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Sample records for taichui trematoda heterophyidae

  1. Surface ultrastructure of the adult stage of Acanthotrema felis (Trematoda: Heterophyidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Seo, Min

    2003-01-01

    The surface ultrastructure of Acanthotrema felis (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) adults, recovered from a kitten experimentally infected with the metacercariae, was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The worm was leaf-like, ventrally concave and covered with scale-like multi-pointed tegumental spines. The spines on the anterior surface were short but broad, and had 10-12 pointed tips. The cytoplasmic processes protruded around the spines, like pockets for the spines. The ventrogenital opening was crescent, or kidney-shaped, and had protuberances with minute spines on its surrounding tegument. The spines on the posterior surface were long, but narrow, with 6-8 pointed tips. The cytoplasmic processes on this tegument were ridge-like, and elevated along the row of the spines. The surface ultrastructure of A. felis is generally similar to that of other heterophyid flukes, but some features are characteristic, and may be of taxonomic and bio-ecological significance. PMID:12815322

  2. Metagonimus yokogawai (Trematoda: Heterophyidae): From Discovery to Designation of a Neotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Takeshi; Kino, Hideto

    2015-01-01

    Metagonimus yokogawai (Katsurada, 1912) Katsurada, 1912 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) is parasitic in the small intestine of mammals including man and birds in Far Eastern Russia, Korea, Japan, China, and Taiwan. In the present study, the metacercariae and adults of M. yokogawai were redescribed to designate a neotype of this fluke together with reviews of previous studies including study histories from the first discovery to now. We particularly, attempted to review the study histories and morphological descriptions of M. yokogawai for the species validity, and compared with the morphological characteristics and life cycles of the closely related species, Metagonimus takahashii and Metagonimus miyatai. Finally, we proposed a differential key for the 8 known Metagonimus species distributed in East Asia. Metacercariae were obtained from the body muscles of sweetfish (Plecoglossus altivelis) collected in the Asahi River at Takebe-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama City, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Adults were recovered from the small intestine of Syrian golden hamsters, to which the metacercariae had been fed 14 days before. A neotype was selected out of the present adult specimens. The Asahi River at Takebo-cho became the type locality of M. yokogawai. In conclusion, the present review shows that M. yokogawai, M. takahashii, and M. miyatai are valid and discriminated by means of morphological characteristics. PMID:26537043

  3. Mucosal Immune Responses of Mice Experimentally Infected with Pygidiopsis summa (Trematoda: Heterophyidae)

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    Chai, Jong-Yil; Park, Young-Jin; Park, Jae-Hwan; Jung, Bong-Kwang

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immune responses against Pygidiopsis summa (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) infection were studied in ICR mice. Experimental groups consisted of group 1 (uninfected controls), group 2 (infection with 200 metacercariae), and group 3 (immunosuppression with Depo-Medrol and infection with 200 metacercariae). Worms were recovered in the small intestine at days 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-infection (PI). Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), mast cells, and goblet cells were counted in intestinal tissue sections stained with Giemsa, astra-blue, and periodic acid-Schiff, respectively. Mucosal IgA levels were measured by ELISA. Expulsion of P. summa from the mouse intestine began to occur from days 3-5 PI which sustained until day 7 PI. The worm expulsion was positively correlated with proliferation of IEL, mast cells, goblet cells, and increase of IgA, although in the case of mast cells significant increase was seen only at day 7 PI. Immunosuppression suppressed all these immune effectors and inhibited worm reduction in the intestine until day 7 PI. The results suggested that various immune effectors which include IEL, goblet cells, mast cells, and IgA play roles in regulating the intestinal mucosal immunity of ICR mice against P. summa infection. PMID:24623878

  4. Molecular characterization and confocal laser scanning microscopic study of Pygidiopsis macrostomum (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) parasites of guppies Poecilia vivipara.

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    Borges, J N; Costa, V S; Mantovani, C; Barros, E; Santos, E G N; Mafra, C L; Santos, C P

    2017-02-01

    Pygidiopsis macrostomum and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) pindoramensis (Digenea: Heterophyidae) parasitize guppies as intermediate hosts and, respectively, fish-eating mammals or birds as definitive hosts. Heterophyids have zoonotic potential, and molecular studies associated with morphological and ecological aspects have helped to clarify their taxonomy and phylogeny. Poecilia vivipara naturally parasitized by metacercariae of both species (100% prevalence) exhibit no external signs of parasitism. In this work, four new sequences of P. macrostomum (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and ITS2 rDNA) and one new sequence of A. (P.) pindoramensis (mtDNA cox-1) are presented. Phylogeny reconstructions linked P. macrostomum to other heterophyids, but the separation of the Heterophyidae and Opisthorchiidae remains unclear. Additionally, we used indirect immunocytochemistry and the phalloidin-fluorescence techniques allied with confocal laser scanning microscopy to describe muscular and neuronal structures of P. macrostomum. A complex arrangement of muscular fibres is associated with the tegument, suckers, gut and reproductive system. Radial fibres around the ventral sucker are thick, branched and extend to the body wall. High-resolution confocal imaging revealed a typical digenean muscular arrangement and important heterophyid morphological traits. These data will support future control measures to reduce the parasitism in guppies reared in fish farming systems, especially for aquarium and experimental purposes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Comparative study of the sensibility of Metacercaria cysts of Phagicola Faust, 1920 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) to ionizing radiation and to freezing in raw mullets Mugil Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces: Mugilidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Ivany Rodrigues de

    2005-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses have been a growing concern to the governments, international organizations and consumers, mainly regarding the damages they cause to human health. This issue is the result of the substitution of imported food habits, which enable the consumption of raw fish or wrongly prepared fish. Among the emergent parasitic zoonosis, the Fagicolose stands out. It is transmitted by Phagicola longa, a trematoda of great importance in public health and responsible for high percentages of Mugilidae infections, that is able to produce humans' parasitism. In this experiment, the studies were focused to the radio sensibility of metacercaria of Phagicola longa exposed to a treatment with ionizing radiation (gamma rays and electron beams) and the sensibility to freezing, in artificially infected fish. Some data were acquired regarding the occurrence of Phagicola longa in mullets bought in the local market, the freezer temperature of 10 domestic refrigerators, and the origin and preservation of the mullets in some Japanese-type restaurants in Sao Paulo. The results indicated more effectiveness in the treatment with the electron accelerator, as well as with the freezing at the temperature of-16 deg C. (author)

  6. Studies on Some Developmental Stages in the Life Cycle of Pygidiopsis genata (Looss 1907) (Trematoda:Heterophidae) from Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    1he E . .. " . ’ , ;c,1. 17 No 2. 19S7. STUDIES ON _S.JME DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES IN TIE LIFE CYCLE OF PYGIDIOPSIS GENATA LOOS. 1901f ( Trematoda ...Looss 1896) ( Trematoda , Heterophyidae) with a discussion on pre- viously described forms. Acts, Parasitol. Polonlca 25: 325-38. Khalil, M. (1932...Sur une nouvelle espece du genre Pygidiopsis pfrzdoramenai. n. sp. Trematoda C R Soc Biol 100: 956- 957. -473 - Vasque-Colet, A., Africa, CM. (1938

  7. Comparative study of the sensibility of Metacercaria cysts of Phagicola Faust, 1920 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) to ionizing radiation and to freezing in raw mullets Mugil Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces: Mugilidae); Estudo comparativo da sensibilidade de cistos de Metacercarias de Phagicola Faust, 1920 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) a radiacao ionizante e ao congelamento em peixes crus preparados a partir de tainha Mugil Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces: Mugilidae)

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    Moraes, Ivany Rodrigues de

    2005-07-01

    Foodborne illnesses have been a growing concern to the governments, international organizations and consumers, mainly regarding the damages they cause to human health. This issue is the result of the substitution of imported food habits, which enable the consumption of raw fish or wrongly prepared fish. Among the emergent parasitic zoonosis, the Fagicolose stands out. It is transmitted by Phagicola longa, a trematoda of great importance in public health and responsible for high percentages of Mugilidae infections, that is able to produce humans' parasitism. In this experiment, the studies were focused to the radio sensibility of metacercaria of Phagicola longa exposed to a treatment with ionizing radiation (gamma rays and electron beams) and the sensibility to freezing, in artificially infected fish. Some data were acquired regarding the occurrence of Phagicola longa in mullets bought in the local market, the freezer temperature of 10 domestic refrigerators, and the origin and preservation of the mullets in some Japanese-type restaurants in Sao Paulo. The results indicated more effectiveness in the treatment with the electron accelerator, as well as with the freezing at the temperature of-16 deg C. (author)

  8. History of echinostomes (Trematoda).

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    Toledo, Rafael; Radev, Valentin; Kanev, Ivan; Gardner, Scott L; Fried, Bernard

    2014-10-01

    Echinostomatidae (Trematoda) is the largest family within the class Trematoda. Members of this family have been studied for many years in relation to their utility as basic research models in biodiversity and systematics and also as experimental models in parasitology since they offer many advantages. Echinostomes have contributed significantly to numerous developments in many areas studied by parasitologists and experimental biologists. In this review, we examine the history of the echinostomebased studies from the beginnings to the present. For this purpose, we have divided the history of echinostomes into four periods (i.e. 18(th) and 19(th) centuries, first half of the 20(th) century, second half of the 20(th) century and the late 20(th) and 21(th) century) according to the types of studies performed in each of them. Moreover, we also briefly review the history of echinostome infections in humans.

  9. Gamma ionization of Phagicola longa (Trematoda:Heterophyidae) in Mugilidae (pisces) in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, S.A.; Wiendl, F.M.; Almeida Dias, E.R.; Arthur, V.; Daniotti, C.

    1993-01-01

    The mullet (Mugilidae) is a fish caught in large quantities in brackish and marine waters of the southern Brazilian coast, which in consequence of its raw consumption as ''sashimi'', a typical Japanese dish, has led to ten cases of human infection by Phagicola longa in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The mullet acts as a second intermediate host for the parasite, as in human heterophyiasis in the Near and Far East. In order to control these infections under commercial storage conditions and in raw consumption, the radiolysis of P. longa was studied in three mullet species - the silver mullet (Mugil curema), the grey mullet (M. platanus) and the ''paratipema'' (Mugil sp.) -subjected to ionization ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 kGy (2.21 kGy/h). It was observed that 1.0 and 2.0 kGy caused a motility decrease in silver mullet parasites from 100% to 15% and 17%, and that doses of 4.0 and 10.0 kGy caused metacercaria inviability. The parasite motility decreased in the grey mullet treated with doses of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 kGy, from 56% to 31%, 9%, 18% and 5%, respectively, 4.0 kGy tending to be the control dose for P. Longa. This dose also controls other metacercaria found in the ''parati-pema'', without changing the odor, color or appearance of the treated mullet. (author)

  10. Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae as an intermediate host of Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae in Brazil Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae como hospedeiro intermediário de Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae no Brasil

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    Hudson Alves Pinto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pleurolophocercous cercariae emerged from naturally infected Melanoides tuberculata from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were used to perform experimental infection of laboratory-reared Poecilia reticulata. Mature metacercariae were obtained from the gills of fishes and force-fed to Mus musculus. The adult parasites which recovered from small intestines of mice were identified as Centrocestus formosanus. This is the first report of M. tuberculata as intermediate host of this heterophyid in Brazil.Cercárias do tipo pleurolofocerca emergidas de Melanoides tuberculata naturalmente infectados coletados na represa da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram utilizadas para a infecção experimental de Poecilia reticulata criados em laboratório. Metacercárias maduras foram obtidas nas brânquias dos peixes e administradas por via oral a Mus musculus. Parasitos adultos recuperados no intestino delgado dos camundongos foram identificados como Centrocestus formosanus. Este é o primeiro relato de M. tuberculata como hospedeiro intermediário deste parasito no Brasil.

  11. Discovery of Natural Infection by Metagonimus hakubaensis Shimazu, 1999 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in Japanese Water Shrews (Chimarrogale platycephala) in Japan

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    KUDO, Noboru; SHIGETA, Kai; MATSUMOTO, Koji; OYAMADA, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT ABSTRACT. A total of 611 preserved adult Metagonimus spp. specimens recovered from 32 of 53 Japanese water shrews (Chimarrogale platycephala) that had previously been collected in Aomori Prefecture between June 1994 and August 1996, were examined in this study. Morphological examination revealed that 603 of these flukes were identical to M. hakubaensis Shimazu, 1999, and that the others were M. takahashii Suzuki, 1930 (n=4), M. otsurui Saito et Shimizu, 1968 (n=2), and M. miyatai Saito et al., 1997 (n=2). Each of the 32 Japanese water shrews infected with M. hakubaensis contained between 1 and 83 flukes. This is the first record of the natural final host for M. hakubaensis, since this fluke species was described. PMID:25131808

  12. Taxonomic status, redescription, and surface ultrastructure of Ascocotyle (Phagicola) pindoramensis n. comb. (Digenea: Heterophyidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simoes, S. B. E.; Scholz, Tomáš; Barbosa, H. S.; Santos, C. P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 3 (2006), s. 501-508 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Digenea * Heterophyidae * taxonomy Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.300, year: 2006

  13. Distribution of Trematodes Cryptokotyle (Trematoda, Heterophyidae, in Fish of the Family Gobiidae in the Estuary Waters and the Black Sea in Southern Ukraine

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    Goncharov S. L.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes occurrence and distribution of Cryptocotyle trematodes in fish in the waters of the Dnipro-Buh estuary and the Black Sea in Mykolaiv and Odesa Region. Study was conducted in 2015-2016. Two trematode species were found in natural waters of these regions: Cryptocotyle cancavum Crepli, 1825 and Cryptocotyle jejuna Nicoll, 1907. Th e latter species has not been previously registered in this region in southern Ukraine. Varying intensity of infection with Cryptocotyle metacercariae was observed in fish of Gobiidae family: Mesogobius batrachocephalus Pallas, 1814, Neogobius melanostomum Pallas, 1814, N. fluviatialis Pallas, 1814. Th e most affected species was N. melanostomum, with the prevalence of infection 59.2 %. Less infected were N. fluviatialis and M. batrachocephalus, with the prevalence of infection 30.4 % and 17 % respectively. The intensity of infection was the highest in N. melanostomum - 211 metacercariae per fish, followed by N. fluviatialis and M. batrachocephalu - 124 and 89 metacercariae respectively. Cryptocotyle was the most prevalent in the Dnipro-Buh estuary (cape Adzhigol, Mykolaiv Region and much less prevalent in the waters of the Black Sea in Mykolaiv and Odesa Regions. Mean prevalence of infection was 31.4 %.

  14. Furcocercous cercariae (Trematoda) from freshwater snails in Central Finland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Niewiadomska, K.; Santos, M. J.; Valtonen, E. T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2007), s. 310-317 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA ČR GP524/07/P086; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Grant - others:Portuguese FCT(PT) SFRH/BSAB/492/2005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : cercariae * Mollusca * Finland * Trematoda * Pulmonata * Prosobranchia * Valvata macrostoma Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.814, year: 2007

  15. [Reproduction of trematode Leucochloridium paradoxum sporocysts (Trematoda: Leucochloridiidae)].

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    Ataev, G L; Dobrovol'skiĭ, A A; Tokmakova, A S

    2013-01-01

    The histological study of the trematoda sporocysts Leucochloridium paradoxum confirmed the presence of three morphological zones in it: 1) central part (reproductive), where embryos are forming, 2) narrow tubes through which the embryos penetrate in colored broodsacs (3), where the development of metecercaria completes. It was found that germinal mass only is the reproduction organ of the sporocysts, located in reproductive zone. There are young (without embryos), mature (with embryos) and degenerated germinal masses. So, in the process of sporocysts development the centre of multiplication of germinal elements was changed. The old parts of central part are degenerated, but the new ones with young germinal masses appear. The multiplication of generative elements does not take place in the broodsacs which are breeding cameras functionally.

  16. Notocotylus loeiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae) from Rattus losea (Rodentia: Muridae) in Thailand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chaisiri, K.; Morand, S.; Ribas, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2011), s. 35-38 ISSN 1252-607X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Trematoda * lesser rice field rat * Thailand Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2011

  17. HISTOPATOLOGI INSANG IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasius hypophthalmus YANG TERINFESTASI TREMATODA MONOGENEA

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    Ida Ayu N. S. Utami

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ikan patin siam (Pangasius hypophthalmus yang terinfestasi parasit trematoda monogenea tidak mudah dikenali gejala klinisnya secara spesifik, mengingat parasit ini menyerang organ insang. Infeksi parasit ini dapat menyebabkan kematian ikan sehingga sangat merugikan budidaya ikan patin siam. Tujuan penelitian adalah memberikan informasi secara histopatologi tentang perubahan jaringan insang ikan patin siam yang terinfestasi parasit trematoda monogenea. Penelitian ini diawali dengan pemeriksaan natif insang patin siam yang terinfestasi parasit trematoda monogenea dan dilanjutkan dengan pemeriksaan histopatologi. Pengambilan sampel ikan patin siam dilakukan sebanyak dua kali pada Mei dan Oktober 2015 di beberapa kolam budidaya. Pengamatan sampel dilakukan secara mikroskopik di Laboratorium Balai Karantina Ikan, Pengendalian Mutu dan Keamanan Hasil Perikanan, Palembang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dari total 150 sampel yang diamati terdapat 35 sampel atau kasus insang ikan yang terinfestasi parasit trematoda monogenea yaitu: masing-masing sebanyak 10 sampel diperoleh pada Mei dan 25 sampel pada Oktober. Pemeriksaan patologi terhadap organ insang yang terinfestasi trematoda monogenea menunjukkan bahwa lamella insang mengalami pembengkakan dan berwarna merah pucat. Parasit trematoda monogenea pada insang atau yang lebih dikenal dengan cacing insang memiliki panjang tubuh berkisar antara 0,7-0,9 mm dengan lebar 0,05-0,10 mm. Pengamatan histopatologi menunjukkan bahwa jaringan insang yang terinfestasi parasit trematoda monogenea ditandai adanya perubahan yang konsisten, yaitu hiperplasia tulang rawan hyalin, proliferasi sel mukus, hiperplasia lamella sekunder, dan fusi lamella sekunder. Perubahan ini dapat mengakibatkan kematian pada ikan akibat kekurangan oksigen dan perubahan osmoregulasi ion dalam tubuh ikan. The gills of striped catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus infested with parasitic trematodes monogenea are not easy to observe specifically

  18. Notocotylus loeiensis N. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae) from Rattus losea (Rodentia: Muridae) in Thailand.

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    Chaisiri, K; Morand, S; Ribas, A

    2011-02-01

    Notocotylus loeiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae) is described from the cecum of the lesser rice field rat (Rattus losea), from Loei Province in Thailand with a prevalence of 9.1% (eight of 88 rats infected). The new species differs from previously described Notocotylus species mainly by the extreme prebifurcal position of the genital pore and the number of ventral papillae. This is the first description at the species level of Notocotylus from mammals in Southeast Asia.

  19. External morphological differences between Crepidostomum farionis and Crepidostomum metoecus (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae), parasites of salmonids, as revealed by SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2002), s. 211-217 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/00/0267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Trematoda * Crepidostomum * surface morphology Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.515, year: 2002

  20. Infection, specificity and host manipulation of Australapatemon sp (Trematoda, Strigeidae) in two sympatric species of leeches (Hirudinea)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karvonen, A.; Faltýnková, Anna; Choo, J. M.; Valtonen, E. T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 10 (2017), s. 1346-1355 ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : complex life cycle * Digenea * host manipulation * host-parasite relationship * spatiotemporal variation * specificity * Trematoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.713, year: 2016

  1. Neoplagioporus zacconis (Trematoda: Opecoelidae) from the intestine of the pale chub, Zacco platypus, in Korea

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    Cho, Jae Bum; Rim, Han-Jong

    1998-01-01

    Neoplagioporus zacconis (Yamaguti, 1934) (Trematoda: Opecoelidae) was found from the intestine of the pale chub, Zacco platypus, for the first time in Korea. The worms were characterized morphologically by oval body shape, bipartited seminal vesicle, sinistrally located genital pore, and lobed ovary, and distinguished from the two other species of Neoplagioporous by body shape and distribution of vitelline follicles. The morphological characteristics, except the ovary, well corresponded to those of the previous descriptions. The morphological difference of the ovary was considered as a character of geographical phenotypic variation. PMID:9755591

  2. Digenean metacercaria (Trematoda, Digenea, Lepocreadiidae parasitizing "coelenterates" (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa and Ctenophora from Southeastern Brazil

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    André Carrara Morandini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Metacercaria specimens of the genus Opechona (Trematoda: Digenea: Lepocreadiidae are described parasitizing "coelenterates" (scyphomedusae and ctenophores from Southeastern Brazil (São Paulo state. The worms are compared to other Opechona species occurring on the Brazilian coast, but no association has been made because only adult forms of these species have been described. Suppositions as to the possible transference of the parasites are made.Exemplares de metacercárias do gênero Opechona (Trematoda: Digenea: Lepocreadiidae são descritos parasitando "celenterados" (cifomedusas e ctenóforos no sudeste do Brasil (estado de São Paulo. Os vermes foram comparados a outras espécies de Opechona ocorrentes no litoral brasileiro, porém nenhuma associação foi realizada devido às demais espécies terem sido descritas a partir de exemplares adultos. São apresentadas suposições sobre as possíveis formas de transferência dos parasitas.

  3. Nudacotyle carollia sp. nov. (Trematoda, Nudacotylidae parasito intestinal de Carollia perspicillata L. (Chiroptera en Colombia

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    Imelda Velez

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Nudacotyle carollia sp. nov. (Trematoda, Nudacotylidae is described on the basis of specimens from the intestinal tracts of three Colombian bats of the species Carollia perspicillata L. The new species resembles both of the genera of the family, Nudacotyle and Neocotyle, in the general position of the organs and in having a vertical cleft. It differs from Nudacotyle in the position of the ovary and cirrus sac and in the lenth of the ceca. The new species differs from Neocotyle in the shape of the body and the vitelline lobes and in the length of the ceca. The ventral cleft is considered to be an important generic character which can be used to unit all the species of both genera in the single genus, Nudacotyle.

  4. Redescription of Perezitrema bychowskyi (Caballero & Caballero, 1975) (Trematoda: Macroderoididae), with remarks on the systematic status of Perezitrema Baruš & Moravec, 1967

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Salgado-Maldonado, G.

    Roč. 53, č. 3 ( 2002 ), s. 199ů206 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Trematoda * fish parasite Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.640, year: 2002

  5. Two new genera of Paramphistomidae (Trematoda, Digenea from freshwater fish of Rondônia State, Brazil

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    Veron E. Thatcher

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new genera and species of Paramphistomidae (Trematoda, Digenea are described from freshwater fish of Rondônia State, Brazil. Pronamphistoma cichlasomae gen. et sp. nov. from Cichlasoma severum (Heckel is characterized as having a small, robust body with an anterior collar-like expansion, diverticula within the wall of the oral sucker and vitellaria in lateral fanshaped configurations. Micramphistoma ministoma gen. et sp. nov. from Hypopomus sp lacks oral diverticula, has anteriorly situated parallel tests and a very small postero-ventral acebtabulum. Neither of the new forms closely resembles any known genus.

  6. Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae como causa de muerte de alevines de tilapia gris Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae en el Pacífico seco de Costa Rica

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    Donald Arguedas Cortés

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Centrocestus formosanus es un parásito trematodo zoonótico originario de Asia asociado con muertes de peces principalmente de cultivo. 907 moluscos provenientes de estanques sembrados con tilapias, seleccionados uno por provincia fueron identificados al nivel taxonómico especifico. Se identificaron cuatro gastrópodos y un bivalvo: M. tuberculata, M. turricula, P. flagellata, H. cubensis y A. luteola. Se reporta, por primera vez, la presencia de dos especies de moluscos en Costa Rica. Se identificaron siete morfotipos de cercarias parasitando las cinco especies de moluscos encontradas. En la segunda exposición experimental se demostró que el morfotipo parapleurolofocercus encontrado en M. tuberculata concuerda con el hallazgo de C. formosanus en alevines de tilapia, después del examen clínico, anatomopatológico y parasitológico realizado a los alevines expuestos. Las metacercarias fueron extraídas del quiste utilizando microagujas y micropinzas lavadas en solución salina fisiológica (0.65%, fijadas en formol caliente al 4% y después esquematizadas con una cámara clara adaptada a un microscopio fotónico, estimándose una abundancia e intensidad media de 1018-1027 digeneos por branquia en cada pez parasitado, determinándose así el hospedador intermediario primario y secundario del parásito. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez Centrocestus formosanus en Costa Rica.Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica. Centrocestus formosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and

  7. The life cycle of Asymphylodora perccotti sp. n. (Trematoda: Lissorchiidae) in the Russian Southern Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besprozvannykh, Vladimir V; Ermolenko, Alexey V; Atopkin, Dmitry M

    2012-06-01

    Specimens of Asymphylodora perccotti sp. n. (Trematoda: Lissorchidae) were found in the esophagus of the freshwater fish Perccottus glenii (Odobantidae) taken from the Bolshaya Ussurka River Basin (Primorsky Region, Russian Southern Far East). The first intermediate host of this trematode is a gastropod, Parafossarulus manchouricus, and the secondary hosts are the same mollusk and Boreoelona ussuriensis. Specimens of the new species are similar to A. amnicolae identified by Stunkard in 1959, but the mature worms have larger suckers and shorter ceca. The cercariae of these species are distinguished by body, suckers and pharynx size. These organs in A. perccotti sp. n. are more than one-third larger than what is observed in A. amnicolae. In addition, the new species lacks the capacity for progenesis. Finally, the new species is unusual in that it resides in the fish esophagus instead of the intestine, as is common for most Asymphylodora species. Partial ribosomal DNA sequences and phylogenetic reconstruction sequence data indicate that these worms represent a new digenean species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A new allocreadiid (Trematoda) species from freshwater fish Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae) in Southeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Vázquez, Gabriela

    2012-04-01

    Paracreptotrema heterandriae n. sp. (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) is described from the intestine of the freshwater fish Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae) from the upper basin of Río La Antigua, in Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is distinguished from the 3 others in the Paracreptotrema Choudhury, Pérez-Ponce de León, Brooks, and Daverdin, 2006 , mainly by having a feeble membranous cirrus sac containing an uncoiled seminal vesicle, instead of a well-developed muscular cirrus sac that encloses coiled seminal vesicle, pars prostatica, and ejaculatory duct as in the previously 3 nominal species. Moreover, eggs of the new species are larger than all others ([measurements in micrometers] eggs of P. heterandriae n. sp. 72.5 [70-75] × 40 [35-41]; P. blancoi 55.4 [52.5-62.5] × 38.5 [32.5-42.5]; P. mendezi 46 × 37; P. profundulusi 57 [52-60] × 27.8 [25-30]).

  9. Trematoda: Echinostomatidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-08-18

    Aug 18, 1995 ... tron microscopy. The species belongs to the 43-spined. Echinoparyphium group which is characterised by a collar spine arrangement of 5-5-3-3-27. A natural infection of six parasites was found in the duodenum of the cattle egret. Bubulcus ihis collected from the same area. However, owing to insufficient ...

  10. Molecular characterization of pouched amphistome parasites (Trematoda: Gastrothylacidae) using ribosomal ITS2 sequence and secondary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatani, S; Shylla, J A; Tandon, V; Chatterjee, A; Roy, B

    2012-03-01

    Members of the family Gastrothylacidae (Trematoda: Digenea: Paramphistomata) are parasitic in ruminants throughout Africa and Asia. In north-east India, five species of pouched amphistomes, namely Fischoederius cobboldi, F. elongatus, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Carmyerius spatiosus and Velasquezotrema tripurensis, belonging to this family have been reported so far. In the present study, the molecular phylogeny of these five gastrothylacid species is derived using the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequence and secondary structure analyses. ITS2 sequence analysis was carried out to see the occurrence of interspecific variations among the species. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for primary sequence data alone as well as the combined sequence-structure information using neighbour-joining and Bayesian approaches. The sequence analysis revealed that there exist considerable interspecific variations among the various gastrothylacid fluke species. In contrast, the inferred secondary structures for the five species using minimum free energy modelling showed structural identities, in conformity with the core four-helix domain structure that has been recently identified as common to almost all eukaryotic taxa. The phylogenetic tree reconstructed using combined sequence-structure data showed a better resolution, as compared to the one using sequence data alone, with the gastrothylacid species forming a monophyletic group that is well separated from members of the other family, Paramphistomidae, of the amphistomid flukes group. The study provides the molecular characterization based on primary sequence data of the rDNA ITS2 region of the gastrothylacid amphistome flukes. Results also demonstrate the phylogenetic utility of the ITS2 sequence-secondary structure data for inferences at higher taxonomic levels.

  11. Complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear ribosomal RNA operons of two species of Diplostomum (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda): a molecular resource for taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of important fish pathogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Jan; Kostadinova, Aneta; Scholz, Tomáš; Littlewood, D. T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, JUN 19 2015 (2015), s. 336 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14198S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diplostomum (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) * fish pathogens * mitochondrial genome * ribosomal RNA * illumina next- gene ration sequencing * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  12. Redescription of Crepidostomum opeongoensis Caira, 1985 (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) from fish hosts Hiodon alosoides and Hiodon tergisus (Osteichthyes: Hiodontidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A.; Nelson, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    Crepidostomum opeongoensis Caira, 1985 (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) is redescribed from fish hosts Hiodon alosoides and Hiodon tergisus in southern Manitoba. The redescription adds details regarding the surface morphology and reproductive structures of the parasite not described previously. These include the characteristic tegumental papillae around the oral opening, paired papillae on the ventral and dorsal surfaces of the body, and tegumental bosses on the dorsal surface of the forebody. Crepidostomum opeongoensis co-occurred with its hypothesized sister species, Crepidostomum illinoiense, in all host individuals harboring the former, and both species are characteristic of hiodontids. The association of C. opeongoensis with hiodontids and the absence of hiodontids in Lake Opeongo where C. opeongoensis was originally reported indicate that the Algonquin Park region may have had hiodontids in the past and that the life cycle may be completed at present without the original fish host.

  13. Redescription of Proctophantastes gillissi (Overstreet et Pritchard, 1977) (Trematoda: Zoogonidae) with discussion on the systematic position of the genus Proctophantastes Odhner, 1911.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Sergey; Gordeev, Ilya; Lebedeva, Daria

    2016-09-01

    The redescription of Proctophantastes gillissi (Overstreet et Pritchard, 1977) (Trematoda: Zoogonidae) was made on specimens collected from Muraenolepis marmorata Günther, 1880 (Gadiformes) caught in the Ross Sea and the Amundsen Sea (Antarctic). The fish is a new host of this parasite. Phylogenetic relations of P. gillissi were inferred by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis of partial sequences from 28S rDNA. The findings from analysis of the molecular data are not consistent with the traditional point of view about the position of the genus Proctophantastes Odhner, 1911 in the subfamily Lepidophyllinae. The taxonomical position of the genus needs further revision.

  14. A new species of Limnoderetrema (Trematoda, Digenea from the freshwater Atherinid fish Basilichthys australis Eigenmann, 1927 from the south of Chile

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    Patricio Torres

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Limnoderetrema tolosai sp. n. (Trematoda, Digenea within an autochthonous freshwater fish, the silverside Basilichthys autralis Eigenmann, 1927, from Lakes Riñihue and Ranco in Southern Chile is described. The species is distinguished from Limnoderetrema minutum (Manter, 1954 by the presence of one spine in the cirrus and cecal bifurcation nearer to ventral sucker than to pharinx. It is proposed Limnoderetrema macrophallus (Szidat & Nani, 1951 n. comb. (originally Steganoderma. Limnoderetrema tolosai differs from L. macrophallus since it cirrus has a distal spine and by its vitelline follicles distribution. It seems that Limnoderetrema spp. of South America are highly specific unlike L. minutum of New Zealand.

  15. Altered Protein Expression in the Ileum of Mice Associated with the Development of Chronic Infections with Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Alba; Sotillo, Javier; Muñoz-Antoli, Carla; Fried, Bernard; Esteban, J. Guillermo; Toledo, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Background Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) is an intestinal trematode that has been extensively used as experimental model to investigate the factors determining the expulsion of intestinal helminths or, in contrast, the development of chronic infections. Herein, we analyze the changes in protein expression induced by E. caproni infection in ICR mice, a host of high compatibility in which the parasites develop chronic infections. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the changes in protein expression, a two-dimensional DIGE approach using protein extracts from the intestine of naïve and infected mice was employed; and spots showing significant differential expression were analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 37 spots were identified differentially expressed in infected mice (10 were found to be over-expressed and 27 down-regulated). These proteins were related to the restoration of the intestinal epithelium and the control of homeostatic dysregulation, concomitantly with mitochondrial and cytoskeletal proteins among others. Conclusion/Significance Our results suggests that changes in these processes in the ileal epithelium of ICR mice may facilitate the establishment of the parasite and the development of chronic infections. These results may serve to explain the factors determining the development of chronicity in intestinal helminth infection. PMID:26390031

  16. Infection success of Echinoparyphium aconiatum (Trematoda) in its snail host under high temperature: role of host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Katja; Seppälä, Otto

    2014-04-21

    Extreme weather events such as summer heat waves become more frequent owing to global climate change and are predicted to alter disease dynamics. This is because high temperatures can reduce host immune function. Predicting the impact of climate change on host-parasite interactions is, however, difficult as temperature may also affect parasite infective stages and other host characteristics determining the outcome of interaction. Two experiments were conducted to investigate these phenomena in a Lymnaea stagnalis-Echinoparyphium aconiatum (Trematoda) interaction. In the first experiment, the effects of exposure of snails to experimental heat waves [maintenance at 25°C vs. 15°C (control)] with different durations (3 days, 7 days) on the infection success of parasite cercariae was examined. In the second experiment, the infection success was examined under similar conditions, while controlling for the possible temperature effects on cercariae and at least partly also for host physiological changes that take place rapidly compared to alterations in immune function (exposure to cercariae at intermediate 20°C). In the first experiment, increased infection success at 25°C was found independently of the duration of the heat wave. In the second experiment, increased infection success was found only in snails maintained at 25°C for 7 days, a treatment in which snail immune defence is known to be impaired. These results suggest that the effects of host resistance in determining overall parasite infection success can be overridden by effects of temperature on parasite transmission stages and/or alterations in other host traits than immune defence.

  17. Duas novas espécies de Megacoelium Szidat, 1954 (Trematoda: Heploporidae), parasitas estomacais de peixes da Amazônia Brasileira, com uma redefinição do gênero

    OpenAIRE

    Thatcher, Vernon E.; Varella, Angela B.

    1981-01-01

    Resumo Foi redefinido o gênero Megacoelium Szidat, 1954, (Trematoda: Haploporidae). um parasita do estômago dos bodos (Loricariidae) da América do Sul. Foi indicado que este gênero tem espinhos cuticulares dentro das ventosas e um cirro hermafrodita. As seguintes novas espécies foram descritas no gênero: M. spinispecum n. sp. de Pterygoplichthys sp. e M. spinicavum n. sp. de Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Castelnau). As novas espécies distinguem-se do tipo (M. plecostomi Szidat, 1954) por serem m...

  18. First molecular identification of Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) from an intermediate host Radix labiata (Rossmaessler) (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Kondakov, Alexander V; Sokolova, Svetlana E

    2016-07-01

    The strigeid digenean species Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) was originally described from North America, but recorded in the Neotropical region (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016) and in Central Europe (Faltýnková et al. 2007). In Europe, this species is rare, and there is not much information about its range (Faltýnková et al. 2007; Soldánová et al. 2012). Australapatemon burti has a complex life cycle with three larval stages, two of which (sporocyst and cercaria) use several species of freshwater snails, and the third stage (metacercaria) use non-specific host hirudineans (Dubois 1968; Davies & Ostrowski de Núñez 2012; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016). Adult flukes are parasitic in the intenstines of various waterfowl species, such as ducks and swans (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Currently, the molecular data on this parasite species includes only nucleotide sequences of four adult specimens from Mexico (Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Their hosts were Mexican duck, Anas diazi Ridgway, American Wigeon, Anas americana Gmelin, Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera Vieillot, and Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin) (Anserformes: Anatidae).

  19. Liolope copulans (Trematoda: Digenea: Liolopidae) parasitic in Andrias japonicus (Amphibia: Caudata: Cryptobranchidae) in Japan: Life cycle and systematic position inferred from morphological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Takashi; Hosoi, Masatomi; Urabe, Misako; Shimazu, Takeshi; Tochimoto, Takeyoshi; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2011-06-01

    The life cycle of Liolope copulans Cohn, 1902 (Trematoda: Digenea: Liolopidae), an intestinal parasite of the Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus (Temminck) (Amphibia: Caudata: Cryptobranchidae), was studied in the field and laboratory in Japan. This is the first description of mother sporocyst, daughter sporocyst and cercariae of a liolopid species. Non-oculate longifurcate pharyngeate cercariae were formed in lanceolate-cylindrical daughter sporocysts in Semisulcospira libertina (Gould) (Gastropoda: Sorbeoconcha: Pleuroceridae). They successfully developed to encapsulated metacercariae in cyprinid fishes, Nipponocypris sieboldii (Temminck and Schlegel) and Rhynchocypris lagowskii (Dybowski), by experimental infection. Cercariae had a V-shaped excretory vesicle with two looped arms, as in metacercariae and adults. Developmental stages from mother sporocyst to adult are described and illustrated. DNA sequencing was conducted for 28S and 18S rDNA of mother and daughter sporocysts, cercariae, and an adult. The result of molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that L. copulans may be one of the basal taxa of the order Diplostomida Olson, Cribb, Tkach, Bray, and Littlewood, 2003, but its systematic position is still unclear because of the topological inconsistence between the 28S and 18S trees. Therefore, we tentatively place the family Liolopidae in the superfamily Diplostomoidea, mainly based on the morphology of sporocysts and cercariae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrastructure and development of Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia), a hyperparasite of Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda), a parasite of Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toguebaye, Bhen Sikina; Quilichini, Yann; Diagne, Papa Mbagnick; Marchand, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) is described from Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda: Opecoelidae), a parasite of the fish Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei) in the Atlantic Ocean. Electron microscopy reveals that all the stages of the cycle (merogony and sporogony) are diplokaryotic and in direct contact with the cytoplasm of host cells. There is no sporophorous vesicle (pansporoblast). The earliest stages observed are meronts, which have a simple plasmic membrane. Their cytoplasm is granular, rich in ribosomes and contains some sacculi of endoplasmic reticulum. They divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporonts. The sporonts have a thick electron-dense wall. Their diplokaryon is slightly less electron-dense than the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of more advanced sporonts has numerous electron-lucent vesicles. Sporonts with two diplokarya divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporoblasts. The older sporoblasts are irregular or elongate and the polar filament is in formation. Their cytoplasm is denser, with ribosomes and lamellae of granular endoplasmic reticulum. The sporoblasts evolve into spores. The mature spores are broadly oval and measure 3.6 (3.1-4.0) × 2.58 (1.8-3.3) μm. Their wall is 100-300 nm thick. The polar tube is isofilar with 11-16 coils, 130-155 nm in diameter and arranged in many layers in the centre of the spore. The polaroplast is divided into two regions: an outer electron-dense cup with granular content and lacking lamellae and an internal region, less electron-dense, composed of irregularly arranged sacs. The posterior vacuole, with an amorphous electron-dense content, is present. The new species is compared with other species of Nosema from trematodes. B.S. Toguebaye et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014

  1. Ultrastructure and development of Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia, a hyperparasite of Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda, a parasite of Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toguebaye Bhen Sikina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae is described from Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda: Opecoelidae, a parasite of the fish Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei in the Atlantic Ocean. Electron microscopy reveals that all the stages of the cycle (merogony and sporogony are diplokaryotic and in direct contact with the cytoplasm of host cells. There is no sporophorous vesicle (pansporoblast. The earliest stages observed are meronts, which have a simple plasmic membrane. Their cytoplasm is granular, rich in ribosomes and contains some sacculi of endoplasmic reticulum. They divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporonts. The sporonts have a thick electron-dense wall. Their diplokaryon is slightly less electron-dense than the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of more advanced sporonts has numerous electron-lucent vesicles. Sporonts with two diplokarya divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporoblasts. The older sporoblasts are irregular or elongate and the polar filament is in formation. Their cytoplasm is denser, with ribosomes and lamellae of granular endoplasmic reticulum. The sporoblasts evolve into spores. The mature spores are broadly oval and measure 3.6 (3.1–4.0 × 2.58 (1.8–3.3 μm. Their wall is 100–300 nm thick. The polar tube is isofilar with 11–16 coils, 130–155 nm in diameter and arranged in many layers in the centre of the spore. The polaroplast is divided into two regions: an outer electron-dense cup with granular content and lacking lamellae and an internal region, less electron-dense, composed of irregularly arranged sacs. The posterior vacuole, with an amorphous electron-dense content, is present. The new species is compared with other species of Nosema from trematodes.

  2. Immune reactivity in early life stages of sea-cage cultured Pacific bluefin tuna naturally infected with blood flukes from genus Cardicola (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchi, Ylenia; Shirakashi, Sho; Nowak, Barbara F; Bridle, Andrew R

    2016-11-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, due to its high average price on the market is an economically valuable fish species. Infections by blood flukes from the genus Cardicola (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) represent a growing concern for the cage culture of bluefin tuna in Japan, Australia and Southern Europe. The accumulation of numerous Cardicola eggs in the fish gills causes severe pathology that has been linked to mortality in PBT juveniles up to one year old. The only effective treatment used to mitigate the infection is the oral administration of the antihelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ) to the affected fish. However, with the need to minimise therapeutic drug use in aquaculture it is hoped that immunoprophylaxis can provide a future alternative to protect the PBT juveniles against Cardicola infection. Currently, little is known of the host immune response to these parasites and of their infection dynamics. In this study, using real-time qPCR we aimed to quantitatively detect C. orientalis and C. opisthorchis DNA within the gills and heart of cultured PBT juveniles and to investigate the host immune response at the transcriptional level in the gills. The research focused mainly during early stages of infection soon after young PBT were transferred to culture cages (from 14 to 77 days post-transfer). An increase (up to 11-fold) of immune-related genes, namely IgM, MHC-I, TCR-β and IL-1β was observed in the PBT gills infected with Cardicola spp. (28-77 days post-transfer). Furthermore, IgM (19-fold increase) and MHC-I (11.5-fold increase) transcription was strongly up-regulated in gill samples of PBT infected with C. orientalis relative to uninfected fish but not in fish infected with C. opisthorchis. Cardicola-specific DNA was first detected in the host 14 days post-transfer (DPT) to sea-cages which was 55 days earlier than the first detection of parasite eggs and adults by microscopy. Oral administration of PZQ did not have an immediate effect

  3. Praziquantel efficacy against Brachylaima sp. metacercariae (Trematoda: Brachylaimidae) parasitizing the edible landsnail Cornu aspersum and its HPLC-MS/MS residue determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gállego, Laia; Gracenea, Mercedes

    2015-10-01

    Cornu aspersum is a terrestrial edible snail, often parasitized by Brachylaima (Trematoda) metacercariae. Ingestion of undercooked snails by humans allows metacercariae to develop to adult in the intestine causing brachylaimiasis (expected mortality rate 5-10%). The cosmopolitan character of the trematode and of its vector, enhanced in a future climate change scenario, and the absence of adequate sanitary controls of the snails in marketplaces clearly increase the risk of human brachylaimiasis. The treatment of farmed snails with praziquatel (PZQ) would be a tool to control this food-borne disease. The objectives of this study were: to report the prevalence of Brachylaima metacercariae parasitizing C. aspersum in marketplaces, to assess the efficacy and tolerance of PZQ in C. aspersum and to develop an HPLC-MS/MS analytical method to quantify PZQ residue in the edible snail (the acceptable daily intake of PZQ is 0.17 mg/kg bw in humans). Prevalence of parasitization of C. aspersum by Brachylaima metacercariae in public marketplaces reached the 80%. PZQ was orally administered to snails, mixed with the usual snail food. In dose determination assays three doses were individually tested (10 days): 1.2 mg PZQ/snail, 1.8 mg PZQ/snail (efficacy 97.3%, p < 0.001) and 2.4 mg PZQ/snail (efficacy 98.7%, p < 0.001). In dose confirmation tests (n = 200) the 2.4 mg PZQ/snail dose was group tested (10 snails/box, 7 days): 2 g of PZQ supplemented snail food were disposed daily in the treatment group boxes and 2 g of snail food (placebo) in the control boxes (efficacy 94.6%, p < 0.001; prevalence dropped from 68.7% in control group to 10.1% in treatment group, p < 0.001). Received dose was 220.2 mg PZQ/kg snail with shell. In the analytical method, linearity, lower limit of quantification (0.05 μg/ml), selectivity, carry over, accuracy, precision, dilution integrity, matrix effect and stability were tested. Sixty snails were treated (11 mg PZQ/g snail food

  4. Paracreptotrema profundulusi n. sp. and P. blancoi Choudhury, Pérez-Ponce De León, Brooks, and Daverdin, 2006 (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) from freshwater fishes of the genus Profundulus (Teleostei: Profundulidae) in southern México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Martínez-Ramírez, Emilio

    2011-08-01

    Paracreptotrema profundulusi n. sp. (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) is described from the intestine of the freshwater fishes Profundulus punctatus and P. balsanus (Teleostei: Profundulidae) from the Tehuantepec and the Atoyac-Verde River basins, in Oaxaca, México, in the western extreme of Central America. The new species is distinguished from Paracreptotrema blancoi Choudhury, Pérez-Ponce de León, Brooks, and Daverdin, 2006 , to which it is most similar, and from P. mendezi (Sogandares-Bernal, 1955) Choudhury, Pérez-Ponce de León, Brooks, and Daverdin, 2006 , by the caeca extending beyond the testes, vitelline follicles that invade the postesticular area, and uterus with transverse loops located mainly between the testes and the genital pore. Paracreptotrema blancoi was collected from the same host species and also from Profundulus oaxacae. Here, we provide data that show its broad distribution in several river basins of Neotropical southern México, including the Papagayo River basin, Guerrero, México, and the Atoyac-Verde and Tehuantepec river basins, and other rivers in Oaxaca, México. Freshwater fishes of the Profundulidae are endemic to Central America and host a helminth fauna that includes at least 4 species found only in these hosts.

  5. COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE OS MÉTODOS DE EXTRAÇÃO DE METACERCÁRIAS DE ASCOCOTYLE SP (TREMATODA: DIGENEA DOS TECIDOS DE MUGIL LIZA VALENCIENNES, 1836 (TELEOSTEI: MUGILIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand and consumption of fish and their derivatives has increased considerably in recent years. However, fish are ideal hosts of numerous parasites, highlighting the need to develop new research methodologies for its detection. The aim of present study was to compare the efficacy of Ascocotyle metacercariae (Trematoda: Digenea extraction from visceral tissues of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836 (Teleostei: Mugilidae by two methods: homogenization by blender or mixer. Twentysix samples of M. liza were collected, being 16 liver samples and 10 samples of muscle tissue. Approximately 5g of each sample were processed by blender and mixer techniques homogenization for metacercariae extraction. In liver samples, up to 46 metacercariae were found in samples homogenized in blender. The lowest amount found was 2 metacercariae for blender and mixer techniques. In samples of muscle tissue, 4 metacercariae were observed in the mixer extraction. The lowest amount was found to be 2 parasites to blender and mixer. The mean metacercariae found and extracted from muscle tissue were 0.2 (+0.357 and 1.2 (+0.963 for blender and mixer, respectively. The averages of metacercariae found and extracted from fish liver, in blender and mixer, were 24 (+15.145 and 18 (+8.246, respectively. The homogenization techniques for blender and mixer were effective for the extraction of metacercariae of mullet fish tissues, suggesting that they may be directly applicable in the field of study, especially due to the ease of testing.

  6. The life history of Pygidiopsis macrostomum Travassos, 1928 (Digenea: Heterophyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Balmant Emerique Simões

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The life history of the trematode Pygidiopsis macrostomum Travassos, 1928 is described for the first time. Rediae and cercariae were obtained from naturally infected snails Heleobia australis (d´Orbigny, a new first intermediate host. Metacercariae were found encysted in the mesenteries of three naturally infected guppies, Phalloptychus januarius (Hensel, Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns (new host records and Poecilia vivipara Bloch and Schneider. Experimental infections were successfully completed in the intermediate hosts H. australis and Poe. vivipara reared in the laboratory and hamsters Mesocricetus auratus Waterhouse were utilised as a definitive host.

  7. (Trematoda: Fellodistomidae) metacercarial infections in the brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-05-03

    May 3, 1988 ... Unencysted trematode metacercariae of the genus Proctoeces were found embedded in the mantle tissue and visceral mass of the intertidal mussel Perna perna. Data on the prevalence and intensity of ..... temperature dependent, however, this seems unlikely in view of the known worldwide distribution of ...

  8. Systemic infection with Alaria americana (Trematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, B. J.; Cooper, J. D.; Cullen, J. B.; Freeman, R. S.; Ritchie, A. C.; Scott, A. A.; Stuart, P. F.

    1976-01-01

    Alaria americana is a trematode, the adult of which is found in mammalian carnivores. The first case of disseminated human infection by the mesocercarial stage of this worm occurred in a 24-year-old man. The infection possibly was acquired by the eating of inadequately cooked frogs, which are intermediate hosts of the worm. The diagnosis was made during life by lung biopsy and confirmed at autopsy. The mesocercariae were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes, liver, myocardium, pancreas and surrounding adipose tissue, spleen, kidney, lungs, brain and spinal cord. There was no host reaction to the parasites. Granulomas were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes and liver, but the worms were not identified in them. Hypersensitivity vasculitis and a bleeding diathesis due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and a circulating anticoagulant caused his death 8 days after the onset of his illness. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:1000445

  9. Ecology of free-living metacercariae (Trematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Neil J

    2015-06-01

    The presence of trematodes with a free-living metacercarial stage is a common feature of most habitats and includes important species such as Fasciola hepatica, Parorchis acanthus and Zygocotyle lunata. These trematodes encyst on the surface of an animal or plant that can act as a transport host, which form the diet of the target definitive host. Although these species are often considered individually, they display common characteristics in their free-living biology indicating a shared transmission strategy, yet in comparison to species with penetrative cercariae this aspect of their life cycles remains much overlooked. This review integrates the diverse data and presents a novel synthesis of free-living metacercariae using epibiosis as the basis of a new framework to describe the relationship between transport hosts and parasites. All aspects of their biology during the period that they are metabolically independent of a host are considered, from cercarial emergence to metacercarial excystment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lipid biosynthesis in Paramphistomum microbothrium (Trematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awharitoma, A O; Opute, F I; Ali, S N; Obiamiwe, B A

    1990-02-01

    In vitro studies with Paramphistomum microbothrium indicated that the trematode is capable of synthesizing its complex lipids using exogenous substrates. U-14C glucose and 2-14C acetate were predominantly incorporated into phospholipids while 1-14C oleic acid and U-14C palmitic acid appeared more in the neutral lipids. A large proportion of the labelled acetic acid incorporated into neutral lipids appeared in the triglycerides. P. microbothrium is capable of synthesizing its cholesterol de novo.

  11. Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. in Vietnam: current status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, Pham N; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2016-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are clinically important small liver flukes because of their known association with development of cholangiocarcinoma. In Vietnam, high prevalence of C. sinensis infection in humans was previously reported in northern provinces, and O. viverrini infection has been detected in several central provinces. However, diagnosis of C. sinensis and O. viverrini infections in the past was merely based on faecal egg examination. This method alone can lead to misidentification at the species level because of morphological similarity between the eggs of these liver flukes and minute intestinal trematodes of the family Heterophyidae. In fact, recent surveys in Vietnam revealed that infection with several minute intestinal flukes, such as Haplorchis pumilio and H. taichui, are much more common than infection with C. sinensis or O. viverrini, and they often co-infect humans. Thus, previously reported prevalence of small liver fluke infection in Vietnam was likely over-estimated due to mis identification of parasites in copro-parasitological examinations. In addition, there is some confusion about identification of cercariae, metacercariae and also adults of C. sinensis and O. viverrini in intermediate and definitive hosts. The aim of this review is, therefore, to draw realistic pictures of the past and present scientific reports on the epidemiology and biology of C. sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. infection in Vietnam. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Variable infection of stream salamanders in the southern Appalachians by the trematode Metagonimoides oregonensis (family: Heterophyidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennie A. Wyderko; Ernest F. Benfield; John C. Maerz; Kristen C. Cecala; Lisa K. Belden

    2015-01-01

    Many factors contribute to parasites varying in host specificity and distribution among potential hosts. Metagonimoides oregonensis is a digenetic trematode that uses stream-dwelling plethodontid salamanders as second intermediate hosts in the Eastern US. We completed a field survey to identify which stream salamander species, at a regional level, are most...

  13. Pygidiopsis cambodiensis n. sp. (Digenea: Heterophyidae) from experimental hamsters infected with metacercariae in mullets from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    Pygidiopsis cambodiensis n. sp. is described based on adult flukes recovered from Syrian golden hamsters experimentally infected with metacercariae from mullets (Liza macrolepis) purchased at a local fish market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The specimens were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Among the 13 species so far assigned to Pygidiopsis, the new species belongs to the summa-type (including Pygidiopsis pelecani, Pygidiopsis phalacrocoracis, Pygidiopsis piclaumoreli, Pygidiopsis plana, and Pygidiopsis summa) which lack circumoral spines and have vitelline follicles extending posteriorly from the level of the ovary some distance into the post-testicular space and the uterus not exceeding the acetabulum anteriorly. The new species differs from the other five species of the summa-type particularly in the morphology of the ventrogenital complex, including the genital sac, gonotyl, and gonotyl spines (= rodlets). The genital sac is well developed, sucker-like, slightly larger than the ventral sucker, muscular, and equipped with two gonotyls on the ventral side of the sac. Gonotyls are protruding pad-like, and the number of rodlets on the left gonotyl is four to five and that on the right gonotyl is 10-11 in two rows. This is the fifth Pygidiopsis species reported in Asia, following P. summa (Japan, Korea, and Vietnam), P. phalacrocorasis (Japan), P. pelecani (China), and Pygidiopsis marivillai (Philippines).

  14. Import of exotic and zoonotic trematodes (Heterophyidae: Centrocestus sp.) in Xiphophorus maculatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Jensen, Hannah M.; Kania, Per Walter

    2014-01-01

    Ornamental fish, Xiphophorus maculatus, were imported from Singapore to Denmark for distribution to local aquarists. Importers observed lethargic and erratic swimming patterns among fish and forwarded a total of 30 fish for pathological examination to a university diagnostic service. All fish were...... diagnosed infected with encysted Centrocestus sp. metacercariae in gills (prevalence of 100% and mean intensity of 454.5 ± 161.9 parasites per fish). Metacercariae were identified by morphological and molecular methods. Cysts (mean length 163.3 ± 13.7 μm and mean width 113.3 ± 10.6 μm) contained a bent...

  15. ELISA and some biochemical tests of heterophyidae infection in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Seify, Mahmoud A; El-Bahy, Nasr M; Desouky, Abdelrazek Y; Bazh, Eman K

    2012-02-01

    Heterophyiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis in Egypt, among the inhabitants living around brackish-water lakes especially fishermen, and it is a common human parasite in the Nile Delta. The experiment was done on two laboratory animals (rats and dogs), and the time of sample collection was done periodically at 6, 9, 15, 21, and 28 days post-infection to evaluate different tests required. Whole blood was collected with heparin or ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid as anticoagulant to help in the hematological studies such as red blood cells count (RBCs), white blood cells count, packed cell volume (PCV), and hemoglobin (Hb). Only marked increase in the total leuckocytic count was recorded while RBCs, PCV, and Hb were decreased in most of the results obtained. Total protein and globulin decreased while albumin and A/G ratio increased. Liver enzymes showing marked increase in aspartate aminotransferase and increase in alanine aminotransferase in dogs and rats denoting that liver has a role in the response to that infection. Kidney-function tests, urea, and creatinine showed slight increase at 6 days post-infection (d.p.i.). After preparation of different Ag (antigen) from different collected helminthes, the protein content of each was determined. The sera of infected animals were collected to find antibodies in their blood against the parasite using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and using crude heterophyid antigen collected from their intestines after scarification. The worms washed, homogenized, and then centrifuged to collect supernatant fluid as antigens. The results indicated that antibody starts to appear at 9 d.p.i. and increases till 21 and 28 d.p.i. and detection depends on antigen concentration.

  16. Taxonomic status of Ascocotyle (Phagicola) rara Arruda, Muniz-Pereira et Pinto, 2002 (Digenea: Heterophyidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Muniz-Pereira, L. C.; Santos, C. P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2006), s. 297-301 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Digenea * morphology * systematics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.511, year: 2006

  17. A new PCR-based approach indicates the range of Clonorchis sinensis now extends to Central Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Traub

    Full Text Available Differentiation of the fish-borne trematodes belonging to the Opisthorchiidae, Heterophyidae and Lecithodendriidae is important from a clinical and epidemiological perspective, yet it is impossible to do using conventional coprological techniques, as the eggs are morphologically similar. Epidemiological investigation therefore currently relies on morphological examination of adult worms following expulsion chemotherapy. A PCR test capable of amplifying a segment of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA for the opisthorchiid and heterophyid flukes eggs taken directly from faeces was developed and evaluated in a rural community in central Thailand. The lowest quantity of DNA that could be amplified from individual adults of Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Haplorchis taichui was estimated at 0.6 pg, 0.8 pg and 3 pg, respectively. The PCR was capable of detecting mixed infection with the aforementioned species of flukes under experimental conditions. A total of 11.6% of individuals in rural communities in Sanamchaikaet district, central Thailand, were positive for 'Opisthorchis-like' eggs in their faeces using conventional parasitological detection techniques. In comparison to microscopy, the PCR yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 71.0% and 76.7%, respectively. Analysis of the microscopy-positive PCR products revealed 64% and 23% of individuals to be infected with O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. The remaining 13% (three individuals were identified as eggs of Didymozoidae, presumably being passed mechanically in the faeces following the ingestion of infected fishes. An immediate finding of this study is the identification and first report of a C. sinensis-endemic community in central Thailand. This extends the known range of this liver fluke in Southeast Asia. The PCR developed herein provides an important tool for the specific identification of liver and intestinal fluke species for future

  18. The eggs of some blood-flukes (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bear a spine, (ii) that the eggs should not possess an operculum, (iii) that the eggs should be embryonated (i.e. they should contain a fully-developed miracidium) and (iv) ... no knowledge of the rest of the life-cycle. The Giganlobilharzia eggs found in the faeces of Larus dominiconus and Aforus capensis during the present ...

  19. Occurrence of avian Schistosomatidae (Trematoda) in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abundance, prevalence and distribution of avian Schistosomatidae in South African birds has been estimated by means of a survey for parasite eggs in faecal samples. Eight types of eggs were recovered, mostly from members of the Anatidae and Laridae and these have been assigned to the following schistosome ...

  20. New insights into the life cycle of Platynosomum (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Hudson A; Mati, Vitor L T; de Melo, Alan L

    2014-07-01

    The platynosomiasis, a worldwide parasitic disease with importance for domestic cat, has an etiological agent species of trematodes of the genus Platynosomum, whose complete life cycles are not yet known. The real role of lizards in the transmission of this dicrocoeliid parasite (as obligatory intermediate or paratenic host) still needs to be defined. In the present study, oval-shaped encysted metacercariae obtained from terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea sp. and Nagurus nanus) and elongated excysted metacercariae found in biliary ducts and gallbladder of lizards (Hemidactylus mabouia) in Brazil were used for morphological characterization and experimental infection of mice. Adult parasites recovered from bile ducts and liver of mice inoculated orally with metacercariae from both hosts (isopods and lizards) were identified as Platynosomum illiciens (=Platynosomum fastosum), showing that lizards are paratenic (not obligatory) hosts involved in the life cycle of this parasite. Moreover, Subulina octona is reported as the first intermediate host of P. illiciens in South America, and terrestrial isopods are presented here as new natural second intermediate hosts of the parasite. Finally, it is pointed out that high prevalence and intensity of infection of intermediate and paratenic hosts were observed. These findings on the life cycle of P. illiciens are relevant considering that they may indicate possible control measures of platynosomiasis.

  1. Analysis of the complete Fischoederius elongatus (Paramphistomidae, Trematoda) mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Zhao, Yunyang; Wang, Lixia; Feng, Hanli; Tan, Li; Lei, Weiqiang; Zhao, Pengfei; Hu, Min; Fang, Rui

    2015-05-20

    Fischoederius elongates is an important trematode of Paramphistomes in ruminants. Animals infected with F. elongates often don't show obvious symptoms, so it is easy to be ignored. However it can cause severe economic losses to the breeding industry. Knowledge of the mitochondrial genome of F. elongates can be used for phylogenetic and epidemiological studies. The complete mt genome sequence of F. elongates is 14,120 bp in length and contains 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and two non-coding regions (LNR and SNR). The gene arrangement of F. elongates is the same as other trematodes, such as Fasciola hepatica and Paramphistomum cervi. Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes by Maximum-likelihood and Neighbor-joining analysis method showed that F. elongates was closely related to P. cervi. The complete mt genome sequence of F. elongates should provide information for phylogenetic and epidemiological studies for F. elongates and the family Paramphistomidae.

  2. Ecology of diplostomid (Trematoda: Digenea) infection in freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complex life cycles of most trematode parasites include three hosts. The first intermediate host is a snail, the second is normally a teleost fish and a piscivorous bird serves as the definitive host. Lymnaeid snails are most likely to be responsible for cercarial shedding, which infect exposed fish and in turn are eaten by ...

  3. [SEASONAL CHANGES IN THE BIOLOGY OF LEUCOCHLORIDIUM PARADOXUM (TREMATODA, LEUCOCHLORIDIOMORPHIDAE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataev, G L; Tokmakova, A S

    2015-01-01

    Infection of molluscs Succinea putris by trematodes Leucochloridium paradoxum was studied in the region of Vyritsa (Leningrad Province) during the period of 2008-2014. On the basis of the obtained data, seasonal dynamics of infection of molluscs can be presented as follows. Infection of S. putris occurs during the whole warm period from May to August. Young sporocysts of L. paradoxum overwinter and the metacercariae that develop in their extensions mature during spring becoming infective for birds. In the second half of summer, sporocysts start degenerating and die in late August-September. Each sporocyst can form 2-3 mature broodsacs (maximum 5) simultaneously. In cases of multiple infections, their number can reach 19. Several cases of independent release of sporocysts from molluscs were observed. They survive in environment for about an hour, retaining the ability to infect definitive hosts. Additionally, birds can be infected by pecking of horns of infected snails.

  4. [Trematodes (Trematoda) of bats (Chiroptera) from the Middle Volga Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Iu; Vekhnik, V P

    2012-01-01

    The data on species diversity of trematodes from bats collected in the Middle Volga Region are summarized. According to original and literary data, 20 trematode species were recorded in bats of the region examined. Plagiorchis elegans, Lecithodendrium skrjabini, L. rysavyi, Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, and Pycnoporus megacotyle are specified for the bat fauna of Russia for the first time. For 11 species of parasites, new hosts are recorded. The analysis of bat helminthes demonstrated that the fauna of trematodes of the northern bat (12 species of trematodes), of the pond, and of the Brandt's bats is the most diverse, constituting more than 10 parasite species per bat species. The largest number of final hosts in the Middle Volga Region is characteristic of Plagiorchis koreanus and Prosthodendrium chilostomum; the latter species were revealed in 8 and 7 bat species, respectively. Trematodes of bats possess a high degree of host specificity. 17 species parasitize exclusively in bats out of 20 parasite species registered for the order Chiroptera. Only 3 species (Plagiorchis elegans, P. vespertilionis, and Prosthodendrium chilostomum) show wide degree of specificity, being found in other animals. Taxonomic position, the circle of hosts, collecting sites, and brief data in biology and geographical distribution for each helminth species are specified. Morphological descriptions and original figures for all the trematode species revealed in bats of the Middle Volga Region are given.

  5. Coinfection of Schistosoma (Trematoda) with bacteria, protozoa and helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzi, Amy; Fried, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    This review examines coinfection of selected species of Schistosoma with bacteria, protozoa and helminths and focuses on the effects of the coinfection on the hosts. The review is based mainly on tables that contain the salient information on the coinfecting organisms in vertebrate hosts. Further explanation and clarification of the tables are given in the text. A table is also provided that gives synoptic information on the 37 species in the 19 genera considered in this review. Coinfection studies with Schistosoma species and the other organisms were considered in six tables plus the accompanying text. Considerations of the Schistosoma interactions with another species of organism include studies on coinfection with Plasmodium, with protozoa other than Plasmodium; with Salmonella, with bacteria other than Salmonella; and with Fasciola, with helminths other than Fasciola. Numerous factors were found to influence the effects of coinfection on the vertebrate host, including organisms and hosts used in the studies, order and time interval between the first and the second infection, studies on natural versus experimental hosts, dosage of the infectious agents, strains and pedigrees of the parasites, age of hosts at time of exposure to the infectious agents and age of hosts at the time of necropsy. Overall, a prior infection with Schistosoma, particularly a patent infection, often has an effect on the subsequent infection by a protozoan, bacterium or other helminth. In relatively few cases, a prior infection with Schistosoma decreased the severity of the subsequent infection as with Helicobacter pylori, Fasciola hepatica, Echinostoma or Plasmodium, the latter only exhibiting this behaviour when coinfected with Schistosoma haematobium. More often, however, a prior infection with Schistosoma increased the severity of the second infection as with Leishmania, Toxoplasma gondii, Entamoeba histolytica, Staphylococcus aureus or Salmonella. In some of these coinfection studies, the increased severity of the subsequent infection was associated with a specific, prolonged form of the disease in humans, which has implications for patient treatment and recovery. Additional research is needed, particularly on Schistosoma coinfections which currently have a small body of research and are current problems in human populations. Examples of such Schistosoma interactions include the genera of Mycobacteria, Leishmania, Staphylococcus, Necator and Strongyloides. Hopefully, future studies will elucidate valuable new information on the interesting subject of coinfection of Schistosoma with other organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Paraconcinnum leirsi n.sp. (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) from rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trematode Paraconcinnum leirsi n.sp. (Dicrocoeliidae) is described from two rodent species, the African gerbil, Gerbilliscus vicinus, and the spiny mouse, Acomys spinosissimus, from Tanzania. It differs from the description of P. hylomisci found in the Stella wood mouse, Hylomyscus stella, in the Democratic Republic of ...

  7. A Checklist of the Aspidogastrea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) of the World

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alves, P.V.; Vieira, F.M.; Santos, C. P.; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3918, č. 3 (2015), s. 339-396 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity * taxonomy * Aspidogastridae * Multicalycidae * Rugogastridae * Stichocotylidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.994, year: 2015

  8. Experimental life cycle of Philophthalmus gralli (Trematoda: Philophthalmidae in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos T. Díaz

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions of the miracidium, mother redia, daughter redia, grandaughter redia, cercaria, metacercaria and adult stages of Philophthalmus gralli Mathis and Leger,1910 recovered from experimental infections are presented. The intermediate host, Melanoides tuberculata, was collected from freshwater rivulets in Aguasanta and Yaguracual, Sucre State, Venezuela. Chicken were orally infected with cercariae and metacercariae, and metacercariae were introduced directly into the eyes by pipette. Both processes of infection produced adult worms. This is a new geographical record for P. gralliSe describe el miracidio, redia madre, redia hija, redia nieta, cercaria y el adulto de Philophthalmus gralli Mathis y Leger, 1910, obtenidos de infecciones experimentales. El hospedero intermediario Melanoides tuberculata fue recolectado en las localidades de Aguasanta y Yaguaracual, estado Sucre,Venezuela. Varios pollos fueron infectados oralmente con cercarias y metacercarias y colocando metacercarias directamente en los ojos con una pipeta. En ambos procesos de infección, se obtuvo parásitos adultos. Se amplía la distribución geográfica de P. gralli

  9. A checklist of cercariae (Trematoda: Digenea) in molluscs from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; De Melo, Alan Lane

    2013-01-01

    A checklist of digenetic trematodes found in molluscs from Brazil is presented based on 127 scientific articles published after a century of studies. To date 23 families, 35 genera and 46 species of trematodes were identified infecting 25 species of molluscs in the country. Another 36 species described in the collective-group Cercaria were found in 15 species of molluscs and have not yet been associated with the respective adult parasites. Larvae found in 20 species of molluscs and grouped into 10 cercarian types are also listed.

  10. A Ribeiroia spp. (Class: Trematoda) - Specific PCR-based diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, David M.; Yoshino, T.P.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased reporting of amphibian malformations in North America has been noted with concern in light of reports that amphibian numbers and species are declining worldwide. Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to cause a variety of types of malformations in amphibians. However, little is known about the prevalence of R. ondatrae in North America. To aid in conducting field studies of Ribeiroia spp., we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic. Herein, we describe the development of an accurate, rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostic for detection of Ribeiroia spp. infection in snails (Planorbella trivolvis). Candidate oligonucleotide primers for PCR were designed via DNA sequence analyses of multiple ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 regions from Ribeiroia spp. and Echinostoma spp. Comparison of consensus sequences determined from both genera identified areas of sequence potentially unique to Ribeiroia spp. The PCR reliably produced a diagnostic 290-base pair (bp) product in the presence of a wide concentration range of snail or frog DNA. Sensitivity was examined with DNA extracted from single R. ondatrae cercaria. The single-tube PCR could routinely detect less than 1 cercariae equivalent, because DNA isolated from a single cercaria could be diluted at least 1:50 and still yield a positive result via gel electrophoresis. An even more sensitive nested PCR also was developed that routinely detected 100 fg of the 290-bp fragment. The assay did not detect furcocercous cercariae of certain Schistosomatidae, Echinostoma sp., or Sphaeridiotrema globulus nor adults of Clinostomum sp. or Cyathocotyle bushiensis. Field testing of 137 P. trivolvis identified 3 positives with no overt environmental cross-reactivity, and results concurred with microscopic examinations in all cases. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  11. Epidemiological and molecular data on heterophyid trematode metacercariae found in the muscle of grey mullets (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae) from Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Simonetta; Piras, Maria Cristina; Sanna, Daria; Chai, Jong-Yil; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    This study is a contribution to the molecular taxonomy and epidemiology of heterophyid (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) metacercariae found in the muscle of Mugilidae (Osteichthyes) from Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea). Sixty specimens of mugilids (13 Chelon labrosus, 18 Liza aurata, 6 Liza ramada, 8 Liza saliens, 15 Mugil cephalus) were examined and 17,899 metacercariae isolated in 95 % of the hosts. Four types of metacercariae were identified: Heterophyes sp. (n = 14,113), Heterophyes sp. -small (1225), Stictodora sp. (1606), and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) sp. (955). The experimental infection of a hamster with Heterophyes sp. metacercariae produced six adults identified as Heterophyes heterophyes and two as Heterophyes cf. nocens. The morphology of Heterophyes sp. -small metacercariae matched with that of Heterophyes dispar. The sequence analysis of the ITS2 and 28S portions of rDNA confirmed the morphological identification of metacercariae, showing four clusters. All adults grouped together with the Heterophyes sp. metacercariae, whereas adults of Heterophyes nocens from Korea clustered separately, showing that this species is distinguished from H. heterophyes, and suggesting caution in the exclusive use of the number of rodlets of the genital sucker to separate the two species. The presence of metacercariae was high in all hosts; the highest prevalence is of Heterophyes sp. (prevalence ≥78 %; mean intensity ≥135 metacercariae/100 g muscle), and the most heavily infected host is M. cephalus (prevalence = 100 %; mean intensity = 841 metacercariae/100 g muscle).

  12. Import of exotic and zoonotic trematodes (Heterophyidae: Centrocestus sp.) in Xiphophorus maculatus: implications for ornamental fish import control in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Jensen, Hannah M; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt

    2014-06-01

    Ornamental fish, Xiphophorus maculatus, were imported from Singapore to Denmark for distribution to local aquarists. Importers observed lethargic and erratic swimming patterns among fish and forwarded a total of 30 fish for pathological examination to a university diagnostic service. All fish were diagnosed infected with encysted Centrocestus sp. metacercariae in gills (prevalence of 100% and mean intensity of 454.5 ± 161.9 parasites per fish). Metacercariae were identified by morphological and molecular methods. Cysts (mean length 163.3 ± 13.7 μm and mean width 113.3 ± 10.6 μm) contained a bent metacercaria with an X-shaped excretory bladder. PCR amplification of a rDNA region (5.8S rRNA gene, ITS-2, 28S rRNA gene) and subsequent sequencing confirmed the diagnosis. Metacercariae were found in gill filaments adjacent to the cartilage associated with cartilage hypertrophy, epithelial and mucous cell hyperplasia, clubbing and lamellar fusion. Host cell encapsulation of cysts comprised several layers of leucocytes, chondroblast-like and fibroblast-like cells. The observations raise concerns with regard to veterinary inspection and quarantine procedures. The zoonotic potential of these trematodes and a possible spread of the parasites in natural habitats in Europe should be regarded as a public health issue. So far, several cases of human infections have been reported only in Asia, but the potential intermediate host snail, Melanoides tuberculata, has been recorded in Germany. Accordingly, establishment of the parasite in Europe with climate changes should be considered a risk.

  13. Higher attack rate of fish-borne trematodes (Heterophyidae) in common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio) at lower fish weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, A.S.; Graat, E.A.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) can cause pathology in humans. Fish weight was reported as important risk factor for transmission from snail to fish. However, in fingerlings, the relation between fish weight and infection is unknown. Aim was quantifying the effect of fish weight on infection

  14. Pygidiopsis summa (Digenea: Heterophyidae): Status of Metacercarial Infection in Mullets from Coastal Areas in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Park, Mi-Yeoun; Lee, Soon-Won; Choi, Seung-Bong; Huh, Beom-Nyung; Seok, Won-Seok

    2016-08-01

    To know the infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae in brackish water fish, we surveyed mullets collected from 18 coastal areas in the Republic of Korea. The metacercariae of Pygidiopsis summa were detected in 236 (68.2%) out of 346 mullets examined. They were found in mullets from 15 areas except for those from Boseong-gun (Jeollanam-do), Pohang-si, and Uljin-gun (Gyeongsangbuk-do). Especially in mullets from Taean-gun (Chungcheongnam-do) and Geoje-si (Gyeongsangnam-do), their prevalences were 100% and 95.5%, and the average metacercarial density was more than 1,000 per fish. They were also detected in mullets from 3 coastal lakes, Gyeongpoho, Songjiho, and Hwajinpoho, in Gangwon-do, and their average densities were 419, 147, and 672 per infected fish, respectively. The metacercariae of 5 other heterophyid species, including Heterophyes nocens, Heterophyopsis continua, Metagonimus sp., Stictodora fuscata, and Stictodora lari, were found in the mullets examined. The metacercariae of H. nocens were detected in 66.7, 100, 28.6, 81.6, 3.9, 61.5, and 27.3% of mullets from Muan-gun, Shinan-gun, Haenam-gun, Gangjin-gun, and Boseong-gun (Jeollanam-do), Hadong-gun, and Geoje-si (Gyeongsangnam-do), and their metacercarial intensities were 64, 84, 119, 99, 1, 24, and 24 per fish infected, respectively. From the above results, it has been confirmed that P. summa metacercariae are heavily infected in mullets from coastal areas of Korea. It is suggested that residents who frequently consume raw mullet dish can be easily infected with heterophyid flukes.

  15. Molecular discrimination of Opisthorchis-like eggs from residents in a rural community of central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buathong, Saiwasan; Leelayoova, Saovanee; Mungthin, Mathirut; Ruang-Areerate, Toon; Naaglor, Tawee; Suwannahitatorn, Picha; Piyaraj, Phunlerd; Taamasri, Paanjit; Tan-Ariya, Peerapan

    2017-11-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini infection is a major public health problem in northern and northeastern Thailand. The chronic infection of O. viverrini is related to cholangiocarcinoma which causes high mortality in endemic areas. Therefore, the diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of O. viverrini infection are necessary. The morphology of the egg is very similar to that of other species of human liver flukes (Opisthorchis felineus and Clonorchis sinensis) as well as that of small intestinal flukes in the family Heterophyidae. Thus, molecular characterization is crucially required to discriminate species of Opisthorchis-like eggs in fecal examination. We aimed to determine the prevalence of O. viverrini infection among villagers living in Sanamchaikate District, Chachoengsao Province, in central Thailand, where O. viverrini infection has previously been reported. A total of 2,609 fecal samples were examined for Opisthorchis-like eggs using microscopic examination. PCR-RFLP analysis of the ITS2 region was used to discriminate Opisthorchis-like eggs. The genetic structure of O. viverrini infection was demonstrated using nucleotide sequencing of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1). Testing of evolutionary neutrality of the cox1 and nad1 sequences of O. viverrini was performed using Tajima's D tests and Fu's Fs tests. Moreover, the haplotype networks and phylogenetic trees were constructed to study the relationships of O. viverrini isolated from different endemic areas. A high prevalence of O. viverrini infection is still observed in a rural community of Chachoengsao Province, central Thailand. The overall prevalence of Opisthorchis-like eggs using microscopic examination was 16.8%. PCR-RFLP profiles showed the predominant infection of O. viverrini (9.6%) including very low infections of other small intestinal flukes, Haplorchis taichui (0.08%) and Euparyphium albuferensis (0.08%). The genetic structure of O. viverrini

  16. Molecular discrimination of Opisthorchis-like eggs from residents in a rural community of central Thailand.

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    Saiwasan Buathong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Opisthorchis viverrini infection is a major public health problem in northern and northeastern Thailand. The chronic infection of O. viverrini is related to cholangiocarcinoma which causes high mortality in endemic areas. Therefore, the diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of O. viverrini infection are necessary. The morphology of the egg is very similar to that of other species of human liver flukes (Opisthorchis felineus and Clonorchis sinensis as well as that of small intestinal flukes in the family Heterophyidae. Thus, molecular characterization is crucially required to discriminate species of Opisthorchis-like eggs in fecal examination.We aimed to determine the prevalence of O. viverrini infection among villagers living in Sanamchaikate District, Chachoengsao Province, in central Thailand, where O. viverrini infection has previously been reported. A total of 2,609 fecal samples were examined for Opisthorchis-like eggs using microscopic examination. PCR-RFLP analysis of the ITS2 region was used to discriminate Opisthorchis-like eggs. The genetic structure of O. viverrini infection was demonstrated using nucleotide sequencing of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1. Testing of evolutionary neutrality of the cox1 and nad1 sequences of O. viverrini was performed using Tajima's D tests and Fu's Fs tests. Moreover, the haplotype networks and phylogenetic trees were constructed to study the relationships of O. viverrini isolated from different endemic areas. A high prevalence of O. viverrini infection is still observed in a rural community of Chachoengsao Province, central Thailand. The overall prevalence of Opisthorchis-like eggs using microscopic examination was 16.8%. PCR-RFLP profiles showed the predominant infection of O. viverrini (9.6% including very low infections of other small intestinal flukes, Haplorchis taichui (0.08% and Euparyphium albuferensis (0.08%. The genetic structure of O

  17. [Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae) as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae) in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguedas Cortés, Donald; Dolz, Gaby; Romero Zúñiga, Juan J; Jiménez Rocha, Ana E; León Alán, Dennis

    2010-12-01

    Centrocestusformosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus) and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and different mollusk species. A total of 907 freshwater mollusks were obtained from tilapia ponds and were identified to species level, four gastropods and one bivalve were determined: Melania tuberculata, Melanoides turricula, Pomacea flagellata, Haitia cubensis and Anodontiles luteola. For the first time, the presence of M. turricula and H. cubensis are reported in Costa Rica. Seven morphotypes of cercariae (Xifiodiocercaria, Equinostoma, Oftalmocercaria, Parapleurolofocercus, Cistocerca, Furcocercaria and Leptocercaria) parasitizing all five species of mollusks were found, all of distome type. Experimental exposure of tilapia fry to M. tuberculata demonstrated that the parapleurolofocercus morphotype found in the mollusk is in accordance with the finding of C. formosanus in tilapia fry. An abundance and mean intensity of 1018-1027 digeneans per gill in each exposed fish was determined. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time in Costa Rica, for which the primary and secondary intermediate hosts were also determined.

  18. Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae) como causa de muerte de alevines de tilapia gris Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae) en el Pacífico seco de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Arguedas Cortés, Donald; Dolz, Gaby; J. Romero Zúñiga, Juan; E. Jiménez Rocha, Ana; León Alán, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Centrocestus formosanus es un parásito trematodo zoonótico originario de Asia asociado con muertes de peces principalmente de cultivo. 907 moluscos provenientes de estanques sembrados con tilapias, seleccionados uno por provincia fueron identificados al nivel taxonómico especifico. Se identificaron cuatro gastrópodos y un bivalvo: M. tuberculata, M. turricula, P. flagellata, H. cubensis y A. luteola. Se reporta, por primera vez, la presencia de dos especies de moluscos en Costa Rica. Se ident...

  19. Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae como causa de muerte de alevines de tilapia gris Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae en el Pacífico seco de Costa Rica

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    Donald Arguedas Cortés

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Centrocestus formosanus es un parásito trematodo zoonótico originario de Asia asociado con muertes de peces principalmente de cultivo. 907 moluscos provenientes de estanques sembrados con tilapias, seleccionados uno por provincia fueron identificados al nivel taxonómico especifico. Se identificaron cuatro gastrópodos y un bivalvo: M. tuberculata, M. turricula, P. flagellata, H. cubensis y A. luteola. Se reporta, por primera vez, la presencia de dos especies de moluscos en Costa Rica. Se identificaron siete morfotipos de cercarias parasitando las cinco especies de moluscos encontradas. En la segunda exposición experimental se demostró que el morfotipo parapleurolofocercus encontrado en M. tuberculata concuerda con el hallazgo de C. formosanus en alevines de tilapia, después del examen clínico, anatomopatológico y parasitológico realizado a los alevines expuestos. Las metacercarias fueron extraídas del quiste utilizando microagujas y micropinzas lavadas en solución salina fisiológica (0.65%, fijadas en formol caliente al 4% y después esquematizadas con una cámara clara adaptada a un microscopio fotónico, estimándose una abundancia e intensidad media de 1018-1027 digeneos por branquia en cada pez parasitado, determinándose así el hospedador intermediario primario y secundario del parásito. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez Centrocestus formosanus en Costa Rica.

  20. Effect of fish size on transmission of fish-borne trematodes (Heterophyidae) to common carps (Cyprinus carpio) and implications for intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, A.S.; Graat, E.A.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish-borne trematodes are reported to affect the health of more than 40 million people worldwide. Few experimental studies are available on fish size dependent gain (attack rates of cercariae) or loss (mortality of metacercariae) of fish-borne trematodes. Aim was to quantify the relation between

  1. Cardiovascular flukes (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae) in Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758 from the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Erica; Negrisolo, Enrico; Cassini, Rudi; Garofalo, Luisa; Poppi, Lisa; Tessarin, Cinzia; Marcer, Federica

    2017-10-10

    The northern Adriatic Sea represents one of the most important neritic foraging grounds for the loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta L. in the Mediterranean Sea. Four genera of blood flukes with variable prevalence and pathogenic impact have been reported worldwide in this species. Hapalotrema Looss, 1899 and Amphiorchis Price, 1934 are the only two genera reported in Mediterranean waters; however, updated data describing spirorchiidiasis in the central and eastern Mediterranean and infection prevalence are still lacking. This work aimed to investigate the presence and pathology of spirorchiidiasis in C. caretta in the Mediterranean Sea. One hundred sixty-eight animals stranded along the northwestern Adriatic coast between 2009 and 2015 were submitted to necropsy and subsequent analyses for the detection of adult flukes, detection of eggs in the faeces and spleen and histopathology. Molecular analyses were carried out on hosts (mitochondrial D-loop) and parasites (28S gene and ITS2 spacer) to trace the turtle origins and identify the fluke phylogenetic relationships. Spirorchiidiasis was detected in 16.7% of the animals. Hapalotrema mistroides (Monticelli, 1899) and Neospirorchis sp. were found in twenty-six and ten cases, respectively. Adult flukes were found in six cases, while eggs were detectable through copromicroscopic examination for all infected turtles, and the results for the detection of eggs in the spleen agreed with the copromicroscopic analysis. Only mild lesions were observed. Eggs of types 1 and 3 were grossly visible in the gastrointestinal mucosa, vasculitis was rarely observed in the heart and great vessels, and multifocal granulomas were widespread in the tissues. Molecular identification unambiguously assigned the spirorchiid samples to H. mistroides and Neospirorchis sp. Genetic characterization of loggerhead mtDNA pointed to a Mediterranean origin of the turtle hosts. This survey provides new data on the spread of spirorchiidiasis in the Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtle population and reports for the first time the presence of Neospirorchis spp. in this basin. The infections did not have a causal effect on the death nor a strong impact on the general health status of the animals.

  2. Morphological and molecular characterization of Paragonimus caliensis Little, 1968 (Trematoda: Paragonimidae) from Medellin and Pichinde, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenis, Carolina; Galiano, Alicia; Vélez, Imelda; Vélez, Iván Darío; Muskus, Carlos; Marcilla, Antonio

    2018-03-26

    Paragonimiasis is a subacute to chronic inflammatory granulomatous lung disease caused by the genus Paragonimus. In Latin America Paragonimus mexicanus Miyazaki & Ishii, 1968 is the only confirmed species to cause human infections. Paragonimus caliensis Little, 1968 is an uncommon species often regarded as a synonym of P. mexicanus. Recently, the study of two types of Paragonimus metacercariae from Costa Rica has provided new molecular and morphological evidence that P. caliensis is a separate species from P. mexicanus. In the present study, molecular, morphological and phylogenetic tools have been used to characterize two populations of Paragonimus located at west of Medellin, Antioquia and at Pichinde, Valle del Cauca (type locality of P. caliensis), Colombia. Adults and metacercariae obtained from Medellin, and metacercariae from Pichinde were analyzed. For morphological observations we used light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphology of metacercariae and adults matched with the holotype of P. caliensis. The number and arrangement of sensory papillae in the acetabulum region differs from the morphotypes reported for P. caliensis in Costa Rica. Two morphotypes in branching patterns of ovary and two morphotypes in branching patterns of testes were identified. The main morphological differences between P. caliensis and P. mexicanus corresponded to the size of gonads and their relative positions in the body, and the occasional presence of a cyst wall in P. caliensis metacercariae. The molecular and phylogenetic analyses (using nuclear ribosomal ITS2 and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 CO1 sequences) confirmed that P. caliensis from the type locality is the same species from Medellin and Costa Rica. Furthermore, these analyses also suggest genetic as well as geographical separation of P. caliensis populations between Colombia and Costa Rica. Currently, P. mexicanus and P. caliensis are sympatric in the Colombian Pacific bioregion, and specific diagnosis based on their egg size is not possible. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the biogeographic distribution ranges of both species and to implement molecular techniques to establish the role of P. caliensis in human paragonimiasis in Colombia. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda) an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea) in Ecuador?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Yannick; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Hurtrez-Boussès, Sylvie; Lounnas, Mannon; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482) in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences) and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482) and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482) of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador. © Y. Caron et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  4. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea in Ecuador?

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    Caron Yannick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482 in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482 and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482 of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador.

  5. Platyhelminthes, Trematoda, Digenea Carus, 1863: Distribution extension in Argentina and new Anura and Ophidia hosts

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    Lunaschi, L. I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to increase the knowledge on the diversity of digenean parasites in ophidians andanurans from northeastern Argentina. Specimens of the snakes Eunectes notaeus, Hydrodynastes gigas, Micrurus corallinus,Philodryas sp. and Sibynomorphus sp., and the anurans Rhinella schneideri, Phyllomedusa azurea and Leptodactylus latranswere examined. Twelve digenean species were identified: Catadiscus corderoi Mañé-Garzón, 1958, Catadiscus dolichocotyle(Cohn, 1903, Catadiscus uruguayensis Freitas & Lent, 1939, Choledocystus elegans (Travassos, 1926, Gorgoderina parvicavaTravassos, 1922, Haplometroides buccicola Odhner, 1911, Heterodiplostomum lanceolatum Dubois, 1936, Infidum similisTravassos, 1916, Mesocoelium monas (Rudolphi, 1819, Plagiorchis luehei (Travassos, 1927, Telorchis clava (Diesing, 1850and Travtrema stenocotyle (Cohn, 1902. New host species and/or new locality records from Argentina are presented.

  6. Sequencing and characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome from the pancreatic fluke Eurytrema pancreaticum (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Gao, Jun-Feng; Zheng, Xu; Zhang, Yan; Duan, Hong; Yue, Dong-Mei; Fu, Xue; Su, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Chun-Ren

    2016-01-15

    The trematode Eurytrema pancreaticum is a parasite of ruminant pancreatic and bile ducts, and also occasionally infects humans, causing eurytremiasis. In spite of it being a common fluke of cattle and sheep in endemic regions, little is known about the genomic resources of the parasite. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of E. pancreaticum. It is 15,031 bp in size, and encodes 36 genes: 12 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. The E. pancreaticum mt gene order is the same as that of Dicrocoelium chinensis and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, and all genes are transcribed in the same direction. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes by Bayesian inference shows that E. pancreaticum is closely related to D. chinensis and other members of the family Dicrocoeliidae with strong posterior probability support. The E. pancreaticum mt genome should prove to be a useful resource for comparative mt genomic studies of digenetic trematodes, and will provide a rich source of DNA markers for studies into the systematics, epidemiology, and population genetics of this parasite and other digenean trematodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Developmental periods and adaptation of parthenites of Eurytrema pancreaticum (Dicrocoeliidae, Trematoda) to environmental conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoriadkin, V A

    1976-01-01

    Data are given on the developmental periods of parthenites of E. pancreaticum (Janson, 1889) from the Far East of the USSR. The growth and formation of parthenites were found to take place from May to October and to coincide with the active period of the intermediate host's life cycle. With the decrease of autumn temperatures to 8 degrees the growth of parthenites slows down and ceases completely in October. The pause in the development of parthenites from October to April causes longer developmental periods of parthenites as compared to those in the regions of tropical and subtropical climate. Under laboratory conditions at a temperature of 8 to 22 degrees the development of parthenites proceeds without any intervals within 6.5 months.

  8. Additional study of the morphology of eggs and miracidia of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Trematoda

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    Pinheiro J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the eggs and miracidia of Eurytrema coelomaticum was analyzed. The eggshell presented different composition according to the maturation stage of the egg, as seen by distinct birefringence after polarized light microscopic analysis. Detailed morphology of the brownish eggs, measuring 44.97±3.83 (38.67 - 51.40 μm in length and 30.71±2.54 (25.79 -34.47 μm in width, and the different electrondensities of the inner, middle and outer layers of the eggs were determined using light (bright field and DIC and electronic microscopy (scanning and transmission. The morphometry of the eggs is in accordance to those measures presented in previous studies. The miracidia were observed using light microscopy, inside and outside the egg. It was possible to observe the terebratorium at the anterior end of the body, the ciliated epidermal plates, placed according the formula E=2E1 + 2E2, and the interepidermal ridge, but eyespots were not observed. The excretory vesicle was laterally placed in the posterior middle of the body and the germ balls were observed. The miracidium inside the egg was observed by routine techniques, but the miracidium was not well preserved. Thus, the eggs were processed using high pressure-freeze substitution technique and reasonable preservation was achieved. The cilia covering the larval body, with a typical ciliary organization, the terebratorium with folds and the junction of the epidermal ciliated cell with the larval body were seen. For the first time detailed information on the eggs and miracidia of E. coelomaticum is given, which can be the basis for new studies.

  9. Parasitic manipulation and neuroinflammation: Evidence from the system Microphallus papillorobustus (Trematoda - Gammarus (Crustacea

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    Thomas Frederic

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathological consequences of neuroinflammatory processes have been implicated in a wide range of diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS. Glial cells, the resident immune cells of the CNS, respond to tissue injury by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and free radicals such as nitric oxide. We explored the possibility that neuroimmune responses are involved in parasitic manipulation of host behavior in a trematode-crustacean association. The cerebral larva of the flatworm Microphallus papillorobustus alters responses to environmental stimuli - and thus reflex pathways - in the crustacean Gammarus insensibilis, in a way that enhances predation of the crustacean by birds, definitive hosts of the parasite. Results Immunocytochemical experiments followed by confocal microscopy were performed to study the distribution of glutamine synthetase, a glial cell marker, and nitric oxide synthase in the brain of gammarids. Astrocyte-like glia and their processes were abundant at the surface of the parasites while levels of nitric oxide synthase were elevated at the host-parasite interface in the brain of gammarids harboring mature cerebral larvae and demonstrating altered behavior. Conclusion Taken together these results lend support to the neuroinflammation hypothesis whereby a chronic CNS specific immune response induced by the parasite plays a role in the disruption of neuromodulation, neuronal integrity, and behavior in infected hosts.

  10. Presencia de Cotylophoron cotylophorum (Trematoda, Taramphisto- midae en bovinos de Loreto, Perú

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    Nofre Sánchez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La paranfistomosis es una infección ocasionada por trematodes pertenecientes al suborden Paramphistomata, algunas de estas especies son parásitos del rúmen y retículo de rumiantes. Uno de los trematodos más fre- cuentes en todo el mundo es el Cotylophoron que afecta a rumiantes domésticos y silvestres, especialmente a vacas, ovejas, cabras y búfalos especialmente en regiones tropicales y subtropicales. Se realizó la evaluación parasitaria a 61 ejemplares de ganado bovino aparentemente sanos (42 hembras adultos y 19 menores de un año, manejados al pastoreo, en un fundo ganadero ubicado en la cuenca del río Nanay –Iquitos. Las heces fueron obtenidas mediante palpación rectal y procesada mediante el método Dennis modificado. Dos vacas fueron sacrificadas para obtener parásitos adultos. Los resultados indican la presencia de Cotylophoron cotylo- phorum (Fischoeder, 1901 Stiles & goldeberger, 1910 en los animales estudiados y es un nuevo registro para el Perú, encontrando porcentajes de infección de 62 y 53% en adultos y terneros respectivamente. El rango de la carga parasitaria (huevo/gramo de heces en adultos fue 1—44 y 1—55 en animales menores de un año. El estudio revela la existencia del trematodo en un grupo de ganado cruzado manejados al pastoreo, aunque se desconoce los efectos negativos que podría estar causando en la reducida ganadería amazónica.

  11. New Record of Aspidogaster ijimai Kawamura, 1913 (Trematoda: Aspidogastridae) from Cyprinus carpio in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Choe, Seongjun; Kang, Yeseul; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

    2017-10-01

    Aspidogastrid trematodes (Subclass Aspidogastrea) are a relatively small group with a characteristic adhesive disc and parasitize in a variety of cold-blooded hosts. Until now, only 2 species in the genus Cotylaspis, i.e., C. coreensis and C. sinensis, have been reported as the aspidogastrid trematode in the Republic of Korea (=Korea). In the present study, we intended to describe a species of aspidogastrids collected from the small intestine of the common carp, Cypri-nus carpio, in a faunistic point of view. Total 51 specimens were collected from a carp caught in Nakdong-gang (River) on May 2015. Some of them were prepared as the specimens for light microscopic observations, and some others were prepared for SEM. They were slightly elongated without head lobes, 2,432×840 μm in average size, and had characteristic adhesive discs with 4 rows and 46 alveoli in average. The ovary was reniform and was located in the posterior-upper part of the body. The single testis was larger than the ovary and was located below the ovary. The uterus was coiled containing numerous eggs and distributed in the posterior 2/3 of the body. The vitellaria were follicular, and distributed from the mid-level of testis to near the posterior end. The morphological characters with dimensions of our specimens were closely identical with those of Aspidogaster ijimai previously described. A new aspidogastrid is added among the Korean trematode fauna by the present study.

  12. Accacoelium contortum (Trematoda: Accacoeliidae) a trematode living as a monogenean: morphological and pathological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuir-Baraja, Ana Elena; Padrós, Francesc; Palacios-Abella, Jose Francisco; Raga, Juan Antonio; Montero, Francisco Esteban

    2015-10-15

    Accacoelium contortum (Rudolphi, 1819) Monticelli, 1893 is a frequent but poorly known trematode found on gills, pharynx and digestive tract of the ocean sunfish Mola mola (L.). Although the morphology of A. contortum agrees with that of a typical endoparasitic trematode, with two relatively small suckers and no large holdfasts, this parasite is normally ectoparasitic. The main objective of this paper is to explore this peculiar host-parasite relationship. A total of 106 ocean sunfish were examined for the presence of A. contortum. The oropharyngeal chamber (gills and pharynx) and the digestive tract were analysed. As the previous descriptions of this species seem to be based on contracted specimens, for the morphological study the parasites were killed using two methods: with hot 70% ethanol (with relaxed bodies) and with 70% ethanol at room temperature (with contracted bodies). For histological studies, samples from fresh fish with parasitised left gills, pharynx and digestive tract were fixed in buffered 10% formalin. For molecular studies the 18S, 28S and ITS-2 sequences were provided and compared with the available data in GenBank®. New information on the morphology of A. contortum and on the parasite-related response and pathological alterations in the host are given. New diagnostic traits for some structures are provided: e.g. tegumental papillae of the forebody with apical digitiform swellings and mouth surrounded by a circum-oral crown of simple papillae. The length of the ventral sucker peduncle and the position of the vitellarium were found to be associated with the contraction degree of the specimen. Immature individuals of this species are described for the first time. An intense proliferative inflammatory response of host gill and pharynx epithelium at the host-parasite interface was detected and parasites became partially covered by overgrowths of host tissues. The induction of prominent histological alterations associated with A. contortum seems to be an adaptation to the external environment, an unusual location for trematodes.

  13. Bacciger bacciger (Trematoda: Fellodistomidae) infection effects on wedge clam Donax trunculus condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montaudouin, Xavier; Bazairi, Hocein; Mlik, Karima Ait; Gonzalez, Patrice

    2014-10-16

    Wedge clams Donax trunculus inhabit high-energy environments along sandy coasts of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Two sites were sampled monthly, one in Morocco (Mehdia), where the density was normal, and one in France (Biscarosse), where the density was very low. We tested the hypothesis that the difference in density between the sites was related to infection by the trematode parasite Bacciger bacciger. Identity of both the parasite and the host were verified using anatomical and molecular criteria. Parasite prevalence (i.e. the percentage of parasitized clams) was almost 3 times higher at Biscarosse. At this site, overall prevalence reached 32% in July and was correlated with the migration of several individuals (with a prevalence of 88%) to the sediment surface. After this peak, prevalence decreased rapidly, suggesting death of parasitized clams. The deleterious effect of B. bacciger on wedge clams was also supported by our calculations indicating that the weight of the parasite made up to 56% of the total weight of the parasitized clams. However, condition indices of trematode-free clams were also lower in Biscarosse than in Mehdia or other sites, suggesting that other factors such as pollutants or microparasites (Microcytos sp.) may alter wedge clam population fitness in Biscarosse.

  14. Molecular characterization of the unique Mesostephanus appendiculatus (Trematoda: Cyathocotylidae) by small ribosomal RNA from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahy, Nasr M; Bazh, Eman K; Sorour, Shimaa S; Elhawary, Nagwa M

    2017-04-01

    M esostephanus appendiculatus (Family: Cyathocotylidae) is one of the unique trematodes that complete their cycles in human and animal intestines in many countries of the world. The main source of its transmission is eating raw or undercooked infected fish muscle. Earliest analyses of genes to different parasites supported the analysis of helminthes either biological or morphological. This paper detected M. appendiculatus sequence with GenBank accession number gb (KY026782). Comparison of M. appendiculatus with other helminthes using BioEdit 7 and MEGA7 program shows some similarity in different points along its sequence. The phylogenetic analysis clarifies that it was closely related to both trematodes (Clinostomum complanatum and Echinochasmus japonicus) and some cestodes of fish origin such as Polyonchobothrium polypteri, Bothriocephalus sp., and Haplobothrium globuliforme. The obtained results provide a good source for genome analysis of M. appendiculatus in relation to other Platyhelminthes.

  15. Multiple infection of amber Succinea putris snails with sporocysts of Leucochloridium spp. (Trematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataev, G L; Zhukova, A A; Tokmakova, А S; Prokhorova, Е E

    2016-08-01

    Amber Succinea putris snails were collected in the Leningrad Region (Russia). Some of them were infected with trematodes Leucochloridium paradoxum, Leucochloridium perturbatum and Leucochloridium vogtianum. One snail had triple infection with all these species. Genotyping of sporocysts by ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nucleotide sequences of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and phylogenetic analysis were performed. The results confirmed the species identification of sporocysts of Leucochloridium based on the shape and colour of mature broodsacs. Sporocyst broodsacs could leave the host snail on their own, remaining viable in the environment for up to an hour. This ability of sporocysts may prevent the excessive infection of the molluscan host.

  16. Establishment and interspecific associations in two species of Ichthyocotylurus (Trematoda) parasites in perch (Perca fluviatilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Co-infections of multiple parasite species in hosts may lead to interspecific associations and subsequently shape the structure of a parasite community. However, few studies have focused on these associations in highly abundant parasite species or, in particular, investigated how the associations develop with time in hosts exposed to co-infecting parasite species for the first time. We investigated metacercarial establishment and interspecific associations in the trematodes Ichthyocotylurus variegatus and I. pileatus co-infecting three age cohorts of young perch (Perca fluviatilis). Results We found that the timing of transmission of the two Ichthyocotylurus species was very similar, but they showed differences in metacercarial development essentially so that the metacercariae of I. pileatus became encapsulated faster. Correlations between the abundances of the species were significantly positive after the first summer of host life and also within the main site of infection, the swim bladder. High or low abundances of both parasite species were also more frequent in the same host individuals than expected by chance, independently of host age or size. However, the highest abundances of the species were nevertheless observed in different host individuals and this pattern was consistent in all age cohorts. Conclusions The results suggest similar temporal patterns of transmission, non-random establishment, and facilitative rather than competitive associations between the parasite species independently of the age of the infracommunities. However, we suggest that spatial differences in exposure are most likely responsible for the segregation of the parasite species observed in the few most heavily infected hosts. Regardless of the underlying mechanism, the result suggests that between-species associations should be interpreted with caution along with detailed examination of the parasite distribution among host individuals. PMID:21599910

  17. Non-native gobies facilitate the transmission of Bucephalus polymorphus (Trematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondračková, Markéta; Hudcová, Iveta; Dávidová, Martina; Adámek, Zdeněk; Kašný, Martin; Jurajda, Pavel

    2015-07-19

    Introduced species can modify local host-parasite dynamics by amplifying parasite infection which can 'spill-back' to the native fauna, whether they are competent hosts for local parasites, or by acting as parasite sinks with 'dilution' of infection decreasing the parasite burden of native hosts. Recently infection by the trematode Bucephalus polymorphus has increased in several European rivers, being attributed to the introduction of intermediate host species from the Ponto-Caspian region. Using a combination of field and experimental data, we evaluated the competence of non-native and native fish as intermediate hosts for B. polymorphus and its role for parasite development in a definitive host. The density of 0+ juvenile fish (the second intermediate hosts for B. polymorphus) was measured in the River Morava, Czech Republic and fish were screened for natural metacercariae infection. The stomach contents of predatory fish that are definitive hosts of B. polymorphus were examined to assess the importance of non-native gobies for parasite transmission. In semi-natural conditions, parasite establishment, initial survival, and maturity rates in experimentally infected definitive hosts pikeperch Sander lucioperca were measured in flukes recovered from native white bream Abramis bjoerkna and non-native tubenose goby Proterorhinus semilunaris and round goby Neogobius melanostomus. Adult fluke size and egg production was also measured to evaluate the potential effect of intermediate host species on parasite fitness. We detected high natural infection parameters of B. polymorphus in native cyprinids and non-native gobies compared to data from the period prior to goby establishment. Both fish groups are consumed by predatory fish and represent a major component of the littoral fish community. Parasite establishment and adult size in definitive hosts was equivalent among the second intermediate host species, despite a lower size of metacercariae recovered from round gobies. However, development in the definitive host of flukes recovered from gobies was reduced, showing higher mortality, delayed maturity and lower egg production, in comparison with parasites from native hosts. Substantial 'spill-back' of B. polymorphus due to higher transmission rates after establishment of non-native gobies was partially buffered by decreased fitness of B. polymorphus that underwent development in gobies.

  18. Phyllodistomum kanae sp. nov. (Trematoda: Gorgoderidae), a bladder fluke from the Ezo salamander Hynobius retardatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Minoru

    2015-10-01

    The Ezo salamander, Hynobius retardatus, is endemic only to Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. Gravid flukes of the family Gorgoderidae were discovered from the urinary bladder of H. retardatus. The parasites were identified as a new species named Phyllodistomum kanae sp. nov. In the neighboring Honshu island another bladder fluke, Phyllodistomum patellare, has already been found from the Japanese newt. The new species clearly differs from P. patellare in having a spherical ovary and very weakly lobed testes. The discovery of species of Phyllodistomum from urodelan amphibians is very uncommon in Eurasia. A molecular phylogeny based on 28S ribosomal DNA suggests that sphaeriid bivalves may serve as the first intermediate host for the new species. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Systemic Collyriclum faba (Trematoda: Collyriclidae) Infection in a Wild Common Raven ( Corvus corax ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mete, Aslı; Rogers, Krysta; Houston, Robin

    2017-01-01

    A hatch-year Common Raven ( Corvus corax ) with subcutaneous and internal pseudocysts, filled with fluid, containing a pair of adult trematodes and numerous eggs consistent with Collyriclum faba, died near a riverbank in California, US. While C. faba is incidental in many Passeriformes, this case was a fatal systemic infection.

  20. The study of the sporocyst broodsacs coloring in Leucochloridium paradoxum (Trematoda: Brachylaemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataev, G L; Babich, P S; Tokmakova, A S

    2013-01-01

    The secretory cells were found in the subtegument of the sporocysts Leucochloridium paradoxum by histological assay. Pigment granules are formed by these cells. The movement of granules from secretory cells to the tegument external layer was observed. These pigment granules provide the yellow color of sporocysts broodsacs and the brown color of protuberant spots in the terminal part of broodsacs. It was shown that the pigment granules did not contain proteins, nucleotides, lipids and carbohydrates. The positive result was received while staining on bile pigments. The question on the nature of the green pigment remains open. The paletot on the surface of sporocyst formed by spreading hemocytes was observed. This structure was not described before in brachylaemid parthenites.

  1. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Clinostomum detruncatum (Trematoda: Clinostomidae) Metacercariae Infecting Synbranchus marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Aline Angelina; Caffara, Monica; Fioravanti, Maria Letizia; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Zago, Aline Cristina; Franceschini, Lidiane; da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2016-02-01

    A complete morphological description, supported by molecular data, of Clinostomum detruncatum metacercariae is reported in this study. The metacercariae were found infecting Synbranchus marmoratus from the Paraná River, municipality of Guaíra, Paraná State, Brazil. The taenioidean uterus is the main morphological characteristic of this species. Both neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum likelihood (ML) trees showed 2 clear separate clusters grouping together the species from the Palearctic region (Clinostomum complanatum, Clinostomum cutaneum, Clinostomum phalacrocoracis, Clinostomum philippinense) and those from the Nearctic/Neotropical regions (Clinostomum marginatum, Clinostomum tataxumui, C. detruncatum, Clinostomum sp. 7). The latter clade is divided into 2 subclades grouping species from North America and Mexico (C. marginatum and C. tataxumui), and those from Brazil (C. detruncatum and Clinostomum sp. 7).

  2. [Trematodes (trematoda) of amphibia from the Middle Volga region. 1. Orders Fasciolida, Hemiurida, Paramphistomida and Strigeida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhliaev, I V; Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Iu

    2012-01-01

    Data on trematodes of the orders Fasciolida, Hemiurida, Paramphistomida and Strigeida from 11 amphibian species of the Middle Volga region are given. Literature data for the last 30 years are reviewed for the first time; these data are supplemented by our own material. Reliable recordings are confirmed for 23 trematode species. Two of these species are new for amphibian trematode fauna of Russia. New hosts were revealed for 12 trematode species. Trematodes of the new for the region amphibian species, the edible frog Rana esculenta Linnaeus, 1758, are recorded for the first time. Two trematodes from freshwater fishes are shown to be temporary or occasional parasites of amphibians. The following characteristics are given for each parasite: it's systematic position, the spectrum of hosts, localization, collecting site, biology, geographical range, and the degree of host specificity. The morphological description and original figures are given for 9 species of parasites.

  3. Microphallus koreana n. sp. (Trematoda: Microphallidae) Transmitted by a Marine Crab, Macrophthalmus dilatatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guk, Sang-Mee; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, You-Me; Sim, Seobo

    2008-01-01

    Microphallus species occur primarily as intestinal parasites of birds and mammals, and metacercariae of a new species belonging to this genus have been discovered from the crab, Macrophthalmus dilatatus, in the Republic of Korea. The metacercaria of this fluke was round with 2 thick walls, and the excysted one had mature genital organs. The adult flukes recovered from experimentally infected chicks had numerous intrauterine eggs, well-developed pars prostatica, widely bifurcating ceca, and prominent uterine bulge. After observing internal structures, it was concluded that this species is different from any other known Microphallus spp. Based on the morphology of metacercariae and adult flukes, we describe this specimen as a new species, Microphallus koreana n. sp. PMID:18830056

  4. Localization of photoreceptors in the cercariae of Proterometra macrostoma (Trematoda: Azygiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Marc; Massana, Kathryn; Wier, Abigail

    2011-10-01

    The swimming behavior of the cercaria of the digenetic trematode Proterometra macrostoma changes in response to light. However, this cercaria does not possess obvious eyes or eyespots. Using behavioral assays, we were able to show that both intact and distome-removed cercariae swim significantly greater vertical distances under dim, red light than under brighter, white light. Electrophysiological experiments confirmed this result and further showed that the transverse band of the tail, known to control cercariae swimming behavior, was necessary and sufficient for the display of the light-dependent swimming behavior. Together, these data show that the distome is not required for light-dependent swimming behavior in P. macrostoma cercariae and indirectly demonstrates the presence of photoreceptors in the transverse band of the cercaria tail.

  5. Tegumental ultrastructure of adult Quinqueserialis quinqueserialis (Trematoda: Notocotylidae): an intestinal parasite of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naem, Soraya; Smythe, Ashleigh B

    2015-07-01

    Ten adult Quinqueserialis quinqueserialis specimens were removed from the intestine of a naturally infected muskrat, and scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphological characteristics of the trematodes. The mature trematode, which was easy to recognize by the monostome holdfast organ, with no anterior cone, measured 2200-2500 μm in length by 900-1050 μm in width. The body was elongated and tapering at the anterior end, but the posterior end was rounded, and in some specimens was slightly truncated. The mouth opening lay at the anterior end and was surrounded by the oral sucker, which was round, small to medium in size, and subterminal. The tegument of the rim and inside of the oral sucker was smooth and had two types of papillae, domed and rosette papillae. Around the oral sucker, tegument was covered with sharp, pointed spines. The common genital pore was located on the median line of the body, posterior to the oral sucker. The cirrus had smooth tegument at the base and was armed with numerous conical spines throughout its length. The ventral surface was concave and provided with five distinct longitudinal rows of ventral papillae, which extended from the anterior to the posterior end of the body. Each row consisted of 15 to 20 papillae, making 81 to 88 papillae in all. These papillae were variable in size. In most specimens, the papillae were simple knob-like structures, but in some cases, they appeared to be bi- or trifurcate. The tegument at the base of each ventral papilla showed minute spiny pattern, but it was smooth or folded on top and had small rosette and ciliated papillae. Tegument at the edges of the worm was smooth in the mid-parts, spiny on lateral parts, and included rosette papillae. The dorsal surface of the worm was smooth and slightly convex, and the tegument was provided with two large domed papillae in one third of the anterior end of the dorsal part, few thick spines in the mid-part, and excretory pore at the level just posterior to the end. No spines or papillae were seen around the excretory pore.

  6. New insights into diagnosis of Platynosomum fastosum (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Lima, Victor Fernando Santana; Monteiro, Maria Fernanda Melo; Santana, Marília de Andrade; Lepold, Raphael; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2016-02-01

    Platynosomum fastosum is a hepatic trematode which causes the so-called lizard poisoning in cats. This parasite is reported in tropical and sub-tropical areas infecting the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts of cats. Despite its clinical importance, the diagnosis of P. fastosum has been poorly investigated so far. In this study, three cases of infection by P. fastosum in cats are reported. The FLOTAC technique was utilized for the first time in the detection of eggs of this parasite. Three cats (two males and one female), being one of them with a history of diarrhea and vomiting, were diagnosed positive for the presence of P. fastosum eggs through the FLOTAC technique. In conclusion, this study provides important and new insights into the diagnosis of P. fastosum in cats, expanding the geographical knowledge of this parasite in Brazil.

  7. Platynosomum fastosum (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) from Cats in Vietnam: Morphological Redescription and Molecular Phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung Manh; Van Hoang, Hien; Ho, Loan Thi

    2017-01-01

    The present study was performed to reveal the morphological characteristics and molecular phylogenetic position of Platynosomum fastosum Kossack, 1910. A total 167 specimens of P. fastosum were collected in 8 (4.9%) out of 163 sets of gall-bladders and bile ducts of cats. The number of worms was 1–105 per infected cat. This species was characterized by having a long and slender body, slightly larger ventral sucker than the oral sucker, indistinct prepharynx, small pharynx, short esophagus, bifurcation midway between 2 suckers, and ceca extending to the posterior end of the body. The length of the partial sequences of ITS1 and 5.8S rDNA of P. fastosum were 990 bp, GC-rich. AT/GC ratio was 0.9, there were 9 polymorphic sites, and intraspecific variations ranged from 0.1% to 0.9%. Phylogenetic analyses by neighbor-joining phylogram inferred from ITS1 rDNA sequences revealed that the genetic distance between P. fastosum specimens ranged from 0.3 to 1.5% while the smallest interspecific distance among dicrocoeliid species was 20.9 %. The redescription and genetic characters of P. fastosum are taxonomically important to recognize future different species of the genus Platynosomum showing high intraspecific and morphological variability. PMID:28285505

  8. A human case of Echinostoma hortense (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) infection diagnosed by gastroduodenal endoscopy in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chang-Min; Tak, Won-Young; Kweon, Young-Oh; Kim, Sung-Kook; Choi, Yong-Hwan; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2003-01-01

    A human Echinostoma hortense infection was diagnosed by gastroduodenoscopy. An 81-year-old Korean male, living in Yeongcheon-shi, Gyeongsangbuk-do and with epigastric discomfort of several days duration, was subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. He was in the habit of eating fresh water fish. Two live worms were found in the duodenal bulb area and were removed using an endoscopic forcep. Based on their morphological characteristics, the worms were identified as E. hortense. The patient was treated with praziquantel 10 mg/kg as a single dose. The source of the infection in this case remains unclear, but the fresh water fish consumed, including the loach, may have been the source. This is the second case of E. hortense infection diagnosed by endoscopy in Korea. PMID:12815324

  9. Cytogenetics of Aspidogaster limacoides (Trematoda, Aspidogastrea): karyotype, spermatocyte division, and genome size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombarová, Marta; Špakulová, Marta; Kello, Martin; Nguyen, Petr; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica

    2015-04-01

    A detailed cytogenetic analysis of the aspidogastrean fluke Aspidogaster limacoides revealed a karyotype consisting of six medium-sized chromosome pairs. The first and the last pairs were two-armed while four remaining were one-armed; 2n = 12, n = 1 m + 1 m - sm + 4a. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probe detected a single cluster of ribosomal genes (NOR) located in pericentromeric regions of the long arms of the third chromosome pair in a site of secondary constriction apparent in meiotic prophase, especially in diplotene. The silver nitrate staining showed only a single active NOR site on one of homologous chromosomes in the majority of spermatogonia and spermatocyte divisions. A course of meiosis corresponded to standard schemes. The nucleolus was apparent in early meiotic spermatocytes and disintegrated by the end of pachytene. For the first time in Aspidogastrea, the genome size was determined. The flow cytometry showed 1.21 pg DNA per haploid nucleus in A. limacoides which is in accordance with relatively low genome sizes of other flukes and tapeworms (Neodermata). A comparison of cytogenetic data available to date in the fluke sister groups Aspidogastrea and Digenea suggests that the lower chromosome number of Aspidogastrea might represent an ancestral condition and their split might have been accompanied by an increase in chromosome number via either chromosome fissions or paleopolyploidy.

  10. [Serotonin and neuropeptide FMRFamide in the nervous system of Opisthioglyphe ranae (Trematoda: Plagiorchiidae). an immunocytochemical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenina, N B; Kreshchenko, N D; Chilyuta, N V; Zaripova, F F

    2015-01-01

    The presence and localization of the serotoninergic and FMRFamidergic structures in the nervous system of the trematode Opisthioglyphe ranae, the marsh frog intestinal parasite, was studied using immunocytochemistry. The serotonin-immunoreactive nerve cells and fibers were revealed in the head ganglia, circular commissure, longitudinal nerve cords and their connective commissures, as well as around the oral and ventral suckers, oesophagus and genital pore. FMRF-specific immunoreactivity was observed in the head ganglia, longitudinal nerve cords and terminal parts of the reproductive system. The results obtained are discussed in light of the available data on the presence and functional significance of the above-mentioned neurotransmitters in trematodes.

  11. [The oral sucker muscles of six representatives of the order Paramphistomatida (Plathelminthes, Trematoda)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdakova, E N; Yastrebova, I V; Yastrebov, M V

    2015-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of muscles in the oral suckers of six trematode species belonging to five families of the order Paramphistomatida is described. The functional load and adaptive significance of different muscle groups in the suckers themselves and the associated structures--preoral lip and muscular cap--are discussed. Complete section series in three projections have been examined; this demonstrates the presence of previously unnoticed structures, namely, semicircular and diagonal muscles, regulating shape of the oral cavity, and short longitudinal muscles, acting as a sphincter, as well as localization of the largest internal muscles on the sucker lateral sides. It has been shown that the presence of internal longitudinal muscles suggests that the organs in question are closer to the oral suckers of other trematodes rather than to their pharynxes.

  12. Transplantation of Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) sporocysts into the intermediate host, Terebella sp. (Polychaeta: Terebellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Yukitaka; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Iwanaga, Shunsuke; Kanai, Kinya

    2017-02-01

    Cardicola opisthorchis is a blood fluke pathogen significantly affecting cultured Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis in Japan. It is known that the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis is a terebellid polychaete Terebella sp. In order to study the intrapolychaete larval development of C. opisthorchis, we transplanted sporocysts, which contained a large number of cercariae, of C. opisthorchis obtained from Terebella sp. into sporocyst-free Terebella sp., which had been maintained at 20°C. The transplanted sporocysts switched from cercarial to sporocystal production by 17days after transplantation (d.a.t.) and daughter sporocysts were released into the polychaete body cavity at 25d.a.t. Subsequently, the released daughter sporocysts produced daughter sporocysts again. Thereafter, daughter sporocysts that contained cercariae appeared at 38d.a.t. and gradually increased. At 51d.a.t., 136 sporocysts that had multiplied from the original two transplanted sporocysts were observed in the body of one polychaete, and cercariae were released from daughter sporocysts inside the polychaete body cavity. Subsequently the cercariae were found to be released outside the polychaete at 57d.a.t. This is the first successful case of in situ observation of the development of a blood fluke within the intermediate host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Case of Echinostoma cinetorchis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) Infection Diagnosed by Colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Kyeong Ju; Kim, Hong Jun; Kim, Tae Hyo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Human cases of echinostomiasis have been sporadically diagnosed by extracting worms in the endoscopy in Korea and Japan. Most of these were caused by Echinostoma hortense infection. However, in the present study, we detected 2 live worms of Echinostoma cinetorchis in the ascending colon of a Korean man (68-year old) admitted to the Gyeongsang National University Hospital with complaint of intermittent right lower quadrant abdominal pain for 5 days. Under colonoscopy, 1 worm was found attached on the edematous and hyperemic mucosal surface of the proximal ascending colon and the other was detected on the mid-ascending colon. Both worms were removed from the mucosal surface with a grasping forceps, and morphologically identified as E. cinetorchis by the characteristic head crown with total 37 collar spines including 5 end-group ones on both sides, disappearance of testes, and eggs of 108×60 µm with abopercular wrinkles. The infection source of this case seems to be the raw frogs eaten 2 months ago. This is the first case of endoscopy-diagnosed E. cinetorchis infection in Korea. PMID:25031469

  14. Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae) harboring renicolid cercariae (Trematoda: Renicolidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, H A; Melo, A L

    2012-08-01

    Melanoides tuberculata , naturally infected by gymnocephalous cercariae, were found in aquatic collections from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. After morphological characterization, larvae were used for experimental infection of Poecilia reticulata. Metacercariae were obtained from the liver of these fish, which were also found to be naturally infected in the same locality. The morphology and biology of the developmental stages of trematodes we obtained were characteristic of Renicola sp. This is the first record of renicolid cercariae and metacercariae in Brazil.

  15. Two new species of Phyllodistomum Braun, 1899 (Trematoda: Gorgoderidae Looss, 1899) from Great Barrier Reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hei Wa; Bray, Rodney A; Cutmore, Scott C; Ward, Selina; Cribb, Thomas H

    2014-03-19

    Two new species of Phyllodistomum Braun, 1899 are described from the urinary bladder of fishes of the Great Barrier Reef. Phyllodistomum hoggettae n. sp. is described from Plectropomus leopardus (leopard coralgrouper) (Serranidae) and P. vaili n. sp. is described from Mulloidichthys vanicolensis (yellowfin goatfish) and M. flavolineatus (yellowstripe goatfish) (Mullidae). These species are compared with 26 previously described marine Phyllodistomum species and found to be distinct in combinations of body shape, sucker ratio and shape of the gonads. Preliminary molecular data also demonstrate that they are distinct from each other and for those other species for which data are available.

  16. Malformations and mortality in the Asian Common Toad induced by exposure to pleurolophocercous cercariae (Trematoda: Cryptogonimidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A; Tkach, Vasyl V; Navaratne, Ayanthi N; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Rajakaruna, Rupika S

    2013-06-01

    Malformations and increased mortality due to infection by the digenetic trematode, Riberioa ondatrae have been reported for many species of amphibians. Severe malformations have also been reported in the Common Hourglass Tree Frog, Polypedates cruciger induced by pleurolophocercous cercariae in Sri Lanka in addition to the changes in the behaviour, development and survival of the host. We exposed pre-limb bud stage tadpoles (Gosner stages 25-26) of the Asian Common Toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus to the same pleurolophocercous type cercariae under laboratory conditions. Molecular and morphological identification showed that these cercariae belonged Acanthostomum burminis infecting freshwater snakes as definitive hosts. These cercariae induced malformations (27.8%) and reduced survival to metamorphosis (53.8%). The magnitude of the effects increased with the dose of cercariae. Types of malformations were mainly axial, such as scoliosis and kyphosis. Severe limb malformations such as extra or missing limbs as reported for amphibians exposed to R. ondatrae were not observed in the D. melanostictus. Same authors reported a higher percentage of malformations previously when P. cruciger was exposed to the cercariae A. burminis compared to D. melanostictus. However, tadpoles of D. melanostictus, which are smaller compared to those of P. cruciger, experienced higher mortality than P. cruciger tadpoles. Trematode induced malformations and mortality in amphibians are highly variable and depend on multiple factors such as host species differences such as resistance to infection and tolerance, life-history characteristics such as size at metamorphosis and length of the metamorphosis period, and other factors such as size of the amphibian at the time of trematode exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biology of Kalipharynx sp. (Trematoda: Digenea) metacercariae in Biomphalaria (Gasteropoda: Planorbidae) from northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernádez, María Virginia; Hamann, Monika Inés; Kehr, Arturo Ignacio

    2013-12-01

    In Argentina, no ecological studies have been reported on the infection parameters of Kalipharynx sp. metacercariae in planorbid snails. To this end, the aims of this study were: (i) to provide information on the population biology of Kalipharynx sp. metacercariae in the planorbid snails Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. occidentalis through the study of prevalence and intensity of larval infection during a seasonal cycle; (ii) to evaluate the effects of host shell size on prevalence and infection intensity, (iii) to evaluate the effect of infection intensity on cyst size. Samples were taken between June 2010 and April 2011 (encompassing all seasons) from a subtropical permanent pond in Corrientes City, Corrientes, Argentina. A total of 362 metacercariae (n=262 and n=100; from B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis respectively) were collected from 616 snails (n=466 and n=150 from B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis respectively). The metacercarial cysts were found in the digestive gland, mantle cavity, intestine and ovotestis. B. tenagophila showed a range of infection from 1 to 60 cysts per snail (mean = 4.5 +/- SD=9.9), and cyst diameter ranging between 255 and 705 microm (466.4 +/- 119); while, B. occidentalis showed a range of infection from 1 to 23 (5.5 +/- 5.6), and cyst diameter ranging between 310 to 900 microm (554.5 +/- 150). Results obtained indicated that, although absent in autumn, metacercariae of Kalipharynx sp. were present most of the year in both species of Biomphalaria, showing high values in both warm-season. Furthermore, both the infection intensity and host shell size varied significantly between seasons, although no seasonal variation was observed with respect to metacercarial cyst size, suggesting the possibility of more than one peak of cercariae emergence during the year. The prevalence of infection was significantly and positively correlated with snail size in both host species (p 0.05). The results of this study show a significant influence of host size on prevalence and infection intensity, and a tendency towards density-dependent reductions in the growth of cysts. This is the first study in Argentina analyzing the population biology of Kalipharynx sp. metacercariae.

  18. Metacercariae of Clinostomum complanatum (Trematoda: Digenea) in European newts Triturus carnifex and Lissotriton vulgaris (Caudata: Salamandridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffara, M; Bruni, G; Paoletti, C; Gustinelli, A; Fioravanti, M L

    2014-09-01

    Adults of Clinostomum spp. are digenetic trematodes found in fish-eating birds, reptiles and occasionally mammals, including humans. Freshwater snails serve as first intermediate hosts and many fish species and amphibians as second intermediate hosts. To date, amphibian hosts of Clinostomum metacercariae include members of urodele and anuran families in North America, but no data are available on infections of European amphibians, including newts. In this study, we characterize infections of Clinostomum complanatum metacercariae in four smooth (Lissotriton vulgaris) and 18 Italian crested newts (Triturus carnifex) from an artificial pond located in a protected area in Tuscany, Italy. Parasites were surgically removed from the infected newts and identified both morphologically and using sequences of a mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase I, and the ribosomal markers, internal transcribed spacers. This is the first record of C. complanatum in European newts and, more generally, in amphibians in Europe.

  19. In vitro manipulation of gene expression in larval Schistosoma: a model for postgenomic approaches in Trematoda

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOSHINO, TIMOTHY P.; DINGUIRARD, NATHALIE; DE MORAES MOURÃO, MARINA

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY With rapid developments in DNA and protein sequencing technologies, combined with powerful bioinformatics tools, a continued acceleration of gene identification in parasitic helminths is predicted, potentially leading to discovery of new drug and vaccine targets, enhanced diagnostics and insights into the complex biology underlying host-parasite interactions. For the schistosome blood flukes, with the recent completion of genome sequencing and comprehensive transcriptomic datasets, there has accumulated massive amounts of gene sequence data, for which, in the vast majority of cases, little is known about actual functions within the intact organism. In this review we attempt to bring together traditional in vitro cultivation approaches and recent emergent technologies of molecular genomics, transcriptomics and genetic manipulation to illustrate the considerable progress made in our understanding of trematode gene expression and function during development of the intramolluscan larval stages. Using several prominent trematode families (Schistosomatidae, Fasciolidae, Echinostomatidae), we have focused on the current status of in vitro larval isolation/cultivation as a source of valuable raw material supporting gene discovery efforts in model digeneans that include whole genome sequencing, transcript and protein expression profiling during larval development, and progress made in the in vitro manipulation of genes and their expression in larval trematodes using transgenic and RNA interference (RNAi) approaches. PMID:19961646

  20. Identification of species Leucochloridium paradoxum and L. perturbatum (Trematoda) based on rDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, A; Prokhorova, E E; Tokmakova, A S; Tsymbalenko, N V; Ataev, G L

    2014-01-01

    The full nucleotide sequences of DNA ribosome cluster of Leucochloridium paradoxum Carus, 1835 and L. perturbatum Pojmanska, 1967 were obtained. rDNA was extracted from 40 isolates of Leucochloridium sp. and analyzed using specific primers. The intraspecific genetically identity of morphologically detected L. paradoxum and L. perturbatum sporocysts was proven. A noticeable interspecific divergence between L. paradoxum and L. perturbatum was indicated. Using rDNA genotyping a case of double infection of snail Succinea sp. with L. paradoxum and L. perturbatum sporocysts was detected.

  1. Novel Infection Site and Ecology of Cryptic Didymocystis sp. (Trematoda) in the Fish Scomberomorus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrandt, Meagan N; Andres, Michael J; Powers, Sean P; Overstreet, Robin M

    2016-06-01

    An undescribed, cryptic species of Didymocystis, as determined from sequences of 2 ribosomal genes and superficially similar to Didymocystis scomberomori ( MacCallum and MacCallum, 1916 ), infected the skin of the Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus , in the north-central Gulf of Mexico (GOM). An analysis of 558 fish from 2011 to 2013 from Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida panhandle showed the prevalence of the trematode varied both spatially and temporally but not with sex of the fish host. Month, year, and geographic location were identified by a negative binomial generalized linear model as indicators of the abundance and intensity of infection. Prevalence, abundance, and intensity of infection were greatest in spring and fall months off the Florida panhandle. Furthermore, the abundance and intensity of infection correlated negatively with fork length, weight, and gonad weight of mature fish but positively with longitude. Therefore, smaller adult fish tended to be more infected than larger adults, and prevalence and intensity increased from west to east (Louisiana to Florida). Spatial and temporal trends seemed to result from physical factors (e.g., water temperature, salinity, bottom type), but they also coincided with the annual migration of S. maculatus as fish moved northward along the GOM coastline from the southern tip of Florida in the spring months and returned in the fall, being present in the north-central GOM from late spring through fall. This pattern suggests the possibility that acquisition of infections occurred from a molluscan host in waters off the Florida panhandle.

  2. Gastrointestinal digeneans (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda of horseshoe and vesper bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Ž.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative and quantitative analyses of the digenean fauna of bats were conducted for the first time in Serbia. The sample comprised of 118 individuals of 12 bat species (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Myotis mystacinus, M. alcathoe, M. brandtii, M. oxygnathus, M. myotis, Hypsugo savii, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. nathusii, Plecotus auritus, P. austriacus and Nyctalus noctula collected from 15 sites throughout Serbia. Six digenean species were identified: Lecithodendrium linstowi, Plagiorchis sp., Prosthodendrium longiforme, P. chilostomum, P. parvouterus and Mesotretes peregrinus. The helminths were recorded from 35 individual hosts (29.7 %. The species Lecithodendrium linstowi infected the highest percentage of hosts (19.5 %, with a mean abundance of 4.6. GLM analysis of exploratory factors showed that host species and host sex had a significant influence on parasite load, while locality and host age did not influence parasite abundance. No evidence of zoonotic species was found.

  3. A new species of Opisthioglyphe (Trematoda: Telorchiidae) from gall bladder of turtles in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, Vasyl V; Platt, Thomas R; Greiman, Stephen E

    2012-08-01

    Opisthioglyphe sharmai n. sp. is described from the gall bladder of the Malayan box turtle, Cuora amboinensis, and the black marsh turtle, Siebenrockiella crassicollis, in Malaysia. The new species is morphologically similar to Opisthioglyphe ranae and some other members of the genus parasitic in amphibians and reptiles. Opisthioglyphe sharmai n. sp. is easily differentiated from all other members of the genus by the cirrus sac extending posterior to the ventral sucker, while in all previously known species the cirrus sac is entirely or mostly preacetabular with the base of the structure not reaching beyond mid-line of the ventral sucker. Despite the overall stable morphology, O. sharmai n. sp. is characterized by highly variable arrangement of testes, from tandem to opposite. It is only the second representative of the genus described from turtles and the first species of Opisthioglyphe parasitic in gall bladder, while all previously described members of the genus are parasitic in the intestine of their hosts.

  4. [Trematodes (Trematoda) of amphibia from the Middle Volga region. Report 2. Order Plagiorchiida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhliaeva, I V; Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Iu

    2012-01-01

    Data on trematodes of the order Plagiorchiida from 11 species of amphibians from the Middle Volga region are given. Literary data of the last 30 years, combined with the results of our own research are presented together for the first time. Finds of 17 trematode species are reliable. From them, metacercaria of Astiotrema monticelli is recorded from amphibians of the fauna of Russia for the first time; Dolichosaccus rastellus and Paralepoderma cloacicola are recorded for the first time from amphibians of the Middle Volga region. New hosts are mentioned for 8 species of parasites. Trematodes of edible frog Rana esculenta Linnaeus, 1758, a new species to the region, are described for the first time. The following characteristics are given for each trematode species: its taxonomic position, set of hosts, localization, places of detection, biology, geographical distribution, and the degree of host specificity. Morphological descriptions and original figures are given for 12 trematode species.

  5. Catadiscus pomaceae sp. n. (Trematoda, Paramphistomatidae from Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1801 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae

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    Monika Inés Hamann

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Catadiscus pomaceae sp. n. from the intestine of the prosobranch mollusc Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1801, is described. The host snail was collected from a lenitic biotope belonging to the Riachuelo basin (Corrientes province, Argentina during 1985-1986. So far the species of the genus Catadiscus Cohn, 1904 have been recorded in amphibians and reptiles. This is the first instance of a species of that genus parasitizing a mollusc.

  6. Cytogenetics of Aspidogaster limacoides (Trematoda, Aspidogastrea): karyotype, spermatocyte division and genome size

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bombarová, M.; Špakulová, M.; Kello, M.; Nguyen, Petr; Bazsalovicsová, E.; Kráľová-Hromadová, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 4 (2015), s. 1473-1483 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-35819P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : fluke * chromosome * meiosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.027, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00436-015-4330-5

  7. Non-native gobies facilitate the transmission of Bucephalus polymorphus (Trematoda)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondračková, Markéta; Hudcová, Iveta; Dávidová, Martina; Adámek, Zdeněk; Kašný, M.; Jurajda, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2015), s. 382 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/12/2569 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bucephalus polymorphus * Complex life cycle * Goby * Infectivity * Intermediate host * Non-native species * Trematode Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  8. Genetic and infective diversity of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea) from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, A A; Lounnas, M; Sánchez, J; Alba, A; Milesi, A; Hurtrez-Boussès, S

    2016-11-01

    In this study we present the first approach to exploration of the genetic diversity of Cuban Fasciola hepatica populations using microsatellite markers, coupled with observed prevalence in slaughterhouses. Nine populations of flukes recovered from cows and buffalos were studied in the central-western region of Cuba. The observed infection rates of definitive hosts (bovines) were 70-100% in most cases. An important amount of polymorphism was found in the four loci explored. However, no apparent genetic differences were found between populations from different provinces or bovine species. The absence of deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium suggests a high rate of cross-fertilization between F. hepatica individuals. This result was confirmed when all multilocus genotypes were tested for clonal reproduction and only four individuals differed statistically (P sexCuba. Our findings should be taken into consideration by veterinary authorities to help mitigate fasciolosis transmission.

  9. Detection of Paragonimus mexicanus (Trematoda) metacercariae in crabs from Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Arzola, Jaime; Segura-Salvador, Aristeo; Reyes-Velasco, Leobardo; Díaz-Chiguer, Dylan L; Márquez-Navarro, Adrián; León-Avila, Gloria; Ibañez-Cervantes, Gabriela; Camacho, Alejandro D; Sánchez-Manzano, Rosa Ma; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2014-09-01

    Metacercariae of Paragonimus mexicanus were collected in crabs Tehuana guerreroensis (Rathbun, 1933) in the municipality of Putla, Oaxaca, Mexico. Metacercariae were found in 20.8% of the crabs collected, with an average of 1.9 metacercarie per crab. Stained metacercariae showed the specific characteristics of P. mexicanus by morphology and sequencing a fragment of the 28S ribosomal gene obtained by PCR. These findings reveal that T. guerreroensis is an intermediate host for P. mexicanus; this new report is relevant considering the potential risk of transmission in the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero, Mexico. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Argyrophilic integumentary structures of the miracidium, redia and cercaria of Paramphistmun daubneyi Dinnik, 1962 (Trematoda, Paramphistomidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samnaliev, P; Bayssade-Dufour, C; Albaret, J L; Dimitrov, V; Cassone, J; Kamburov, P

    1981-01-01

    Paramphistomum microbothrium and P daubneyi are two sibling-species. The value of morphological criteria which have been used to distinguish the adults is not accepted by all authors. On the contrary, criteria based upon larval stages, except miracidia, permit an easy diagnosis. P. microbothrium parasitizes Bulinids, the rediae have a long intestine, germ-balls are inequal in size, cercariae are long-tailed and possess numerous lateral somatic bristles: about 9 by a half-body and numerous caudal bristles: about 17 pairs. P. daubneyi parasitizes Lymneids, the rediae have a short intestine, germ-balls are of equal size, cercariae are short-tailed and posses few lateral somatic bristles (about 4 by a half-body) and relatively few caudal bristles: about 6 pairs. In addition to the cercaviae, argentophilic structures of miracidia and rediae of P. daubneyi are described.

  11. Studies on the stomach flukes of buffalo in Egypt (Trematoda: Paramphistomata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sey, O

    1976-01-01

    Three amphistomous species, Paramphistomum gotio Fukui, 1922; Paramphistomum microbothrium Fischoeder, 1901 and Carmyerius gregarius (Looss, 1896) have been found as a result of the investigation of stomach flukes of buffalo in Egypt. Specific status of Paramphistomum gotoi, variability of Paramphistomum microbothrium collected in different Egyptian domestic ruminants and histological structure of the muscular organs of Carmyerius gregarius have been examined.

  12. Molecular phylogenetics of the elephant schistosome Bivitellobilharzia loxodontae (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae) from the Central African Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brant, S. V.; Pomajbíková, K.; Modrý, David; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Todd, A.; Loker, E. S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 01 (2013), s. 102-107 ISSN 0022-149X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : schistosomes * elephant Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.303, year: 2013

  13. New Host, geographical record and a synonym for Phyllodistomum Spatula Odhner, 1902 (Trematoda, Gorgoderidae

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    Berenice M. M. Fernandes

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present note Phyllodistomum spatula Odhner, 1902 is recorded for the first time from Brazil and in a New host Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 (Pisces, serrasalmidae, and Plyllodistomum spatulaeforme Odhner, 1902 is considered its synonym.Na presente nota Phyllodistomum spatula Odhner, 1902 é assinada pela primeira vez no Brasil, e em novo hospedeiro Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818; e Phyllodistomum spatulaeforme Odhner, 1902, considerado seu sinônimo.

  14. Metacercariae of Renifer heterocoelium (Trematoda: Reniferidae in tadpoles of Rhinella schneideri (Anura: Bufonidae in Brazil Metacercarias de Renifer heterocoelium (Trematoda: Reniferidae en renacuajos de Rhinella schneideri (Anura: Bufonidae en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Alves Pinto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Renifer heterocoelium is a parasite of the oral cavity of Neotropical snakes for which larval stages and the life cycle are still unknown. During studies of parasites of Rhinella schneideri, tadpoles collected in a lake from the municipality of Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, yielded specimens with metacercariae adhered to the external intestinal wall. After morphological characterization, the metacercariae were identified as R. heterocoelium. This is the first record and morphological characterization of metacercariae of R. heterocoelium for Brazil.Renifer heterocoelium es un parásito de la cavidad bucal de las serpientes neotropicales cuyas formas larvales y ciclo de vida son todavía desconocidos. En un estudio de los parásitos de renacuajos de Rhinella schneideri recogidos en un estanque ubicado en el municipio de Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais, Brasil, se encontraron ejemplares con metacercarias en la pared intestinal. Después de caracterizarlos morfológicamente, los quistes fueron identificados como R. heterocoelium. Este es el primer registro y caracterización morfológica de las metacercarias de esta especie en Brasil.

  15. Histopathological changes in the kidneys of vertebrate hosts infected naturally and experimentally withParatanaisia bragai (Trematoda, Digenea)

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier,Vanessa Barreto; Oliveira-Menezes,Aleksandra; Santos,Marcos Antônio José dos; Amato,Suzana Bencke; Torres,Eduardo José Lopes; Pinheiro,Jairo; Brandolini,Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco

    2015-01-01

    Paratanaisia bragai is a trematode parasite that reaches sexual maturity in the kidney collecting ducts of domesticated and wild fowl and whose intermediate hosts are the snails Subulina octona and Leptinaria unilamellata. There are some discrepancies in descriptions of the pathology of this parasite in bird kidneys. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the kidneys of rock pigeons (Columba livia) naturally infected and of chickens (Gallus gallus) experimentally infected with Pa...

  16. Monorchis lewisi n. sp. (Trematoda: Monorchiidae) from the surf bream, Acanthopagrus australis (Sparidae), in Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, T H; Wee, N Q-X; Bray, R A; Cutmore, S C

    2018-01-01

    We describe Monorchis lewisi n. sp. (Monorchiidae) from the surf bream, Acanthopagrus australis (Günther, 1859) (Sparidae), in Moreton Bay, eastern Australia. The new species differs from most existing species of Monorchis Monticelli, 1893 in its possession of an elongate I-shaped excretory vesicle, and from other congeners in the relative configuration of the gut and suckers. Ovipusillus mayu Dove & Cribb, 1998 is re-reported from Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål, 1775) (Carangidae) from Moreton Bay. We report new second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and 28S rDNA sequence data for both species. Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses of the 28S rDNA dataset suggest that existing subfamily and genus concepts within the family require substantial revision.

  17. Redescription of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Trematoda: Diplostomidae) from its Type Host and Locality in Venezuela, and of Austrodiplostomum mordax from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Núñez, Margarita Ostrowski

    2017-10-01

    Austrodiplostomum compactum from Nannopterum brasilianus, and its metacercaria from Geophagus sp. and Oreochromis mossambicus captured (1979) at its type locality, Valencia Lake, Venezuela, by the author, are redescribed. The adult is characterized by its large body size, and an oral sucker smaller than the pharynx. The metacercaria has a similar body size as the adult, and the small genital primordia occupy 4.1-7.3% of body length. Experimental infections in chickens with metacercariae of Diplostomulum mordax from brains of Odonthestes bonariensis, captured (2015) at Dique Paso de las Piedras, near Bahia Blanca City, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, resulted in 10 adults 5 days postexposure. These adults correspond to Austrodiplostomum mordax as described from N. brasilianus at Lacombe Lagoon, Buenos Aires Province, and differ from A. compactum in their smaller body size, and an oral sucker larger than the pharynx. The metacercaria has a similar body size as the adult and differs mainly in that the larger genital primordia occupy 11.6-13.8% of body length. The status of earlier published Austrodiplostomum species in the American continent is discussed in view of available morphological and molecular data. A lectotype of A. mordax is here designated, and Austrodiplostomum ostrowskiae is considered as a new synonym of A. compactum.

  18. Partial purification and characterization of glutathione S-transferase from the somatic tissue of Gastrothylax crumenifer (Trematoda: Digenea

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    Sakil Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Aim of the present study was to carry out the partial purification and biochemical characterization of glutathione S-transferase (GST from the somatic tissue of ruminal amphistome parasite, Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc infecting Indian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. Materials and Methods: The crude somatic homogenate of Gc was subjected to progressive ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by size exclusion chromatography in a Sephacryl S 100-HR column. The partially purified GST was assayed spectrophotometrically, and the corresponding enzyme activity was also recorded in polyacrylamide gel. GST isolated from the amphistome parasite was also exposed to variable changes in temperature and the pH gradient of the assay mixture. Results: The precipitated amphistome GST molecules showed maximum activity in the sixth elution fraction. The GST subunit appeared as a single band in the reducing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with an apparent molecular weight of 26 kDa. The GST proteins were found to be fairly stable up to 37°C, beyond this the activity got heavily impaired. Further, the GST obtained showed a pH optima of 7.5. Conclusion: Present findings showed that GST from Gc could be conveniently purified using gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme showed maximum stability and activity at 4°C.

  19. A new species of Paragonimus (Trematoda: Troglotrematidae) from a cat infected with metacercariae from mountain crabs Larnaudia larnaudii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waikagul, Jitra

    2007-12-01

    The identification of Paragonimus spp. lung flukes is based on the morphology of both the metacercaria and the adult. A very small Paragonimus sp. metacercaria was found in a freshwater crab caught in Kanchanaburi Province, West Thailand, an area where metacercariae of Paragonimus heterotremus had not been found. The metacercariae cysts were 180-204 microm in diameter, which was smaller than metacercariae of P. heterotremus. The coefficient of difference in body size between this metacercaria and P. heterotremus was 1.69, which was greater than a subspecific difference. Adults recovered from the lungs of a cat fed with the metacercariae were morphologically similar to, but smaller than, P. heterotremus dissected from the lungs of a feline experimental host. The tegumental spines of the worm in this study were singly spaced in arrangement, which is similar to, but larger than, the spines of P. heterotremus. Therefore, Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus is proposed as a new species.

  20. Description of a new lung fluke species, Paragonimus vietnamensis sp. nov. (Trematoda, Paragonimidae), found in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Habe, Shigehisa; Nawa, Yukifumi; Le, Nguyen Thi

    2007-11-01

    Based on morphology of metacercariae and adult worms together with molecular data from our previous study, we describe herein a new lung fluke species named Paragonimus vietnamensis sp. nov. Metacercariae of this new species is round and extremely large in size (nearly 800 mum in diameter) having a fragile outer cyst of variable thickness and a thin fragile inner cyst. There are little or no space between metacercaria and the inner cyst wall. These and other morphological features of metacercariae of P. vietnamensis sp. nov. are not completely identical with but have some similarities with those of P. microrchis, P. proliferus, or P. menglaensis. On the other hand, adult worms obtained by experimental infection of these large metacercariae are oval in shape, having a ventral sucker slightly larger than the oral one, and having singly arranged relatively short cuticular spines. These morphological features of adult worms are partly similar to but not identical with those of P. microrchis, P. skrjabini, P. yunnanenis, P. xiangshanensis, or P. harinasutai. Taken these morphological data and our previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS2 and CO1 sequences of metacercariae and adult worms together, P. vietnamensis sp. nov. is different from any other known Paragonimus spp.

  1. Infeccion natural de Ptychophallus tristani (Crustacea: decapoda con metacercarias de Paragonimus mexicanus (Trematoda en Tabarcia de Mora, Costa Rica

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    Eduardo Monge

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el grado de infección de los crustáceos Ptychophallus tristani presentes en una área endémica de Paragonimus mexicanus, encontrándose que de un total de 182 cangrejos, 161 resultaron positivos (88,5% por metacercarias. Al comparar la infección entre machos y hembras no se encontró diferencias estadísticamente significativas y en relación a su tamaño se observó una relación directa entre tamaño y porcentaje y grado de infección. Se estableció que no existen diferencias significativas en relación a la época del año en que los cangrejos fueron capturados lo que epidemiológicamente es importante pues indica que las fuentes de infección permanecen potencialmente activas durante todo el año.

  2. First report of Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus,1758 (Trematoda: Digenea in Argentina

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    Prepelitchi Lucila

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first evidence of natural infection of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica in Argentina. A sample of 601 snails was collected in May 2003 in northeastern Corrientes, a province bounded on the north by Paraguay, on the east by Brazil and on the southeast by Uruguay. Among 500 examined snails, 44 (8.8% were exclusively infected with F. hepatica. Parasite identification was based on morphological features of cercariae from snails, and of eggs and adult flukes from Wistar rats. We discuss the events suggesting that an enzootic transmission cycle of F. hepatica has been recently established in northeastern Corrientes.

  3. New insight into the morphology of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Trematoda, Dicrocoeliidae) cercariae by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopies.

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    Pinheiro, Jairo; Franco-Acuña, Daniele Oliveira; Oliveira-Menezes, Aleksandra; Brandolini, Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco; DaMatta, Renato Augusto; de Souza, Wanderley

    2012-10-01

    Eurytrema coelomaticum is a digenetic trematode that parasitizes the pancreatic ducts of ruminants. In the present study, the morphology of the cercariae was analyzed using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopies. The size of the larvae was larger than that reported in the literature. An oral sucker with many papillae and an oral aperture in its center and a ventral sucker with few discrete papillae on the edge were observed. No stylet at the anterior end of the larval body and spines on the tegument of the end of the tail were observed. The cercariae had lateral penetration glands and (central) pre-acetabular glands, from which ducts lead to the anterior region and open into a small anterior pocket. The flame cells were located laterally and communicated with fine branches, converging to two lateral excretory collecting ducts that opened into an excretory bladder, centrally located at the posterior end of the body. The tegument presented an external layer loosely attached to the larval body, below which an amorphous syncytial outer layer with many mitochondrial profiles was observed. This region exhibited many secretions and released secretory granules, indicating intense secretory activity. The circular and longitudinal muscle layers were arranged in sequence below the outer layer. The outer layer was connected by cytoplasmic bridges crossing the muscular layers to the internal region of the tegument, where the cell body with nucleus was located. In the cercarial body, it was possible to observe a typical flame cell with the barrel region, where cilia and the internal and external ribbed regions were found. The somatic cells seem to have an active metabolism, with a well-developed endoplasmic reticulum, secretory granules, and evident nuclei. The results are discussed in the light of the biology and taxonomy of this species.

  4. Histopathological changes in the kidneys of vertebrate hosts infected naturally and experimentally withParatanaisia bragai (Trematoda, Digenea

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    Vanessa Barreto Xavier

    Full Text Available Paratanaisia bragai is a trematode parasite that reaches sexual maturity in the kidney collecting ducts of domesticated and wild fowl and whose intermediate hosts are the snails Subulina octona and Leptinaria unilamellata. There are some discrepancies in descriptions of the pathology of this parasite in bird kidneys. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the kidneys of rock pigeons (Columba livia naturally infected and of chickens (Gallus gallus experimentally infected with Paratanaisia bragai, by means of macroscopic observation and by light and scanning electron microscopy. Both bird species showed significantly dilated collecting ducts. In addition, lymphocyte infiltration was observed in the kidneys of C. livia and metaplasia in the epithelial lining of the kidney collecting ducts of G. gallus.

  5. Surface morphology of Nicolla skrjabini (Trematoda: Opecoelidae), a common parasite of European freshwater fishes, as revealed by SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 2 (2009), s. 577-578 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : surface ultrastructure * Nicolla * Czech Republic Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.721, year: 2009

  6. Multiple origins of European populations of the giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae), a liver parasite of ruminants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraľová-Hromadová, I.; Bazsalovicsová, E.; Štefka, Jan; Špakulová, M.; Vávrová, S.; Szemes, T.; Tkach, V.; Trudgett, A.; Pybus, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, 3/4 (2011), 373-383 ISSN 0020-7519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Biogeography * Alien species * Introduced parasite * Mitochondrial DNA * Cytochrome c oxidase * Nicotinamide dehydrogenase Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2011

  7. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LYMNAEIDAE (MOLLUSCA, BASOMMATOPHORA), INTERMEDIATE HOST OF Fasciola hepatica LINNAEUS, 1758 (TREMATODA, DIGENEA) IN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Camilla; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; D'ávila, Sthefane; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Snails of the family Lymnaeidae act as intermediate hosts in the biological cycle of Fasciola hepatica, which is a biological agent of fasciolosis, a parasitic disease of medical importance for humans and animals. The present work aimed to update and map the spatial distribution of the intermediate host snails of F. hepatica in Brazil. Data on the distribution of lymnaeids species were compiled from the Collection of Medical Malacology (Fiocruz-CMM, CPqRR), Collection of Malacology (MZUSP), “SpeciesLink” (CRIA) network and through systematic surveys in the literature. Our maps of the distribution of lymnaeids show that Pseudosuccinea columella is the most common species and it is widespread in the South and Southeast with few records in the Midwest, North and Northeast regions. The distribution of the Galba viatrix, G. cubensis and G. truncatula showed a few records in the South and Southeast regions, they were not reported for the Midwest, North and Northeast. In addition, in the South region there are a few records for G. viatrix and one occurrence of Lymnaea rupestris. Our findings resulted in the first map of the spatial distribution of Lymnaeidae species in Brazil which might be useful to better understand the fasciolosis distribution and delineate priority areas for control interventions. PMID:24879003

  8. New insight in lymnaeid snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) as intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea) in Belgium and Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aims to assess the epidemiological role of different lymnaeid snails as intermediate hosts of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica in Belgium and Luxembourg. Methods During summer 2008, 7103 lymnaeid snails were collected from 125 ponds distributed in 5 clusters each including 25 ponds. Each cluster was located in a different biogeographic area of Belgium and Luxembourg. In addition, snails were also collected in sixteen other biotopes considered as temporary wet areas. These snails were identified as Galba truncatula (n = 2474) (the main intermediate host of F. hepatica in Europe) and Radix sp. (n = 4629). Moreover, several biological and non-biological variables were also recorded from the different biotopes. DNA was extracted from each snail collected using Chelex® technique. DNA samples were screened through a multiplex PCR that amplifies lymnaeid internal transcribed spacer 2 gene sequences (500–600 bp) (acting as an internal control) and a 124 bp fragment of repetitive DNA from Fasciola sp. Results Lymnaeid snails were found in 75 biotopes (53.2%). Thirty individuals of G. truncatula (1.31%) and 7 of Radix sp. (0.16%) were found to be positive for Fasciola sp. The seven positive Radix sp. snails all belonged to the species R. balthica (Linnaeus, 1758). Classification and regression tree analysis were performed in order to better understand links and relative importance of the different recorded factors. One of the best explanatory variables for the presence/absence of the different snail species seems to be the geographic location, whereas for the infection status of the snails no obvious relationship was linked to the presence of cattle. Conclusions Epidemiological implications of these findings and particularly the role of R. balthica as an alternative intermediate host in Belgium and Luxembourg were discussed. PMID:24524623

  9. CHANGES IN SPINATION PATTERNS OVER THE COURSE OF METACERCARIAL DEVELOPMENT OF DIPLOSTOMUM PSEUDOSPATHACEUM NIEWIADOMSKA, 1984 (TREMATODA, DIPLOSTOMIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A A; Podvyaznaya, I M

    2016-01-01

    Metacercarial development of most Diplostomum species including D. pseudospathaceum occurs in the eye lenses of their fish hosts and is accompanied by radical morphological changes often referred to as metamorphosis. One of the structures undergoing substantial changes in D. pseudospathacewn are tegumental spines. The present study used phalloidin staining and confocal microscopy to examine these changes in D. pseudospathaceum over the course of development from 3-day-old to infective metacercariae. Although the general pattern of spination remained essentially unchanged, most larval spines continued growing in size until late in metacercarial development. From day 10 of development, larval spination was gradually replaced by small incipient definitive spines and the infective metacercariae had only definitive spination. The possible adaptive role of spines in developing metacercariae is discussed.

  10. Effects of Microphallus papillorobustus (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) on serotonergic immunoreactivity and neuronal architecture in the brain of Gammarus insensibilis (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helluy, S; Thomas, F

    2003-01-01

    The larval flatworm Microphallus papillorobustus encysts in the protocerebrum of its intermediate host, Gammarus insensibilis, and changes the gammarid's responses to mechanical and photic stimuli. The resulting aberrant escape behaviour renders infected gammarids more susceptible to predation by birds, the definitive hosts of the parasite. We used immunocytochemical methods to explore the mechanisms underlying these subtle behavioural modifications. Whole mounts of gammarid brains were labelled with fluorescent anti-serotonin and anti-synapsin antibodies and viewed using confocal microscopy. Two types of change were observed in infected brains: the intensity of the serotonergic label was altered in specific regions of the brain, and the architecture of some serotonergic tracts and neurons was affected. A morphometric analysis of the distribution of the label showed that serotonergic immunoreactivity was decreased significantly (by 62%) in the optic neuropils, but not in the olfactory lobes, in the presence of the parasite. In addition, the optic tracts and the tritocerebral giant neurons were stunted in parasitized individuals. Published evidence demonstrates changes in serotonin levels in hosts ranging from crustaceans to mammals infected by parasites as diverse as protozoans and helminths. The present study suggests that the degeneration of discrete sets of serotonergic neurons might underlie the serotonergic imbalance and thus contribute to host manipulation. PMID:12769454

  11. [FINDING OF PARALECITHODENDRIUM CHILOSTOMUM (TREMATODA: LECITHODENDRIIDAE) IN A ROUNDLEAF BAT AND IN THE AFRICAN SHARPTOOTH CATFISH FROM ETHIOPIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, D A; Zhokhov, A E

    2016-01-01

    Adult trematodes Paralecithodendrium chilostomum (Mehlis, 1831) were detected in the roundleaf bat Hipposideros sp. and in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus from Tana Lake, Ethiopia. The catfish is an accidental host for P. chilostomum. This is the first record of P. chilostomum from Ethiopia. The description and figures of P. chilostomum from both host species, Hipposideros sp. and Clarias gariepinus are given.

  12. Two 'new' renicolid trematodes (Trematoda: Digenea: Renicolidae) from the California horn snail, Cerithidea californica (Haldeman, 1840) (Gastropoda: Potamididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechinger, Ryan F; Miura, Osamu

    2014-04-01

    This manuscript describes the daughter parthenitae (sporocysts) and cercariae of two species of renicolid xiphidiocercaria that infect the California horn snail, Cerithidea californica, which serves as first intermediate host for a diverse and ecologically important guild of digenean trematode parasitic castrators. The two species described here have previously been considered to be a single morphospecies in ecological and evolutionary research. We provide provisional species names to respect that digenean alpha taxonomy is currently focused on sexual (adult) stages, while simultaneously respecting the spirit and utility of formal nomenclature in providing unambiguously unique, species-level names that also clarify to the extent possible species' taxonomic affiliations. The first species, Renicola sp. "polychaetophila" is most readily distinguishable from previously described renicolid xiphidiocercariae by a combination of (1) having a penetration gland duct arrangement of 2[(1+3+1)+1], (2) having one pair of penetration glands positioned anteriorly to the main gland cluster, (3) lacking tegmental spines, and (4) infecting Cerithidea californica. The second species, Renicola sp. "martini", is most readily distinguishable from other renicolid xiphidiocercariae that also have tegmental spines by a combination of (1) having a simple, bullet-shaped oral stylet sclerotized for 50-80% of its length, (2) having a cystogenous-gland field with an anterior-most extent about half way between the oral and ventral suckers, and (3) in infecting Cerithidea californica. Phylogenetic analyses using DNA (COI and ITS1) sequence data support that these two trematodes represent distinct species of Renicola. We also (1) provide an emended diagnosis for renicolid cercariae, (2) highlight a few morphological characters that may be useful for future taxonomic work involving renicolid xiphidiocercariae, and (3) suggest that future descriptive work involving trematode parthenitae include more information pertaining to the group of parthenitae as a whole.

  13. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Homalogaster paloniae (Gastrodiscidae, Trematoda) and comparative analyses with selected digeneans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Wang, Lixia; Feng, Hanli; Qi, Mingwei; Zhang, Zongze; Gao, Chong; Wang, Chunqun; Hu, Min; Fang, Rui; Li, Chengye

    2016-10-01

    Gastrodiscidae species are neglected but significant paramphistomes in small ruminants, which can lead to considerable economic losses to the breeding industry of livestock. However, knowledge about molecular ecology, population genetics, and phylogenetic analysis is still limited. In the present study, we firstly sequenced and analyzed the full mitochondrial (mt) genome of Homalogaster paloniae (14,490 bp). The gene contents and organization of the H. paloniae mt genome is the same as that of other digeneans, such as Fasciola hepatica and Paramphistomum cervi. It is interesting that unlike other paramphistomes, H. paloniae is flat in shape which is similar with Fasciola, such as F. hepatica. Phylogenetic analysis of H. paloniae and other 17 selected digeneans using concatenated amino acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes showed that Gastrodiscidae is closely related to Paramphistomidae and Gastrothylacidae. The availability of the mt genome sequence of H. paloniae should provide an important foundation for further molecular study of Gastrodiscidae and other digeneans.

  14. Integrative taxonomy of central European parasitic flatworms of the family Prosthogonimidae Lühe, 1909 (Trematoda: Plagiorchiida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr; Sitko, Jiljí; Bizos, Jiří

    2015-10-01

    Species of the family Prosthogonimidae are considered the most pathogenic poultry trematodes worldwide, affecting particularly low intensity farming in rural areas. Adults of Prosthogonimus occur mainly in the bursa of Fabricius, oviduct and cloaca of ducks, geese, fowl and other birds feeding at least occasionally on dragonflies or damselflies (Odonata). We analyzed the central European species of the Prosthogonimidae, namely Prosthogonimus cuneatus, Prosthogonimus ovatus, Prosthogonimus pellucidus and Prosthogonimus rarus. We sequenced three nuclear (ITS2) and mitochondrial (CO1, ND1) DNA loci of four species isolated from Anas clypeata, Anas strepera, Anas platyrhynchos, Aythya ferina, Passer domesticus and Turdus merula. Intra- and inter-specific sequence variability revealed that all four species represent distinct well-defined entities. Our data, combined with previously published studies, suggest the return of the name Prosthogonimus rarus Braun, 1901 for Schistogonimus rarus (Braun, 1901). The genus name Schistogonimus Lühe, 1909 is considered a junior synonym of Prosthogonimus Lühe, 1899. We identified the existence of two clades, one represented by P. cuneatus and P. pellucidus, and another one formed by P. ovatus and P. rarus. We also provide comparative measurements of these four central European prosthogonimids, and address their tissue specificity, host-specific prevalence (based on the extensive bird cohort examined in years 1962-2014), and for some bird hosts we address also differences in the prevalence of Prosthogonimus spp. in natural and near-natural wetlands in comparison with fishponds utilized for intense carp production. We provide an updated key to European Prosthogonimus spp. based on their morphological characters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. First documentation and molecular confirmation of three trematode species (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) infecting the polychaete Marenzelleria viridis (Annelida: Spionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Krystin; Blakeslee, April M H; Krause, Maureen; Williams, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    Polychaete worms are hosts to a wide range of marine parasites; yet, studies on trematodes using these ecologically important species as intermediate hosts are lacking. During examination of the spionid polychaete Marenzelleria viridis collected on the north shore of Long Island, New York, putative trematode cysts were discovered in the body cavity of these polychaetes. In order to verify these cysts as metacercariae of trematodes, specimens of the eastern mudsnail Ilyanassa obsoleta (a very common first intermediate host of trematodes in the region) were collected for molecular comparison. DNA barcoding using cytochrome C oxidase I regions confirmed the presence of three species of trematodes (Himasthla quissetensis, Lepocreadium setiferoides, and Zoogonus lasius) in both M. viridis and I. obsoleta hosts. Brown bodies were also recovered from polychaetes, and molecular testing confirmed the presence of L. setiferoides and Z. lasius, indicating an immune response of the polychaete leading to encapsulation of the cysts. From the 125 specimens of M. viridis collected in 2014, 95 (76.8 %) were infected with trematodes; of these 95 infected polychaetes, 86 (90.5 %) contained brown bodies. This is the first confirmation that trematodes use M. viridis as a second intermediate host and that this intermediate host demonstrates a clear immune response to metacercarial infection. Future research should explore the role of these polychaetes in trematode life cycles, the effectiveness of the immune response, and transmission pathways to vertebrate definitive hosts.

  16. Larval stages of the bluefin tuna blood fluke Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) found from Terebella sp. (Polychaeta: Terebellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Yukitaka; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Tamaki, Akio; Yamanishi, Ryohei; Kanai, Kinya

    2014-04-01

    We found aporocotylid larval stages (sporocysts and cercariae) from five individuals of terebellid polychaete Terebella sp., which were collected from seabed substrate and ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in a tuna farm on the coast of Tsushima Island, Nagasaki, Japan. Nucleotide sequences of the regions of internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA and 28S ribosomal DNA from these larval stages were 100% identical to those of Cardicola opisthorchis registered in GenBank. C. opisthorchis is a pathogen causing blood fluke infection of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis, which is considered to have a significant impact on the Japanese Pacific bluefin tuna aquaculture industry. This is the first description of the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis. This indicates that the life cycle of C. opisthorchis is completed within tuna farms in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular and comparative morphological analysis of central European parasitic flatworms of the superfamily Brachylaimoidea Allison, 1943 (Trematoda: Plagiorchiida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr; Sitko, Jiljí; Bizos, Jiří

    2016-04-01

    The Brachylaimoidea are digenean parasites of vertebrates, including humans, domestic animals, poultry and wild game. Numerous Brachylaimoidea, particularly adults of Brachylaima and Leucochloridium, are difficult to identify to species. We provide and analyse sequences of two nuclear (18S rDNA, ITS2) and two mitochondrial (CO1, ND1) DNA loci of central European species of the Brachylaimoidea, namely Leucochloridium holostomum, Leucochloridium paradoxum, Leucochloridium perturbatum, Leucochloridium subtilis, Leucochloridium vogtianum, Urotocus rossitensis, Urogonimus macrostomus, Michajlovia migrata, Leucochloridiomorpha lutea, Brachylaima arcuatus, Brachylaima fuscata and Brachylaima mesostoma. We identified three clades in the genus Leucochloridium, which do not correspond to the previously suggested subgenera Neoleucochloridium, Papilloleucochloridium and Leucochloridium. We reject classification of Urotocus and Urogonimus in Leucochloridiinae, and, instead, re-establish the subfamilies Urotocinae and Urogoniminae. We synonymize the genus Renylaima with the genus Brachylaima. We reject M. migrata as a member of Leucochloridiinae sensu stricto or Brachylaimidae suggested by some previous authors. We found that the previously sequenced Glaphyrostomum sp. does not cluster with any hitherto sequenced Brachylaimidae. We also provide comparative measurements of the examined central European Brachylaimoidea, address the the specificity of their localization in the host and discuss their host-specific prevalence and intensity of infections based on the extensive dataset of birds examined in 1962-2015.

  18. Elucidation of the first definitively identified life cycle for a marine turtle blood fluke (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae) enables informed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Thomas H; Crespo-Picazo, Jose L; Cutmore, Scott C; Stacy, Brian A; Chapman, Phoebe A; García-Párraga, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Blood flukes of the family Spirorchiidae are significant pathogens of both free-ranging and captive marine turtles. Despite a significant proportion of marine turtle mortality being attributable to spirorchiid infections, details of their life cycles remain almost entirely unknown. Here we report on the molecular elucidation of the complete life cycle of a marine spirorchiid, identified as Amphiorchis sp., infecting vermetid gastropods and captive hatched neonate Caretta caretta in the Oceanogràfic Aquarium, in Valencia, Spain. Specimens of a vermetid gastropod, Thylaeodus cf. rugulosus (Monterosato, 1878), collected from the aquarium filtration system housing diseased C. caretta, were infected with sporocysts and cercariae consistent with the family Spirorchiidae. We generated rDNA sequence data [internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and partial 28S rDNA] from infections from the vermetid which were identical to sequences generated from eggs from the serosa of the intestine of neonate C. caretta, and an adult spirorchiid from the liver of a C. caretta from Florida, USA. Given the reliability of these markers in the delineation of trematode species, we consider all three stages to represent the same species and tentatively identify it as a species of Amphiorchis Price, 1934. The source of infection at the Oceanogràfic Foundation Rehabilitation Centre, Valencia, Spain, is inferred to be an adult C. caretta from the western Mediterranean being rehabilitated in the same facility. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this Amphiorchis sp. is closely related to other spirorchiids of marine turtles (species of Carettacola Manter & Larson, 1950, Hapalotrema Looss, 1899 and Learedius Price, 1934). We discuss implications of the present findings for the control of spirorchiidiasis in captivity, for the better understanding of epidemiology in wild individuals, and the elucidation of further life cycles. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Peracreadium akenovae sp. nov. (Trematoda: Opecoelidae) parasitising the highfin moray eel Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae) from Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Thomas H; Bray, Rodney A; Cutmore, Scott C

    2013-09-01

    A new opecoelid trematode, Peracreadium akenovae sp. nov., is described from the highfin moray eel Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Bleeker) (Anguilliformes; Muraenidae), collected from Moreton Bay off southeast Queensland, Australia. The new species is distinctive in its body shape, transversely elongate irregular testes, vitelline follicles interrupted at the level of the ventral sucker, and diverticulate excretory vesicle. The Muraenidae is a new host family for Peracreadium Nicoll, 1909. Peracreadium is the seventh opecoelid genus reported from temperate eastern Australian marine fishes and this is its first report from Australian waters.

  20. Histopathological changes in the kidneys of vertebrate hosts infected naturally and experimentally with Paratanaisia bragai (Trematoda, Digenea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Vanessa Barreto; Oliveira-Menezes, Aleksandra; dos Santos, Marcos Antônio José; Amato, Suzana Bencke; Torres, Eduardo José Lopes; Pinheiro, Jairo; Brandolini, Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco

    2015-01-01

    Paratanaisia bragai is a trematode parasite that reaches sexual maturity in the kidney collecting ducts of domesticated and wild fowl and whose intermediate hosts are the snails Subulina octona and Leptinaria unilamellata. There are some discrepancies in descriptions of the pathology of this parasite in bird kidneys. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the kidneys of rock pigeons (Columba livia) naturally infected and of chickens (Gallus gallus) experimentally infected with Paratanaisia bragai, by means of macroscopic observation and by light and scanning electron microscopy. Both bird species showed significantly dilated collecting ducts. In addition, lymphocyte infiltration was observed in the kidneys of C. livia and metaplasia in the epithelial lining of the kidney collecting ducts of G. gallus.

  1. Distribution, abundance, and genetic diversity of Clinostomum spp. metacercariae (Trematoda:Digenea) in a modified Ozark stream system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M; Steffen, Michael A; Trujano-Alvarez, Ana L; Martin, Samuel D; Bursey, Charles R; McAllister, Chris T

    2011-04-01

    Land-use alterations can have profound influences on faunal distributions, including host-parasite relationships. Yellow grub trematodes ( Clinostomum spp.) have complex life cycles involving 3 hosts: a snail, a fish or amphibian, and a bird. Here, we analyze the distribution, prevalence, intensity, abundance, and genetic diversity of encysting metacercariae of Clinostomum spp. in salamanders and fishes throughout an aquatic system that includes a natural Ozark stream and man-made ponds. We found Clinostomum sp. infecting permanently aquatic Oklahoma salamanders ( Eurycea tynerensis ; 56% prevalence) and larval grotto salamanders ( Eurycea spelaea ) immediately downstream from a man-made pond. However, Clinostomum sp. did not infect any salamanders in the spring that supplies this pond, or in sections farther downstream (~0.5 and 2 km). Metacercariae of Clinostomum sp. were present in ~90% of introduced largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides ) in the man-made pond adjunct to the stream. Morphological examination and phylogenetic analyses based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase 1 ( Co1 ) and the nuclear ribosomal gene 18S show that fishes and salamanders at this site are primarily infected with Clinostomum marginatum . There is a relatively high degree of mitochondrial haplotype diversity in C. marginatum at this site but no consistent genetic difference between parasites in largemouth bass from the man-made pond and those in salamanders from the stream. Based on the microgeographic distribution and relationships of metacercariae of C. marginatum at this site, we hypothesize that the adjunct man-made pond has created an ecological situation that brings the cercariae of this parasite into contact with novel stream salamander hosts.

  2. Morphological and molecular differentiation of Parastrigea (Trematoda: Strigeidae) from Mexico, with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mena, David Iván; García-Prieto, Luís; García-Varela, Martín

    2014-04-01

    Parastrigea plataleae n. sp. (Digenea: Strigeidae) is described from the intestine of the roseate spoonbill Platalea ajaja (Threskiornithidae) from four localities on the Pacific coast of Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished from the other 18 described species of Parastrigea based on the ratio of its hindbody length to forebody length. A principal component analysis (PCA) of 16 morphometric traits for 15 specimens of P. plataleae n. sp., five of Parastrigea cincta and 11 of Parastrigea diovadena previously recorded in Mexico, clearly shows three clusters, which correspond to the three species. DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) of ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox 1) were used to corroborate this morphological distinction. The genetic divergence estimated among P. plataleae n. sp., P. cincta and P. diovadena ranged from 0.5 to 1.48% for ITSs and from 9.31 to 11.47% for cox 1. Maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses were performed on the combined datasets (ITSs+cox 1) and on each dataset alone. All of the phylogenetic analyses indicated that the specimens from the roseate spoonbill represent a clade with strong bootstrap support. The morphological evidence and the genetic divergence in combination with the reciprocal monophyly in all of the phylogenetic trees support the hypothesis that the digeneans found in the intestines of roseate spoonbills represent a new species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Philophthalmus aweerensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Philophthalmidae) found in a rhea (Rhea americana) in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rolf K

    2011-10-01

    Philophthalmus aweerensis, a new eye fluke species, was discovered in the conjunctival cavities of a rhea in the UAE. This fluke was described and differentiated from other eye flukes that had been found in birds in the Middle East such as Philophthalmus palpebrarum, Philophthalmus nocturnus, Philophthalmus gralli, Philophthalmus lucipetus, Philophthalmus distomatosa, and Philophthalmus hegeneri. The new species lacks spination and is characterized by a long cirrus pouch extending behind the caudal margin of the acetabulum, long vitellaria of tubular type reaching the midbody, and a genital opening situated anteriorly to the bifurcation of the caeca.

  4. Two new and one known species of Tergestia Stossich, 1899 (Trematoda: Fellodistomidae) with novel molecular characterisation for the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Nicholas Q-X; Cutmore, Scott C; Yong, Russell Q-Y; Cribb, Thomas H

    2017-10-01

    Combined morphological and molecular analyses are employed to characterise three species of Tergestia Stossich, 1899 (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) from fishes of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Tergestia clonacantha Manter, 1963 is reported here for the first time from the halfbeak (Beloniformes: Hemiramphidae) species Arrhamphus sclerolepis krefftii (Steindachner), Hyporhamphus australis (Steindachner), H. quoyi (Valenciennes) and H. regularis ardelio (Whitley). Two new species, both infecting trevally (Perciformes: Carangidae) species, are described: T. maryae n. sp. from Alepes apercna Grant and T. henryi n. sp. from Pantolabus radiatus (MacLeay). Complete ITS2 and partial 28S ribosomal DNA data were generated for each of the new taxa. The three species differ from each other by 47-58 base pairs (bp) in the ITS2 rDNA region. Phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA supports Tergestia as a reliable generic concept, with our analyses showing that some species of the genus form a well-supported clade to the exclusion of all other fellodistomids for which sequence data are available.

  5. A complete mitochondrial genome from Echinochasmus japonicus supports the elevation of Echinochasminae Odhner, 1910 to family rank (Trematoda: Platyhelminthes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Nguyen, Khue Thi; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Dung, Do Trung; Blair, David

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the trematode Echinochasmus japonicus Tanabe, 1926 was fully determined and annotated. The circular mt molecule of this species is 15,865bp in length, containing 12 protein-coding genes (arranged in the following order: cox3-cob-nad4L-nad4-atp6-nad2-nad1-nad3-cox1-cox2-nad6-nad5), two ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS) and 22 transfer RNA genes (trnH; trnQ; trnF; trnM; trnV; trnA; trnD; trnN; trnP; trnI; trnK; trnS 1(AGN) ; trnW; trnT; trnC; trnL 1(CUN) ; trnS 2(UCN) ; trnL 2(UUN) ; trnG; and trnE). The atp8 gene is absent. The 3' end of nad4L overlaps the 5' end of nad4 by 40bp. An array of eight identical tandem repeats (240bp each) was found between trnG and trnE in the long non-coding region of the individual worm sequenced. Numbers of these repeats varied among E. japonicus samples. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated mt protein sequences of 40 trematode species/strains supports the elevation of Echinochasminae Odhner, 1910 to family rank, close to the families Echinostomatidae and Fasciolidae. As echinochasmid and echinostomatid species can parasitize humans, the future characterization of additional mt genomes is needed for development of mt markers for identification and phylogenetic, population, epidemiological and hybridization studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Utility of divergent domains of 28S ribosomal RNA in species discrimination of paramphistomes (Trematoda: Digenea: Paramphistomoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shylla, Jollin A; Ghatani, Sudeep; Tandon, Veena

    2013-12-01

    Among the digenetic trematodes, paramphistomes are known to be the causative agent of "amphistomiasis" or the stomach fluke disease of domestic and wild animals, mainly ruminants. The use of 28S (divergent domains) and 18S rRNA for phylogenetic inference is significantly warranted for these flukes since it is as yet limited to merely the exploration of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region. The present study intended to explore the divergent domains (D1-D3) of 28S rRNA and simultaneously equate the phylogenetic information with 18S rRNA in paramphistomes. Divergence of the 28S rRNA domains was evident amongst the divergent (D) domains, where D1 domain emerged as the most variable and D2, the most robust domain, since the latter could provide a higher resolution of the species. D2 was the only domain that comprised compensatory mutations in the helices of its structural constraints; this domain is thus well suited for species distinction and may be considered a potential DNA barcode complementary to mitochondrial DNA. 28S (D1 + D2 + D3) rRNA provided a significant resolution of the taxa corroborating with the taxonomy of these flukes and thus proved to be more robust as a phylogenetic marker for lower levels than 18S rRNA. Phylogenetic inferences of paramphitomes are still scarcely explored; additional data from other taxa belonging to this family may estimate better the biodiversity of these flukes.

  7. Muscle architecture during the course of development of Diplostomum pseudospathaceum Niewiadomska, 1984 (Trematoda, Diplostomidae) from cercariae to metacercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A; Podvyaznaya, I

    2016-05-01

    Recent confocal microscopy studies have greatly expanded our knowledge of muscle systems in cercariae and adult digeneans, but the gross anatomy and development of metacercarial musculature remain relatively little known. To further our understanding of metacercarial development, this study used phalloidin staining and confocal microscopy to examine changes in muscle architecture over the course of development from cercariae to infective metacercariae in Diplostomum pseudospathaceum Niewiadomska, 1984. The paper describes muscle development in the body wall, anterior organ (oral sucker), acetabulum, pharynx and midgut and in the musculo-glandular organs that first appear in metacercariae (lappets and holdfast). The muscle architecture of the cercarial tail is also described. The results of the study support previously reported observations that diplostomid musculature undergoes substantial transformation during metacercarial development. The most profound changes, involving extensive remodelling and replacement of cercarial muscles, were seen in the body-wall musculature and in the anterior organ as it developed into the oral sucker. Muscle systems of other cercarial organs showed more gradual changes. The adaptive importance of developmental changes in musculature is discussed.

  8. Experimental and molecular study of cercariae of Clinostomum sp. (Trematoda: Clinostomidae) from Biomphalaria spp. (Mollusca: Planorbidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, H A; Caffara, M; Fioravanti, M L; Melo, A L

    2015-02-01

    Despite the large number of reports of species of Clinostomum from vertebrate hosts in South America, studies evaluating the molluscan transmitters of these parasites are scarce. In the present study, clinostomatoid cercariae shed from 0.02% (4/17,485) specimens of Biomphalaria spp., collected at the Pampulha reservoir, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were used for experimental infection of Poecilia reticulata . Samples of cercariae from molluscs and metacercariae experimentally obtained from fish were subjected to morphological and molecular analyses and compared with species of Clinostomum reported in the Americas. The cercariae and metacercariae, here identified as Clinostomum sp., present general morphology similar to that reported for Clinostomum marginatum , however, from molecular point of view, differ significantly from North American C. marginatum and other species of Clinostomum reported in South America. These results suggest that the diversity of Clinostomum found in Brazil may be underestimated. Additional studies aimed at molecular characterization of South American species of Clinostomum, including the finding of specimens with sequences similar to that reported for C. marginatum in North America are required.

  9. Determining Intermediate Hosts for Opecoelidae and Microphallidae Species (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) in the Southeastern Pacific Coast, Using Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Natalia Verónica; López, Zambra; González, María Teresa; Muñoz, Gabriela

    2017-02-01

    Metacercarial stages of digeneans were collected from decapod crustaceans inhabiting intertidal rocky zones in central Chile. The digeneans were identified through a molecular analysis based on the V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. We analyzed 356 crustaceans belonging to 10 species, 115 intertidal fish belonging to 6 species, and 4 specimens of 1 coastal bird species. In total, 74.1% of crustaceans were parasitized with metacercariae. We found 1 species of Opecoelidae. This species showed low genetic divergence (0% and 0.1%) with adult digeneans found in intertidal fish and with the species Helicometrina labrisomi infesting a subtidal fish from northern Chile (Labrisomus philippii). Additionally, we found 2 species of Microphallidae, 1 closely related to Maritrema (1.3% genetic distance) and the other related to Microphallus (5% genetic distance). Therefore, our findings showed that the decapod crustaceans are relevant hosts in food webs from the southeastern Pacific coast. Furthermore, we found 5 species of crustaceans as second intermediate hosts for H. labrisomi and 2 species as secondary intermediate hosts for 2 Microphallidae, which contribute to elucidate parts of their life cycles through molecular markers and extended the host distribution of H. labrisomi in the southeastern Pacific coast.

  10. Change in rank of Megaperidae (Trematoda) to Megaperinae within the Apocreadiidae and description of Haintestinum amplum n. g., n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulis, Eric E; Curran, Stephen S; Andres, Michael J; Overstreet, Robin M

    2014-04-01

    Haintestinum amplum n. g., n. sp. is described from the scrawled cowfish, Acanthostracion quadricornis, collected in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico off Florida, USA. The new species is relatively large and shares characters of the Apocreadiidae and Megaperidae but conforms to the diagnosis of neither. It belongs in a new genus possessing a pharynx with lobed anterior margin and intestine terminating in paired ani, like in megaperids, and, when compared with apocreadiids, it shares important anatomical features, including an I-shaped excretory vesicle, canicular seminal vesicle, eye-spot remnants, and pretesticular uterus and lacks a cirrus and cirrus sac. The H-shaped intestine and large funnel-shaped oral sucker without a U-shaped sphincter encircling half the anterior aperture are the most notable diagnostic characters of the new monotypic genus. Additionally, the phylogenetic position of the Megaperidae is investigated for the first time, using analysis of partial 28S rDNA gene sequences from H. amplum, two species in the Megapera, Thysanopharynx elongatus, and previously published 28S sequences of species from members of the Apocreadiata, Haploporoidae, Lepocreadiata, and Opisthorchiata. The resulting analysis demonstrated a close relationship among the new genus and the three species of megaperids, and the megaperids were most closely allied with Schistorchis zancli of the apocreadiids. Moreover, we now consider Megaperidae as the subfamily Megaperinae within the Apocreadiidae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of the Gorgoderidae (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda), including the proposal of a new subfamily (Degeneriinae n. subfam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, Scott C; Miller, Terrence L; Curran, Stephen S; Bennett, Michael B; Cribb, Thomas H

    2013-08-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of a range of gorgoderid trematodes based on ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA data lead us to propose the Degeneriinae n. subfam. for the genus Degeneria in recognition of its phylogenetic isolation and distinctive morphology and biology. The current concepts of the subfamilies Anaporrhutinae and Gorgoderinae were supported. Within the Gorgoderinae, the large genus Phyllodistomum is shown to be paraphyletic relative to Pseudophyllodistomum and Xystretrum. Notably, the clade of marine Phyllodistomum does not form a clade with the other marine genus, Xystretrum. Distinct clades within the Gorgoderinae correspond variously to identity of first intermediate host, form of cercaria and their marine or freshwater habitat. We are not yet in a position to propose separate genera for these clades.

  12. Haplometra cylindracea (Zeder, 1800) (Trematoda: Plagiorchiidae): variation in the dates of cercarial shedding for overwintering Galba truncatula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoles, P.; Dreyfuss, G.; Rondelaud, D.

    2011-01-01

    Natural infections of Galba truncatula with Haplometra cylindracea were followed from 2001 to 2009 to determine if their characteristics were similar when snails came from water collections frequented by Bufo bufo or by frogs and newts for their egg-laying. Snail samples were collected from both types of sites to count shed cercariae for three days and also free cercariae when snails were dissected. In sites only frequented by B. bufo, cercarial shedding occurred earlier than in those colonized by frogs and newts (March instead of April-May). In contrast, the number of cercariae shed during three successive days was significantly higher in May. This variation in the dates of cercarial shedding might be due, either to a synchronism between cercaria-releasing snails and the presence of the definitive host (tadpoles) in water collections, or to an earlier infection of overwintering snails in autumn by H. cylindracea miracidia in the case of toad-frequented sites. PMID:21678794

  13. Molecular evidence that Langeronia macrocirra and Langeronia cf. parva (Trematoda: Pleurogenidae) parasites of anurans from Mexico are conspecific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Salazar, Elizabeth A; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2010-12-01

    The genus Langeronia parasitizing the intestine of several species of anurans is distributed from North to Central America. We identified Langeronia macrocirra and Langeronia cf. parva from the same host and localities, and present here new data not applicable about their tegumental surface by scanning electron microscopy. We compared sequences of the rDNA ITS2 region and mtDNA cox1 gene for the two morphotypes. ITS2 exhibited a high degree of conservation. Phylogenetic reconstruction using cox1 revealed three clades (I, II, and III), which did not correspond to a previous identification or host. Little divergence was found within clades: sequences were identical in clade I, whereas clade II had 0.27% and clade III had 1.08%. Inter-clade divergence reached 8.69% (I vs. III). This pattern of genetic divergence indicated that both taxa probably belong to the same species, so we posit that the morphological changes could be correlated with development. Increasing sample size and geographical coverage will contribute to the taxonomy of the genus based on morphological and molecular evidence, and will open tracks toward the use of DNA barcodes to the genus in Mexico.

  14. A reevaluation of the specimens of Mesocoelium (Trematoda: Mesocoeliidae) in the Colección Nacional de Helmintos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Ashley Samara; García-Prieto, Luis

    2017-06-02

    Species of Mesocoelium Odhner, 1901 (Digenea) are generally similar and are often difficult to distinguish. Currently there are 42 specimens of this genus held in the Colección Nacional de Helmintos (CNHE) of the Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, which previously have been assigned to three species: M. monas Rudolphi, 1819, M. travassosi Pereira & Cuocolo, 1940 and M. leiperi Bhalerao, 1936. Upon reevaluation of these specimens it was determined that 27, could not be assigned to species level and 15 could only be assigned to body type (carli and leiperi) because of the poor conditions of preservation of the material. The remaining 15 specimens were of sufficient quality to be identified to species and were found to represent M. americanum Harwood, 1932, M. danforthi Hoffman, 1935, M. meggitti Bhalerao, 1927, M. cf. americanum Harwood, 1932, and M. cf. danforthi Hoffman, 1935. Neither M. monas nor M. travassosi could be confirmed among these specimens; however, Mesocoelium meggitti (syn. M. travassosi) was confirmed. Mesocoelium danforthi is recorded for the first time in the Mexican collection. The presence of M. cf. gonocephali Singh, 1967 and M. cf. microon Nicoll, 1914 also among the 15 specimens of sufficient quality to be identified to species, needs to be confirmed through collects of new material. Finally, in future studies, we propose to improve the quality of specimens by fixing them considering the modifications to this process proposed herein, and compliment these morphological studies with molecular studies.

  15. Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae): a possible second molluscan intermediate host of Echinostoma cinetorchis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younghun; Park, Yun-Kyu; Hwang, Myung-Gi; Soh, Chin-Thack

    2001-01-01

    More than 1,500 clams of Corbicula fluminea, the most favorable food source of freshwater bivalves in Korea, were collected from 5 localities to examine cercarial and metacercarial infection with Echinostoma cinetorchis. Although 3 clams infected with suspicious E. cinetorchis metacercariae out of 200 specimens collected at Kangjin, Chollanam-do were detected, no cercarial and metacercarial infections with E. cinetorchis were observed in field-collected Corbicula specimens. In the susceptibility experiments with laboratory-reared clams, those infected with miracidia of E. cinetorchis did not release their cercariae up to 60 days after infection. To confirm the identity of second intermediate host of E. cinetorchis experimentally, a total of 30 clams were exposed to the cercariae from Segmentina hemisphaerula that had been infected with miracidia of E. cinetorchis. The clams were susceptible to cercariae of E. cinetorchis with an infection rate of 93.3%. Metacercariae from clams taken more than 7 days after cercarial exposure were fed to rats (S/D strain), and adult worms of E. cinetorchis, characterized by 37-38 collar spines on the head crown, were recovered from the ileocecal regions. This is the first report of C. fluminea as a possible second intermediate host of E. cinetorchis. PMID:11775336

  16. Cardicola opisthorchis n. sp. (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) from the Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844), cultured in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, K; Ishimaru, K; Shirakashi, S; Takami, I; Grabner, D

    2011-09-01

    A new aporocotylid blood fluke is described, based on specimens from the ventricle of the Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (Temminck et Schlegel), cultured in Wakayama and Nagasaki Prefectures, Japan. The new species is morphologically similar to the members of the genus Cardicola Short, 1953, but shows distinct differences in the body form, location of the testis and the orientation of the ootype. The body of the new species is long and slender, whereas other Cardicola species are small and generally lanceolate. The testis is mostly located posterior to the caeca and anterior to the ovary, occupying 31-45% of body length, in contrast to the known Cardicola species, whose testis is typically intercaecal. The ootype is oriented anteriorly, while in most congeners, it is directed posteriorly or horizontally. Phylogenetic analyses of this aporocotylid, together with Cardicola orientalis Ogawa, Tanaka, Sugihara et Takami, 2010 from the same host, were conducted based on DNA sequences of the ITS2 rDNA and the 28S region of ribosomal RNA. The analyses revealed that the new blood fluke belongs to the genus Cardicola despite the marked morphological differences. Thus, this aporocotylid is named Cardicola opisthorchis n. sp. and the generic diagnosis is emended in this paper. In addition, 100% identity among the ITS2 sequences from the present species, Cardicola sp. from T. orientalis in Mexico and Cardicola sp. from the northern bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) in Spain suggests that C. opisthorchis n. sp. has a broad geographical distribution and that it infects both the Pacific and northern bluefin tuna. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LYMNAEIDAE (MOLLUSCA, BASOMMATOPHORA, INTERMEDIATE HOST OF Fasciola hepatica LINNAEUS, 1758 (TREMATODA, DIGENEA IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Medeiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Snails of the family Lymnaeidae act as intermediate hosts in the biological cycle of Fasciola hepatica, which is a biological agent of fasciolosis, a parasitic disease of medical importance for humans and animals. The present work aimed to update and map the spatial distribution of the intermediate host snails of F. hepatica in Brazil. Data on the distribution of lymnaeids species were compiled from the Collection of Medical Malacology (Fiocruz-CMM, CPqRR, Collection of Malacology (MZUSP, “SpeciesLink” (CRIA network and through systematic surveys in the literature. Our maps of the distribution of lymnaeids show that Pseudosuccinea columella is the most common species and it is widespread in the South and Southeast with few records in the Midwest, North and Northeast regions. The distribution of the Galba viatrix, G. cubensis and G. truncatula showed a few records in the South and Southeast regions, they were not reported for the Midwest, North and Northeast. In addition, in the South region there are a few records for G. viatrix and one occurrence of Lymnaea rupestris. Our findings resulted in the first map of the spatial distribution of Lymnaeidae species in Brazil which might be useful to better understand the fasciolosis distribution and delineate priority areas for control interventions.

  18. Life-history traits of Fossaria cubensis (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae under experimental exposure to Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez Alfredo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of exposing the lymnaeid snail Fossaria cubensis to the trematode Fasciola hepatica on the snail population's life-history traits was studied under laboratory conditions. Exposed individuals showed a lower survival rate than control snails, although from week 7 onward a slower decrease of this parameter in relation to the control group was observed. There were higher values of fecundity rate for the controls compared to the exposed group except during weeks 9, 10, 11 and 12, which was the time that followed the period when almost all of the infected snails died. Both the intrinsic and finite rates of natural increase were significantly higher for the control group, but exposed snails still attained a lower mean generation time. Age-specific trade-offs were found, mainly for the weekly increase in size versus the number of eggs per mass, the weekly increase in size versus the number of viable eggs per mass, the number of masses versus the hatching probability and the number of eggs versus the hatching probability. All these negative associations were significant for juveniles of both control and exposed snails and not for adults; however, exposed young individuals exhibited much higher values of the correlation coefficient than control animals.

  19. Sympatric and allopatric experimental infections of the planorbid snail Gyraulus chinensis with miracidia of Euparyphium albuferensis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Antoli, C; Marín, A; Trelis, M; Toledo, R; Esteban, J-G

    2010-12-01

    An experimental infection with echinostomatid miracidia in sympatric or 'local' vs. allopatric or 'away' snail combinations, as a model to examine parasite compatibility, was carried out. We employed Euparyphium albuferensis miracidia to infect Gyraulus chinensis snails, from three different natural parks: Albufera (Valencia, Spain); the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) and Coto de Doñana (Huelva, Spain). Insignificant differences between the three snail strains were noted for the infection rate and the rhythm of daily cercarial production. However, a significantly higher total cercarial production per snail, patent period and life span were observed in local snails. The different infection characteristics in the three G. chinensis strains considered reveal that E. albuferensis miracidia demonstrate local adaptation.

  20. Experimental Life Cycle of Hypoderaeum conoideum (Block, 1872 Diez, 1909(Trematoda: Echinostomatidae Parasite from the North of Iran

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    Hakim AZIZI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Echinostomiasis is an intestinal disease caused by the members of family Echinostomatidae parasites. The aim of present research was to identify echinos­tomatidae cercariae emitted by Lymnaea palustris snails from Mazandaran province in the north of Iran based on the morphological and morphometrical charac­teristics of the different stages of experimental parasite life cycle.Methods: Echinostomatidae cercariae were collected from L. palustris (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae of the north of Iran. To collect metacercaria, 50 healthy snails were infected with cercariae experimentally (50 cercariae for each. To obtain the adult stage, 9 laboratory animals (3 ducks, 2 rats, 2 mice and 2 quails were fed with 60 metacercaria for each. To identify parasite, the different stages of worm were exam­ined using light microscope and then the figures were draw under camera Lucida microscope and measures were determined.Results: Averagely, 15metacercaria were obtained from each snail that had been previously exposed with cercariae. Ducks presented worm eggs in feces after 10-15 days post-infection. Intestinal worms were collected and identified as Hypoderaeum conoideum on the bases of figures and measures of cephalic collar, the number of collar spine, suckers diameter ratio, testes arrangement, etc.Conclusion: H. conoideum cercariae and adult worm are described. This is the first report of the different stages of the experimental life cycle of this parasite in Iran.

  1. A new species of Halipegus Looss, 1899 (Trematoda: Derogenidae) parasitic in Rana psilonota Webb, 2001 of Atenquique, Jalisco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Règagnon, Virginia; Romero-Mayén, Angeles R

    2013-12-01

    During an inventory of parasites of anurans in Occidental Mexico, an apparently undescribed species of Halipegus was found under the tongue of Rana psilonota Webb, 2001. The objective of this study is to describe this new species. Halipegus psilonotae differs from all other congeners by the combination of the following characters: parasite under the tongue of frogs, body size small, ventral sucker representing 0.19-0.2 of body length, ovary smaller than testes, egg filament short (27.5-40).

  2. A Histopathology Study of Caspian Seal (Pusa caspica (Phocidae, Mammalia Liver Infected with Trematode, Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Rudolphi, 1819 (Opisthorchidae, Trematoda.

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    Richard Heckmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of this study was to investigate the invasive activity of the liver fluke, Pseudamphistomom truncatum against the Caspian seal (Pusa caspica and was exemplified at the gross, light microscopy (LM and electron microscopy (EM levels.The study was done on a freshly dead Caspian Seal in the southern coast of Caspian Sea. The checked Caspian seal probably being died of canine distemper virus and was found host to numerous parasites of four helminth species.P. truncatum caused edematous foci on the surface of the liver with prominent fluid accumulation. Sections of the liver viewed with LM had multiple necrotic areas with extensive hemorrhaging and disorganized hepatic lobules. Granulocytes and invasion of connective tissue were prominent. Whole worms were visible with invasive pathways through the host tissue. Damage to both hepatic ducts and blood vessels were prominent. At the EM level, organelles within the impacted hepatocytes were disorganized as exemplified by the cristae of the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum. Parasite eggs were scattered throughout the tissue.It was shown that this trematode can be very pathogenic to Caspian Seal and as this only mammal of Caspian Sea is an endangered species; this needs more investigation toward control or possible treatment of this helminth.

  3. [Superficial argentophilic structures in the miracidium and cercaria of Paramphistomum microbothrioides Price and Mac Intosh, 1944 (Trematoda, Paramphistomidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samnaliev, P; Albaret, J L; Bayssade-Dufour, C; Dimitrov, V; Cassone, J

    1986-01-01

    Superficial argentophilic structures of the miracidium are identical to those observed in the other species of the genus. On the other hand, on the terebratorium, they are different from those of the miracidium of Calicophoron calicophorum. Cercarial papillae are rarely symmetrical and their number varies according to specimens. However differences between the species are obvious. If Paramphistomum microbothrioides, P. microbothrium and P. daubneyi are related by acetabular papillae, the number of lateral papillae and the caudal chaetotaxy allow to distinguish these three species.

  4. Paraconcinnum leirsi n.sp. (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) from rodents in Tanzania and its phylogenetic position within the dicrocoeliids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ribas, A.; Makundi, R. H.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2012), s. 326-331 ISSN 1562-7020 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acomys * Dicrocoeliidae * Gerbilliscus * Paraconcinnum * 18S rDNA gene Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2012

  5. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest). California Grunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    occurs In the expanded anterior Buealei lebiatus ( Trematoda : intestine (Olson 1977, 1978). The a eh~lae) infect the grunion heart effects of these...60-64. ( Trematoda : 3ucephal idailW__ California grunion, Leuresthes Nay, R. C. 1971. Effects of delayed tenuis. J. Parasitol. 61TTiT79. initial

  6. Southernmost finding of Lymnaea viatrix orbigny, 1835 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematoda: Digenea, in urban and rural areas of Patagonia, Argentina

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    Florencia Kleiman

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the first finding of Lymnaea viatrix south of parallel 41ºS, in rural and urban areas from Argentina. Ninety snails were collected during year 2000, from a concrete pond at a Public Square in El Bolsón Village, Río Negro province, and 811 snails in November 1999, and during 2000 from waterbodies within a farm at Cholila locality, Chubut province. Fasciola hepatica infection was detected in 0.9% snails from the rural area. We discuss the potential risk of L. viatrix to public health in urban areas and its epidemiological importance in rural areas of the Andean Patagonian region.

  7. Infrapopulations of Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 (Trematoda: Gyliauchenidae in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei: Siganidae from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea

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    Al-Jahdali M.O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In hermaphroditic helminth parasites, infrapopulation size or mating group size mostly affects some processes acting within the infrapopulation. Here, 30 natural infrapopulations (12-154 individuals of the intestinal trematode Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisting of newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 40 % of the intestine. In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were alive. In larger infrapopulations, differential mortality was only and consistently observed among newly excysted juveniles, and gradually increased to include most or all juveniles in the largest infrapopulations. Among mature worms, the mean worm length seemed unaffected by the infrapopulation size. However, the ratio mean testis size-mean ovary size, a reliable indicator of resource allocation to the male function and of opportunities for crossfertilization, significantly increased with mating group size. In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were scattered along the niche, and never seen in mating pairs (possibly reproduced by selffertilization. In larger infrapopulations, newly excysted juveniles and immature worms were scattered along the anterior two thirds of the niche, while mature worms were constantly found aggregated in its posterior third (narrow microhabitat, where some were arranged in mating pairs. The probability of mating reciprocally or unilaterally was dependent on body size. The mean number of uterine eggs per worm significantly decreased and their mean sizes significantly increased with mating group size. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is greatly associated with its size.

  8. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878, the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda

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    Devendra K. Biswal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Among helminth parasites, Paragonimus (zoonotic lung fluke gains considerable importance from veterinary and medical points of view because of its diversified effect on its host. Nearly fifty species of Paragonimus have been described across the globe. It is estimated that more than 20 million people are infected worldwide and the best known species is Paragonimus westermani, whose type locality is probably India and which infects millions of people in Asia causing disease symptoms that mimic tuberculosis. Human infections occur through eating raw crustaceans containing metacercarie or ingestion of uncooked meat of paratenic hosts such as pigs. Though the fluke is known to parasitize a wide range of mammalian hosts representing as many as eleven families, the status of its prevalence, host range, pathogenic manifestations and its possible survivors in nature from where the human beings contract the infection is not well documented in India. We took advantage of the whole genome sequence data for P. westermani, generated by Next Generation Sequencing, and its comparison with the existing data for the P. westermani for comparative mt DNA phylogenomic analyses. Specific primers were designed for the 12 protein coding genes with the aid of existing P. westermani mtDNA as the reference. The Ion torrent next generation sequencing platform was harnessed to completely sequence the mitochondrial genome, and applied innovative approaches to bioinformatically assemble and annotate it. A strategic PCR primer design utilizing the whole genome sequence data from P. westermani enabled us to design specific primers capable of amplifying all regions of the mitochondrial genome from P. westermani. Assembly of NGS data from libraries enriched in mtDNA sequence by PCR gave rise to a total of 11 contigs spanning the entire 14.7 kb mt DNA sequence of P. westermani available at NCBI. We conducted gap-filling by traditional Sanger sequencing to fill in the gaps. Annotation of non-protein coding genes successfully identified tRNA regions for the 24 tRNAs coded in mtDNA and 12 protein coding genes. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated protein coding genes placed P. westermani within the family Opisthorchida. The complete mtDNA sequence of P. westermani is 15,004 base pairs long; the lung fluke is the major etiological agent of paragonimiasis and the first Indian representative for the family Paragonimidae to be fully sequenced that provides important genetic markers for ecological, population and biogeographical studies and molecular diagnostic of digeneans that cause trematodiases.

  9. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878), the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Devendra K; Chatterjee, Anupam; Bhattacharya, Alok; Tandon, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Among helminth parasites, Paragonimus (zoonotic lung fluke) gains considerable importance from veterinary and medical points of view because of its diversified effect on its host. Nearly fifty species of Paragonimus have been described across the globe. It is estimated that more than 20 million people are infected worldwide and the best known species is Paragonimus westermani, whose type locality is probably India and which infects millions of people in Asia causing disease symptoms that mimic tuberculosis. Human infections occur through eating raw crustaceans containing metacercarie or ingestion of uncooked meat of paratenic hosts such as pigs. Though the fluke is known to parasitize a wide range of mammalian hosts representing as many as eleven families, the status of its prevalence, host range, pathogenic manifestations and its possible survivors in nature from where the human beings contract the infection is not well documented in India. We took advantage of the whole genome sequence data for P. westermani, generated by Next Generation Sequencing, and its comparison with the existing data for the P. westermani for comparative mt DNA phylogenomic analyses. Specific primers were designed for the 12 protein coding genes with the aid of existing P. westermani mtDNA as the reference. The Ion torrent next generation sequencing platform was harnessed to completely sequence the mitochondrial genome, and applied innovative approaches to bioinformatically assemble and annotate it. A strategic PCR primer design utilizing the whole genome sequence data from P. westermani enabled us to design specific primers capable of amplifying all regions of the mitochondrial genome from P. westermani. Assembly of NGS data from libraries enriched in mtDNA sequence by PCR gave rise to a total of 11 contigs spanning the entire 14.7 kb mt DNA sequence of P. westermani available at NCBI. We conducted gap-filling by traditional Sanger sequencing to fill in the gaps. Annotation of non-protein coding genes successfully identified tRNA regions for the 24 tRNAs coded in mtDNA and 12 protein coding genes. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated protein coding genes placed P. westermani within the family Opisthorchida. The complete mtDNA sequence of P. westermani is 15,004 base pairs long; the lung fluke is the major etiological agent of paragonimiasis and the first Indian representative for the family Paragonimidae to be fully sequenced that provides important genetic markers for ecological, population and biogeographical studies and molecular diagnostic of digeneans that cause trematodiases.

  10. Morphological and molecular identification of a lung fluke, Paragonimus macrorchis (Trematoda, Paragonimidae), found in central Lao PDR and its molecular phylogenetic status in the genus Paragonimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Intapan, Pewpan Maleewong; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Laymanivong, Sakhone; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-12-01

    Paragonimus macrorchis is rather a rare species with sporadic discovery reports. To date, little is known about morphological features and the molecular phylogenetic status of P. macrorchis. Here we provide such information on P. macrorchis, of which metacercariae were collected from freshwater crabs in Khammouane Province, central Lao PDR. After morphological observation, metacercariae were excysted and were injected intra-peritoneally into Mongolian gerbils. Paragonimus adult worms were collected from the lungs of experimental gerbils 45 days after infection. A small piece of body tissue was cut at the posterior part of each adult worm for genomic DNA extraction. Then, the adult worms were stained and mounted for morphological identification. The second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS2) of rDNA and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were amplified using PCR method and sequenced. The results of morphological identification of metacercariae and adult worms together with their DNA sequences of ITS2 and partial cox1 gene clearly show that the specimens we collected in the central Lao PDR were P. macrorchis. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. macrorchis forms an independent cluster from other Paragonimus species in Asia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular and morphological identification of Cardicola (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) eggs in hatchery-reared and migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forte-Gil, D.; Holzer, Astrid S.; Pecková, Hana; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; Peñalver, J.; Dolores, E.M.; Muñoz, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 450, JAN 1 (2016), s. 58-66 ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aquaculture * Atlantic bluefin tuna * Blood fluke * Cardicola * Migration * Thunnus thynnus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.570, year: 2016

  12. A species pair of Bivesicula Yamaguti, 1934 (Trematoda: Bivesiculidae) in unrelated Great Barrier Reef fishes: implications for the basis of speciation in coral reef fish trematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Nancy; Cutmore, Scott C; Miller, Terrence L; Cribb, Thomas H

    2015-07-01

    Combined morphological and molecular analysis shows that a species of Bivesicula Yamaguti, 1934 from four species of Apogonidae Günther [Nectamia fusca (Quoy & Gaimard), Ostorhinchus angustatus (Smith & Radcliffe), O. cookii (Macleay) and Taeniamia fucata (Cantor)] on the Great Barrier Reef is morphologically similar to, but clearly distinct from B. unexpecta Cribb, Bray & Barker, 1994 which infects a sympatric pomacentrid, Acanthochromis polyacanthus (Bleeker). Bivesicula neglecta n. sp. is proposed for the form from apogonids. Novel ITS2 rDNA sequences generated for the two species differ at just one consistent base position, implying that the two species are closely related. The combination of their close relationship, high but distinct specificity and co-occurrence suggests that speciation was driven by a recent host switching event enabled by similar dietary ecomorphology.

  13. Sequence analysis of ribosomal and mitochondrial genes of the giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae): intraspecific variation and differentiation from Fasciola hepatica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kráľová-Hromadová, I.; Špakulová, M.; Horáčková, Eva; Turčeková, Ĺ.; Novobilský, A.; Beck, R.; Koudela, Břetislav; Marinculić, A.; Rajský, D.; Pybus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 1 (2008), s. 58-67 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA AV ČR IAA6022404 Grant - others:Slovak Research and Development Agency(SK) APVV-51-062205 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Fascioloides magna * Fasciola hepatica * ribosomal genes * mitochondrial genes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2008

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Single-Step Duplex PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica (Family Fasciolidae, Class Trematoda, Phylum Platyhelminthes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khue Thi; Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Le, Xuyen Thi Kim; Hoang, Chau Thi Minh; De, Nguyen Van

    2012-01-01

    A single-step multiplex PCR (here referred to as a duplex PCR) has been developed for simultaneous detection and diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. These species overlap in distribution in many countries of North and East Africa and Central and Southeast Asia and are similar in egg morphology, making identification from fecal samples difficult. Based on a comparative alignment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) spanning the region of cox1-trnT-rrnL, two species-specific forward primers were designed, FHF (for F. hepatica) and FGF (for F. gigantica), and a single reverse primer, FHGR (common for both species). Conventional PCR followed by sequencing was applied using species-specific primer pairs to verify the specificity of primers and the identity of Fasciola DNA templates. Duplex PCR (using three primers) was used for testing with the DNA extracted from adult worms, miracidia, and eggs, producing amplicons of 1,031 bp for F. hepatica and 615 bp for F. gigantica. The duplex PCR failed to amplify from DNA of other common liver and intestinal trematodes, including two opisthorchiids, three heterophyids, an echinostomid, another fasciolid, and a taeniid cestode. The sensitivity assay showed that the duplex PCR limit of detection for each Fasciola species was between 0.012 ng and 0.006 ng DNA. Evaluation using DNA templates from 32 Fasciola samples (28 adults and 4 eggs) and from 25 field-collected stools of ruminants and humans revealed specific bands of the correct size and the presence of Fasciola species. This novel mtDNA duplex PCR is a sensitive and fast tool for accurate identification of Fasciola species in areas of distributional and zonal overlap. PMID:22692744

  15. A comparative study of karyotypes and chromosomal location of rDNA genes in important liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reblánová, M.; Špakulová, M.; Orosová, Martina; Kraľová-Hromadová, I.; Bazsalovicsová, E.; Rajský, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 4 (2011), s. 2021-1028 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : SCHISTOSOMA-MANSONI * DIFFERENTIATION * FISH * ITS2 * HYBRIDIZATION * EPIDEMIOLOGY * LOCALIZATION * CYTOGENETICS * SHEEP Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2011

  16. How the position of mussels at the intertidal lagoon affects their infection with the larvae of parasitic flatworms (Trematoda: Digenea): A combined laboratory and field experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Kirill E.; Prokofiev, Vladimir V.; Levakin, Ivan A.; Galaktionov, Kirill V.

    2017-10-01

    In the complex trematode life cycle, cercariae transmit infection from the first to the second intermediate host. These short-lived lecithotrophic larvae possess a complex of behavioural responses for finding and infecting the host. We studied strategies used by cercariae of Himasthla elongata and Cercaria parvicaudata (Renicola sp.) infecting mussels Mytilus edulis at the White Sea intertidal. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted in parallel. Geotactic response of cercariae was tested in an experimental chamber. Their distribution in nature was studied by counting larvae infecting mussels in cages installed in pairs (a ground and a suspended cage) in an intertidal lagoon. In the chamber H. elongata cercariae concentrated at the bottom, C. parvicaudata cercariae aged 1 h mostly concentrated near the surface and those aged 6 h sank to the bottom. A few larvae of both species ("evaders") showed behavioural patterns antithetic to the prevalent ones. Infection was the highest in mussels in ground cages. In suspended cages mussel infection with H. elongata cercariae was much lower than with C. parvicaudata cercariae. Our study confirmed that results of experiments on cercarial behaviour could be extrapolated to natural conditions. Cercariae of two species using the same intermediate hosts and co-occurring in a biotope implemented dramatically different strategies. This might be associated with differences in cercarial output by parthenitae groups. The presence of "evaders" might be useful for successful transmission. Our results indicate that mussels cultivated in suspended cultures are at the least risk of infection with trematode larvae.

  17. De novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome of the pancreatic fluke Eurytrema pancreaticum (trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Xu, Min-Jun; Song, Hui-Qun; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-15

    Eurytrema pancreaticum is one of the most common trematodes living in the pancreatic and bile ducts of ruminants and also occasionally infects humans, causing eurytremiasis. In spite of its economic and medical importance, very little is known about the genomic resources of this parasite. Herein, we performed de novo sequencing, assembly and characterization of the transcriptome of adult E. pancreaticum. Approximately 36.4 million high-quality clean reads were obtained, and the length of the transcript contigs ranged from 66 to 19,968 nt with mean length of 479 nt and N50 length of 1094 nt, and then 23,573 unigenes were assembled. Of these unigenes, 15,353 (65.1%) were annotated by blast searches against the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Among these, 15,267 (64.8%), 2732 (11.6%) and 10,354 (43.9%) of the unigenes had significant similarity with proteins in the NR, NT and Swiss-Prot databases, respectively. 5510 (23.4%) and 4567 (19.4%) unigenes were assigned to GO and COG, respectively. 8886 (37.7%) unigenes were identified and mapped onto 254 pathways in the KEGG Pathway database. Furthermore, we found that 105 (1.18%) unigenes were related to pancreatic secretion and 61 (0.7%) to pancreatic cancer. The present study represents the first transcriptome of any members of the family Dicrocoeliidae, which has little genomic information available in the public databases. The novel transcriptome of E. pancreaticum should provide a useful resource for designing new strategies against pancreatic flukes and other trematodes of human and animal health significance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiology of eurytrematosis (Eurytrema spp. Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) in slaughtered beef cattle from the central-west region of the State of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Clóvis Antonio; Sangioni, Luís Antonio; Saut, João Paulo Elsen; Yamamura, Milton Hissashi; Headley, Selwyn Arlington

    2006-11-05

    Bovine eurytrematosis (BE) in Brazil is caused by Eurytrema coelomaticum; the disease results in the condemnation of the pancreas of infected animals. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of eurytrematosis in cattle submitted for slaughter during June 2003 to May 2004 at the municipal abattoir of Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil, and compare gross observation of infection with histological findings. During the period studied, 1828 pancreases were collected randomly. The average prevalence was 47.8% (874/1828); prevalence varied from 26.9% (46/171) to 72.9% (105/144). It was discovered that the quantity of parasites within the interlobular pancreatic ducts was directly proportional to pancreatic destruction; females were more predominately infected relative to males; BE is endemic within the region of Campo Mourão; the average age of infection increases proportionally with prevalence; gross evaluation of bovine eurytrematosis is not efficient to characterize infection by E. coelomaticum in susceptible animals.

  19. Development and characterization of multiplex panels of polymorphic microsatellite loci in giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae), using next-generation sequencing approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minárik, G.; Bazsalovicsová, E.; Zvijáková, Ĺ.; Štefka, Jan; Pálková, L.; Kraľová-Hromadová, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 195, č. 1 (2014), s. 30-33 ISSN 0166-6851 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Short tandem repeats * Population genetics * Invasive parasite * Microsatellites * Fascioloides magna Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.787, year: 2014

  20. Redescription of Pseudolepidapedon balistis Manter, 1940 and a biological variant (Trematoda: Acanthocolpidae) from the Red Sea fishes; Balistoides viridescens and Rhinecanthus assasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Refaat Ma; Hassan, Hemely Abdel-Shafy; Mohamadain, Hoda Saady; Karar, Yasser Farhat Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    During a survey of Red Sea fish parasites, two trematodes belonging to the genus Pseudolepidapedon Yamaguti, 1938 were encountered: P. balistis Manter, 1940 was found in the small intestine of the fish Balistoides viridescens and was redescribed for the first time from Egypt; adding many detailed morphological and ultrastructural characters. The second trematode was found in the small intestine of the fish Rhinecanthus assasi and found to represent a biological variant of the previous species as it differs from it in its generally smaller dimensions, shape of suckers and pharynx and the testes. SEM details of the first species were described for the first time illustrating the differences in the spination and papillae on different parts of the body; which may be of taxonomic importance in recognizing future different species of the genus.

  1. The life cycle of Prosorhynchoides carvajali (Trematoda: Bucephalidae) involving species of bivalve and fish hosts in the intertidal zone of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, G; Valdivia, I; López, Z

    2015-09-01

    We describe the life cycle of the bucephalid Prosorhynchoides carvajali from the intertidal rocky zone of central Chile. To elucidate the life cycle of this digenean, two mytilid bivalves, Semimytilus algosus and Perumytilus purpuratus, and ten intertidal fish species belonging to the families Blenniidae, Tripterygiidae, Labrisomidae, Kyphosidae and Gobiesocidae were analysed for natural infections. In addition, experimental infections of fish were undertaken and molecular analyses were performed of several developmental stages of the digeneans in various host species. Experimental infections of fish were made from infected mytilids to determine which fish species were suitable for the metacercarial stage of Prosorhynchoides. We also determined the abundance and prevalence of metacercariae in natural infections in fish and found that they were lower than in the experimental infections. A molecular analysis showed that sporocysts from S. algosus were identical to metacercariae from five fish species and P. carvajali adults. Sporocysts isolated from P. purpuratus were similar to metacercaria found in one fish species only (G. laevifrons) but were different from P. carvajali, with 1.9-2.0% genetic divergence. Therefore, the complete life cycle of P. carvajali consists of the mytilid species S. algosus as the first intermediate host, at least five intertidal fish species as second intermediate hosts (Scartichthys viridis, Auchenionchus microcirrhis, Hypsoblennius sordidus, Helcogrammoides chilensis and Gobiesox marmoratus), two carnivorous fish as definitive hosts (Auchenionchus microcirrhis and A. variolosus) and one occasional definitive host (Syciases sanguineus). This is the second description of a life cycle of a marine digenean from Chile.

  2. A new species of microphallid (Trematoda: Digenea) infecting a novel host family, the Muraenidae, on the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlai, Olena; Cribb, Thomas H; Cutmore, Scott C

    2016-11-01

    A new species of microphallid, Longiductotrema tethepae n. sp., is reported from a muraenid eel Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Bleeker) on the northern Great Barrier Reef. The new species is described based on adults from Gy. pseudothyrsoideus and metacercariae from a grapsid crab, Grapsus albolineatus Latreille in Milbert, collected from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. The new species is assigned to Longiductotrema Deblock & Heard, 1969 based on morphological characters (presence of a cirrus-sac; a long metraterm, intensively ensheathed by gland-cells; an entirely postcaecal uterus; vitellarium composed of two lateral clusters each of about ten follicles, situated in the testicular and post-testicular areas). Longiductotrema tethepae n. sp. is the third species assigned to the genus, differing from its congeners in having a distinctly larger body dimensions, a smaller pharynx in relation to oral sucker, the anterior limits of the vitelline fields at the level of the testes (vs at the level of the ovary) and in its parasitism of a muraenid fish (vs birds). Additionally, the new species differs from L. floridense Deblock & Heard, 1969 in having a shorter metraterm and from L. scandolensis Deblock & Bartoli, 1988 in having a less elongate forebody in relation to body length, shorter caeca and prepharynx, and slightly larger eggs. Phylogenetic analyses, based on partial 28S rRNA gene sequences, showed that the present species is sister to all other microphallids for which sequence data are available. This is the fourth report of a microphallid from a marine eel, the first from the Muraenidae Rafinesque and the first from a marine fish in the Indo-west Pacific. A summary of all species of the Microphallidae parasitising fish is provided.

  3. A morphological study of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) (Trematoda: Diplodiscidae) adults from the accidental host, Viviparus contectus (Millet, 1813) (Caenogastropoda: Viviparidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Anna; Żbikowska, Elżbieta

    2016-12-01

    A phenomenon of switching of the parasite in the food chain to an accidental host is commonly observed in nature. However, there is little available data concerning the morphological descriptions of parasites that passively get into the atypical hosts and are capable, at least to some degree, of somatic growth and development of reproductive structures. A morphological survey of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) adults isolated from a digestive tract of an accidental host, Viviparus contectus (Millet, 1813), was carried out. Diplodiscus subclavatus individuals identified in prosobranch snails were morphologically similar to adult forms of the parasite described from amphibians, typical final hosts in the life cycle of this paramphistomid. The observed forms of D. subclavatus had a fully developed reproductive system, sperm in the seminal vesicle and oocytes in the ovary. The number of eggs in the uterus ranged from 3 to 17. Our research indicates that D. subclavatus individuals reach the sexual maturity in the accidental, invertebrate hosts.

  4. Infrapopulations of Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 (Trematoda: Gyliauchenidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei: Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jahdali, M.O.

    2012-01-01

    In hermaphroditic helminth parasites, infrapopulation size or mating group size mostly affects some processes acting within the infrapopulation. Here, 30 natural infrapopulations (12-154 individuals) of the intestinal trematode Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisting of newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 40 % of the intestine). In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were alive. In larger infrapopulations, differential mortality was only and consistently observed among newly excysted juveniles, and gradually increased to include most or all juveniles in the largest infrapopulations. Among mature worms, the mean worm length seemed unaffected by the infrapopulation size. However, the ratio mean testis size-mean ovary size, a reliable indicator of resource allocation to the male function and of opportunities for crossfertilization, significantly increased with mating group size. In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were scattered along the niche, and never seen in mating pairs (possibly reproduced by selffertilization). In larger infrapopulations, newly excysted juveniles and immature worms were scattered along the anterior two thirds of the niche, while mature worms were constantly found aggregated in its posterior third (narrow microhabitat), where some were arranged in mating pairs. The probability of mating reciprocally or unilaterally was dependent on body size. The mean number of uterine eggs per worm significantly decreased and their mean sizes significantly increased with mating group size. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is greatly associated with its size. PMID:22910665

  5. Type material of Platyhelminthes housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016 (Rhabditophora, Trematoda and Cestoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Daniela A.; Mainenti, Adriana; Knoff, Marcelo; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The second part of the catalogue of type material deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), between 1979 and 2016, is presented, to complement the first list of all types that was published in 1979. This part includes Platyhelminthes other than monogenoids, which were covered in the first part published in September 2016. The present catalogue comprises type material for 104 species, distributed across three classes, 40 families and 75 genera. Species names are listed systematically, followed by type host, infection site, type locality and specimens with their collection numbers and references. The classification and the nomenclature of the species have been updated. PMID:28769607

  6. Morphology, biology and taxonomy of Dendritobilharzia loossi Skrjabin, 1924 (Trematoda: Bilharziellidae), a parasite of Pelecanus onocrotalus (Pelecanidae) and Anas plathyrinchos (Anatidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akramova, F.D.; Azimov, D.A.; Shakarboev, E.B.

    2011-01-01

    Life cycles of Dendritobilharzia loossi Skrjabin, 1924, a parasite of waterbirds, and its morphobiological traits are studied and described. Mollusks Anisus spirorbis, the infection rate of which in natural environments reaches 1.3-1.9%, were recorded as intermediate hosts under conditions of Uzbekistan. The development of this trematode in intermediate and definitive hosts lasts for 26 and 15 days, respectively. Diagnostic traits of the trematodes during all stages of their ontogeny are reviewed. PMID:21395204

  7. Discovery of intermediate hosts for two species of blood flukes Cardicola orientalis and Cardicola forsteri (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) infecting Pacific bluefin tuna in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Shin, Sang Phil; Honryo, Tomoki; Uchida, Hiro'omi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Fish blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) are important pathogens of farmed finfish around the world. Among them, Cardicola spp. infecting farmed tuna are considered to be serious threats to tuna farming and have received tremendous attention. We conducted periodical samplings at a tuna farming site in Japan between January and May, 2015 to determine the life cycle of Cardicola spp. We collected over 4700 terebellid polychaetes from ropes, floats and frames of tuna culture cages and found nearly 400 infected worms. Sporocysts and cercariae found in Nicolea gracilibranchis were genetically identified as Cardicola orientalis by 28S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA sequences. This was the first discovery of the intermediate host for this parasite species. Infection prevalence and the abundance of N. gracilibranchis significantly varied between sampling points and the highest number of infected terebellids were collected from ropes. We also demonstrated morphologically and molecularly that asexual stages found in a single Amphitrite sp. (Terebellidae) and adult worms isolated from farmed juvenile tuna were Cardicola forsteri. This is the first report of C. forsteri in Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT) Thunnus orientalis in Japan. Our results demonstrated that all three species of Cardicola orientalis, C. forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis exist in Japanese farmed PBTs and that they all use terebellid polychaetes as the intermediate hosts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A new species of Plectognathotrema Layman, 1930 (Trematoda: Zoogonidae) from an Australian monacanthid, with a molecular assessment of the phylogenetic position of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, Scott C; Miller, Terrence L; Bray, Rodney A; Cribb, Thomas H

    2014-11-01

    During helminthological examinations of teleost fishes of Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, a new species of the enigmatic genus Plectognathotrema Layman, 1930 was discovered infecting the pot-bellied leatherjacket Pseudomonacanthus peroni (Hollard). The new species, Plectognathotrema kamegaii n. sp., is formally described, and the status of its four congeners is reviewed. Plectognathotrema hydrolagi Olson, Hanson & Pratt, 1970 is not recognised within the genus, as it differs greatly from its congeners in the form and arrangement of the vitellarium, testes and uterus, and in that it was described from a holocephalan. Plectognathotrema cephalopore Layman, 1930 and P. tsushimaense Kamegai, 1970 are morphologically similar, were described from the same host species and from close geographical localities and are considered synonymous. The new taxon is most similar to P. cephalopore, but differs from it in being much smaller and possessing a distinctly larger oral sucker relative to its body size. The generation of novel partial 28S ribosomal DNA sequences allowed a phylogenetic assessment of the genus and demonstrated that Plectognathotrema clearly belongs in the Zoogonidae Odhner, 1902, rather than in the Fellodistomidae Nicoll, 1909, where it is currently assigned. With the inclusion of Plectognathotrema in the Zoogonidae, there are now three zoogonid genera for which the species are restricted to monacanthid teleosts, i.e. Cephaloporus Yamaguti, 1934, Plectognathotrema and Yamagutiplectognathotrema Parukhin, 1977. Species of these genera share pronounced morphological and ecological affinities and a previously synonymised subfamily, the Cephaloporinae Yamaguti, 1934, is resurrected for them. The host specificity of these trematodes is commented upon.

  9. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878), the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Devendra K.; Chatterjee, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    Among helminth parasites, Paragonimus (zoonotic lung fluke) gains considerable importance from veterinary and medical points of view because of its diversified effect on its host. Nearly fifty species of Paragonimus have been described across the globe. It is estimated that more than 20 million people are infected worldwide and the best known species is Paragonimus westermani, whose type locality is probably India and which infects millions of people in Asia causing disease symptoms that mimic tuberculosis. Human infections occur through eating raw crustaceans containing metacercarie or ingestion of uncooked meat of paratenic hosts such as pigs. Though the fluke is known to parasitize a wide range of mammalian hosts representing as many as eleven families, the status of its prevalence, host range, pathogenic manifestations and its possible survivors in nature from where the human beings contract the infection is not well documented in India. We took advantage of the whole genome sequence data for P. westermani, generated by Next Generation Sequencing, and its comparison with the existing data for the P. westermani for comparative mt DNA phylogenomic analyses. Specific primers were designed for the 12 protein coding genes with the aid of existing P. westermani mtDNA as the reference. The Ion torrent next generation sequencing platform was harnessed to completely sequence the mitochondrial genome, and applied innovative approaches to bioinformatically assemble and annotate it. A strategic PCR primer design utilizing the whole genome sequence data from P. westermani enabled us to design specific primers capable of amplifying all regions of the mitochondrial genome from P. westermani. Assembly of NGS data from libraries enriched in mtDNA sequence by PCR gave rise to a total of 11 contigs spanning the entire 14.7 kb mt DNA sequence of P. westermani available at NCBI. We conducted gap-filling by traditional Sanger sequencing to fill in the gaps. Annotation of non-protein coding genes successfully identified tRNA regions for the 24 tRNAs coded in mtDNA and 12 protein coding genes. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated protein coding genes placed P. westermani within the family Opisthorchida. The complete mtDNA sequence of P. westermani is 15,004 base pairs long; the lung fluke is the major etiological agent of paragonimiasis and the first Indian representative for the family Paragonimidae to be fully sequenced that provides important genetic markers for ecological, population and biogeographical studies and molecular diagnostic of digeneans that cause trematodiases. PMID:25165620

  10. A redescription of Lobatostoma kemostoma (MacCallum & MacCallum, 1913) (Trematoda: Aspidogastrea) from the florida pompano fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766) off the Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, P V; Borges, J N; Santos, C P; Luque, J L

    2015-05-01

    A redescription of the aspidogastrean trematode Lobatostoma kemostoma (MacCallum & MacCallum, 1913) is provided based on examination of type material, voucher specimens available at institutional collections and newly collected specimens from the type host, Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766), off the Angra dos Reis, Brazil. Partial sequence of its 28S rDNA is given. Lobatostoma kemostoma can be distinguished from the other eight species of the genus by: (1) the hindbody being longer than the ventral disc; and (2) the cephalic lobes having the same shape and size. Features observed for the first time include the number and detailed arrangement of alveoli on the ventral disc, the terminal genitalia and the ovarian complex. New illustrations and morphometric data are given. In the present survey the host specificity in the genus, the validity of some morphological features and the occurrence of an Indian species of Lobatostoma from off the Brazilian coast are discussed. A lectotype of L. kemostoma from the type series deposited at United States National Parasite Collection is also designated.

  11. A review of the genus Antorchis Linton, 1911 (Trematoda: Faustulidae) from Indo-Pacific fishes with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Thomas H; Bray, Rodney A; Hall, Kathryn A; Cutmore, Scott C

    2015-09-01

    Species of the faustulid genus Antorchis Linton, 1911 of the tropical Indo-West Pacific are reviewed. We recognise five species in the region, including a novel form. Antorchis nasonis n. sp. is described from Naso annulatus (Quoy & Gaimard) and N. tonganus (Valenciennes) on the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). We interpret specimens reported from Naso hexacanthus (Bleeker) from Japan as the same species. This species appears to be the only faustulid known from acanthurid fishes and differs from all other species in the genus in having the prominent dorsal genital invagination close to the posterior end of the body. In addition, new host and locality records are reported for two described species of Antorchis, A. pomacanthi (Hafeezullah & Siddiqi, 1970) and A. tsushimaensis (Machida, 1971). The wide distribution of A. pomacanthi was further demonstrated by the generation of identical ITS2 rDNA sequences for specimens from Ningaloo Reef off Western Australia, off Lizard and Heron Islands (GBR) and off New Caledonia, localities separated by up to 5,300 km. The host-specificity of the genus is considered.

  12. Central European parasitic flatworms of the family Renicolidae Dollfus, 1939 (Trematoda: Plagiorchiida): molecular and comparative morphological analysis rejects the synonymization of Renicola pinguis complex suggested by Odening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr; Sitko, Jiljí; Bizos, Jiří; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2016-10-01

    The Renicolidae are digenean parasites of piscivorous and molluscivorous birds. Although they exhibit few morphological autapomorphies and are highly variable, the numerous suggested re-classifications within the family have never been supported by any molecular analyses. We address the possible synonymization of species within the Renicola pinguis complex suggested previously by Odening. We provide and analyse sequences of two nuclear (ITS2, 28S rDNA) and two mitochondrial (CO1, ND1) DNA loci of central European species of the Renicolidae, namely Renicola lari, Renicola pinguis and Renicola sternae sp. n., and we also provide first sequences of Renicola sloanei. The combined molecular and comparative morphological analysis confirms the previously questioned validity of the three Renicola spp. of highly similar morphology, which display strict niche separation in terms of host specificity and selectivity. We identify two previously unreported clades within the genus Renicola; however, only one of them is supported by the analysis of adult worms. We also provide comparative measurements of the three examined closely related central European renicolids, and describe the newly proposed tern-specialized species Renicola sternae sp. n., which was previously repeatedly misidentified as Renicola paraquinta. Based on the extensive dataset collected in 1962-2015, we update the host spectrum of Renicolidae parasitizing central European birds (Renicola bretensis, R. lari, Renicola mediovitellata, R. pinguis, Renicola secunda and R. sternae sp. n.) and discuss their host-specific prevalence and intensity of infections.

  13. Brachylaima ezohelicis sp. nov. (Trematoda: Brachylaimidae) found from the land snail Ezohelix gainesi, with a note of an unidentified Brachylaima species in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Minoru; Waki, Tsukasa; Sasaki, Mizuki; Anders, Jason L; Koga, Daisuke; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2017-06-01

    In the Japanese Archipelago, Ezohelix gainesi, a member of bradybaenid land snails, is endemic mainly to the island of Hokkaido. During July to August of 2016, a survey to detect trematode infections from E. gainesi was carried out at a forest city park in Asahikawa, Hokkaido. Systemic infections of the snails with sporocysts containing short-tailed cercariae were found in 5.3% of 94 individuals examined. Furthermore, most of them (90.4%) harbored non-encysted metacercariae within their kidneys. A DNA sequence identification revealed that both of the sporocyst and the metacercaria belong to an unknown species of the family Brachylaimidae. The metacercariae showed a genetic diversity with 6 haplotypes of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) even in the limited sampling area. A definitive host of the unknown species could not be determined, although 34 field mice (Apodemus speciosus) and 21 voles (Myodes rufocanus) from the city park were examined for intestinal parasites. To examine the adult stage, the metacercariae were perorally administrated to mice, together with anti-inflammatory treatment with methylprednisolone. Fully matured adult worms were recovered from the intestinal ileum 8 and 14days postinfection. The gravid adults showed typical features of the genus Brachylaima. A morphological and biogeographical evaluation prompted us to propose Brachylaima ezohelicis sp. nov. for the parasite from E. gainesi. The autochthony of the first intermediate host and the spatial heterogeneity of mtDNA suggest that the new species found in the city park is not a recently expanded population of immigrant origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Transversotrema Witenberg, 1944 (Trematoda: Transversotrematidae) from inshore fishes of Australia: description of a new species and significant range extensions for three congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, Scott C; Diggles, Ben K; Cribb, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    Four transversotrematid trematodes are reported from commercial teleost species in Australian waters. Transversotrema hunterae n. sp. is described from three species of Sillago Cuvier (Sillaginidae) from Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland. Molecular characterisation using ITS2 rDNA confirmed this stenoxenic specificity of Transversotrema hunterae n. sp., with identical sequence data from Sillago maculata Quoy & Gaimard, S. analis Whitley and S. ciliata Cuvier. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 28S rDNA data, demonstrates that T. hunterae n. sp. belongs to the 'Transversotrema licinum clade' and is most closely related to Transversotrema licinum Manter, 1970 and T. polynesiae Cribb, Adlard, Bray, Sasal & Cutmore, 2014, with the three species forming a well-supported clade in all analyses. We extend the known host and geographical ranges of three previously described Transversotrema species, T. licinum, T. elegans Hunter, Ingram, Adlard, Bray & Cribb, 2010 and T. espanola Hunter & Cribb, 2012. The new records represent significant range extensions for the three species and permit further examination of the patterns of biogeographical distribution in Australian waters. Host-specificity of Transversotrema species is examined, and the degree to which morphological analysis can inform taxonomic studies of this group is discussed.

  15. Review of haploporid (Trematoda) genera with ornate muscularisation in the region of the oral sucker, including four new species and a new genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulis, Eric E; Overstreet, Robin M

    2013-02-01

    Species of the Haploporidae Nicoll, 1914 with elaborate muscularisation of the oral sucker belong in three trematode genera, including three new species and a new genus from the intestine of fishes in Australian waters. Spiritestis Nagaty, 1948 is resurrected and S. herveyensis n. sp. is described from the mullet Moolgarda seheli (Forsskål) collected in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia; the latter differs from S. arabii Nagaty, 1948 in that the position of the genital pore is pharyngeal rather than post-pharyngeal and the geographical range is off Australia rather than the Red Sea. A new genus is proposed for two new species, with a uniquely ornamented oral sucker, which infect Australian scatophagids. Members of Capitimitta n. g. are distinguished from Waretrema Srivastava, 1937, species of which have a simple oral sucker with six radially arranged anterior muscular lobes, in that their oral sucker is V-shaped with six embedded muscular finger-like structures in the anteroventral portion. The relatively small C. darwinensis n. sp., collected from Selenotoca multifasciata (Richardson) at Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, is distinguished from C. costata n. sp., collected from Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) in the same locality and S. multifasciata off Brisbane, Australia, and by having smaller eggs, a vitellarium commencing at a level close to the ventral sucker rather than at greater than one ovarian length posterior to the ventral sucker, and shorter tegumental body spines. Sequence data of a c.2,500 bp region of the 3' end of 18S, the entire ITS region and the 5' end of the 28S revealed that Spiritestis and Capitimitta are not as closely related as some morphological features would suggest and are probably not the closest relative of each other. What has been reported as Waretrema piscicolum Srivastava, 1937 probably consists of several species, some in different genera, and one, based on material collected by Dr Masaaki Machida, is proposed as Spiritestis machidai n. sp. from Crenimugil crenilabis (Forsskål) off Japan. Phylogenetic hypotheses, based on analysis of an alignment of partial 28S sequences with other haploporids, provide a framework for the evaluation of interrelationships within the Haploporidae. These analyses show that: (1) Spiritestis and Capitimitta are supported within the Haploporidae; (2) branches to Forticulcita Overstreet, 1982, Saccocoelioides Szidat, 1954, Spiritestis and Capitimitta create a clade that is sister to haploporines from the Mediterranean Sea; (3) the branch to Saccocoelioides, Spiritestis and Capitimitta create a polytomy; and (4) the two new species of Capitimitta, plus an immature specimen of an unnamed species, form a monophyletic clade.

  16. Biomphalaria straminea and Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Planorbidae) as new intermediate hosts of the fish eyefluke Austrodiplostomum compactum (Trematoda: Diplostomidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, H A; Melo, A L

    2013-08-01

    Austrodiplostomum compactum has been involved in cases of ocular diplostomiasis in several species of fish in Brazil, but the molluscan intermediate hosts of the parasite remain unknown. In the present study, malacological surveys were carried out at Pampulha Reservoir, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, between January 2009 and July 2012. A total of 16,119 specimens of Biomphalaria spp. were collected and examined, of which 68/14,948 specimens (0.45%) of Biomphalaria straminea and 6/541 (1.11%) of Biomphalaria glabrata were found harboring a strigeid cercariae. Groups of 5 specimens of Cyprinius carpio were experimentally infected with these cercariae (100 larvae/fish), and metacercariae were recovered from the eyes of the fish, 65 days after infection, with a mean intensity of infection of 10.4 (8-13) metacercariae/fish. Morphological study on cercariae and metacercariae identified them as A. compactum . This is the first record of cercariae of A. compactum in Brazil, and B. straminea and B. glabrata as new intermediate hosts for the parasite.

  17. Morphological description and molecular analyses of Tylodelphys sp. (Trematoda: Diplostomidae) newly recorded from the freshwater fish Gobiomorphus cotidianus (common bully) in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Costa, I; Poulin, R; Presswell, B

    2017-05-01

    Among eyeflukes, Tylodelphys Diesing, 1850 includes diverse species able to infect the eyes, but also the brain, pericardial sac and body cavity of their second intermediate host. While the genus shows a cosmopolitan distribution with 29 nominal species in Africa, Asia, Europe and America, a likely lower research effort has produced two records only for all of Australasia. This study provides the first description of a species of Tylodelphys and the first record for a member of the Diplostomidae in New Zealand. Tylodephys sp. metacercaria from the eyes of Gobiomorphus cotidianus McDowall, 1975 is distinguished from its congeners as being larger in all, or nearly all, metrics than Tylodelphys clavata (von Nordmann, 1832), T. conifera (Mehlis, 1846) and T. scheuringi (Hughes, 1929); whereas T. podicipina Kozicka & Niewiadomska, 1960 is larger in body size, ventral sucker and holdfast sizes and T. ophthalmi (Pandey, 1970) has comparatively a very small pharynx and body spination. Tylodelphys sp. exhibits consistent genetic variation for the 28S rDNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and Cox1 genes, and phylogenetic analyses confirm that it represents an independent lineage, closely related to North American species. Morphological and molecular results together support the distinct species status of Tylodephys sp. metacercaria, the formal description and naming of which await discovery of the adult. Furthermore, the validity of T. strigicola Odening, 1962 is restored, T. cerebralis Chakrabarti, 1968 is proposed as major synonym of T. ophthalmi, and species described solely on the basis of metacercariae are considered incertae sedis, except those for which molecular data already exist.

  18. THE FIRST RECORD OF DIMEROSACCUS ONCORHYNCHI (TREMATODA: OPECOELIDAE) IN FISHES FROM RIVERS OF PRIMORSKY TERRITORY, RUSSIA, WITH A DISCUSSION ON ITS TAXONOMIC POSITION USING MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedko, M B; Sokolov, S G; Atopkin, D M

    2015-01-01

    The opecoelid trematode Dimerosaccus oncorhynchi (Eguchi, 1931) Shimazu, 1980, hitherto known only from the Japanese archipelago, has been found in three species of freshwater salmonid fish (Oncorhynchus masou, Brachymystax tumensis, Salvelinus curilus) from rivers of Primorsky Territory, the Sea of Japan basin, Russia. This is the first record of the parasite in the continental part of Asia. Fishes B. tumensis and S. curilus are new hosts for D. oncorhynchi. The ecological notes, morphological description and drawings of the found trematodes clarifying the morphology of the male reproductive system are given. In the present study phylogenetic relationships of the species D. oncorhynchi with the related taxa were revealed using partial sequences of the 28S rDNA. Obtained results indicate the validity of D. oncorhynchi as the member of the subfamily Opecoelinae, which was closely related to the genus Opecoeloides, a representative of this subfamily.

  19. First Report of Kidney Lesions Due to Renicola sp. (Digenea: Trematoda) in Free-Living Magellanic Penguins ( Spheniscus magellanicus Forster, 1781) Found on the Coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerdy, H; Baldassin, P; Werneck, M R; Bianchi, M; Ribeiro, R B; Carvalho, E C Q

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the first report of parasites from the genus Renicola sp. in the kidneys of Magellanic penguins. The histological analysis revealed inflammatory infiltrate (eonsinophils, lymphocytes, and plasmocytes), together with fibroplasia and compression of the adjacent ducts.

  20. Trematoda, Digenea, Didymozoidae, Wedlia retrorbitalis (Yamaguti, 1970 and Wedlia submaxillaris (Yamaguti, 1970: First record in South America and the Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Didymozoidae originally described from Pacific Ocean, Wedlia retrorbitalis and Wedliasubmaxillaris are reported for the first time in South America, Atlantic Ocean. W. retrorbitalis was found encysted inretrorbital adipose tissue and W. submaxillaris in the maxillary region of Thunnus obesus caught along the Rio de Janeirocoastline, extending their current geographical distribution. Original measurements and figures are presented.

  1. The identification and characteristics of Echinoparyphium rubrum (Cort. 1914) new comb. (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae) based on experimental evidence of the life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanev, I.; Sorensen, R.; Sterner, M.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Fried, B.

    1998-01-01

    The life cycle of Echinoparyphium rubrum (Cort, 1914) comb. n. has been completed experimentally. All of the developmental stages egg, miracidium, sporocyst, mother and daughter rediae, cercaria, metacercaria, and adult were examined and described. The miracidia infected freshwater snails of the genus Physa , P. gyrina and P. occidentalis. Attempts to infect snails of the genera Lymnaea, L. auricularis, L. peregra, L. truncatula and Bulinus, B. truncatus failed. Cercariae infected various pulmonate and prosobranch freshwater snails, mussels, frogs, water turtles and planarians. The adults developed in the small intestine of birds and mammals. The identity and major characteristics of Echinoparyphium rubrum are discussed. Synonyms of E. rubrum are Cercaria rubra Cort, 1914; Cercaria biflexa Faust, 1917; Cercaria chisolenata Faust, 1918; Echinostoma callawayensis Barker et Noll, 1915; Echinostoma revolutum of Johnson (1920); Echinoparyphium elegans of Cannon (1938), of Bain and Trelfall (1977), of Mahoney and Trelfall (1977); and Echinoparyphium recurvatum of Jilek (1977), Harley (1972), Sankurathri and Holmes (1976). Comparisons are made between E. rubrum and its 43-collar-spined allies: E. flexum from North America, E. cinctum from Europe, E. dunni from Asia and E. elegans from Africa.

  2. Species of Apatemon Szidat, 1928 and Australapatemon Sudarikov, 1959 (Trematoda: Strigeidae) from New Zealand: linking and characterising life cycle stages with morphology and molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Poulin, Robert; Presswell, Bronwen

    2016-01-01

    Species of Apatemon Szidat, 1928 and Australapatemon Sudarikov, 1959 are reported from New Zealand for the first time, and their life cycles are resolved using molecular sequence data (28S and ITS rDNA regions and mitochondrial COI). The metacercaria of Apatemon sp. 'jamiesoni' ex Gobiomorphus cotidianus and its cercaria ex Potamopyrgus antipodarum are described in detail. Its adult, found in Anas platyrhynchos and Phalacrocorax punctatus, is identified by molecular sequence data. Apatemon sp. 'jamiesoni' uses a different species of snail host, exhibits consistent differences in the genetic markers examined and its single described adult differs from known species so as to be considered distinct, but its formal description awaits additional adult specimens. Australapatemon niewiadomski n. sp. is described from Anas platyrhynchos. It is distinguished morphologically by the absence of a ringnapf and its overall smaller size compared to most other Australapatemon spp. except Au. magnacetabulum and Au. minor, which are smaller in nearly all features than the new species. Au. niewiadomski n. sp. metacercaria and its intermediate host (Barbronia weberi) are identified via matching of molecular sequence data. The status of Apatemon and Australapatemon as distinct genera is confirmed based on their respective monophyly, and genetic divergence between them is comparable to other well-established genera in the Strigeidae. The diagnosis of Australapatemon is emended. Life history data, accurate patterns of host specialisation and distribution, alongside concurrent molecular and morphological evidence would be useful for an integrative taxonomical approach towards the elucidation of species diversity in this group.

  3. Morphological characterisation and identification of four species of Cardicola Short, 1953 (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) infecting the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (L.) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Abella, José F; Rodríguez-Llanos, Javier; Mele, Salvatore; Montero, Francisco E

    2015-06-01

    Blood flukes of the genus Cardicola Short, 1953 are considered the most potentially pathogenic parasites in bluefin tuna cultures. Morphological study and genetic analyses of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer ITS-2 and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) gene fragments revealed the occurrence of four aporocotylid species (C. forsteri Cribb, Daintith & Munday, 2000, C. orientalis Ogawa, Tanaka, Sugihara & Takami, 2010, C. opisthorchis Ogawa, Ishimaru, Shirakashi, Takami & Grabner, 2011 and Cardicola sp.) in 421 Thunnus thynnus (L.) from the Western Mediterranean (274 fished from the wild and 147 from sea-cages). Cardicola opisthorchis was the most abundant species, with higher prevalence in the cage-reared fish than in those fished in the wild (21 vs 6%, p < 0.05). Adults of three species were recovered: C. forsteri from both gills and heart, C. opisthorchis from heart and C. orientalis from gills. The secondary gill lamellae were profusely infected by eggs of C. orientalis. A fourth species was found in four tunas, based on the molecular analyses of eggs apparently indistinguishable in size and shape from the eggs of C. orientalis. The findings provided evidence that infections with Cardicola spp. differed in relation to locality, host origin (wild vs cage-reared) and site of infection. It is necessary to estimate the possible different pathogenic effects of each species of Cardicola in order to take appropriate control measures.

  4. Characterization of South American Snails of the Genus Biomphalaria (Basommatophora: Planorbidae and Schistosoma mansoni (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda in Molluscs by PCR-RFLP

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    Roberta Lima Caldeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of snails of the genus Biomphalaria can be done using morphological characteristics which depends on the size of the snails and skill and knowledge of researcher. These methods sometimes are not adequate for identification of species. The PCR-RFLP, using the ITS region of the rDNA, has been used to identify Brazilian species of the genus Biomphalaria. Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about snails from other Latin American countries. In addition, some snails may be infected by Schistosoma mansoni and when submitted to PCR-RFLP they show molecular profiles different from those previously standardized for the other mollusc species. In this work the molecular profiles of 15 species and the subspecies were established by PCR-RFLP of ITS-rDNA with the enzyme DdeI. Moreover, the molecular profiles of host species, B. glabrata, B. straminea, B. tenagophila, and B. prona, infected by S. mansoni were also established. The molluscs were dissected to permit morphological identification. These results contribute to a correct identification of snails of the genus Biomphalaria and detection of these snails infected by S. mansoni.

  5. Development and evaluation of a single-step duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica (family Fasciolidae, class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Nguyen, Khue Thi; Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Le, Xuyen Thi Kim; Hoang, Chau Thi Minh; De, Nguyen Van

    2012-08-01

    A single-step multiplex PCR (here referred to as a duplex PCR) has been developed for simultaneous detection and diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. These species overlap in distribution in many countries of North and East Africa and Central and Southeast Asia and are similar in egg morphology, making identification from fecal samples difficult. Based on a comparative alignment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) spanning the region of cox1-trnT-rrnL, two species-specific forward primers were designed, FHF (for F. hepatica) and FGF (for F. gigantica), and a single reverse primer, FHGR (common for both species). Conventional PCR followed by sequencing was applied using species-specific primer pairs to verify the specificity of primers and the identity of Fasciola DNA templates. Duplex PCR (using three primers) was used for testing with the DNA extracted from adult worms, miracidia, and eggs, producing amplicons of 1,031 bp for F. hepatica and 615 bp for F. gigantica. The duplex PCR failed to amplify from DNA of other common liver and intestinal trematodes, including two opisthorchiids, three heterophyids, an echinostomid, another fasciolid, and a taeniid cestode. The sensitivity assay showed that the duplex PCR limit of detection for each Fasciola species was between 0.012 ng and 0.006 ng DNA. Evaluation using DNA templates from 32 Fasciola samples (28 adults and 4 eggs) and from 25 field-collected stools of ruminants and humans revealed specific bands of the correct size and the presence of Fasciola species. This novel mtDNA duplex PCR is a sensitive and fast tool for accurate identification of Fasciola species in areas of distributional and zonal overlap.

  6. Ciclo Vital de Schistosoma mansoni através do Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1818 em ambiente semi-natural (Trematoda, Shistosomatidae; Rodentia, Cricetidae

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    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available Junto ao Lago da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, foram capturados (julho/72-novembro/73 28 exemplares de Holochilus brasiliensis, dos quais 11 (39,3% eliminavam nas fezes ovos viáveis de S. mansoni. Miracídios da cepa mencionada ("H" infectaram Biomphalaria glabrata e as cercárias obtidas também infectaram camundongos albinos, recuperando-se, ao final do experimento, 35,3% de vermes adultos. Por outro lado, cercárias de cepa humana ("LE" de S. mansoni infectaram sete exemplares de H. brasiliensis, nascidos em laboratório, recuperando-se no fim de 60 dias, 30,5% de vermes adultos. Estudos anatomapatológicos de H. brasiliensis demonstraram infecção generalizada, encontrando-se granuloma no esôfago, estômago, intestino (delgado e grosso, fígado, baço, pâncreas e linfonodos abdominais. Espessamentos fibrosos da íntima da veia porta, granulomas em espaços porta e fibrose incipiente dos espaços porta e interlobular foram lesões decorrentes da presença de ovos de S. mansoni encontrados no fígado. Em ambiente semi-natural, foi possível fechar o ciclo do S. mansoni sem direta participação humana, utilizando-se B. glabrata experimentalmente infectadas com trematódeos da cepa "LE", H. brasiliensis nascidos em laboratório e B. glabrata nascida no ambiente semi-natural estabelecido. Verificou-se que ambas as cepas ("H" e "LE" comportaram-se de maneira análoga, não sendo verificadas, também, diferenças morfológicas entre os ovos e vermes adultos de ambas. As observações, realizadas no campo e no laboratório demonstraram que o Holochilus brasiliensis é bom hospedeiro de Schistosoma mansoni. Assim, em determinadas áreas e sob certas condições ecológicas, o cricetídeo em questão poderá, efetivamente, integrar-se ao ciclo do trematódeo na natureza, independente ou paralelamente à presença do homem. Assinala-se, finalmente, que o presente trabalho relata o segundo fechamento do ciclo biológico de S. mansoni em condições ditas semi-naturais. Os primeiros estudos, entretanto, de Antunes, Milward de Andrade, Katz & Coelho4,,em 1971 e de Antunes5, em 1971 foram feitos utilizando-se o Nectomys s. squamipes.Close to the Pampulha Lake, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil, there were collected (july/72 -November/73 28 specimens of Holochilus brasiliensis, 11 of them (39.3% eliminating S. mansoni viable eggs in their faeces. Miracidia from the strain above ("H" could infected Biomphalaria glabrata, the cercariae shed later being also able to infect albino mice, from whose faeces 35,3% of adult worms were recovered in the end of the experiment. S. mansoni cercariae from human strain ("LE" infected 7 H. brasiliensis laboratory specimens, and 30,5% of adult worms could be recovered in the end of 60 days. Anatomopathological studies of H. brasiliensis demonstrated generalized infection, granulomes being detected in the esophagus, stomach, intestines (small and large, tiver, spleen, pancreas and abdominal lymphnodes. Fibrous thickenning of the portal vein intima, granulomes in portal spaces an incipient fibrosis of portal and interlobular spaces were the lesion triggered by the presence of S. mansoni eggs in the liver. In semi-natural surroundings (Fig. 1, the life cycle of S. mansoni could be completed, with no human interference, by using B. glabrata experimentally infected with trematodes from "LE" strain, laboratory-bred H. brasiliensis and B. glabrata specimens from hat seminatural surroundings. It was observed that both strains ("H" and "LE" displayed similar behaviour, no morphological differences having been detected between their eggs and adult worms. Field and laboratory studies demonstrated Holochilus brasiliensis to be a satisfactory intermediate host of S. mansoni. It is than possible that, under certains ecological conditions, the cricetids under study may eventually be integrated in the trematode natural cycle, independently from or parallely the presence of man. It must finally be pointed out that the present paper reports the second case of lifecycle completion under semi-natural conditions. The former studies4,5, however, were conducted on Nectomys s. squamipes.

  7. Biogeography of tropical Indo-West Pacific parasites: a cryptic species of Transversotrema and evidence for rarity of Transversotrematidae (Trematoda) in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Thomas H; Adlard, Robert D; Bray, Rodney A; Sasal, Pierre; Cutmore, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    We sought transversotrematid trematodes from French Polynesian fishes by examining 304 individual scaled fishes of 53 species from seven families known to harbour the family elsewhere. A single species was found at two locations in the Tuamotus Archipelago on two species of Chaetodontidae (Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon ephippium) and one species of Lutjanidae (Lutjanus gibbus). The species closely resembles Transversotrema borboleta Hunter & Cribb, 2012 from chaetodontids and lutjanids of the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) but differs from it consistently in 8 base positions of ITS2 rDNA. This level of variation exceeds that between some clearly morphologically distinct pairs of species of Transversotrema and the form from French Polynesia is thus interpreted as a distinct, though cryptic, species and named Transversotrema polynesiae n. sp. The new species forms part of a complex of species, here characterised as the T. borboleta complex, associated with chaetodontids and lutjanids in the tropical Indo-West Pacific. Most of the putative species within this complex are yet to be described. Comparison of identical numbers of matched samples of fishes from French Polynesia, Heron Island (southern GBR) and Lizard Island (northern GBR) revealed 1, 4 and 10 species of Transversotrema respectively suggesting that the French Polynesian fauna is depauperate for this family. In addition to those species apparently missing from suitable hosts in French Polynesia, several species from further west infect fishes (especially Nemipteridae) that are themselves absent from French Polynesia. This dramatic east-west decline in richness contrasts strongly with what is known for monogeneans, which appear to maintain their richness over the same scale, and is more precipitate than is known for other groups of trematodes. The decline might be explained in part by the absence of the as yet unknown first intermediate hosts in French Polynesia. However, we predict that it is explained by other life cycle traits. We hypothesise that the characters of large short-lived cercariae, short-lived miracidia, the absence in the life-cycle of second intermediate hosts that are capable of transporting the species, and definitive and first intermediate hosts that have limited vagility combine to give marine Transversotrematidae limited dispersal capacity and a propensity for localised speciation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Ciclo Vital de Schistosoma mansoni através do Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1818 em ambiente semi-natural (Trematoda, Shistosomatidae; Rodentia, Cricetidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available Junto ao Lago da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, foram capturados (julho/72-novembro/73 28 exemplares de Holochilus brasiliensis, dos quais 11 (39,3% eliminavam nas fezes ovos viáveis de S. mansoni. Miracídios da cepa mencionada ("H" infectaram Biomphalaria glabrata e as cercárias obtidas também infectaram camundongos albinos, recuperando-se, ao final do experimento, 35,3% de vermes adultos. Por outro lado, cercárias de cepa humana ("LE" de S. mansoni infectaram sete exemplares de H. brasiliensis, nascidos em laboratório, recuperando-se no fim de 60 dias, 30,5% de vermes adultos. Estudos anatomapatológicos de H. brasiliensis demonstraram infecção generalizada, encontrando-se granuloma no esôfago, estômago, intestino (delgado e grosso, fígado, baço, pâncreas e linfonodos abdominais. Espessamentos fibrosos da íntima da veia porta, granulomas em espaços porta e fibrose incipiente dos espaços porta e interlobular foram lesões decorrentes da presença de ovos de S. mansoni encontrados no fígado. Em ambiente semi-natural, foi possível fechar o ciclo do S. mansoni sem direta participação humana, utilizando-se B. glabrata experimentalmente infectadas com trematódeos da cepa "LE", H. brasiliensis nascidos em laboratório e B. glabrata nascida no ambiente semi-natural estabelecido. Verificou-se que ambas as cepas ("H" e "LE" comportaram-se de maneira análoga, não sendo verificadas, também, diferenças morfológicas entre os ovos e vermes adultos de ambas. As observações, realizadas no campo e no laboratório demonstraram que o Holochilus brasiliensis é bom hospedeiro de Schistosoma mansoni. Assim, em determinadas áreas e sob certas condições ecológicas, o cricetídeo em questão poderá, efetivamente, integrar-se ao ciclo do trematódeo na natureza, independente ou paralelamente à presença do homem. Assinala-se, finalmente, que o presente trabalho relata o segundo fechamento do ciclo biológico de S. mansoni em condições ditas semi-naturais. Os primeiros estudos, entretanto, de Antunes, Milward de Andrade, Katz & Coelho4,,em 1971 e de Antunes5, em 1971 foram feitos utilizando-se o Nectomys s. squamipes.

  9. A new species of microphallid (Trematoda: Digenea) infecting a novel host family, the Muraenidae, on the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudlai, Olena; Cribb, T.H.; Cutmore, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 9 (2016), s. 863-876 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : phylogenetic analysis * molecular phylogeny * life cycle * platyhelminthes * parasites * gastropoda * helminths * marine * fishes * Canada Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016

  10. Type material of Platyhelminthes housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016 (Rhabditophora, Trematoda and Cestoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A. Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the catalogue of type material deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC, between 1979 and 2016, is presented, to complement the first list of all types that was published in 1979. This part includes Platyhelminthes other than monogenoids, which were covered in the first part published in September 2016. The present catalogue comprises type material for 104 species, distributed across three classes, 40 families and 75 genera. Species names are listed systematically, followed by type host, infection site, type locality and specimens with their collection numbers and references. The classification and the nomenclature of the species have been updated.

  11. Effect of infection with Metacercariae of Himasthla elongata (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) on cardiac activity and growth rate in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmet, Igor; Nikolaev, Kirill; Levakin, Ivan

    2017-05-01

    Trematode parasites can affect their molluscan hosts, which serve as the first intermediate hosts in their life cycles, in manifold ways, but little is known about trematode-induced effects on their second intermediate hosts. Experimental infection of blue mussels Mytilus edulis serving as second intermediate hosts for larval stages (metacercariae) of the trematodes Himasthla elongata was studied in field experiments during one year. The heart rates and growth rates of noninfected mussels were significantly higher than those of infected mussels. During the summer, the heart rates of noninfected mussels showed rhythmic oscillations, whereas the parasitized animals displayed no any rhythmicity. There was a significant difference between the infected and uninfected mussels in relation to heart rates and temperature. The results indicate that mussels infected with H. elongata metacercariae may be at an energetic disadvantage relative to noninfected mussels. Furthermore, trematode infection may disrupt neuronal control of cardiac function.

  12. Developmental stages of fish blood flukes, Cardicola forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae), in their polychaete intermediate hosts collected at Pacific bluefin tuna culture sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Shin, Sang Phil; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Honryo, Tomoki; Sugihara, Yukitaka; Uchida, Hiro'omi

    2017-02-01

    Farming of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is a rapidly growing industry in Japan. Aporocotylid blood flukes of the genus Cardicola comprising C. orientalis, C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri are parasites of economic importance for PBT farming. Recently, terebellid polychaetes have been identified as the intermediate hosts for all these parasites. We collected infected polychaetes, Terebella sp., the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis, from ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Also, Neoamphitrite vigintipes (formerly as Amphitrite sp. sensu Shirakashi et al., 2016), the intermediate host of C. forsteri, were collected from culture cages in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The terebellid intermediate hosts harbored the sporocysts and cercariae in their body cavity. Developmental stages of these blood flukes were molecularly identified using species specific PCR primers. In this paper, we describe the cercaria and sporocyst stages of C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri and compare their morphological characteristics among three Cardicola blood flukes infecting PBT. We also discuss phylogenetic relations of the six genera of the terebellid intermediate hosts (Artacama, Lanassa, Longicarpus, Terebella, Nicolea and Neoamphitrite) of blood flukes infecting marine fishes, based on their morphological characters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ocorrência no Brasil de Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata (O.F. Muller, 1774 (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, primeiro hospedeiro intermediário de Clonorchis sinensis (Cobbold, 1875 (Trematoda, Plathyhelmintes Occurrence of Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata (O.F. Mullher, 1774 (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia in Brazil, first intermediate host of Clonorchis sinensis (Cobbold, 1875 (Trematoda, Plathyhelmintes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Faria Vaz

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a introdução em nosso meio de Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata possivelmente anterior a 1967, quando pela primeira vez foi coletada em Santos. Essa espécie pode comportar-se como primeiro hospedeiro intermediário de Paragonimus westermani e de Clonorchis sinensis. Somente o último trematódeo tem alguma possibilidade de vir a parasitar o homem, em nosso meio.Introduction of Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata in Brazil, is reported. This introduction may go back prior to 1967 when some specimens were collected at Santos, S.Paulo (Brazil. T. (M. tuberculata is an intermediate host of Paragonimus westermani and Clonorchis sinensis, both pathogenic for man. Only this last trematode has some potential for human infection in Brazil.

  14. Seasonal maturation of Glypthelmins vitellinophilum (Trematoda: Digenea in Lysapsus limellus (Anura: Pseudidae from an Argentinian subtropical permanent pond Maturação sazonal de Glypthelmins vitellinophilum (Trematoda: Digenea em Lysapsus limellus (Anura: Pseudidae em uma lagoa permanente subtropical da Argentina

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    M. I. Hamann

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available From December 1995 to November 2000, the seasonal maturation of Glypthelmins vitellinophilum Dobbin, 1958, in its definitive host, the frog Lysapsus limellus Cope, 1862, was studied in a subtropical permanent pond in northeastern Argentina. The objectives of this study were: 1 to determine the infrapopulation dynamics of the parasite, analyzing the seasonal maturation cycle throughout the years; and 2 to examine the relationship between the intensity of trematode infection in different developmental stages (recruitment, growth and maturation and the host's body length. Of a total of 1,400 frogs examined over 60 months (5 years, 38% were found to be infected with G. vitellinophilum, and the intensity of infection was 1-15 trematodes per frog. Specimens of G. vitellinophilum were present in L. limellus throughout the years, but did not show a pronounced seasonal maturation cycle. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed with reference to climatic fluctuations and biotic factors. The infective period of the parasite (stage I occurred in summer, autumn and spring, coinciding with the time each frog cohort appeared. These infections were found principally in small body sizes (classes 1 and 2 of L. limellus. Juvenile and nongravid specimens of worms (stage II and III were found in frogs of different body sizes throughout the period of investigation. Gravid specimens of the parasite (stage IV were generally recorded in autumn, winter and spring, mainly in the bodies of larger frogs. The body length of Trematodes in stages I and IV was significantly and positively correlated with that of the frogs.De dezembro de 1995 a novembro de 2000, a maturação sazonal de Glypthelmins vitellinophilum Dobbin, 1958, em seu hospedeiro definitivo, a rã Lysapsus limellus Cope, 1862, foi estudada em uma lagoa permanente subtropical no nordeste da Argentina. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: 1 determinar a dinâmica de infrapopulação do parasita, analisando o ciclo de maturação sazonal ao longo dos anos; e 2 examinar a relação entre intensidade de infecção do trematódeo em diferentes estádios do desenvolvimento (recrutamento, crescimento e maturação e o comprimento de corpo da rã. De 1.400 espécimens de rãs em 60 meses (5 anos, foram achados 38% infetados com G. vitellinophilum, e a intensidade de infecção era 1-15 trematódeos por rã. Espécimes de G. vitellinophilum estavam presentes em L. limellus ao longo dos anos, mas não mostraram um ciclo sazonal pronunciado de maturação. São discutidas possíveis razões para estes resultados com referência a flutuações climáticas e fatores bióticos. O período infectante do parasita (estádio I aconteceu no verão, outono e primavera, coincidentemente com o tempo de aparecimento de cada corte das rãs. Estas infecções eram principalmente registradas em tamanhos de corpo pequenos (classes 1 e 2 de L. limellus. Espécimes de parasitas juvenis e não grávidas (estádios II e III eram encontradas em diferentes tamanhos de rãs ao longo do período de investigação. Espécimes de parasitas grávidas (estádio IV eram geralmente registradas no outono, inverno e primavera, principalmente nos tamanhos de corpo maiores de rãs. O comprimento de corpo do trematódeo dos estádios I e IV eram significativa e positivamente correlatos com o comprimento de corpo da rã.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative behavioral traits in a community of furcocercariae trematodes: tools for species separation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Santos, M. J.; Karvonen, A.; Pedro, J. C.; Faltýnková, Anna; Seppälä, O.; Valtonen, E. T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 6 (2007), s. 1319-1323 ISSN 0022-3395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trematoda * cercariae * behaviour * Finland Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.129, year: 2007

  16. Distribution and habitats of Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conservation status of these 2 species and the possible influence of global warming and climatic changes on their geographical distribution are briefly discussed. Keywords: Melanoides tuberculata, Melanoides victoriae, geographical distribution, habitat preferences, biological control, Trematoda, freshwater Mollusca, ...

  17. SNAIL GENERA VARIATION IN FOCUS AREA OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS INTERMEDIATE SNAIL IN LINDU PLATEAU, CENTRAL SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Nurwidayati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beberapa penyakit parasitik pada manusia yang disebabkan oleh cacing trematoda seperti schistomiasis, echinostomiasis, paragonimiasis, dan sebagai hospes perantara adalah oleh beberapa anggota famili keong air tawar. Schistosomiasis merupakan penyakit parasitik yang endemis di Indonesia, khususnya di Dataran Tinggi Napu, Lindu dan Bada, Sulawesi Tengah. Informasi mengenai genus keong yang ditemukan di daerah fokus keong perantara schistosomiasis diperlukan dalam menentukan potensi terjadinya penularan penyakit akibat cacing trematoda yang lain. Survei dilakukan di dalam kawasan Taman Nasional Lore Lindu, Sulawesi Tengah pada Bulan Juli 2013. Identifikasi keong dilakukan menggunakan kunci determinasi keong air tawar di Laboratorium Parasitologi, Balai Litbang P2B2 Donggala. Jenis keong yang ditemukan meliputi Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, Melanoides sp., Helicorbis sp., Indoplanorbis sp. yang merupakan hospes perantara trematoda parasit. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut dapat dilihat bahwa selain berpotensi dalam penularan schistosomiasis daerah tersebut juga berpotensi untuk terjadinya penularan penyakit akibat cacing trematoda lain, seperti Echinostomiasis dan Paragonimiasis. Kata kunci: variasi, keong, schistosomiasis

  18. [Parasites of the Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) in northwestern Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, D I; Iakovleva, G A; Artem'ev, A V

    2013-01-01

    New data on Ospey parasites in Karelian Republic are given. One specimen was investigated. Two parasite species--Nematostrigea serpens and Diplostomum pseudospathaceum were found. Trematoda D. pseudospathaceum was recorded in Osprey parasite fauna for the first time.

  19. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibson, D. I.; Bray, R. A.; Hunt, D.; Georgiev, B. B.; Scholz, Tomáš; Harris, P.D.; Bakke, T.A.; Pomajska, T.; Niewiadomska, K.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Tkach, V.; Bain, O.; Durette-Desset, M.-C.; Gibbons, L.; Moravec, František; Petter, A.; Dimitrova, Z.M.; Buchmann, K.; Valtonen, E. T.; de Jong, Y.

    -, č. 2 (2014), e1060 ISSN 1314-2828 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acanthocephala * Biodiversity * Biodiversity Informatics * Cestoda * Fauna Europaea * Helminth * Monogenea * Nematoda * Parasite * Taxonomic indexing * Taxonomy * Trematoda * Zoology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Phylogenetic position of the genus Gonocerca Manter, 1925 (Trematoda, Hemiuroidea), based on partial sequences of 28S rRNA gene and a reconsideration of taxonomic status of Gonocercinae Skrjabin et Guschanskaja, 1955.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Sergey G; Atopkin, Dmitry M; Gordeev, Ilya I; Shedko, Marina B

    2018-02-01

    Adult trematodes of the genus Gonocerca Manter, 1925, are parasites of marine fishes. Identification of the phylogenetic positions and a revision of the taxonomic status of the subfamily Gonocercinae Skrjabin et Guschanskaja, 1955 (Derogenidae) are the main purposes of this research article. Four Gonocerca species were used in the study, including the type-species G. phycidis Manter, 1925. Molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on partial sequences of 28S rRNA gene, revealed that Gonocerca spp. are phylogenetically distant from other hemiuroid trematodes, including Derogenes varicus (Müller, 1784), representative of the type-genus of the family Derogenidae. The taxonomic rank of Gonocercinae should be raised to the family level. The generic composition of the family Gonocercidae Skrjabin et Guschanskaja, 1955 stat. nov., requires further clarification as the molecular data do not support the inclusion of the genus Hemipera Nicoll, 1913, in this family. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Morphometric, molecular and histopathologic description of hepatic infection by Orthosplanchnus arcticus (Trematoda: Digenea: Brachycladiidae) in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie Ulrikka; Lehnert, Kristina; Leifsson, Páll S.

    2018-01-01

    , possibly related to climate change and bioaccumulation of immunomodulating anthropogenic pollutants, spurred further investigations into parasite characterization, and implications for wildlife health and seal hunters. Microscopic, molecular, and morphometric analyses are presented herein. Of 40 seals, 6...

  2. Phylogenetic position of Magnivitellinum Kloss, 1966 and Perezitrema Baruš & Moravec, 1967 (Trematoda: Plagiorchioidea: Macroderoididae) inferred from partial 28S rDNA sequences, with the establishment of Alloglossidiidae n. fam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mena, David Iván; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2016-07-01

    The systematic position of two genera of Macroderoididae McMullen, 1937, Perezitrema Baruš & Moravec, 1967 and Magnivitellinum Kloss, 1966 is reviewed based on a phylogenetic analysis of the interrelationships of 15 species of the family allocated into six genera, along with 44 species of plagiorchioid trematodes, using partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene. Sequences were analysed through parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. The obtained topologies show Perezitrema as the sister taxon of three species of Macroderoides Pearse, 1924; the latter genus appears to be paraphyletic since another three species are not included in this group. Instead, Magnivitellinum was placed as the sister taxon of Alloglossidium Simer, 1929. These relationships are well supported by high bootstrap and posterior probability values. The resulting trees demonstrate that the family Macroderoididae, as currently conceived in taxonomic treatments, is not monophyletic. Magnivitellinum simplex Kloss, 1966 and Alloglossidium spp. were nested as sister taxa of members of the family Leptophallidae Dayal, 1938, whereas Perezitrema bychowskii Baruš & Moravec, 1967 and species of Macroderoides and Paramacroderoides Venard, 1941 were grouped with Auridistomum chelydrae (Stafford, 1900), a monotypic member of Auridistomidae Stunkard, 1924. Based on our results, a new family, Alloglossidiidae n. fam. was established to accommodate the genera Magnivitellinum and Alloglossidium.

  3. Central European parasitic flatworms of the Cyclocoelidae Stossich, 1902 (Trematoda: Plagiorchiida): molecular and comparative morphological analysis suggests the reclassification of Cyclocoelum obscurum (Leidy, 1887) into the Harrahium Witenberg, 1926.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Jiljí; Bizos, Jiří; Heneberg, Petr

    2017-04-01

    Cyclocoelidae Stossich, 1902 are medium-sized to large digenean bird parasites. Although these parasites bear few visible autapomorphic signs, and their diagnostic characters are unstable in response to the pressure applied during preparation, the numerous hitherto suggested re-classifications within the family have not been supported by any molecular analysis. We analyse here cyclocoelids found during the extensive examination of central European birds performed from 1962 to 2016, provide comparative measurements, host spectra, prevalence and intensity, and provide and analyse sequences of four DNA loci of five of the cyclocoelid species. Cyclocoleum Brandes, 1892 appears paraphyletic; thus we suggest the re-classification of Cyclocoleum obscurum (Leidy, 1887) as Harrahium obscurum (Leidy, 1887) Sitko and Heneberg comb. n. Molecular phylogenetics questioned also the validity of Cyclocoelinae Stossich, 1902 and Hyptiasminae Dollfus, 1948, which formed a single clade, whereas Allopyge Johnston, 1913, Prohyptiasmus Witenberg, 1923 and Morishitium Witenberg, 1928 formed another clade. Haematotrephinae Dollfus, 1948 are newly characterized as having a pretesticular or intertesticular ovary that forms a triangle with the testes. Analyses of non-European genera of the Cyclocoelidae and an examination of the position of families within Echinostomata La Rue, 1926 are needed.

  4. A new species of Auriculostoma (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) from the intestine of Brycon guatemalensis (Characiformes: Bryconidae) from the Usumacinta River Basin, Mexico, based on morphology and 28S rDNA sequences, with a key to species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mena, David Iván; Lynggaard, Christina; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; DE León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce

    2016-11-22

    We describe a new species of Auriculostoma Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo & Choudhury, 2004 based on several sources of information including morphology (light and scanning electron microscopy [SEM]), sequences of two nuclear genes, host association, and geographical distribution. Morphologically, the new species most closely resembles Auriculostoma astyanace Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo & Choudhury, 2004, but differs by having deeply lobated testes and cirrus-sac extending posteriorly to seminal receptacle level. Auriculostoma lobata n. sp. can be readily distinguished from all the other congeners by the combination of the following characters: testes located in tandem, testes deeply lobated, and larger body size. A phylogenetic analysis using 28S rDNA sequences along with those available for other allocreadiid trematodes, revealed that the new species is a sister taxon of A. astyanace, a species described from the banded astyanax, Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier) in Nicaragua. Auriculostoma totonacapanensis Razo-Mendivil, Mendoza-Garfias, Pérez-Ponce de León & Rubio-Godoy, 2014 from the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi) in Mexico is the sister taxon of A. astyanace plus the new species. Genetic divergence levels for the 28S rDNA and ITS2 were estimated among the Middle-American species of Auriculostoma infecting characiforms. The validity of the new species is then established by reliable morphological differences, its host association to bryconids (Brycon guatemalensis Regan), restricted geographical distribution (Usumacinta and Lacantun River basins), and genetic divergence levels, albeit relatively low. A morphometric comparison between the new species and the other seven congeneric species was undertaken and, in addition, a taxonomic key to identify the species contained in the genus Auriculostoma, widely distributed across the Americas, is provided.

  5. Host specificity, molecular phylogeny and morphological differences of Phyllodistomum pseudofolium Nybelin, 1926 and Phyllodistomum angulatum Linstow, 1907 (Trematoda: Gorgoderidae) with notes on Eurasian ruffe as final host for Phyllodistomum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunžėnas, Virmantas; Petkevičiūtė, Romualda; Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Stanevičiūtė, Gražina; Zhokhov, Alexander E

    2017-06-06

    Host-specificity patterns are not well-defined for trematodes of the genus Phyllodistomum Braun, 1899. The Eurasian ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus L., has been recorded as a definitive host for Phyllodistomum folium (Olfers, 1816), P. angulatum Linstow, 1907 and P. megalorchis Nybelin, 1926 and as the type-host for P. pseudofolium Nybelin (1926). A wide range of other host fishes have been recorded for these species as well. All present host records have been based on light microscopy and the life-cycles of P. pseudofolium, P. angulatum and P. megalorchis are unknown. The validity of P. pseudofolium and P. megalorchis require verification. In this study, rDNA sequences generated from adult Phyllodistomum spp., as well as from larval stages developing in Pisidium amnicum Müller, were analysed to establish the real number of Phyllodistomum species utilizing G. cernuus, and to associate larvae with the corresponding adult forms. Phylogenetic analyses of adult and larval stages of Phyllodistomum spp. based on ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA data allowed the confirmation of the validity of P. pseudofolium. A macrocercous cercaria, known as Phyllodistomum sp. from P. amnicum is genetically identical to adult P. pseudofolium. Phyllodistomum megalorchis obtained from its type-host, Lota lota L., showed no genetic differences from P. angulatum parasitizing Sander lucioperca L. In our analysis, P. pseudofolium, P. angulatum and P. macrocotyle formed a highly supported clade despite the fact that these species appear to be associated with distinct patterns of first intermediate host identity and cercarial morphology. Some morphological differences between gravid specimens of P. pseudofolium and P. angulatum were observed and their SEM tegumental surface topography is described. The results lead us to the perception that macroevolutionary host switching in the genus Phyllodistomum is independent of host phylogeny. This study suggests strict host-specificity (oioxeny) for P. pseudofolium using one first intermediate host species (P. amnicum) and one definitive host species (G. cernuus). Phyllodistomum megalorchis is to be regarded as a synonym of P. angulatum. The close phylogenetic relatives, P. pseudofolium and P. angulatum, can be differentiated by morphological traits, the micromorphology and tegumental surface topography of these two species is intended to provide useful data for their identification and support the use of such features as a valuable taxonomic criterion. Molecular data showed that G. cernuus is a definitive host for two species: the oioxenous P. pseudofolium and the euryxenous P. folium.

  6. Platynosomum illiciens (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) in Captive Black-Tufted Marmoset Callithrix penicillata (Primates: Cebidae) from Brazil: A Morphometric Analyses with Taxonomic Comments on Species of Platynosomum from Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Hudson A; Mati, Vitor L T; Pujoni, Diego G F; Melo, Alan L

    2017-02-01

    The trematodes belonging to the genus Platynosomum are biliary parasites of birds and mammals (domestic and wildlife) in tropical and subtropical areas of the globe. Despite several reports on platynosomosis in captive nonhuman primates, mainly in South America, the taxonomy of species of Platynosomum that infect these hosts remains confused, and it is not clear whether the species found in cats is the same that infects nonhuman primates. Because a detailed morphological study of Platynosomum from nonhuman primates is lacking, in this study we analyzed specimens of Platynosomum recovered from the biliary system of Callithrix penicillata kept in captivity in an animal facility. The helminths were submitted to morphological and morphometric analyses in a light microscope and measurements of 16 morphological traits were taken. A kernel density estimation (KDE) was used to estimate density distributions of the measurements obtained as well as the occurrence of overlap with the ranges of the measurements known to 2 other species of Platynosomum previously described from South American marmosets, Platynosomum amazonensis and Platynosomum marmoseti. A principal component analysis (PCA) was also performed in order to evaluate the position of each of the 3 species in the multivariate gradient of morphometric measurements. The occurrence of a growth gradient was also evaluated by analysis of correlation between the measurements. Besides a great morphological variability, all specimens obtained from marmosets in this study were identified as Platynosomum illiciens (Braun, 1901). In addition, the published ranges of the measurements of P. amazonensis and P. marmoseti were completely contained within the ranges found in this study as revealed by KDE. The PCA did not show the formation of groups, and the 3 species were distributed along a growth continuum, also corroborated by correlation analysis. Therefore, P. amazonensis and P. marmoseti are here synonymized with P. illiciens. The involvement of wildlife hosts to the epidemiology of feline platynosomosis and implications for its control are briefly discussed.

  7. INFLUENCE OF RIBEIROIA ONDATRAE (TREMATODA: DIGENEA) INFECTION ON LIMB DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL OF NORTHERN LEOPARD FROGS (RANA PIPIENS): EFFECTS OF HOST STAGE AND PARASITE-EXPOSURE LEVEL. (R825867)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. The Apple Snail Pomacea maculata (Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae) as the intermediate host of Stomylotrema gratiosus (Trematoda: Stomylotrematidae) in Brazil: the first report of a mollusc host of a Stomylotrematid Trematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Hudson A; Cantanhede, Selma Patrícia D; Thiengo, Silvana C; de Melo, Alan L; Fernandez, Monica A

    2015-04-01

    Trematodes belonging to the family Stomylotrematidae are intestinal parasites of birds. Despite the worldwide distribution and diversity of host species, the first intermediate host remains unknown. For a survey of parasites of Pomacea maculata , snails were collected from the municipality of São Vicente Férrer, state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. In the present study, the xiphidiocercariae shed from these snails were used in the experimental infection of the water bug Belostoma plebejum. The insect mortality was observed 30 days post-infection, and the metacercariae recovered in the body cavity of B. plebejum were identified as Stomylotrema gratiosus. This is the first report of an ampullariid snail as intermediate host of stomylotrematid trematodes.

  9. Activity of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. (Euphorbiaceae latex against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematoda: Fasciolidae. 2: limited field-testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvalho de Vasconcellos

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal evaluation of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Crown of thorns against Lymnaea columella snails, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, in irrigation ditches of the Pisciculture Station at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied under limited field conditions. An aqueous solution of the latex at 5 mg/l was tested in two irrigation ditches (experimental and control ditches, after initial sampling of the snail population present. Twenty-four hours after application of the product, it was verified that 97.4% of free L. columella snails and 100% of snails of the same species captive in cages and used as sentinels at three points equidistant from the application site in the experimental ditch, died. For Biomphalaria tenagophila and Melanoides tuberculata snails, present in the experimental ditch, the mortality was 100%, for the species Pomacea spp. the mortality was 40%. No mortality was verified in the free mollusks, or in the sentinels in the ditch used as control. E. splendens var. hislopii latex is thus an efficient natural molluscicide, which may be used as an alternative control agent against L. columella.

  10. Morphological and molecular data for three species of the Microphallidae (Trematoda: Digenea) in Australia, including the first descriptions of the cercariae of Maritrema brevisacciferum Shimazu et Pearson, 1991 and Microphallus minutus Johnston, 1948

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudlai, Olena; Cutmore, S.C.; Cribb, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, 16 September (2015), č. článku 053. ISSN 1803-6465 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : larval stages * life cycle * morphology * rDNA sequences * freshwaters * Brisbane River Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.271, year: 2015

  11. Prevalence and diversity of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

    The fishborne zoonotic trematode parasites (FZT) which cause liver and intestinal infections in humans are widespread in fish in Southeast Asia. Guangdong Province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in China, but it is also an endemic region for FZT. To assess......), and Carassius auratus (4).The FZT species recovered were mainly Haplorchis taichui, and H. pumilio along with some unknown species whose identifications are still being determined. Subsequently a cross-sectional survey for the prevalence and diversity of FZT in tilapia culture systems was conducted in Guangdong...

  12. Organisms associated with the sandy-beach bivalve Donax serra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examination of two collections of Donax serra from a South African west coast beach revealed the presence of Ciliophora, Trematoda, Nematoda and a parasitic pycnogonid. This is the first record of a pycnogonid from the genus Donax and the first published report of such a parasite from any southern African bivalve ...

  13. Culuwiya cichlidorum n. sp. (Digenea: Haploporidae) from the black-belt cichlid Vieja maculicauda (Pisces: Cichlidae) from Nicaragua

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aguirre-Macedo, M. L.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 6 (2005), s. 1379-1384 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trematoda * Haploporidae * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.524, year: 2005

  14. African Zoology - Vol 18, No 4 (1983)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life-cycle and seasonal abundance of Echinoparyphium montgomeriana n. sp. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Natal, South Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C.C. Appleton, Fiona A. Donnelly, Ingrid M. Eriksson, 320-325 ...

  15. New molecular and morphological data for opecoelid digeneans in two Mediterranean sparid fishes with descriptions of Macvicaria gibsoni n. sp and M-crassigula (Linton, 1910) (sensu stricto)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rima, M.; Marzoug, D.; Pérez-del-Olmo, A.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Bouderbala, M.; Georgieva, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 7 (2017), s. 739-763 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : phylogenetic analysis * Plagioporus stafford * sequence alignment * life-cycle * Trematoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016

  16. Morphology and molecules reveal the alien Posthodiplostomum centrarchi Hoffman, 1958 as the third species of Posthodiplostomum Dubois, 1936 (Digenea: Diplostomidae) in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoyanov, B.; Georgieva, Simona; Pankov, P.; Kudlai, Olena; Kostadinova, Aneta; Georgiev, B. B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-20 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : maximum likelihood * host specificity * platyhelminthes * phylogenies * systematics * trematoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016

  17. Spatial and temporal structure of the trematode component community in Valvata macrostoma (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Valtonen, E. T.; Karvonen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 14 (2008), s. 1691-1699 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/07/P086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : community ecology * spatiotemporal dynamics * Trematoda * Gastropoda * Valvata macrostoma Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.071, year: 2008

  18. Genetic interrelationships of North American populations of giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bazsalovicsová, E.; Kráľová-Hromadová, I.; Štefka, Jan; Minárik, G.; Bokorová, S.; Pybus, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, MAY 28 2015 (2015), s. 288 ISSN 1756-3305 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trematoda * Fasciolidae * Mitochondrial DNA * Cytochrome c oxidase * Nicotinamide dehydrogenase * Spatial distribution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  19. 111 . original article prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    worldwide (1). Schistosomes belong to the kingdom Animalia,. Phylum Platyhelminthes, Class Trematoda, Subclass. Digenea, Order Strigeata, Family Schistosomatidae and Genus Schistosoma (2) .Members of this family are dioecious and parasitic in the blood vascular system of vertebrates. A general feature for the family.

  20. A checklist of the helminth parasites of marine mammals from Argentina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hernández-Orts, J.S.; Viola, M.N.P.; García, N.A.; Crespo, E.A.; González, R.; García-Varela, M.; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3936, č. 3 (2015), s. 301-334 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acanthocephala * Nematoda * Cestoda * Trematoda * Carnivora * Cetacea * South West Atlantic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.994, year: 2015

  1. A new species of Saturnius Manter, 1969 (Digenea: Hemiuridae) from Mediterranean mullet (Teleostei: Mugilidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marzoug, D.; Rima, M.; Boutiba, Z.; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Pérez-del-Olmo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 2 (2014), s. 127-134 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Digenea * phylogeny * Platyhelminthes * Trematoda * inference * evolution Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  2. Organisms associated with the sandy-beach bivalve Donax serra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examination of the mussels revealed two species of digenean. Trematoda, a parasitic species of pycnogonid, free and encysted ciliated Protista and nematode wonns. Tumours and calcareous aberrations were also noted. However, the boring sponge Clione and the algal gardens associated with shells of the whelk Bullia ...

  3. Experimental evidence for parasite-induced over-winter mortality in juvenile Rhodeus amarus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michálková, Veronika; Ondračková, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 5 (2014), s. 1377-1388 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bitterling * Diplostomum pseudospathaceum * Metacercariae * Parasite infection * Trematoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.658, year: 2014

  4. Parasitic helminths of reptiles (Reptilia) in South Moravia (Czech Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkovcová, M; Kopriva, J

    2005-01-01

    An helminthological investigation of 104 reptile species was carried out in south Moravia (Czech Republic). We examined Lacerta viridis, L. agilis, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix, Coronella austriaca and Vipera berus. Twelve species of parasites were found. Among these, Nematoda occurred most often, followed by Trematoda and Cestoda. No Acanthocephala were detected.

  5. Diplostomum von Nordmann, 1832 (Digenea: Diplostomidae) in the sub-Arctic: descriptions of the larval stages of six species discovered recently in Iceland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Scholz, Tomáš; Skirnisson, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 3 (2014), s. 195-213 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : life cycle * cryptic diversity * molecular data * fish * DNA * Trematoda * Strigeida * snails Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  6. Morphological and molecular data for larval stages of four species of Petasiger Dietz, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) with an updated key to the known cercariae from the Palaearctic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Selbach, C.; Soldánová, Miroslava; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Kalbe, M.; Sures, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 2 (2014), s. 153-166 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Grandivesicularis ishii * life cycle * Trematoda * Platyhelminthes * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  7. Helminths from the digestive tract of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) in the western Mediterranean: infection patterns within a long-term scale

    OpenAIRE

    Mateu Puncel, Paula

    2015-01-01

    0.1. INTRODUCCIÓN GENERAL 0.1.1. DIVERSIDAD Los cetáceos albergan una fauna específica de parásitos de transmisión trófica que incluye digeneos, cestodos, nematodos y acantocéfalos (Aznar et al., 2001; Raga et al., 2009). Dentro de los digeneos se han citado unas 40 especies pertenecientes a cuatro familias (Heterophyidae, Brauninidae, Notocotylidae y Brachycladiidae), la mayoría encontradas en el tracto digestivo de cetáceos, aunque algunas especies también parasitan los...

  8. DETEKSI Fasciola hepatica DAN Fasciola gigantica PADA KERBAU PERAH ( DETEKSI Fasciola hepatica DAN Fasciola gigantica PADA KERBAU PERAH ( DETEKSI Fasciola hepatica DAN Fasciola gigantica PADA KERBAU PERAH (

    OpenAIRE

    -, YAUMIL NI???MAH YAUMIL NI???MAH YAUMIL NI???MAH

    2016-01-01

    2015 ABSTRAK YAUMIL NI???MAH O11111101.Deteksi Fasciola hepatica dan Fasciola gigantica pada Kerbau Perah Fasciola hepatica dan Fasciola gigantica merupakan cacing kelas trematoda.Telur cacing ini berbentuk oval dan dilengkapi dengan operculum yang berfungsi sebagai jalan keluar larva mirasidium pada saat telur menetas.Ukuran telur Fasciola gigantica lebih besar dibandingkan ukuran telur Fasciola hepatica.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeteksi telur cacing Fasciola...

  9. Larval trematodes (Digenea) of the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.), (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) in Central Europe: a survey of species and key to their identification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Našincová, Vanda; Kablásková, Lenka

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2007), s. 39-51 ISSN 1252-607X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA ČR GP524/07/P086; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trematoda * Mollusca * cercaria * metacercaria * Lymnaea stagnalis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.713, year: 2007

  10. Larval trematodes in freshwater molluscs from the Elbe to Danube rivers (Southeast Germany): before and today

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Haas, W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 5 (2006), s. 572-582 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trematoda * cercariae * Mollusca Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2006

  11. Skoulekia erythrini n. sp (Digenea: Aporocotylidae): a parasite of Pagellus erythrinus (L.) (Perciformes: Sparidae) from the western Mediterranean with an amendment of the generic diagnosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palacios-Abella, J. F.; Georgieva, Simona; Mele, S.; Raga, J. A.; Isbert, W.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Montero, F. E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 6 (2017), s. 669-688 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : southern bluefin tuna * blood flukes digenea * trematoda aporocotylidae * life-cycle * maximum-likelihood * sequence alignment * seriola-dumerili * cardicola * paradeontacylix Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016

  12. The trematodes and cestodes of Sorex araneus L. in Valaam Island (Ladoga Lake, USSR. 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael V. Novikov

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The trematode and the cestode fauna was examined in 50 specimens of common shrews Sorex araneus L. (Insectivora: Soricidae cillected in Valaam Island, URSS during 1988 and 1989. Two species of Trematoda and seven species of Cestoda were identified; prevalence of infection was as follows: Brachulaemus fulvus (86% , Rubenstrema exasperatum (4% , Hymenolepis scutigera (54% , Neoskrjabinolepis schaldybini (26% , Vigisolepis spinulosa (4% , Choanotaenia crassiscolex (86% , Choanotaenia hepatica (6% , Dilepis undula (2% and Polycercus sp. (2% .

  13. Vitellogenesis of basal trematode Aspidogaster limacoides (Aspidogastrea: Aspidogastridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levron, Céline; Poddubnaya, L. G.; Oros, Mikuláš; Scholz, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2010), s. 532-538 ISSN 1383-5769 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/07/P039; GA ČR GAP506/10/1994; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Vitellogenesis * Ultrastructure * Trematoda * Aspidogastrea * Aspidogaster limacoides Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.259, year: 2010

  14. Molecular characterisation of four echinostomes (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) from birds in New Zealand, with descriptions of Echinostoma novaezealandense n. sp and Echinoparyphium poulini n. sp.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Georgieva, Simona; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 4 (2017), s. 477-497 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : phylogenetic-relationships * maximum-likelihood * morphological data * miyagawai ishii * nuclear rdna * trematoda * platyhelminthes * systematics * genes * diversity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016

  15. [Helminth fauna of amphibians (Vertebrata: Amphibia) in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2009-01-01

    Historical review of the investigations of helminth fauna in amphibians from Belarus is presented. In 12 amphibian species examined by different authors 46 helminth species were found, including 29 Trematoda, 13 Nematoda, 1 Monogenea, 2 Cestoda, and 1 Acanthocephala. Original data on helminths parasitizing Amphibia in Byelorussian Polesie, by the results of long-term investigations in 1986-2004 are given. Distribution of 40 helminth species by hosts and respective infestation rates are reported.

  16. Larval trematodes (Digenea) in molluscs from small water bodies near České Budějovice, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2005), s. 49-55 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Grant - others:FRVŠ FRVŠ 1054/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trematoda * cercariae * Mollusca Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2005

  17. The life-cycle of Petasiger islandicus Kostadinova & Skirnisson, 2007 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) elucidated with the aid of molecular data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Skirnisson, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 3 (2012), s. 177-183 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Project s: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GD206/09/H026 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : TREMATODA * GENES * DNA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.260, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11230-012-9354-y

  18. Parasites in pet reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavri Urška

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles, belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5, Trematoda (1, Acanthocephala (1, Pentastomida (1 and Protozoa (4 of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3% of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8, Cestoda (1, Trematoda (1, Acanthocephala (1, Pentastomida (1 and Protozoa (6 of endoparasites in 252 (76.1% of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4, Cestoda (1, Trematoda (1 and Protozoa (2 of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5% animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners.

  19. Parasites in pet reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rataj, Aleksandra Vergles; Lindtner-Knific, Renata; Vlahović, Ksenija; Mavri, Urška; Dovč, Alenka

    2011-05-30

    Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles), belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (4)) of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3%) of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (6)) of endoparasites in 252 (76.1%) of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1) and Protozoa (2)) of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5%) animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of platyhelminthes based on 18S ribosomal gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, A; Cummings, M P; Reyes, J L; Laclette, J P

    1998-08-01

    Nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA from 71 species of Platyhelminthes, the flatworms, were analyzed using maximum likelihood, and the resulting phylogenetic trees were compared with previous phylogenetic hypotheses. Analyses including 15 outgroup species belonging to eight other phyla show that Platyhelminthes are monophyletic with the exception of a sequence putatively from Acoela sp., Lecithoepitheliata, Polycladida, Tricladida, Trematoda (Aspidobothrii + Digenea), Monogenea, and Cestoda (Gyrocotylidea + Amphilinidea + Eucestoda) are monophyletic groups. Catenulids form the sister group to the rest of platyhelminths, whereas a complex clade formed by Acoela, Tricladida, "Dalyellioida", and perhaps "Typhloplanoida" is sister to Neodermata. "Typhloplanoida" does not appear to be monophyletic; Fecampiida does not appear to belong within "Dalyellioida," nor Kalyptorhynchia within "Typhloplanoida." Trematoda is the sister group to the rest of Neodermata, and Monogenea is sister group to Cestoda. Within Trematoda, Aspidobothrii is the sister group of Digenea and Heronimidae is the most basal family in Digenea. Our trees support the hypothesis that parasitism evolved at least twice in Platyhelminthes, once in the ancestor to Neodermata and again in the ancestor of Fecampiida, independently to the ancestor of putatively parasitic "Dalyellioida."

  1. Risks for fishborne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia production systems in Guangdong province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin

    2013-01-01

    Guangdong province is the most important region for tilapia culture in China. However, it is also an endemic region for fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT), which pose a risk to human food safety and health. A study was designed to assess the status of trematode parasite infections in tilapia...... aquaculture systems as an indicator of potential risks from FZT associated with consumption of tilapia. Tilapia from nursery and grow-out ponds were sampled from monoculture, polyculture and integrated aquaculture systems. The results from 388 tilapia examined revealed a very low prevalence (1.......5%) of trematode infections (Heterophyidae and Echinostomatidae). Integrated systems using animal manure and latrine wastes as fertilizer did not show a higher prevalence of FZT. Because it was not clear whether the low risk of infection was attributable to existing effective pond management practices or a low...

  2. Pilot study on bovine fasciolosis in Praia slaughterhouse in Santiago – Cape Verde

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Sara Machado da Silva Levy

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária A Fasciolose é uma doença causada por um parasita da classe Trematoda, do género Fasciola, sendo normalmente Fasciola hepatica ou Fasciola gigantica, que afecta animais e o homem. Esta doença tem efeitos socioecónomicos devastadores. Estima-se que perto de 600 milhões de animais e 2.4 milhões de pessoas, no mundo inteiro, sofrem de Fasciolose. No presente estudo, a taxa de ocorrência de Fasciolose no Matadouro da Praia, em Santig...

  3. Endoparasites in some Swedish Amphibians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of the endoparasites in specimens of Rana arvalis and R. temporaria collected on two occasions from a locality of southern Sweden. Some frogs were investigated directly after capture while other frogs were kept hibernating and the composition of the parasites as well...... as the behaviour of the parasites were studied after the termination of hibernation. Twelve species of parasites were found. Six of them, Polystoma integerrimum, Pleurogenes claviger (Trematoda), Rhabdias bufonis, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Cosmocerca ornata and Oxysomatium brevicauda- tum (Nematoda), have...... not previously been reported from Sweden. The late Prof. O. Nybelin's unpublished records of parasites found in Swedish amphibians are also given....

  4. Parasites and parasite stages of free-ranging wild lions (Panthera leo) of northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, K E; Averbeck, G A; Stromberg, B E

    2000-03-01

    Fecal samples from 33 lions (Panthera leo) in Serengeti National Park and Ngorongoro Crater Conservation Area in northern Tanzania contained 19 different parasites, 12 of which, including Aelurostrongylus sp., a species of Acanthocephala, a species of Anoplocephalidae, Capillaria sp., Demodex sp., Eimeria sp., Habronema sp., Isospora felis, Isospora rivolta, one species of Isospora that was previously undescribed from lions, one species of Trematoda that was previously undescribed from lions, and Trichuris sp., were new reports for lions. Seven other species had been previously reported from lions.

  5. Bovine eurytrematosis/ Euritrematose bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Hissashi Yamamura

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review about the trematoda of genre Eurytrema (LOOSS, 1907 that belong to Dicrocoeliidae family (ODHNER, 1910, aspects as species, morphology, host, geographic distribution, pathogenesis and pathology, diagnosis and therapeutic control are boarded.Nesta revisão de literatura sobre os trematódeos do gênero Eurytrema (LOOSS, 1907, pertencentes à família Dicrocoeliidae (ODHNER, 1910, são abordados aspectos como: espécies, morfologia, hospedeiros, distribuição geográfica, patogenia e patologia, diagnóstico, tratamento e controle terapêutico.

  6. A report on the alimentary canal helminthic infestation of stray and pet dogs in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Gharedaghi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available From September to December 2007, fecal specimens of 100 stray and pet dogs in Tabriz were examined by saturated salt flotation and Telmann sedimentation methods to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infestation. Helminth infestation was encountered in 31 (31% of the fecal samples examined. The eggs of two different cestodes and three different nematodes were identified in the contaminated fecal samples. The helminth eggs found were identified as Taenia hydatigena (4%, Dipylidium caninum (6%, Toxocara canis (10%, Ancylostoma caninum (6% and Trichuris vulpis (5%. No trematoda eggs and nematode larvae were found in this study.

  7. Endoparasites of lizards (Lacertilia from captive breeding and trade networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okulewicz A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections are widespread among exotic lizards and cause serious problems in both private captive breeding and trade networks. Among 168 lizards obtained from captive breeding (Zoological Garden in Wrocław and private owners and trade (pet shops and wholesale the total prevalence of endoparasites was 42.35 %. We detected species of Protozoa, Cestoda, Trematoda - Digenea and Nematoda as well as pseudoparasites. The prevalence of endoparasites was higher in the reptiles obtained from captive breeding (59.5 % than in those from trade network, however the parasite species spectrum was wider in the animals form pet shops and wholesales.

  8. Distribution and molecular phylogeny of biliary trematodes (Opisthorchiidae) infecting native Lutra lutra and alien Neovison vison across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard-Smith, Ellie; Stanton, David W G; Cable, Jo; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Simpson, Vic R; Elmeros, Morten; van Dijk, Jiska; Simonnet, Franck; Roos, Anna; Lemarchand, Charles; Poledník, Lukáš; Heneberg, Petr; Chadwick, Elizabeth A

    2016-04-01

    The recent identification of Pseudamphistomum truncatum, (Rudolphi, 1819) (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae) and Metorchis bilis (Braun, 1790) Odening, 1962 (synonymous with Metorchis albidus (Braun, 1893) Loos, 1899 and Metorchis crassiusculus (Rudolphi, 1809) Looss, 1899 (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae)) in otters from Britain caused concern because of associated biliary damage, coupled with speculation over their alien status. Here, we investigate the presence, intensity and phylogeny of these trematodes in mustelids (principally otters) across Europe (Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Norway, Poland and Sweden and Britain). The trematodes were identified to species using the internal transcribed spacer II (ITS2) locus. Both parasites were found across Europe but at unequal frequency. In the German state of Saxony, eight out of eleven (73%) otters examined were infected with P. truncatum whilst this parasite was not found in either mink from Scotland (n=40) or otters from Norway (n=21). Differences in the phylogenies between the two species suggest divergent demographic histories possibly reflecting contrasting host diet or competitive exclusion, with M. bilis exhibiting greater mitochondrial diversity than P. truncatum. Shared haplotypes within the ranges of both parasite species probably reflect relatively unrestricted movements (both natural and anthropogenic) of intermediate and definitive hosts across Europe. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Trematodes recovered in the small intestine of stray cats in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Bahk, Young Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2013-02-01

    In 2005, we reported the infection status of 438 stray cats with various species of intestinal helminths, including nematodes (4 species), trematodes (23 species), and cestodes (5 species) in the Republic of Korea. However, morphologic details of each helminth species have not been provided. In the present study, we intended to describe morphologic details of 13 trematode species which were either new fauna of cats (10 species) or new fauna of not only cats but also all animal hosts (3 species). The worms were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin under a cover slip pressure, stained with Semichon's acetocarmine, and then observed using a light microscope equipped with a micrometer. The 13 subjected species included members of the Heterophyidae (Stellantchasmus falcatus, Stictodora fuscata, Stictodora lari, Centrocestus armatus, Procerovum varium, and Cryptocotyle concava), Echinostomatidae (Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma revolutum, Echinochasmus japonicus, and Stephanoprora sp.), Diplostomidae (Neodiplostomum seoulense), Plagiorchiidae (Plagiorchis muris), and Dicrocoeliidae (Eurytrema pancreaticum). By the present study, Cryptocotyle sp. and Neodiplostomum sp. recored in our previous study were identified as C. concava and N. seoulense, respectively. Three species, P. varium, C. concava, and Stephanoprora sp., are new trematode fauna in Korea.

  10. Trematode communities in snails can indicate impact and recovery from hurricanes in a tropical coastal lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Macedo, María Leopoldina; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2011-11-01

    In September 2002, Hurricane Isidore devastated the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. To understand its effects on the parasites of aquatic organisms, we analyzed long-term monthly population data of the horn snail Cerithidea pliculosa and its trematode communities in Celestún, Yucatán, Mexico before and after the hurricane (February 2001 to December 2009). Five trematode species occurred in the snail population: Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Euhaplorchis californiensis, two species of the genus Renicola and one Heterophyidae gen. sp. Because these parasites use snails as first intermediate hosts, fishes as second intermediate hosts and birds as final hosts, their presence in snails depends on food webs. No snails were present at the sampled sites for 6 months after the hurricane. After snails recolonised the site, no trematodes were found in snails until 14 months after the hurricane. It took several years for snail and trematode populations to recover. Our results suggest that the increase in the occurrence of hurricanes predicted due to climate change can impact upon parasites with complex life cycles. However, both the snail populations and their parasite communities eventually reached numbers of individuals and species similar to those before the hurricane. Thus, the trematode parasites of snails can be useful indicators of coastal lagoon ecosystem degradation and recovery. Copyright © 2011 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Checklist of Helminth parasites of Amphibians from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campião, Karla Magalhães; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Dias, Olívia Tavares; Aguiar, Aline; Toledo, Gislayne De Melo; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2014-07-30

    Parasitological studies on helminths of amphibians in South America have increased in the past few years. Here, we present a list with summarized data published on helminths of South American amphibians from 1925 to 2012, including a list of helminth parasites, host species, and geographic records. We found 194 reports of helminths parasitizing 185 amphibian species from eleven countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Equador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Helminth biodiversity includes 278 parasite species of the groups Acanthocephala, Nematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Trematoda. A list of helminth parasite species per host, and references are also presented. This contribution aims to document the biodiversity of helminth parasites in South American amphibians, as well as identify gaps in our knowledge, which in turn may guide subsequent studies. 

  12. [Inflammatory pseudotumor by Fasciola hepática: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tume-Jara, Lucía; Ugarte-Salvador, Cindy; Díaz-Ferrer, Javier; Piscoya, Alejandro

    2015-12-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasite of the class Trematoda. It commonly has been found in developing countries. When it infects humans is characterized by a triad of fever, pain in right upper quadrant and peripheral eosinophilia. We present a 67-year-old female from a rural town of the north of Lima, Peru, it was found abdominal pain, eosinophilia and focal hepatic lesions. For this reason, a hepatic mass was the initial suspicion. The hepatic biopsy was performed and one of the findings was eosinophilia. Fasciola hepatica infection should be considered as part of differential diagnosis in hepatic tumors with eosinophilia when the origin of the patient is from endemic areas of F. hepatica.

  13. Elazığ, Keban Yöresinde Yaşayan Salyangoz (Helix lucorum Linnaeus, 1758'da Endohelmintlerin Araştırılması.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Sağlam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Elazığ, Keban yöresinden toplanan 20 adet salyangoz (Helix lucorum endohelmint yönünden incelendi. Yapılan parazitolojik muayene sonucunda salyangozların bağırsağında Paragonimus sp. (Trematoda; Digenea ve Protostrogylus sp. (Nematoda; Metastrongyloidea belirlendi. Paragonimus sp.’nin bolluğu (abundance % 20, yaygınlığı (prevalance % 5 ve ortalama yoğunluk (mean intensity 4 parazit/ salyangoz olarak, Protostrogylus sp.’nin bolluğu % 30, yaygınlığı % 5 ve ortalama yoğunluk ise 6 parazit/ salyangoz olarak tespit edildi. Her iki parazitin de ergin olmayıp salyangozu arakonakçı olarak kullandığı belirlendi

  14. Assortative pairing in Gammarus insensibilis (Amphipoda) infected by a trematode parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, F; Renaud, F; Derothe, J M; Lambert, A; De Meeüs, T; Cézilly, F

    1995-10-01

    We have investigated the influence of Microphallus papillorobustus (Trematoda) on the reproductive biology and mating patterns of its intermediate host Gammarus insensibilis (Amphipoda). Infected Gammarus species show altered behaviour which renders them more susceptible to predation by Charadriiform birds, the parasite's definitive hosts. In a natural population of G. insensibilis, mean parasite intensity was higher for unpaired individuals than for paired individuals. Fecundity was reduced in infected amphipods. Size-assortative pairing was significant, although infected males were found with smaller females compared to uninfected males of the same size. There was also a positive assortative pairing by parasitic prevalence. Vertical segregation between infected and uninfected individuals, male-male competition for access to uninfected females, and female choice may explain assortative mating for prevalence. This study provides the first empirical evidence that parasites can have a direct effect on patterns of mating in gammarids.

  15. A new trematode (Digenea: Mesotretidae) from the horseshoe bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-You; Yu, Yan; Peng, Wen-Feng

    2009-06-01

    A new species of Mesotretes (Trematoda: Mesotretidae) parasitizing the small intestine of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum was obtained by the examination of 48 bats collected from 4 localities in Henan Province, China, from August 2003 to January 2005. This species, Mesotretes jiyuanensis n. sp., is similar to Mesotretes orientalis and Mesotretes hangzhouensis, but mainly differs from them in the ratio of the oral sucker and the ventral sucker, and the distance of the intestinal bifurcation from anterior edge of acetabulum, as well as from the former in the extension of the vitellarium. Mesotretes jiyuanensis n. sp. differs from Mesotretes peregrinus chiefly in the shape of the testes and the distribution of cuticular spines. The ratio of the oral sucker and the ventral sucker in this species also differs from that of M. peregrinus.

  16. How to catch a parasite: Parasite Niche Modeler (PaNic) meets Fishbase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Parasite Niche Modeler (PaNic) is a free online software tool that suggests potential hosts for fish parasites. For a particular parasite species from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, Trematoda), PaNic takes data from known hosts (maximum body length, growth rate, life span, age at first maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) and hypothesizes similar fish species that might serve as hosts to that parasite. Users can give varying weights to host attributes and create custom models. In addition to suggesting plausible hosts (with varying degrees of confidence), the models indicate known host species that appear to be outliers in comparison to other known hosts. These unique features make PaNic an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in fish parasitology. PaNic can be accessed at .

  17. Malacological assessment and natural infestation of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848 by Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon, 1907 and Chaetogaster limnaei (K. von Baer, 1827 in an urban eutrophic watershed

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    M. Callisto

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to perform a malacological assessment at the Ibirité reservoir watershed in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais and to evaluate the natural infestation rate of Biomphalaria straminea (Gastropoda: Planorbidaeby Schistosoma mansoni (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda and Chaetogaster limnaei (Oligochaeta: Naididae. The samples were collected from July to August 2002. The B. straminea individuals collected were kept in the laboratory; the natural infestation rate by S. mansoni and C. limnaei was assessed weekly. The malacological assessment identified fivemollusk species present in the Ibirité reservoir watershed: B. straminea, Physa marmorata, Lymnea sp., Melanoides tuberculatus,and Pomacea austrum. Laboratory observations showed that the B. straminea individuals were infected by C. limnaei rather than S. mansoni. Although there was no infection of B. straminea by S. mansoni,presence of B. straminea in itself merits close attention due to possible risk of human schistosomiasis by the local population.

  18. Codon usage pattern of complex III gene of respiratory chain among platyhelminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Gulshana A; Uddin, Arif; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2018-01-01

    Codon usage bias refers to the phenomenon where synonymous codons are used with unequal frequencies. To understand the patterns of codon usage in mitochondrial cytochrome B (MT-CYB) gene of phylum platyhelminthes we used bioinformatic approaches to analyze the protein coding sequences of five different classes - cestoda, monogenea, rabditophora, trematoda and turbellaria. It was found from nucleotide composition analysis that in all the classes, A/T-ended codons were preferred to G/C -ended codons. From box plot analysis GC1 was found to have highest response to codon usage bias. Correspondence analysis indicated that besides mutation other factors such as natural selection might also affect the codon usage pattern. Neutrality plot reveals that both mutation and natural selection played role in codon usage pattern in five classes of MT-CYB gene. Various factors namely nucleotide composition, natural selection and mutation pressure affected the codon usage pattern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Type material of Acanthocephala, Nematoda and other non-helminths phyla (Cnidaria, Annelida, and Arthropoda housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016

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    Daniela A. Lopes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The third part of the catalogue of type material in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/FIOCRUZ (CHIOC, comprising types deposited between 1979 and 2016, is presented to complement the first list of all types that was published in 1979. This part encompasses Acanthocephala, Nematoda and the other non-helminth phyla Cnidaria, Annelida, and Arthropoda. Platyhelminthes was covered in the first (Monogenoidea and second (Rhabditophora Trematoda and Cestoda parts of the catalogue published in September 2016 and March 2017, respectively. The present catalogue comprises type material for 116 species distributed across five phyla, nine classes, 50 families, and 80 genera. Specific names are listed systematically, followed by type host, infection site, type locality, and specimens with their collection numbers and references. Species classification and nomenclature are updated.

  20. Helminth fauna of Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758 in the south of Espírito Santo State in Brasil

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    Binoti E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to an inadequate knowledge about threats to the sea turtle, we aimed to evaluate the helminth fauna of Chelonia mydas which had died on the southern coast of Espirito Santo, Brasil and described the associated tissue pathological lesions. Retrospective and prospective studies on turtle parasites were conducted and tissues samples were collected. 106 of 212 of sea turtles (50 % were parasitized, and 47 of 106 of infected animals 43.0 % (47/106 were in poor health condition. Seven trematoda families covering 19 different helminths species were identified. Turtles were inhabited with one or more species of parasites, and there was no significant association between parasitism and weakness of the animals. Trematode eggs, with or without giant cells in tissues of various organs were observed.

  1. Comparative Genomics of Flatworms (Platyhelminthes) Reveals Shared Genomic Features of Ecto- and Endoparastic Neodermata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Christoph; Fromm, Bastian; Bachmann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The ectoparasitic Monogenea comprise a major part of the obligate parasitic flatworm diversity. Although genomic adaptations to parasitism have been studied in the endoparasitic tapeworms (Cestoda) and flukes (Trematoda), no representative of the Monogenea has been investigated yet. We present the high-quality draft genome of Gyrodactylus salaris, an economically important monogenean ectoparasite of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A total of 15,488 gene models were identified, of which 7,102 were functionally annotated. The controversial phylogenetic relationships within the obligate parasitic Neodermata were resolved in a phylogenomic analysis using 1,719 gene models (alignment length of >500,000 amino acids) for a set of 16 metazoan taxa. The Monogenea were found basal to the Cestoda and Trematoda, which implies ectoparasitism being plesiomorphic within the Neodermata and strongly supports a common origin of complex life cycles. Comparative analysis of seven parasitic flatworm genomes identified shared genomic features for the ecto- and endoparasitic lineages, such as a substantial reduction of the core bilaterian gene complement, including the homeodomain-containing genes, and a loss of the piwi and vasa genes, which are considered essential for animal development. Furthermore, the shared loss of functional fatty acid biosynthesis pathways and the absence of peroxisomes, the latter organelles presumed ubiquitous in eukaryotes except for parasitic protozoans, were inferred. The draft genome of G. salaris opens for future in-depth analyses of pathogenicity and host specificity of poorly characterized G. salaris strains, and will enhance studies addressing the genomics of host–parasite interactions and speciation in the highly diverse monogenean flatworms. PMID:24732282

  2. Substantial Loss of Conserved and Gain of Novel MicroRNA Families in Flatworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Bastian; Worren, Merete Molton; Hahn, Christoph; Hovig, Eivind; Bachmann, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on microRNA (miRNA) evolution focused mainly on the comparison of miRNA complements between animal clades. However, evolution of miRNAs within such groups is poorly explored despite the availability of comparable data that in some cases lack only a few key taxa. For flatworms (Platyhelminthes), miRNA complements are available for some free-living flatworms and all major parasitic lineages, except for the Monogenea. We present the miRNA complement of the monogenean flatworm Gyrodactylus salaris that facilitates a comprehensive analysis of miRNA evolution in Platyhelminthes. Using the newly designed bioinformatics pipeline miRCandRef, the miRNA complement was disentangled from next-generation sequencing of small RNAs and genomic DNA without a priori genome assembly. It consists of 39 miRNA hairpin loci of conserved miRNA families, and 22 novel miRNAs. A comparison with the miRNA complements of Schmidtea mediterranea (Turbellaria), Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda), and Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda) reveals a substantial loss of conserved bilaterian, protostomian, and lophotrochozoan miRNAs. Eight of the 46 expected conserved miRNAs were lost in all flatworms, 16 in Neodermata and 24 conserved miRNAs could not be detected in the cestode and the trematode. Such a gradual loss of miRNAs has not been reported before for other animal phyla. Currently, little is known about miRNAs in Platyhelminthes, and for the majority of the lost miRNAs there is no prediction of function. As suggested earlier they might be related to morphological simplifications. The presence and absence of 153 conserved miRNAs was compared for platyhelminths and 32 other metazoan taxa. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria + Neodermata [Monogenea {Trematoda + Cestoda}]). PMID:24025793

  3. Molecular confirmation of trematodes in the snail intermediate hosts from Ratchaburi Province, Thailand

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    Sothorn Anucherngchai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the prevalence of trematode infections in the snails intermediate host Tarebia granifera and Melanoides tuberculata collected from Ratchaburi Province by a molecular approach in order to construct a dendrogram to identify species at the cercarial stage. Methods: Specimens were collected from nine districts located in Ratchaburi Province using the stratified sampling method. The samples were examined for cercarial infection using the crushing method. All specimens were amplified by region of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 based on the PCR technique, and the sequence data were aligned in order to construct the dendrogram by maximum likelihood with 10 000 bootstrap replicates. Results: Five cercarial types were observed comprising parapleurolophocercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria. The overall prevalence of cercarial infection was found to be 7.92% (63 / 795. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found in the highest level of prevalence followed by xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria, respectively. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria samples were identified and separated into Haplorchis taichui and Haplorchis pumilio, while xiphidiocercaria were identified as Lecithodendriidae and megarulous cercaria were identified as Philophthalmus. The dendrogram separated the cercariae into five groups, which were comprised of parapleurolophocercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria using the sequence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as an out-group. Conclusions: This is the first study to report on the prevalence of cercarial infection in Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. The high prevalence of cercariae was revealed by the infection in Tarebia granifera and Melanoides tuberculata. Thus, the sequence data of ITS2 can be used to investigate the

  4. Risks for fishborne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia production systems in Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Murrell, K Darwin; Liu, Liping; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-11-15

    Guangdong province is the most important region for tilapia culture in China. However, it is also an endemic region for fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT), which pose a risk to human food safety and health. A study was designed to assess the status of trematode parasite infections in tilapia aquaculture systems as an indicator of potential risks from FZT associated with consumption of tilapia. Tilapia from nursery and grow-out ponds were sampled from monoculture, polyculture and integrated aquaculture systems. The results from 388 tilapia examined revealed a very low prevalence (1.5%) of trematode infections (Heterophyidae and Echinostomatidae). Integrated systems using animal manure and latrine wastes as fertilizer did not show a higher prevalence of FZT. Because it was not clear whether the low risk of infection was attributable to existing effective pond management practices or a low risk of spillover of FZT from area sylvatic reservoir hosts, a survey of local wild-caught fish was conducted. Five species of FZT were discovered from a total of 271 wild-caught fish and a mean infection density of 4.0 metacercariae/100g; FZT discovered included intestinal flukes (Haplorchis spp., Procerovum varium, and Metagonimus spp.) and metacercariae tentatively identified as Clonorchis sinenesis. The common occurrence of FZT in wild-caught fish suggests that the presence of FZT in local wild animal reservoirs is substantial, and that although the current aquaculture management systems for tilapia are generally effective in preventing transmission of these parasites into tilapia production systems, the improvement of pond management practices and biosecurity must be maintained at a high level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A fauna de parasitas do tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 (Characiformes: Characidae do médio rio Solimões, Estado do Amazonas (AM e do baixo rio Amazonas, Estado do Pará (PA, e seu potencial como indicadores biológicos The fauna of parasites of the tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 (Characiformes: Characidae from middle Solimões River and lower Amazonas River and their potential as biological indicators

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    Christina Fischer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados brânquias, fossas nasais e intestinos de tambaquis (Colossoma macropomum capturados em duas localidades na Amazônia, próximas aos municípios de Tefé/Coari, no médio rio Solimões, Estado do Amazonas e de Santarém no baixo rio Amazonas, Estado do Pará. Nove espécies de parasitas foram encontradas: três da classe Monogenoidea; Anacanthorus spathulatus, Linguadactyloides brinkmanni e Notozothecium sp.; uma de Trematoda da família Paramphistomidae; uma do filo Acanthocephala, Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae, duas do filo Nematoda, Spirocamallanus sp. e Procamallanus sp. e duas da subclasse Copepoda, Gamidactylus jaraquensis e Perulernaea gamitanae. Foram registradas pela primeira vez parasitando o tambaqui, o monogenético Notozothecium sp., espécimens imaturos da família Paramphistomidae, larvas do nematóide Procamallanus sp. e o copépodo Gamidactylus jaraquensis. Os paranfistomídeos e Procamallanus sp. foram encontrados apenas nos hospedeiros da região de Tefé/Coari. Foi observada pouca variabilidade na composição da parasitofauna do tambaqui, entre os dois locais estudados. As espécies Anacanthorus spathulatus, Notozothecium sp., Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae e Perulernaea gamitanae, apresentaram bom potencial como indicadores biológicos para o tambaqui.Specimens of Colossoma macropomum, an Amazonian characoid, captured at two different sites, one near the towns of Tefé and Coari in the middle Solimões River, state of Amazonas, and the other near the town of Santarém, lower Amazon River, state of Pará, were examined for parasites. Nine parasite species were found. Three belong to the class Monogenoidea: Anacanthorus spathulatus, Linguadactyloides brinkmanni and Notozothecium sp. Immature specimens belonging to class Trematoda, family Paramphistomidae were found. One belongs to the phylum Acanthocephala, Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae. Two belong to the phylum Nematoda, Spirocamallanus sp. and Procamallanus sp

  6. Protozoários e metazoários parasitos do cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi Schultz, 1956 (Characidae, peixe ornamental proveniente de exportador de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.872 Protozoan and metazoan parasites of the cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi Schultz, 1956 (Characidae, ornamental fish from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.872

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    Maria Leonora Silva Brito

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos sobre a parasitofauna de peixes ornamentais cultivados são de grande relevância para o conhecimento das espécies de parasitos, permitindo interferência em sua proliferação para evitar epizootias e, consequentemente, perdas econômicas na criação. O presente estudo investigou a prevalência e intensidade de parasitos protozoários e metazoários em cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi (N = 89, mantidos em tanques de um exportador de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Dos espécimes de P. axelrodi necropsiados, 65,2% (N = 58 estavam parasitados pelos Protozoa Piscinoodinium pillulare (3,4% e Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (7,9%, Monogenoidea Gyrodactylus sp. (42,7%, Nematoda Procamallanus sp. (23,6% e Trematoda (1,1%. Gyrodactylus sp. e Procamallanus sp., porém, foram os parasitos de maior prevalência e intensidade. Apesar da elevada prevalência de parasitismo em P. axelrodi durante a sua permanência no exportador, a intensidade de protozoários e metazoários foi baixa pelo manejo profilático nos tanques. Os resultados demonstram que os cuidados com tratamento e profilaxia são de extrema importância na aquicultura de peixes ornamentais.Studies regarding parasites fauna in farmed ornamental fish are of great relevance for knowledge of the parasites species, allowing interference in their proliferation to avoid epizooties and consequently, economical losses. This study was designed to investigate the protozoan and metazoan parasites prevalence and intensity on cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi, maintained in tanks of an exporter from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. On necropsy 65.2% of P. axelrodi were found parasitized by Piscinoodium pillulare, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Protozoa, Gyrodactylus sp. (Monogenoidea, Procamallanus sp. (Nematoda and Trematoda. Gyrodactylus sp. (42.7% and Procamallanus sp. (23.6% were the parasites of greatest prevalence, and protozoan I. multifiliis was the parasite of greatest mean intensity (4

  7. Protozoários e metazoários parasitos do cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi Schultz, 1956 (Characidae, peixe ornamental proveniente de exportador de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil = Protozoan and metazoan parasites of the cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi Schultz, 1956 (Characidae, ornamental fish originating from exporter from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Jefferson Raphael Gonzaga Lemos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos sobre a parasitofauna de peixes ornamentais cultivados são de grande relevância para o conhecimento das espécies de parasitos, permitindo interferência em sua proliferação para evitar epizootias e, consequentemente, perdas econômicas na criação. O presente estudo investigou a prevalência e intensidade de parasitos protozoários e metazoários em cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi (N = 89, mantidos em tanques de um exportador de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Dos espécimes de P. axelrodi necropsiados, 65,2% (N = 58 estavamparasitados pelos Protozoa Piscinoodinium pillulare (3,4% e Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (7,9%, Monogenoidea Gyrodactylus sp. (42,7%, Nematoda Procamallanus sp. (23,6% e Trematoda(1,1%. Gyrodactylus sp. e Procamallanus sp., porém, foram os parasitos de maior prevalência e intensidade. Apesar da elevada prevalência de parasitismo em P. axelrodi durante a suapermanência no exportador, a intensidade de protozoários e metazoários foi baixa pelo manejo profilático nos tanques. Os resultados demonstram que os cuidados com tratamento e profilaxiasão de extrema importância na aquicultura de peixes ornamentais.Studies regarding parasites fauna in farmed ornamental fish are of great relevance for knowledge of the parasites species, allowing interference in their proliferation to avoid epizooties and consequently, economical losses. This study was designed to investigate the protozoan and metazoan parasites prevalence and intensity on cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi (N = 89, maintained in tanks of an exporter from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. On necropsy 65.2% (N = 58 of P. axelrodi were found parasitized by Protozoa Piscinoodinium pillulare (3.4% and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (7.9%, Monogenoidea Gyrodactylus sp. (42.7%, Nematoda Procamallanus sp. (23.6% and Trematoda (1.1%. However, Gyrodactylus sp. and Procamallanus sp. were the parasites of greatest prevalence and intensity. High prevalence of

  8. Parasitic diseases of camels in Iran (1931–2017) – a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazmand, Alireza; Joachim, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Parasitic diseases of camels are major causes of impaired milk and meat production, decreases in performance or even death. Some camel parasites also represent a threat to human health. About 171,500 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) and 100–300 two-humped camels (Camelus bactrianus) live in Iran. Knowledge of the biodiversity of their parasites is still limited. The present review covers all information about camel parasitic diseases in Iran published as dissertations and in both Iranian and international journals from 1931 to February 2017. Ten genera of Protozoa (Trypanosoma, Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis, Besnoitia, Theileria, Babesia and Balantidium), 48 helminth species detected in the digestive system, including three species of Trematoda, four species of Cestoda, and 41 species of Nematoda, as well as helminths from other organs – Echinococcus spp., Dictyocaulus filaria, Thelazia leesei, Dipetalonema evansi and Onchocerca fasciata – have so far been described in Iranian camels. Furthermore, 13 species of hard ticks, mange mites, the myiasis flies Cephalopina titillator and Wohlfahrtia magnifica, and immature stages of the Pentastomida Linguatula serrata have also been reported from camels of Iran. Camel parasitic diseases are a major issue in Iran in terms of economics and public health. The present review offers information for an integrated control programme against economically relevant parasites of camels. PMID:28617666

  9. Paragonimus heterotremus Chen and Hsia (1964), in Vietnam: a molecular identification and relationships of isolates from different hosts and geographical origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh H; Van De, Nguyen; Blair, David; McManus, Donald P; Kino, Hideto; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2006-04-01

    Paragonimus heterotremus Chen and Hsia (1964), and paragonimiasis caused by this species is a newly detected disease in Vietnam. Twelve samples of Paragonimus (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea: Paragonimidae) from different life-stages (eggs, miracidia, metacercariae, adults from natural and experimental hosts) and host species (crab, dog, cat and human) were collected in different geographical locations in Vietnam. DNA sequences were obtained from each for partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) (387 bp) and the entire second ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) (361 bp). The ITS-2 sequences were identical among all specimens, including those previously reported in GenBank. For cox1, there were sequence differences between specimens from Vietnam (four provinces, different locations) and those from Guangxi (China) and Saraburi (Thailand). Phylogenetic trees inferred from cox1 and ITS-2 sequences using sequence data for 15 P. heterotremus and for other Paragonimus spp. revealed that all P. heterotremus originating from Vietnam, Thailand and China form a distinct group. This information also confirms the identity of the Vietnamese specimens as P. heterotremus.

  10. Metazoan parasites of cetaceans off the northeastern coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; Mathews-Cascon, Helena; Ribeiro, Felipe Bezerra; Pessoa, Lourdes Marina Bezerra; de Meirelles, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Marigo, Juliana; Soares, Laiza; de Lima Silva, Flávio José

    2010-10-11

    This study represents the first survey of the parasitic fauna of cetaceans off the northeastern coast of Brazil. Parasites were collected from 82 animals rescued from the states of Ceará to Bahia, including the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha. A total of 14 species of cetaceans were evaluated: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella sp., Stenella clymene, Stenella longirostris, Stenella coeruleoalba, Stenella frontalis, Megaptera novaeangliae, Peponocephala electra, Steno bredanensis, Kogia breviceps, Kogia sima, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Tursiops truncatus, Physeter macrocephalus and Lagenodelphis hosei. The parasites were fixed and preserved in 70% ethanol or alcohol-formalin-acetic acid solution (AFA), clarified in phenol and mounted on slides for morphological identification. In total, 11 species and 8 genera of endo- and ectoparasites were identified: Halocercus brasiliensis, Halocercus kleinenbergi, Stenurus globicephalae, Halocercus sp., Anisakis sp., Crassicauda sp. (Nematoda), Phyllobothrium delphini, Monorygma grimaldii, Scolex pleuronectis, Strobicephalus triangularis, Tetrabothrius forsteri, Tetrabothrius sp., Trigonocotyle sp., Diphyllobothrium sp. (Cestoda), Campula sp. (Trematoda), Bolbosoma sp. (Acanthocephala), Cyamus boopis, Syncyamus pseudorcae and Xenobalanus globicipitis (Crustacea). The identification of some species represented novel records for the country and increased the occurrence of some parasites to new hosts. The use of standardized methodologies for collecting and evaluating a larger number of animals is essential for a better understanding of host-parasite relationships in cetaceans and their use as biological indicators in the region. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Parasitic diseases of camels in Iran (1931–2017 – a literature review

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    Sazmand Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases of camels are major causes of impaired milk and meat production, decreases in performance or even death. Some camel parasites also represent a threat to human health. About 171,500 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius and 100–300 two-humped camels (Camelus bactrianus live in Iran. Knowledge of the biodiversity of their parasites is still limited. The present review covers all information about camel parasitic diseases in Iran published as dissertations and in both Iranian and international journals from 1931 to February 2017. Ten genera of Protozoa (Trypanosoma, Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis, Besnoitia, Theileria, Babesia and Balantidium, 48 helminth species detected in the digestive system, including three species of Trematoda, four species of Cestoda, and 41 species of Nematoda, as well as helminths from other organs – Echinococcus spp., Dictyocaulus filaria, Thelazia leesei, Dipetalonema evansi and Onchocerca fasciata – have so far been described in Iranian camels. Furthermore, 13 species of hard ticks, mange mites, the myiasis flies Cephalopina titillator and Wohlfahrtia magnifica, and immature stages of the Pentastomida Linguatula serrata have also been reported from camels of Iran. Camel parasitic diseases are a major issue in Iran in terms of economics and public health. The present review offers information for an integrated control programme against economically relevant parasites of camels.

  12. Consideraciones ecológicas sobre la dieta, la reproducción y el parasitismo de Pseudopaludicola boliviana (Anura, Leptodactylidae de Corrientes, Argentina

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    Arturo I. Kehr

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological aspects of diet, reproduction, and parasitism of Pseudopaludicola boliviana (Anura, Leptodactylidae from Corrientes, Argentina.The main objectives of this paper were to update the distribution range of Pseudopaludicola boliviana in Argentina, to determine its diet composition and the feeding patterns, to analyze some reproductive variables as mature ova count and diameter in relation to female snoutvent length, to describe the advertisement call for Argentinean populations, and to identify and to localize its helminth parasites. Eleven prey types were identified; dipterans were more important both in number (23.53% and in volume (41.30%;other important preys were collembolans, arachnids and coleopterans. The trophic niche width was 7.15 and the standardized trophic niche value was 0.61. Ovarian complement (number of mature ova for female ranged from 50 to 319 (mean 175.3 ± 86.12, while ovum diameter ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 mm (mean 0.27 ± 0.062. The nuptial call is composed by five notes. The dominant frequency ranged from 3.488 to5.927 kHz; emphasized frequency fluctuated between 4.942 and 5.224 kHz. A total of 10 helminth species (larvae and adults were found in 54 (96% infected frogs. Helminths were represented by Trematoda (7 species, Cestoda (1, Nematoda (1, and Acanthocephala (1.

  13. New data on helminth fauna of birds of prey (Falconiformes, Accipitriformes, Strigiformes in the Slovak Republic

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    Komorová P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2012-2014, carcasses of 286 birds of prey from the territory of Slovakia were examined for the presence of helminth parasites. The number of bird species in the study was 23; five belonging to the Falconiformes order, eleven to Accipitriformes, and seven to Strigiformes. A finding of Cestoda class comprehended 4 families: Paruterinidae (4, Dilepididae (2, Mesocestoididae (2 and Anoplocephalidae (1. Birds of prey were infected with 6 families Nematoda species of the Secernentea class: Syngamidae (1, Habronematidae (2, Tetrameridae (3, Physalopteridae (1, Acuariidae (1, and Anisakidae (2. Out of the Adenophorea class, the Capillariidae family (1 was confirmed. The Acanthocephala group was represented by the Paleacanthocephala class, the Centrorhynchidae family (3. Out of the Trematoda class, 12 different species of flukes were found, belonging to the Diplostomidae (5, Cyathocotylidae (1, Strigeidae (4, Opistorchidae (1, and Plagiorchidae (1 families. The most frequent helminth species infecting diurnal birds of prey was Strigea falconis. This fluke was confirmed in one bird species from the Falconiformes order and in eight species from the Accipitriformes order. In nocturnal birds of prey, the most common finding was the acanthocephalan Centrorhynchus aluconis, identified in four different host species of the Strigiformes order. In total, 23 helminth species were recorded for the first time in Slovakia.

  14. Occurrence of eggs and oocysts of gastrointestinal parasites in passerine birds kept in captivity in Para State, Brazil

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    Paulo Cesar Magalhães-Matos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to detect helminth eggs and protozoan oocysts in samples of feces from birds of the order Passeriformes in Para State, Brazil. Fecal samples were collected individually from 403 passerine birds seized and kept in captivity in Para State. Samples were processed by the double centrifugation technique in saturated sucrose solution and the coccidial oocyst-positive samples were submitted to sporulation in potassium dichromate 2.0%. Helminth eggs and/or protozoan oocysts were observed in 43.18% (174/403 of the fecal samples examined. Coccidial oocysts were detected in 93.68% (163/174 of the positive samples, whereas helminth eggs were observed in 10.34% (18/174 of the positive samples. Oocyst sporulation occurred in 43.56% (71/163 of the samples, and only Isospora spp. oocysts were detected. Nematode eggs of the superfamilies Trichostrongyloidea (4.60%; 8/174, Ascaridoidea (0.57%; 1/174, and Trichuroidea (0.57%; 1/174 were diagnosed in the positive samples. Cestoda eggs were diagnosed in 2.87% (5/174, whereas Trematoda eggs were detected in 2.30% (4/174 of positive samples. Passerine birds seized and kept in captivity in the visited local presented parasitism by intestinal helminths and protozoan, with a predominance of infection with coccidia of the gender Isospora.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on different stages of Fasciola hepatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, J.L.; Chiriboga, J.

    1976-04-01

    Fascioliasis or hepatic distomatosis is one of the most widespread liver diseases throughout the world. It is caused by a parasitic worm of the class Trematoda of the phylum Platyhelminthes. This flatworm is commonly known as liver-fluke in the United States and Europe; babosa del higado in Cuba; cucaracha del higado in Puerto Rico; saguaype in Argentina and Chile; pirihuin in Chile; yuta in North Chile, and it is taxonomically classified as Fasciola hepatica. The adult trematode is a common parasite of warm blooded animals especially cattle, sheep, and goats. Alterations in the viability of normal Fasciola hepatica metacercariae as a result of time of storage at 4/sup 0/C were studied by the method of Wikerhauser (1960). A significant decrease in viability was observed only after one hundred days of storage. The in vitro viability of normal metacercariae was compared with that of metacercariae that were exposed to increasing ..gamma.. radiation doses. Two plainly opposite effects observed were: the activation of the excystation process by the lower radiation doses (1.5 and 2.5 Kr), an effect that persisted up to the 14th day post-radiation, and the impairment of the process evidenced on the 14th day in the metacercariae exposed to 3.5 and 5.0 Kr. Correlation between liver damage and the increasing radiation doses to which the metacercariae were exposed was studied up to 34 days after the oral inoculation in rats. (auth)

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on different stages of Fasciola hepatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.L.; Chiriboga, J.

    1976-04-01

    Fascioliasis or hepatic distomatosis is one of the most widespread liver diseases throughout the world. It is caused by a parasitic worm of the class Trematoda of the phylum Platyhelminthes. This flatworm is commonly known as liver-fluke in the United States and Europe; babosa del higado in Cuba; cucaracha del higado in Puerto Rico; saguaype in Argentina and Chile; pirihuin in Chile; yuta in North Chile, and it is taxonomically classified as Fasciola hepatica. The adult trematode is a common parasite of warm blooded animals especially cattle, sheep, and goats. Alterations in the viability of normal Fasciola hepatica metacercariae as a result of time of storage at 4 0 C were studied by the method of Wikerhauser (1960). A significant decrease in viability was observed only after one hundred days of storage. The in vitro viability of normal metacercariae was compared with that of metacercariae that were exposed to increasing γ radiation doses. Two plainly opposite effects observed were: the activation of the excystation process by the lower radiation doses (1.5 and 2.5 Kr), an effect that persisted up to the 14th day post-radiation, and the impairment of the process evidenced on the 14th day in the metacercariae exposed to 3.5 and 5.0 Kr. Correlation between liver damage and the increasing radiation doses to which the metacercariae were exposed was studied up to 34 days after the oral inoculation in rats

  17. Helminths of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) in western Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, R A; Shoop, W L

    1987-08-01

    Seventy raccoons (Procyon lotor) from western Kentucky were examined for helminths from December 1985 through May 1986. Twenty-three species of helminths were collected including 10 species of Trematoda (Brachylaima virginiana, Euryhelmis squamula, Eurytrema procyonis, Fibricola cratera, Gyrosoma singulare, Maritreminoides nettae, Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Metagonimoides oregonensis, Paragonimus kellicotti, Pharyngostomoides procyonis), 2 species of Cestoda (Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides variabilis), 10 species of Nematoda (Arthrocephalus lotoris, Baylisascaris procyonis, Capillaria putorii, C. plica, Crenosoma goblei, Dracunculus insignis, Gnathostoma procyonis, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, Trichinella spiralis), and 1 species of Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus ingens). A mean of 6.4 (3-11) helminth species per host was recorded. Fibricola cratera, Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides variabilis, Arthrocephalus lotoris, Capillaria plica, Dracunculus insignis, Molineus barbatus, and Physaloptera rara were ubiquitous parasites of the raccoon, whereas specific nidi were observed for Eurytrema procyonis, Gyrosoma singulare, Paragonimus kellicotti, Baylisascaris procyonis, Trichinella spiralis, and Macracanthorhyncus ingens. With an overall prevalence of 10% or higher, 15 of the 23 helminth species were considered common parasites of the raccoon in western Kentucky. When the 10% prevalence rate was applied within geographical quadrants to correct for the presence of nidi it was found that 18 of the 23 helminth species were common and 5 were regarded as rare parasites of the raccoon. Two species of nematodes, T. spiralis and B. procyonis, displayed a markedly higher prevalence in male raccoons.

  18. [Epizoological Survey On Infestation Rate Of Helminths In Korean Native Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Chang; Lee, Kang Wook

    1971-08-01

    The authors made a study on the species and distribution of helminths in Korean native cattle. The feces and internal organs from 1,755 heads were examined in slaughter plants of Taejon district. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Distribution and infestation rate of helminths among the collected samples are, Paramphistomum spp. 68.4%, Fasciola spp. 48%, Eurytrema spp. 23.5%, Moniezia spp. 8%, Dictyocaulus spp. 3.5%, Trichostrongylus spp. 12.4%, and other species 26.8%, respectively. 2. In 36.4% of ths cases, single infestation was seen and in 31.5%, 18.0%, and 14.0 % mixed infestation of double, triple, and quadruple or more species were seen, respectively. 3. Geographical analysis of infested helminths in the native cattle indicates: a. Among the trematoda order, Paramphistomum spp. and Fasciola spp. showed high rate of infestation throughout all districts of the country, especially Cheju island with a significant higher rate. Central district (Taejon) was higher in number of native cattle infested with Fasciola spp. than any other district of the country investigated. b. The rate of infestation with cestoda also showed to be higher in Cheju island than any other district of main land, but the rate of infestation with other nematoda showed no geographical difference.

  19. First record of intestinal parasites in a wild population of jaguar in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo

    Full Text Available Small and isolated wildlife populations may be more susceptible to disease, which makes illness an important issue to investigate regarding the conservation of large carnivores. Here, we present the results of the first investigation of intestinal parasites in one of the last remaining populations of jaguars in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We studied parasites from fecal samples using three different techniques for parasitological examination: floatation in saturated sodium chloride solution, sedimentation and formalin-ether centrifugation. Intestinal parasites were detected in 70% of the analyzed samples, and seven taxa (mean = 3.7 taxa/sample were identified. All the groups of parasites that were identified have been recorded in previous jaguar studies. However, the records of Class Trematoda and nematodes Trichuridae are the first evidence of these groups of worms in free-ranging jaguars in Brazil. Although our results do not provide conclusive evidence on the health of this jaguar population, given its very small size (approximately 20 animals we stress the need to properly understand the dynamics of disease in this wild population and to evaluate the risk of contracting new diseases from domestic species inhabiting the neighboring areas. These represent imperative actions for the successful conservation of this threatened population of jaguar.

  20. Endoparasitic fauna of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Tamara; Becskei, Zsolt; Petrović, Tamaš; Polaček, Vladimir; Ristić, Bojan; Milić, Siniša; Stepanović, Predrag; Radisavljević, Katarina; Dimitrijević, Sanda

    2016-03-01

    Wild canides have a high epizootiological - epidemiological significance, considering that they are hosts for some parasites which spread vector born diseases. Increased frequency of certain interactions between domestic and wild canides increases the risk of occurrence, spreading and maintaining the infection of parasitic etiology in domestic canides. The research was conducted in 232 wild canides (172 red foxes and 60 golden jackals). The examined material was sampled from foxes and jackals, which were hunted down between 2010 and 2014, from 8 epizootiological areas of Serbia (North-Bačka, West-Bačka, Southern-Banat, Moravički, Zlatiborski, Raški, Rasinski and Zaječarski district). On completing the parasitological dissection and the coprological diagnostics, in wild canides protozoa from the genus Isospora were identified, 3 species of trematoda (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum and Metagonimus yokogawai), cestods from the genus Taenia and 5 species of nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostomatidae, Trichuris vulpis and Capillaria aerophila). The finding of M. yokogawai in golden jackals were, to the best of our knowledge, one of the first diagnosed cases of metagonimosis in golden jackals in Serbia. The continued monitoring of the parasitic fauna of wild canides is needed to establish the widespread of the zoonoses in different regions of Serbia, because they present the reservoirs and/or sources of these infections.

  1. Laboratory maintenance of the bacterial endosymbiont, Neorickettsia sp., through the life cycle of a digenean, Plagiorchis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiman, Stephen E.; Tkach, Maksym; Vaughan, Jefferson A.; Tkach, Vasyl V.

    2016-01-01

    The Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) are a diverse and complex group of internal metazoan parasites. These parasites can serve as hosts to obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the genus Neorickettsia (Family: Anaplasmataceae). Neorickettsiae persist within all stages of the fluke life cycle and thus are maintained through vertical transmission. However, the low prevalence of Neorickettsia in nature limits study of their transmission biology at different steps of digenean life cycles. To resolve this dilemma, we have developed for the first time a laboratory model allowing to maintain Neorickettsia sp. through the whole life cycle of a digenean, Plagiorchis elegans. The laboratory life cycle of P. elegans consists of a snail first intermediate host, Lymnaea stagnalis, an aquatic arthropod second intermediate host, Culex pipiens (mosquito larva), and a vertebrate definitive host, Mesocricetus auratus (Syrian hamster). This paper focuses on the development of the laboratory life cycle, as well as outlines its potential uses in studying the transmission biology of Neorickettsia and its evolutionary relationship within its digenean host. PMID:26160679

  2. Infection by gymnophallid metacercariae enhances predation mortality of SW Atlantic stout razor clam Tagelus plebeius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addino, Mariana; Lomovasky, Betina J.; Cremonte, Florencia; Iribarne, Oscar

    2010-02-01

    Parasite life cycles are frequently completed in different hosts, thus the parasites have its life cycle overlapped to natural trophic webs. The family Gymnophallidae (Class: Trematoda; Subclass: Digenea) includes digenetic parasites whose larval stages occur on bivalves and may affect bivalve predation by the final host of these parasites. In this work we evaluated: (a) if individuals of the razor clam Tagelus plebeius with higher parasite intensity suffer higher predation by the oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus and, (b) if there is any effect of parasite intensity on burrowing and escape behaviours of these razor clams which may enhance exposure to predators. Field experiments (oystercatcher exclusion vs. open access) showed that clams with higher parasite intensity support higher predation by oystercatchers, which suggests a higher consumption of more parasitized clams and thus, a more successful reproduction of parasites linked to the intensity of infection. However, clam burrowing and escape behaviours did not show differences related to different parasite intensity, suggesting that the commonly believed mechanisms are not responsible in this case.

  3. Effects of parasitism and environment on shell size of the South American intertidal mud snail Heleobia australis (Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Pilar; Bonel, Nicolás; Cazzaniga, Néstor J.; Martorelli, Sergio R.

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of parasitism and certain environmental factors on the shell size of Heleobia australis (Hydrobiidae, Cochliopinae). We report sporocysts and metacercariae of Microphallus simillimus (Microphallidae, Trematoda) parasitizing the gonad and digestive gland of H. australis specimens from two sites of Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher (34.17% in winter and 68.14% in late spring) in snails from the outer estuary at Site 2 than in those from the inner estuary at Site 1 (5.88% and 4.71% respectively). The only known definitive host for this digenean is the white-backed stilt Himantopus melanurus (Recurvirostridae, Aves), most abundant in the estuary during winter. Parasitism by M. simillimus causes variations in the shell dimensions of H. australis, the shells of infected snails being narrower than those of uninfected snails. Snails from Site 2 were found in general to be significantly smaller than those at Site 1, possibly as a result of differences in environmental factors such as the degree of exposure to wave energy, the allocation of energy to reproduction rather than growth (induced by predation and/or parasitic castrators) and anthropogenic stressors.

  4. Anatomopathological study of parrot pufferfishColomesus psittacus parasitized by the aspidogastreanRohdella sp.

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    Michele Velasco Oliveira da Silva

    Full Text Available Aspidogastrea are globally-distributed parasites of the class Trematoda, which have been described as pathogens of a range of aquatic organisms, in marine and freshwater environments. The principal morphological characteristic of the group is an adhesive ventral disc, which is responsible for fixing the parasite to the host organism. In this study, 112 specimens ofColomesus psittacus from the municipality of Cametá, in the state of Pará (Brazil, were necropsied. Platyhelminthes of the genus Rohdella attached to the mucous membrane of the fish's intestine by the adhesive disc were observed. Fragments of parasitized tissue were fixed in Davidson solution and then processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Other fragments were fixed in glutaraldehyde, processed and observed under a scanning electron microscope. The prevalence of the parasite was 76.4%, mean intensity of infection was 8.0 and mean abundance was 6.2. The parasitism provoked chronic enteritis with diffused inflammatory infiltration. The adherence of the parasite to the mucous membrane of the intestine resulted in strangulation and hyperplasia of the region, as well as causing hypertrophy of the muscle of the mucous membrane. The present study describes the anatomopathological and ultrastructural aspects of the parasitism of the intestine of C. psittacus byRohdella sp.

  5. Endoparásitos de micromamíferos del noroeste de Perú. 1: helmintos de marsupiales

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    Manuel Tantaleán

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, informamos los resultados del análisis parasitológico realizado a 40 individuos marsupiales de las especies Caluromys lanatus, Didelphis marsupialis, Marmosops noctivagus, Metachirus nudicaudatus, Marmosa (Micoureus regina, Monodelphis adusta, Philander andersoni y Philander opossum procedentes del departamento de Loreto, Perú. Se determinaron en total 11 especies de helmintos parásitos: Nematoda: Aspidodera sp., Cruzia tentaculata, Physaloptera mirandai, Physaloptera sp., Pterygodermatites sp., Trichuris sp., Turgida turgida, y Viannaia sp.; Trematoda: Podospathalium pedatum; Acanthocephala: Giganthorhynchus ortizi; y Pentastomida: ninfa. Los parásitos Trichuris sp., Pterygodematities sp., Turgida turgida, Viannaia sp. y Podospathalium pedatum son nuevos registros para el Perú. De igual manera, se registran por primera vez las siguientes asociaciones parásitos-huéspedes: Pterygodermatites sp.-Marmosa regina, Viannaia sp.- Marmosops noctivagus, Trichuris sp.-Marmosops cf. noctivagus, Podospathalium pedatum-Monodelphis adusta, Giganthorhynchus ortizi-Marmosops cf. noctivagus, y ninfas de pentastómidos-Marmosa regina y Metachirus nudicaudatus.

  6. Infection by Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy: Effects on offspring immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Paz, Vanessa Ribeiro Figliuolo; Sequeira, Danielly; Pyrrho, Alexandre

    2017-09-15

    About 25 million Brazilians live in areas at risk of contracting the disease caused by the trematoda Schistosoma mansoni, the schistosomiasis mansoni. Although the adult parasites inhabit the blood vessels, probably the main element responsible for the pathology of the disease are the eggs, whose deposition in the liver results in formation of granulomas and hypersensitivity mediated by CD4 T cells. In the course of infection, the profile of T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines released by immune cells is correlated with the extent of inflammation in the granuloma and with the disease severity. While a Th1 immune response favors the local inflammation and the disease progression, the Th2 immune response has protective character. Also during pregnancy, it is essential a fine adjustment of a Th1/Th2 in the maternal-fetal interface, which ensures the pregnancy progress with peculiar immune characteristics. In particular, the maternal exposure to antigens has been associated with their presence in fetal circulation. The exposure to intrauterine antigens can imply an immune tolerance of the fetus to such components. In turn, the transfer of antigens and antibodies from mother to offspring during breastfeeding is an important stage of maturation and capacitation of immune offspring in future infections against pathogens. This review aims to gather bibliographic data to assist in the understanding of immunological features printed on offspring of mothers infected with S. mansoni, which affect latter immune responses to related or unrelated antigens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fasciola hepatica findings in cattle of Jablanica region

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    Milanović Valentina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period from January 2001 to December 2005, a total of 6,904 slaughtered cattle originating from the territory of the region of Jablanica were examined at the Mesokombinat AD abattoir. The Trematoda Fasciola hepatica was found in 429 cattle (6.21%. A total of 2,150 kg livers were condemned due to the presence of the liver fluke. A comparison of cattle with bovine fasciolosis according to the years yielded a very significant difference (p<0.01 between the year 2003 (10.02 and the year 2002 (9.97, on the one side, in comparison with the years 2001 (5.14, 2004 (3.37, and 2005 (5.08, on the other side. A significant difference (p<0.05 was also established in the year 2004 (3.37 in comparison with the years 2001 (5.14 and 2005 (5.08. After analyzing the significance of the differences between the infected cattle according to the seasons, a very significant difference (p<0.01 was established between the summer (7.23 and the winter (4.74 periods. A significant difference (p<0.05 was also established between the autumn (6.49 and the winter periods. The amount of precipitation was directly proportionate to the percentage of cattle infected with fasciolosis.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships among turbellarian orders inferred from 18S rDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, T; Nishioka, M; Yamamoto, M

    1996-10-01

    The turbellarian flatworm is a key group to understand the origin and the early evolution of triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical animals, but phylogenetic relationships among turbellarian orders have been a subject of debates for decades, especially on the position of the acoel turbellarians. Some workers have considered the acoel representing the most primitive turbellarian order but others have regarded them as regressive. We determined almost the entire lengths of the nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) in 17 species from 9 turbellarian orders (the Acoela, Catenulida, Macrostomida, Lecithoepitheliata, Rhabdocoela, Prolecithophora, Proseriata, Tricladida, and Polycladida). After adding the sequences of a cestode, two trematodes and some diploblastic animals obtained from databases, we reconstructed phylogenetic trees using the neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony methods. All trees significantly indicated that the Acoela is the earliest divergent group among the turbellarian orders. The trees also suggested that the Tricladida evolved in the separate lineage from that of a cluster of the Catenulida, Macrostomida, Lecithoepitheliata, Rhabdocoela, Polycladida, Trematoda and Cestoda after the divergence of the Acoela.

  9. Platyhelminth Venom Allergen-Like (VAL) proteins: revealing structural diversity, class-specific features and biological associations across the phylum

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHALMERS, IAIN W.; HOFFMANN, KARL F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY During platyhelminth infection, a cocktail of proteins is released by the parasite to aid invasion, initiate feeding, facilitate adaptation and mediate modulation of the host immune response. Included amongst these proteins is the Venom Allergen-Like (VAL) family, part of the larger sperm coating protein/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7 (SCP/TAPS) superfamily. To explore the significance of this protein family during Platyhelminthes development and host interactions, we systematically summarize all published proteomic, genomic and immunological investigations of the VAL protein family to date. By conducting new genomic and transcriptomic interrogations to identify over 200 VAL proteins (228) from species in all 4 traditional taxonomic classes (Trematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Turbellaria), we further expand our knowledge related to platyhelminth VAL diversity across the phylum. Subsequent phylogenetic and tertiary structural analyses reveal several class-specific VAL features, which likely indicate a range of roles mediated by this protein family. Our comprehensive analysis of platyhelminth VALs represents a unifying synopsis for understanding diversity within this protein family and a firm context in which to initiate future functional characterization of these enigmatic members. PMID:22717097

  10. Phylogenomic analysis of transferrin family from animals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lina; Qiao, Mu; Zheng, Rong; Deng, Changyan; Mei, Shuqi; Chen, Wanping

    2016-03-01

    Transferrins have been identified in animals and green algae, and they consist of a family of evolutionarily related proteins that play a central role in iron transport, immunity, growth and differentiation. This study assessed the transferrin genes among 100 genomes from a wide range of animal and plant kingdoms. The results showed that putative transferrins were widespread in animals, but their gene quantity and type differ greatly between animal groups. Generally, Mammalia possess abundant transferrin genes, whereas Trematoda contain few ones. Melanotransferrin and serotransferrin are widely distributed in vertebrates, while melanotransferrin-like and transferrin-like 1 are frequent in invertebrates. However, only a few plant species detected putative transferrins, and a novel transferrin member was first uncovered in Angiospermae and Pteridophyta. The structural comparison among transferrin family members revealed seven very well-repeated and conserved characteristic motifs, despite a considerable variation in the overall sequences. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that gene duplication, gene loss and horizontal transfer contributed to the diversification of transferrin family members, and their inferred evolutionary scenario was proposed. These findings help to the understanding of transferrin distribution, characteristic motifs and residues, and evolutionary process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gibson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region, and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended.

  12. Larval trematodes (Digenea of the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L., (Gastropoda, Pulmonata in Central Europe: a survey of species and key to their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faltýnková A.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of cercariae and metacercariae (Trematoda, Digenea from the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis in Central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, South-East Germany, Poland and Slovak Republic is presented, based on a study of 3,628 snails examined from 1998 to 2005. A total of 953 (26.3% L. stagnalis were infected with 24 trematode species comprising 19 species of cercariae and 11 species of metacercariae (six species occurred both as cercarie and metacercarie of eight families. The dominant cercariae were those of Opisthioglyphe ranae (159 hosts infected, Plagiorchis elegans (141 (both family Plagiorchiidae and Echinoparyphium aconiatum (153 (Echinostomatidae; 14 double infections were found. The most frequent metacercariae were those of Neoglyphe locellus (71 (Omphalometridae, E. aconiatum (66, Echinostoma sp. (59 and Moliniella anceps (48 (Echinostomatidae. In the previous studies carried out in Central Europe, a very similar spectrum of nine trematode families of 22 cercariae determined to species level and 43 types of cercariae reported under generic or provisional names, which can be in many cases conspecific with the previous taxa, were found. A simple key to identification of cercariae and metacercariae, together with their illustrations, is provided.

  13. Potential biological hazard of importance for HACCP plans in fresh fish processing

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    Baltić Milan Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP system is scientifically based and focused on problem prevention in order to assure the produced food products are safe to consume. Prerequisite programs such as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices, GHP (Good Hygienic Practices are an essential foundation for the development and implementation of successful HACCP plans. One of the preliminary tasks in the development of HACCP plan is to conduct a hazard analysis. The process of conducting a hazard analysis involves two stages. The first is hazard identification and the second stage is the HACCP team decision which potential hazards must be addressed in the HACCP plan. By definition, the HACCP concept covers all types of potential food safety hazards: biological, chemical and physical, whether they are naturally occurring in the food, contributed by the environment or generated by a mistake in the manufacturing process. In raw fish processing, potential significant biological hazards which are reasonably likely to cause illness of humans are parasites (Trematodae, Nematodae, Cestodae, bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Staphyloccocus aureus, viruses (Norwalk virus, Entero virusesi, Hepatitis A, Rotovirus and bio-toxins. Upon completion of hazard analysis, any measure(s that are used to control the hazard(s should be described.

  14. Schistosomes and Microfilarial Parasites in Magellanic Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph; Gardiner, Chris H; Yabsley, Michael J; Swanepoel, Liandrie; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Silva-Filho, Rodolfo P; Ewbank, Ana C; Catão-Dias, José L

    2018-02-27

    The Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) is native to Argentina, Chile and the Falkland/Malvinas islands and is a regular winter migrant in Uruguayan and Brazilian coastal waters. The species is known to be susceptible to a variety of gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes, trematodes and acanthocephalans, as well as renal trematodes and pulmonary nematodes. Schistosomes (Platyhelminthes, Trematoda, Schistosomatidae) and microfilariae (Nematoda, Secernentea, Onchocercidae) were histologically identified in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) that died while under care at rehabilitation centers in southern Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene, ITS-1 region, 5.8 S rRNA gene, ITS-2 region and 28S rRNA gene sequences of the schistosome revealed that it is closely related to, but distinct from a schistosome reported from the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus). The schistosomes from Magellanic and African Penguins were grouped with Gigantobilharzia huronensis, Gigantobilharzia melanoidis and Dendritobilharzia pulvurenta; however, the lack of a clearly monophyletic origin precludes determining their genus. The incidental discovery of novel parasites during a study that did not specifically aim to investigate the occurrence of helminths underscores the value of histopathological examination as an exploratory diagnostic approach.

  15. Use of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in biological control of intermediate host snails of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in nursery ponds in the Red River Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen M; Duc, Nguyen V; Stauffer, Jay R; Madsen, Henry

    2013-05-16

    The risks of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) to human health constitute an important problem in Vietnam. The infection of humans with these trematodes, such as small liver trematodes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini), intestinal trematodes (Heterophyidae) and others is often thought to be linked to fish culture in areas where the habit of eating raw fish is common. Juvenile fish produced in nurseries are often heavily infected with FZT and since fishes are sold to aquaculture facilities for growth, control of FZT in these fishes should be given priority. Controlling the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam. Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (10-12 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations. In the semi-field experiment a known quantity of snails was initially introduced into a pond which was subsequently stocked with black carp. In the field trial in nursery ponds, density of snails was estimated prior to a nursing cycle and at the end of the cycle (after 9 weeks). The results showed that black carp affect the density of snail populations in both semi-field and field conditions. The standing crop of snails in nursery ponds, however, was too high for 2 specimens to greatly reduce snail density within the relatively short nursing cycle. We conclude that the black carp can be used in nursery ponds in Northern Vietnam for snail control. Juvenile black carp weighing 100 - 200 g should be used because this size primarily prey on intermediate hosts of FZT and other studies have shown that it

  16. [Human intestinal parasites in Subsaharan Africa. II. Sao Tomé and Principe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampiglione, S; Visconti, S; Pezzino, G

    1987-04-01

    In 1983 the authors carried out a survey in the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe, analysing 1050 specimens of stools collected among the population from apparently healthy subjects chosen at random and in a number proportional to the distribution of the population in the regions of the country (about 1% of the population was examined). The examined subjects were divided into 3 age groups (0-3, 4-12, more than 12 years old), to have homogeneous groups in relation principally to modalities of life and nutritional patterns. There were 488 male subjects and 562 females. The survey was preceded by a sensitization of the people to the problem of intestinal parasites and by two preliminary surveys about the number of existing latrines and about people's believes and attitudes in relation to helmintiasis. The tests were made according to the modified Ritchie technique on fecal specimens preserved with 10% formol solution. The following results were found: a) Protozoa: Entamoeba coli, 43.0%; Iodamoeba buetschlii, 9.0%; Giardia intestinalis, 8.8%; Endolimax nana, 7.0%; E. histolytica, 5.5%; E. hartmanni, 2.5%; Chilomastix mesnili, 2.3%; Trichomonas intestinalis, 0.2%; Balantidium coli, 0.1%. b) Helminths: Trichuris trichiura, 87.7%; Ascaris lumbricoides, 64.3%; Ancylostomatidae, 40.5%; Strongyloides stercoralis, 6.8%; Hymenolepis diminuta, 0.3%; H. nana, 0.2%; Schistosoma haematobium, 0.2%. In 28.2% of the specimens (with more than 50% of subjects in some villages) eggs of Heterophyidae were found, very similar to Metagonimus yokogawai, but not yet identified by us, with the following characteristics: elliptical shape, average size 25 mu (22.2-27.7) X 18.5 mu (17-21), thick wall, operculum difficult to see, not sticking out from the outline but visible by focusing being in a different refractiveness, presence of a small polar knob, colour slightly brownish, asymmetric miracidium. Further investigations are necessary to identify the species of this trematode and

  17. Anatomopathological study of parrot pufferfish Colomesus psittacus parasitized by the aspidogastrean Rohdella sp. Estudo anatomopatológico do peixe baiacu papagaio Colomesus psittacus parasitado pelo aspidogastrea Rohdella sp.

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    Michele Velasco Oliveira da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspidogastrea are globally-distributed parasites of the class Trematoda, which have been described as pathogens of a range of aquatic organisms, in marine and freshwater environments. The principal morphological characteristic of the group is an adhesive ventral disc, which is responsible for fixing the parasite to the host organism. In this study, 112 specimens of Colomesus psittacus from the municipality of Cametá, in the state of Pará (Brazil, were necropsied. Platyhelminthes of the genus Rohdella attached to the mucous membrane of the fish's intestine by the adhesive disc were observed. Fragments of parasitized tissue were fixed in Davidson solution and then processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Other fragments were fixed in glutaraldehyde, processed and observed under a scanning electron microscope. The prevalence of the parasite was 76.4%, mean intensity of infection was 8.0 and mean abundance was 6.2. The parasitism provoked chronic enteritis with diffused inflammatory infiltration. The adherence of the parasite to the mucous membrane of the intestine resulted in strangulation and hyperplasia of the region, as well as causing hypertrophy of the muscle of the mucous membrane. The present study describes the anatomopathological and ultrastructural aspects of the parasitism of the intestine of C. psittacus by Rohdella sp.Os Aspidogastreas são parasitos da classe Trematoda, distribuídos globalmente e têm sido descritos como patógenos em uma gama de organismos aquáticos de ambientes marinhos e de água doce. A principal característica morfológica do grupo é um disco adesivo na região ventral responsável pela fixação do parasito no organismo hospedeiro. Neste estudo, 112 espécimes de Colomesus psittacus provenientes do município de Cametá, no estado do Pará (Brasil, foram necropsiados. Foram observados platelmintos do gênero Rohdella aderidos à mucosa intestinal através do disco adesivo. Fragmentos de tecido com

  18. Parasites of domestic and wild canids in the region of Serra do Cipó National Park, Brazil Parasitos de canídeos domésticos e silvestres na região do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó - Brasil

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    Juliana Lúcia Costa Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, diseases have been shown to be important causes of extinctions among wild species. Greater emphasis has been given to diseases transmitted by domestic animals, which have been increasing in numbers in natural areas, along with human populations. This study had the aim of investigating the presence of intestinal helminths in wild canids (maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, and crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous in the Serra do Cipó National Park (43-44º W and 19-20º S and endo and ectoparasites of domestic dogs in the Morro da Pedreira Environmental Protection Area (an area surrounding the National Park. The Serra do Cipó is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Among the enteroparasites found in domestic and wild canids, the following taxons were identified: Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Toxocara sp., Spirocerca sp., Physaloptera sp., Strongyloides sp., Cestoda, Dipylidium caninum, Diphyllobothriidae, Hymenolepidae, Anoplocephalidae, Trematoda, Acanthocephala and Isospora sp. Domestic dogs were positive for leishmaniasis and Babesia canis in serological tests. Among the ectoparasites, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Ctenocephalides felis felis were observed in domestic dogs. Variations in the chaetotaxy of the meta-episternum and posterior tibia were observed in some specimens of C. felis felis.Nas últimas décadas, as doenças têm sido apontadas como importantes causas de extinção de espécies silvestres. Maior ênfase tem sido dada às doenças transmitidas por animais domésticos que crescem em número, bem como as populações humanas, em áreas naturais. O presente estudo objetivou verificar a presença de helmintos intestinais de canídeos silvestres (lobo-guará - Chrysocyon brachyurus e cachorro-do-mato - Cerdocyon thous do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (43-44º W e 19-20º S e endo e ectoparasitos de cães domésticos da Área de Proteção Ambiental Morro da Pedreira (entorno do

  19. [A national survey on current status of the important parasitic diseases in human population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-30

    In order to understand the current status and trends of the important parasitic diseases in human population, to evaluate the effect of control activities in the past decade and provide scientific base for further developing control strategies, a national survey was carried out in the country (Taiwan, Hongkong and Macau not included) from June, 2001 to 2004 under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Health. The sample sizes of the nationwide survey and of the survey in each province (autonomous region and municipality, P/A/M) were determined following a calculating formula based on an estimation of the sample size of random sampling to the rate of population. A procedure of stratified cluster random sampling was conducted in each province based on geographical location and economical condition with three strata: county/city, township/town, and spot, each spot covered a sample of 500 people. Parasitological examinations were conducted for the infections of soil-transmitted nematodes, Taenia spp, and Clonorchis sinensis, including Kato-Katz thick smear method, scotch cellulose adhesive tape technique and test tube-filter paper culture (for larvae). At the same time, another sampled investigation for Clonorchis sinensis infection was carried out in the known endemic areas in 27 provinces. Serological tests combined with questionnaire and/or clinical diagnosis were applied for hydatid disease, cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, trichinosis, and toxoplasmosis. A total sampled population of 356 629 from the 31 P/A/M was examined by parasitological methods and 26 species of helminth were recorded. Among these helminth, human infections of Metorchis orientalis and Echinostoma aegypti were detected in Fujian Province which seemed to be the first report in the world, and Haplorchis taichui infection in Guangxi Region was the first human infection record in the country. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 21.74%. The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes was 19

  20. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2013-02-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species-genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  1. Host range, host ecology, and distribution of more than 11800 fish parasite species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Palomares, Maria Lourdes D.; Bailly, Nicholas; Galli, Paolo; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Our data set includes 38 008 fish parasite records (for Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, Trematoda) compiled from the scientific literature, Internet databases, and museum collections paired to the corresponding host ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic traits (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, habitat preference, geographical range size, taxonomy). The data focus on host features, because specific parasite traits are not consistently available across records. For this reason, the data set is intended as a flexible resource able to extend the principles of ecological niche modeling to the host–parasite system, providing researchers with the data to model parasite niches based on their distribution in host species and the associated host features. In this sense, the database offers a framework for testing general ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic hypotheses based on the identification of hosts as parasite habitat. Potential applications of the data set are, for example, the investigation of species–area relationships or the taxonomic distribution of host-specificity. The provided host–parasite list is that currently used by Fish Parasite Ecology Software Tool (FishPEST, http://purl.oclc.org/fishpest), which is a website that allows researchers to model several aspects of the relationships between fish parasites and their hosts. The database is intended for researchers who wish to have more freedom to analyze the database than currently possible with FishPEST. However, for readers who have not seen FishPEST, we recommend using this as a starting point for interacting with the database.

  2. Climatic variables are associated with the prevalence of biliary trematodes in otters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard-Smith, Ellie; Chadwick, Elizabeth A; Cable, Joanne

    2013-08-01

    Parasites with complex life cycles are expected to be disproportionately affected by climate change. Knowledge of current associations with weather and host-parasite interactions is therefore essential for the inference of future distributions. The Eurasian otter, Lutra lutra, is exposed to a range of parasites due to its large home range and use of terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats. As such, it can act as a sentinel species for generalist parasites. Here we consider two biliary parasites recently reported in the United Kingdom, Pseudamphistomum truncatum and Metorchis albidus (Trematoda, Opisthorchiidae), and ask whether there are associations between abiotic factors (season, temperature, rainfall and the North Atlantic Oscillation) and the prevalence and intensities of these parasites in otters (n = 586). To control for biotic interactions we first examined whether particular sub-groups of the otter population (grouped by sex, age-class and condition) are more prone to infection and whether any damage is associated with the presence of these parasites. Even though mean intensities of the smaller trematode, P. truncatum (28.3 worms/host), were much higher than M. albidus (4.1), both parasite species had similar impacts on the otter. The distributions of parasites on host sexes were similar, but males suffered greater damage and regardless of sex, parasite intensity increased in older hosts. The probability of infection with either parasite was negatively associated with ground frost, minimum temperatures and rainfall, but was positively associated with warm long-term average temperatures. Although it is widely accepted that multiple variables influence parasite distributions, to our knowledge this is one of only a few studies to examine the combined impact of biotic and abiotic variables on parasites with complex life cycles within their wild definitive host. Identifying such associations can give greater accuracy to predictions concerning the

  3. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the 'intermediate form' of Fasciola and Fasciola gigantica, and their comparison with F. hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Gasser, Robin B; Young, Neil D; Song, Hui-Qun; Ai, Lin; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-03-31

    Fascioliasis is an important and neglected disease of humans and other mammals, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola. Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica are valid species that infect humans and animals, but the specific status of Fasciola sp. ('intermediate form') is unclear. Single specimens inferred to represent Fasciola sp. ('intermediate form'; Heilongjiang) and F. gigantica (Guangxi) from China were genetically identified and characterized using PCR-based sequencing of the first and second internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of these representative specimens were then sequenced. The relationships of these specimens with selected members of the Trematoda were assessed by phylogenetic analysis of concatenated amino acid sequence datasets by Bayesian inference (BI). The complete mt genomes of representatives of Fasciola sp. and F. gigantica were 14,453 bp and 14,478 bp in size, respectively. Both mt genomes contain 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes, but lack an atp8 gene. All protein-coding genes are transcribed in the same direction, and the gene order in both mt genomes is the same as that published for F. hepatica. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated amino acid sequence data for all 12 protein-coding genes showed that the specimen of Fasciola sp. was more closely related to F. gigantica than to F. hepatica. The mt genomes characterized here provide a rich source of markers, which can be used in combination with nuclear markers and imaging techniques, for future comparative studies of the biology of Fasciola sp. from China and other countries.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the ‘intermediate form’ of Fasciola and Fasciola gigantica, and their comparison with F. hepatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Fascioliasis is an important and neglected disease of humans and other mammals, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola. Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica are valid species that infect humans and animals, but the specific status of Fasciola sp. (‘intermediate form’) is unclear. Methods Single specimens inferred to represent Fasciola sp. (‘intermediate form’; Heilongjiang) and F. gigantica (Guangxi) from China were genetically identified and characterized using PCR-based sequencing of the first and second internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of these representative specimens were then sequenced. The relationships of these specimens with selected members of the Trematoda were assessed by phylogenetic analysis of concatenated amino acid sequence datasets by Bayesian inference (BI). Results The complete mt genomes of representatives of Fasciola sp. and F. gigantica were 14,453 bp and 14,478 bp in size, respectively. Both mt genomes contain 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes, but lack an atp8 gene. All protein-coding genes are transcribed in the same direction, and the gene order in both mt genomes is the same as that published for F. hepatica. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated amino acid sequence data for all 12 protein-coding genes showed that the specimen of Fasciola sp. was more closely related to F. gigantica than to F. hepatica. Conclusions The mt genomes characterized here provide a rich source of markers, which can be used in combination with nuclear markers and imaging techniques, for future comparative studies of the biology of Fasciola sp. from China and other countries. PMID:24685294

  5. Ecologia da comunidade de helmintos gastrointestinais de tartarugas-verdes ( Chelonia mydas recolhidas no litoral do Espírito Santo

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    M.C. Gomes

    Full Text Available RESUMO A tartaruga-verde, Chelonia mydas, apresenta distribuição cosmopolita. No Brasil, ocorre na costa, porém desova em ilhas oceânicas. A helmintofauna de tartarugas-verdes é diversificada, podendo-se dizer que tem a maior diversidade comparada com outras espécies de tartarugas. Objetivou-se avaliar aspectos ecológicos da comunidade de helmintos gastrointestinais e relacionar com a condição corporal de tartarugas-verdes recolhidas no litoral do Espírito Santo. Foram utilizados 36 exemplares juvenis da espécie C. mydas. O trato gastrointestinal foi separado e dividido em porções: esôfago/estômago, intestino delgado e intestino grosso. Cada porção foi inspecionada à procura de parasitos, e os exemplares encontrados foram separados para posterior identificação. Das 36 tartarugas avaliadas, 34 estavam parasitadas por helmintos (94,44%, com um total de 10.734 helmintos. Foram encontradas 18 espécies de trematodas pertencentes a quatro famílias. A riqueza de espécies encontrada foi de 4,29±2,19 (1-10 e a intensidade média de infecção foi de 315,64±281,83 (2-994 helmintos. Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram Cricocephalus albus, Metacetabulum invaginatum e Neoctangium travassosi, ambos com 61,11% (22/36, Pronocephalus obliquus com 33,33% (12/36, e Glyphicephalus lobatus com 30,55% (11/36. O helminto mais abundante foi M. invaginatum com 70,63 helmintos/animal, seguido de C. albus com 58,77 helmintos/animal e N. travassosi com 41,75 helmintos/animal.

  6. Antibody trapping: A novel mechanism of parasite immune evasion by the trematode Echinostoma caproni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cortés

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, causing an enormous impact in global health and the socioeconomic growth of developing countries. In this context, the study of helminth biology, with emphasis on host-parasite interactions, appears as a promising approach for developing new tools to prevent and control these infections.The role that antibody responses have on helminth infections is still not well understood. To go in depth into this issue, work on the intestinal helminth Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae has been undertaken. Adult parasites were recovered from infected mice and cultured in vitro. Double indirect immunofluorescence at increasing culture times was done to show that in vivo-bound surface antibodies become trapped within a layer of excretory/secretory products that covers the parasite. Entrapped antibodies are then degraded by parasite-derived proteases, since protease inhibitors prevent for antibody loss in culture. Electron microscopy and immunogold-labelling of secreted proteins provide evidence that this mechanism is consistent with tegument dynamics and ultrastructure, hence it is feasible to occur in vivo. Secretory vesicles discharge their content to the outside and released products are deposited over the parasite surface enabling antibody trapping.At the site of infection, both parasite secretion and antibody binding occur simultaneously and constantly. The continuous entrapment of bound antibodies with newly secreted products may serve to minimize the deleterious effects of the antibody-mediated attack. This mechanism of immune evasion may aid to understand the limited effect that antibody responses have in helminth infections, and may contribute to the basis for vaccine development against these highly prevalent diseases.

  7. Molecular characterization of Fasciola gigantica from Mauritania based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Nabil; Farjallah, Sarra; Salem, Mohamed; Lamine, Dia Mamadou; Merella, Paolo; Said, Khaled; Ben Slimane, Badreddine

    2011-10-01

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) is considered the most important helminth infection of ruminants in tropical countries, causing considerable socioeconomic problems. From Africa, F. gigantica has been previously characterized from Burkina Faso, Senegal, Kenya, Zambia and Mali, while F. hepatica has been reported from Morocco and Tunisia, and both species have been observed from Ethiopia and Egypt on the basis of morphometric differences, while the use of molecular markers is necessary to distinguish exactly between species. Samples identified morphologically as F. gigantica (n=60) from sheep and cattle from different geographical localities of Mauritania were genetically characterized by sequences of the first (ITS-1), the 5.8S, and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes and the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I (COI) gene. Comparison of the sequences of the Mauritanian samples with sequences of Fasciola spp. from GenBank confirmed that all samples belong to the species F. gigantica. The nucleotide sequencing of ITS rDNA of F. gigantica showed no nucleotide variation in the ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 rDNA sequences among all samples examined and those from Burkina Faso, Kenya, Egypt and Iran. The phylogenetic trees based on the ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences showed a close relationship of the Mauritanian samples with isolates of F. gigantica from different localities of Africa and Asia. The COI genotypes of the Mauritanian specimens of F. gigantica had a high level of diversity, and they belonged to the F. gigantica phylogenically distinguishable clade. The present study is the first molecular characterization of F. gigantica in sheep and cattle from Mauritania, allowing a reliable approach for the genetic differentiation of Fasciola spp. and providing basis for further studies on liver flukes in the African countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All

  8. A transcriptomic-phylogenomic analysis of the evolutionary relationships of flatworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Bernhard; Lapraz, François; Tomiczek, Bartłomiej; Müller, Steven; Dessimoz, Christophe; Girstmair, Johannes; Škunca, Nives; Rawlinson, Kate A; Cameron, Christopher B; Beli, Elena; Todaro, M Antonio; Gammoudi, Mehrez; Noreña, Carolina; Telford, Maximilian J

    2015-05-18

    The interrelationships of the flatworms (phylum Platyhelminthes) are poorly resolved despite decades of morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies. The earliest-branching clades (Catenulida, Macrostomorpha, and Polycladida) share spiral cleavage and entolecithal eggs with other lophotrochozoans. Lecithoepitheliata have primitive spiral cleavage but derived ectolecithal eggs. Other orders (Rhabdocoela, Proseriata, Tricladida and relatives, and Bothrioplanida) all have derived ectolecithal eggs but have uncertain affinities to one another. The orders of parasitic Neodermata emerge from an uncertain position from within these ectolecithal classes. To tackle these problems, we have sequenced transcriptomes from 18 flatworms and 5 other metazoan groups. The addition of published data produces an alignment of >107,000 amino acids with less than 28% missing data from 27 flatworm taxa in 11 orders covering all major clades. Our phylogenetic analyses show that Platyhelminthes consist of the two clades Catenulida and Rhabditophora. Within Rhabditophora, we show the earliest-emerging branch is Macrostomorpha, not Polycladida. We show Lecithoepitheliata are not members of Neoophora but are sister group of Polycladida, implying independent origins of the ectolecithal eggs found in Lecithoepitheliata and Neoophora. We resolve Rhabdocoela as the most basally branching euneoophoran taxon. Tricladida, Bothrioplanida, and Neodermata constitute a group that appears to have lost both spiral cleavage and centrosomes. We identify Bothrioplanida as the long-sought closest free-living sister group of the parasitic Neodermata. Among parasitic orders, we show that Cestoda are closer to Trematoda than to Monogenea, rejecting the concept of the Cercomeromorpha. Our results have important implications for understanding the evolution of this major phylum. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Cytosine methylation is a conserved epigenetic feature found throughout the phylum Platyhelminthes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) contains an important group of bilaterian organisms responsible for many debilitating and chronic infectious diseases of human and animal populations inhabiting the planet today. In addition to their biomedical and veterinary relevance, some platyhelminths are also frequently used models for understanding tissue regeneration and stem cell biology. Therefore, the molecular (genetic and epigenetic) characteristics that underlie trophic specialism, pathogenicity or developmental maturation are likely to be pivotal in our continued studies of this important metazoan group. Indeed, in contrast to earlier studies that failed to detect evidence of cytosine or adenine methylation in parasitic flatworm taxa, our laboratory has recently defined a critical role for cytosine methylation in Schistosoma mansoni oviposition, egg maturation and ovarian development. Thus, in order to identify whether this epigenetic modification features in other platyhelminth species or is a novelty of S. mansoni, we conducted a study simultaneously surveying for DNA methylation machinery components and DNA methylation marks throughout the phylum using both parasitic and non-parasitic representatives. Results Firstly, using both S. mansoni DNA methyltransferase 2 (SmDNMT2) and methyl-CpG binding domain protein (SmMBD) as query sequences, we illustrate that essential DNA methylation machinery components are well conserved throughout the phylum. Secondly, using both molecular (methylation specific amplification polymorphism, MSAP) and immunological (enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, ELISA) methodologies, we demonstrate that representative species (Echinococcus multilocularis, Protopolystoma xenopodis, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum, Fasciola hepatica and Polycelis nigra) within all four platyhelminth classes (Cestoda, Monogenea, Trematoda and ‘Turbellaria’) contain methylated cytosines within their genome compartments

  10. Variaciones de la infracomunidad parásita durante la ontogenia de Chromis cyanea(Perciformes: Pomacentridae en la costa norte de La Habana, Cuba

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    Ramón Alexis Fernández Osorio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromis cyaneaes una de las especies marinas más comunes y abundantes de los arrecifes cubanos. En este estudio se cuantifica la infracomunidad de parásitos durante el desarrollo ontogenético de Chromis cyanea(Pisces: Pomacentridae de la costa norte de La Habana, Cuba. Los objetivos son probar que las especies núcleo son responsables de la estructura en la infracomunidad y aparecen antes que las especies raras y estocásticas. Determinar si existe relación entre los descriptores ecológicos de la infraco-munidad parásita con la longitud total. Se capturaron 278 ejemplares de C. cyaneadurante la estación de seca (Abril del 2010. Se analizó un rango de tallas de 1.5 a 11.5 cm de largo total y se incluyeron ejemplares juveniles y adultos. Se recolectaron 2 861 especímenes parásitos pertenecientes a 20 taxa: Crustacea (5, Nematoda (5, Trematoda (4, Cestoda (2, Monogenea (2, Turbellaria (1 y Ciliophora (1. Los taxa Tetraphyllidea y Anilocra chromisconstituyen el núcleo de la infracomunidad parásita. La secuencia de aparición y la persistencia de estos taxa durante el desarrollo ontogenético apoyan la hipótesis de las especies núcleo. Los cambios en la infracomunidad, a partir de la talla de 6 cm, podrían ser el resultado de un efecto acumulativo unido a cambios en la dieta que provocan la ingestión de nuevos estadíos infectivos. Se concluye que el desarrollo ontogenético de C. cyaneaconstituye una variable importante en la formación de la infracomunidad parásita.

  11. Thioredoxin and glutathione systems differ in parasitic and free-living platyhelminths

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    Salinas Gustavo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thioredoxin and/or glutathione pathways occur in all organisms. They provide electrons for deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, function as antioxidant defenses, in detoxification, Fe/S biogenesis and participate in a variety of cellular processes. In contrast to their mammalian hosts, platyhelminth (flatworm parasites studied so far, lack conventional thioredoxin and glutathione systems. Instead, they possess a linked thioredoxin-glutathione system with the selenocysteine-containing enzyme thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR as the single redox hub that controls the overall redox homeostasis. TGR has been recently validated as a drug target for schistosomiasis and new drug leads targeting TGR have recently been identified for these platyhelminth infections that affect more than 200 million people and for which a single drug is currently available. Little is known regarding the genomic structure of flatworm TGRs, the expression of TGR variants and whether the absence of conventional thioredoxin and glutathione systems is a signature of the entire platyhelminth phylum. Results We examine platyhelminth genomes and transcriptomes and find that all platyhelminth parasites (from classes Cestoda and Trematoda conform to a biochemical scenario involving, exclusively, a selenium-dependent linked thioredoxin-glutathione system having TGR as a central redox hub. In contrast, the free-living platyhelminth Schmidtea mediterranea (Class Turbellaria possesses conventional and linked thioredoxin and glutathione systems. We identify TGR variants in Schistosoma spp. derived from a single gene, and demonstrate their expression. We also provide experimental evidence that alternative initiation of transcription and alternative transcript processing contribute to the generation of TGR variants in platyhelminth parasites. Conclusions Our results indicate that thioredoxin and glutathione pathways differ in parasitic and free-living flatworms and

  12. Thioredoxin and glutathione systems differ in parasitic and free-living platyhelminths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The thioredoxin and/or glutathione pathways occur in all organisms. They provide electrons for deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, function as antioxidant defenses, in detoxification, Fe/S biogenesis and participate in a variety of cellular processes. In contrast to their mammalian hosts, platyhelminth (flatworm) parasites studied so far, lack conventional thioredoxin and glutathione systems. Instead, they possess a linked thioredoxin-glutathione system with the selenocysteine-containing enzyme thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) as the single redox hub that controls the overall redox homeostasis. TGR has been recently validated as a drug target for schistosomiasis and new drug leads targeting TGR have recently been identified for these platyhelminth infections that affect more than 200 million people and for which a single drug is currently available. Little is known regarding the genomic structure of flatworm TGRs, the expression of TGR variants and whether the absence of conventional thioredoxin and glutathione systems is a signature of the entire platyhelminth phylum. Results We examine platyhelminth genomes and transcriptomes and find that all platyhelminth parasites (from classes Cestoda and Trematoda) conform to a biochemical scenario involving, exclusively, a selenium-dependent linked thioredoxin-glutathione system having TGR as a central redox hub. In contrast, the free-living platyhelminth Schmidtea mediterranea (Class Turbellaria) possesses conventional and linked thioredoxin and glutathione systems. We identify TGR variants in Schistosoma spp. derived from a single gene, and demonstrate their expression. We also provide experimental evidence that alternative initiation of transcription and alternative transcript processing contribute to the generation of TGR variants in platyhelminth parasites. Conclusions Our results indicate that thioredoxin and glutathione pathways differ in parasitic and free-living flatworms and that canonical enzymes

  13. Kontaminasi Telur Cacing pada Sayur dan Upaya Pencegahannya

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    Hebert Adrianto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Infeksi cacing merupakan permasalahan yang banyak ditemukan di negara berkembang dan belum tuntas diselesaikan. Sayur lalapan dapat menjadi media penularan telur cacing ke manusia. Tujuan tulisan ini adalah mengidentifikasi jenis telur cacing yang ditemukan pada sayuran dan upaya pencegahan menurut siklus hidup cacing tersebut. Tulisan ini mengkaji 4 jurnal penelitian Indonesia, 22 jurnal penelitian internasional, website WHO, dan buku teks yang relevan dengan topik kajian. Hasil kajian menunjukkan jenis telur cacing yang ditemukan pada sayuran tidak hanya Nematoda Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH seperti Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, dan Strongyloides stercoralis, tetapi juga Nematoda lainnya (Trichostrongylus, Toxocara, Trichocephal, dan Enterobius vermicularis, kelompok cacing Cestoda (Taenia spp., Hymenolepis nana, dan H. diminuta, kelompok Trematoda (Heterophyes heterophyes, Clonorchis sinensis, Fasciola, dan Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Setiap spesies cacing memiliki siklus hidup dan hospes perantara yang berbeda. Upaya pencegahan untuk menghindari risiko infeksi memerlukan kerja sama lintas program, lintas sektor, dan masyarakat dengan memperhatikan siklus hidup cacing. Kata kunci: sayur, telur cacing, pencegahan, kerjasama ABSTRACTHelminth infections are the most common infections in developing countries and still need to be eradicated. Fresh vegetables can be the source for transmission of helminth egg to humans. The aims of this paper are to identify the types of helminth egg which found in vegetables and prevention efforts according to the helminth life cycle. A literature review was arranged by review of 4 articles Indonesian research journal, 22 articles non Indonesia research journal, WHO website, and textbooks relevant to the study topic. The paper describes list of helminth eggs in vegetables, environmental, behaviors, and host-related helminth analyzes in vegetables

  14. Comparação de kits ELISA® comerciais para anticorpos no soro e leite com um teste coproparasitológico em bovinos naturalmente infectados por Fasciola hepatica

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    Cíntia das C. Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fasciolose é uma enfermidade causada por um trematoda que acomete o fígado principalmente de ruminantes domésticos, podendo parasitar o homem e seu diagnóstico é realizado rotineiramente por exames coproparasitológicos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar kits comerciais de ELISA para anticorpos no soro e leite com um teste coproprarasitológico em bovinos naturalmente infectados por Fasciola hepatica. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes (92 sangue (92 e leite (43 de bovinos provenientes de propriedades de gado leiteiro do município de Jerônimo Monteiro, sul do Estado do Espírito Santo. As amostras de fezes coletadas foram processadas pela técnica de sedimentação fecal para ovos de F. hepatica, utilizada como padrão ouro para as análises. Amostras de sangue e de leite foram processadas segundo a orientação do fabricante dos respectivos Kits ELISA comerciais testados. Utilizou-se o c² de McNemar para comparação estatística e calcularam-se a sensibilidade e especificidade, valores preditivos e kappa. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as frequências de positividade pelo uso dos kits ELISA comerciais de soro e de leite diferiram significativamente (p<0,0001 em relação ao exame coproparasitológico. A sensibilidade dos Kits foi de 100%, porém possuíram baixa especificidade, 42,85 e 30% para o soro e leite respectivamente. O coeficiente de kappa mostrou concordância sofrível para os testes de soro (0,33 e de leite (0,21. Os valores preditivos positivos dos kits para soro e leite foram, respectivamente, 44,61 e 38,23% e, os valores preditivos negativos de 100% para ambos os testes. Apesar da maior sensibilidade dos kits ELISA comerciais e, destes apresentarem diferença em relação ao exame coproparasitológico na detecção dos animais positivos para F. hepatica, a escolha de um teste diagnóstico deve considerar o custo benefício. Quando se trata da presença de parasitismo em rebanhos, o tratamento é aplicado

  15. Molecular characterization of Fasciola hepatica from Sardinia based on sequence analysis of genomic and mitochondrial gene markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjallah, Sarra; Ben Slimane, Badreddine; Piras, Cristina Maria; Amor, Nabil; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity of samples identified morphologically as Fasciola hepatica (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) (n=66) from sheep and cattle from two localities of Sardinia and to compare them with available data from other localities by partial sequences of the first (ITS-1), the 5.8S, and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit I (ND1) genes. Comparison of the sequences from Sardinia with sequences of Fasciola spp. from GenBank confirmed that all samples belong to the species F. hepatica. The nucleotide sequencing of ITS rDNA showed no nucleotide variation in the ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 rDNA sequences among all Sardinian samples, comparing with two ITS-2 haplotypes in standard F. hepatica, showing a substitution C/T in 20 position 859, reported previously from Tunisia, Algeria, Australia, Uruguay and Spain. The present study shows that in Sardinian sheep and cattle there is the most frequent haplotype (FhITS-H1) of F. hepatica species from South Europe. Considering NDI sequences, the phylogenetic trees showed reliable grouping among the haplotypes of F. hepatica from Sardinia and the mitochondrial lineage I, including the main N1 haplotype, observed previously from Europe (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Bulgaria), Armenia, West Africa (Nigeria), America (Uruguay and USA), Asia (Turkey, Japan, and China), Georgia, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Australia. Furthermore, common haplotypes FhCOI-H1 and FhCOI-H2 of F. hepatica from Sardinia also corresponded mostly to the first lineage including the main C1 haplotype reported previously from Eastern European and Western Asian populations, they belonged just to a phylogenically distinguishable clade, as F. hepatica from Australia, France, Turkey, Uruguay, Russia, Armenia, Ukraine, Belarus

  16. Comparação de kits ELISA® comerciais para anticorpos no soro e leite com um teste coproparasitológico em bovinos naturalmente infectados por Fasciola hepatica Comparison of comercial® ELISA kits for antibodies in serum and milk with a fecal test in cattle naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica

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    Cíntia das C. Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fasciolose é uma enfermidade causada por um trematoda que acomete o fígado principalmente de ruminantes domésticos, podendo parasitar o homem e seu diagnóstico é realizado rotineiramente por exames coproparasitológicos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar kits comerciais de ELISA para anticorpos no soro e leite com um teste coproprarasitológico em bovinos naturalmente infectados por Fasciola hepatica. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes (92 sangue (92 e leite (43 de bovinos provenientes de propriedades de gado leiteiro do município de Jerônimo Monteiro, sul do Estado do Espírito Santo. As amostras de fezes coletadas foram processadas pela técnica de sedimentação fecal para ovos de F. hepatica, utilizada como padrão ouro para as análises. Amostras de sangue e de leite foram processadas segundo a orientação do fabricante dos respectivos Kits ELISA comerciais testados. Utilizou-se o c² de McNemar para comparação estatística e calcularam-se a sensibilidade e especificidade, valores preditivos e kappa. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as frequências de positividade pelo uso dos kits ELISA comerciais de soro e de leite diferiram significativamente (pThe fascioliasis is a disease caused by a trematode that affects the liver mainly of domestic ruminants and can also parasite man; its diagnosis is routinely done by coprological methods. The aim of this study was to compare commercial ELISA kits for antibodies in serum and milk with a coprological test in cattle naturally infected by Fasciola hepatica. We collected fecal, blood and milk samples from cattle in the municipality of Jerônimo Monteiro, southern Espírito Santo state. The fecal samples were processed by the fecal egg sedimentation for F. hepatica, which is used as a gold standard for analyzis. Blood (92 and milk (43 samples were processed according to the manufacturer instructions of the respective commercial ELISA kits tested. We used the McNemar chi-square for

  17. Helminth parasites of the African lizard Agama agama (Squamata: Agamidae, in Lagos, Nigeria

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    G.O Adeoye

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Agama agama, the agamid rainbow lizard, has been reported to serve as transport and reservoir host to several protozoan and helminth parasites. We randomly sampled 310 specimens between May and July, 2005, at Oyingbo, Lagos, Nigeria (6°34’60’’ N-3°19’59’’ E and 6°34’60’’ N-3°19’59’’ E.They harboured four species of nematodes: Strongyluris brevicaudata, Parapharyngodon awokoyai, Capillaria sp. and Oxyuris sp.; one of Cestoda, Oochoristica agamae; one of Trematoda, Mesocoelium monas; and one of Pentastomida, Raillietiella sp. Strongyluris brevicaudata had the highest prevalence of infection (82.3 %, followed by P. awokoyai (74.5 %, Raillietiella (10.3 %, Capillaria sp. (8.4 % and O. agamae (7.4 %. M. monas and Oxyuris sp. had low prevalences: 1.61 % each. Raillietiella sp. and Capillaria sp. can cause localized inflammation and intestinal infections in humans. The prevalence of infection was higher in larger adult lizards. Prevalence in males was 97.6 % (94.1 % in females. in four of the helminth species, intensity of infection was higher in male lizards. Parasite intensity was highest in the rectum, followed by the intestine (pLa lagartija Agama agama actúa como medio de transporte y hospedero para varios protozoos y helmintos parásitos. Capturamos 310 lagartijas, muestreadas aleatoriamente, entre mayo y julio 2005, en Oyingbo, Lagos, Nigeria (6°34’60’’ N-3°19’59’’ E y 6°34’60’’ N-3°19’59’’ E. Hallamos cuatro especies de nematodos: Strongyluris brevicaudata, Parapharyngodon awokoyai, Capillaria y Oxyuris; un céstodo intestinal, Oochoristica agamae; un trematodo, Mesocoelium monodi; y un pentastómido, Raillietiella. S. brevicaudata tuvo la mayor prevalencia de infección (82.26 %, seguida por P. awokoyai (74.52 %, Raillietiella (10.32 %, Capillaria (8.38 % y O. agamae (7.41 %. M. monodi y Oxyuris tuvieron baja prevalencia con 1.61 % cada uno. Raillietiella y Capillaria causan inflamaci

  18. Infracommunities of intestinal helminths of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 from Italian Alps

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    Anna Rita Di Cerbo

    2003-10-01

    software GRASS rel. 5.1. The species recorded belong to Cestoda (Mesocestoides lineatum, Taenia spp., Echinococcus multilocularis, Nematoda (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Pterygodermatites affinis, Molineus legerae, Trichuris vulpis, Subulurinae and Trematoda (Pharingostomum cordatum. The most part of foxes captured harboured intestinal helminths (over 80 %. Taenidae (except for E. multilocularis U. stenocephala and T. canis constitute the core species of the helminthic community. The others behave as satellite species. The nematode belonging to the subfamily Subulurinae and the trematode P. cordatum were found for the first time in Italian foxes. Our data confirm also the presence of E. multilocularis in Italy already reported by Manfredi et al. (2002.

  19. PREVALENCE OF BARNACLES (CRUSTACEA; CIRRIPEDIA AND ITS POSSIBLE RELATION TO FIBROPAPYLLOMATOSIS IN CHELONIA MYDAS

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    R. R. Zamana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A fibropapilomatose é uma afecção tumoral, caracterizada pela presença de tumores cutâneos que variam em tamanho entre 0.1 a mais de 30 cm de diâmetro. É considerada uma afecção debilitante e potencialmente fatal para as tartarugas marinhas, afetando principalmente a espécie Chelonia mydas, mas também é uma doença que tem sido registrada em outras espécies. Evidências levam a crer que a etiologia da fibropapilomatose é viral e está associada a áreas costeiras poluídas que apresentam alta densidade humana, grande aporte de resíduos industriais, domésticos e agrícolas e biotoxinas marinhas, contudo, fatores como parasitos podem ser um adicional a etiologia da afecção. Sanguessugas, cracas, algas e trematodas digenéticos foram sugeridos como um possível fator adicional na etiologia da fibropapilomatose nas tartarugas verdes (Chelonia mydas. O objetivo do presente estudo é estudar a possível associação de cracas com a fibropapilomatose na espécie Chelonia mydas (tartaruga-verde. Para isso foi realizado um levantamento bibliográfico sobre a presença de cracas em Chelonia mydas e a possível relação dessas espécies de cracas com a fibropapilomatose. Os dados foram obtidos de artigos, base de dados, cartilhas, livros, revistas científicas, sites e teses. Nesse estudo, foram encontradas 20 espécies de cracas associadas à Chelonia mydas. Sendo que dos 18 trabalhos analisados as espécies que apresentam maior frequência são a Chelonibia testudinaria (55,56% e Platylepas hexastylos (33,34%. Nenhum trabalho com o objetivo exclusivo de estudar a relação das cracas com a fibropapilomatose foi encontrado. No entanto, alguns estudos relatam a presença de cracas em Chelonia mydas com fibropapilomas. Possivelmente não há associação de cracas com a fibropapilomatose, no entanto há a necessidade da realização de trabalhos de pesquisa com o objetivo exclusivo de estudar a relação das cracas com os fibropapilomas

  20. Biologia do jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Pimelodidae Biology of Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Pemelodidae

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    Levy de Carvalho Gomes

    2000-03-01

    salt and 4.0 - 8.5 pH range, with best growth at 8.0 - 8.5 pH range. It is an eurytermal species. This fish is omnivorous, but prefers fish. The sexual maturity is reached in the first year of life, and it is ovuliparous and in the natural environment the schools spawn in clean and calm waters with rocky bottom. There is no parental care. This species shows two reproductive peaks/year (spring and summer and multiple spawning. The induced spawning had good results with human chorionic gonadotrofin (HCG or pituitary extract. The embriological development of R. quelen is fast, and the larval development occurs in three to five days. The best feeding ration to the larvae of R. quelen is based on soybean lecithin, cattle liver and yeast. Several pathogenic bacteria and digenetic trematoda were identified in R. quelen. To improve the use of this species in fish culture, additional studies about physico-chemical parameters of the water, feeding rations and growth in captivity are essential.

  1. Ocorrência de catarata em Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1822, na área entre Cabo Frio e Torres (23ºs-29ºs, Brasil: investigação de causas e estudo eletroforético das proteínas totais dos cristalinos Occurrence of cataracts in Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1822, from the area between Cabo Frio and Torres (23ºS - 29ºS, Brazil: cause investigations and electrophoretic study on the total eye-lens proteins

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    Anna Emília A de M Vazzoler

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Constatada a ocorrência de catarata em Micropogonias funieri, foram analisadas a distribuição e freqüência de exemplares portadores dentro da área ocupada pela população I da espécie (23ºS 29ºS, tanto em mar aberto até a isobata de 100 m, onde foram raros, como na região estuarino-lagunar de Cananéia (25º01'S, onde ocorreram em elevada freqüência e quase que exclusivamente no rio Baguaçu, de abril a novembro, com pico em julho. Afetou apenas indivíduos jovens, imaturos ou em maturação, com comprimentos totais entre 200 e 250 mm, atingindo um ou ambos os olhos, nas varias combinações possíveis. O caso estudado não se trata de catarata parasítica, não se verificando infestação do cristalino por larvas de trematodas, não sendo também causada por bactérias. Parecem existir dois caminhos do processo, caracterizando os tipos "radial" e "difuso". A análise dos padrões eletroforéticos de proteínas totais de cristalinos cataráticos permitiu determinar cinco fases de evolução, desde parcial inicial até total, durante as quais ocorrem alterações marcantes, tanto na concentração de proteínas totais solúveis nos extratos como na concentração relativa das oito frações proteicas que se grupam em quatro conjuntos nos padrões de cristalinos normais. Verificou-se aumento na concentração relativa dos conjuntos I (mais catódico e II e decréscimo dos conjuntos III e IV (mais anódico, com o desaparecimento das duas frações deste último conjunto nas fases finais do processo. Não foram constatadas alterações na concentração relativa dos quatro conjuntos, quando comparados cristalinos de indivíduos normais e cristalinos normais de indivíduos portadores, o que significa que a ocorrência de catarata em um dos olhos não causa quaisquer alterações naquele não afetado. Os resultados sugerem que a catarata se constitui em causa de mortalidade natural para a espécie nessa área e que seu desenvolvimento