types of general competences and their classification caused the authors to conclude that it is necessary to implement interdisciplinary approach in engineering education to develop competences necessary for engineers to make them competitive in the labour market. The attention should be paid to a professional foreign language, computer literacy and educational psychology recommendations. To improve professional foreign language skills, CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning method should be integrated in the study process of engineering education. In order to develop information literacy competence, it is important to create a single e-study environment. The academic staff, developing study subjects for engineering programmes, should focus on the study content and study methods. As regards the content, the compromise should be sought between fundamental acquisition of the knowledge of the subject matter, the know-how of the application of this knowledge as well as the use of brand new software in the calculations. The paper presents the examples of the application of the interdisciplinary approach in the universities, where the authors of the paper are affiliated: the LUA (Latvia University of Agriculture and the RTU (Riga Technical University, respectively.

  10. Cardiac imaging. A multimodality approach

    Thelen, Manfred [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany); Erbel, Raimund [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Clinic and Polyclinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Barkhausen, Joerg (eds.) [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2009-07-01

    An excellent atlas on modern diagnostic imaging of the heart Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach features an in-depth introduction to all current imaging modalities for the diagnostic assessment of the heart as well as a clinical overview of cardiac diseases and main indications for cardiac imaging. With a particular emphasis on CT and MRI, the first part of the atlas also covers conventional radiography, echocardiography, angiography and nuclear medicine imaging. Leading specialists demonstrate the latest advances in the field, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each modality. The book's second part features clinical chapters on heart defects, endocarditis, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, cardiac tumors, pericardial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, and diseases of the thoracic aorta. The authors address anatomy, pathophysiology, and clinical features, and evaluate the various diagnostic options. Key features: - Highly regarded experts in cardiology and radiology off er image-based teaching of the latest techniques - Readers learn how to decide which modality to use for which indication - Visually highlighted tables and essential points allow for easy navigation through the text - More than 600 outstanding images show up-to-date technology and current imaging protocols Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach is a must-have desk reference for cardiologists and radiologists in practice, as well as a study guide for residents in both fields. It will also appeal to cardiac surgeons, general practitioners, and medical physicists with a special interest in imaging of the heart. (orig.)

  11. Molecular Approaches to Studying Denitrification

    Voytek, M. A.

    2001-05-01

    Denitrification is carried out by a diverse array of microbes, mainly as an alternative mode of respiration that allows the organisms to respire using oxidized N compounds instead of oxygen. A common approach in biogeochemistry to the study of the regulation of denitrification is to assess activity by mass balance of substrates and products or direct rate measurements and has intrinsically assumed resource regulation of denitrification. Reported rates can vary significantly even among ecosystems characterized by similar environmental conditions, thus indicating that direct control by abiotic factors often is not sufficient to predict denitrification rates accurately in natural environments. Alternatively, a microbiological approach would proceed with the identification of the organisms responsible and an evaluation of the effect of environmental factors on the biochemical pathways involved. Traditional studies have relied on culturing techniques, such as most probable number enrichments, and have failed to assess the role of the predominately uncultivable members of the microbial community. A combination of biogeochemical measurements and the assessment of the microbial community is necessary and becoming increasingly possible with the development and application of molecular techniques. In order to understand how the composition and physiological behavior of the microbial community affects denitrification rates, we use a suite of molecular techniques developed for phylogenetic and metabolic characterization of denitrifying communities. Molecular tools available for quantifying denitrifying bacteria and assessing their diversity and activity are summarized. Their application is illustrated with examples from marine and freshwater environments. Emerging techniques and their application to ground water studies will be discussed.

  12. Theoretical approaches to superionic conductivity

    C S Sunandana; P Senthil Kumar

    2004-02-01

    Recent theoretical approaches to the understanding of superionic conductivity in polycrystalline, glassy and polymeric materials are briefly reviewed. Phase transitions to the superionic conducting state in the AgI family are apparently triggered by cluster formation and strong mobile ion interaction within the clusters. Anomalous conductivity and related physical properties are explained in the cluster induced distortion model. Ionic composites such as AgX : Al2O3 ( = Cl, Br and I) involve conducting and non-conducting phases and the all-important interface between the two whose space charge enhances the conductivity and also trigger phase transitions to exotic polymorphic phases, for which the mechanisms are yet to be explored. Ion hopping dynamics controls the conductivity of superionic glasses. Mode coupling and jump relaxation theories account for the non-Debye relaxation observed in a.c. conductivity of these glasses. The theory of conductivity in polymer electrolytes-still in its infancy-involves their complex structure and glass transition behaviour. Preparative and thermal history, composition and crystallinity control ionic conductivity. New approaches to the synthesis of optimal polymer electrolytes such as rubbery electrolytes, crystalline polymers and nanocomposites must be considered before achieving a comprehensive theoretical understanding.

  13. Phonetic Ambiguity Approaches, Touchstones, Pitfalls and New Approaches

    Juola, P

    1996-01-01

    Phonetic ambiguity and confusibility are bugbears for any form of bottom-up or data-driven approach to language processing. The question of when an input is ``close enough'' to a target word pervades the entire problem spaces of speech recognition, synthesis, language acquisition, speech compression, and language representation, but the variety of representations that have been applied are demonstrably inadequate to at least some aspects of the problem. This paper reviews this inadequacy by examining several touchstone models in phonetic ambiguity and relating them to the problems they were designed to solve. An good solution would be, among other things, efficient, accurate, precise, and universally applicable to representation of words, ideally usable as a ``phonetic distance'' metric for direct measurement of the ``distance'' between word or utterance pairs. None of the proposed models can provide a complete solution to the problem; in general, there is no algorithmic theory of phonetic distance. It is unc...

  14. NonMarkov Ito Processes with 1- state memory

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    2010-08-01

    A Markov process, by definition, cannot depend on any previous state other than the last observed state. An Ito process implies the Fokker-Planck and Kolmogorov backward time partial differential eqns. for transition densities, which in turn imply the Chapman-Kolmogorov eqn., but without requiring the Markov condition. We present a class of Ito process superficially resembling Markov processes, but with 1-state memory. In finance, such processes would obey the efficient market hypothesis up through the level of pair correlations. These stochastic processes have been mislabeled in recent literature as 'nonlinear Markov processes'. Inspired by Doob and Feller, who pointed out that the ChapmanKolmogorov eqn. is not restricted to Markov processes, we exhibit a Gaussian Ito transition density with 1-state memory in the drift coefficient that satisfies both of Kolmogorov's partial differential eqns. and also the Chapman-Kolmogorov eqn. In addition, we show that three of the examples from McKean's seminal 1966 paper are also nonMarkov Ito processes. Last, we show that the transition density of the generalized Black-Scholes type partial differential eqn. describes a martingale, and satisfies the ChapmanKolmogorov eqn. This leads to the shortest-known proof that the Green function of the Black-Scholes eqn. with variable diffusion coefficient provides the so-called martingale measure of option pricing.

  15. Bruxism and Current Treatment Approaches

    Selin Eren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the mastication system disorders bruxism is a parafunctional behavior that comes from psychophysiological origin. Epidemiologic studies have reported great variability of bruxism prevalence. The factors that could cause bruxism is highly controversial. There are different opinions on this issue. The etiologic factors of bruxism include stress, malnutrition, allergic and endocrinologic diseases, central nervous system disorders, genetic factors, medicines, malocclusion, and wrong dental treatment. The aim of treatment of bruxism is to prevent damage that may occur on teeth and in the temporomandibular joint and to eliminate pain. Dental treatment, physical therapy, pharmacological treatment and behavioral and cognitive therapy can be considered for this purpose of treatment. This review summarizes the etiologic factors, epidemiology, diagnosis, and current treatment approaches of patient with bruxism. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(2.000: 241-258

  16. A tauberian approach to RH

    Cloitre, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly we present our main discovery arising from experiments which is the tauberian concept of functions of good variation (FGV). Secondly we propose to use these FGV for proving RH is true via some conjectures. More precisely we give an implicit definition of FGV and we provide several smooth and nontrivial exemples from experiments. Then using a conjectured family of FGV involving functions approaching the floor function we derive RH is true. We make also a tauberian conjecture allowing us to prove RH is true for L-functions (the generalized RH) and automorphic L-functions (the grand RH) and we discuss the linear independance conjecture. The method is inspired by the Ingham summation process and the experimental support is provided using pari-gp.

  17. Analytic Approach to Perturbative QCD

    Magradze, B

    2000-01-01

    The two-loop invariant (running) coupling of QCD is written in terms of the Lambert W function. The analyticity structure of the coupling in the complex Q^2-plane is established. The corresponding analytic coupling is reconstructed via a dispersion relation. We also consider some other approximations to the QCD beta-function, when the corresponding couplings are solved in terms of the Lambert function. The Landau gauge gluon propagator has been considered in the renormalization group invariant analytic approach (IAA). It is shown that there is a nonperturbative ambiguity in determination of the anomalous dimension function of the gluon field. Several analytic solutions for the propagator at the one-loop order are constructed. Properties of the obtained analytical solutions are discussed.

  18. Diffraction operators in paraxial approach

    Lasso, William; Navas, Marianela; Añez, Liz; Urdaneta, Romer; Díaz, Leonardo; Torres, César O.

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, research in the field of science education points to the creation of alternative ways of teaching contents encouraging the development of more elaborate reasoning, where a high degree of abstraction and generalization of scientific knowledge prevails. On that subject, this research shows a didactic alternative proposal for the construction of Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction concepts applying the Fourier transform technique in the study of electromagnetic waves propagation in free space. Curvature transparency and Fourier sphere operators in paraxial approximation are used in order to make the usual laborious mathematical approach easier. The main result shows that the composition of optic metaxial operators results in the discovery of a simpler way out of the standard electromagnetic wave propagation in free space between a transmitter and a receptor separated from a given distance. This allows to state that the didactic proposal shown encourages the construction of Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction concepts in a more effective and easier way than the traditional teaching.

  19. A Diagnostic Approach to Hemochromatosis

    Anthony S Tavill

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present clinical review, a diagnostic approach to hemochromatosis is discussed from the perspective of two clinicians with extensive experience in this area. The introduction of genetic testing and large-scale population screening studies have broadened our understanding of the clinical expression of disease and the utility of biochemical iron tests for the detection of disease and for the assessment of disease severity. Liver biopsy has become more of a prognostic test than a diagnostic test. The authors offer a stepwise, diagnostic algorithm based on current evidence-based data, that they regard as most cost-effective. An early diagnosis can lead to phlebotomy therapy to prevent the development of cirrhosis.

  20. Gaze disorders: A clinical approach

    Pulikottil Wilson Vinny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A single clear binocular vision is made possible by the nature through the oculomotor system along with inputs from the cortical areas as well their descending pathways to the brainstem. Six systems of supranuclear control mechanisms play a crucial role in this regard. These are the saccadic system, the smooth pursuit system, the vestibular system, the optokinetic system, the fixation system, and the vergence system. In gaze disorders, lesions at different levels of the brain spare some of the eye movement systems while affecting others. The resulting pattern of eye movements helps clinicians to localize lesions accurately in the central nervous system. Common lesions causing gaze palsies include cerebral infarcts, demyelinating lesions, multiple sclerosis, tumors, Wernicke's encephalopathy, metabolic disorders, and neurodegenerative disorders such as progressive supranuclear palsy. Evaluation of the different gaze disorders is a bane of most budding neurologists and neurosurgeons. However, a simple and systematic clinical approach to this problem can make their early diagnosis rather easy.

  1. Raman spectroscopy an intensity approach

    Guozhen, Wu

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the highlights of our work on the bond polarizability approach to the intensity analysis. The topics covered include surface enhanced Raman scattering, Raman excited virtual states and Raman optical activity (ROA). The first chapter briefly introduces the Raman effect in a succinct but clear way. Chapter 2 deals with the normal mode analysis. This is a basic tool for our work. Chapter 3 introduces our proposed algorithm for the Raman intensity analysis. Chapter 4 heavily introduces the physical picture of Raman virtual states. Chapter 5 offers details so that the readers can have a comprehensive idea of Raman virtual states. Chapter 6 demonstrates how this bond polarizability algorithm is extended to ROA intensity analysis. Chapters 7 and 8 offer details on ROA, showing many findings on ROA mechanism that were not known or neglected before. Chapter 9 introduces our proposed classical treatment on ROA which, as combined with the results from the bond polarizability analysis, leads to a com...

  2. Carious dentine removal: current approach

    Germana Coeli de Farias Sales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry is renewed day after day through the results of qualified researches. The approach as regards carious dentin removal is goingthrough questioning and innovation. The scope of this study was to perform a literature review in the sense of elucidating questions pertaining to the problem of whether or not it is necessary to completely remove carious dentin, and the possibility of performing restoration in a single session, in addition to a discussion about which type of material should be applied in this type of substrate. After analyzing the referenced articles, it was concluded that the stepwise treatment controls caries progression; there is a trend in the literature to partially remove the carious dentin in deep lesions and perform definitive restoration; Calcium hydroxide cement is a classical liner in these situations, while glass ionomer cement and resinous materials are other possibilities of materials that can be in close contact with the remaining dentin.

  3. Mindful approach to University education

    Broggi, Fiorenza; Bomba, Monica; Rimondini, Michela; Mutti, Maura; Pasta, Sara; Ricci, Chiara; Tagliabue, Luca; Valsecchi, Silvia; Monaco, Elide; Neri, Francesca; Oggiano, Silvia; Nacinovich, Renata

    2016-01-01

    A mindful approach to education and training could improve students’ reflective capacities and have positive effects on clinical practice because it facilitates a helping relationship. The main aims of this study were to investigate whether participation in a mindful-based University training was associated with increases in mindfulness skills as measured by the 5-Facet M Questionnaire, and to present the Italian validation of the questionnaire. Sixty-seven students from the course Neuro and Psychomotor Therapy were enrolled. They filled in the self-administered 5-Facet M Questionnaire before and 1 month after a mindfulness-based training, focused on role-playing and followed by a feedback group discussion. The Italian version of the 5-Facet M Questionnaire had good psychometric properties. The pre- and post-training analysis showed a significant increase in the subscale ‘Observing’. Findings suggest that role-playing and feedback group sessions are valid tools to improve students’ mindfulness skills. PMID:27729823

  4. AN INTERACTIVE APPROACH TO READING

    1994-01-01

    Introduction The Sino-British Friendship Scholarship Scheme (SBFSS) is co-sponsored by the Chinese and British governments and Sir Yue-gang Pao in Hong Kong to send Chinese scholars to study in Britain. Each year a large number of candidates are selected by the State Education Commission and dispatched to three intensive language training centres attached to Beijing Languages Institute, Shanghai Foreign Studies University and Chengdu University of Science and Technology for pre-departure ELT training. At the end of the training period, the trainees are required to take the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) test administered by the British side. Here at CUST, we focus on an interactive approach to training, particularly for reading.

  5. Queueing networks a fundamental approach

    Dijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    This handbook aims to highlight fundamental, methodological and computational aspects of networks of queues to provide insights and to unify results that can be applied in a more general manner.  The handbook is organized into five parts: Part 1 considers exact analytical results such as of product form type. Topics include characterization of product forms by physical balance concepts and simple traffic flow equations, classes of service and queue disciplines that allow a product form, a unified description of product forms for discrete time queueing networks, insights for insensitivity, and aggregation and decomposition results that allow subnetworks to be aggregated into single nodes to reduce computational burden. Part 2 looks at monotonicity and comparison results such as for computational simplification by either of two approaches: stochastic monotonicity and ordering results based on the ordering of the proces generators, and comparison results and explicit error bounds based on an underlying Markov r...

  6. Automated Approaches to RFI Flagging

    Garimella, Karthik; Momjian, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    It is known that Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is a major issue in centimeter wavelength radio astronomy. Radio astronomy software packages include tools to excise RFI; both manual and automated utilizing the visibilities (the uv data). Here we present results on an automated RFI flagging approach that utilizes a uv-grid, which is the intermediate product when converting uv data points to an image. It is a well known fact that any signal that appears widespread in a given domain (e.g., image domain) is compact in the Fourier domain (uv-grid domain), i.e., RFI sources that appear as large scale structures (e.g., stripes) in images can be located and flagged using the uv-grid data set. We developed several automated uv-grid based flagging algorithms to detect and excise RFI. These algorithms will be discussed, and results of applying them to measurement sets will be presented.

  7. Steganography and Steganalysis: Different Approaches

    Das, Soumyendu; Bandyopadhyay, Bijoy; Sanyal, Sugata

    2011-01-01

    Steganography is the technique of hiding confidential information within any media. Steganography is often confused with cryptography because the two are similar in the way that they both are used to protect confidential information. The difference between the two is in the appearance in the processed output; the output of steganography operation is not apparently visible but in cryptography the output is scrambled so that it can draw attention. Steganlysis is process to detect of presence of steganography. In this article we have tried to elucidate the different approaches towards implementation of steganography using 'multimedia' file (text, static image, audio and video) and Network IP datagram as cover. Also some methods of steganalysis will be discussed.

  8. Semiclassical approaches to nuclear dynamics

    Magner, A G; Bartel, J

    2016-01-01

    The extended Gutzwiller trajectory approach is presented for the semiclassical description of nuclear collective dynamics, in line with the main topics of the fruitful activity of V.G. Solovjov. Within the Fermi-liquid droplet model, the leptodermous effective surface approximation was applied to calculations of energies, sum rules and transition densities for the neutron-proton asymmetry of the isovector giant-dipole resonance and found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. By using the Strutinsky shell correction method, the semiclassical collective transport coefficients such as nuclear inertia, friction, stiffness, and moments of inertia can be derived beyond the quantum perturbation approximation of the response function theory and the cranking model.The averaged particle-number dependence of the low-lying collective vibrational states are described in good agreement with basic experimental data, mainly due to an enhancement of the collective inertia as compared to its irrotational flow val...

  9. A Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics

    Baldiotti, M C; Molina, C

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we develop a strictly Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics. A thermodynamic description based on symplectic geometry is introduced, where all thermodynamic processes can be described within the framework of Analytic Mechanics. Our proposal is constructed ontop of a usual symplectic manifold, where phase space is even dimensional and one has well-defined Poisson brackets. The main idea is the introduction of an extended phase space where thermodynamic equations of state are realized as constraints. We are then able to apply the canonical transformation toolkit to thermodynamic problems. Throughout this development, Dirac's theory of constrained systems is extensively used. To illustrate the formalism, we consider paradigmatic examples, namely, the ideal, van der Waals and Clausius gases.

  10. Statistical Physics Approaches to Seismicity

    Sornette, D

    2008-01-01

    This entry in the Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science, Springer present a summary of some of the concepts and calculational tools that have been developed in attempts to apply statistical physics approaches to seismology. We summarize the leading theoretical physical models of the space-time organization of earthquakes. We present a general discussion and several examples of the new metrics proposed by statistical physicists, underlining their strengths and weaknesses. The entry concludes by briefly outlining future directions. The presentation is organized as follows. I Glossary II Definition and Importance of the Subject III Introduction IV Concepts and Calculational Tools IV.1 Renormalization, Scaling and the Role of Small Earthquakes in Models of Triggered Seismicity IV.2 Universality IV.3 Intermittent Periodicity and Chaos IV.4 Turbulence IV.5 Self-Organized Criticality V Competing mechanisms and models V.1 Roots of complexity in seismicity: dynamics or heterogeneity? V.2 Critical earthquakes ...

  11. Ontology Partitioning: Clustering Based Approach

    Soraya Setti Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The semantic web goal is to share and integrate data across different domains and organizations. The knowledge representations of semantic data are made possible by ontology. As the usage of semantic web increases, construction of the semantic web ontologies is also increased. Moreover, due to the monolithic nature of the ontology various semantic web operations like query answering, data sharing, data matching, data reuse and data integration become more complicated as the size of ontology increases. Partitioning the ontology is the key solution to handle this scalability issue. In this work, we propose a revision and an enhancement of K-means clustering algorithm based on a new semantic similarity measure for partitioning given ontology into high quality modules. The results show that our approach produces meaningful clusters than the traditional algorithm of K-means.

  12. A programming approach to computability

    Kfoury, A J; Arbib, Michael A

    1982-01-01

    Computability theory is at the heart of theoretical computer science. Yet, ironically, many of its basic results were discovered by mathematical logicians prior to the development of the first stored-program computer. As a result, many texts on computability theory strike today's computer science students as far removed from their concerns. To remedy this, we base our approach to computability on the language of while-programs, a lean subset of PASCAL, and postpone consideration of such classic models as Turing machines, string-rewriting systems, and p. -recursive functions till the final chapter. Moreover, we balance the presentation of un solvability results such as the unsolvability of the Halting Problem with a presentation of the positive results of modern programming methodology, including the use of proof rules, and the denotational semantics of programs. Computer science seeks to provide a scientific basis for the study of information processing, the solution of problems by algorithms, and the design ...

  13. Entropy: The Markov Ordering Approach

    Alexander N. Gorban

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on entropy and Markov processes. We study the properties of functionals which are invariant with respect to monotonic transformations and analyze two invariant “additivity” properties: (i existence of a monotonic transformation which makes the functional additive with respect to the joining of independent systems and (ii existence of a monotonic transformation which makes the functional additive with respect to the partitioning of the space of states. All Lyapunov functionals for Markov chains which have properties (i and (ii are derived. We describe the most general ordering of the distribution space, with respect to which all continuous-time Markov processes are monotonic (the Markov order. The solution differs significantly from the ordering given by the inequality of entropy growth. For inference, this approach results in a convex compact set of conditionally “most random” distributions.

  14. Two Approaches to Entrepreneurship Education

    Moberg, Kåre

    2014-01-01

    and focuses on fostering non-cognitive entrepreneurial skills. Furthermore, the role of supportive teaching styles and action-based teaching methods in entrepreneurship education at this level of education is investigated. The analysis is based on data from two surveys including 801 randomly selected Danish......The objective of this paper is to analyse the influence of two different approaches to entrepreneurship education at the lower secondary level of education. The influence of education for entrepreneurship and education through entrepreneurship on pupils' level of school engagement...... for entrepreneurship, which focuses on content and cognitive entrepreneurial skills, has a positive influence on pupils' entrepreneurial intentions but a negative influence on their level of school engagement. The opposite is true for education through entrepreneurship, which has a more pedagogical orientation...

  15. Computational approach to Riemann surfaces

    Klein, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This volume offers a well-structured overview of existent computational approaches to Riemann surfaces and those currently in development. The authors of the contributions represent the groups providing publically available numerical codes in this field. Thus this volume illustrates which software tools are available and how they can be used in practice. In addition examples for solutions to partial differential equations and in surface theory are presented. The intended audience of this book is twofold. It can be used as a textbook for a graduate course in numerics of Riemann surfaces, in which case the standard undergraduate background, i.e., calculus and linear algebra, is required. In particular, no knowledge of the theory of Riemann surfaces is expected; the necessary background in this theory is contained in the Introduction chapter. At the same time, this book is also intended for specialists in geometry and mathematical physics applying the theory of Riemann surfaces in their research. It is the first...

  16. Autobot Evolution: A Futuristic approach

    N.Hariharan#

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SCABOR is an approach for the 3-D lane detection and autonomous driving. Its main attribute is to diagnose the metrology of roads. It has a wide significance in determining the basic structure, the presence of humps and dips and gives a clear and cache information of the way .Our view on this paper is to apply SCABOR along with the application of the GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM in autonomous driving system for safe and fast driving. Here the SCABOR technology’s currentapplication is outlined and its use has been extended to traffic system. We have suggested a unique method for flexible driving. We also suggest ways in which SCABOR technology can be enhanced forfuture applications. Among the significant advantages, these techniques perform well even in high risk zones and congested areas with up to 100% accuracy where many other techniques fail.

  17. Approaching Environmental Issues in Architecture

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2013-01-01

    The research presented here takes its point of departure in the design process with a specific focus on how it is approached when designing energy efficient architecture. This is done through a case-study of a design process in a Danish architectural office. This study shows the importance...... of having a clear strategy about how to work with optimizing the energy efficiency in the building from the first stages of the design process. It is not just a task that can be addressed by the engineers when a concept has been developed and approved by the client. It requires architects and engineers...... to address it from the beginning and work actively with it, but it also requires the client to state it clearly in the brief. From this study, it is evident that the work with energy efficiency requires us to focus on the formal framework for the design process. It must allow and support a multi...

  18. Approaches to translational plant science

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Christensen, Brian; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant...... science. Scientific and technological developments have allowed great progress in our understanding of plant genetics and molecular physiology, with potentials for improving agricultural production. However, this development has led to a separation of the laboratory-based research from the crop production...... is lessened. In our opinion, implementation of translational plant science is a necessity in order to solve the agricultural challenges of producing food and materials in the future. We suggest an approach to translational plant science forcing scientists to think beyond their own area and to consider higher...

  19. Pharmacotherapy of Schizophrenia: Ploypharmacy Approaches

    Fatemeh Rahiminejad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nSchizophrenia is a debilitating illness, rating as one of the leading causes of lost years of quality of life. The illness imposes a disproportionate burden on patients and their families, healthcare systems and society. Pharmacological management is the cornerstone of treatment of schizophrenia, and antipsychotics, both first generation of antipsychotics and second generation of antipsychotics, are efficacious in reducing levels of psychopathology in acute episodes of schizophrenia. Clearly a need for innovative treatment strategies in schizophrenia that will ensure increased effectiveness against negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction dysfunction. Therefore, in majority of cases polypharmacy is one of the effective approaches. This review focused on polypharmacy in the treatment of schizophrenia and in particular negative symptoms.

  20. Emerging approaches in predictive toxicology.

    Zhang, Luoping; McHale, Cliona M; Greene, Nigel; Snyder, Ronald D; Rich, Ivan N; Aardema, Marilyn J; Roy, Shambhu; Pfuhler, Stefan; Venkatactahalam, Sundaresan

    2014-12-01

    Predictive toxicology plays an important role in the assessment of toxicity of chemicals and the drug development process. While there are several well-established in vitro and in vivo assays that are suitable for predictive toxicology, recent advances in high-throughput analytical technologies and model systems are expected to have a major impact on the field of predictive toxicology. This commentary provides an overview of the state of the current science and a brief discussion on future perspectives for the field of predictive toxicology for human toxicity. Computational models for predictive toxicology, needs for further refinement and obstacles to expand computational models to include additional classes of chemical compounds are highlighted. Functional and comparative genomics approaches in predictive toxicology are discussed with an emphasis on successful utilization of recently developed model systems for high-throughput analysis. The advantages of three-dimensional model systems and stem cells and their use in predictive toxicology testing are also described.

  1. Topological approach of Jungian psychology.

    Viret, Jacques

    2010-09-01

    In this work, we compare two global approaches which are usually considered as completely unconnected one with the other. The former is Thom's topology and the latter is Jung's psychology. More precisely, it seemed to us interesting to adapt some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory to some Jung's notions. Thus, we showed that the swallowtail, which is one of these morphologies, was able to describe geometrically the structural organisation of the psyche according to Jung, with its collective unconscious, personal unconscious and conscious. Moreover, we have correlated this morphology with Jung's evolutive processes like individualization and individuation. These comparisons incited us to think that some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory are the geometrical dealing of Jung's archetypes.

  2. Managerial Leadership - A Theoretical Approach

    Felicia Cornelia MACARIE

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper endeavors to offer an overview of the major theories on leadership and the way in which it influences the management of contemporary organizations. Numerous scholars highlight that there are numerous overlaps between the concepts of management and leadership. This is the reason why the first section of the paper focuses on providing an extensive overview of the literature regarding the meaning of the two aforementioned concepts. The second section addresses more in depth the concept of leadership and managerial leadership and focuses on the ideal profile of the leader. The last section of the paper critically discusses various types of leadership and more specifically modern approaches to the concept and practices of leadership.

  3. How I approach trabeculectomy surgery

    Ian Murdoch

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe an approach to the most commonly performed surgical treatment for open-angle glaucoma, trabeculectomy. It is important to recognise that the concept of trabeculectomy surgery can be difficult for patients to comprehend in the first place. Their disease is frequently ‘thrust upon them’ by doctors; in other words, they are frequently asymptomatic in the eye that the ophthalmologist is most concerned about. The therapy, at best, can only hope to maintain vision. Vision may well deteriorate as a result of the therapy. These concepts are vital in the consideration of any surgical intervention. Preventive therapy is always more difficult to introduce. This also means the surgeon is all the more challenged to produce the safest possible result. A well-rested surgeon and a calm surgical environment is the start, along with a confident surgical technique.

  4. Validation of Modeling Flow Approaching Navigation Locks

    2013-08-01

    instrumentation, direction vernier . ........................................................................ 8  Figure 11. Plan A lock approach, upstream approach...13-9 8 Figure 9. Tools and instrumentation, bracket attached to rail. Figure 10. Tools and instrumentation, direction vernier . Numerical model

  5. An Electronic Approach to Materials Design

    Masahiko MORINAGA; Yoshinori MURATA; Hiroshi YUKAWA

    2003-01-01

    A molecular orbital approach to materials design has recently made great progress. This approach is based on the electronic structure calculations by the DV-Xα cluster method. In this paper recent progress in this approachis reviewed. In particular

  6. The inaction approach to gauge theories

    Pivovarov, Grigorii

    2012-01-01

    The inaction approach introduced previously for phi^4 is generalized to gauge theories. It combines the advantages of the effective field theory and causal approaches to quantum fields. Also, it suggests ways to generalizing gauge theories.

  7. A Brief Overview of Communicative Approach

    任永东

    2013-01-01

    Communicative Approach has become a popular teaching strategy.This essay mainly reviews and introduces the development and the features of Communicative Approach in order to apply this teaching methodology in English teaching for students’better learning results.

  8. A New Approach for Calculating Vacuum Susceptibility

    宗红石; 平加伦; 顾建中

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Dyson-Schwinger approach, we propose a new method for calculating vacuum susceptibilities. As an example, the vector vacuum susceptibility is calculated. A comparison with the results of the previous approaches is presented.

  9. Symbolic Tensor Calculus -- Functional and Dynamic Approach

    Woszczyna, A; Czaja, W; Golda, Z A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly discuss the dynamic and functional approach to computer symbolic tensor analysis. The ccgrg package for Wolfram Language/Mathematica is used to illustrate this approach. Some examples of applications are attached.

  10. My Approaches to Promote Teaching Efficiency

    李娟维

    2014-01-01

    Promoting teaching efficiency is a matter of the utmost concern of all teachers. This paper focuses on the different approaches that the author adopts in her teaching. These approaches include creating learning situations,using humor in teaching.

  11. Spinal trauma. An imaging approach

    Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology; Imhof, H. [University and General Hospital Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiodiagnostics

    2006-07-01

    The diagnosis of trauma to the spine - where the slightest oversight may have catastrophic results - requires a thorough grasp of the spectrum of resultant pathology as well as the imaging modalities used in making an accurate diagnosis. In Spinal Trauma, the internationally renowned team of experts provides a comprehensive, cutting-edge exposition of the current vital role of imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of injuries to the axial skeleton. Beginning with a valuable clinical perspective of spinal trauma, the book offers the reader a unique overview of the biomechanics underlying the pathology of cervical trauma. Acute trauma topics include: - Optimization of imaging modalities - Malalignment - signs and significance - Vertebral fractures - detection and implications - Classification of thoraco-lumbar fractures - rationale and relevance - Neurovascular injury. Distilling decades of clinical and teaching expertise, the contributors further discuss the current role of imaging in special focus topics, which include: - The pediatric spine - Sports injuries - The rigid spine - Trauma in the elderly - Vertebral collapse, benign and malignant - Spinal trauma therapy - Vertebral fractures and osteoporosis - Neuropathic spine. All throughout the book, the focus is on understanding the injury, and its implications and complications, through 'an imaging approach'. Lavishly illustrated with hundreds of superb MR images and CT scans, and clear full-color drawings, the authors conclude with a look into the future, defining clinical trends and research directions. Spinal Trauma - with its broad scope, practical imaging approach, and current focus - is designed to enhance confidence and accuracy, making it essential reading for clinicians and radiologists at all levels. (orig.)

  12. Computational Approaches to Vestibular Research

    Ross, Muriel D.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Biocomputation Center at NASA Ames Research Center is dedicated to a union between computational, experimental and theoretical approaches to the study of neuroscience and of life sciences in general. The current emphasis is on computer reconstruction and visualization of vestibular macular architecture in three-dimensions (3-D), and on mathematical modeling and computer simulation of neural activity in the functioning system. Our methods are being used to interpret the influence of spaceflight on mammalian vestibular maculas in a model system, that of the adult Sprague-Dawley rat. More than twenty 3-D reconstructions of type I and type II hair cells and their afferents have been completed by digitization of contours traced from serial sections photographed in a transmission electron microscope. This labor-intensive method has now been replace d by a semiautomated method developed in the Biocomputation Center in which conventional photography is eliminated. All viewing, storage and manipulation of original data is done using Silicon Graphics workstations. Recent improvements to the software include a new mesh generation method for connecting contours. This method will permit the investigator to describe any surface, regardless of complexity, including highly branched structures such as are routinely found in neurons. This same mesh can be used for 3-D, finite volume simulation of synapse activation and voltage spread on neuronal surfaces visualized via the reconstruction process. These simulations help the investigator interpret the relationship between neuroarchitecture and physiology, and are of assistance in determining which experiments will best test theoretical interpretations. Data are also used to develop abstract, 3-D models that dynamically display neuronal activity ongoing in the system. Finally, the same data can be used to visualize the neural tissue in a virtual environment. Our exhibit will depict capabilities of our computational approaches and

  13. Comprehensive approach to sarcopenia treatment.

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Sakuma, Kunihiro

    2014-05-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with a risk of adverse outcomes such as physical disability, poor quality of life, and death. Primary sarcopenia is considered to be age-related when no other cause is evident, other than ageing itself. Secondary sarcopenia should be considered when one or more other causes are evident, such as activity-, disease-, or nutrition-related sarcopenia. In this narrative review that focused on human studies, we summarize the pharmaceutical therapies (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estrogen, growth hormone, ghrelin, vitamin D, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and eicosapentaenoic acid) and nonpharmaceutical therapies (resistance training, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking) for counteracting primary sarcopenia. Testosterone and growth hormone improve muscle mass and muscle strength, but have several side effects. Although there are some intriguing pharmaceutical therapies to combat sarcopenia, resistance training combined with supplements containing amino acids are the most effective for preventing and treating age-related muscle wasting and weakness. The etiology of sarcopenia in the elderly is multi-factorial. Patients with disuse syndrome and deconditioning often complicate the diagnosis, of not only activity-related sarcopenia, but also age-, disease-, and nutrition-related sarcopenia. In these cases a comprehensive approach to sarcopenia treatment should include pharmaceutical therapies for age-related sarcopenia and comorbid chronic diseases, resistance training, early ambulation, nutrition management, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking. The effect of pharmaceutical therapies for sarcopenia can be enhanced by this comprehensive approach. Future research on pharmaceutical therapies for counteracting sarcopenia should consider non-pharmaceutical therapies and also the causes of sarcopenia.

  14. A systematic approach to an organization's sustainability.

    Schalock, Robert L; Verdugo, Miguel; Lee, Tim

    2016-06-01

    This article integrates the concepts of sustainability and quality improvement into a systematic approach to an organization's sustainability. The article: (a) presents a literature-based model that incorporates the factors that drive an organization's sustainability; (b) describes how sustainability is operationalized through a systematic approach to quality improvement; (c) discusses the advantages of a systematic approach to sustainability; and (d) shares with the reader literature and experientially-based lessons learned about the approach.

  15. A systems approach to traditional oriental medicine

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Ryu, Jae Yong; Lee, Jong Ok;

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity.......Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity....

  16. The USAF Stability and Control Digital DATCOM. Volume I. Users Manual

    1979-04-01

    8217 Increment in lift due to thrust, 13 Eqn. 4.6.1-c 21 XBARP Y 13 22 DEUDA 3e /3a( 4.6.1 Eqn. 4.6.i-m 13: ~u 23-42 DCLNP (ACL)Np 4.6.1 Eqn. 4.6.1-I 13 43-62...T) 30 22 XBARIN XIN 30 23 XIN0CR IN/Cr 30 24 DEUDA ac /a 4.4.1 Eqn. 4.6.1-m 30u 25 EPSLON 30 26 ATJ (cT)j 4.6.1 Eqn. 4.6.1-a 30 27-46 DCLNJ (ACL)N

  17. Exploring Academics' Approaches to Managing Team Assessment

    Augar, Naomi; Woodley, Carolyn J.; Whitefield, Despina; Winchester, Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of academics' approaches to managing team assessment at an Australian University with a view to informing policy development and assessment design. Design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted using a single exploratory case study approach focussing on the team assessment…

  18. A Nonviolent Approach to Social Justice Education

    Wang, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    This article advocates a nonviolent approach to social justice education. First, social justice education literature is reviewed, and two contrasting and influential approaches--critical theory and poststructural theory--are the focus of critical analysis. A nonviolent approach is proposed as an alternative. Second, the notion of social justice is…

  19. About Radiation Reaction with Force Approach

    Velazquez, Gustavo Lopez

    2015-01-01

    The difficulty of usual approach to radiation reaction is pointed out , and a possible approach based on the force acting to the charged particle which produces the acceleration itself, is presented. This approach brings about an expression such that acceleration is zero whenever the external force is zero.

  20. Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications 2

    Jazar, Reza N

    2013-01-01

    Provides updated principles and applications of the nonlinear approaches in solving engineering and physics problems Demonstrates how nonlinear approaches may open avenues to better, safer, cheaper systems with less energy consumption Has a strong emphasis on the application, physical meaning, and methodologies of nonlinear approaches in different engineering and science problems

  1. Materiality in a Practice-Based Approach

    Svabo, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Design/methodology/approach: The overview is theoretically generated and is based on the anthology Knowing in Organizations: A Practice-based Approach edited by Nicolini, Gherardi and Yanow. The…

  2. Pilot Task Demand Load During RNAV Approaches

    Heiligers, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The question that started this research was: “Why is approach A more difficult to fly for a pilot than approach B?”. To find an answer to this question, pilots flew a large variety of Area Navigation (RNAV) approaches during several flight simulator and real flight experiments. The results of these

  3. An Approach for Improved Planning in Colleges.

    Schroeder, Roger G.

    Planning and management systems for colleges should be tailor-made to fit each particular college. The approach suggested here is flexible so that it can be adapted to individual circumstances in a variety of colleges. What is being suggested is an approach to planning rather than a technique. The approach results in two types of output documents:…

  4. Statistical sampling approaches for soil monitoring

    Brus, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes three statistical sampling approaches for regional soil monitoring, a design-based, a model-based and a hybrid approach. In the model-based approach a space-time model is exploited to predict global statistical parameters of interest such as the space-time mean. In the hybrid ap

  5. Anterior approach v. posterior approach - ultrasound-guided shoulder arthrogram injection

    Merle Neethling-du Toit

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Anterior approach ultrasound guided arthrogram injections are a quick reliable way of injecting contrast prior to MRI scan. We did a retrospective study on patients, previously injected and scanned at our clinic, to compare the more manifested posterior approach with the anterior approach. The success rate for successful intra-articular injections for the anterior approach far outweighs the posterior approach. Also the anterior approach is more tolerable for patients as the injections are much quicker and seemingly less painful. In our knowledge it is thus far better to perform anterior approach shoulder arthrogram injections than posterior approach injections

  6. Form-based Approaches vs. Task-Based Approaches

    Zahra Talebi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating whether task-based approaches bear any superiority to that of more traditional ones evident in presentation-practice- and production phase .to fulfill the purpose of the study, the participants within the age range of 11-19, took part in the study. Following a pretest, treatment, and a posttest, the obtained data was analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA to examine the effects of the variables. The results of the analysis showed that participants in the PPP group did significantly better in the grammar recognition of the posttest than that of the task group. However, their counterparts in the task group gained better scores in the writing section of the test .this research study provided evidence in support of task proponents' claim in the merit of task-based activity in raising learners' implicit knowledge claiming to play the primary role in spontaneous speech.Keywords: Task-based language teaching, PPP model, focus on form, focus on meaning

  7. Apprehending ganglioside diversity: a comprehensive methodological approach[S

    Masson, Elodie A. Y.; Sibille, Estelle; Martine, Lucy; Chaux-Picquet, Fanny; Bretillon, Lionel; Berdeaux, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Gangliosides (GGs) make a wide family of glycosphingolipids ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues and particularly abundant in the brain and nervous system. They exhibit a huge diversity due to structural variations in both their oligosaccharidic chain and ceramide moiety, which represent a real analytical challenge. Since their discovery in the 1940s, methods have persistently improved until the emergence of LC/MS, which offers a high level of specificity and sensitivity and is suitable with high-throughput profiling studies. We describe here a comprehensive approach relying on various techniques and aiming at fully characterizing GGs in biological samples. First, total GG content was determined by a biochemical assay. Second, GG class composition was assessed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography followed by colorimetric revelation. Then, ceramide types of GG classes were identified, and their relative quantification was performed thanks to the development of a powerful and reliable LC/MS method. Finally, ceramides were structurally characterized, and minor and less common GG classes were identified using high-resolution MS. These methods were applied to the rat retina to provide an exhaustive description of its GG composition, giving the base for a better understanding of the precise roles of GGs in this tissue. PMID:26142958

  8. A Novel Approach for Solving Semidefinite Programs

    Hong-Wei Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel linearizing alternating direction augmented Lagrangian approach is proposed for effectively solving semidefinite programs (SDP. For every iteration, by fixing the other variables, the proposed approach alternatively optimizes the dual variables and the dual slack variables; then the primal variables, that is, Lagrange multipliers, are updated. In addition, the proposed approach renews all the variables in closed forms without solving any system of linear equations. Global convergence of the proposed approach is proved under mild conditions, and two numerical problems are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented approach.

  9. Study of wafer pre-aligning approaches

    2007-01-01

    Wafer pre-aligning system is an important component in IC manufacturing industry. A wafer prealigning platform with a CCD sensor is presented in this paper. The centering and notch detecting approaches are extended based on this platform. Least square circle fitting approach is adopted to calculate the center and radius of the wafer, and a formula for calculating the fitting error is derived. An approach called edge variation rate is also proposed to detect the range of wafer notch, and the fiducial is calculated by curve fitting approach. These approaches can improve the accuracy effectively as indicated by experiments.

  10. Some approaches to polaron theory

    Bogolubov, N. N.; Bogolubov, N. N.

    1985-11-01

    Here, in our approximation of polaron theory, we examine the importance of introducing the T product, which turn out to be a very convenient theoretical approach for the calculation of thermodynamical averages. We focus attention on the investigation of the so-called linear polaron Hamiltonian and present in detail the calculation of the correlation function, spectral function, and Green function for such a linear system. It is shown that the linear polaron Hamiltonian provides an exactly solvable model of our system, and the result obtained with this approach holds true for an arbitrary coupling constant which describes the strength of interaction between the electron and the lattice vibrations. Then, with the help of a variational technique, we show the possibility of reducing the real polaron Hamiltonian to a socalled trial or approximate linear model Hamiltonian. We also consider the exact calculation of free energy with a special technique that reduces calculations with the help of the T product, which, in our opinion, works much better and is easier than other analogous considerations, for example, the path-integral or Feynman-integral method.(1,2) Here we furthermore recall our own work,(4) where it was shown that the results of Refs. 7 and 8 concerning the impedance calculation in the polaron model may be obtained directly without the use of the path-integral method. The study of the polaron system's thermodynamics is carried out by us in the framework of the functional method. A calculation of the free energy and the momentum distribution function is proposed. Note also that the polaron systems with strong coupling(9) proved to be useful in different quantum field models in connection with the construction of dynamical models of composite particles. A rigorous solution of the special strong-coupling polaron problem, describing the interaction of a nonrelativistic particle with a quantum field, was given by Bogolubov.(3) The works of Tavkhelidze, Fedyanin

  11. Molecular approaches in experimental neuroimaging

    Tavitian, B. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    We quantified and compared six parameters (resolution, depth, sensitivity, portability, quantification and cost) of four molecular imaging techniques (MRI, optics, ultrasound and TEP), with the three types of electromagnetic radiation used in vivo (Frequencies (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 22} Hz), Photonic Energy (10{sup -4} to 10{sup 9} eV) and Wavelengths (10{sup -2} to 10{sup -15} m)). This form of molecular imaging demands the most sensitive technique available (Pl. 26-2 to 26-4). Four examples of experimental in vivo approaches on small animals are shown: molecular passage through the blood-brain barrier (endothelial cells, astrocytes and occludin, pharmacokinetics, studied with PET) (Pl. 2-5 to 2-11); imaging of receptors and ligands, especially peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) by PET and MRI in the rat (Pl. 2-12 to Pl. 2-15); neuro-pathology of neuro-degenerative and inflammatory diseases and stroke by PET and MRI in the rat (Pl. 2-16 to 2-17); and the study of responses to stimulation explored with in vivo imaging of calcium signals and their variations by photonic analysis, as on the scale of mitochondrial calcium (Pl.2-18 to Pl.2-22). (author)

  12. Algorithmic approach to quantum physics

    Ozhigov, Y

    2004-01-01

    Algorithmic approach is based on the assumption that any quantum evolution of many particle system can be simulated on a classical computer with the polynomial time and memory cost. Algorithms play the central role here but not the analysis, and a simulation gives a "film" which visualizes many particle quantum dynamics and is demonstrated to a user of the model. Restrictions following from the algorithm theory are considered on a level of fundamental physical laws. Born rule for the calculation of quantum probability as well as the decoherence is derived from the existence of a nonzero minimal value of amplitude module - a grain of amplitude. The limitation on the classical computational resources gives the unified description of quantum dynamics that is not divided to the unitary dynamics and measurements and does not depend on the existence of observer. It is proposed the description of states based on the nesting of particles in each other that permits to account the effects of all levels in the same mode...

  13. New Approaches to Social Economy

    Daniela VÎRJAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Social economy is a relatively new phenomenon, having started just a few decades ago, and due to this reason it has yet to reach great scale. Due to the phenomenon of global crisis propagation, the economies of all countries have been affected and have gone into an economical cycle recession phase, some economical agents hitting the climax of the crisis, practically shutting down their activities. Starting from this, some social problems started to accentuate: the number of unemployed people has risen, the poverty rate went up, the marginalization and social exclusion rates went up, the aging of the population has increased, the discrepancy between the rich and poor has widened and so on, and in this context social economy has gained a greater importance not only at an European level but also at an international level. As such, social economy may become one of the innovative and creative solutions which can contribute to a more human approach to economical problems, combining freedom of market with social responsibility to the benefit of the whole community.

  14. [Current Approaches in Cancer Immunotherapy].

    Otáhal, P; Trněný, M

    2015-01-01

    Methods of cancer immunotherapy have finally entered clinical medicine after years of preclinical research. Currently, there are several methods, which have proven to be very effective even in cases of incurable cancer. Antitumor monoclonal antibodies are among major therapeutic anti-cancer drugs and have been successfully used for many ears. Novel group of antibodies are immunomodulatory antibodies which can break tumor -specific immune tolerance and induce regression of tumors by nonspecific activation of immune system. Bispecific antibodies represent a novel class of anticancer agents which can induce expansion of T cells in vivo, blinatumomab is an example of such agents and is currently available for the treatment of acute B -cell leukemia. Cellular immunotherapy is also very effective, especially the use of Chimeric receptor modified T-cells for the therapy of B- cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Although it is a very complicated and expensive method, it is highly effective approach which can induce remission even in previously hopeless conditions. The goal of this article is to explain the basic principles of cancer immunotherapy and summarize the newest findings in this field.

  15. Approaches to Modeling of Recrystallization

    Håkan Hallberg

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Control of the material microstructure in terms of the grain size is a key component in tailoring material properties of metals and alloys and in creating functionally graded materials. To exert this control, reliable and efficient modeling and simulation of the recrystallization process whereby the grain size evolves is vital. The present contribution is a review paper, summarizing the current status of various approaches to modeling grain refinement due to recrystallization. The underlying mechanisms of recrystallization are briefly recollected and different simulation methods are discussed. Analytical and empirical models, continuum mechanical models and discrete methods as well as phase field, vertex and level set models of recrystallization will be considered. Such numerical methods have been reviewed previously, but with the present focus on recrystallization modeling and with a rapidly increasing amount of related publications, an updated review is called for. Advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are discussed in terms of applicability, underlying assumptions, physical relevance, implementation issues and computational efficiency.

  16. New approaches to treating pain.

    Wolkerstorfer, Andrea; Handler, Norbert; Buschmann, Helmut

    2016-02-15

    Pain is the most common reason for patients seeking medical care resulting in an estimated world market for analgesics of more than USD 50 billion. Pain is a highly complex, heterogeneous and dynamic process characterized by specific patterns of phenotypic sensory neuronal change. Current treatment options for pain include opioids and non-opioid analgesics, acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other drug classes such as antidepressants and anticonvulsants and a combination thereof. Novel approaches are focusing on the optimization of side-effect profiles of opioid based analgesics, the improvement of selectivity for specific opioid receptors, or by addressing molecular gateways implicated in pain. Promising candidates in development target various types of voltage-gated ion channels and receptors for capsaicin and analogs. Currently, after decades of pain research it has to be stated that the assessment, prevention and treatment of pain in industrialized countries as well as in low-income and middle-income countries are neither adequate nor equitable. Further research is needed so that specifically chronic pain control can be improved and individualized.

  17. Mindful approach to University education

    Broggi F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiorenza Broggi,1 Monica Bomba,1 Michela Rimondini,2 Maura Mutti,1 Sara Pasta,1 Chiara Ricci,1 Luca Tagliabue,1 Silvia Valsecchi,1 Elide Monaco,1 Francesca Neri,1 Silvia Oggiano,2 Renata Nacinovich,1 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, San Gerardo Hospital, University of Milano–Bicocca, Monza, 2Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Verona, Italy Abstract: A mindful approach to education and training could improve students’ reflective capacities and have positive effects on clinical practice because it facilitates a helping relationship. The main aims of this study were to investigate whether participation in a mindful-based University training was associated with increases in mindfulness skills as measured by the 5-Facet M Questionnaire, and to present the Italian validation of the questionnaire. Sixty-seven students from the course Neuro and Psychomotor Therapy were enrolled. They filled in the self-administered 5-Facet M Questionnaire before and 1 month after a mindfulness-based training, focused on role-playing and followed by a feedback group discussion. The Italian version of the 5-Facet M Questionnaire had good psychometric properties. The pre- and post-training analysis showed a significant increase in the subscale ‘Observing’. Findings suggest that role-playing and feedback group sessions are valid tools to improve students’ mindfulness skills. Keywords: mindfulness, role play, self-awareness, communication skills, insight, reflective capacities, feedback

  18. Hyperprolactinemia: pathophysiology and therapeutic approach.

    Capozzi, Anna; Scambia, Giovanni; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Lello, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a hormone, mainly secreted by lactotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland. Recent studies have shown it may also be produced by many extrapituitary cells. Its well-recognized PRL plays an important role in lactation during pregnancy, but it is involved in other biological functions such as angiogenesis, immunoregulation and osmoregulation. Hyperprolactinemia is a typical condition producing reproductive dysfunction in both sexes, resulting in hypogonadism, infertility and galactorrhea. It may be also asymptomatic. Lactotroph adenomas (prolactinoma) is one of the most common cause of PRL excess, representing approximately 40% of all pituitary tumors. Several other conditions should be excluded before a clear diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia is made. Hyperprolactinemia may be secondary to pharmacological or pathological interruption of hypothalamic-pituitary dopaminergic pathways or idiopathic. Stress, renal failure or hypothyroidism are other frequent conditions to exclude in patients with hyperprolactinemia. We will review biochemical characteristics and physiological functions of that hormone. Clinical and pharmacological approach to hyperprolactinemia will also be discussed.

  19. Deficient Approaches to Human Neuroimaging

    Johannes eStelzer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is the workhorse of imaging-based human cognitive neuroscience. The use of fMRI is ever-increasing; within the last 4 years more fMRI studies have been published than in the previous 17 years. This large body of research has mainly focused on the functional localization of condition- or stimulus-dependent changes in the blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD signal.In recent years, however, many aspects of the commonly practiced analysis frameworks and methodologies have been critically reassessed. Here we summarize these critiques, providing an overview of the major conceptual and practical deficiencies in widely used brain-mapping approaches, and exemplify some of these issues by the use of imaging data and simulations. In particular, we discuss the inherent pitfalls and shortcomings of methodologies for statistical parametric mapping. Our critique emphasizes recent reports of excessively high numbers of both false positive and false negative findings in fMRI brain mapping. We outline our view regarding the broader scientific implications of these methodological considerations and briefly discuss possible solutions.

  20. Angioedema: Diagnosis and treatment approaches

    Ali Tahsin Güneş

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Angioedema (AE is defined as sudden, localized and transient swelling of the skin and/or mucous membranes. This swelling condition is a result of interstitial edema from vasoactive mediators increasing the permeability of postcapillary venules of the subcutaneous and submucosal tissues. When localized to the skin, it presents as asymmetric, nonpitting, nondependent, and occasionally painful edema. However, mucosal attacks, such as laryngeal edema and bowel involvement can produce severe discomfort and life-threatening symptoms. There are several forms including those involving dysfunction or depletion of the C1-inhibitor gene (classical hereditary AE types and acquired AE, allergic AE, drug-induced AE (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced AE, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-induced AE, idiopathic and a recently described form, HAE type 3. These various forms of AE have overlapping symptoms, but some unique clinical and historical features as well as presence of accompanying urticaria can aid in the differential diagnosis. The key to successful management is to rule out conditions that masquerade as AE, detection and avoidance of triggers, early recognition of attacks, and aggressive airway management when warranted. In this article, common and rare forms as well as clinical symptoms, differential diagnosis, and treatment approaches for AE are reviewed.

  1. The Wonder Approach to learning.

    L'Ecuyer, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Wonder, innate in the child, is an inner desire to learn that awaits reality in order to be awakened. Wonder is at the origin of reality-based consciousness, thus of learning. The scope of wonder, which occurs at a metaphysical level, is greater than that of curiosity. Unfortunate misinterpretations of neuroscience have led to false brain-based ideas in the field of education, all of these based on the scientifically wrong assumption that children's learning depends on an enriched environment. These beliefs have re-enforced the Behaviorist Approach to education and to parenting and have contributed to deadening our children's sense of wonder. We suggest wonder as the center of all motivation and action in the child. Wonder is what makes life genuinely personal. Beauty is what triggers wonder. Wonder attunes to beauty through sensitivity and is unfolded by secure attachment. When wonder, beauty, sensitivity and secure attachment are present, learning is meaningful. On the contrary, when there is no volitional dimension involved (no wonder), no end or meaning (no beauty) and no trusting predisposition (secure attachment), the rigid and limiting mechanical process of so-called learning through mere repetition become a deadening and alienating routine. This could be described as training, not as learning, because it does not contemplate the human being as a whole.

  2. Stepwise approach for view synthesis

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents some techniques for synthesizing novel view for a virtual viewpoint from two given views captured at different viewpoints to achieve both high quality and high efficiency. The whole process consists of three passes. The first pass recovers depth map. We formulate it as pixel labelling and propose a bisection approach to solve it. It is accomplished in log2n (n is the number of depth levels) steps, each of which involves a single graph cut computation. The second pass detects occluded pixels and reasons about their depth. It fits a foreground depth curve and a background depth curve using depth of nearby foreground and background pixels, and then distinguishes foreground and background pixels by minimizing a global energy, which involves only one graph cut computation. The third pass finds for each pixel in the novel view the corresponding pixels in the input views and computes its color. The whole process involves only a small number of graph cut computations, therefore it is efficient.And, visual artifacts in the synthesized view can be removed successfully by correcting depth of the occluded pixels. Experimental results demonstrate that both high quality and high efficiency are achieved by the proposed techniques.

  3. NASA's Approach to Software Assurance

    Wetherholt, Martha

    2015-01-01

    NASA defines software assurance as: the planned and systematic set of activities that ensure conformance of software life cycle processes and products to requirements, standards, and procedures via quality, safety, reliability, and independent verification and validation. NASA's implementation of this approach to the quality, safety, reliability, security and verification and validation of software is brought together in one discipline, software assurance. Organizationally, NASA has software assurance at each NASA center, a Software Assurance Manager at NASA Headquarters, a Software Assurance Technical Fellow (currently the same person as the SA Manager), and an Independent Verification and Validation Organization with its own facility. An umbrella risk mitigation strategy for safety and mission success assurance of NASA's software, software assurance covers a wide area and is better structured to address the dynamic changes in how software is developed, used, and managed, as well as it's increasingly complex functionality. Being flexible, risk based, and prepared for challenges in software at NASA is essential, especially as much of our software is unique for each mission.

  4. Understanding Progress: A Heterodox Approach

    Blanca Lemus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the possibility of understanding and measuring well-being as a result of “progress” on the basis of today’s dominant epistemological framework. Market criteria distort social values by allowing purchasing power to define priorities, likening luxury goods to basic needs; in the process they reinforce patterns of discrimination against disadvantaged social groups and women, introducing fatal distortions into the analysis. Similarly, because there are no appropriate mechanisms to price natural resources adequately, the market overlooks the consequences of the abuse of natural resources, degrading the quality of life, individually and collectively, or—in the framework of Latin American indigenous groups—foreclosing the possibility of “living well”. We critique the common vision of the official development discourse that places its faith on technological innovations to resolve these problems. The analysis points to the need for new models of social and environmental governance to promote progress, approaches like those suggested in the paper that are inconsistent with public policies currently in place. At present, the social groups forging institutions to assure their own well-being and ecological balance are involved in local processes, often in opposition to the proposals of the political leaders in their countries.

  5. Therapeutic approach to epileptic encephalopathies.

    Vigevano, Federico; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Plouin, Perrine; Specchio, Nicola

    2013-11-01

    Epileptic encephalopathies (EEs) are electroclinical entities with a peculiar course of disease; seizures and electroencephalographic (EEG) epileptiform abnormalities, ictal and interictal, contribute to progressive disturbance of cerebral functions. Frequently EEs are drug resistant, and consequences may be catastrophic. The main goal of treatment is to stop the peculiar course of epilepsy, operating on three parameters: seizure control, reduction of EEG abnormalities, and developmental outcome. For a correct therapeutic approach it is mandatory to have an as accurate as possible syndromic and etiologic diagnosis. Given the poor efficacy of conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the use of specific drugs for EEs, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosteroids or stiripentol is suggested. In some cases the choice of treatment is strictly related to the etiology: vigabatrin in tuberous sclerosis, ketogenic diet in glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) deficiency, and pyridoxine in pyridoxine deficiency. Some AEDs combinations, such as sodium valproate with lamotrigine, have also provided interesting results, for example, in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, although controlled studies are lacking. Finally, early surgery can be an option in children with focal structural abnormalities responsible for EEs preferably before irreversible damage on developmental outcome. Multispecialist support is recommended in EE. Management should be global from the onset, integrating not only seizure control but also all issues related to comorbidities, particularly neuropsychological and psychiatric.

  6. Comprehensive approach to diabetic nephropathy

    Bancha Satirapoj

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes. This complication reflects a complex pathophysiology, whereby various genetic and environmental factors determine susceptibility and progression to end-stage renal disease. DN should be considered in patients with type 1 diabetes for at least 10 years who have microalbuminuria and diabetic retinopathy, as well as in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes with macroalbuminuria in whom other causes for proteinuria are absent. DN may also present as a falling estimated glomerular filtration rate with albuminuria as a minor presenting feature, especially in patients taking renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi. The pathological characteristic features of disease are three major lesions: diffuse mesangial expansion, diffuse thickened glomerular basement membrane, and hyalinosis of arterioles. Functionally, however, the pathophysiology is reflected in dysfunction of the mesangium, the glomerular capillary wall, the tubulointerstitium, and the vasculature. For all diabetic patients, a comprehensive approach to management including glycemic and hypertensive control with RAASi combined with lipid control, dietary salt restriction, lowering of protein intake, increased physical activity, weight reduction, and smoking cessation can reduce the rate of progression of nephropathy and minimize the risk for cardiovascular events. This review focuses on the latest published data dealing with the mechanisms, diagnosis, and current treatment of DN.

  7. Reverse Genetic Approaches in Zebrafish

    Peng Huang; Zuoyan Zhu; Shuo Lin; Bo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a well-established vertebrate animal model.A comprehensive collection of reverse genetics tools has been developed for studying gene function in this useful organism.Morpholino is the most widely used reagent to knock down target gene expression post-transcriptionally.For a long time,targeted genome modification has been heavily relied on large-scale traditional forward genetic screens,such as ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) mutagenesis derived TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes)strategy and pseudo-typed retrovirus mediated insertional mutagenesis.Recently,engineered endonucleases,including ZFNs (zinc finger nucleases) and TALENs (transcription activator-like effector nucleases),provide new and efficient strategies to directly generate sitespecific indel mutations by inducing double strand breaks in target genes.Here we summarize the major reverse genetic approaches for loss-of-function studies used and emerging in zebrafish,including strategies based on genome-wide mutagenesis and methods for sitespecific gene targeting.Future directions and expectations will also be discussed.

  8. The wonder approach to learning

    Catherine eL'Ecuyer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wonder, innate in the child, is an inner desire to learn that awaits reality in order to be awakened. Wonder is at the origin of reality-based consciousness, thus of learning. The scope of wonder, which occurs at a metaphysical level, is greater than that of curiosity. Unfortunate misinterpretations of neuroscience have led to false brain-based ideas in the field of education, all of these based on the scientifically wrong assumption that children’s learning depends on an enriched environment. These beliefs have re-enforced the Behaviorist Approach to education and to parenting and have contributed to deadening our children’s sense of wonder. We suggest wonder as the center of all motivation and action in the child. Wonder is what makes life genuinely personal. Beauty is what triggers wonder. Wonder attunes to beauty through sensitivity and is unfolded by attachment. When wonder, beauty, sensitivity and secure attachment are present, learning is meaningful.On the contrary, when there is no volitional dimension involved (no wonder, no end or meaning (no beauty and no trusting predisposition (secure attachment, the rigid and limiting mechanical process of so-called learning through mere repetition become a deadening and alienating routine. This could be described as training, not as learning, because it does not contemplate the human being as a whole.

  9. Current clinical approach to achalasia

    Alexander J Eckardt; Volker F Eckardt

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic achalasia is a rare primary motility disorder of the esophagus.The classical features are incomplete relaxation of a frequently hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and a lack of peristalsis in the tubular esophagus.These motor abnormalities lead to dysphagia,stasis,regurgitation,weight loss,or secondary respiratory complications.Although major strides have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of this rare disorder,including a probable autoimmune mediated destruction of inhibitory neurons in response to an unknown insult in genetically susceptible individuals,a definite trigger has not been identified.The diagnosis of achalasia is suggested by clinical features and confirmed by further diagnostic tests,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD),manometry or barium swallow.These studies are not only used to exclude pseudoachalasia,but also might help to categorize the disease by severity or clinical subtype.Recent advances in diagnostic methods,including high resolution manometry (HRM),might allow prediction of treatment responses.The primary treatments for achieving long-term symptom relief are surgery and endoscopic methods.Although limited high-quality data exist,it appears that laparoscopic Heller myotomy with partial fundoplication is superior to endoscopic methods in achieving long-term relief of symptoms in the majority of patients.However,the current clinical approach to achalasia will depend not only on patients' characteristics and clinical subtypes of the disease,but also on local expertise and patient preferences.

  10. Our 2014 approach to mucormycosis.

    Tacke, Daniela; Koehler, Philipp; Markiefka, Birgid; Cornely, Oliver A

    2014-09-01

    Mucormycosis, previously termed as zygomycosis, is caused by fungi belonging to the order Mucorales and is a very severe disease in immunocompromised patients with an often unfavourable outcome. Given the high morbidity and mortality of mucormycosis, establishing a timely diagnosis followed by immediate treatment is of major importance. As randomised clinical trials are lacking, we present our current diagnostic and treatment pathways for mucormycosis in the immunocompromised host. Due to the difficulty to distinguish mucormycosis from other filamentous fungi, mucormycosis always has to be considered as differential diagnosis in predisposed patients. Diagnostic procedures comprise imaging, microscopy, culture and histopathology and need to be rigorously used. In patients with a high suspicion of mucormycosis, e.g. reversed halo sign on computed tomography scanning, our approach combines liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) with surgical debridement. In light of the rapid deterioration and poor prognosis of these patients, we prefer a daily dose of LAmB of at least 5 mg kg(-1) despite nephrotoxicity. In patients with stable disease we switch to posaconazole 200 mg four times per day. In case of progression antifungal combination is an option.

  11. Batch Scheduling a Fresh Approach

    Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Network Queueing System (NQS) was designed to schedule jobs based on limits within queues. As systems obtain more memory, the number of queues increased to take advantage of the added memory resource. The problem now becomes too many queues. Having a large number of queues provides users with the capability to gain an unfair advantage over other users by tailoring their job to fit in an empty queue. Additionally, the large number of queues becomes confusing to the user community. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center developed a new approach to batch job scheduling. This new method reduces the number of queues required by eliminating the need for queues based on resource limits. The scheduler examines each request for necessary resources before initiating the job. Also additional user limits at the complex level were added to provide a fairness to all users. Additional tools which include user job reordering are under development to work with the new scheduler. This paper discusses the objectives, design and implementation results of this new scheduler

  12. Innovative approach towards understanding optics

    Garg, Amit; Bharadwaj, Sadashiv Raj; Kumar, Raj; Shudhanshu, Avinash Kumar; Verma, Deepak Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been a decline in the students’ interest towards Science and Optics. Use of technology in the form of various types of sensors and data acquisition systems has come as a saviour. Till date, manual routine tools and techniques are used to perform various experimental procedures in most of the science/optics laboratories in our country. The manual tools are cumbersome whereas the automated ones are costly. It does not enthuse young researchers towards the science laboratories. There is a need to develop applications which can be easily integrated, tailored at school and undergraduate level laboratories and are economical at the same time. Equipments with advanced technologies are available but they are uneconomical and have complicated working principle with a black box approach. The present work describes development of portable tools and applications which are user-friendly. This is being implemented using open-source physical computing platform based on a simple low cost microcontroller board and a development environment for writing software. The present paper reports the development of an automated spectrometer, an instrument used in almost all optics experiments at undergraduate level, and students’ response to this innovation. These tools will inspire young researchers towards science and facilitate development of advance low cost equipments making life easier for Indian as well as developing nations.

  13. Diagnostic approach to peripheral neuropathy

    Misra Usha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy refers to disorders of the peripheral nervous system. They have numerous causes and diverse presentations; hence, a systematic and logical approach is needed for cost-effective diagnosis, especially of treatable neuropathies. A detailed history of symptoms, family and occupational history should be obtained. General and systemic examinations provide valuable clues. Neurological examinations investigating sensory, motor and autonomic signs help to define the topography and nature of neuropathy. Large fiber neuropathy manifests with the loss of joint position and vibration sense and sensory ataxia, whereas small fiber neuropathy manifests with the impairment of pain, temperature and autonomic functions. Electrodiagnostic (EDx tests include sensory, motor nerve conduction, F response, H reflex and needle electromyography (EMG. EDx helps in documenting the extent of sensory motor deficits, categorizing demyelinating (prolonged terminal latency, slowing of nerve conduction velocity, dispersion and conduction block and axonal (marginal slowing of nerve conduction and small compound muscle or sensory action potential and dennervation on EMG. Uniform demyelinating features are suggestive of hereditary demyelination, whereas difference between nerves and segments of the same nerve favor acquired demyelination. Finally, neuropathy is classified into mononeuropathy commonly due to entrapment or trauma; mononeuropathy multiplex commonly due to leprosy and vasculitis; and polyneuropathy due to systemic, metabolic or toxic etiology. Laboratory investigations are carried out as indicated and specialized tests such as biochemical, immunological, genetic studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination and nerve biopsy are carried out in selected patients. Approximately 20% patients with neuropathy remain undiagnosed but the prognosis is not bad in them.

  14. Standard Approaches to the Acetabulum Part 1: Kocher-Langenbeck Approach.

    Gänsslen, A; Grechenig, S; Nerlich, M; Müller, M

    2016-01-01

    Historically, standard approaches for surgical treatment of displaced acetabular fractures were the KocherLangenbeck approach, the ilioinguinal approach and the extended iliofemoral approach (12). Presently, several modifications of these approaches are accepted alternatives, especially anterior modifications based on the intrapelvic approach described by Hirvensalo (8). Single access approaches allowing visualization of one acetabular column are the posterior Kocher-Langenbeck approach and the anterior ilioinguinal approach (12) and the use of a single approach is favoured (9, 24). For more complex situations, in the 80s and 90s extended approaches (extended iliofemoral approach according to Letournel (12), its modification to Reinert (19) (Baltimore approach), and the Triradiate approach according to Mears (14)) were introduced. These approaches are presently rarely choosen due to the extensive soft tissue dissection and higher complication rates (28). Alternatively, the combination of an anterior and posterior standard approach was recommended (7, 21, 22) having the disadvantage of longer operating time and blood loss and showed no superior results compared to a single approach. The meta-analysis by Giannoudis et al. stated that 48,7% of patients were treated using the Kocher-Langenbeck approach, followed by 21,9% ilioinguinal approaches and 12,4% extended approaches (6). More recent data from the years 2005-2007, showed that anterior approaches are now predominantly used according to a higher number of acetabular fractures with anterior column involvement. Overall, more than 40% of all patients with acetabular fractures are still approached via the Kocher-Langenbeck approach (18). Therefore, the Kocher-Langenbeck approach is still a "working horse" in approaching displaced acetabular fractures. The Kocher-Langenbeck approach consists of two parts. In 1874 von Langenbeck described a longitudinal incision starting from above the greater sciatic notch to the

  15. The Challenges of Becoming Agile

    Ovesen, Nis

    “In today's fast-paced, fiercely competitive world of commercial new product development, speed and flexibility are essential. Companies are increasingly realizing that the old, sequential approach to developing new products simply won't get the job done.” (Takeuchi & Nonaka, 1986) Now twenty-fiv...... and conducting Scrum in physical product development experienced from both a design team’s perspective and an organisational perspective....... for development teams – and it is the point of departure for this research project. Heavy up-front planning represents a long management tradition in product development environments throughout the world. Gantt charts and Stage-Gate process models have become widely known industry standards and best practices......“In today's fast-paced, fiercely competitive world of commercial new product development, speed and flexibility are essential. Companies are increasingly realizing that the old, sequential approach to developing new products simply won't get the job done.” (Takeuchi & Nonaka, 1986) Now twenty...

  16. Approaches to adolescent pregnancy prevention.

    Haffner, D; Casey, S

    1986-09-01

    The US has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the industrialized world, over 1,000,000 a year. This can add to social problems including poverty, unemployment, family breakup, juvenile crime, school dropouts, and child abuse. In several studies various approaches have been developed and it is concluded that teens must not only be given the knowledge to avoid teen pregnancies, but the motivation to do so. Sex education is an important part of pregnancy prevention, but few programs go beyond the facts of reproduction and less than 14% of them are 40 hours long. Studies have shown mixed results as to the effect of education on teen pregnancy. There are many programs that have been developed by different communities, including computer programs and youth service agencies. Religious groups also play an important part in sex education and they have some distinct advantages in affecting teens' sexual values and activities. Education programs for teen's parents appear to be very important since studies show when sexuality is discussed at home, the teens begin activity later and use birth control more. Clinics have had difficulty recruiting and retaining teen patients and devote special attention to establishing a rapport with them. The school-based clinic is becoming increasingly popular and can provide birth control counseling, contraceptives, family planning clinic referral, examinations, pregnancy testing, and prenatal care. There success is due to confidentiality, convenience, and comprehensive service. However, since nearly all efforts on teen pregnancy prevention are directed at girls, 1/2 of those involved in teen pregnancies--males--are not participating in programs. This must change for longterm success of these programs and also the involvement of the community and media.

  17. Study strategies and approaches to learning

    Christensen, Hans Peter

    Process Questionnaire to identify their approach to learning. It was hypothesised that the students’ learning approach would depend more on the quality of the study work than on the quantity; that an active and reflective study strategy was required to obtain deep conceptual understanding. The result...... showed a weak correlation between the student’s main learning approach as defined by the ratio of the deep approach score to the surface approach score and the student’s study intensity as identified by the ratio of non-scheduled independent activities to scheduled teacher-controlled activities....... There was however a much stronger linear correlation (significant at the 0.01 level) between the deep-surface ratio and the total study load. The same result was observed when measuring other students’ study strategy and learning approach for a single course. The empirical basis is still too limited to draw...

  18. An intelligent approach to nanotechnology

    Demming, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Control counts for little without a guiding principle. Whether manipulating atoms with a scanning probe or controlling carrier concentration in thin film deposition, intelligent intervention is required to steer the process from aimless precision towards a finely optimized design. In this issue G M Sacha and P Varona describe how artificial intelligence approaches can help towards modelling and simulating nanosystems, increasing our grasp of the nuances of these systems and how to optimize them for specific applications [1]. More than a labour-saving technique their review also suggests how genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can supersede existing capabilities to tackle some of the challenges in moving a range of nanotechnologies forward. Research has made giant strides in determining not just what system parameters enhance performance but how. Nanoparticle synthesis is a typical example, where the field has shifted from simple synthesis and observation to unearthing insights as to dominating factors that can be identified and enlisted to control the morphological and chemical properties of synthesized products. One example is the neat study on reaction media viscosity for silver nanocrystal synthesis, where Park, Im and Park in Korea demonstrated a level of size control that had previously proved hard to achieve [2]. Silver nanoparticles have many potential applications including catalysis [3], sensing [4] and surface enhanced Raman scattering [5]. In their study, Park and colleagues obtain size-controlled 30 nm silver nanocrystals in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol and demonstrate their use as sacrificial cores for the fabrication of a low-refractive filler. Another nanomaterial that has barely seen an ebb in research activity over the past two decades is ZnO, with a legion of reports detailing how to produce ZnO in different nanoscale forms from rods [6], belts [7] and flowers [8] to highly ordered arrays of vertically aligned

  19. Biotechnology Approaches to Life Detection

    Steele, Andrew; McKay, David; Schweitzer, Mary

    2001-01-01

    The direct detection of organic biomarkers for living or fossil microbes on Mars by an in situ instrument is a worthy goal for future lander missions. Several new and innovative biotechnology approaches are being explored. Firstly we have proposed an instrument based on immunological reactions to specific antibodies to cause activation of fluorescent stains. Antibodies are raised or acquired to a variety of general and specific substances that might be in Mars soil. These antibodies are then combined with various fluorescent stains and applied to micron sized numbered spots on a small (2-3 cm) test plate where they become firmly attached after freeze drying. Using technology that has been developed for gene mining in DNA technology up to 10,000 tests per square inch can now be applied to a test plate. On Mars or the planet/moon of interest, a sample of soil from a trench or drill core is extracted with water and/or an organic solvent and ultrasonication and then applied to the test plate. Any substance, which has an antibody on the test plate, will react with its antibody and activate its fluorescent stain. At the moment a small UV light source will illuminate the test plate, which is observed with a small CCD camera, although other detection systems will be applied. The numbered spots that fluoresce indicate the presence of the tested-for substance, and the intensity indicates relative amounts. Furthermore with up to a thousand test plates available false positives and several variations of antibody can also be screened for. The entire instrument can be quite small and light, on the order of 10 cm in each dimension. A possible choice for light source may be small UV lasers at several wavelengths. Some of the wells or spots can contain simply standard fluorescent stains used to detect live cells, dead cells, DNA, etc. The stains in these spots may be directly activated, with no antibodies being necessary. The proposed system will look for three classes of

  20. A nonmainstream approach against cancer.

    Fais, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    The discovery of antibiotics as specific and effective drugs against infectious agents has generated the belief that the famous Paul Erlich theory on magic bullet should be applied to cancer as well. However, after around 60 years of failures in finding a magic bullet against cancer, a question appears mandatory: does the magic bullet against cancer really exist? In trying to understand more on the issue, we propose three discoveries are coming from a nonmainstream approach against cancer. Tumor is acidic, and tumor acidity impairs drugs entering within tumor cells and isolates tumors from the rest of the body. Proton pumps are key in allowing tumor cells to live in the acidic microenvironment. A class of antiacidic drugs, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), were shown to have a potent anti-tumor effect, through inhibition of proton pumps in tumor cells. PPIs are indeed prodrugs needing acidity to be activated into the active molecule. So they use protonation by H+ as an activating mechanism, while the vast majority of drugs are totally neutralized by protonation. An anti-tumor therapy based on PPI showed to be effective both in vitro and in vivo. Differently from normal cells, cancer cells meet their energy needs in great part by fermentation, and it appears conceivable that hypoxia and low nutrient transform tumor cells into fermenting anaerobes. This suggests that cancer cells are more similar to unicellular organisms, aimed at surviving in a continuous fighting, rather than cooperating, with other cells, as it occurs in the normal homeostasis of our body. We have shown that cancer cells take their fuel by "cannibalizing" other cells, either dead or alive, especially when starved and in acidic condition. This finding led to the discovery of a new oncogene TM9SF4 that human malignant cell shares with amoebas. The evidence is accumulating that almost all the cells release extracellular vehicles (EVs), from micro- to nanosize, which shuttle a variety of molecules. Tumor

  1. Physical approach to complex systems

    Kwapień, Jarosław; Drożdż, Stanisław

    2012-06-01

    Typically, complex systems are natural or social systems which consist of a large number of nonlinearly interacting elements. These systems are open, they interchange information or mass with environment and constantly modify their internal structure and patterns of activity in the process of self-organization. As a result, they are flexible and easily adapt to variable external conditions. However, the most striking property of such systems is the existence of emergent phenomena which cannot be simply derived or predicted solely from the knowledge of the systems’ structure and the interactions among their individual elements. This property points to the holistic approaches which require giving parallel descriptions of the same system on different levels of its organization. There is strong evidence-consolidated also in the present review-that different, even apparently disparate complex systems can have astonishingly similar characteristics both in their structure and in their behaviour. One can thus expect the existence of some common, universal laws that govern their properties. Physics methodology proves helpful in addressing many of the related issues. In this review, we advocate some of the computational methods which in our opinion are especially fruitful in extracting information on selected-but at the same time most representative-complex systems like human brain, financial markets and natural language, from the time series representing the observables associated with these systems. The properties we focus on comprise the collective effects and their coexistence with noise, long-range interactions, the interplay between determinism and flexibility in evolution, scale invariance, criticality, multifractality and hierarchical structure. The methods described either originate from “hard” physics-like the random matrix theory-and then were transmitted to other fields of science via the field of complex systems research, or they originated elsewhere but

  2. Exploring Innovation – A Language Approach

    Mabogunje, Ade; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Berg, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    ” Innovation Management is a complex task that requires improved methods to support the exploration of multiple innovation dimensions. We suggest firms to adopt a language inspired approach in order to improve existing methods. The language approach is supported by a graphical innovation profile...... that maps the innovation features and choices. The paper demonstrates the applications and perspectives of this approach with reference to a qualitative case study.”...

  3. Investment Portfolio Evaluation by the Fuzzy Approach

    Lambovska Maya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new fuzzy approach for the evaluation of investment portfolio, where the approach is viewed by the authors as a sub-phase of the management process of these portfolios. The approach defines the mutual and delayed effects among the significant variables of the investment portfolio. The evaluation of the effects is described as fuzzy trapezoidal numbers and they are aggregated by mathematical operations with incidence matrices and fuzzy functions “experton”.

  4. Fragment-based approaches to enzyme inhibition

    Ciulli, Alessio; Abell, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Fragment-based approaches have provided a new paradigm for small-molecule drug discovery. The methodology is complementary to high-throughput screening approaches, starting from fragments of low molecular complexity and high ligand efficiency, and building up to more potent inhibitors. The approach, which depends heavily on a number of biophysical techniques, is now being taken up by more groups in both industry and academia. This article describes key aspects of the process and highlights re...

  5. Collective Flows in a Transport Approach

    Plumari, S.; Baran, V.; Di Toro, M.; Greco, V.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a transport approach at fixed shear viscosity to entropy ratio $\\etas$ to study the generation of collective flows in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Transport theory supplies a covariant approach valid also at large $\\etas$ and at intermediate transverse momentum $p_T$, where deviations from equilibrium is no longer negligible. Such an approach shows that at RHIC energies a temperature dependent $\\etas$ enhances significantly the $v_4/v_2^2$ respect to the case of const...

  6. Dynamical System Approaches to Combinatorial Optimization

    Starke, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Several dynamical system approaches to combinatorial optimization problems are described and compared. These include dynamical systems derived from penalty methods; the approach of Hopfield and Tank; self-organizing maps, that is, Kohonen networks; coupled selection equations; and hybrid methods...... of large times as an asymptotically stable point of the dynamics. The obtained solutions are often not globally optimal but good approximations of it. Dynamical system and neural network approaches are appropriate methods for distributed and parallel processing. Because of the parallelization...

  7. A Geometric Approach to Noncommutative Principal Bundles

    Wagner, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    From a geometrical point of view it is, so far, not sufficiently well understood what should be a "noncommutative principal bundle". Still, there is a well-developed abstract algebraic approach using the theory of Hopf algebras. An important handicap of this approach is the ignorance of topological and geometrical aspects. The aim of this thesis is to develop a geometrically oriented approach to the noncommutative geometry of principal bundles based on dynamical systems and the representation theory of the corresponding transformation group.

  8. Critical Approaches to Security in Europe

    Malksoo, Maria; C.A.S.E. Collective

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, critical approaches have substantially reshaped the\\ud theoretical landscape of security studies in Europe. Yet, despite an\\ud impressive body of literature, there remains fundamental disagreement\\ud as to what counts as critical in this context. Scholars are still\\ud arguing in terms of ‘schools’, while there has been an increasing and\\ud sustained cross-fertilization among critical approaches. Finally, the\\ud boundaries between critical and traditional approaches to secu...

  9. A NEW APPROACH TO VIRTUAL EDUCATION

    Vladimir V. Kureychik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses several approaches to training, namely the virtual. Concrete examples of virtual learning systems were described, we disclosed their features, advantages and disadvantages. A new suggested approach integrates the features of existing systems, and opens new horizons and opportunities to obtain certain skills and abilities. Introduction of a new approach to the educational process will improve the quality and effectiveness of learning. 

  10. DIGITAL INTERACTIVE STORYTELLING APPROACHES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Islam Sharaha1

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Interactive Digital Storytelling (IDS is concerned with the creation of a new media art form that allows real-time interaction with a developing narratives. IDS is important learning, training, testing and entertainment tool. This paper makes a systematic review that compares several approaches used in (IDs in terms of user interaction type, degree of interaction importance, classification of approaches types, and comparing approaches in terms of some performance factors.

  11. The probabilistic approach to human reasoning.

    Oaksford, M; Chater, N

    2001-08-01

    A recent development in the cognitive science of reasoning has been the emergence of a probabilistic approach to the behaviour observed on ostensibly logical tasks. According to this approach the errors and biases documented on these tasks occur because people import their everyday uncertain reasoning strategies into the laboratory. Consequently participants' apparently irrational behaviour is the result of comparing it with an inappropriate logical standard. In this article, we contrast the probabilistic approach with other approaches to explaining rationality, and then show how it has been applied to three main areas of logical reasoning: conditional inference, Wason's selection task and syllogistic reasoning.

  12. A Mixed Approach Of Automated ECG Analysis

    De, A. K.; Das, J.; Majumder, D. Dutta

    1982-11-01

    ECG is one of the non-invasive and risk-free technique for collecting data about the functional state of the heart. However, all these data-processing techniques can be classified into two basically different approaches -- the first and second generation ECG computer program. Not the opposition, but simbiosis of these two approaches will lead to systems with the highest accuracy. In our paper we are going to describe a mixed approach which will show higher accuracy with lesser amount of computational work. Key Words : Primary features, Patients' parameter matrix, Screening, Logical comparison technique, Multivariate statistical analysis, Mixed approach.

  13. SOME ASPECTS OF AGILE APPROACH IN PRAXIS

    Jaroslava Kniežová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern times, competitiveness in the market depends on having a good information system. The companies developing and supplying information systems are in competition too, and having an effective system of delivery is critical for obtaining lucrative offers. Therefore, the software development companies continuously try to improve their development process to supply the product in a short time and with high quality. The agile approach potentially shortens this time and is very often used. This approach has almost replaced the traditional process. More and more companies implement agile approach in these times to be competitive in the software development market and hasten product delivering.The traditional and agile approaches differ in certain perspectives. Hence, the question arises as to whether the agile approach is the best for the software development company in every case. This article contains a comparison of these two approaches, as well as a case study relating to the agile approach in a real software development company, which had previously used the traditional approach. The article also describes situation where replacing the traditional approach with agile would improve results.

  14. Concurrency-based approaches to parallel programming

    Kale, L.V.; Chrisochoides, N.; Kohl, J.; Yelick, K.

    1995-01-01

    The inevitable transition to parallel programming can be facilitated by appropriate tools, including languages and libraries. After describing the needs of applications developers, this paper presents three specific approaches aimed at development of efficient and reusable parallel software for irregular and dynamic-structured problems. A salient feature of all three approaches in their exploitation of concurrency within a processor. Benefits of individual approaches such as these can be leveraged by an interoperability environment which permits modules written using different approaches to co-exist in single applications.

  15. Bioequivalence approach for whole effluent toxicity testing

    Shukla, R.; Wang, Q.; Fulk, F.; Deng, C.; Denton, D.

    2000-01-01

    Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current hypothesis test approach because they lack statistical power to detect relevant toxic effects because of large within-test variability. Additionally, a number of WET tests may fail the current approach because they possess excessive statistical power, as a result of small within-test variability, and detect small differences that may not be biologically relevant. The strengths and limitations of both the traditional hypothesis test approach and the bioequivalence approach for use in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program were evaluated. Data from 5,213 single-concentration, short-term chronic WET tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia provided the database for analysis. Comparison of results between the current approach and the bioequivalence approach indicates that the current approach to WET testing is generally sound but that adopting the proposed bioequivalence approach resolves concerns of statistical power. Specifically, within this data set, applying the bioequivalence approach resulted in failure for tests with relatively large test variability and a pass for tests with relatively small within-test variability.

  16. An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages

    Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach for appr......Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach...

  17. Constrained neural approaches to quadratic assignment problems.

    Ishii, S; Sato, M

    1998-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss analog neural approaches to the quadratic assignment problem (QAP). These approaches employ a hard constraints scheme to restrict the domain space, and are able to obtain much improved solutions over conventional neural approaches. Since only a few strong heuristics for QAP have been known to date, our approaches are good alternatives, capable of obtaining fairly good solutions in a short period of time. Some of them can also be applied to large-scale problems, say of size N>/=300.

  18. Global energy modeling - A biophysical approach

    Dale, Michael

    2010-09-15

    This paper contrasts the standard economic approach to energy modelling with energy models using a biophysical approach. Neither of these approaches includes changing energy-returns-on-investment (EROI) due to declining resource quality or the capital intensive nature of renewable energy sources. Both of these factors will become increasingly important in the future. An extension to the biophysical approach is outlined which encompasses a dynamic EROI function that explicitly incorporates technological learning. The model is used to explore several scenarios of long-term future energy supply especially concerning the global transition to renewable energy sources in the quest for a sustainable energy system.

  19. Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Health

    ... Fight Stress / Stress and Your Brain / Can Prolonged Stress Affect Whether Breast Cancer Returns? / Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Health Winter 2008 Issue: Volume 3 Number 1 Page ...

  20. Diabatic constrained relativistic mean field approach

    L"u, H F; Meng, J

    2005-01-01

    A diabatic (configuration-fixed) constrained approach to calculate the potential energy surface (PES) of the nucleus is developed in the relativistic mean field model. The potential energy surfaces of $^{208}$Pb obtained from both adiabatic and diabatic constrained approaches are investigated and compared. The diabatic constrained approach enables one to decompose the segmented PES obtained in usual adiabatic approaches into separate parts uniquely characterized by different configurations, to define the single particle orbits at very deformed region by their quantum numbers, and to obtain several well defined deformed excited states which can hardly be expected from the adiabatic PES's.

  1. A Machine Learning Approach to Automated Negotiation

    Zhang Huaxiang(张化祥); Zhang Liang; Huang Shangteng; Ma Fanyuan

    2004-01-01

    Automated negotiation between two competitive agents is analyzed, and a multi-issue negotiation model based on machine learning, time belief, offer belief and state-action pair expected Q value is developed. Unlike the widely used approaches such as game theory approach, heuristic approach and argumentation approach, This paper uses a machine learning method to compute agents' average Q values in each negotiation stage. The delayed reward is used to generate agents' offer and counteroffer of every issue. The effect of time and discount rate on negotiation outcome is analyzed. Theory analysis and experimental data show this negotiation model is practical.

  2. Probabilistic approach to earthquake prediction.

    G. D'Addezio

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of any earthquake forecast hypothesis requires the application of rigorous statistical methods. It implies a univocal definition of the model characterising the concerned anomaly or precursor, so as it can be objectively recognised in any circumstance and by any observer.A valid forecast hypothesis is expected to maximise successes and minimise false alarms. The probability gain associated to a precursor is also a popular way to estimate the quality of the predictions based on such precursor. Some scientists make use of a statistical approach based on the computation of the likelihood of an observed realisation of seismic events, and on the comparison of the likelihood obtained under different hypotheses. This method can be extended to algorithms that allow the computation of the density distribution of the conditional probability of earthquake occurrence in space, time and magnitude. Whatever method is chosen for building up a new hypothesis, the final assessment of its validity should be carried out by a test on a new and independent set of observations. The implementation of this test could, however, be problematic for seismicity characterised by long-term recurrence intervals. Even using the historical record, that may span time windows extremely variable between a few centuries to a few millennia, we have a low probability to catch more than one or two events on the same fault. Extending the record of earthquakes of the past back in time up to several millennia, paleoseismology represents a great opportunity to study how earthquakes recur through time and thus provide innovative contributions to time-dependent seismic hazard assessment. Sets of paleoseimologically dated earthquakes have been established for some faults in the Mediterranean area: the Irpinia fault in Southern Italy, the Fucino fault in Central Italy, the El Asnam fault in Algeria and the Skinos fault in Central Greece. By using the age of the

  3. Collapse of a Bose gas: Kinetic approach

    Shyamal Biswas

    2012-08-01

    We have analytically explored the temperature dependence of critical number of particales for the collapse of a harmonically trapped attractively interacting Bose gas below the condensation point by introducing a kinetic approach within the Hartee-Fock approximation. The temperature dependence obtained by this easy approach is consistant with that obtained from the scaling theory.

  4. Research on the Theory of Communicative Approach

    Wang Changxue

    2014-01-01

    As speaking and listening are the two basic and essential skills in English learning,the communicative approach which focus on the learners’communicative competence take a very significant status. This paper aims to review and analyze the communicative approach and promote it to apply in the English teaching class.

  5. Amartya Sen's Capability Approach and Education

    Walker, Melanie

    2005-01-01

    The human capabilities approach developed by the economist Amartya Sen links development, quality of life and freedom. This article explores the key ideas in the capability approach of: capability, functioning, agency, human diversity and public participation in generating valued capabilities. It then considers how these ideas relate specifically…

  6. An Ethnographic Descriptive Approach to Video Microanalysis

    Holck, Ulla

    2007-01-01

    In the ethnographically informed approach to observational research one studies everyday settings, and seeks to understand actions and meanings in their social context (Silverman 1993; Wolcott 1990). This approach is a strong tool for investigating interactions of a more or less implicit character...

  7. Interpreting Native American Literature: An Archetypal Approach.

    Sevillano, Mando

    1986-01-01

    Compares two approaches to discussing Indian literature and religion. Demonstrates Jungian archetypal approach as transcultural method of analyzing Indian literature. Relates and analyzes Hopi traditional story. Emphasizes accessibility of Native American literature to the non-Indian while supporting multicultural plurality of interpretations.…

  8. Neuroevolutional Approach to Cerebral Palsy and Speech.

    Mysak, Edward D.

    Intended for cerebral palsy specialists, the book emphasizes the contribution that a neuroevolutional approach to therapy can make to habilitation goals of the child with cerebral palsy and applies the basic principles of the Bobath approach to therapy. The first section discusses cerebral palsy as a reflection of disturbed neuro-ontogenisis and…

  9. Reflections on Narrative Approaches to Moral Development.

    Lourenco, Orlando

    1996-01-01

    Compares narrative approaches to Kohlberg's theory of moral development along five dimensions: values relevance, legitimacy, universality, rationality, and commensurability. Argues that, contrary to Kohlberg's theory, narrative approaches may lead to contradiction in epistemology, nihilism in moral choices, and opportunism in relationships.…

  10. Discursive Study of Religion : Approaches, Definitions, Implications

    von Stuckrad, Kocku

    2013-01-01

    The article explores recent approaches to historical analysis of discourse that have been developed in disciplines such as the sociology of knowledge and historical epistemology. These approaches have only sporadically been taken seriously in the academic study of religion, although they have a grea

  11. The Social Shaping Approach to Technology Foresight

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Clausen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The social shaping of technology (SST) approach has been developed as a response and extension to the ideas of techno-economic rationality and linear conceptions of technology development and its consequences. The SST approach seems especially promising in areas of technology where visions are ma...

  12. A Complemental Approach to Instructional Development.

    Hassan, M. H.

    In its relatively short history, instructional development has been greatly influenced by operant conditioning theory and methodology. This approach has been described by some as simplistic, inhuman, and inflexible. The humanistic approach, on the other hand, focuses on affective, emotional, and intellectual learning experiences. But it seems to…

  13. Analysis of radial basis function interpolation approach

    Zou You-Long; Hu Fa-Long; Zhou Can-Can; Li Chao-Liu; Dunn Keh-Jim

    2013-01-01

    The radial basis function (RBF) interpolation approach proposed by Freedman is used to solve inverse problems encountered in well-logging and other petrophysical issues. The approach is to predict petrophysical properties in the laboratory on the basis of physical rock datasets, which include the formation factor, viscosity, permeability, and molecular composition. However, this approach does not consider the effect of spatial distribution of the calibration data on the interpolation result. This study proposes a new RBF interpolation approach based on the Freedman's RBF interpolation approach, by which the unit basis functions are uniformly populated in the space domain. The inverse results of the two approaches are comparatively analyzed by using our datasets. We determine that although the interpolation effects of the two approaches are equivalent, the new approach is more flexible and beneficial for reducing the number of basis functions when the database is large, resulting in simplification of the interpolation function expression. However, the predicted results of the central data are not sufficiently satisfied when the data clusters are far apart.

  14. Apply the Communicative Approach in Listening Class

    Wang; changxue; Su; na

    2014-01-01

    Speaking and listening are the two obstacles in the process of our learning and they are also the most important abilities that we should possess. Communicative approach aims to the ability of learners’ communicative competence, thus apply the communicative approach in listening class is an effective way in English teaching procedure.

  15. Apply the Communicative Approach in Listening Class

    Wang changxue; Su na

    2014-01-01

    Speaking and listening are the two obstacles in the process of our learning and they are also the most important abilities that we should possess. Communicative approach aims to the ability of learners’communicative competence, thus apply the communicative approach in listening class is an effective way in English teaching procedure.

  16. "1984": A Confessional Reading and Teaching Approach.

    Tanenbaum, Miles

    1989-01-01

    Describes an approach to teaching George Orwell's "1984," emphasizing the main characters' struggles through the themes of innocence and experience, conformity and rebellion, love and hate, discovery and creation, and death. Notes that this reader-response approach forces students into the process of self-examination. (MM)

  17. Dialogic approaches to the study of subjectivity

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    Book review: Sullivan, P. (2012). Qualitative Data Analysis: Using a dialogic approach. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84920-609-9......Book review: Sullivan, P. (2012). Qualitative Data Analysis: Using a dialogic approach. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84920-609-9...

  18. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  19. A Psycho-Reeducative Approach to History.

    Girouard, Pierre

    Discussed is the application of a psycho-reeducative approach to the teaching of history in a boarding school for bright elementary grade boys. Topics discussed include the historic process and the process of adaptation, historic activity in a reeducative context, the historic evolution of this approach (1961-1972), the integration of concepts to…

  20. Reconsidering Graduate Employability: The "Graduate Identity" Approach.

    Holmes, Len

    2001-01-01

    Elaborates a cogent alternative to the skills agenda as an approach to graduate employability--the graduate identity approach. Using a conceptual and theoretical examination of the key notion of performance, presents the twin concepts of practices and identity as significant for understanding human behavior. Offers suggestions for curriculum…

  1. An Experiential Approach to Cultural Intelligence Education

    MacNab, Brent R.

    2012-01-01

    Cultural intelligence (CQ) represents a promising advancement in the area of cross-cultural training and management. Experiential approaches for CQ development have been proposed as highly effective; however, there is a lack of CQ-specific approaches in the management literature. This work overviews the concept of cultural intelligence and its…

  2. On Cognitive Approach to Process Writing

    刘胤辛

    2014-01-01

    Based on its theoretical foundation of psychology, linguistics and pedagogy, cognitive approach aims to develop the practical and comprehensive ability of employing foreign language. Viewed as a complex process, writing can be regarded as a cognitive activity which focuses on the process of writing rather than its final product. This paper intends to discuss the effects of cognitive approach on English writing.

  3. A Professional Approach to PR Writing.

    Nager, Norman R.

    After reviewing some of the problems involved in a traditional approach to teaching, this paper introduces a teaching system based on a patterned approach to the public relations writing process. The system format which is presented involves an analysis of persuasive communication components, programmed questioning of traditional premises, and…

  4. Teaching Mathematical Induction: An Alternative Approach.

    Allen, Lucas G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes experience using a new approach to teaching induction that was developed by the Mathematical Methods in High School Project. The basic idea behind the new approach is to use induction to prove that two formulas, one in recursive form and the other in a closed or explicit form, will always agree for whole numbers. (KHR)

  5. Basic Employability Skills: A Triangular Design Approach

    Rosenberg, Stuart; Heimler, Ronald; Morote, Elsa-Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the basic employability skills needed for job performance, the reception of these skills in college, and the need for additional training in these skills after graduation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on a triangular design approach, in which the attitudes of three distinct groups--recent…

  6. Information Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development

    1989-08-04

    This chapter reviews the history and current status of information- processing approaches to cognitive development . Because the approach is so...a detailed analysis of self-modifying production systems and their potential for formulating theories of cognitive development . Keywords: Information processing; Cognitive development ; Self modification; Production system.

  7. On the Leitmann equivalent problem approach

    F.O.O. Wagener

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how Leitmann’s equivalent problem approach ties in with the classical notions of the calculus of variations and how it can be exploited to give a rapid and elegant approach to the Weierstrass theory of sufficient conditions. Fixed, free and constrained endpoint c

  8. Comparing approaches to generic programming in Haskell

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2007-01-01

    The last decade has seen a number of approaches to data- type-generic programming: PolyP, Functorial ML, `Scrap Your Boiler- plate', Generic Haskell, `Generics for the Masses', etc. The approaches vary in sophistication and target audience: some propose full-blown pro- gramming languages, some sugge

  9. A Balanced Approach to Early Childhood Education.

    Lodish, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Based on 30 years' experience, the author advocates a balanced approach that accommodates extremes in four important areas: curriculum, teaching, structure, and classroom management. Using a whole-language approach to reading should not mean that phonics, spelling, or punctuation skills can't be taught. Authoritarian and open classroom structures…

  10. Using Narrative Approaches To Teach Multicultural Counseling.

    Kerl, Stella Beatriz

    2002-01-01

    Narrative approaches to teaching multicultural counseling can assist students in integrating course content with a sense of self. Narrative teaching strategies follow a postmodern view of learning--that is, that truth is constructed through the interaction of participants. Justification for narrative approaches to teaching, multicultural…

  11. A new approach to clausal constituent order

    K. Hengeveld

    2013-01-01

    This chapter studies the consequences of the FDG approach to constituent ordering for the typology of constituent orders at the clausal level. After introducing the theoretical framework, it is argued that the fact that FDG in its dynamic approach to constituent ordering uses four absolute positions

  12. Experimental design research approaches, perspectives, applications

    Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current research practice where methods are diverging and integration between individual, team and organizational under...

  13. Energy management - The delayed flap approach

    Bull, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Flight test evaluation of a Delayed Flap approach procedure intended to provide reductions in noise and fuel consumption is underway using the NASA CV-990 test aircraft. Approach is initiated at a high airspeed (240 kt) and in a drag configuration that allows for low thrust. The aircraft is flown along the conventional ILS glide slope. A Fast/Slow message display signals the pilot when to extend approach flaps, landing gear, and land flaps. Implementation of the procedure in commercial service may require the addition of a DME navigation aid co-located with the ILS glide slope transmitter. The Delayed Flap approach saves 250 lb of fuel over the Reduced Flap approach, with a 95 EPNdB noise contour only 43% as large.

  14. Index analysis approach theory at work

    Lowen, R

    2015-01-01

    A featured review of the AMS describes the author’s earlier work in the field of approach spaces as, ‘A landmark in the history of general topology’. In this book, the author has expanded this study further and taken it in a new and exciting direction.   The number of conceptually and technically different systems which characterize approach spaces is increased and moreover their uniform counterpart, uniform gauge spaces, is put into the picture. An extensive study of completions, both for approach spaces and for uniform gauge spaces, as well as compactifications for approach spaces is performed. A paradigm shift is created by the new concept of index analysis.   Making use of the rich intrinsic quantitative information present in approach structures, a technique is developed whereby indices are defined that measure the extent to which properties hold, and theorems become inequalities involving indices; therefore vastly extending the realm of applicability of many classical results. The theory is the...

  15. Toward a Cooperative Experimental System Development Approach

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kyng, Morten; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1997-01-01

    This chapter represents a step towards the establishment of a new system development approach, called Cooperative Experimental System Development (CESD). CESD seeks to overcome a number of limitations in existing approaches: specification oriented methods usually assume that system design can....../design to targeted object oriented design, specification, and realisation; and design for tailorability. The emerging CESD approach is based on several years of experience in applying cooperative analysis and design techniques in projects developing general, tailorable software products. The CESD approach is....../design activities of development projects. In contrast, the CESD approach is characterized by its focus on: active user involvement throughout the entire development process; prototyping experiments closely coupled to work-situations and use-scenarios; transforming results from early cooperative analysis...

  16. Path Integral Approach to Atomic Collisions

    Harris, Allison

    2016-09-01

    The Path Integral technique is an alternative formulation of quantum mechanics that is based on a Lagrangian approach. In its exact form, it is completely equivalent to the Hamiltonian-based Schrödinger equation approach. Developed by Feynman in the 1940's, following inspiration from Dirac, the path integral approach has been widely used in high energy physics, quantum field theory, and statistical mechanics. However, only in limited cases has the path integral approach been applied to quantum mechanical few-body scattering. We present a theoretical and computational development of the path integral method for use in the study of atomic collisions. Preliminary results are presented for some simple systems. Ultimately, this approach will be applied to few-body ion-atom collisions. Work supported by NSF grant PHY-1505217.

  17. A Comparative Study between Grammar-translation Approach and Communicative Approach

    王卓; 李雅娟

    2009-01-01

    Grammar-translation Approach and Communicative Approach are both very important teaching method in the process of second language learning. This paper mainly discusses the connection between these two aproaches, and dis-cusses their distinct features.

  18. A Comparative Study on the Audiolingual Approach and the Communicative Approach

    ZHANG Jing-bo

    2013-01-01

    Audiolingual approach and communicative approach are two major teaching methods in the history of language teach-ing. This paper aims to compare these two teaching methods to conclude their benefits for teaching foreign languages in our country.

  19. Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach? Part 2

    Booth, Thomas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-11

    The recent work 'Is the Standard Monte Carlo Power Iteration Approach the Wrong Approach?' speculated that the second eigenfunction could be built using essentially the same 'building brick' approach that obtained the first eigenfunction in LA-UR-12-21928. This note shows that the speculation was at least partially correct, but not complete.

  20. Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach

    Nicol, Janni; Taplin, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Steiner Waldorf High Scope Approach. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of the Steiner Waldorf Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years…

  1. Understanding the Montessori Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach

    Isaacs, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    "Understanding the Montessori Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Montessori Approach and how it is used in the teaching and learning of young children. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of this Approach to early childhood and and its…

  2. Various approaches of teaching veterinary parasitology.

    Gottstein, B; Eckert, J

    2002-10-02

    In this paper, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches of teaching veterinary parasitology, including the disciplinary, the problem-oriented and combined approaches. In the disciplinary approach, parasitology is taught in the classical manner as a coherent subject, covering parasite morphology, biology, molecular biology, epidemiology, pathology, immunology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, therapy, control, and prevention. Problem-oriented teaching approaches the subjects starting from diseases in animal species or from organ systems or other objectives (e.g. food safety); it also tackles training of skills for problem solving and self-learning. Combined approaches include elements of the disciplinary approach and those of other methods. A combined approach of teaching veterinary parasitology, including basic disciplinary teaching of at least 70-90 h, and additional problem-oriented education, was recently proposed in a resolution by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP News Lett. 5 (1) 3-4]. In 1999, a new curriculum has been established at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Berne, originally planned as a combination of organ-focused and problem-based approach. This model was soon identified to cause problems in teaching some disciplines, including infectious diseases. Conversely, the short-term experiences with this combined approach also confirmed some advantages of problem-oriented teaching in other, mainly clinical domains. Nevertheless, closer interdisciplinary contact and collaboration--especially in elective teaching--was enforced between paraclinical and clinical teaching by reforming the curriculum. However, it turned out that large student numbers in relation to the resources of manpower, rooms and finances limited the workability of the curriculum. Therefore, further and probably continuous improvement of the curriculum is necessary.

  3. Approaches to risk assessment in food allergy

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Hattersley, S.; Buck, J.;

    2009-01-01

    the area forward. Three possible approaches to safety assessment and risk assessment for allergenic foods were presented and discussed: safety assessment using NOAEL/LOAEL and uncertainty factors, safety assessment using Benchmark Dose and Margin of Exposure (MoE), and risk assessment using probabilistic...... models. The workshop concluded that all the three approaches to safety and risk assessment of allergenic foods should continue to be considered. A particular strength of the MoE and probabilistic approaches is that they do not rely on low-dose extrapolations with its inherent issues. Probabilistic...

  4. Understanding microelectronics a top-down approach

    Maloberti, Franco

    2011-01-01

    The microelectronics evolution has given rise to many modern benefits but has also changed design methods and attitudes to learning. Technology advancements shifted focus from simple circuits to complex systems with major attention to high-level descriptions. The design methods moved from a bottom-up to a top-down approach. For today's students, the most beneficial approach to learning is this top-down method that demonstrates a global view of electronics before going into specifics. Franco Maloberti uses this approach to explain the fundamentals of electronics, such as processing functions,

  5. A Unified Approach to Modeling and Programming

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    2010-01-01

    of this paper is to go back to the future and get inspiration from SIMULA and propose a unied approach. In addition to reintroducing the contributions of SIMULA and the Scandinavian approach to object-oriented programming, we do this by discussing a number of issues in modeling and programming and argue3 why we......SIMULA was a language for modeling and programming and provided a unied approach to modeling and programming in contrast to methodologies based on structured analysis and design. The current development seems to be going in the direction of separation of modeling and programming. The goal...

  6. A contingency table approach to nonparametric testing

    Rayner, JCW

    2000-01-01

    Most texts on nonparametric techniques concentrate on location and linear-linear (correlation) tests, with less emphasis on dispersion effects and linear-quadratic tests. Tests for higher moment effects are virtually ignored. Using a fresh approach, A Contingency Table Approach to Nonparametric Testing unifies and extends the popular, standard tests by linking them to tests based on models for data that can be presented in contingency tables.This approach unifies popular nonparametric statistical inference and makes the traditional, most commonly performed nonparametric analyses much more comp

  7. Expected Utility Optimization - Calculus of Variations Approach

    Tran, Khoa

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I'll derive the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation for Merton's problem in Utility Optimization Theory using a Calculus of Variations (CoV) Approach. For stochastic control problems, Dynamic Programming (DP) has been used as a standard method. To the best of my knowledge, no one has used CoV for this problem. In addition, while the DP approach cannot guarantee that the optimum satisfies the HJ equation, the CoV approach does. Be aware that this is the first draft of this paper and many flaws might be introduced.

  8. THE FACT APPROACH TO COLLEGE ENGLISH LEARNING

    1998-01-01

    Introduction The proliferation of approaches and methods is a prominent characteristic of contemporary ESL or EFL teaching. From the Grammar Translation Method, the Direct Method, Situational Language Teaching, the Audiolingual Method to Communicative Language Teaching, Total Physical Response, the Silent Way, Community Language Learning, the Natural Approach and Suggestopedia, the discussion has lasted for more than a century. However, the wide variety of method or approach options confuses rather than comforts, because they seem to hold very different views of what language is and how a language is learned (Richards & Rodgers, 1991) . This confusing situation is mainly caused by the myth of the hu-

  9. Approaches of Buried Object Detection Technology

    Nagashree R N

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the different art of buried object detection technology and algorithms. This detection of buried object finds application in many areas, importantly in the Landmine detection which is of growing concern due to the danger of buried landmines to people’s lives, economic growth and development. This paper describes and analyzes different technology available. The approaches discussed are Electrical Impedance Tomography, X-ray backscatter, Infrared Systems, Acoustics/seismic systems; Neutron based Method and finally Ground-Penetrating Radar with two commonly available approaches: Least squares and SVD approach. Finally, the paper concludes highlighting the need to improve the way this information is processed and compared.

  10. Introducing ANOVA and ANCOVA a GLM approach

    Rutherford, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Traditional approaches to ANOVA and ANCOVA are now being replaced by a General Linear Modeling (GLM) approach. This book begins with a brief history of the separate development of ANOVA and regression analyses and demonstrates how both analysis forms are subsumed by the General Linear Model. A simple single independent factor ANOVA is analysed first in conventional terms and then again in GLM terms to illustrate the two approaches. The text then goes on to cover the main designs, both independent and related ANOVA and ANCOVA, single and multi-factor designs. The conventional statistical assumptions underlying ANOVA and ANCOVA are detailed and given expression in GLM terms. Alternatives to traditional ANCO

  11. A systematic approach to study electoral fraud

    Leemann, Lucas; Bochsler, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Integrity of elections relies on fair procedures at different stages of the election process, and fraud can occur in many instances and different forms. This paper provides a general approach for the detection of fraud. While most existing contributions focus on a single instance and form of fraud......, we propose a more encompassing approach, testing for several empirical implications of different possible forms of fraud. To illustrate this approach we rely on a case of electoral irregularities in one of the oldest democracies: In a Swiss referendum in 2011, one in twelve municipalities irregularly...

  12. A Progressive Approach to Content Generation

    Shaker, Mohammad; Shaker, Noor; Togelius, Julian;

    2015-01-01

    PCGapproachesarecommonlycategorisedasconstructive,generate- and-test or search-based. Each of these approaches has its distinctive advantages and drawbacks. In this paper, we propose an approach to Content Generation (CG)– in particular level generation – that combines the advantages of construc......- tive and search-based approaches thus providing a fast, flexible and reliable way of generating diverse content of high quality. In our framework, CG is seen from a new perspective which differentiates between two main aspects of the game- play experience, namely the order of the in-game interactions...

  13. Design of Quiet Rotorcraft Approach Trajectories

    Padula, Sharon L.; Burley, Casey L.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Marcolini, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    A optimization procedure for identifying quiet rotorcraft approach trajectories is proposed and demonstrated. The procedure employs a multi-objective genetic algorithm in order to reduce noise and create approach paths that will be acceptable to pilots and passengers. The concept is demonstrated by application to two different helicopters. The optimized paths are compared with one another and to a standard 6-deg approach path. The two demonstration cases validate the optimization procedure but highlight the need for improved noise prediction techniques and for additional rotorcraft acoustic data sets.

  14. The rehabilitative approach in rheumatoid arthritis

    N. Pappone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The rehabilitative approach for the patient with rheumatoid arthritis should be early, global and complementary to an early pharmacological therapy, in the context of a multidisciplinary approach, that should include physicians with different specialties and other health professionals. Evaluation scales assessing disability and quality of life are necessary for the rehabilitative approach. These can be classified in 2 groups: specific tools and generic tools, each evaluating different components of the health status. After the evaluation and the definition of the aims of the rehabilitation, a rehabilitative project, potentially including physical therapies, therapeutic exercises, occupational therapy and orthosis should be defined.

  15. Exchange Rate Forecasting with Information Flow Approach

    Irena Mačerinskienė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to assess exchange rate forecasting possibilities with an information flow approach model. In the model the three types of information flows are distinguished: fundamental analysis information flow through particular macroeconomic determinants, microstructure approach information flow through dealer clients’ positioning data, technical analysis information flow through technical indicators. By using regression analysis it is shown that the composed model can forecast the exchange rate, the most significant information flows are distinguished. The results lead to further development of the information flow approach as a tool to forecast exchange rate fluctuations.

  16. A Black feminist approach to nursing research.

    Barbee, E L

    1994-10-01

    Despite the presence of a body of Black feminist literature, the growing body of nursing literature on feminism and the feminist approach to research remains narrowly focused on White feminist concerns. By essentially ignoring the realities of Black women, nursing has reproduced the errors of previous White feminists. This article demonstrates the relevance of the Black feminist approach to nursing by applying it in combination with general feminist research principles and anthropological theory in research concerned with low-income Black women's experiences with dysphoria and depression. The findings of the research suggest that a combination approach more clearly illuminates how context effects dysphoria in poor Black women.

  17. An integrative approach to apprehend desistance.

    F-Dufour, Isabelle; Brassard, Renée; Martel, Joane

    2015-05-01

    The process underlying desistance is still a strong subject of debate. This article seeks to introduce several core concepts of Archer's morphogenic approach to study how people desist from crime. At first, it discusses the primary existing theories of desistance. Then, this article demonstrates the usefulness of this approach by presenting empirical evidence drawn from semistructured interviews collected with 29 men who desisted from crime in an eastern province of Canada. The study demonstrates how this alternative approach allows for the consolidation of existing knowledge on desistance. Then implication of these findings for both theory and practice are discussed.

  18. HYBRID CONTROL APPROACH FOR CONTAINER CRANES

    Wang Xiaojun; Shao Huihe

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid control approach is proposed to achieve the desired performance. Firstly a robust input shaper is designed to reduce the transient vibration and residual vibration of the container efficiently. Then a simple fuzzy logic controller is designed to eliminate the residual vibration completely in order to guarantee the positioning precision. Such a hybrid approach is simple in structure and readily realizable. Simulation results verify the fine performance of this hybrid control approach. It can achieve perfect elimination of residual vibration and concise positioning of the container load, and it is robust to parameter variations (mainly for cable length) and external disturbances.

  19. Quantitative approaches in climate change ecology

    Brown, Christopher J.; Schoeman, David S.; Sydeman, William J.

    2011-01-01

    climate variability and other drivers of change. To assist the development of reliable statistical approaches, we review the marine climate change literature and provide suggestions for quantitative approaches in climate change ecology. We compiled 267 peer‐reviewed articles that examined relationships...... between climate change and marine ecological variables. Of the articles with time series data (n = 186), 75% used statistics to test for a dependency of ecological variables on climate variables. We identified several common weaknesses in statistical approaches, including marginalizing other important non...

  20. A programmable approach to revising knowledge bases

    LUAN Shangmin; DAI Guozhong; LI Wei

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a programmable approach to revising knowledge bases consisting of clauses. Some theorems and lemmas are shown in order to give procedures for generating maximally consistent subsets. Then a complete procedure and an incomplete procedure for generating the maximal consistent subsets are presented, and the correctness of the procedures is also shown. Furthermore, a way to implement knowledge base revision is presented, and a prototype system is introduced. Compared with related works, the main characteristic of our approach is that the approach can be implemented by a computer program.

  1. Approach Merotopies and Associated Near Sets

    James Peters

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces associated near sets of a collection of sets. The proposed approach introduces a means of defining as well as describing an ε-approach merotopy in terms of the members of associated sets of collections that are sufficiently near. A characterization for continuous functions is established using associated near sets. This article also introduces p-containment considered in the context of near sets. An application of the proposed approach is given in terms of digital image classification.

  2. The Planets Approach to Migration Tools

    Zierau, Eld; van Wijk, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the Planets approach to migration tool development. The approach consists of enhancing existing migration tools rather than developing tools from scratch. This pragmatic approach is based on the Planets view of the current situation for migration tools and two claims. The first...... claim is that the market will cover the required tools for commonly used formats. The second claim is that in the long term less tools will be required due to growing use of archiving standard formats. The Planets view on the current situation, the scope of tool development and the claims stated are...

  3. When opportunity meets motivation: Neural engagement during social approach is linked to high approach motivation.

    Radke, Sina; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Eickhoff, Simon B; Gur, Ruben C; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Derntl, Birgit

    2016-02-15

    Social rewards are processed by the same dopaminergic-mediated brain networks as non-social rewards, suggesting a common representation of subjective value. Individual differences in personality and motivation influence the reinforcing value of social incentives, but it remains open whether the pursuit of social incentives is analogously supported by the neural reward system when positive social stimuli are connected to approach behavior. To test for a modulation of neural activation by approach motivation, individuals with high and low approach motivation (BAS) completed implicit and explicit social approach-avoidance paradigms during fMRI. High approach motivation was associated with faster implicit approach reactions as well as a trend for higher approach ratings, indicating increased approach tendencies. Implicit and explicit positive social approach was accompanied by stronger recruitment of the nucleus accumbens, middle cingulate cortex, and (pre-)cuneus for individuals with high compared to low approach motivation. These results support and extend prior research on social reward processing, self-other distinctions and affective judgments by linking approach motivation to the engagement of reward-related circuits during motivational reactions to social incentives. This interplay between motivational preferences and motivational contexts might underlie the rewarding experience during social interactions.

  4. Monitoring and Reporting HACs - A Federalist Approach

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Findings from a study entitled, Monitoring and Reporting Hospital-Acquired Conditions - A Federalist Approach, published in Volume 4, Issue 4 of Medicare and...

  5. Three Approaches to Writing the First Poem.

    Rodriguez, William Robert

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that by using the three approaches to writing the first poem--breath-grouping, prosepoetry, and the repeater--students will conceptualize and practice some of the possible forms of contemporary poetry. (EL)

  6. Coordination Approaches for Complex Software Systems

    Bosse, T.; Hoogendoorn, M.; Treur, J.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the results of a collaboration between the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Artificial Intelligence and Force Vision to investigate coordination approaches for complex software systems. The project was funded by Force Vision.

  7. Developing an Intuitive Approach to Moles.

    Wakeley, Dawn M.; de Grys, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Explains the concept of mole and presents a teaching approach in which students can experiment with atoms and develop an understanding of mass ratios. Presents 10 examples of chemistry problems involving moles and unit conversations. (YDS)

  8. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Duilio Divisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  9. Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies

    Abbing, Jana; Koidl, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Abbing, J. & Koidl, K. (2006). Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies. Proceedings of Adaptive Hypermedia. June, Dublin, Ireland. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetworks.org

  10. Electricity distribution networks: Changing regulatory approaches

    Cambini, Carlo

    2016-09-01

    Increasing the penetration of distributed generation and smart grid technologies requires substantial investments. A study proposes an innovative approach that combines four regulatory tools to provide economic incentives for distribution system operators to facilitate these innovative practices.

  11. A Deductive Database Approach for Complex Objects

    陈其明

    1990-01-01

    A deductive database approach for complex objects reasoning is proposed,which is characterized by handling predicates nesting in terms of mapping hierarchically structured rules and facts to a flattened Horn-clause implementation scheme.

  12. AN APPROACH OF DEFENDING AGAINST DDOS ATTACK

    Wu Zhijun; Duan Haixin; Li Xing

    2006-01-01

    An approach of defending against Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack based on flow model and flow detection is presented. The proposed approach can protect targets from DDoS attacking, and allow targets to provide good service to legitimate traffic under DDoS attacking, with fast reaction. This approach adopts the technique of dynamic comb filter, yields a low level of false positives of less than 1.5%,drops similar percentage of good traffic, about 1%, and passes neglectable percentage of attack bandwidth to the victim, less than 1.5%. The prototype of commercial product, D-fighter, is developed by implementing this proposed approach on Intel network processor platform IXP 1200.

  13. A New Email Retrieval Ranking Approach

    AbdelRahman, Samir; Bahgat, Reem; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2504

    2010-01-01

    Email Retrieval task has recently taken much attention to help the user retrieve the email(s) related to the submitted query. Up to our knowledge, existing email retrieval ranking approaches sort the retrieved emails based on some heuristic rules, which are either search clues or some predefined user criteria rooted in email fields. Unfortunately, the user usually does not know the effective rule that acquires best ranking related to his query. This paper presents a new email retrieval ranking approach to tackle this problem. It ranks the retrieved emails based on a scoring function that depends on crucial email fields, namely subject, content, and sender. The paper also proposes an architecture to allow every user in a network/group of users to be able, if permissible, to know the most important network senders who are interested in his submitted query words. The experimental evaluation on Enron corpus prove that our approach outperforms known email retrieval ranking approaches.

  14. A New Email Retrieval Ranking Approach

    AbdelRahman, Samir; Bahgat, Reem; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2504

    2010-01-01

    Email Retrieval task has recently taken much attention to help the user retrieve the email(s) related to the submitted query. Up to our knowledge, existing email retrieval ranking approaches sort the retrieved emails based on some heuristic rules, which are either search clues or some predefined user criteria rooted in email fields. Unfortunately, the user usually does not know the effective rule that acquires best ranking related to his query. This paper presents a new email retrieval ranking approach to tackle this problem. It ranks the retrieved emails based on a scoring function that depends on crucial email fields, namely subject, content, and sender. The paper also proposes an architecture to allow every user in a network/group of users to be able, if permissible, to know the most important network senders who are interested in his submitted query words. The experimental evaluation on Enron corpus prove that our approach outperforms known email retrieval ranking approaches

  15. Quality Control Approaches for Chinese Herbal Medicines

    YUAN Hai-long; ZHANG Tian-tian; XIAO Xiao-he

    2011-01-01

    The current official quality control approaches meet the challenges from the complexity of herbal medicines.In fact,any herbal medicines containing numerous unknown components,its curative effect usually depends on the whole of herbal medicines,so it is impossible and unnecessary to qualitatively and quantitatively study every component.By investigating the limitations of current quality control approaches for herbal medicines and the difference and similarity in the chemical substantial style as well as quality control pattern of herbal medicines,a new quality control approach for Chinese herbal medicines should be explored and designed.The combination approach of chemical analysis with bioassay is promising to be developed and employed in order to ensure the safety and efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines.

  16. [Approach to the body in freelance practice].

    Talon-Chrétien, Marie-Claire; Ngom, Marjolaine Letheule

    2011-06-01

    Home nursing care requires a specific approach. Effectively, privacy and modesty are part of the daily environment of a patient made vulnerable through the absence of an institutional framework. A bilateral relationship of trust is necessary.

  17. Mixed method approaches to evaluate conservation impact

    Lund, Jens Friis; Burgess, Neil D.; Chamshama, Shabani A.O.

    2015-01-01

    management on two forests in Tanzania was evaluated using a mixed method approach. Current forest condition, forest increment and forest use patterns were assessed through forest inventories, and changes in forest disturbance levels before and after the implementation of decentralized forest management were...... that a mixed methods approach comprises a valid and promising way to evaluate impacts of conservation policies, even in the absence of control sites. By carefully linking policy outcomes to policy outputs, such an approach not only identifies whether such policies work as intended, but also potential......Nearly 10% of the world's total forest area is formally owned by communities and indigenous groups, yet knowledge of the effects of decentralized forest management approaches on conservation (and livelihood) impacts remains elusive. In this paper, the conservation impact of decentralized forest...

  18. Approaches for Constrained Parametric Curve Interpolation

    ZHANG CaiMing(张彩明); YANG XingQiang(杨兴强); WANG JiaYe(汪嘉业)

    2003-01-01

    The construction of a GC 1 cubic interpolating curve that lies on the same side of agiven straight line as the data points is studied. The main task is to choose appropriate approachesto modify tangent vectors at the data points for the desired curve. Three types of approaches forchanging the magnitudes of the tangent vectors are presented. The first-type approach nodifiesthe tangent vectors by applying a constraint to the curve segment. The second one does the workby optimization techniques. The third one is a modification of the existing method. Three criteriaare presented to compare the three types of approaches with the existing method. The experimentsthat test the effectiveness of the approaches are included.

  19. THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH AND TEXTBOOK READING

    ZhengJianfeng

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1970s. the Communicative Approach has been introduced into the field of EFL in China. From then on. EFL experts, teacher trainers and textbook compilers have made enormous effort to reform ELT in areas such as teacher training,course development and classroom practice.For a while.Communicative Approach has been regarded as the only best method to language teaching because of its proposals and principles like authentic material, learner-centeredness and taskbased teaching model. However. nowadays, there are still some traditional textbooks used in many colleges and universities.Many of the contents are not authentic and the exercises are not aimed to develop students' competence to use language for communication. Does it mean that we can't adopt the Communicative Approach to deal with the traditional material?Through the author's own experience, it can be concluded that the Communicative Approach is also applicable to the teaching of reading course even with the traditional textbooks.

  20. Current Cognitive Approaches to Childhood Psychopathology.

    Garfield, Sol L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents six developmentally oriented articles on childhood psychopathology. Reviews research dealing with autism, social isolation, interpersonal understanding, sociomoral reasoning, cognitive controls, and aggression and includes an overview of progress and problems in the cognitive approach to clinical child psychology. (JAC)

  1. Machine learning approaches in medical image analysis

    de Bruijne, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Machine learning approaches are increasingly successful in image-based diagnosis, disease prognosis, and risk assessment. This paper highlights new research directions and discusses three main challenges related to machine learning in medical imaging: coping with variation in imaging protocols...

  2. Distributed simulation a model driven engineering approach

    Topçu, Okan; Oğuztüzün, Halit; Yilmaz, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Backed by substantive case studies, the novel approach to software engineering for distributed simulation outlined in this text demonstrates the potent synergies between model-driven techniques, simulation, intelligent agents, and computer systems development.

  3. Crime and Justice: Taking a Futuristic Approach.

    Stephens, Gene; Tafoya, William L.

    1985-01-01

    How to apply futuristic approaches to crime and justice in an effort to prevent crime and deal more effectively with offenders is described. Planning, brainstorming, using the Delphi method, and opinion polling are discussed. (Author/RM)

  4. A "Bioethics" Approach to Teaching Health Law.

    Capron, Alexander Morgan

    1988-01-01

    The reasons for offering a course in bioethics to law students and some approaches to take in addressing controversial issues are examined. The use of hypothetical vs. real cases, emphasis on clinical problems, and overall course objectives are discussed. (MSE)

  5. The virtue ethics approach to bioethics.

    Holland, Stephen

    2011-05-01

    This paper discusses the viability of a virtue-based approach to bioethics. Virtue ethics is clearly appropriate to addressing issues of professional character and conduct. But another major remit of bioethics is to evaluate the ethics of biomedical procedures in order to recommend regulatory policy. How appropriate is the virtue ethics approach to fulfilling this remit? The first part of this paper characterizes the methodology problem in bioethics in terms of diversity, and shows that virtue ethics does not simply restate this problem in its own terms. However, fatal objections to the way the virtue ethics approach is typically taken in bioethics literature are presented in the second section of the paper. In the third part, a virtue-based approach to bioethics that avoids the shortcomings of the typical one is introduced and shown to be prima facie plausible. The upshot is an inviting new direction for research into bioethics' methodology.

  6. Approach to low back pain - acupuncture.

    Ee, Carolyn

    2014-05-01

    This article forms part of our allied health series for 2014, which aims to provide information about the management approach of different allied health professionals, using the case example of uncomplicated, mechanical low back pain.

  7. A unified approach to the Painleve Transcendents

    2016-01-01

    We utilise a recent approach via the so-called re-scaling method to derive a unified and comprehensive theory of the solutions to Painleve's differential equations (I), (II) and (IV), with emphasis on the most elaborate equation (IV).

  8. Brachial Approach to NOGA-Guided Procedures

    Banovic, Marko; Ostojic, Miodrag C.; Bartunek, Jozef; Nedeljkovic, Milan; Beleslin, Branko; Terzic, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Several methods are available for delivering stem cells to the heart. Recent studies have highlighted the advantages of injecting the cells directly into the myocardium in order to increase myocardial retention of cells. A particular focus has been on percutaneous transendocardial injection, facilitated by electromechanical mapping. The NOGA® XP Cardiac Navigation System has a multicomponent catheter that is designed to guide and deliver transendocardial injections via a transfemoral approach, without a guidewire. However, this method may not be feasible in some patients who have peripheral vascular disease. Herein, we describe the case of a 68-year-old man whose tortuous, sharply angled iliac arteries precluded a femoral approach to transendocardial injection. To overcome the anatomic and mechanical challenges, we used a brachial approach. We believe that this is the 1st report of using the brachial route for transendocardial injection, and that it can be a viable alternative to the transfemoral approach in selected patients. PMID:21494532

  9. Phenomenological approaches in psychology and health sciences

    Davidsen, A.

    2013-01-01

    A whole family of qualitative methods is informed by phenomenological philosophy. When applying these methods, the material is analyzed using concepts from this philosophy to interrogate the findings and to enable greater theoretical analysis. However, the phenomenological approach represents dif...

  10. Sample Size Estimation for Non-Inferiority Trials: Frequentist Approach versus Decision Theory Approach.

    A C Bouman

    Full Text Available Non-inferiority trials are performed when the main therapeutic effect of the new therapy is expected to be not unacceptably worse than that of the standard therapy, and the new therapy is expected to have advantages over the standard therapy in costs or other (health consequences. These advantages however are not included in the classic frequentist approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials. In contrast, the decision theory approach of sample size calculation does include these factors. The objective of this study is to compare the conceptual and practical aspects of the frequentist approach and decision theory approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials, thereby demonstrating that the decision theory approach is more appropriate for sample size calculation of non-inferiority trials.The frequentist approach and decision theory approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials are compared and applied to a case of a non-inferiority trial on individually tailored duration of elastic compression stocking therapy compared to two years elastic compression stocking therapy for the prevention of post thrombotic syndrome after deep vein thrombosis.The two approaches differ substantially in conceptual background, analytical approach, and input requirements. The sample size calculated according to the frequentist approach yielded 788 patients, using a power of 80% and a one-sided significance level of 5%. The decision theory approach indicated that the optimal sample size was 500 patients, with a net value of €92 million.This study demonstrates and explains the differences between the classic frequentist approach and the decision theory approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials. We argue that the decision theory approach of sample size estimation is most suitable for sample size calculation of non-inferiority trials.

  11. Partial discharge transients: The field theoretical approach

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1998-01-01

    Up until the mid-1980s the theory of partial discharge transients was essentially static. This situation had arisen because of the fixation with the concept of void capacitance and the use of circuit theory to address what is in essence a field problem. Pedersen rejected this approach and instead...... began to apply field theory to the problem of partial discharge transients. In the present paper, the contributions of Pedersen using the field theoretical approach will be reviewed and discussed....

  12. A Hopf algebra deformation approach to renormalization

    Ionescu, L M; Ionescu, Lucian M.; Marsalli, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the relation between Connes-Kreimer Hopf algebra approach to renomalization and deformation quantization. Both approaches rely on factorization, the correspondence being established at the level of Wiener-Hopf algebras, and double Lie algebras/Lie bialgebras, via r-matrices. It is suggested that the QFTs obtained via deformation quantization and renormalization correspond to each other in the sense of Kontsevich/Cattaneo-Felder.

  13. Towards a Postmodern Approach of Ethnic Community

    Cătălin-George FEDOR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our paper is a concise review of the various approaches to the concept of ethnic community, starting from the classical ones and ending with the postmodern ones. Emphasis is laid on the constructivist and constructionist approaches, and our conclusions point out that an individual’s belonging to an ethnic group is an ever-changing social construct. Classification-JEL: A23

  14. Dictyostelium discoideum: Molecular approaches to cell biology

    Spudich, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The central point of this book is to present Dictyostelium as a valuable eukaryotic organism for those interested in molecular studies that require a combined biochemical, structural, and genetic approach. The book is not meant to be a comprehensive compilation of all methods involving Dictyostelium, but instead is a selective set of chapters that demonstrates the utility of the organism for molecular approaches to interesting cell biological problems.

  15. [Genomic approach to pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis].

    Yamada, Ryo

    2012-11-01

    Genetic studies identified multiple genes and polymorphisms that increase risk to develop rheumatoid arthritis. Genomic approach is characterized with its integrative style using mathematical and statistical models. Its main targets include (1)combinatorial effect of multiple genetic and environmental factors, (2)heterogeneity of pathological states and its individuality, and (3)their chronological heterogeneity. Genomic approach will clarify pathophysiology of various diseases along with the progresses in molecular biology and other researches on individual molecules.

  16. Photonic crystal fibres and effective index approaches

    Riishede, Jesper; Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard;

    2001-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres.......Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres....

  17. Systems Theory and Systems Approach to Leadership

    Dr.Sc. Berim Ramosaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Systems theory is product of the efforts of many researchers to create an intermediate field of coexistence of all sciences. If not for anything else, because of the magnitude that the use of systemic thinking and systemic approach has taken, it has become undisputed among the theories. Systems theory not only provides a glossary of terms with which researchers from different fields can be understood, but provides a framework for the presentation and interpretation of phenomena and realities. This paper addresses a systematic approach to leadership, as an attempt to dredge leadership and systems theory literature to find the meeting point. Systems approach is not an approach to leadership in terms of a manner of leader’s work, but it’s the leader's determination to factorize in his leadership the external environment and relationships with and among elements. Leader without followers is unable to exercise his leadership and to ensure their conviction he should provide a system, a structure, a purpose, despite the alternative chaos. Systems approach clarifies the thought on the complexity and dynamism of the environment and provides a framework for building ideas. If the general system theory is the skeleton of science (Boulding: 1956, this article aims to replenish it with leadership muscles by prominent authors who have written on systems theory and leadership, as well as through original ideas. In this work analytical methods were used (by analyzing approaches individually as well as synthetic methods (by assaying individual approaches in context of entirety. The work is a critical review of literature as well as a deductive analysis mingled with models proposed by authors through inductive analysis. Meta-analysis has been used to dissect the interaction and interdependence between leadership approaches.

  18. English language teaching methods and approaches

    Daskalovska, Nina; Ivanovska, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    This handbook for English language students presents the major teaching methods and approaches that have been used in English language teaching and learning. It is divided into two parts. Part I gives an overview of first and second/foreign language acquisition theories, such as the behaviourist, the innatist, the cognitive, the interactionist and the creative-construction theory. Part II describes the English language teaching methods and approaches that have been popular at different times ...

  19. Recent approaches in studying leadership in organizations

    Mojić Dušan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Most influential recent approaches in studying organizational leadership were discussed in this article. Special attention is given to theories of transactional/transformational and charismatic leadership, having in mind their importance and wide presence in contemporary study of leadership in organizations. Other recent approaches such as visionary leadership, empowerment, team leadership etc. were also presented. Finally, an interesting view that leadership is sometimes irrelevant is discussed through an analysis of main standing points of theory about substitutes for leadership.

  20. A Game Theory Approach of Deposit Insurance

    JIANG Hong-xun; QIU Wan-hua; MING Ming

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic game theory approach for deposit insurance. We formulate a deposit insurance problem as an incomplete information game theory model, which deduces the expression of Capital Charge Ratio for national central bank. The main contribution of the paper however is that we then extrapolate the declared value of the bank in best its policy. Finally a numerical example is used to illustrate the approach proposed in this paper.

  1. Far lateral approach: Is condylar resection required?

    Harun-Ur-Rashid Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The FLA is a versatile approach and is useful for a variety of lesions located ventrolateral to the brainstem and upper cervical cord. It allows adequate exposure with minimal retraction. Most of the foramen magnum meningiomas can be excised either without or with only partial resection of the condyle. The transjugular process approach to the jugular foramen (JF is effective for JF tumors without the necessity of facial nerve transposition.

  2. A team building approach for competency development.

    Hlaoittinun, Onanong; Bonjour, Eric; Dulmet, Maryvonne

    2007-01-01

    International audience; An approach for multidisciplinary team building is proposed through three steps. We suppose that tasks and team members are characterized by a set of attributes (technical competencies). First, the calculation of distance measure between task and team member (profile matching) are proposed. Second, an array-based clustering algorithm is used as an effective means for providing an alternative solution in task and team-member clustering. The proposed approach generates a...

  3. Cloud computing methods and practical approaches

    Mahmood, Zaigham

    2013-01-01

    This book presents both state-of-the-art research developments and practical guidance on approaches, technologies and frameworks for the emerging cloud paradigm. Topics and features: presents the state of the art in cloud technologies, infrastructures, and service delivery and deployment models; discusses relevant theoretical frameworks, practical approaches and suggested methodologies; offers guidance and best practices for the development of cloud-based services and infrastructures, and examines management aspects of cloud computing; reviews consumer perspectives on mobile cloud computing an

  4. Evolutionary approaches of economic dynamics (In French)

    Yildizoglu, Murat

    2009-01-01

    This chapter presents the methods and contributions of evolutionary approach to economic dynamics. First, we expose why economic dynamics can indeed be considered as evolutionary. Second, we discuss sources of diversity and selection mechanisms that drive these dynamics, in the context of industrial dynamics. Third, we expose the main methods of this approach. Last, we give a partial survey of this approach’s contributions in economic systems covering a full spectrum, from organizational to m...

  5. Application of Communicative Approach to Writing

    卢熠

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets forth the way focus the teaching of the foreign language in the classroom that students can write in communicative approach in a con-seions way, taking into account their real experiences. Here, the origin of the Communicative Approach as a combination of different methods is dearly explained. The article also gives some ideas of communicative activities that can be developed in a class from the communicative point of view.

  6. Interpreting the CMMI a process improvement approach

    Kulpa, Margaret K

    2008-01-01

    Written by experienced process improvement professionals who have developed and implemented computer based systems in organizations around the world, Interpreting the CMMI®: A Process Improvement Approach, Second Edition provides you with specific techniques for performing process improvement. Employing everyday language and supported by real world examples, the authors describe the fundamental concepts of the CMMI model, covering goals, practices, architecture, and definitions, and provide a structured approach for implementing the concepts of the CMMI into any organization. They discuss gett

  7. A new Arnoldi approach for polynomial eigenproblems

    Raeven, F.A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we introduce a new generalization of the method of Arnoldi for matrix polynomials. The new approach is compared with the approach of rewriting the polynomial problem into a linear eigenproblem and applying the standard method of Arnoldi to the linearised problem. The algorithm that can be applied directly to the polynomial eigenproblem turns out to be more efficient, both in storage and in computation.

  8. Capitalizing Central Banks: A Net Worth Approach

    Alain Ize

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a simple, quantitative, net worth-based, approach to assessing the need for central bank capital. It derives a concept of "core capital" (a function of the central bank's operating expenditures and the carrying cost of its international reserves) as the minimum capital needed by a central bank to ensure the credibility of its inflation target. The approach is illustrated with the published accounts of three loss-making central banks and selected accounting entries for a br...

  9. Approach to dizziness in the emergency department

    Jung, Ileok; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Acute dizziness/vertigo is among the most common causes for visiting the emergency department. The traditional approach to dizziness starts with categorizing dizziness into four types: vertigo, presyncope, disequilibrium, and nonspecific dizziness. However, a recently proposed approach begins with classifying dizziness/vertigo as acute prolonged spontaneous dizziness/vertigo, recurrent spontaneous dizziness/vertigo, recurrent positional vertigo, or chronic persistent dizziness and imbalance. ...

  10. Psychological Approach to Young Goodman Brown

    杨秋仙

    2015-01-01

    <正>Compared with other literary approaches we have studied,I think the psychological approach is most suitable for analyzing Yong Goodman Brown written by American romanticism writer Hawthorne.Because psychoanalytical criticism,which is based on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis mode,aims at uncovering the working of the human mind--especially the expression of the unconsciousness.Professor Jiang point out in his article Hawthorne’s Aesthetic Modernity

  11. A Fast Approach to Creative Telescoping

    Koutschan, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    In this note we reinvestigate the task of computing creative telescoping relations in differential-difference operator algebras. Our approach is based on an ansatz that explicitly includes the denominators of the delta parts. We contribute several ideas of how to make an implementation of this approach reasonably fast and provide such an implementation. A selection of examples shows that it can be superior to existing methods by a large factor.

  12. Smooth Optimization Approach for Sparse Covariance Selection

    Lu, Zhaosong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we first study a smooth optimization approach for solving a class of nonsmooth strictly concave maximization problems whose objective functions admit smooth convex minimization reformulations. In particular, we apply Nesterov's smooth optimization technique [Y.E. Nesterov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 269 (1983), pp. 543--547; Y. E. Nesterov, Math. Programming, 103 (2005), pp. 127--152] to their dual counterparts that are smooth convex problems. It is shown that the resulting approach...

  13. A functional approach to the TMJ disorders.

    Deodato, F; Cristiano, S; Trusendi, R; Giorgetti, R

    2003-01-01

    This manuscript describes our conservative approach to treatment of TMJ disorders. The method we use had been suggested by Rocabado - its aims are: joint distraction by the elimination of compression, restoration of physiologic articular rest, mobilization of the soft tissues, and whenever possible, to improve the condyle-disk-glenoid fossa relationship. To support these claims two clinical cases are presented where the non-invasive therapy was successful. The results obtained confirm the validity of this functional approach.

  14. Exchange Rate Forecasting with Information Flow Approach

    Irena Mačerinskienė; Andrius Balčiūnas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess exchange rate forecasting possibilities with an information flow approach model. In the model the three types of information flows are distinguished: fundamental analysis information flow through particular macroeconomic determinants, microstructure approach information flow through dealer clients’ positioning data, technical analysis information flow through technical indicators. By using regression analysis it is shown that the composed model can for...

  15. Random Matrix theory approach to Quantum mechanics

    Chaitanya, K. V. S. Shiv

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we give random matrix theory approach to the quantum mechanics using the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. We show that the bound state problems in quantum mechanics are analogous to solving Gaussian unitary ensemble of random matrix theory. This study helps in identify the potential appear in the joint probability distribution function in the random matrix theory as a super potential. This approach allows to extend the random matrix theory to the newly discovered exceptional ...

  16. Automatic approach for generating ETL operators

    Bakari, Wided; Ali, Mouez; Ben-Abdallah, Hanene

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the generation of the ETL operators(Extract-Transform-Load) for supplying a Data Warehouse from a relational data source. As a first step, we add new rules to those proposed by the authors of [1], these rules deal with the combination of ETL operators. In a second step, we propose an automatic approach based on model transformations to generate the ETL operations needed for loading a data warehouse. This approach offers the possibility to set some designer requirements ...

  17. A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery

    Plum, E; Chen, W T; Fedotov, V A; Tsai, D P; Zheludev, N I

    2010-01-01

    We report a high through-put combinatorial approach to photonic metamaterial optimization. The new approach is based on parallel synthesis and consecutive optical characterization of large numbers of spatially addressable nano-fabricated metamaterial samples (libraries) with quasi-continuous variation of design parameters under real manufacturing conditions. We illustrate this method for Fano-resonance plasmonic nanostructures arriving at explicit recipes for high quality factors needed for switching and sensing applications.

  18. Approaches to Pendent Groups' Functionalization of Polyimide

    2002-01-01

    Pendent groups' functionalization of polyimide is an optimum approach to improve its processability and achieve functionalized polyimide materials. There are two types of modification routes for pendent groups functionalization of polyimide: monomer route and macromolecular route. In this paper, various approaches for pendent groups' functionalization of polyimide are introduced. At the same time, a new method to achieve functional polyimide materials without decreasing its thermal stability and mechanical properties is mentioned.

  19. Recent approaches in studying leadership in organizations

    Mojić Dušan

    2002-01-01

    Most influential recent approaches in studying organizational leadership were discussed in this article. Special attention is given to theories of transactional/transformational and charismatic leadership, having in mind their importance and wide presence in contemporary study of leadership in organizations. Other recent approaches such as visionary leadership, empowerment, team leadership etc. were also presented. Finally, an interesting view that leadership is sometimes irrelevant is discus...

  20. The Minimal Geometric Deformation Approach Extended

    Casadio, Roberto; da Rocha, Roldao

    2015-01-01

    The minimal geometric deformation approach was introduced in order to study the exterior space-time around spherically symmetric self-gravitating systems, like stars or similar astrophysical objects as well, in the Randall-Sundrum brane-world framework. A consistent extension of this approach is developed here, which contains modifications of both the time component and the radial component of a spherically symmetric metric. A modified Schwarzschild geometry is obtained as an example of its simplest application.

  1. Portfolio optimization using median-variance approach

    Wan Mohd, Wan Rosanisah; Mohamad, Daud; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2013-04-01

    Optimization models have been applied in many decision-making problems particularly in portfolio selection. Since the introduction of Markowitz's theory of portfolio selection, various approaches based on mathematical programming have been introduced such as mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, mean-variance-skewness and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) mainly to maximize return and minimize risk. However most of the approaches assume that the distribution of data is normal and this is not generally true. As an alternative, in this paper, we employ the median-variance approach to improve the portfolio optimization. This approach has successfully catered both types of normal and non-normal distribution of data. With this actual representation, we analyze and compare the rate of return and risk between the mean-variance and the median-variance based portfolio which consist of 30 stocks from Bursa Malaysia. The results in this study show that the median-variance approach is capable to produce a lower risk for each return earning as compared to the mean-variance approach.

  2. Evaluation of three approaches to meniscal release.

    Austin, B; Montgomery, R D; Wright, J; Bellah, J R; Tonks, C

    2007-01-01

    Three approaches to medial meniscal release (MMR) were compared using 48 canine cadaver stifles. The approaches included a caudomedial arthrotomy approach, a blind stab incision based on anatomic landmarks, and an arthroscopic guided approach. The cranial cruciate ligament was intact in all specimens. The time required to perform the meniscal release and joint capsule closure was recorded, as well as completeness and location of the meniscal transection. Damage to the caudal cruciate ligament, femoral cartilage, and medial collateral ligament were recorded. The mini-arthrotomy was 81% successful in accomplishment of MMR with a 4% rate of iatrogenic damage. The blind technique was 56% successful in the accomplishment of MMR with a 4% rate of iatrogenic damage. The arthroscopic guided approach was 62.5% successful in accomplishment of MMR, with a 10% rate of iatrogenic damage. Accomplishment and iatrogenic damage rates were not significantly different among procedures (p > 0.05). Significantly less time was required to perform the blind technique, and significantly greater time was required to perform the arthroscopic guided technique (p > 0.05). Significant differences were not noted among the procedures regarding the ability to accomplish the meniscal release or damage surrounding structures. None of the evaluated approaches for meniscal release resulted in a complete and accurate meniscal release for over 81% of the time.

  3. Keyhole approach surgery for petroclival meningioma

    ZHU Wei; MAO Ying; ZHOU Liang-fu; ZHANG Rong; CHEN Liang

    2006-01-01

    Background In China, the feasibility of keyhole approach in surgical treatment of petroclival meningioma has not been well evaluated. This report summarized our experience in 25 patients with petroclival meningioma who had been treated with keyhole approach surgery.Methods From July 2000 to July 2005, 25 patients with petroclival meningioma were subjected to resection via subtemporal, retrosigmoid or combined keyhole approaches. The extent of tumor resection was evaluated by MRI 3 months after surgery, and postoperative complications were investigated.Results The maximum diameter of tumors ranged from 2 to 7 cm (mean, 4.5 cm). Gross total resection (GTR)was achieved in 14 patients, giving a GTR rate of 56%. Subtotal resection (STR) was carried out in 8 patients and partial resection in 3. Thirteen patients kept normal neurological status, whereas others suffered from cranial nerve deficits (Ⅶ, Ⅶ, Ⅲ and lower CN). One patient died in the postoperative period.Conclusions Keyhole approach surgery, especially the combined keyhole approach is suitable for the treatment of petroclival meningioma. It provides easy and quick access to the supra- and infratentorial juxta-clival region without drilling of the petrous bone. Complications related to the approach can be minimized.

  4. Improved Statistical Speech Segmentation Using Connectionist Approach

    M. S. Salam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Speech segmentation is an important part for speech recognition, synthesizing and coding. Statistical based approach detects segmentation points via computing spectral distortion of the signal without prior knowledge of the acoustic information proved to be able to give good match, less omission but lot of insertion. These insertion points dropped segmentation accuracy. Approach: This study proposed a fusion method between statistical and connectionist approaches namely the divergence algorithm and Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP with adaptive learning for segmentation of Malay connected digit with the aim to improve statistical approach via detection of insertion points. The neural network was optimized via trial and error in finding suitable parameters and speech time normalization methods. The best neural network classifier was then fusion with divergence algorithm to make segmentation. Results: The results of the experiments showed that the best neural network classifier used learning rate of value 1.0 and momentum rate of value 0.9 with data normalization based on zero-padded. The segmentation using fusion of statistical and connectionist was able to reduce insertion points up to 10.4% while maintaining match points above 99% and omission point below 0.7% within time tolerance of 0.09 second. Conclusion: The result of segmentation using the proposed fusion method indicated potential use of connectionist approach in improving continuous segmentation by statistical approach.

  5. An Overview of Focal Approaches of Critical Discourse Analysis

    Maryam Jahedi; Faiz Sathi Abdullah; Jayakaran Mukundan

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to present detailed accounts of central approaches to Critical Discourse Analysis. It focuses on the work of three prominent scholars such as Fairclough’s critical approach, Wodak’s discourse-historical approach and Van Dijk’s socio-cognitive approach. This study concludes that a combination of these three approaches can be useful to critical analysis of texts. Keywords: Critical Discourse Analysis; Discourse-historical Approach; Socio-cognitive Approach

  6. A Posteriori Approach for Community Detection

    Chuan Shi; Zhen-Yu Yan; Xin Pan; Ya-Nan Cai; Bin Wu

    2011-01-01

    Conventional community detection approaches in complex network are based on the optimization of a priori decision,i.e.,a single quality function designed beforehand.This paper proposes a posteriori decision approach for community detection.The approach includes two phases:in the search phase,a special multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is designed to search for a set of tradeoff partitions that reveal the community structure at different scales in one run; in the decision phase,three model selection criteria and the Possibility Matrix method are proposed to aid decision makers to select the preferable solutions through differentiating the set of optimal solutions according to their qualities.The experiments in five synthetic and real social networks illustrate that,in one run,our method is able to obtain many candidate solutions,which effectively avoids the resolution limit existing in priori decision approaches.In addition,our method can discover more authentic and comprehensive community structures than those priori decision approaches.

  7. A systematic approach to engineering ethics education.

    Li, Jessica; Fu, Shengli

    2012-06-01

    Engineering ethics education is a complex field characterized by dynamic topics and diverse students, which results in significant challenges for engineering ethics educators. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a systematic approach to determine what to teach and how to teach in an ethics curriculum. This is a topic that has not been adequately addressed in the engineering ethics literature. This systematic approach provides a method to: (1) develop a context-specific engineering ethics curriculum using the Delphi technique, a process-driven research method; and (2) identify appropriate delivery strategies and instructional strategies using an instructional design model. This approach considers the context-specific needs of different engineering disciplines in ethics education and leverages the collaboration of engineering professors, practicing engineers, engineering graduate students, ethics scholars, and instructional design experts. The proposed approach is most suitable for a department, a discipline/field or a professional society. The approach helps to enhance learning outcomes and to facilitate ethics education curriculum development as part of the regular engineering curriculum.

  8. Transradial approach to lower extremity interventions

    Ravikiran Korabathina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ravikiran Korabathina1, Sidharth S Yadav1, John T Coppola2, Cezar S Staniloae21Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saint Vincents Catholic Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Cardiac and Vascular Institute, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Percutaneous interventions of the coronary and peripheral vessels have historically been performed using a femoral artery approach. There has been increasing recognition of postprocedural bleeding complications and its impact on short- and long-term mortality. Because of its now recognized safety, the transradial approach has recently emerged as a preferred method compared to the transfemoral approach. The limitations associated with the distance from the puncture site to the lesion location are being addressed as new tools are developed for the endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease. In this review, we discuss the many facets of the transradial approach to lower extremity endovascular interventions, highlighting its safety and efficacy. Approaches to special populations including individuals with prior surgical bypass, Leriche’s syndrome, and those committed to chronic anticoagulation are also reviewed.Keywords: peripheral arterial disease, endovascular interventions, transradial interventions, aorto-iliac angioplasty

  9. Streamflow disaggregation: a nonlinear deterministic approach

    B. Sivakumar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a nonlinear deterministic approach for streamflow disaggregation. According to this approach, the streamflow transformation process from one scale to another is treated as a nonlinear deterministic process, rather than a stochastic process as generally assumed. The approach follows two important steps: (1 reconstruction of the scalar (streamflow series in a multi-dimensional phase-space for representing the transformation dynamics; and (2 use of a local approximation (nearest neighbor method for disaggregation. The approach is employed for streamflow disaggregation in the Mississippi River basin, USA. Data of successively doubled resolutions between daily and 16 days (i.e. daily, 2-day, 4-day, 8-day, and 16-day are studied, and disaggregations are attempted only between successive resolutions (i.e. 2-day to daily, 4-day to 2-day, 8-day to 4-day, and 16-day to 8-day. Comparisons between the disaggregated values and the actual values reveal excellent agreements for all the cases studied, indicating the suitability of the approach for streamflow disaggregation. A further insight into the results reveals that the best results are, in general, achieved for low embedding dimensions (2 or 3 and small number of neighbors (less than 50, suggesting possible presence of nonlinear determinism in the underlying transformation process. A decrease in accuracy with increasing disaggregation scale is also observed, a possible implication of the existence of a scaling regime in streamflow.

  10. Analysis approaches and interventions with occupational performance

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze approaches and interventions with occupational performance in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, articles published in the past 10 years were searched. The key terms used were “occupational performance AND stroke” and “occupational performance AND CVA”. A total 252 articles were identified, and 79 articles were selected. All interventions were classified according to their approaches according to 6 theories. All interventions were analyzed for frequency. [Results] Regarding the approaches, there were 25 articles for studies that provided high frequency interventions aimed at improving biomechanical approaches (31.6%). This included electrical stimulation therapy, robot therapy, and sensory stimulation training, as well as others. Analysis of the frequency of interventions revealed that the most commonly used interventions, which were used in 18 articles (22.8%), made use of the concept of constraint-induced therapy. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest an approach for use in clinics for selecting an appropriate intervention for occupational performance. PMID:27799719

  11. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare these appro......The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare...... these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey....../Swansea. The focus is on designs that are specified by so-called control tables. The paper can serve as a starting point for further comparative studies. The DTU/Bremen research has been funded by the RobustRailS project granted by Innovation Fund Denmark. The Surrey/Swansea research has been funded by the Safe...

  12. Introduction to Approaches in Music Therapy. Second Edition

    Darrow, Alice Ann, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The second edition of "Introduction to Approaches in Music Therapy" includes a new introductory chapter that addresses historical perspectives on the approaches, a rationale for the categorization of approaches, and discussion on professional issues related to the use of these approaches. Each of the chapters addressing approaches includes updated…

  13. An Hierarchical Approach to Big Data

    Allen, M G; Boch, T; Durand, D; Oberto, A; Merin, B; Stoehr, F; Genova, F; Pineau, F-X; Salgado, J

    2016-01-01

    The increasing volumes of astronomical data require practical methods for data exploration, access and visualisation. The Hierarchical Progressive Survey (HiPS) is a HEALPix based scheme that enables a multi-resolution approach to astronomy data from the individual pixels up to the whole sky. We highlight the decisions and approaches that have been taken to make this scheme a practical solution for managing large volumes of heterogeneous data. Early implementors of this system have formed a network of HiPS nodes, with some 250 diverse data sets currently available, with multiple mirror implementations for important data sets. This hierarchical approach can be adapted to expose Big Data in different ways. We describe how the ease of implementation, and local customisation of the Aladin Lite embeddable HiPS visualiser have been keys for promoting collaboration on HiPS.

  14. Faddeev-Jackiw approach to hidden symmetries

    Wotzasek, C

    1994-01-01

    The study of hidden symmetries within Dirac's formalism does not possess a systematic procedure due to the lack of first-class constraints to act as symmetry generators. On the other hand, in the Faddeev-Jackiw approach, gauge and reparametrization symmetries are generated by the null eigenvectors of the sympletic matrix and not by constraints, suggesting the possibility of dealing systematically with hidden symmetries through this formalism. It is shown in this paper that indeed hidden symmetries of noninvariant or gauge fixed systems are equally well described by null eigenvectors of the sympletic matrix, just as the explicit invariances. The Faddeev-Jackiw approach therefore provide a systematic algorithm for treating all sorts of symmetries in an unified way. This technique is illustrated here by the SL(2,R) Kac-Moody current algebra of the 2-D induced gravity proposed by Polyakov, which is a hidden symmetry in the canonical approach of constrained systems via Dirac's method, after conformal and reparamet...

  15. Usage-Oriented Topic Maps Building Approach

    Ellouze, Nebrasse; Lammari, Nadira; Métais, Elisabeth; Ben Ahmed, Mohamed

    In this paper, we present a collaborative and incremental construction approach of multilingual Topic Maps based on enrichment and merging techniques. In recent years, several Topic Map building approaches have been proposed endowed with different characteristics. Generally, they are dedicated to particular data types like text, semi-structured data, relational data, etc. We note also that most of these approaches take as input monolingual documents to build the Topic Map. The problem is that the large majority of resources available today are written in various languages, and these resources could be relevant even to non-native speakers. Thus, our work is driven towards a collaborative and incremental method for Topic Map construction from textual documents available in different languages. To enrich the Topic Map, we take as input a domain thesaurus and we propose also to explore the Topic Map usage which means available potential questions related to the source documents.

  16. A neuroanatomical approach to exploring organizational performance

    Gillingwater, D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Insights gained from studying the human brain have begun to open up promising new areas of research in the behavioural and social sciences. Neuroscience-based principles have been incorporated into areas such as business management, economics and marketing, leading to the development of artificial neural networks, neuroeconomics, neuromarketing and, most recently, organizational cognitive neuroscience. Similarly, the brain has been used as a powerful metaphor for thinking about and analysing the nature of organizations. However, no existing approach to organizational analysis has taken advantage of contemporary neuroanatomical principles, thereby missing the opportunity to translate core neuroanatomical knowledge into other, non-related areas of research. In this essentially conceptual paper, we propose several ways in which neuroanatomical approaches could be used to enhance organizational theory, practice and research. We suggest that truly interdisciplinary and collaborative research between neuroanatomists and organizational analysts is likely to provide novel approaches to exploring and improving organizational performance.

  17. Probabilistic approach to study the hydroformed sheet

    Mohammed Nassraoui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Under the leadership of the Kyoto agreements on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, the automotive sector was forced to review its methods and production technologies in order to meet the new environmental standards. In fuel consumption reduction is an immediate way to reduce the emission of polluting gases. In this paper, the study of the formability of sheet submitted to the hydroforming process is proposed. The numerical results are given to validate the proposed approach. To show the influence of uncertainties in the study process, we take some characteristics of the material as random and the probabilistic approach is done. The finding results are showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

  19. Hydrodynamic Approaches in Relativistic Heavy Ion Reactions

    de Souza, Rafael Derradi; Kodama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We review several facets of the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic heavy ion collisions, starting from the historical motivation to the present understandings of the observed collective aspects of experimental data, especially those of the most recent RHIC and LHC results. In this report, we particularly focus on the conceptual questions and the physical foundations of the validity of the hydrodynamic approach itself. We also discuss recent efforts to clarify some of the points in this direction, such as the various forms of derivations of relativistic hydrodynamics together with the limitations intrinsic to the traditional approaches, variational approaches, known analytic solutions for special cases, and several new theoretical developments. Throughout this review, we stress the role of course-graining procedure in the hydrodynamic description and discuss its relation with the physical observables through the analysis of a hydrodynamic mapping of a microscopic transport model. Several questions to...

  20. An axiomatic approach to Maxwell's equations

    Heras, José A

    2016-01-01

    This paper suggests an axiomatic approach to Maxwell's equations. The basis of this approach is a theorem formulated for two sets of functions localized in space and time. If each set satisfies a continuity equation then the theorem provides an integral representation for each function. A corollary of this theorem yields Maxwell's equations with magnetic monopoles. It is pointed out that the causality principle and the conservation of electric and magnetic charges are the most fundamental physical axioms underlying these equations. Another application of the corollary yields Maxwell's equations in material media. The theorem is also formulated in the Minkowski space-time and applied to obtain the covariant form of Maxwell's equations with magnetic monopoles and the covariant form of Maxwell's equations in material media. The approach makes use of the infinite-space Green function of the wave equation and is therefore suitable for an advanced course in electrodynamics.