WorldWideScience

Sample records for t4 tail sheath

  1. Structural Conservation of the Myoviridae Phage Tail Sheath Protein Fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Kurochkina, Lidia P.; Fokine, Andrei; Forouhar, Farhad; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V.; Tong, Liang; Rossmann, Michael G. (SOIBC); (Purdue); (Columbia)

    2012-02-21

    Bacteriophage phiKZ is a giant phage that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human pathogen. The phiKZ virion consists of a 1450 {angstrom} diameter icosahedral head and a 2000 {angstrom}-long contractile tail. The structure of the whole virus was previously reported, showing that its tail organization in the extended state is similar to the well-studied Myovirus bacteriophage T4 tail. The crystal structure of a tail sheath protein fragment of phiKZ was determined to 2.4 {angstrom} resolution. Furthermore, crystal structures of two prophage tail sheath proteins were determined to 1.9 and 3.3 {angstrom} resolution. Despite low sequence identity between these proteins, all of these structures have a similar fold. The crystal structure of the phiKZ tail sheath protein has been fitted into cryo-electron-microscopy reconstructions of the extended tail sheath and of a polysheath. The structural rearrangement of the phiKZ tail sheath contraction was found to be similar to that of phage T4.

  2. Phylogeny of the Major Head and Tail Genes of the Wide-Ranging T4-Type Bacteriophages†

    OpenAIRE

    Tétart, Françoise; Desplats, Carine; Kutateladze, Mzia; Monod, Caroline; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang; Krisch, H. M.

    2001-01-01

    We examined a number of bacteriophages with T4-type morphology that propagate in different genera of enterobacteria, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, and Vibrio. Most of these phages had a prolate icosahedral head, a contractile tail, and a genome size that was similar to that of T4. A few of them had more elongated heads and larger genomes. All these phages are phylogenetically related, since they each had sequences homologous to the capsid gene (gene 23), tail sheath gene (gene 18), and tail tube g...

  3. Characterization of tail sheath protein of giant bacteriophage φKZ Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurochkina, Lidia P.; Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Sachkova, Maria Yu.; Sykilinda, Nina N.; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V.

    2009-01-01

    The tail sheath protein of giant bacteriophage φKZ Pseudomonas aeruginosa encoded by gene 29 was identified and its expression system was developed. Localization of the protein on the virion was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. Properties of gene product (gp) 29 were studied by electron microscopy, immunoblotting and limited trypsinolysis. Recombinant gp29 assembles into the regular tubular structures (polysheaths) of variable length. Trypsin digestion of gp29 within polysheaths or extended sheath of virion results in specific cleavage of the peptide bond between Arg135 and Asp136. However, this cleavage does not affect polymeric structure of polysheaths, sheaths and viral infectivity. Digestion by trypsin of the C-truncated gp29 mutant, lacking the ability to self-assemble, results in formation of a stable protease-resistant fragment. Although there is no sequence homology of φKZ proteins to proteins of other bacteriophages, some characteristic biochemical properties of gp29 revealed similarities to the tail sheath protein of bacteriophage T4.

  4. Characterization of the interactions between Escherichia coli receptors, LPS and OmpC, and bacteriophage T4 long tail fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washizaki, Ayaka; Yonesaki, Tetsuro; Otsuka, Yuichi

    2016-12-01

    Bacteriophages have strict host specificity and the step of adsorption is one of key factors for determining host specificity. Here, we systematically examined the interaction between the Escherichia coli receptors lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and outer membrane protein C (OmpC), and the long tail fibers of bacteriophage T4. Using a variety of LPS mutants, we demonstrated that T4 has no specificity for the sugar sequence of the outer core (one of three LPS regions) in the presence of OmpC but, in the absence of OmpC, can adsorb to a specific LPS which has only one or two glucose residues without a branch. These results strengthen the idea that T4 adsorbs to E. coli via two distinct modes, OmpC-dependent and OmpC-independent, suggested by previous reports (Prehm et al. 1976; Yu and Mizushima 1982). Isolation and characterization of the T4 mutants Nik (No infection to K-12 strain), Nib (No infection to B strain), and Arl (altered recognition of LPS) identified amino acids of the long tail fiber that play important roles in the interaction with OmpC or LPS, suggesting that the top surface of the distal tip head domain of T4 long tail fibers interacts with LPS and its lateral surface interacts with OmpC. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Type VI Secretion TssEFGK-VgrG Phage-Like Baseplate Is Recruited to the TssJLM Membrane Complex via Multiple Contacts and Serves As Assembly Platform for Tail Tube/Sheath Polymerization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick R Brunet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Type VI secretion system (T6SS is a widespread weapon dedicated to the delivery of toxin proteins into eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The 13 T6SS subunits assemble a cytoplasmic contractile structure anchored to the cell envelope by a membrane-spanning complex. This structure is evolutionarily, structurally and functionally related to the tail of contractile bacteriophages. In bacteriophages, the tail assembles onto a protein complex, referred to as the baseplate, that not only serves as a platform during assembly of the tube and sheath, but also triggers the contraction of the sheath. Although progress has been made in understanding T6SS assembly and function, the composition of the T6SS baseplate remains mostly unknown. Here, we report that six T6SS proteins-TssA, TssE, TssF, TssG, TssK and VgrG-are required for proper assembly of the T6SS tail tube, and a complex between VgrG, TssE,-F and-G could be isolated. In addition, we demonstrate that TssF and TssG share limited sequence homologies with known phage components, and we report the interaction network between these subunits and other baseplate and tail components. In agreement with the baseplate being the assembly platform for the tail, fluorescence microscopy analyses of functional GFP-TssF and TssK-GFP fusion proteins show that these proteins assemble stable and static clusters on which the sheath polymerizes. Finally, we show that recruitment of the baseplate to the apparatus requires initial positioning of the membrane complex and contacts between TssG and the inner membrane TssM protein.

  6. Thyroxine (T4) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Too much or too little T4 can indicate thyroid disease . The T4 hormone comes in two forms: Free ... is used to evaluate thyroid function and diagnose thyroid disease. Why do I need a thyroxine test? Thyroid ...

  7. t4 Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Contreras, Elizabeth Q.; Hartung, Thomas; Hirsch, Cordula; Hogberg, Helena; Jachak, Ashish C.; Jordan, William; Landsiedel, Robert; Morris, Jeffery; Patri, Anil; Pounds, Joel G.; de Vizcaya Ruiz, Andrea; Shvedova, Anna; Tanguay, Robert; Tatarazako, Norihasa; van Vliet, Erwin; Walker, Nigel J.; Wiesner, Mark; Wilcox, Neil; Zurlo, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Summary In October 2010, a group of experts met as part of the transatlantic think tank for toxicology (t4) to exchange ideas about the current status and future of safety testing of nanomaterials. At present, there is no widely accepted path forward to assure appropriate and effective hazard identification for engineered nanomaterials. The group discussed needs for characterization of nanomaterials and identified testing protocols that incorporate the use of innovative alternative whole models such as zebrafish or C. elegans, as well as in vitro or alternative methods to examine specific functional pathways and modes of action. The group proposed elements of a potential testing scheme for nanomaterials that works towards an integrated testing strategy, incorporating the goals of the NRC report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy by focusing on pathways of toxic response, and utilizing an evidence-based strategy for developing the knowledge base for safety assessment. Finally, the group recommended that a reliable, open, curated database be developed that interfaces with existing databases to enable sharing of information. PMID:21993959

  8. Comparative genomics of the T4-Like Escherichia coli phage JS98: implications for the evolution of T4 phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibani-Chennoufi, Sandra; Canchaya, Carlos; Bruttin, Anne; Brüssow, Harald

    2004-12-01

    About 130 kb of sequence information was obtained from the coliphage JS98 isolated from the stool of a pediatric diarrhea patient in Bangladesh. The DNA shared up to 81% base pair identity with phage T4. The most conserved regions between JS98 and T4 were the structural genes, but their degree of conservation was not uniform. The head genes showed the highest sequence conservation, followed by the tail, baseplate, and tail fiber genes. Many tail fiber genes shared only protein sequence identity. Except for the insertion of endonuclease genes in T4 and gene 24 duplication in JS98, the structural gene maps of the two phages were colinear. The receptor-recognizing tail fiber proteins gp37 and gp38 were only distantly related to T4, but shared up to 83% amino acid identity to other T6-like phages, suggesting lateral gene transfer. A greater degree of variability was seen between JS98 and T4 over DNA replication and DNA transaction genes. While most of these genes came in the same order and shared up to 76% protein sequence identity, a few rearrangements, insertions, and replacements of genes were observed. Many putative gene insertions in the DNA replication module of T4 were flanked by intron-related endonuclease genes, suggesting mobile DNA elements. A hotspot of genome diversification was located downstream of the DNA polymerase gene 43 and the DNA binding gene 32. Comparative genomics of 100-kb genome sequence revealed that T4-like phages diversify more by the accumulation of point mutations and occasional gene duplication events than by modular exchanges.

  9. T4 phages against Escherichia coli diarrhea: potential and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denou, Emmanuel; Bruttin, Anne; Barretto, Caroline; Ngom-Bru, Catherine; Brüssow, Harald; Zuber, Sophie

    2009-05-25

    A combination of in vitro and in vivo experiments with comparative phage genomics was used for the rational design of a phage cocktail against E. coli diarrhea. Orally applied T4 coliphages representing three different subgroups (T4-, RB49- and JS98-like phages) had no negative impact on the murine gut microbiota. T4 phages were found with high titers in the cecum and colon and lower titers in the small intestine, but were not detected in the blood, liver or spleen. No adverse effects were observed after one-month exposure to phage nor were serum anti-T4 antibodies detected. T4 phages belonging to the same subgroup showed closely related genomes that differed by 12 (phage JS10 vs. JS98 reference) to 17 (phage JSE vs. RB49 reference) insertion/deletions mostly representing single small ORFs. Bioinformatic analysis did not reveal undesired genes in the T4 genomes. Sequence variability was seen over the tail fibre genes, but the variability did not correlate with phage host range. The investigated T4 phages were not only species- but also strain-specific, necessitating the use of phage cocktails consisting of 10 and 16 T4 phage isolates to cover half to two thirds of E. coli strains representing the five main pathotypes isolated from diarrhea patients.

  10. Phylogenetic diversity of T4-like bacteriophages in Lake Baikal, East Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butina, Tatyana Vladimirovna; Belykh, Olga I; Maksimenko, Svetlana Yu; Belikov, Sergey I

    2010-08-01

    Among the tailed phages, the myoviruses, those with contractile tails, are widespread and diverse. An important component of the Myoviridae family is the genus 'T4-like viruses'. The present study was aimed at elucidating the molecular diversity of T4-type bacteriophages in Lake Baikal by partial sequencing of g23 genes of T4-type bacteriophages. Our study revealed that the g23 gene sequences investigated were highly diverse and different from those of T4-like bacteriophages and from g23 clones obtained from different environments. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all g23 fragments from Lake Baikal, except for the one sequence, were more closely related to marine T4 cyanophages and to previously described subgroups of uncultured T4 phages from marine and rice field environments.

  11. 216-T-4 interim stabilization final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a general description of the activities performed for the interim stabilization of the 216-T-4-1 ditch, 216-T-4-2 ditch, and 216-T-4-2 pond. Interim stabilization was required to reduce the amount of surface-contaminated acres and to minimize the migration of radioactive contamination. Work associated with the 216-T4-1 ditch and 216-T-4-2 pond was performed by the Radiation Area Remedial Action (RARA) Project. Work associated with the 216-T-4-2 ditch was done concurrently but was funded by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS)

  12. The diversity and evolution of the T4-type bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desplats, Carine; Krisch, Henry M

    2003-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that viruses are the most numerous entities in the biosphere; bacteriophages, the viruses that infect Eubacteria and Archaea, constitute a substantial fraction of this population. In spite of their ubiquity, the vast majority of phages in the environment have never been studied and nothing is known about them. For the last 10 years our research has focused on an extremely widespread group of phages, the T4-type. It has now become evident that phage T4 has a myriad of relatives in nature that differ significantly in their host range. The genomes of all these phages have homology to the T4 genes that determine virion morphology. Although phylogenetically related, these T4-type phages can be subdivided into four groups that are increasingly distant from T4: the T-evens, the pseudo T-evens, the schizo T-evens and the exo T-evens. Genomic comparisons between the various T4-type phages and T4 indicate that these genomes share homology not only for virion structural components but also for most of the essential genes involved in the T4 life cycle. This suggests that horizontal transmission of the genetic information may have played a less general role in the evolution of these phages than has been supposed. Nevertheless, we have identified several regions of the T4-type genome, such as the segment containing the tail fiber genes that exhibit evidence of extensive modular shuffling during evolution. The T4-type genomes appear to be a mosaic containing a large and fixed group of essential genes as well as highly variable set of non-essential genes. These non-essential genes are probably important for the adaptation of these phages to their particular life-style. Furthermore, swapping autonomous domains within the essential proteins may slightly modify their function(s) and contribute to the adaptive ability of the T4-type phage family. Regulatory sequences also display considerable evolutionary plasticity and this too may facilitate the adaptation of

  13. Gamma-T4 hybrid bacteriophage carrying the thymidine kinase gene of bacteriophage T4.

    OpenAIRE

    Mileham, A J; Murray, N E; Revel, H R

    1984-01-01

    Among 32 lambda-T4 recombinant phages selected for growth on a thymidylate synthetase-deficient (thyA) host, 2 were shown to carry the T4 thymidine kinase (tk) gene. The lambda-T4tk phages contain two T4 HindIII DNA fragments (2.0 and 1.5 kilobases) that hybridize to restriction fragments of T4 DNA, encompassing the tk locus at 60 kilobases on the T4 map. The T4tk insert compensates for the simultaneous host deficiencies of thymidine kinase and thymidylate synthetase in a thymidine kinase-def...

  14. Transcription of the T4 late genes

    OpenAIRE

    Geiduschek, E Peter; Kassavetis, George A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This article reviews the current state of understanding of the regulated transcription of the bacteriophage T4 late genes, with a focus on the underlying biochemical mechanisms, which turn out to be unique to the T4-related family of phages or significantly different from other bacterial systems. The activator of T4 late transcription is the gene 45 protein (gp45), the sliding clamp of the T4 replisome. Gp45 becomes topologically linked to DNA through the action of its clamp-loader, ...

  15. Optic nerve sheath meningiomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, Peerooz; Rootman, Jack; Nugent, Robert A.; White, Valerie A.; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Koornneef, Leo

    2003-01-01

    To study the natural history and growth of optic nerve sheath meningiomas and evaluate their management outcome. Clinicopathologic retrospective noncomparative case series. A retrospective study of 88 patients who were treated between 1976 and 1999 at the University of British Columbia and the

  16. Transcription of the T4 late genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassavetis George A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reviews the current state of understanding of the regulated transcription of the bacteriophage T4 late genes, with a focus on the underlying biochemical mechanisms, which turn out to be unique to the T4-related family of phages or significantly different from other bacterial systems. The activator of T4 late transcription is the gene 45 protein (gp45, the sliding clamp of the T4 replisome. Gp45 becomes topologically linked to DNA through the action of its clamp-loader, but it is not site-specifically DNA-bound, as other transcriptional activators are. Gp45 facilitates RNA polymerase recruitment to late promoters by interacting with two phage-encoded polymerase subunits: gp33, the co-activator of T4 late transcription; and gp55, the T4 late promoter recognition protein. The emphasis of this account is on the sites and mechanisms of actions of these three proteins, and on their roles in the formation of transcription-ready open T4 late promoter complexes.

  17. Central Mandibular Nerve Sheath Myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Ghazi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nerve sheath myxoma has been described as a rare neural tumor arising from Schwann cells. It is observed most frequently in the central area of the face, neck and upper extremities. In the past the term neurothekeoma was used as synonym for nerve sheath myxoma but according to new reports, they are separate entities which can be confirmed by immunohistochemistry as in our case. Oral involvement of this tumor is extremely rare. Here, we present an unusual case of nerve sheath myxoma in the mandible of a 22-year old female patient. This case appears to be the first myxomatous variant which is centrally located in the mandible.

  18. Genome of low-temperature T4-related bacteriophage vB_EcoM-VR7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliniene, Laura; Klausa, Vytautas; Zajančkauskaite, Aurelija; Nivinskas, Rimas; Truncaite, Lidija

    2011-10-01

    The complete genome sequence of the T4-related low-temperature Escherichia coli bacteriophage vB_EcoM-VR7 was determined. The genome sequence is 169,285 bp long, with a G+C content of 40.3%. Overall, 95% of the phage genome is coding. It encodes 293 putative protein-encoding open reading frames (ORFs) and tRNA(Met). More than half (59%) of the genomic DNA lacks significant homology with the DNA of T4, but once translated, 72% of the vB_EcoM-VR7 genome (211 ORFs) encodes protein homologues of T4 genes. Overall, 46 vB_EcoM-VR7 ORFs have no homologues in T4 but are derived from other T4-related phages, nine ORFs show similarities to bacterial or non-T4-related phage genes, and 27 ORFs are unique to vB_EcoM-VR7. This phage lacks several T4 enzymes involved in host DNA degradation; however, there is extensive representation of the DNA replication, recombination and repair enzymes as well as the viral capsid and tail structural genes.

  19. Evaluation of UMELISA® T4 NEONATAL and UMELISA® T4 using polystyrene plates coated with anti-thyroxine (T4) monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Elisa M; González, Ernesto C; Pérez, Pedro L; Del Río, Lesley; Tejeda, Yileidis; Perea, Yenitse; Martín, Odalys; Espinosa, Maryeris; Rivero, Jose A; Frómeta, Amarilys

    2018-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation. The Center of Immunoassay has developed the UMELISA® T4 NEONATAL and UMELISA® T4 to determine neonatal T4 levels in dried blood and serum samples. Both reagent kits use the same polystyrene plates coated with anti-thyroxine (T4) polyclonal antibodies as solid phase. This work shows the re-standardization of the UMELISA® T4 NEONATAL and UMELISA® T4 using plates coated with anti-T4 monoclonal antibodies (T4Mabs). Polystyrene plates of the modified assays were firstly coated with polyclonal IgG sheep-anti-mouse IgG for 18 hours. T4Mabs were added to the plates and incubated for 2 hours at room temperature. Different performance parameters were evaluated and correlation studies with the commercial kits done. Using polystyrene plates coated with T4Mabs increases the slope of the calibration curve in the clinical interest zone. The assay conjugates work twice diluted in respect to the ones of the commercial kits. Recovery percentages (90.8-110.7 for UMELISA® T4 NEONATAL and 92.1-109.3 for UMELISA® T4) and intra (7.2-7.6 for UMELISA® T4 NEONATAL and 6.9-7.2 for UMELISA® T4) and inter (7.4-8.5 for UMELISA® T4 NEONATAL and 7.1-8.5 for UMELISA® T4) coefficients of variation were similar to the ones described for the commercial kits. Limits of detection and quantification were 9.0 and 21.1 nmol/L for UMELISA® T4 NEONATAL, and 8.9 and 20.5 nmol/L for UMELISA® T4, respectively. The results also showed high overall concordance between assays (n = 244, r = 0.92, ρc = 0.91 for UMELISA® T4 NEONATAL and n = 492, r = 0.92, ρc = 0.9 for UMELISA® T4). The analytical sensibility of UMELISA® T4 NEONATAL and UMELISA® T4 is improved by using polystyrene plates coated with T4Mabs, without affecting the precision and accuracy of the results. T4: L-Thyroxine; ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; SUMA: Ultra Micro Analytic System; UMELISA: Ultramicro enzyme

  20. Anaerobic Metabolism in T4 Acanthamoeba Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Daniella de Sousa Mendes Moreira; Alves, Luciano Moreira; da Costa, Tatiane Luiza; de Castro, Ana Maria; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2017-06-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are of the most common protozoa that has been isolated from a variety of environment and affect immunocompromised individuals, causing granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and skin lesions. Acanthamoeba, in immunocompetent patients, may cause a keratitis related to corneal microtrauma. These free-living amoebas easily adapt to the host environment and wield metabolic pathways such as the energetic and respiratory ones in order to maintain viability for long periods. The energetic metabolism of cysts and trophozoites remains mostly unknown. There are a few reports on the energetic metabolism of these organisms as they are mitochondriate eukaryotes and some studies under aerobic conditions showing that Acanthamoeba hydrolyzes glucose into pyruvate via glycolysis. The aim of this study was to detect the energetic metabolic pathways with emphasis on anaerobic metabolism in trophozoites of three isolates of Acanthamoeba sp belonging to the T4 genotype. Two samples were collected in the environment and one was a clinical sample. The evaluation of these microorganisms proceeded as follows: rupture of trophozoites (7.5 × 10 3 parasites/ml) and biochemical analysis with high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. The anaerobic glycolysis was identified through the detection of glucose, pyruvate, and lactate. The protein catabolism was identified through the detection of fumarate, urea, and creatinine. The fatty acid oxidation was identified through the detection of acetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and propionate. The detected substances are the result of the consumption of energy reserves such as glycogen and lipids. The anaerobic glycolysis and protein catabolism pathways were observed in all three isolates: one clinical and two environmental. This study represents the first report of energetic pathways used by trophozoites from different isolates of the T4 genotype Acanthamoeba.

  1. Sheath waves, non collisional dampings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marec, Jean Lucien Ernest

    1974-01-01

    When a metallic conductor is inserted into an ionised gas, an area of electron depletion is formed between the conductor and the plasma: the ionic sheath. Moreover, if the conductor is excited by an electric field, this ionic sheath plays an important role with respect to microwave properties. In this research thesis, the author addresses the range of frequencies smaller than the plasma frequency, and reports the study of resonance phenomena. After a presentation of the problem through a bibliographical study, the author recalls general characteristics of sheath wave propagation and of sheath resonances, and discusses the validity of different hypotheses (for example and among others, electrostatic approximations, cold plasma). Then, the author more particularly addresses theoretical problems related to non collisional dampings: brief bibliographical study, detailed presentation and description of the theoretical model, damping calculation methods. The author then justifies the design and performance of an experiment, indicates measurement methods used to determine plasma characteristics as well as other magnitudes which allow the description of mechanisms of propagation and damping of sheath waves. Experimental results are finally presented with respect to various parameters. The author discusses to which extent the chosen theoretical model is satisfying [fr

  2. Covalent Modification of Bacteriophage T4 DNA Inhibits CRISPR-Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Alexandra L; Hwang, Young; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Wu, Gary D; Lewis, James D; Black, Lindsay; Clark, Tyson A; Bushman, Frederic D

    2015-06-16

    The genomic DNAs of tailed bacteriophages are commonly modified by the attachment of chemical groups. Some forms of DNA modification are known to protect phage DNA from cleavage by restriction enzymes, but others are of unknown function. Recently, the CRISPR-Cas nuclease complexes were shown to mediate bacterial adaptive immunity by RNA-guided target recognition, raising the question of whether phage DNA modifications may also block attack by CRISPR-Cas9. We investigated phage T4 as a model system, where cytosine is replaced with glucosyl-hydroxymethylcytosine (glc-HMC). We first quantified the extent and distribution of covalent modifications in T4 DNA by single-molecule DNA sequencing and enzymatic probing. We then designed CRISPR spacer sequences targeting T4 and found that wild-type T4 containing glc-HMC was insensitive to attack by CRISPR-Cas9 but mutants with unmodified cytosine were sensitive. Phage with HMC showed only intermediate sensitivity. While this work was in progress, another group reported examples of heavily engineered CRISRP-Cas9 complexes that could, in fact, overcome the effects of T4 DNA modification, indicating that modifications can inhibit but do not always fully block attack. Bacteria were recently found to have a form of adaptive immunity, the CRISPR-Cas systems, which use nucleic acid pairing to recognize and cleave genomic DNA of invaders such as bacteriophage. Historic work with tailed phages has shown that phage DNA is often modified by covalent attachment of large chemical groups. Here we demonstrate that DNA modification in phage T4 inhibits attack by the CRISPR-Cas9 system. This finding provides insight into mechanisms of host-virus competition and also a new set of tools that may be useful in modulating the activity of CRISPR-Cas9 in genome engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Bryson et al.

  3. Self-consistent radial sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    The boundary layer arising in the radial vicinity of a tokamak limiter is examined, with special reference to the TEXT tokamak. It is shown that sheath structure depends upon the self-consistent effects of ion guiding-center orbit modification, as well as the radial variation of E /times/ B-induced toroidal rotation. Reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained from an idealized model which, however simplified, preserves such self-consistent effects. It is argued that the radial sheath, which occurs whenever confining magnetic field-lines lie in the plasma boundary surface, is an object of some intrinsic interest. It differs from the more familiar axial sheath because magnetized charges respond very differently to parallel and perpendicular electric fields. 11 refs., 1 fig

  4. Optic nerve sheath fenestration in cryptococcal meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Tatyana; Mirani, Neena; Turbin, Roger E

    2008-01-01

    A patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) developed crytpococcal meningitis, complicated by papilledema and severe progressive visual loss despite medical therapy. Bilateral optic sheath fenestration resulted in significant improvement in vision and resolution of papilledema. Histopathologic evaluation of the optic nerve sheath demonstrated numerous cryptococci. Optic nerve sheath fenestration may be an effective treatment method when high intracranial pressure is contributing to visual loss, even in the presence of involvement of the optic nerve sheath by the fungus. PMID:19668765

  5. T-4G Simulator and T-4 Ground Training Devices in USAF Undergraduate Pilot Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Robert R.; Smith, James F.

    The objective of the project was to investigate the utility of using an A/F37A-T4G T-37 flight simulator within the context of Air Force undergraduate pilot training. Twenty-one subjects, selected from three undergraduate pilot training classes, were given contact flight training in a TP4G/EPT simulator before going to T-37 aircraft for further…

  6. Salt, caprock, and sheath study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karably, L.S. Jr.; Jernigan, B.L.; Petre, I.C.; Sullivan, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Salt domes of the Gulf Coast region of the United States consist of four component parts: 1) a salt stock, 2) caprock material, 3) sheath material, and 4) the surrounding upturned sediments. Salt stock consists of remarkably pure halite (NaCl), which represents 90 to 99% of the total mass, with the major impurity being anhydrite. Salt stocks are markedly homogeneous and continuous with respect to composition, texture and structure. Caprock consists primarily of anhydrite, gypsum and calcite which commonly occur in monomineralic zones oriented roughly parallel to the top of the salt stock. Caprock composition varies markedly over any single salt stock as well as from one salt stock to another. Fracturing, porosity and permeability of caprock material are correspondingly variable, but are usually developed tto a higher degree in the upper portions of caprock; porosity and permeability may also be relatively high at the caprock-salt interface. Caprock is generally believed to form by residual accumulation of anhydrite from the dissolution of salt, with subsequent alteration of the anhydrite to calcite and gypsum. Sheath material, probably a mixture of sedimentary rocks (clastic and evaporite), formed as a result of mechanical interaction between the salt stock and surrounding sediments during diapirism. Sheath material is thought to be distributed throughout an external zone, consisting mainly of disturbed sediment, and an internal zone, consisting mainly of disturbed salt. Sheath material forms along a roughly cylindrical shear zone which encloses thesalt stock. Sheath material may be overpressured and is generally thought to be impermeable. Upturned sediments around the salt diapirs are the result of dome genesis; hovever, these sedimentary beds and other structures are beyond the scope of this report

  7. Quality control of radioimmunoassay reagents for T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayan Radiatning, S.

    1987-01-01

    Quality control of radioimmunoassay reagents for T4. A program of quality control testing has been carried out for 125 I-T4, T4 standards and T4 antisera. 125 I-labelled T4 has been tested for its specific activity, radiochemical purity using a Sephadex G-25 column, immunological activity, based on the immunological reaction between labelled antigen and excess T4 antibody, and non-specific binding. The useful shelf-life of the labelled compound was determined by monitoring the decrease in radiochemical purity and immunological activity, and the increase in non-specific binding. T4 standards were calibrated by means of T4 RIA kit manufactured by DPC (Diagnostic Products Corporation). A test on parallelism was also performed using hyperthyroid sera. T4 antisera were evaluated with respect to titre, avidity and specifity. The test results on 125 I-T4 show a specific activity varying between 1830-2020 uCi/ug, a radiochemical purity above 90%, an immunological more than 80% and a non-specific binding of less than 5%. The standard curve for T4 was found to coincide well with the standard curve of the DPC kit and parallel with the curve for hyperthyroid sera. The titre of T4 antisera obtained was 1:300, the avidity was about 4.8 x 10 7 and the cross-reaction for T3 was 1.6%. It can be concluded from the experimental results, that the 125 I-T4, T4 standards and T4 antisera prepared meet the requirements for the manufacture of T4 kits. (author). 5 refs.; 14 figs

  8. Accounting for Debye sheath expansion for proud Langmuir probes in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, C. K.; Boedo, J. A.; Stangeby, P. C.; TCV Team

    2018-01-01

    A Child-Langmuir law-based method for accounting for Debye sheath expansion while fitting the current-voltage I-V characteristic of proud Langmuir probes (electrodes that extend into the volume of the plasma) is described. For Langmuir probes of a typical size used in tokamak plasmas, these new estimates of electron temperature and ion saturation current density values decreased by up to 60% compared to methods that did not account for sheath expansion. Changes to the collection area are modeled using the Child-Langmuir law and effective expansion perimeter lp, and the model is thus referred to as the "perimeter sheath expansion method." lp is determined solely from electrode geometry, so the method may be employed without prior measurement of the magnitude of the sheath expansion effects for a given Langmuir probe and can be used for electrodes of different geometries. This method correctly predicts the non-saturating ΔI/ΔV slope for cold, low-density plasmas where sheath-expansion effects are strong, as well as for hot plasmas where ΔI/ΔV ˜ 0, though it is shown that the sheath can still significantly affect the collection area in these hot conditions. The perimeter sheath expansion method has several advantages compared to methods where the non-saturating current is fitted: (1) It is more resilient to scatter in the I-V characteristics observed in turbulent plasmas. (2) It is able to separate the contributions to the ΔI/ΔV slope from sheath expansion to that of the high energy electron tail in high Te conditions. (3) It calculates the change in the collection area due to the Debye sheath for conditions where ΔI/ΔV ˜ 0 and for V = Vf.

  9. Accounting for Debye sheath expansion for proud Langmuir probes in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, C K; Boedo, J A; Stangeby, P C

    2018-01-01

    A Child-Langmuir law-based method for accounting for Debye sheath expansion while fitting the current-voltage I-V characteristic of proud Langmuir probes (electrodes that extend into the volume of the plasma) is described. For Langmuir probes of a typical size used in tokamak plasmas, these new estimates of electron temperature and ion saturation current density values decreased by up to 60% compared to methods that did not account for sheath expansion. Changes to the collection area are modeled using the Child-Langmuir law and effective expansion perimeter l p , and the model is thus referred to as the "perimeter sheath expansion method." l p is determined solely from electrode geometry, so the method may be employed without prior measurement of the magnitude of the sheath expansion effects for a given Langmuir probe and can be used for electrodes of different geometries. This method correctly predicts the non-saturating ΔI/ΔV slope for cold, low-density plasmas where sheath-expansion effects are strong, as well as for hot plasmas where ΔI/ΔV ∼ 0, though it is shown that the sheath can still significantly affect the collection area in these hot conditions. The perimeter sheath expansion method has several advantages compared to methods where the non-saturating current is fitted: (1) It is more resilient to scatter in the I-V characteristics observed in turbulent plasmas. (2) It is able to separate the contributions to the ΔI/ΔV slope from sheath expansion to that of the high energy electron tail in high Te conditions. (3) It calculates the change in the collection area due to the Debye sheath for conditions where ΔI/ΔV ∼ 0 and for V = V f .

  10. Marine T4-type bacteriophages, a ubiquitous component of the dark matter of the biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filée, Jonathan; Tétart, Françoise; Suttle, Curtis A.; Krisch, H. M.

    2005-08-01

    Tailed bacteriophages are the most abundant biological entities in marine environments. However, most of these marine phages are uncharacterized because few of their hosts have been cultivated. To learn more about such phages, we designed a set of degenerate PCR primers for phage T4 g23, which encodes the major capsid protein in all of the T4-type phages, an important family of the tailed phage. These primers were used to amplify g23-related sequences from diverse marine environments (fjords and bays of British Columbia, the eastern Gulf of Mexico, and the western Arctic Ocean) revealing a remarkable level of molecular diversity, which in some cases was correlated with morphological variation of the virions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that although some of these sequences were closely related to well studied subgroups of the T4-type phage, such as the T-evens, the majority of them belong to five previously uncharacterized subgroups. These data indicate that the host range of T4-type phages is much broader than previously imagined and that the laboratory isolate T4 belongs to a phage family that is extraordinarily widespread and diverse in the biosphere. Author contributions: J.F., F.T., and H.M.K. designed research; J.F. and F.T. performed research; C.A.S. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; J.F., C.A.S., and H.M.K. analyzed data; and J.F., C.A.S., and H.M.K. wrote the paper.This paper was submitted directly (Track II) to the PNAS office.Data deposition: The nucleotide sequences of g23 reported in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank database (accession nos. DQ105858-DQ105942).

  11. Sustained Benefit Lasting One Year from T4 Instead of T3-T4 Sympathectomy for Isolated Axillary Hyperhidrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, Marco Antonio S.; Wolosker, Nelson; Kaufmann, Paulo; de Campos, José Ribas Milanes; Puech-Leão, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Level T4 video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy proved superior to T3-T4 treatment for controlling axillary hyperhidrosis at the initial and six-month follow-ups of these patients. OBJECTIVE To compare the results of two levels of sympathectomy (T3-T4 vs. T4) for treating axillary sudoresis over one year of follow-up. METHODS Sixty-four patients with axillary hyperhidrosis were randomized to denervation of T3-T4 or T4 alone and followed prospectively. All patients were examined preoperatively and were followed postoperatively for one year. Axillary hyperhidrosis treatment was evaluated, along with the presence, location, and severity of compensatory hyperhidrosis and self-reported quality of life. RESULTS According to patient reports after one year, all cases of axillary hyperhidrosis were successfully treated by surgery. There were no instances of treatment failure. After six months, compensatory hyperhidrosis was present in 27 patients of the T3-T4 group (87.1%) and in 16 patients of the T4 group (48.5%). After one year, all T3-T4 patients experienced some degree of compensatory hyperhidrosis, compared to only 14 patients in the T4 group (42.4%). In addition, compensatory hyperhidrosis was less severe in the T4 patients (p hyperhidrosis, but the T4 group showed milder compensatory hyperhidrosis and greater patient satisfaction at the one-year follow-up. PMID:19060999

  12. Phylogenetic Diversity of T4-Type Phages in Sediments from the Subtropical Pearl River Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Maoqiu; Cai, Lanlan; Zhang, Chuanlun; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are an abundant and active component of marine sediments and play a significant role in microbial ecology and biogeochemical cycling at local and global scales. To obtain a better understanding of the ecological characteristics of the viriobenthos, the abundance and morphology of viruses and the diversity and community structure of T4-type phages were systematically investigated in the surface sediments of the subtropical Pearl River Estuary (PRE). Viral abundances ranged from 4.49 × 10 8 to 11.7 × 10 8 viruses/g and prokaryotic abundances ranged from 2.63 × 10 8 to 9.55 × 10 8 cells/g, and both decreased from freshwater to saltwater. Diverse viral morphotypes, including tailed, spherical, filamentous, and rod-shaped viruses, were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of the major capsid gene ( g23 ) indicated that the sediment T4-type phages were highly diverse and, similar to the trend in viral abundances, their diversity decreased as the salinity increased. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that most of the g23 operational taxonomic units were affiliated with marine, paddy soil, and lake groups. The T4-type phage communities in freshwater and saltwater sediments showed obvious differences, which were related to changes in the Pearl River discharge. The results of this study demonstrated both allochthonous and autochthonous sources of the viral community in the PRE sediments and the movement of certain T4-type viral groups between the freshwater and saline water biomes.

  13. Phylogenetic Diversity of T4-Type Phages in Sediments from the Subtropical Pearl River Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoqiu He

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are an abundant and active component of marine sediments and play a significant role in microbial ecology and biogeochemical cycling at local and global scales. To obtain a better understanding of the ecological characteristics of the viriobenthos, the abundance and morphology of viruses and the diversity and community structure of T4-type phages were systematically investigated in the surface sediments of the subtropical Pearl River Estuary (PRE. Viral abundances ranged from 4.49 × 108 to 11.7 × 108 viruses/g and prokaryotic abundances ranged from 2.63 × 108 to 9.55 × 108 cells/g, and both decreased from freshwater to saltwater. Diverse viral morphotypes, including tailed, spherical, filamentous, and rod-shaped viruses, were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of the major capsid gene (g23 indicated that the sediment T4-type phages were highly diverse and, similar to the trend in viral abundances, their diversity decreased as the salinity increased. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that most of the g23 operational taxonomic units were affiliated with marine, paddy soil, and lake groups. The T4-type phage communities in freshwater and saltwater sediments showed obvious differences, which were related to changes in the Pearl River discharge. The results of this study demonstrated both allochthonous and autochthonous sources of the viral community in the PRE sediments and the movement of certain T4-type viral groups between the freshwater and saline water biomes.

  14. Lysis of lysis-inhibited bacteriophage T4-infected cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Abedon, S T

    1992-01-01

    T4 bacteriophage (phage)-infected cells show a marked increase in latent-period length, called lysis inhibition, upon adsorption of additional T4 phages (secondary adsorption). Lysis inhibition is a complex phenotype requiring the activity of at least six T4 genes. Two basic mysteries surround our understanding of the expression of lysis inhibition: (i) the mechanism of initiation (i.e., how secondary adsorption leads to the expression of lysis inhibition) and (ii) the mechanism of lysis (i.e...

  15. New technique for withdrawing broken sheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Cagan Efe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A sheath that is broken inside vessel is a rare complication, and intravascular fragments from broken sheaths are retrieving transcutaneously by techniques including the loop snare catheter, basket catheter, and grasping/biopsy forceps. We reported a less common type of broken central venous sheath in location and a successful unique technique for retrieving it from subclavian vein by using noncompliant balloon from 40 year old female patient.

  16. Experimental restoration of the digital synovial sheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiken, O; Rank, F

    1977-01-01

    The digital synovial sheath constitutes an important component of the delicate mechanism of flexor tendon nutrition and gliding function, In the present study the true nature of the inner cell layers of secondary healed defects in the tendon sheath as well as of free tendon sheath autografts were studied. Leghorn chickens were used as experimental animals and the gradual development of the pseudosheath as well as the healing of sheath autografts were studied both macroscopically and histologically including transmission electron miscroscopy. Synovial regeneration by extension from intact parts of the sheath was never observed and the pseudosheath formed around silastic rods consisted of granulation tissue with fibroblasts and macrophages. The free tendon sheath autografts demonstrated a normal process of healing at the edges of the defect. Synovial regeneration appeared to be that of metaplasia and proliferation of fibroblasts and macrophages. This phenomenon was demonstrable both in the secondary healed defects and more convincingly in the sheath autografts. Further, the silastic rod was found to induce foreign body reaction in the healing synovium. It is concluded that grafting of autologous tendon sheath tissue seems to be a promising method for restoration of defects in the digital tendon sheath.

  17. Engineering of Bacteriophage T4 Genome Using CRISPR-Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Pan; Wu, Xiaorong; Tang, Wei-Chun; Zhu, Jingen; Rao, Venigalla

    2017-10-20

    Bacteriophages likely constitute the largest biomass on Earth. However, very few phage genomes have been well-characterized, the tailed phage T4 genome being one of them. Even in T4, much of the genome remained uncharacterized. The classical genetic strategies are tedious, compounded by genome modifications such as cytosine hydroxylmethylation and glucosylation which makes T4 DNA resistant to most restriction endonucleases. Here, using the type-II CRISPR-Cas9 system, we report the editing of both modified (ghm-Cytosine) and unmodified (Cytosine) T4 genomes. The modified genome, however, is less susceptible to Cas9 nuclease attack when compared to the unmodified genome. The efficiency of restriction of modified phage infection varied greatly in a spacer-dependent manner, which explains some of the previous contradictory results. We developed a genome editing strategy by codelivering into E. coli a CRISPR-Cas9 plasmid and a donor plasmid containing the desired mutation(s). Single and multiple point mutations, insertions and deletions were introduced into both modified and unmodified genomes. As short as 50-bp homologous flanking arms were sufficient to generate recombinants that can be selected under the pressure of CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease. A 294-bp deletion in RNA ligase gene rnlB produced viable plaques, demonstrating the usefulness of this editing strategy to determine the essentiality of a given gene. These results provide the first demonstration of phage T4 genome editing that might be extended to other phage genomes in nature to create useful recombinants for phage therapy applications.

  18. Optic nerve sheath fenestration in cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Milman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Tatyana Milman1, Neena Mirani1,2, Roger E Turbin11Ophthalmology Department, Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 2Pathology Department, University Hospital, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USAAbstract: A patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS developed crytpococcal meningitis, complicated by papilledema and severe progressive visual loss despite medical therapy. Bilateral optic sheath fenestration resulted in significant improvement in vision and resolution of papilledema. Histopathologic evaluation of the optic nerve sheath demonstrated numerous cryptococci. Optic nerve sheath fenestration may be an effective treatment method when high intracranial pressure is contributing to visual loss, even in the presence of involvement of the optic nerve sheath by the fungus.Keywords: optic nerve sheath, cryptococcal, meningitis, fenestration

  19. Re-initiation repair in bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupido, M.

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation of bacteriophage T4 with ultraviolet light induces the formation of pyrimidine dimers in its DNA. These dimers hamper replication of DNA and, to a lesser extent, transcription of DNA after its infection of bacteria. A number of pathways enable phage T4 to multiply dimer-containing DNA. One of these pathways has been named replication repair and is described in this thesis. The properties of two phage strains, unable to perform replication repair, have been studied to obtain a picture of the repair process. The mutations in these strains that affect replication repair have been located on the genomic map of T4. (Auth.)

  20. High diversity and potential origins of T4-type bacteriophages on the surface of Arctic glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Christopher M; Anesio, Alexandre M

    2013-09-01

    Tailed bacteriophages are the most abundant viruses in the biosphere. Here we examined the T4-type bacteriophage community inhabiting the surface of two glaciers in Svalbard. We used a molecular approach to target g23, the major capsid protein gene, to demonstrate that in the extreme cryoconite hole habitats the T4-type phages are surprisingly diverse. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that cryoconite hole sediments harbour a mixed phage community spanning multiple T4-type phage subgroups. The majority (71 %) of phage sequences clustered into three novel phylogenetically distinct groups, whilst the remainder clustered with known marine and soil derived phage sequences. The meltwater in cryoconite holes also contained a further distinct phage community which was related to previously detected marine phage variants. The ability of phages to move between marine and glacial habitats was tested in a transplantation experiment. Phages from the nearby marine fjord were found to be capable of initiating infection of supraglacial bacteria, suggesting suitable hosts could be found by non-native phages. Together this evidence suggests that the surface of glaciers contain both novel and cosmopolitan phages, some of which may have arrived in the cryosphere from other biomes.

  1. Primary optic nerve sheath meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremic, Branislav [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Pitz, Susanne (eds.) [University Eye Hospital, Mainz (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM) is a rare tumour. Cases are usually separated into primary ONSM, which arises either intraorbitally or, less commonly, intracanalicularly, and secondary ONSM, which arises intracranially and subsequently invades the optic canal and orbit. This is the first book to cover all important aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of primary ONSM. After a general introduction, individual chapters discuss the clinical presentation, clinical examination and diagnosis, imaging, and histology. Treatment options are then addressed in detail, with special emphasis on external beam radiation therapy, and in particular stereotactic fractionated radiation therapy. The latter has recently produced consistently good results and is now considered the emerging treatment of choice for the vast majority of patients with primary ONSM. This well-illustrated book will prove invaluable to all practitioners who encounter primary ONSM in their clinical work. (orig.)

  2. Acanthamoeba T4 genotype associated with keratitis infections in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendana, F; Sellami, H; Trabelsi, H; Neji, S; Cheikhrouhou, F; Makni, F; Ayadi, A

    2013-01-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a sight-threatening infection. We report five cases of AK diagnosed from 2005 to 2009 in the Laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology at Habib Bourguiba Sfax Hospital, Tunisia. All were associated with improper care of contact lenses (rinsing of contact lenses with tap water and inappropriate cleaning) and lens storage. The patients displayed different clinical presentations: corneal inflammation, corneal ulceration, and corneal abscess. The diagnosis was made after direct examination, culture, and polymerase chain reaction amplification with specific primers. The genotype classification was based on the highly variable DF3 region in the 18S rRNA gene. This is the first study characterizing Acanthamoeba genotype in Tunisia and North Africa. All Acanthamoeba isolates were associated to the T4 genotype. Three different DF3 sequence types were related to AK infections T4/10, T4/15, and T4/16.

  3. Genetic diversity among five T4-like bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, James M; Petrov, Vasiliy; Bertrand, Claire; Krisch, Henry M; Karam, Jim D

    2006-05-23

    Bacteriophages are an important repository of genetic diversity. As one of the major constituents of terrestrial biomass, they exert profound effects on the earth's ecology and microbial evolution by mediating horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and controlling their growth. Only limited genomic sequence data are currently available for phages but even this reveals an overwhelming diversity in their gene sequences and genomes. The contribution of the T4-like phages to this overall phage diversity is difficult to assess, since only a few examples of complete genome sequence exist for these phages. Our analysis of five T4-like genomes represents half of the known T4-like genomes in GenBank. Here, we have examined in detail the genetic diversity of the genomes of five relatives of bacteriophage T4: the Escherichia coli phages RB43, RB49 and RB69, the Aeromonas salmonicida phage 44RR2.8t (or 44RR) and the Aeromonas hydrophila phage Aeh1. Our data define a core set of conserved genes common to these genomes as well as hundreds of additional open reading frames (ORFs) that are nonconserved. Although some of these ORFs resemble known genes from bacterial hosts or other phages, most show no significant similarity to any known sequence in the databases. The five genomes analyzed here all have similarities in gene regulation to T4. Sequence motifs resembling T4 early and late consensus promoters were observed in all five genomes. In contrast, only two of these genomes, RB69 and 44RR, showed similarities to T4 middle-mode promoter sequences and to the T4 motA gene product required for their recognition. In addition, we observed that each phage differed in the number and assortment of putative genes encoding host-like metabolic enzymes, tRNA species, and homing endonucleases. Our observations suggest that evolution of the T4-like phages has drawn on a highly diverged pool of genes in the microbial world. The T4-like phages harbour a wealth of genetic material that has

  4. Genetic diversity among five T4-like bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Claire

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteriophages are an important repository of genetic diversity. As one of the major constituents of terrestrial biomass, they exert profound effects on the earth's ecology and microbial evolution by mediating horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and controlling their growth. Only limited genomic sequence data are currently available for phages but even this reveals an overwhelming diversity in their gene sequences and genomes. The contribution of the T4-like phages to this overall phage diversity is difficult to assess, since only a few examples of complete genome sequence exist for these phages. Our analysis of five T4-like genomes represents half of the known T4-like genomes in GenBank. Results Here, we have examined in detail the genetic diversity of the genomes of five relatives of bacteriophage T4: the Escherichia coli phages RB43, RB49 and RB69, the Aeromonas salmonicida phage 44RR2.8t (or 44RR and the Aeromonas hydrophila phage Aeh1. Our data define a core set of conserved genes common to these genomes as well as hundreds of additional open reading frames (ORFs that are nonconserved. Although some of these ORFs resemble known genes from bacterial hosts or other phages, most show no significant similarity to any known sequence in the databases. The five genomes analyzed here all have similarities in gene regulation to T4. Sequence motifs resembling T4 early and late consensus promoters were observed in all five genomes. In contrast, only two of these genomes, RB69 and 44RR, showed similarities to T4 middle-mode promoter sequences and to the T4 motA gene product required for their recognition. In addition, we observed that each phage differed in the number and assortment of putative genes encoding host-like metabolic enzymes, tRNA species, and homing endonucleases. Conclusion Our observations suggest that evolution of the T4-like phages has drawn on a highly diverged pool of genes in the microbial world. The T4

  5. Theory of ion-matrix-sheath dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, L.; Tskhakaya, D. D.

    2018-01-01

    The time evolution of a one-dimensional, uni-polar ion sheath (an "ion matrix sheath") is investigated. The analytical solutions for the ion-fluid and Poisson's equations are found for an arbitrary time dependence of the wall-applied negative potential. In the case that the wall potential is large and remains constant after its ramp-up application, the explicit time dependencies of the sheath's parameters during the initial stage of the process are given. The characteristic rate of approaching the stationary state, satisfying the Child-Langmuir law, is determined.

  6. Sheath rot of rice in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, S; Okhovvat, S M; Hedjaroude, G A; Khosravi, V

    2003-01-01

    Sheath rot of rice occurs in most rice-growing regions of the world. It usually causes yield losses from 20 to 85%. Sheath rot was reported from Iran in 1993. Year after year, the number of diseased plants increased in the Northern Iran. In summer of 2001, these symptoms were observed in most fields: lesions occur on the upper leaf sheaths, especially the flag leaf sheath. As the disease progresses, lesions enlarge and coalesce and may cover most of the leaf sheath. Panicle may fail to completely or at all. Brown or partially brown not filled or partially filled grain is also associated with infection of the panicle. A whitish powdery growth may be found inside affected sheaths. Infected plants were collected and trasferred to laboratory. Small pieces of diseased tissues were washed under tap water for one hour. Then tissues were placed on WA and incubated at 25 degrees C. These isolates were purified and identified as: Sarocladium oryzae, Fusarium udum, F. semitectum, F. avenaceum, F. flocciferum, F. graminearum, Bipolaris oryzae, Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Paecilomyces sp., Nigrospora sp. and Trichoderma sp. This is the first report of F. udum in Iran. Also this is the first report that rice is the host for F. semitectum, F. avenaceum and F. flocciferum in Iran. Pathogenicity tests were conducted in glass house. Following species were found to be associated with sheath rot of rice: S. oryzae, F. graminearum, F. udum, F. avenaceum, B. oryzae, A. padwickii. This is the first report in the world that F. udum and A. padwickii are the causal agents of the sheath rot on rice plants.

  7. A sheath model for arbitrary radiofrequency waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. M.; Chabert, Pascal

    2012-10-01

    The sheath is often the most important region of a rf plasma, because discharge impedance, power absorption and ion acceleration are critically affected by the behaviour of the sheath. Consequently, models of the sheath are central to any understanding of the physics of rf plasmas. Lieberman has supplied an analytical model for a radio-frequency sheath driven by a single frequency, but in recent years interest has been increasing in radio-frequency discharges excited by increasingly complex wave forms. There has been limited success in generalizing the Lieberman model in this direction, because of mathematical complexities. So there is essentially no sheath model available to describe many modern experiments. In this paper we present a new analytical sheath model, based on a simpler mathematical framework than that of Lieberman. For the single frequency case, this model yields scaling laws that are identical in form to those of Lieberman, differing only by numerical coefficients close to one. However, the new model may be straightforwardly solved for arbitrary current waveforms, and may be used to derive scaling laws for such complex waveforms. In this paper, we will describe the model and present some illustrative examples.

  8. Theory of the Electron Sheath and Presheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Brett; Baalrud, Scott; Yee, Benjamin; Hopkins, Matthew; Barnat, Edward

    2015-09-01

    Electron sheaths are commonly found near Langmuir probes collecting the electron saturation current. The common assumption is that the probe collects the random flux of electrons incident on the sheath, which tacitly implies that there is no electron presheath and that the flux collected is due to a velocity space truncation of the velocity distribution function (VDF). This work provides a dedicated theory of electron sheaths, which suggests that electron sheaths are not so simple. Motivated by VDFs observed in recent Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations, we develop a 1D model for the electron sheath and presheath. In the model, under low temperature plasma conditions, an electron pressure gradient accelerates electrons in the presheath to a flow velocity that exceeds the electron thermal speed at the sheath edge. This pressure gradient allows the generation of large flows compared to those that would be generated by the electric field alone. It is due to this pressure gradient that the electron presheath extends much further into the plasma (nominally by a factor of √{mi /me }) than an analogous ion presheath. Results of the model are compared with PIC simulations. This work was supported by the Office of Fusion Energy Science at the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94SL85000 and by the Office of Science Graduate Student Research (SCGSR) program under Contract Number DE-AC05-06OR23100.

  9. Structure-Function Analysis of the DNA Translocating Portal of the Bacteriophage T4 Packaging Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Sanchez, Victor; Gao, Song; Kim, Hyung Rae; Kihara, Daisuke; Sun, Lei; Rossmann, Michael G.; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2013-01-01

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses consist of a structurally well conserved dodecameric portal at a special five-fold vertex of the capsid. The portal plays critical roles in head assembly, genome packaging, neck/tail attachment, and genome ejection. Although the structures of portals from phages φ29, SPP1 and P22 have been determined, their mechanistic roles have not been well understood. Structural analysis of phage T4 portal (gp20) has been hampered because of its unusual interaction with the E. coli inner membrane. Here, we predict atomic models for the T4 portal monomer and dodecamer, and fit the dodecamer into the cryoEM density of the phage portal vertex. The core structure, like that from other phages, is cone-shaped with the wider end containing the “wing” and “crown” domains inside the phage head. A long “stem” encloses a central channel, and a narrow “stalk” protrudes outside the capsid. A biochemical approach was developed to analyze portal function by incorporating plasmid-expressed portal protein into phage heads and determining the effect of mutations on head assembly, DNA translocation, and virion production. We found that the protruding loops of the stalk domain are involved in assembling the DNA packaging motor. A loop that connects the stalk to the channel might be required for communication between the motor and portal. The “tunnel” loops that project into the channel are essential for sealing the packaged head. These studies established that the portal is required throughout the DNA packaging process, with different domains participating at different stages of genome packaging. PMID:24126213

  10. Structure-function analysis of the DNA translocating portal of the bacteriophage T4 packaging machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Sanchez, Victor; Gao, Song; Kim, Hyung Rae; Kihara, Daisuke; Sun, Lei; Rossmann, Michael G; Rao, Venigalla B

    2014-03-06

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses consist of a structurally well conserved dodecameric portal at a special 5-fold vertex of the capsid. The portal plays critical roles in head assembly, genome packaging, neck/tail attachment, and genome ejection. Although the structures of portals from phages φ29, SPP1, and P22 have been determined, their mechanistic roles have not been well understood. Structural analysis of phage T4 portal (gp20) has been hampered because of its unusual interaction with the Escherichia coli inner membrane. Here, we predict atomic models for the T4 portal monomer and dodecamer, and we fit the dodecamer into the cryo-electron microscopy density of the phage portal vertex. The core structure, like that from other phages, is cone shaped with the wider end containing the "wing" and "crown" domains inside the phage head. A long "stem" encloses a central channel, and a narrow "stalk" protrudes outside the capsid. A biochemical approach was developed to analyze portal function by incorporating plasmid-expressed portal protein into phage heads and determining the effect of mutations on head assembly, DNA translocation, and virion production. We found that the protruding loops of the stalk domain are involved in assembling the DNA packaging motor. A loop that connects the stalk to the channel might be required for communication between the motor and the portal. The "tunnel" loops that project into the channel are essential for sealing the packaged head. These studies established that the portal is required throughout the DNA packaging process, with different domains participating at different stages of genome packaging. © 2013.

  11. Seymour Benzer and T4 rII

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 10. Seymour Benzer and T4 rII - Running the Map into the Ground. R Jayaraman. General Article Volume 13 Issue 10 October 2008 pp 898-908. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. T-4G Methodology: Undergraduate Pilot Training T-37 Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Robert R.; And Others

    The report's brief introduction describes the application of T-4G methodology to the T-37 instrument phase of undergraduate pilot training. The methodology is characterized by instruction in trainers, proficiency advancement, a highly structured syllabus, the training manager concept, early exposure to instrument training, and hands-on training.…

  13. Structure and assembly of bacteriophage T4 head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Lindsay W

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bacteriophage T4 capsid is an elongated icosahedron, 120 nm long and 86 nm wide, and is built with three essential proteins; gp23*, which forms the hexagonal capsid lattice, gp24*, which forms pentamers at eleven of the twelve vertices, and gp20, which forms the unique dodecameric portal vertex through which DNA enters during packaging and exits during infection. The past twenty years of research has greatly elevated the understanding of phage T4 head assembly and DNA packaging. The atomic structure of gp24 has been determined. A structural model built for gp23 using its similarity to gp24 showed that the phage T4 major capsid protein has the same fold as that found in phage HK97 and several other icosahedral bacteriophages. Folding of gp23 requires the assistance of two chaperones, the E. coli chaperone GroEL and the phage coded gp23-specific chaperone, gp31. The capsid also contains two non-essential outer capsid proteins, Hoc and Soc, which decorate the capsid surface. The structure of Soc shows two capsid binding sites which, through binding to adjacent gp23 subunits, reinforce the capsid structure. Hoc and Soc have been extensively used in bipartite peptide display libraries and to display pathogen antigens including those from HIV, Neisseria meningitides, Bacillus anthracis, and FMDV. The structure of Ip1*, one of the components of the core, has been determined, which provided insights on how IPs protect T4 genome against the E. coli nucleases that degrade hydroxymethylated and glycosylated T4 DNA. Extensive mutagenesis combined with the atomic structures of the DNA packaging/terminase proteins gp16 and gp17 elucidated the ATPase and nuclease functional motifs involved in DNA translocation and headful DNA cutting. Cryo-EM structure of the T4 packaging machine showed a pentameric motor assembled with gp17 subunits on the portal vertex. Single molecule optical tweezers and fluorescence studies showed that the T4 motor packages

  14. Mobile DNA elements in T4 and related phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, David R; Gibb, Ewan A; Belfort, Marlene

    2010-10-28

    Mobile genetic elements are common inhabitants of virtually every genome where they can exert profound influences on genome structure and function in addition to promoting their own spread within and between genomes. Phage T4 and related phage have long served as a model system for understanding the molecular mechanisms by which a certain class of mobile DNA, homing endonucleases, promote their spread. Homing endonucleases are site-specific DNA endonucleases that initiate mobility by introducing double-strand breaks at defined positions in genomes lacking the endonuclease gene, stimulating repair and recombination pathways that mobilize the endonuclease coding region. In phage T4, homing endonucleases were first discovered as encoded within the self-splicing td, nrdB and nrdD introns of T4. Genomic data has revealed that homing endonucleases are extremely widespread in T-even-like phage, as evidenced by the astounding fact that ~11% of the T4 genome encodes homing endonuclease genes, with most of them located outside of self-splicing introns. Detailed studies of the mobile td intron and its encoded endonuclease, I-TevI, have laid the foundation for genetic, biochemical and structural aspects that regulate the mobility process, and more recently have provided insights into regulation of homing endonuclease function. Here, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding T4-encoded homing endonucleases, with particular emphasis on the td/I-TevI model system. We also discuss recent progress in the biology of free-standing endonucleases, and present areas of future research for this fascinating class of mobile genetic elements.

  15. Mobile DNA elements in T4 and related phages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belfort Marlene

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mobile genetic elements are common inhabitants of virtually every genome where they can exert profound influences on genome structure and function in addition to promoting their own spread within and between genomes. Phage T4 and related phage have long served as a model system for understanding the molecular mechanisms by which a certain class of mobile DNA, homing endonucleases, promote their spread. Homing endonucleases are site-specific DNA endonucleases that initiate mobility by introducing double-strand breaks at defined positions in genomes lacking the endonuclease gene, stimulating repair and recombination pathways that mobilize the endonuclease coding region. In phage T4, homing endonucleases were first discovered as encoded within the self-splicing td, nrdB and nrdD introns of T4. Genomic data has revealed that homing endonucleases are extremely widespread in T-even-like phage, as evidenced by the astounding fact that ~11% of the T4 genome encodes homing endonuclease genes, with most of them located outside of self-splicing introns. Detailed studies of the mobile td intron and its encoded endonuclease, I-TevI, have laid the foundation for genetic, biochemical and structural aspects that regulate the mobility process, and more recently have provided insights into regulation of homing endonuclease function. Here, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding T4-encoded homing endonucleases, with particular emphasis on the td/I-TevI model system. We also discuss recent progress in the biology of free-standing endonucleases, and present areas of future research for this fascinating class of mobile genetic elements.

  16. Specificity of interactions among the DNA-packaging machine components of T4-related bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Rao, Venigalla B

    2011-02-04

    Tailed bacteriophages use powerful molecular motors to package the viral genome into a preformed capsid. Packaging at a rate of up to ∼2000 bp/s and generating a power density twice that of an automobile engine, the phage T4 motor is the fastest and most powerful reported to date. Central to DNA packaging are dynamic interactions among the packaging components, capsid (gp23), portal (gp20), motor (gp17, large "terminase"), and regulator (gp16, small terminase), leading to precise orchestration of the packaging process, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we analyzed the interactions between small and large terminases of T4-related phages. Our results show that the gp17 packaging ATPase is maximally stimulated by homologous, but not heterologous, gp16. Multiple interaction sites are identified in both gp16 and gp17. The specificity determinants in gp16 are clustered in the diverged N- and C-terminal domains (regions I-III). Swapping of diverged region(s), such as replacing C-terminal RB49 region III with that of T4, switched ATPase stimulation specificity. Two specificity regions, amino acids 37-52 and 290-315, are identified in or near the gp17-ATPase "transmission" subdomain II. gp16 binding at these sites might cause a conformational change positioning the ATPase-coupling residues into the catalytic pocket, triggering ATP hydrolysis. These results lead to a model in which multiple weak interactions between motor and regulator allow dynamic assembly and disassembly of various packaging complexes, depending on the functional state of the packaging machine. This might be a general mechanism for regulation of the phage packaging machine and other complex molecular machines.

  17. Evidence that the heterogeneity of a T4 population is the result of heritable traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J Storms

    Full Text Available Many bacteriophage populations display heterogeneity in their adsorption characteristics; a portion of the phage population remains free in solution throughout adsorption experiments (residual fraction. This residual fraction generally constitutes a minority of phages that exhibit significantly slower adsorption kinetics than the main phage stock (main fraction. While this phenomenon is likely the result of evolutionary driving forces, the present study demonstrates that the residual fraction is not always the result of phenotypic variations within a single genotype, as is generally thought. Experiments with phage T4 showed that two subgroups with distinct adsorption traits that were passed on to their progeny could be isolated from the original phage stock. Sequencing of genes involved in adsorption revealed two point mutations in gene 37 of residual fraction isolates, which resulted in modifications to the long tail-fiber, the organelle of attachment and host cell recognition. Adsorption studies consistently showed that T4 phage stocks amplified from residual fraction isolates had significantly lower adsorption efficiencies than those amplified from main fractions. The conducted experiments provide convincing evidence that the observed heterogeneity in T4 adsorption behavior is the result of conserved mutations to the phage genome and is not exclusively the result of phenotypic variations within the population. While it is believed high mutation rates exist to hasten phage adaptation, this study shows that this bet hedging strategy can also, in the short term, inadvertently handicap the phage's adsorption capabilities to a given host under normal infection conditions, resulting in the residual fraction observed in adsorption experiments.

  18. LPS-Activated Monocytes Are Unresponsive to T4 Phage and T4-Generated Escherichia coli Lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, Katarzyna; Borysowski, Jan; Zarzycki, Michał; Wierzbicki, Piotr; Kłosowska, Danuta; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Korczak-Kowalska, Grażyna; Górski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of data shows that bacteriophages can interact with different kinds of immune cells. The objective of this study was to investigate whether T4 bacteriophage and T4-generated Escherichia coli lysate affect functions of monocytes, the key population of immune cells involved in antibacterial immunity. To that end, we evaluated how T4 and E. coli lysate influence the expression of main costimulatory molecules including CD40, CD80 and CD86, TLR2, TLR4 on monocytes, as well as the production of IL-6 and IL-12 in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Separate experiments were performed on unactivated and LPS-activated PBMCs cultures. Both studied preparations significantly increased the percentage of CD14(+)CD16(-)CD40(+) and CD14(+)CD16(-)CD80(+) monocytes in unactivated PBMCs cultures, as well as the concentration of IL-6 and IL-12 in culture supernates. However, neither purified T4 nor E. coli lysate had any significant effect on monocytes in LPS-activated PBMCs cultures. We conclude that LPS-activated monocytes are unresponsive to phages and products of phage-induced lysis of bacteria. This study is highly relevant to phage therapy because it suggests that in patients with infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria the administration of phage preparations to patients and lysis of bacteria by phages are not likely to overly stimulate monocytes.

  19. LPS-activated monocytes are unresponsive to T4 phage and T4-generated Escherichia coli lysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bocian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of data shows that bacteriophages can interact with different kinds of immune cells. The objective of this study was to investigate whether T4 bacteriophage and T4-generated Escherichia coli lysate affect functions of monocytes, the key population of immune cells involved in antibacterial immunity. To that end we evaluated how T4 and E. coli lysate influence the expression of main costimulatory molecules including CD40, CD80 and CD86, TLR2, TLR4 on monocytes, as well as the production of IL-6 and IL-12 in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Separate experiments were performed on unactivated and LPS-activated PBMCs cultures. Both studied preparations significantly increased the percentage of CD14+CD16-CD40+ and CD14+CD16-CD80+ monocytes in unactivated PBMCs cultures, as well as the concentration of IL-6 and IL-12 in culture supernates. However, neither purified T4 nor E. coli lysate had any significant effect on monocytes in LPS-activated PBMCs cultures. We conclude that LPS-activated monocytes are unresponsive to phages and products of phage-induced lysis of bacteria. This study is highly relevant to phage therapy because it suggests that in patients with infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria the administration of phage preparations to patients and lysis of bacteria by phages are not likely to overly stimulate monocytes.

  20. [Experimental study of allogenic tendon with sheath grafting in chicken].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y L; Wang, S L; Gao, X S

    2001-03-01

    To investigate availability of deep freeze stored allogenic tendon with sheath grafting in repairing the tendon and sheath defect in the II area of flexor digitorum tendon. Sixty chickens with tendon and sheath defect were divided into 2 groups randomly, group A was treated with allogenic grafting and group B was treated with autogenic grafting, these two groups were divided into two subgroups respectively, they were, group A1 allogenic tendon with whole sheath grafting, group A2 allogenic tendon with partial sheath grafting, group B1 autogenic tendon with whole sheath grafting and group B2 autogenic tendon with whole sheath grafting. All the allogenic grafts were treated by deep freeze. Histomorphological study, histoimmunological study and slipping function of the grafts were measured after operation. In group A1 and B1, the local reaction was sever, the nutrition of tendon graft was barricaded by the whole sheath resulting in adhesion, degeneration and necrosis. In group A2 and B2, the tendon graft healed well and little adhesion existed between tendon and sheath. The results showed that there were significant differences between tendon grafting with whole sheath and tendon grafting with partial sheath. Deep freeze store can reduce the immunogenicity of allogenic tendon with sheath. Allogenic tendon with partial sheath grafting can be used as a new biological material for repairing the tendon and sheath defect.

  1. T4-Like Genome Organization of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 Lytic Phage AR1▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Chao; Ng, Wailap Victor; Lin, I-Hsuan; Syu, Wan-Jr; Liu, Tze-Tze; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    We report the genome organization and analysis of the first completely sequenced T4-like phage, AR1, of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Unlike most of the other sequenced phages of O157:H7, which belong to the temperate Podoviridae and Siphoviridae families, AR1 is a T4-like phage known to efficiently infect this pathogenic bacterial strain. The 167,435-bp AR1 genome is currently the largest among all the sequenced E. coli O157:H7 phages. It carries a total of 281 potential open reading frames (ORFs) and 10 putative tRNA genes. Of these, 126 predicted proteins could be classified into six viral orthologous group categories, with at least 18 proteins of the structural protein category having been detected by tandem mass spectrometry. Comparative genomic analysis of AR1 and four other completely sequenced T4-like genomes (RB32, RB69, T4, and JS98) indicated that they share a well-organized and highly conserved core genome, particularly in the regions encoding DNA replication and virion structural proteins. The major diverse features between these phages include the modules of distal tail fibers and the types and numbers of internal proteins, tRNA genes, and mobile elements. Codon usage analysis suggested that the presence of AR1-encoded tRNAs may be relevant to the codon usage of structural proteins. Furthermore, protein sequence analysis of AR1 gp37, a potential receptor binding protein, indicated that eight residues in the C terminus are unique to O157:H7 T4-like phages AR1 and PP01. These residues are known to be located in the T4 receptor recognition domain, and they may contribute to specificity for adsorption to the O157:H7 strain. PMID:21507986

  2. Polarization force-induced changes in the dust sheath formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayout, Saliha; Bentabet, Karima; Tribeche, Mouloud [Plasma Physics Group (PPG), Theoretical Physics Laboratory (TPL), Faculty of Physics, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, BP 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    The modifications arising in the dusty plasma sheath structure due to the presence of polarization forces acting on the dust grains are investigated. The corresponding appropriate Bohm criterion for sheath formation is obtained. It is found that the critical Mach number, beyond which the dusty plasma electrostatic sheath sets in, decreases whenever the polarization effects become important. In addition, when the polarization force dominates over the electrical one, the dust plasma sheath cannot set in. This happens whenever the dust grain size exceeds a critical threshold. Moreover, the sheath electrostatic potential-gradient becomes abruptly steep, and the sheath thickness becomes broader as the polarization force effects strengthen.

  3. Microarray analysis of gene expression during bacteriophage T4 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Kimberly; Radek, Agnes; Liu, XiuPing; Campbell, John; Uzan, Marc; Haselkorn, Robert; Kogan, Yakov

    2002-08-01

    Genomic microarrays were used to examine the complex temporal program of gene expression exhibited by bacteriophage T4 during the course of development. The microarray data confirm the existence of distinct early, middle, and late transcriptional classes during the bacteriophage replicative cycle. This approach allows assignment of previously uncharacterized genes to specific temporal classes. The genomic expression data verify many promoter assignments and predict the existence of previously unidentified promoters.

  4. Genetical studies with radiation sensitive mutants of bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.M.

    This thesis is concerned with a study of the properties of radiation sensitive mutants of bacteriophage T4. An introduction is presented which reviews the current concepts of radiation repair mechanisms, and their relationship to genetic recombination in bacteria and phage T4. Following the description of materials and methods, the results section is presented in three parts. Part I deals with the isolation and purification of a new radiation sensitive mutant of T4, called y. The properties of y are compared with those of two previously isolated radiation sensitive mutants, v 1 and x. Part II describes the properties of y under three complex radiobiological conditions, namely multiplicity reactivation, depression of viability and the Luria-Latarjet experiment. In Part III, complementation and mapping data are presented, which show that y, x, and v 1 are mutants of separate cistrons and unlinked in mapping experiments. The wild allele in each case is dominant. The sizes of cistrons y, x, and v are 3.2, 6.8, and 1.6% of the total chromosome respectively. The properties of recombinants v 1 x, v 1 y, and xy are described. In the discussion the possible mode of action of y is discussed. (author)

  5. T4 genes in the marine ecosystem: studies of the T4-like cyanophages and their role in marine ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clokie, Martha R J; Millard, Andrew D; Mann, Nicholas H

    2010-10-28

    From genomic sequencing it has become apparent that the marine cyanomyoviruses capable of infecting strains of unicellular cyanobacteria assigned to the genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus are not only morphologically similar to T4, but are also genetically related, typically sharing some 40-48 genes. The large majority of these common genes are the same in all marine cyanomyoviruses so far characterized. Given the fundamental physiological differences between marine unicellular cyanobacteria and heterotrophic hosts of T4-like phages it is not surprising that the study of cyanomyoviruses has revealed novel and fascinating facets of the phage-host relationship. One of the most interesting features of the marine cyanomyoviruses is their possession of a number of genes that are clearly of host origin such as those involved in photosynthesis, like the psbA gene that encodes a core component of the photosystem II reaction centre. Other host-derived genes encode enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, phosphate acquisition and ppGpp metabolism. The impact of these host-derived genes on phage fitness has still largely to be assessed and represents one of the most important topics in the study of this group of T4-like phages in the laboratory. However, these phages are also of considerable environmental significance by virtue of their impact on key contributors to oceanic primary production and the true extent and nature of this impact has still to be accurately assessed.

  6. T4 genes in the marine ecosystem: studies of the T4-like cyanophages and their role in marine ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millard Andrew D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From genomic sequencing it has become apparent that the marine cyanomyoviruses capable of infecting strains of unicellular cyanobacteria assigned to the genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus are not only morphologically similar to T4, but are also genetically related, typically sharing some 40-48 genes. The large majority of these common genes are the same in all marine cyanomyoviruses so far characterized. Given the fundamental physiological differences between marine unicellular cyanobacteria and heterotrophic hosts of T4-like phages it is not surprising that the study of cyanomyoviruses has revealed novel and fascinating facets of the phage-host relationship. One of the most interesting features of the marine cyanomyoviruses is their possession of a number of genes that are clearly of host origin such as those involved in photosynthesis, like the psbA gene that encodes a core component of the photosystem II reaction centre. Other host-derived genes encode enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, phosphate acquisition and ppGpp metabolism. The impact of these host-derived genes on phage fitness has still largely to be assessed and represents one of the most important topics in the study of this group of T4-like phages in the laboratory. However, these phages are also of considerable environmental significance by virtue of their impact on key contributors to oceanic primary production and the true extent and nature of this impact has still to be accurately assessed.

  7. The tailings technology suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, Deborah

    2011-10-15

    Oilsands tailing ponds contain leftover bitumen and asphaltenes, which are dangerous to local wildlife. The Oil Sands Tailings Consortium (OSTCS) was founded by all major mining players and aims to prompt collaboration within the oilsands industry to reclaim the tailings area. Each company has hitherto worked on different tailings management technologies, often duplicating efforts. Some technologies proposed by these oilsands miners were introduced in this article.

  8. Apoptosis in Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Abdul M; Lalani, Salima; Khan, Naveed A

    2017-07-01

    Here we describe features of apoptosis in unicellular Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. When exposed to apoptosis-inducing compounds such as doxorubicin, A. castellanii trophozoites exhibited cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing as observed microscopically, DNA fragmentation using agarose gel electrophoresis, and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization using annexin V immunostaining. Overall, these findings suggest the existence of apoptosis in A. castellanii possibly mediated by intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Further research in this field could provide avenues to selectively induce apoptosis in A. castellanii by triggering intrinsic apoptotic cascade. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Heavy tails of OLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; de Vries, Casper

    2013-01-01

    Suppose the tails of the noise distribution in a regression exhibit power law behavior. Then the distribution of the OLS regression estimator inherits this tail behavior. This is relevant for regressions involving financial data. We derive explicit finite sample expressions for the tail probabili...

  10. Injection inside the paraneural sheath of the sciatic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Lykke; Andersen, Sofie L; Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    There exists little anatomic knowledge regarding the structure and sonographic features of the sheath enveloping the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa. We investigated the spread of an injection inside the sheath to (1) determine whether the sheath is a structure distinct from the nerve or par...

  11. Talking tails : quantifying the development of tail biting in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Tail biting is an adverse behaviour characterised by manipulation of a pig’s tail by another pig resulting in tail damage and a possible tail biting outbreak. Tail biting is a common problem in the pig husbandry causing economic losses and reduced animal welfare worldwide. To prevent tail biting,

  12. The EFTTRA-T4 experiment on americium transmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Konings, R J M; Dassel, G; Pijlgroms, B J; Somers, J; Toscano, E

    2000-01-01

    In the EFTTRA-T4 experiment the irradiation behaviour of a target containing americium dispersed in MgAl sub 2 O sub 4 was studied. Pellets containing 10-12 wt% sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am were fabricated by the infiltration method. However, it was found that the americium, intended to be present as AmO sub 2 sub - sub x , formed a compound, probably AmAlO sub 3 , during sintering. The T4 target was irradiated in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) Petten from August 1996 to January 1998 (358.4 fpd's). Post-test burn-up calculations indicated that the sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am concentration is reduced to 4% of the initial value at the end of the irradiation. The fraction of the initial americium atoms that were fissioned is 28%. Non-destructive and destructive examinations of the target indicated that swelling of the target pellets occurred. This is attributed to accumulation of helium, produced by alpha decay of sup 2 sup 4 sup 2 Cm that occurs in the transmutation scheme of sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am.

  13. Plasma sheath properties calculated using measured secondary electron emission coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedgley, J.M.; McCracken, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of secondary electron emission (SEE) are presented for graphite, hydrogen-implanted graphite and an amorphous graphite (a-C:H) carbon layer, over a wide range of energies and angles of incidence. These data have been integrated over a Maxwellian velocity distribution to simulate the effect of SEE due to plasma electrons. The SEE yields have then been used to calculate plasma sheath potentials, sheath heat transmission coefficients and sputtering yields for a range of ions as a function of plasma temperature. The increased SEE yield with temperature reduces the normalized sheath potential and increases the sheath transmission coefficient markedly. The role of space charge in the sheath is discussed. (Author)

  14. C2 root nerve sheath tumors management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sissy, Mohamed H; Mahmoud, Mostafa

    2013-05-01

    Upper cervical nerve sheath tumors (NST) arising mainly from C2 root and to lesser extent from C1 root are not uncommon, they constitute approximately 5-12% of spinal nerve sheath tumors and 18-30% of all cervical nerve sheath tumors, unique in presentation and their relationship to neighbouring structures owing to the discrete anatomy at the upper cervical-craniovertebral region, and have atendency for growth reaching large-sized tumors before manifesting clinically due to the capacious spinal canal at this region; accordingly the surgical approaches to such tumors are modified. The aim of this paper is to discuss the surgical strategies for upper cervical nerve sheath tumors. Eleven patients (8 male and 3 females), age range 28-63 years, with C2 root nerve sheath tumors were operated upon based on their anatomical relations to the spinal cord. The magnetic resonance imaging findings were utilized to determine the surgical approach. The tumors had extra- and intradural components in 10 patients, while in one the tumor was purely intradural. The operative approaches included varied from extreme lateral transcondylar approach(n = 1) to laminectomy, whether complete(n = 3) a or hemilaminectomy(n = 7), with partial facetectomy(n = 7), and with suboccipital craniectomy(n = 2). The clinical picture ranged from spasticity (n = 8, 72,72 %), tingling and numbness below neck (n = 6, 54,54 %), weakness (n = 6, 54,54 %), posterior column involvement (n = 4, 26,36 %), and neck pain (n = 4, 36,36 %). The duration of symptoms ranged from 1 to 54 months, total excision was performed in 7 patients; while in 3 patients an extraspinal component, and in 1 patient a small intradural component, were left in situ. Eight patients showed improvement of myelopathy; 2 patients maintained their grades. One poor-grade patient was deteriorated. The surgical approaches for the C2 root nerve sheath tumors should be tailored according to the relationship to the spinal cord, determined by magnetic

  15. Quantum thetas on noncommutative T4 from embeddings into lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kim, Hoil

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the theta vector and quantum theta function over noncommutative T 4 from the embedding of RxZ 2 . Manin has constructed the quantum theta functions from the lattice embedding into vector space (x finite group). We extend Manin's construction of the quantum theta function to the embedding of vector space x lattice case. We find that the holomorphic theta vector exists only over the vector space part of the embedding, and over the lattice part we can only impose the condition for the Schwartz function. The quantum theta function built on this partial theta vector satisfies the requirement of the quantum theta function. However, two subsequent quantum translations from the embedding into the lattice part are nonadditive, contrary to the additivity of those from the vector space part

  16. Pathogenic assays of acanthamoeba belonging to the t4 genotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mirjalali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba genus is introduced as opportunistic and cosmopolitan parasite. Monkey and wistar rat are appropriate models for experimental study on Acanthamoeba infection. In this study Acanthamoeba spp. were isolated from hot spring (HS, windows dust (WD and a corneal sample of keratitis patient (KP and their pathogenicity surveyed by in vitro and in vivo tests.Isolates of Acanthamoeba were cultivated axenically for 12 months in PYG medium. Overall, 30 wistar rats, in 6 equal groups were used for developing experimental Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK and Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE. The Keratitis and Granulomatous Encephalitis experiments were performed by intrastromal and intranasal inoculation of Acanthamoeba cysts, respectively. Pathogenicity of the three isolates was also evaluated by in vitro test using osmotolerance and temperature tolerance assays. Identification of genotypes were performed by PCR technique and sequencing.None of the isolates could perform AK and GAE in wistar rats, although all isolates were described as T4 genotype. Isolates obtained from KP and WD could grow only in 30 °C, but not in 37 °C and 40 °C. On the other hand, HS isolate grew in 30 °C and 37 °C but not in 40 °C. Moreover, all of isolate grew in 0.5 M mannitol but not in 1 M and 1.5 M.T4 isolates with a long-term axenic culture and different factors related to host and parasite may play role in pathogenicity of these free-living amoebae.

  17. Repair of psoralen plus near ultraviolet light damage in bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerler, B.R.; Wallace, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    The sensitivity of bacteriophage T4 to psoralen plus NUV was investigated using a series of T4 repair defective mutants. The recombinational repair deficient mutants T4x, T4y and T4w were more sensitive than wild-type while T4v, an endonuclease V mutant, exhibited the same sensitivity as wild-type. However, endonuclease V appeared to initiate abortive repair in the absence of the x and presumably y gene products. Host repair gene products were shown not to be involved in the repair of psoralen plus NUV damages in T4. (author)

  18. Unified model of the rf plasma sheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M.E.

    1995-05-01

    By developing an approximation to the first integral of the Poisson equation, one can obtain solutions for the voltage-current characteristics of a radio-frequency (rf) plasma sheath that are valid over the whole range of inertial response of the ions to an imposed rf voltage or current-specified conditions. The theory adequately reproduces the time-dependent voltage-current characteristics of the two extreme cases corresponding to the Lieberman rf sheath theory and the Metze-Ernie-Oskam theory. Contained within the approximation is a time constant which controls the amount of ion response to the rf electric field. A prescription is given for determining this ion relaxation time constant, which also determines the time-dependent ion impact energy on the electrode surface.

  19. Uranium tailings bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holoway, C.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Eldridge, V.M.

    1975-12-01

    A bibliography containing 1,212 references is presented with its focus on the general problem of reducing human exposure to the radionuclides contained in the tailings from the milling of uranium ore. The references are divided into seven broad categories: uranium tailings pile (problems and perspectives), standards and philosophy, etiology of radiation effects, internal dosimetry and metabolism, environmental transport, background sources of tailings radionuclides, and large-area decontamination

  20. Uranium tailings sampling manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, S.; Reades, D.W.; Cherry, J.A.; Chambers, D.B.; Case, G.G.; Ibbotson, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the requisite sampling procedures for the application of uniform high-quality standards to detailed geotechnical, hydrogeological, geochemical and air quality measurements at Canadian uranium tailings disposal sites. The selection and implementation of applicable sampling procedures for such measurements at uranium tailings disposal sites are complicated by two primary factors. Firstly, the physical and chemical nature of uranium mine tailings and effluent is considerably different from natural soil materials and natural waters. Consequently, many conventional methods for the collection and analysis of natural soils and waters are not directly applicable to tailings. Secondly, there is a wide range in the physical and chemical nature of uranium tailings. The composition of the ore, the milling process, the nature of tailings depositon, and effluent treatment vary considerably and are highly site-specific. Therefore, the definition and implementation of sampling programs for uranium tailings disposal sites require considerable evaluation, and often innovation, to ensure that appropriate sampling and analysis methods are used which provide the flexibility to take into account site-specific considerations. The following chapters describe the objective and scope of a sampling program, preliminary data collection, and the procedures for sampling of tailings solids, surface water and seepage, tailings pore-water, and wind-blown dust and radon

  1. Structural characterization of the human cerebral myelin sheath by small angle x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Felici, M; Felici, R; Ferrero, C; Tartari, A; Gambaccini, M; Finet, S

    2008-01-01

    Myelin is a multi-lamellar membrane surrounding neuronal axons and increasing their conduction velocity. When investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), the lamellar quasi-periodical arrangement of the myelin sheath gives rise to distinct peaks, which allow the determination of its molecular organization and the dimensions of its substructures. In this study we report on the myelin sheath structural determination carried out on a set of human brain tissue samples coming from surgical biopsies of two patients: a man around 60 and a woman nearly 90 years old. The samples were extracted either from white or grey cerebral matter and did not undergo any manipulation or chemical-physical treatment, which could possibly have altered their structure, except dipping them into a formalin solution for their conservation. Analysis of the scattered intensity from white matter of intact human cerebral tissue allowed the evaluation not only of the myelin sheath periodicity but also of its electronic charge density profile. In particular, the thicknesses of the cytoplasm and extracellular regions were established, as well as those of the hydrophilic polar heads and hydrophobic tails of the lipid bilayer. SAXS patterns were measured at several locations on each sample in order to establish the statistical variations of the structural parameters within a single sample and among different samples. This work demonstrates that a detailed structural analysis of the myelin sheath can also be carried out in randomly oriented samples of intact human white matter, which is of importance for studying the aetiology and evolution of the central nervous system pathologies inducing myelin degeneration.

  2. Optic Nerve Sheath Mechanics in VIIP Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykin, Julia; Forte, Taylor E.; Wang, Roy; Feola, Andrew; Samuels, Brian; Myers, Jerry; Nelson, Emily; Gleason, Rudy; Ethier, C. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a major concern in current space medicine research. While the exact pathology of VIIP is not yet known, it is hypothesized that the microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift increases intracranial pressure (ICP) and drives remodeling of the optic nerve sheath. To investigate this possibility, we are culturing optic nerve sheath dura mater samples under different pressures and investigating changes in tissue composition. To interpret results from this work, it is essential to first understand the biomechanical response of the optic nerve sheath dura mater to loading. Here, we investigated the effects of mechanical loading on the porcine optic nerve sheath.Porcine optic nerves (number: 6) were obtained immediately after death from a local abattoir. The optic nerve sheath (dura mater) was isolated from the optic nerve proper, leaving a hollow cylinder of connective tissue that was used for biomechanical characterization. We developed a custom mechanical testing system that allowed for unconfined lengthening, twisting, and circumferential distension of the dura mater during inflation and under fixed axial loading. To determine the effects of variations in ICP, the sample was inflated (0-60 millimeters Hg) and circumferential distension was simultaneously recorded. These tests were performed under variable axial loads (0.6 grams - 5.6 grams at increments of 1 gram) by attaching different weights to one end of the dura mater. Results and Conclusions: The samples demonstrated nonlinear behavior, similar to other soft connective tissue (Figure 1). Large increases in diameter were observed at lower transmural pressures (approximately 0 to 5 millimeters Hg), whereas only small diameter changes were observed at higher pressures. Particularly interesting was the existence of a cross-over point at a pressure of approximately 11 millimeters Hg. At this pressure, the same diameter is obtained for all axial loads applied

  3. Effect of alpha particles on bacteriophage T4Br(+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonteva, G.A.; Akoev, I.G.; Grigorev, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of heavy particle radiation, which is believed to be responsible for the high relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of space hadrons, on bacteriophages are investigated. Dry film cultures of bacteriophage T4 were irradiated with 5.3 MeV Po-210 alpha particles to doses from 5 to 60 Gray, and compared with cultures irradiated by Co-60 gamma radiation. Examination of the exponential dose-response curves for bacteriophage survival indicates an RBE of 4.68 for the alpha particles. The r-mutation frequency per 10,000 surviving phages is found to peak at 7.1 at doses between 65 and 85 Gray for gamma radiation, however it declines steadily from a level of 10.2 per 10,000 survivors with increasing dose of alpha radiation. Comparison of the mutation frequencies at the same levels of lethality and the spectra of mutations produced by the two types of radiation indicates alpha and gamma radiation to differ as well in the mechanisms of mutation production. It is concluded that the observed high RBE of space hadrons cannot be explained by the presence of high-energy particles in the secondary radiation. 13 references

  4. Partial characterization of Acanthamoeba castellanii (T4 genotype) DNase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Junaid; Panjwani, Shamvil; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    The deoxyribonuclease (DNase) activities of Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype were investigated. Using zymographic assays, the DNase activities had approximate molecular masses of 25 and 35 kDa. A. castellanii DNases exhibited activity at wide-ranging temperature of up to 60 °C and at pH ranging from 4 to 9. The DNases activities were unaffected by proteinase-K treatment, divalent cations such as Ca(++), Cu(++), Mg(++), and Zn(++), or divalent cation chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The non-reliance on divalent cations and homology data suggests that A. castellanii DNases belong to the class of eukaryotic lysosomal DNase II but exhibit robust properties. The DNases activity in A. castellanii interfered with the genomic DNA extraction. Extraction methods involving EDTA, SDS, and proteinase-K resulted in low yield of genomic DNA. On the other hand, these methods resulted in high yield of genomic DNA from human cells suggesting the robust nature of A. castellanii DNases that are unaffected by reagents normally used in blocking eukaryotic DNases. In contrast, the use of chaotropic agent such as guanidine thiocyanate improved the yield of genomic DNA from A. castellanii cells significantly. Further purification and characterization of Acanthamoeba DNases is needed to study their non-classic distinct properties and to determine their role in the biology, cellular differentiation, cell cycle progression, and arrest of Acanthamoeba.

  5. Sinorhizobium meliloti Phage ΦM9 Defines a New Group of T4 Superfamily Phages with Unusual Genomic Features but a Common T=16 Capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew C; Tatum, Kelsey B; Lynn, Jason S; Brewer, Tess E; Lu, Stephen; Washburn, Brian K; Stroupe, M Elizabeth; Jones, Kathryn M

    2015-11-01

    Relatively little is known about the phages that infect agriculturally important nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria. Here we report the genome and cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Sinorhizobium meliloti-infecting T4 superfamily phage ΦM9. This phage and its close relative Rhizobium phage vB_RleM_P10VF define a new group of T4 superfamily phages. These phages are distinctly different from the recently characterized cyanophage-like S. meliloti phages of the ΦM12 group. Structurally, ΦM9 has a T=16 capsid formed from repeating units of an extended gp23-like subunit that assemble through interactions between one subunit and the adjacent E-loop insertion domain. Though genetically very distant from the cyanophages, the ΦM9 capsid closely resembles that of the T4 superfamily cyanophage Syn9. ΦM9 also has the same T=16 capsid architecture as the very distant phage SPO1 and the herpesviruses. Despite their overall lack of similarity at the genomic and structural levels, ΦM9 and S. meliloti phage ΦM12 have a small number of open reading frames in common that appear to encode structural proteins involved in interaction with the host and which may have been acquired by horizontal transfer. These proteins are predicted to encode tail baseplate proteins, tail fibers, tail fiber assembly proteins, and glycanases that cleave host exopolysaccharide. Despite recent advances in the phylogenetic and structural characterization of bacteriophages, only a small number of phages of plant-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria have been studied at the molecular level. The effects of phage predation upon beneficial bacteria that promote plant growth remain poorly characterized. First steps in understanding these soil bacterium-phage dynamics are genetic, molecular, and structural characterizations of these groups of phages. The T4 superfamily phages are among the most complex phages; they have large genomes packaged within an icosahedral head and a long, contractile tail

  6. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  7. Bar-tailed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Hidayati, N.A.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability.Aims To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their

  8. [Friedrich Mauz: T4 assessor and military psychiatrist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberzahn-Jandt, G; Schmuhl, H-W

    2012-03-01

    Friedrich Mauz is one of the medical perpetrators of the second tier whose biography is difficult to comprehend. Autobiographies from three different political systems exist - Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and postwar Germany in which he constantly reinvented himself. While after 1933 he suddenly emphasized his participation in the civil war turmoil during the early period of the Weimar Republic and his patriotism, he then depicted himself after 1945 as an apolitical person characterized by Württemberg pietism who inwardly rejected the Nazi State but had found himself prepared to accept "all sorts of humiliating concessions." He claimed that he had always remained true to his scientific code of conduct and had distanced himself from psychiatric genetics. In point of fact, Mauz was among those exonerated in the denazification trial in 1946 and was able to pursue his career in the Federal Republic of Germany. However, if the sources are read against the grain, a different picture emerges. Mauz's career stalled in the 1930s, not because he had been politically offensive, but because his scientific work was flimsy and considered lacking originality, particularly since he had chosen constitution research and psychotherapy as his main fields of interest, which were overshadowed by research in genetic psychiatry in the 1930s. Mauz tendered his services to the Nazi policy of genetic health, served as a medical assessor in proceedings based on the "Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring," permitted himself to be recruited for the T4 program as a medical expert, even participated in the deliberations on a future "Law on Euthanasia," and as a consulting psychiatrist for the German Armed Forces contributed to military medicine.

  9. Tailings management at Nabarlek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggitt, P.

    1989-01-01

    As the entire uranium deposit at Nabarlek was mined in 1979, the mine pit was available as a tailing's repository from the time of commencement of ore processing. In the early years Nabarlek's tailings were deposited subaqueously. In 1985 the tailings deposition method was changed to a sub-aerial, or semi-dry, method. Over the subsequent three years there was evidence that the tailings settled further and squeezed water from lower layers. The water was pumped away and treated for removal of radium before being evaporated in one of the mine's evaporation ponds. When milling was completed in 1988 it was decided to try and increase the rate of water removal and so obtain even greater consolidation of the trailings in a shorter time. This was achieved by loading the tailings with a layer of screened leached sands and waste rock placed on a layer of geotextile filter fabric that had been laid over the whole of the tailings surface in the pit. Once this was completed a modified piling rig was used to insert vertical drains, or wicks, up to 30 metres into the tailings. The drains were placed on a square grid at a spacing of 3.25 metres. Water that was forced out of the tailings by the downward pressure of the sand and rock could flow freely to the surface up these drains. Once at the surface the water was gathered into a sump and pumped away for treatment as before. The drains are working very well at present although it will be some considerable time before the water stops flowing. Already settlement of the tailings is apparent and the settled density of the material is increasing. As far as is known this is the first time that such a system has been employed on mine tailings in a pit in this way

  10. Annihilation model of the Tormac sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.H.

    1979-02-01

    A one-dimensional, steady state fluid model is developed to describe the boundary layer between plasma and magnetic field that occurs in the Tormac sheath. Similar systems which may be treatable by the same model are tokamaks with divertors and reversed field mirrors. The model includes transport across the magnetic field as well as mirror losses along the field, the latter being represented as annihilation terms in the one-dimensional equations. The model equations are derived from the two-dimensional, time dependent hierarchy of equations generated by taking velocity moments of the kinetic equation including collisions

  11. Paediatric laryngeal malignant nerve sheath tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucioni, Marco; Marioni, Gino; Della Libera, Duilio; Rizzotto, Giuseppe

    2007-12-01

    Malignant nerve sheath tumours (MNSTs) are more frequently diagnosed in the extremities, the chest wall and the abdominal wall. Laryngeal MNST is an extremely rare occurrence, particularly in children. We treated a laryngeal recurrence of MNST in a 13-year-old boy with chemotherapy followed by horizontal supraglottic laryngectomy extended to left arytenoid and ipsilateral vocal fold and bilateral neck dissection. Four years later, hemithyroidectomy was performed for thyroid MNST recurrence. At present, 6 years after last intervention, the patient shows no evidence of recurrent disease.

  12. Frost evolution in tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    A review was carried out on the physical and thermal mechanisms of permafrost evaluation in soils and uranium tailings. The primary mechanism controlling permafrost evolution is conductive heat transfer with the latent heat of fusion of water being liberated as phase change occurs. Depending on the soil properties and freezing rate, pore water can be expelled from the frost front or pore water can migrate towards the frost front. Solute redistribution may occur as the frost front penetrates into the soil. The rate of frost penetration is a function of the thermal properties of the tailings and the climatic conditions. Computer modelling programmes capable of modelling permafrost evolution were reviewed. The GEOTHERM programme was selected as being the most appropriate for this study. The GEOTHERM programme uses the finite element method of thermal analysis. The ground surface temperature is determined by solving the energy balance equations a the ground surface. The GEOTHERM programme was used to simulate the permafrost evolution in the Key Lake Mine tailings located in north central Saskatchewan. The analyses indicated that the existing frozen zones in the tailing pond will eventually thaw if an average snow depth covers the tailings. Hundreds of years are required to thaw the tailings. If minimal snow cover is present the extent of the frozen zone in the tailings will increase

  13. The Tail of BPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

    Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

  14. Structure and function of the small terminase component of the DNA packaging machine in T4-like bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Siyang; Gao, Song; Kondabagil, Kiran; Xiang, Ye; Rossmann, Michael G; Rao, Venigalla B

    2012-01-17

    Tailed DNA bacteriophages assemble empty procapsids that are subsequently filled with the viral genome by means of a DNA packaging machine situated at a special fivefold vertex. The packaging machine consists of a "small terminase" and a "large terminase" component. One of the functions of the small terminase is to initiate packaging of the viral genome, whereas the large terminase is responsible for the ATP-powered translocation of DNA. The small terminase subunit has three domains, an N-terminal DNA-binding domain, a central oligomerization domain, and a C-terminal domain for interacting with the large terminase. Here we report structures of the central domain in two different oligomerization states for a small terminase from the T4 family of phages. In addition, we report biochemical studies that establish the function for each of the small terminase domains. On the basis of the structural and biochemical information, we propose a model for DNA packaging initiation.

  15. The plasma-sheath boundary region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R N

    2003-01-01

    In this review an attempt is made to give a broad coverage of the problem of joining plasma and sheath over a wide range of physical conditions. We go back to the earliest works quoting them, where appropriate, to understand what those who introduced the various terms associated with the structure of the plasma-sheath had in mind. We try to bring out the essence of the insights that have been gained subsequently, by quoting from the literature selectively, indicating how misunderstandings have arisen. In order to make it accessible to the generality of those currently working in low temperature plasmas we have sought to avoid mathematical complexity but retain physical insight, quoting from published work where appropriate. Nevertheless, in clarifying my own ideas I have found it necessary to do additional original work in order to give a consistent picture. In this way I have sought to bring together work in the late 1920s, the 1960s, and now mindful of the commercial importance of plasma processing, work over the past 15 years that adds to the general understanding. (topical review)

  16. An improved 96-well turbidity assay for T4 lysozyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-13

    Additional information T4L is an enzyme found in T4 phage that is tolerant of mutations and amenable to crystallization. Extensive mutagenesis and...pnas.0912009106. [16] W.A. Baase, L. Liu, D.E. Tronrud, B.W. Matthews, Lessons from the lysozyme of phage T4 , Protein Sci. 19 (2010) 631–641. [17] D... phage T4 , Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 26 (1961) 25–30. [21] D.W. Heinz, W.A. Baase, B.W. Matthews, Folding and function of a T4 lysozyme

  17. Tail posture predicts tail damage among weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Riel, van J.W.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Kemp, B.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Tail biting in pigs is a widespread behavioural vice with significant animal welfare and economic consequences. All too often, tail biting is not diagnosed nor dealt with until tail damage is present. To effectively reduce the negative effects of tail biting, it must be diagnosed in an early stage.

  18. Theory of sheath in a collisional multi-component plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gate the interaction between a dusty plasma and a solid boundary. It has been mentioned that dust strongly influences all parameters of the sheath, in par- ticular, the electric field distributions and the ion flow velocities. The electric field of dust particles contributes to the distribution of the electric potential in the sheath and ...

  19. Retrospective analysis of oral peripheral nerve sheath tumors in Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Tito Salla

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic neuroma, neurofibroma, neurilemmoma, palisaded encapsulated neuroma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST are peripheral nerve sheath tumors and present neural origin. The goal of this study was to describe the epidemiological data of oral peripheral nerve sheath tumors in a sample of the Brazilian population. Biopsies requested from the Oral Pathology Service, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais (MG, Brazil, between 1966 and 2006 were evaluated. Lesions diagnosed as peripheral nerve sheath tumors were submitted to morphologic and to immunohistochemical analyses. All cases were immunopositive to the S-100 protein. Thirty-five oral peripheral nerve sheath tumors were found, representing 0.16% of all lesions archived in the Oral Pathology Service. Traumatic neuroma (15 cases most frequently affected the mental foramen. Solitary neurofibroma (10 cases was more frequently observed in the palate. Neurofibroma associated with neurofibromatosis type I (2 cases was observed in the gingival and alveolar mucosa. Neurilemmoma (4 cases was more commonly observed in the buccal mucosa. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (3 cases occurred in the mandible, palate, and tongue. Palisaded encapsulated neuroma (1 case occurred in the buccal mucosa. The data confirmed that oral peripheral nerve sheath tumors are uncommon in the oral region, with some lesions presenting a predilection for a specific gender or site. This study may be useful in clinical dentistry and oral pathology practice and may be used as baseline data regarding oral peripheral nerve sheath tumors in other populations.

  20. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of malignant nerve sheath tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendraminelli, R; Cavazzana, A O; Poletti, A; Galligioni, A; Pennelli, N

    1992-01-01

    Precise preoperative diagnosis of three malignant nerve sheath tumors (MNST) was based on their remarkably uniform and highly characteristic cytologic appearance. The differential diagnosis with benign nerve sheath tumors and other spindle cell sarcomas is addressed, and the possibility of achieving confident diagnosis on cytologic material from at least some soft-tissue sarcomas is confirmed.

  1. Significance of rice sheath photosynthesis: Yield determination by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using high-yielding hybrid rice Liangyopeijiu (LYP9), its male parent 9311 and hybrid rice Shanyou 63 (SY63) as the experimental materials, the photosynthesis of rice sheath was studied by 14C radio-autography. The results showed that rice sheath could trap sunlight and produce photosynthates, and these ...

  2. Usefulness of a Guiding Sheath for Fluoroscopic Colorectal Stent Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Deok Ho; Lee, Heuiran

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the technical feasibility, clinical usefulness, and safety of a guiding sheath in fluoroscopic stent placement for patients with malignant colorectal obstructions. Materials and Methods Between June 2007 and January 2011, fluoroscopic placement of a dual colorectal stent was attempted in a total of 97 patients with malignant colorectal obstructions. A polytetrafluoroethylene guiding sheath was used in patients in whom a stent delivery system failed to reach the obstruction. Usefulness of the sheath was evaluated depending on whether the sheath could successfully assist the stent delivery system reach its area of interest. Results The guiding sheath was needed in 22 patients (15 men, 7 women; age range, 33-77 years; mean age, 59 years). The overall success rate for passing the sheath to the area of interest was 100%. There were no procedure-related deaths or major complications. The majority of the patients reported mild discomfort. In 2 of 22 patients with successful passing of the sheath to the area of interest, stent placement failed because of failure in the negotiation of a guide wire through the obstruction. Conclusion Using a guiding sheath seems to be easy, safe and useful in fluoroscopic stent placement for patients with malignant colorectal obstructions. PMID:22563292

  3. sheath characteristics in multi-component plasma with negative ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    under this condition is known as the dissociative attachment process, which re- duces the electron population in the plasma. For the quasi-neutral bulk plasma, .... the theory [2,3], the positive ion drift speed toward the sheath estimated from the experimentally measured pre-sheath potential is found to decrease with ...

  4. Electrospinning jet behaviors under the constraints of a sheath gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the ejection efficiency and uniformity of nanofibers is the key to applications of electrospinning technology. In this work, a novel electrospinning spinneret with a sheath gas passageway is designed. The frictional resistance that stems from the sheath gas provides additional stretching and restriction forces on the jet. The sheath gas also reduces interference and enhances the stability of the charged jet. A bead-on-strain simulation model is built up to determine the constraint effects of the sheath gas. Simulation results show that the sheath gas decreases the motion area and increases the stretching ratio of the liquid jet. The stretching force from the sheath gas decreases the diameter and increases the uniformity of the nanofiber. As the gas pressure increases from 0 kPa to 50 kPa, the critical voltage of the jet ejection decreases from 8.4 kV to 2.5 kV, the diameter of the nanofiber deposition zone decreases from 40 cm to 10 cm, and the diameter of the nanofibers decreases from 557.97 nm to 277.73 nm. The uniformity of nanofibers can be improved significantly using a sheath gas. The sheath gas contributes to the rapid deposition of a uniform nanofibrous membrane and the industrial applications of electrospinning.

  5. The Twin Amplatz Sheath Method: A Modified Technique of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dilators and a 28 Fr Amplatz sheath was guided into the bladder and the foot end of the table lowered to 20° to facilitate high-speed outfl ow of irrigant and stone particles. A 26.5 Fr nephroscope was passed through the suprapubic Amplatz sheath and the stone was fragmented by intracorporeal pneumatic device keeping

  6. Functional analysis of the highly antigenic outer capsid protein, Hoc, a virus decoration protein from T4-like bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathaliyawala, Taheri; Islam, Mohammad Z; Li, Qin; Fokine, Andrei; Rossmann, Michael G; Rao, Venigalla B

    2010-07-01

    Bacteriophage T4 is decorated with 155 copies of the highly antigenic outer capsid protein, Hoc. The Hoc molecule (40 kDa) is present at the centre of each hexameric capsomer and provides a good platform for surface display of pathogen antigens. Biochemical and modelling studies show that Hoc consists of a string of four domains, three immunoglobulin (Ig)-like and one non-Ig domain at the C-terminus. Biochemical data suggest that the Hoc protein has two functional modules, a capsid binding module containing domains 1 and 4 and a solvent-exposed module containing domains 2 and 3. This model is consistent with the dumbbell-shaped cryo-EM density of Hoc observed in the reconstruction of the T4 capsid. Mutagenesis localized the capsid binding site to the C-terminal 25 amino acids, which are predicted to form two beta-strands flanking a capsid binding loop. Mutations in the loop residues, ESRNG, abolished capsid binding, suggesting that these residues might interact with the major capsid protein, gp23*. With the conserved capsid binding module forming a foothold on the virus and the solvent-exposed module able to adapt to bind to a variety of surfaces, Hoc probably provides survival advantages to the phage, such as increasing the virus concentration near the host, efficient dispersion of the virus and exposing the tail for more efficient contact with the host cell surface prior to infection.

  7. Isolation and Genomic Characterization of the T4-Like Bacteriophage PM2 Infecting Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-A; Lee, Dong Hwan; Heu, Sunggi

    2015-03-01

    In order to control Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, a novel virulent bacteriophage PM2 was isolated. Bacteriophage PM2 can infect 48% of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and 78% of P. carotovorum subsp. brasilliensis but none of atrosepticum, betavasculorum, odoriferum and wasabiae isolates had been infected with PM2. PM2 phage belongs to the family Myoviridae, and contains a large head and contractile tail. It has a 170,286 base pair genome that encodes 291 open reading frames (ORFs) and 12 tRNAs. Most ORFs in bacteriophage PM2 share a high level of homology with T4-like phages including IME08, RB69, and JS98. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of terminase large subunits confirmed that PM2 is classified as a T4-like phage. It contains no integrase- or no repressor-coding genes related to the lysogenic cycle, and lifestyle prediction using PHACT software suggested that PM2 is a virulent bacteriophage.

  8. Isolation and Genomic Characterization of the T4-Like Bacteriophage PM2 Infecting Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-A Lim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to control Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, a novel virulent bacteriophage PM2 was isolated. Bacteriophage PM2 can infect 48% of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and 78% of P. carotovorum subsp. brasilliensis but none of atrosepticum, betavasculorum, odoriferum and wasabiae isolates had been infected with PM2. PM2 phage belongs to the family Myoviridae, and contains a large head and contractile tail. It has a 170,286 base pair genome that encodes 291 open reading frames (ORFs and 12 tRNAs. Most ORFs in bacteriophage PM2 share a high level of homology with T4-like phages including IME08, RB69, and JS98. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of terminase large subunits confirmed that PM2 is classified as a T4-like phage. It contains no integrase- or no repressor-coding genes related to the lysogenic cycle, and lifestyle prediction using PHACT software suggested that PM2 is a virulent bacteriophage.

  9. Characteristics of metal sheathed thermocouples in thermowell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Takehiro; Nakase, Tsuyoshi; Tanabe, Yutaka; Yamada, Kunitaka; Yoshizaki, Akio; Roko, Kiyokazu

    1987-01-01

    Static and dynamic characteristics of thermowell type thermocouples which are planned to be used for the High-Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have been investigated. A mock-up test section was installed in Kawasaki's Helium Test Loop (KH-200). Thermal characteristics tests were carried out under the 600 ∼ 1000 deg C temperature conditions. The test section was equipped with four types sheathed thermocouples; the well type, the non well type, and ones with and without the thermal radiation shielding plate. The measured temperature by the well type thermocouples with the shielding plate was only about 1.3 deg C higher than the one without the shielding plate at gas temperature 990 deg C. The measured time constant of the well type thermocouples was about 7 seconds in the condition of the heat transfer coefficient 1600 Kcal/m 2 h deg C on the well surface, and coincided with the calculated one by ''TRUMP'' code. (author)

  10. Detecting expression of 5T4 in CTCs and tumor samples from NSCLC patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R Pirie-Shepherd

    Full Text Available The fetal oncogene 5T4 is a cell surface protein, with overexpression observed in a variety of cancers as compared to normal adult tissue. The ability to select patients with tumors that express high levels of 5T4 may enrich a clinical trial cohort with patients most likely to respond to 5T4 targeted therapy. To that end, we developed assays to measure 5T4 in both tumors and in circulating tumor cells (CTCs. We identified the presence of 5T4 in both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of lung, in all clinical stages and grades of disease. CTCs were identified in peripheral blood from the majority of patients with NSCLC, and 5T4 was detectable in most samples. Although 5T4 was present in both CTCs and tumors in most patients, there was no concordance between relative amount in either sample type. Clinical response rates of patients treated with the therapies directed against 5T4 in early stage clinical trials, as determined by these assays, may provide important insights into the biology of 5T4 in tumors and the mechanisms of action of 5T4-targeting therapy.

  11. Structural analysis of bacteriophage T4 DNA replication: a review in the Virology Journal series on bacteriophage T4 and its relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyer Ryan A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bacteriophage T4 encodes 10 proteins, known collectively as the replisome, that are responsible for the replication of the phage genome. The replisomal proteins can be subdivided into three activities; the replicase, responsible for duplicating DNA, the primosomal proteins, responsible for unwinding and Okazaki fragment initiation, and the Okazaki repair proteins. The replicase includes the gp43 DNA polymerase, the gp45 processivity clamp, the gp44/62 clamp loader complex, and the gp32 single-stranded DNA binding protein. The primosomal proteins include the gp41 hexameric helicase, the gp61 primase, and the gp59 helicase loading protein. The RNaseH, a 5' to 3' exonuclease and T4 DNA ligase comprise the activities necessary for Okazaki repair. The T4 provides a model system for DNA replication. As a consequence, significant effort has been put forth to solve the crystallographic structures of these replisomal proteins. In this review, we discuss the structures that are available and provide comparison to related proteins when the T4 structures are unavailable. Three of the ten full-length T4 replisomal proteins have been determined; the gp59 helicase loading protein, the RNase H, and the gp45 processivity clamp. The core of T4 gp32 and two proteins from the T4 related phage RB69, the gp43 polymerase and the gp45 clamp are also solved. The T4 gp44/62 clamp loader has not been crystallized but a comparison to the E. coli gamma complex is provided. The structures of T4 gp41 helicase, gp61 primase, and T4 DNA ligase are unknown, structures from bacteriophage T7 proteins are discussed instead. To better understand the functionality of T4 DNA replication, in depth structural analysis will require complexes between proteins and DNA substrates. A DNA primer template bound by gp43 polymerase, a fork DNA substrate bound by RNase H, gp43 polymerase bound to gp32 protein, and RNase H bound to gp32 have been crystallographically determined. The

  12. Effect of thyroxine on cellular oxygen-consumption and glucose uptake: evidence of an effect of total T4 and not "free T4"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L E

    1990-01-01

    in human mononuclear blood cells. Cells were incubated in protein free medium and in human serum totally depleted of thyroid hormones by resin treatment and fixed amounts of T4 (total T4 = 0-50-100-5000 nmol/l; free T4 = 0-5-11-5600 pmol/l) were added. Thyroxine stimulated glucose uptake and oxygen......Recent studies of cellular T4 and T3 uptake have indicated active transport of the hormones into the cell rather than passive diffusion of the non-protein bound fraction. In order to study the significance of the extracellular environment, oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were examined......K-ATPase by addition of ouabain (9-72 mg/l) did not inhibit T4 stimulation, thus indicating that the ouabain sensitive NaK-ATPase is not a major component of the processes which initiate the intracellular effects of T4. Therefore the stimulation of uptake of oxygen and glucose in human mononuclear blood cells seems...

  13. Mine tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, P.A.; Adams, B.J.

    1980-06-01

    The hydrologic evaluation of mine tailings disposal sites after they are abandoned is considered in relation to their potential environmental impact on a long term basis. There is a direct relation between the amounts and types of water leaving a disposal site and the severity of the potential damage to the environment. The evaluation of the relative distribution of the precipitation reaching the ground into evaporation, runoff and infiltration is obtained for a selected site and type of tailings material whose characteristics and physical properties were determined in the soils laboratory. A conceptual model of the hydrologic processes involved and the corresponding mathematical model were developed to simulate the physical system. A computer program was written to solve the set of equations forming the mathematical model, considering the physical properties of the tailings and the rainfall data selected. The results indicate that the relative distribution of the precipitation depends on the surface and upper layer of the tailings and that the position of the groundwater table is governed by the flow through the bottom of the profile considered. The slope of the surface of the mass of tailings was found to be one of the principal factors affecting the relative distribution of precipitation and, therefore, the potential pollution of the environment

  14. Liquefaction of uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Numerical methods for assessing the liquefaction potential of soils are reviewed with a view to their application to uranium tailings. The method can be divided into two categories: total stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are not considered in the soil model, and effective stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are included in the soil model. Effective stress analysis is more realistic, but few computer programs exist for such analysis in two or three dimensions. A simple linearized, two-dimensional, finite element effective stress analysis which incorporates volumetric compaction due to shear motion is described and implemented. The new program is applied to the assessment of liquefaction potential of tailings in the Quirke Mine tailings area near Elliot Lake, Ontario. The results are compared with those of a total stress analysis. Both analyses indicate liquefaction would occur if a magnitude 6.0 earthquake were to occur near the area. However, the extent of liquefaction predicted by the effective stress analysis is much less than that predicted by the total stress analysis. The results of both methods are sensitive to assumed material properties and to the method used to determine the cyclic shear strength of the tailings. Further analysis, incorporating more in situ and/or laboratory data, is recommended before conclusions can be made concerning the dynamic stability of these tailings

  15. Uranium mill tailings stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-02-01

    Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration

  16. Turbulent Gravito-Electrostatic Sheath (GES) Structure with Kappa-Distributed Electrons for Solar Plasma Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutam, H. P.; Karmakar, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    We report on new characteristic features of the plasma-based gravito-electrostatic sheath (GES) model for solar plasma equilibrium characterization through nonthermal (κ-distributed) electrons composed of both a thermal halo (low-speed) and a suprathermal (high-speed) energy tail. The constituent ions are treated collectively as inertial species. The presence of intrinsic fluid turbulence is included with the help of a proper logatropic equation of state in the ionic momentum conservation law. The analysis is based on the basic physics of space-charge polarization effects, collectively evolving as a plasma sheath, but previously known only for laboratory plasma-scales. We show that the radial location of the solar surface boundary (SSB, inner boundary, diffused), formed by the counteracting GES force balancing, becomes slightly enhanced (by 0.5 on the Jeans scale). The net electric current densities, in both the solar interior and exterior, confirm the universal law of total charge conservation in the presence of geometrical curvature effects. The relevant properties of the new κ-modified equilibrium GES structure are numerically illustrated and discussed. The results are finally compared in the light of existing reports based on the Maxwell-Boltzmann electron distribution. The new outcomes can be extensively expanded to analyze the realistic thermostatistical dynamics of the Sun and its ambient atmosphere, as predicted earlier from various space-based observations.

  17. The episodic evolution of fibritin: traces of ancient global environmental alterations may remain in the genomes of T4-like phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letarov, A V; Krisch, H M

    2013-09-01

    The evolutionary adaptation of bacteriophages to their environment is achieved by alterations of their genomes involving a combination of both point mutations and lateral gene transfer. A phylogenetic analysis of a large set of collar fiber protein (fibritin) loci from diverse T4-like phages indicates that nearly all the modular swapping involving the C-terminal domain of this gene occurred in the distant past and has since ceased. In phage T4, this fibritin domain encodes the sequence that mediates both the attachment of the long tail fibers to the virion and also controls, in an environmentally sensitive way, the phage's ability to infect its host bacteria. Subsequent to its distant period of modular exchange, the evolution of fibritin has proceeded primarily by the slow vertical divergence mechanism. We suggest that ancient and sudden changes in the environment forced the T4-like phages to alter fibritin's mode of action or function. The genome's response to such episodes of rapid environmental change could presumably only be achieved quickly enough by employing the modular evolution mechanism. A phylogenetic analysis of the fibritin locus reveals the possible traces of such events within the T4 superfamily's genomes.

  18. ALINE: A device dedicated to understanding radio-frequency sheaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Devaux

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In fusion devices, radiofrequency (RF antennas are used for heating the plasma. Those antennas and the plasma interact with each other through the so-called RF sheaths, layers of plasma where the quasi-neutrality breaks down and large electric fields arise. Among the effects of RF sheaths, there is the enhancement of the particles and energy fluxes toward the surface of the antenna, which in turn generate hot spots and release impurities, which are both deleterious for plasma operations. RF sheaths comprehension stumbles on the difficulty to achieve in situ measurements of the sheath properties, as scrape-off layer plasmas are a harsh environment. The very goal of the ALINE device is to tackle this issue and to fulfil the blank between numerical simulations and full-scale experiment by providing measurements within the RF sheaths in a controlled environment. In this paper we report on the latest experimental results from ALINE, in which a cylindrical Langmuir probe mounted on a remotely controlled and programmable arm allows for plasma characterizations in the three dimensions of space around the stainless steel antenna, including the sheath. We present a series of density and potential profiles and three dimension (3D maps in the plasma surrounding a stainless-steel RF antenna as well as in the sheath itself, for unmagnetized and magnetized plasmas.

  19. Dynamic reversibility of hydrodynamic focusing for recycling sheath fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Nastaran; Howell, Peter B; Erickson, Jeffrey S; Golden, Joel P; Ligler, Frances S

    2010-08-07

    The phenomenon of "unmixing" has been demonstrated in microfluidic mixers, but here we manipulate laminar flow streams back to their original positions in order to extend the operational utility of an analytical device where no mixing is desired. Using grooves in the channel wall, we passively focus a sample stream with two sheath streams to center it in a microchannel for optical analysis. Even though the sample stream is completely surrounded by sheath fluid, reversing the orientation of the grooves in the channel walls returns the sample stream to its original position with respect to the sheath streams. We demonstrate the separation of the sample stream from the contiguous sheath streams and the recycling of the sheath fluid using the reversibility of laminar flow. Polystyrene microspheres and fluorescent dye were used to quantify the performance of the unsheathing process. We found that the maximum numbers of microspheres and all of the fluorescent dye were recaptured at sheath recycling levels recycle the sheath fluid for long-term unattended operation.

  20. Dynamic reversibility of hydrodynamic focusing for recycling sheath fluid†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Nastaran; Howell, Peter B.; Erickson, Jeffrey S.; Golden, Joel P.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of “unmixing” has been demonstrated in microfluidic mixers, but here we manipulate laminar flow streams back to their original positions in order to extend the operational utility of an analytical device where no mixing is desired. Using grooves in the channel wall, we passively focus a sample stream with two sheath streams to center it in a microchannel for optical analysis. Even though the sample stream is completely surrounded by sheath fluid, reversing the orientation of the grooves in the channel walls returns the sample stream to its original position with respect to the sheath streams. We demonstrate the separation of the sample stream from the contiguous sheath streams and the recycling of the sheath fluid using the reversibility of laminar flow. Polystyrene microspheres and fluorescent dye were used to quantify the performance of the unsheathing process. We found that the maximum numbers of microspheres and all of the fluorescent dye were recaptured at sheath recycling levels recycle the sheath fluid for long-term unattended operation. PMID:20480064

  1. Use of guiding sheaths in peroral fluoroscopic gastroduodenal stent placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jae-Ik; Shin, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Yoon, Chang Jin; Nam, Deok Ho; Choi, Won-Chan; Lim, Jin-Oh

    2005-01-01

    Our purpose was to assess the safety and usefulness of guiding sheaths in peroral fluoroscopic gastroduodenal stent placement. Two types of guiding sheath were made from straight polytetrafluoroethylene tubes. Type A was 80 cm in length, 4 mm in outer diameter and 3 mm in inner diameter. Type B was 70 cm in length, 6 mm in outer diameter and 5 mm in inner diameter. The type A sheath was used in 18 patients in whom a catheter-guide wire combination failed to pass through a stricture. The type B sheath was used in 22 patients in whom a stent delivery system failed to pass through the stricture due to loop formation within the gastric lumen. The overall success rate for guiding a catheter-guide wire through a stricture after using the type A sheath was 89%. The overall success rate for passing a stent delivery system through a stricture after using the type B sheath was 100%. All procedures were tolerated by the patients without any significant complications. The guiding sheaths were safe and useful in peroral fluoroscopic gastroduodenal stent placement. (orig.)

  2. Abiotic Deposition of Fe Complexes onto Leptothrix Sheaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Hashimoto, Hideki; McFarlane, Ian R.; Hayashi, Naoaki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Taketa, Eisuke; Tamura, Katsunori; Takano, Mikio; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria classified in species of the genus Leptothrix produce extracellular, microtubular, Fe-encrusted sheaths. The encrustation has been previously linked to bacterial Fe oxidases, which oxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III) and/or active groups of bacterial exopolymers within sheaths to attract and bind aqueous-phase inorganics. When L. cholodnii SP-6 cells were cultured in media amended with high Fe(II) concentrations, Fe(III) precipitates visibly formed immediately after addition of Fe(II) to the medium, suggesting prompt abiotic oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). Intriguingly, these precipitates were deposited onto the sheath surface of bacterial cells as the population was actively growing. When Fe(III) was added to the medium, similar precipitates formed in the medium first and were abiotically deposited onto the sheath surfaces. The precipitates in the Fe(II) medium were composed of assemblies of globular, amorphous particles (ca. 50 nm diameter), while those in the Fe(III) medium were composed of large, aggregated particles (≥3 µm diameter) with a similar amorphous structure. These precipitates also adhered to cell-free sheaths. We thus concluded that direct abiotic deposition of Fe complexes onto the sheath surface occurs independently of cellular activity in liquid media containing Fe salts, although it remains unclear how this deposition is associated with the previously proposed mechanisms (oxidation enzyme- and/or active group of organic components-involved) of Fe encrustation of the Leptothrix sheaths. PMID:27271677

  3. Abiotic Deposition of Fe Complexes onto Leptothrix Sheaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Kunoh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria classified in species of the genus Leptothrix produce extracellular, microtubular, Fe-encrusted sheaths. The encrustation has been previously linked to bacterial Fe oxidases, which oxidize Fe(II to Fe(III and/or active groups of bacterial exopolymers within sheaths to attract and bind aqueous-phase inorganics. When L. cholodnii SP-6 cells were cultured in media amended with high Fe(II concentrations, Fe(III precipitates visibly formed immediately after addition of Fe(II to the medium, suggesting prompt abiotic oxidation of Fe(II to Fe(III. Intriguingly, these precipitates were deposited onto the sheath surface of bacterial cells as the population was actively growing. When Fe(III was added to the medium, similar precipitates formed in the medium first and were abiotically deposited onto the sheath surfaces. The precipitates in the Fe(II medium were composed of assemblies of globular, amorphous particles (ca. 50 nm diameter, while those in the Fe(III medium were composed of large, aggregated particles (≥3 µm diameter with a similar amorphous structure. These precipitates also adhered to cell-free sheaths. We thus concluded that direct abiotic deposition of Fe complexes onto the sheath surface occurs independently of cellular activity in liquid media containing Fe salts, although it remains unclear how this deposition is associated with the previously proposed mechanisms (oxidation enzyme- and/or active group of organic components-involved of Fe encrustation of the Leptothrix sheaths.

  4. PROTEOLYTIC REMOVAL OF THE CARBOXYL TERMINUS OF THE T4 GENE 32 HELIX-DESTABILIZING PROTEIN ALTERS THE T4 IN VITRO REPLICATION COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, R.L.; Alberts, B.M.; Hosoda, J.

    1980-07-01

    The proteolytic removal of about 60 amino acids from the COOH terminus of the bacteriophage T4 helix-destabilizing protein (gene 32 protein) produces 32*I, a 27,000-dalton fragment which still binds tightly and cooperatively to single-stranded DNA. The substitution of 32*I protein for intact 32 protein in the seven-protein T4 replication complex results in dramatic changes in some of the reactions catalyzed by this in vitro DNA replication system, while leaving others largely unperturbed. (1) Like intact 32 protein, the 32*I protein promotes DNA synthesis by the DNA polymerase when the T4 polymerase accessory proteins (gene 44/62 and 45 proteins) are also present. The host helix-destabilizing protein (Escherichia coli ssb protein) cannot replace the 32*I protein for this synthesis. (2) Unlike intact 32 protein, 32*I protein strongly inhibits DNA synthesis catalyzed by the T4 DNA polymerase alone on a primed single-stranded DNA template. (3) Unlike intact 32 protein, the 32*I protein strongly inhibits RNA primer synthesis catalyzed by the T4 gene 41 and 61 proteins and also reduces the efficiency of RNA primer utilization. As a result, de novo DNA chain starts are blocked completely in the complete T4 replication system, and no lagging strand DNA synthesis occurs. (4) The 32*I protein does not bind to either the T4 DNA polymerase or to the T4 gene 61 protein in the absence of DNA; these associations (detected with intact 32 protein) would therefore appear to be essential for the normal control of 32 protein activity, and to account at least in part for observations 2 and 3, above. We propose that the COOH-terminal domain of intact 32 protein functions to guide its interactions with the T4 DNA polymerase and the T4 gene 61 RNA-priming protein. When this domain is removed, as in 32*I protein, the helix destabilization induced by the protein is controlled inadequately, so that polymerizing enzymes tend to be displaced from the growing 3{prime}-OH end of a

  5. Campylobacter jejuni Group III Phage CP81 Contains Many T4-Like Genes without Belonging to the T4-Type Phage Group: Implications for the Evolution of T4 Phages▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerl, Jens A.; Jäckel, Claudia; Reetz, Jochen; Beck, Sebastian; Alter, Thomas; Lurz, Rudi; Barretto, Caroline; Brüssow, Harald; Hertwig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    CP81 is a virulent Campylobacter group III phage whose linear genome comprises 132,454 bp. At the nucleotide level, CP81 differs from other phages. However, a number of its structural and replication/recombination proteins revealed a relationship to the group II Campylobacter phages CP220/CPt10 and to T4-type phages. Unlike the T4-related phages, the CP81 genome does not contain conserved replication and virion modules. Instead, the respective genes are scattered throughout the phage genome. ...

  6. L-T4 bioequivalence and hormone replacement studies via feedback control simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marisa; Samuels, Mary; DiStefano, Joseph J

    2006-12-01

    FDA Guidance for testing bioequivalence of levothyroxine (L-T(4)) preparations has been challenged by several groups, based on multiple issues. The efficacy of single versus combined hormone therapy also is receiving additional scrutiny. To examine these concerns, we developed a new nonlinear feedback system simulation model of whole-body regulation mechanisms involving dynamics of T(3), T(4), TSH, plasma protein binding, extravascular regulatory enzyme systems, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, all quantified from human data. To address bioequivalence, we explored how to best account for varying and unmeasured endogenous T(4) following dosing with exogenous oral L-T(4) in euthyroid volunteers in required pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, by simulating various dosing scenarios and developing a new and simple correction method. We computed and assessed dosing error effects and baseline corrections using simulator-predicted endogenous T(4) level variations, due to actual closed-loop effects, and compared these with approximate corrections computed directly from PK data. Predicted dose-responses were quite linear, and for constant baseline, 7-day half-life, and our new formula-correction methods, we established some bounds on bioequivalent dosages. Simulated replacement after thyroidectomy required 141 microg L-T(4) only to normalize T(3) tissue levels and 162 microg L-T(4) to normalize plasma T(3) levels. A combined dose of approximately 103 microg L-T(4) plus approximately 6 microg T(3) ( approximately 18:1 ratio) was needed to normalize both plasma T(3) and T(4) and average tissue T(3) levels. However, simulated average tissue T(3) levels were normalized with standard L-T(4)-only therapy, and plasma T(3) levels were still within the normal range. We suggest a simple and more accurate correction for endogenous T(4) in PK studies. Current standard L-T(4)-only treatment is supported for routine replacement needs.

  7. Multifocal T4 non-small cell lung cancer: a subset with improved prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trousse, Delphine; D'Journo, Xavier Benoît; Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Doddoli, Christophe; Giudicelli, Roger; Fuentes, Pierre Antoine; Thomas, Pascal Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    T4-disease for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) includes different conditions: mediastinal invasion, neoplastic pleural cytology, and multifocal disease in the same lobe; regarding the last category, no strict criteria allow to differentiate satellite nodules from synchronous multiple primary tumours. Retrospective study of 56 patients who underwent a complete resection from 1985 to 2006 of a NSCLC graded pT4N0 due to multifocal disease. A small nodule (satellite nodule (pT4sn). Multiple tumours, sized more than 1cm, with an identical histology, located in the same lobe but in different segment were considered as synchronous cancers (pT4sc). There were 44 males and 12 females: 35 patients were graded T4sn and 21 patients T4sc. The median age was 62.5 years. The two groups were similar for sex, age, tobacco consumption, ASA score, NYHA, Charlson's index, spirometric parameters, cardiovascular comorbidity and history of previous extra-thoracic malignancies. All had a complete anatomic resection with mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Thirty-day mortality rate was 3.6%. Overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 48.2% and 29.9%, respectively. There was a non-significant trend for a worse survival in T4sn group patients when compared to that of T4sc group patients: 42.9% vs 52.3% at 5 years, and 25% vs 34.9% at 10 years (p=0.62). Multifocal T4 stage IIIB disease is a heterogeneous category where overall prognosis is far better than those of other T4 subgroups. Survival rates associated with pT4sn and pT4sc look roughly similar because of the small size of the subgroups usually submitted to comparison in most series. In the present experience, respective survival figures diverge, suggesting different biological behaviours.

  8. Experimental test of models of radio-frequency plasma sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolewski, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The ion current and sheath impedance were measured at the radio-frequency-powered electrode of an asymmetric, capacitively coupled plasma reactor, for discharges in argon at 1.33 endash 133 Pa. The measurements were used to test the models of the radio frequency sheath derived by Lieberman [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 17, 338 (1989)] and Godyak and Sternberg [Phys. Rev. A 42, 2299 (1990)], and establish the range of pressure and sheath voltage in which they are valid. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. Ultrasonographic findings of pilar sheath acanthoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Joo; Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Seong Jin [Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Pilar sheath acanthoma is a rare benign follicular hamartoma that presents with a central sinus containing keratinous material and is lined by epithelium. It typically occurs on the face, especially on the upper lip and forehead. In our case, the ultrasound (US) feature of pilar sheath acanthoma revealed a well-defined, oval hypoechoic nodule with hypoechoic capping within the dermis over the medial aspect of the calf. To the best of our knowledge, despite many reports on the clinicopathological aspects of pilar sheath acanthoma, this entity has not been well described in the radiologic literature, and US findings have not been documented.

  10. Uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography contains information on uranium mill tailings included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through October 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Mill Tailings/Radiation Hazards. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. (335 abstracts)

  11. Investigation of genome sequence and gene expression regulation in T4 related bacteriophages

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinienė, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of bacteriophage VR7 has been determined. The genome sequence is 169,285 nt, with an overall G+C content of 40,3%, compared with 35.3 % of T4. VR7 encodes 293 putative protein-encoding open reading frames (ORFs) and tRNAMet. In total, 211 of the 293 VR7 open reading frames encode putative proteins that share 30% ‒ 97% amino acid sequence identity with those found in T4; 46 ORFs resemble genes from other T4-like phages, 9 show similarities to genes of non T4 type p...

  12. Campylobacter jejuni group III phage CP81 contains many T4-like genes without belonging to the T4-type phage group: implications for the evolution of T4 phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Jens A; Jäckel, Claudia; Reetz, Jochen; Beck, Sebastian; Alter, Thomas; Lurz, Rudi; Barretto, Caroline; Brüssow, Harald; Hertwig, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    CP81 is a virulent Campylobacter group III phage whose linear genome comprises 132,454 bp. At the nucleotide level, CP81 differs from other phages. However, a number of its structural and replication/recombination proteins revealed a relationship to the group II Campylobacter phages CP220/CPt10 and to T4-type phages. Unlike the T4-related phages, the CP81 genome does not contain conserved replication and virion modules. Instead, the respective genes are scattered throughout the phage genome. Moreover, most genes for metabolic enzymes of CP220/CPt10 are lacking in CP81. On the other hand, the CP81 genome contains nine similar genes for homing endonucleases which may be involved in the attrition of the conserved gene order for the virion core genes of T4-type phages. The phage apparently possesses an unusual modification of C or G bases. Efficient cleavage of its DNA was only achieved with restriction enzymes recognizing pure A/T sites. Uncommonly, phenol extraction leads to a significant loss of CP81 DNA from the aqueous layer, a property not yet described for other phages belonging to the T4 superfamily.

  13. Campylobacter jejuni Group III Phage CP81 Contains Many T4-Like Genes without Belonging to the T4-Type Phage Group: Implications for the Evolution of T4 Phages▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Jens A.; Jäckel, Claudia; Reetz, Jochen; Beck, Sebastian; Alter, Thomas; Lurz, Rudi; Barretto, Caroline; Brüssow, Harald; Hertwig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    CP81 is a virulent Campylobacter group III phage whose linear genome comprises 132,454 bp. At the nucleotide level, CP81 differs from other phages. However, a number of its structural and replication/recombination proteins revealed a relationship to the group II Campylobacter phages CP220/CPt10 and to T4-type phages. Unlike the T4-related phages, the CP81 genome does not contain conserved replication and virion modules. Instead, the respective genes are scattered throughout the phage genome. Moreover, most genes for metabolic enzymes of CP220/CPt10 are lacking in CP81. On the other hand, the CP81 genome contains nine similar genes for homing endonucleases which may be involved in the attrition of the conserved gene order for the virion core genes of T4-type phages. The phage apparently possesses an unusual modification of C or G bases. Efficient cleavage of its DNA was only achieved with restriction enzymes recognizing pure A/T sites. Uncommonly, phenol extraction leads to a significant loss of CP81 DNA from the aqueous layer, a property not yet described for other phages belonging to the T4 superfamily. PMID:21697478

  14. CXCR4 mediated chemotaxis is regulated by 5T4 oncofetal glycoprotein in mouse embryonic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D Southgate

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 5T4 oncofetal molecules are highly expressed during development and upregulated in cancer while showing only low levels in some adult tissues. Upregulation of 5T4 expression is a marker of loss of pluripotency in the early differentiation of embryonic stem (ES cells and forms an integrated component of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a process important during embryonic development and metastatic spread of epithelial tumors. Investigation of the transcriptional changes in early ES differentiation showed upregulation of CXCL12 and down-regulation of a cell surface protease, CD26, which cleaves this chemokine. CXCL12 binds to the widely expressed CXCR4 and regulates key aspects of development, stem cell motility and tumour metastasis to tissues with high levels of CXCL12. We show that the 5T4 glycoprotein is required for optimal functional cell surface expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and CXCL12 mediated chemotaxis in differentiating murine embryonic stem cells and embryo fibroblasts (MEF. Cell surface expression of 5T4 and CXCR4 molecules is co-localized in differentiating ES cells and MEF. By contrast, differentiating ES and MEF derived from 5T4 knockout (KO mice show only intracellular CXCR4 expression but infection with adenovirus encoding mouse 5T4 restores CXCL12 chemotaxis and surface co-localization with 5T4 molecules. A series of chimeric constructs with interchanged domains of 5T4 and the glycoprotein CD44 were used to map the 5T4 sequences relevant for CXCR4 membrane expression and function in 5T4KO MEF. These data identified the 5T4 transmembrane domain as sufficient and necessary to enable CXCR4 cell surface expression and chemotaxis. Furthermore, some monoclonal antibodies against m5T4 can inhibit CXCL12 chemotaxis of differentiating ES cells and MEF which is not mediated by simple antigenic modulation. Collectively, these data support a molecular interaction of 5T4 and CXCR4 occurring at the cell surface which

  15. Bilateral giant cell tumor of tendon sheath of tendoachilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Datta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath arises from the synovium of tendon sheaths, joints, or bursae, mostly affects adults between 30 and 50 years of age, and is slightly more common in females. We report the case of a 32-years-old male presenting with pain in both ankles without any history of trauma. On clinical examination, tenderness on both tendoachilles and local thickening were observed. Ultrasonography showed thickening of local tendinous area with increase in anteroposterior diameter, and Doppler demonstrated increased flow in peritendinous area. MRI findings showed that most of the tumor had intermediate signal intensity and portions of the tumor had low signal intensity. Fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed the diagnosis of giant cell tumor of tendon sheath. Excision biopsy was done with no recurrence on five month follow-up. Review of literature did not reveal any similar result; so, bilateral giant cell tumor of tendon sheath of tendoachilles is a rare presentation.

  16. Zircaloy sheathed thermocouples for PWR fuel rod temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.V.; Wesley, R.D.; Wilkins, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    Small diameter zircaloy sheathed thermocouples have been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Surface mounted thermocouples were developed to measure the temperature of zircaloy clad fuel rods used in the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program (TFBP), and embedded thermocouples were developed for use by the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program for support tests using zircaloy clad electrically heated nuclear fuel rod simulators. The first objective of this developmental effort was to produce zircaloy sheathed thermocouples to replace titanium sheathed thermocouples and thereby eliminate the long-term corrosion of the titanium-to-zircaloy attachment weld. The second objective was to reduce the sheath diameter to obtain faster thermal response and minimize cladding temperature disturbance due to thermocouple attachment

  17. Machining a conical inner surface of a sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebiez, Y.; Salom, J.; La Joie, D.

    1993-01-01

    A machine tool is claimed for machining sheaths too long for a lathe. It comprises two concentric shafts, one rotating, the other sliding. The rotating shaft bear an oblique sliding tool-holder parallel to the machining direction

  18. Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this research is to provide durable and long-term water management solutions using exterior insulating sheathing as part of the water management system. It is possible to tape or seal the joints in insulating sheathing to create a drainage plane and even an air control layer. There exists the material durability component of the tape as well as the system durability component being the taped insulating sheathing as the drainage plane. This measure guideline provides best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and homebuilders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant issues were discussed with the group, which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long-term, and durable drainage plane: horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible; where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials; and frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation.

  19. Axial sheath dynamics in a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; El-Khalafawy, T.A.; Masoud, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the result of investigation with a 10 kJ Mather type plasma focus. It is operated in hydrogen gas at ambient pressure of 0.15--1 torr and charging voltage of 8--11 kV. Radial distribution of the current sheath density with axial distance has been estimated. Plasma rotation in the expansion chamber in the absence of external magnetic field has been detected. A plasma flare from the plasma focus region propagating in the radial direction has been observed. Streak photography shows two plasma streams flowing simultaneously out of the muzzle. The mean energy of the electron beam ejected from the pinch region of the focused plasma, was measured by retarding field analyzer to be 0.32 keV. The electron temperature of the plasma focus at peak compression was determined by measuring the X-ray intensity as a function of absorber thickness at a distance of 62 cm from the focus. The electron temperature has been found to 3 keV

  20. Properties of leaves particleboard for sheathing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryawan, Arif; Rahmawaty

    2018-03-01

    Manufacturing particleboard (PB) made of leaves was carried out to make non-structural building components, such as insulation, partition, wall, and sheathing. Raw materials used dry leaves originated from plantation (palm oil leaves) and forest plantation (magahony leaves). The adhesive used was interior type thermosetting commercial resins, namely 10% urea-formaldehyde (UF) based on oven dry leaves. Hardener used for UF resin was 1% and 3% ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) 20% (w/w), respectively. Technically, the target density of PB was 0.8 g/cm3 with the dimension’s size of (250 x 250 x 10) mm3. The pressure, temperature, and time of pressing of the hot press were 25 kgf/cm2, 120C, and 10 minutes, respectively. After conditioning for one week, the PB then was evaluated their physical and mechanical properties according to Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908 (2003). Results of this work showed: 1) Both types of PB (palm oil and mahagony leaves) were feasible to be produced for non-structural applications; 2) Addition of hardener enhanced the physical and mechanical properties of PB; 3) It was recommended to enhance the performance of the PB by manipulation of the raw materials and the design.

  1. An unusual radiological presentation of optic nerve sheath meningiom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chameen Samarawickrama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Our report describes an unusual radiological presentation of optic nerve sheath meningioma. The classic radiological appearance of optic nerve thickening with enhancement and calcification within the tumor was not seen; instead, an elongating gadolinium enhancing band-like area adjacent to the superomedial aspect of the left optic nerve sheath was identified. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology. Our report adds to the spectrum of presentations of this relatively common clinical entity.

  2. Sheath and plasma parameters in a magnetized plasma system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ions forming the sheath across the grid, are moving with a velocity equal to or greater than the ion acoustic velocity ´c×µ, in order to satisfy the minimum Bohm sheath criterion. For a fixed V , when more and more magnetic field is applied, gyro radius of both ions and electrons are reduced gradually. But at the same time gyro ...

  3. Contrast material filling of the peroneal tendon sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadravecz, Gy.; Grexa, E.

    1981-01-01

    In case of complaints after fracture of the calcaneus the common sheath of the peroneus tendons was filled up with contrast material. The tendon sheath was punctured Oehind the external ankle. The three-directional radiograms clearly showed the dislocation and compression of the tendons, caused by the exostosis of the calcaneus. The concomitant tendovaginitis caused the complaints. This alteration was observed in 11% of all the calcaneus fractures. (L.E.)

  4. Modelling T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelling T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the absence of any defense mechanism. VSM Yadavalli, MMO Labeodan, S Udayabaskaran, N Forche. Abstract. The T4 cell count, which is considered one of the markers of disease progression in an HIV infected individual, is modelled in this paper. The World ...

  5. Specific action of T4 endonuclease V on damaged DNA in xeroderma pigmentosum cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Sekiguchi, M.; Okada, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The specific action of T4 endonuclease V on damaged DNA in xeroderma pigmentosum cells was examined using an in vivo assay system with hemagglutinating virus of Japan (Sendai virus) inactivated by uv light. A clear dose response was observed between the level of uv-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis of xeroderma pigmentosum cells and the amount of T4 endonuclease V activity added. The T4 enzyme was unstable in human cells, and its half-life was 3 hr. Fractions derived from an extract of Escherichia coli infected with T4v 1 , a mutant defective in the endonuclease V gene, showed no ability to restore the uv-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis of xeroderma pigmentosum cells. However, fractions derived from an extract of T4D-infected E. coli with endonuclease V activity were effective. The T4 enzyme was effective in xeroderma pigmentosum cells on DNA damaged by uv light but not in cells damaged by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide. The results of these experiments show that the T4 enzyme has a specific action on human cell DNA in vivo. Treatment with the T4 enzyme increased the survival of group A xeroderma pigmentosum cells after uv irradiation

  6. Results of surgical treatment of T4 non-small cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitz, CCM; de la Riviere, AB; van Swieten, HA; Westermann, CJJ; Lammers, JWJ; van den Bosch, JMM

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Because of location and invasion of surrounding structures, the role of surgical treatment for T4 tumors remains unclear. Extended resections carry a high mortality and should be restricted for selected patients. This study clarifies the selection process in non-small cell T4 tumors with

  7. Assembly and dynamics of the bacteriophage T4 homologous recombination machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrical Scott W

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Homologous recombination (HR, a process involving the physical exchange of strands between homologous or nearly homologous DNA molecules, is critical for maintaining the genetic diversity and genome stability of species. Bacteriophage T4 is one of the classic systems for studies of homologous recombination. T4 uses HR for high-frequency genetic exchanges, for homology-directed DNA repair (HDR processes including DNA double-strand break repair, and for the initiation of DNA replication (RDR. T4 recombination proteins are expressed at high levels during T4 infection in E. coli, and share strong sequence, structural, and/or functional conservation with their counterparts in cellular organisms. Biochemical studies of T4 recombination have provided key insights on DNA strand exchange mechanisms, on the structure and function of recombination proteins, and on the coordination of recombination and DNA synthesis activities during RDR and HDR. Recent years have seen the development of detailed biochemical models for the assembly and dynamics of presynaptic filaments in the T4 recombination system, for the atomic structure of T4 UvsX recombinase, and for the roles of DNA helicases in T4 recombination. The goal of this chapter is to review these recent advances and their implications for HR and HDR mechanisms in all organisms.

  8. AtlasT4SS: A curated database for type IV secretion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Rangel C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The type IV secretion system (T4SS can be classified as a large family of macromolecule transporter systems, divided into three recognized sub-families, according to the well-known functions. The major sub-family is the conjugation system, which allows transfer of genetic material, such as a nucleoprotein, via cell contact among bacteria. Also, the conjugation system can transfer genetic material from bacteria to eukaryotic cells; such is the case with the T-DNA transfer of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant cells. The system of effector protein transport constitutes the second sub-family, and the third one corresponds to the DNA uptake/release system. Genome analyses have revealed numerous T4SS in Bacteria and Archaea. The purpose of this work was to organize, classify, and integrate the T4SS data into a single database, called AtlasT4SS - the first public database devoted exclusively to this prokaryotic secretion system. Description The AtlasT4SS is a manual curated database that describes a large number of proteins related to the type IV secretion system reported so far in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as in Archaea. The database was created using the RDBMS MySQL and the Catalyst Framework based in the Perl programming language and using the Model-View-Controller (MVC design pattern for Web. The current version holds a comprehensive collection of 1,617 T4SS proteins from 58 Bacteria (49 Gram-negative and 9 Gram-Positive, one Archaea and 11 plasmids. By applying the bi-directional best hit (BBH relationship in pairwise genome comparison, it was possible to obtain a core set of 134 clusters of orthologous genes encoding T4SS proteins. Conclusions In our database we present one way of classifying orthologous groups of T4SSs in a hierarchical classification scheme with three levels. The first level comprises four classes that are based on the organization of genetic determinants, shared homologies, and

  9. Studies of irradiated zircaloy fuel sheathing using XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, P.K.; Irving, K.G.; Hocking, W.H.; Duclos, A.M.; Gerwing, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    The preliminary results reported here support the hypothesis that CANLUB graphite coating reduces the rate at which oxygen can react with fuel sheathing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) characterization of Zircaloy sheathing obtained from extended-burnup Bruce-type elements (BDL-406-XY (555 MW.h/kgU) and BDL-406-AAH (731 MW.h/kgU)) irradiated in NRU indicates that CANLUB may reduce fuel sheath oxidation, and hence that fission-liberated oxygen may remain in the fuel. Chemical shifts in the Zr 3d spectra suggest that a stoichiometric (ZrO 2 ) oxide film was formed only on Zircaloy in direct contact with fuel. Particulate fuel adhering to the sheath was also determined to be systematically more oxidized on surfaces with CANLUB than on those without it. The unique association of tin on sheathing specimens with the non-CANLUB-coated specimens might also suggest that the tin had segregated from the sheathing. It must be emphasized that further experiments are required to better define the effect of CANLUB on fuel oxidation. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  10. Multimodal imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1-associated nerve sheath tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, J.; Adam, G.; Mautner, V.F.; Derlin, T.

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a neurogenetic disorder. Individuals with NF1 may develop a variety of benign and malignant tumors of which peripheral nerve sheath tumors represent the most frequent entity. Plexiform neurofibromas may demonstrate a locally destructive growth pattern, may cause severe symptoms and may undergo malignant transformation into malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents the reference standard for detection of soft tissue tumors in NF1. It allows for identification of individuals with plexiform neurofibromas, for assessment of local tumor extent, and for evaluation of whole-body tumor burden on T2-weighted imaging. Multiparametric MRI may provide a comprehensive characterization of different tissue properties of peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and may identify parameters associated with malignant transformation. Due to the absence of any radiation exposure, whole-body MRI may be used for serial follow-up of individuals with plexiform neurofibromas. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission-tomography (FDG PET/CT) allows a highly sensitive and specific detection of MPNST, and should be used in case of potential malignant transformation of a peripheral nerve sheath tumor. PET/CT provides a sensitive whole-body tumor staging. The use of contrast-enhanced CT for diagnosis of peripheral nerve sheath tumors is limited to special indications. To obtain the most precise readings, optimized examination protocols and dedicated radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians familiar with the complex and variable morphologies of peripheral nerve sheath tumors are required.

  11. Medical image of the week: saber sheath trachea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low S-W

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 79-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and an active smoker was transferred for evaluation of tracheal narrowing and concerns of malignant external compression versus tracheobronchomalacia for possible stenting. The patient underwent both chest computed tomography (Figure 1 and bronchoscopy (Figure 2 that confirmed the diagnosis of saber-sheath trachea and ruled out external compression. The airway was still adequately patent during inspiration and expiration with no clear dynamic collapse. Saber-sheath trachea is commonly described as intra-thoracic coronal narrowing and sagittal widening of the trachea (like a sword sheath. Repetitive cartilaginous injury from excessive coughing and elevated intra-thoracic pressure causes degeneration and calcification of the trachea cartilage, leading to remodeling and bending of the tracheal cartilage (1. Presence of saber-sheath trachea is highly associated with obstructive lung disease, which is present in our patient (2. There is no known specific treatment for saber-sheath trachea, however if patient with saber-sheath

  12. Expanding refractory rectus sheath hematoma: a therapeutic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Guo-Shiang; Liau, Guo-Shiou; Shyu, Hann-Yeh; Chu, Shi-Jye; Ko, Fu-Chang; Wu, Kuo-An

    2012-01-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon but well-described complication of a tussive paroxysm. It is an accumulation of blood within the sheath of the rectus abdominis secondary to disruption of the epigastric vessels or the rectus muscle and is often misdiagnosed as acute abdomen. Increases in the number of elderly patients and the use of therapeutic anticoagulation may increase the prevalence and severity of rectus sheath hematomas encountered in clinical practice. Expanding rectus sheath hematomas are occasionally refractory to conservative treatment and may require hemostatic intervention. Here, we describe the case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with two separate rectus sheath hematomas that were precipitated by a paroxysm of coughing. Repeated computed tomography showed two separate expanding rectus sheath hematomas, which were not accompanied by obvious contrast extravasation on angiography. Empiric left inferior epigastric artery embolization resulted in rapid hemodynamic stabilization, and the hematomas shrank gradually. Early empiric transcatheter arterial embolization may be appropriate for patients who are poor surgical candidates and have enlarging hematomas that are refractory to conservative treatment.

  13. Genomic characteristics and environmental distributions of the uncultivated Far-T4 phages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eRoux

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral metagenomics (viromics is a tremendous tool to reveal viral diversity and ecosystem functional roles across ecosystems ranging from the human gut to the world's oceans. As with microbes however, there appear vast swaths of 'dark matter' yet to be documented for viruses, even among relatively well-studied viral types. Here, we use viromics to explore the 'Far-T4 phages' sequence space, a neighbor clade from the well-studied T4-like phages that was first detected through PCR study in seawater and subsequently identified in freshwater lakes through 454-sequenced viromes. To advance the description of these viruses beyond this single marker gene, we explore Far-T4 genome fragments assembled from 2 deeply-sequenced freshwater viromes. Single gene phylogenetic trees confirm that the Far-T4 phages are divergent from the T4-like phages, genome fragments reveal largely collinear genome organization, and both data led to the delineation of 5 Far-T4 clades. Three-dimensional models of major capsid proteins are consistent with a T4-like structure, and highlight highly conserved core flanked by variable insertions. Finally, we contextualize these now better characterized Far-T4 phages by re-analyzing 196 previously published viromes. These suggest that Far-T4 are common in freshwater and seawater as only 4 of 82 aquatic viromes lacked Far-T4-like sequences. Variability in representation across the 5 newly identified clades suggests clade-specific niche differentiation may be occurring across the different biomes, though the underlying mechanism remains unidentified. While complete genome assembly from complex communities and the lack of host linkage information still bottleneck virus discovery through viromes, these findings exemplify the power of metagenomics approaches to assess the diversity, evolutionary history, and genomic characteristics of novel uncultivated phages.

  14. Genomic characteristics and environmental distributions of the uncultivated Far-T4 phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Simon; Enault, François; Ravet, Viviane; Pereira, Olivier; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2015-01-01

    Viral metagenomics (viromics) is a tremendous tool to reveal viral taxonomic and functional diversity across ecosystems ranging from the human gut to the world's oceans. As with microbes however, there appear vast swaths of "dark matter" yet to be documented for viruses, even among relatively well-studied viral types. Here, we use viromics to explore the "Far-T4 phages" sequence space, a neighbor clade from the well-studied T4-like phages that was first detected through PCR study in seawater and subsequently identified in freshwater lakes through 454-sequenced viromes. To advance the description of these viruses beyond this single marker gene, we explore Far-T4 genome fragments assembled from two deeply-sequenced freshwater viromes. Single gene phylogenetic trees confirm that the Far-T4 phages are divergent from the T4-like phages, genome fragments reveal largely collinear genome organizations, and both data led to the delineation of five Far-T4 clades. Three-dimensional models of major capsid proteins are consistent with a T4-like structure, and highlight a highly conserved core flanked by variable insertions. Finally, we contextualize these now better characterized Far-T4 phages by re-analyzing 196 previously published viromes. These suggest that Far-T4 are common in freshwater and seawater as only four of 82 aquatic viromes lacked Far-T4-like sequences. Variability in representation across the five newly identified clades suggests clade-specific niche differentiation may be occurring across the different biomes, though the underlying mechanism remains unidentified. While complete genome assembly from complex communities and the lack of host linkage information still bottleneck virus discovery through viromes, these findings exemplify the power of metagenomics approaches to assess the diversity, evolutionary history, and genomic characteristics of novel uncultivated phages.

  15. Uranium tailings in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulden, R.S.; Bragg, K.

    1982-01-01

    The last few years have produced significant changes in the way uranium tailings are managed in Canada. This is due both to the development of new technology and to changes in regulatory approach. The interrelationships between these two areas are examined with particular attention paid to the long term and the development of close-out criteria. New technological initiatives are examined including dry placement techniques, pit disposal and deep lake disposal

  16. The Effects of the Recombinant CCR5 T4 Lysozyme Fusion Protein on HIV-1 Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Jin

    Full Text Available Insertion of T4 lysozyme (T4L into the GPCR successfully enhanced GPCR protein stability and solubilization. However, the biological functions of the recombinant GPCR protein have not been analyzed.We engineered the CCR5-T4L mutant and expressed and purified the soluble recombinant protein using an E.coli expression system. The antiviral effects of this recombinant protein in THP-1 cell lines, primary human macrophages, and PBMCs from different donors were investigated. We also explored the possible mechanisms underlying the observed antiviral effects.Our data showed the biphasic inhibitory and promotion effects of different concentrations of soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L protein on R5 tropic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 infection in THP-1 cell lines, human macrophages, and PBMCs from clinical isolates. We demonstrated that soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L acts as a HIV-1 co-receptor, interacts with wild type CCR5, down-regulates the surface CCR5 expression in human macrophages, and interacts with CCL5 to inhibit macrophage migration. Using binding assays, we further determined that recombinant CCR5-T4L and [125I]-CCL5 compete for the same binding site on wild type CCR5.Our results suggest that recombinant CCR5-T4L protein marginally promotes HIV-1 infection at low concentrations and markedly inhibits infection at higher concentrations. This recombinant protein may be helpful in the future development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutic agents.

  17. The Effects of the Recombinant CCR5 T4 Lysozyme Fusion Protein on HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qingwen; Chen, Hong; Wang, Xingxia; Zhao, Liandong; Xu, Qingchen; Wang, Huijuan; Li, Guanyu; Yang, Xiaofan; Ma, Hongming; Wu, Haoquan; Ji, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    Insertion of T4 lysozyme (T4L) into the GPCR successfully enhanced GPCR protein stability and solubilization. However, the biological functions of the recombinant GPCR protein have not been analyzed. We engineered the CCR5-T4L mutant and expressed and purified the soluble recombinant protein using an E.coli expression system. The antiviral effects of this recombinant protein in THP-1 cell lines, primary human macrophages, and PBMCs from different donors were investigated. We also explored the possible mechanisms underlying the observed antiviral effects. Our data showed the biphasic inhibitory and promotion effects of different concentrations of soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L protein on R5 tropic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection in THP-1 cell lines, human macrophages, and PBMCs from clinical isolates. We demonstrated that soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L acts as a HIV-1 co-receptor, interacts with wild type CCR5, down-regulates the surface CCR5 expression in human macrophages, and interacts with CCL5 to inhibit macrophage migration. Using binding assays, we further determined that recombinant CCR5-T4L and [125I]-CCL5 compete for the same binding site on wild type CCR5. Our results suggest that recombinant CCR5-T4L protein marginally promotes HIV-1 infection at low concentrations and markedly inhibits infection at higher concentrations. This recombinant protein may be helpful in the future development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutic agents.

  18. Plasticity of the gene functions for DNA replication in the T4-like phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasiliy M; Nolan, James M; Bertrand, Claire; Levy, Dawn; Desplats, Carine; Krisch, H M; Karam, Jim D

    2006-08-04

    We have completely sequenced and annotated the genomes of several relatives of the bacteriophage T4, including three coliphages (RB43, RB49 and RB69), three Aeromonas salmonicida phages (44RR2.8t, 25 and 31) and one Aeromonas hydrophila phage (Aeh1). In addition, we have partially sequenced and annotated the T4-like genomes of coliphage RB16 (a close relative of RB43), A. salmonicida phage 65, Acinetobacter johnsonii phage 133 and Vibrio natriegens phage nt-1. Each of these phage genomes exhibited a unique sequence that distinguished it from its relatives, although there were examples of genomes that are very similar to each other. As a group the phages compared here diverge from one another by several criteria, including (a) host range, (b) genome size in the range between approximately 160 kb and approximately 250 kb, (c) content and genetic organization of their T4-like genes for DNA metabolism, (d) mutational drift of the predicted T4-like gene products and their regulatory sites and (e) content of open-reading frames that have no counterparts in T4 or other known organisms (novel ORFs). We have observed a number of DNA rearrangements of the T4 genome type, some exhibiting proximity to putative homing endonuclease genes. Also, we cite and discuss examples of sequence divergence in the predicted sites for protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions of homologues of the T4 DNA replication proteins, with emphasis on the diversity in sequence, molecular form and regulation of the phage-encoded DNA polymerase, gp43. Five of the sequenced phage genomes are predicted to encode split forms of this polymerase. Our studies suggest that the modular construction and plasticity of the T4 genome type and several of its replication proteins may offer resilience to mutation, including DNA rearrangements, and facilitate the adaptation of T4-like phages to different bacterial hosts in nature.

  19. Evidence for a third type of UV repair in bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minderhout, L.A.G. van; Grimbergen, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two classes of UV-sensitive mutants of bacteriophage T4 have been found so far: excision-repair mutants and replication-repair mutants. A third type of UV repair in bacteria was described by Bridges and named ''reinitiation recovery.'' This repair is sensitive to acriflavine and is responsible for the shoulder in some UV-inactivation curves. T4 UV-sensitive mutants which are defective in this repair have not been described. In this paper, evidence is presented for the third UV-repair pathway in phage T4. Recently new UV-sensitive mutants induced in strain uvs5 were isolated

  20. First experiences with the AMERLEX-MAB FREE T4 assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhof, W.A.; Penders, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The new Amerlex-MAB FT 4 is a quick direct free T 4 assay with good reproducability. The correlation between the Amerlex-MAB FT 4 and the free T 4 of Byk is good. In the non-thyreoidal illness patient group no deviation for the values were found. Amerlex-MAB FT 4 is cheaper, because no total T4 has to be measured. More research has to be done for special patient sera. Disturbing influences as free fatty acids, heparin and auto-antibodies have to be checked. (R.B.). 3 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  1. Effects of 18 months of L-T4 replacement in women with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Adrees, M

    2012-02-01

    CONTEXT: Some of the cardiovascular and renal abnormalities seen in overt hypothyroidism have also been reported in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Short-term L-T4 replacement in SCH improves cardiovascular risk markers and reduces carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. The haemodynamic and renal effects of L-T4 replacement in SCH are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To compare cardiovascular risk factors and renal variables in women with SCH and normal women. To study the effects of L-T4 replacement in SCH subjects on these variables and on structural and functional changes in common carotid and brachial arteries. DESIGN: Fifty-six women with SCH before and after L-T4 replacement for 18 months and 56 normal women of similar age distribution were studied. Blood Pressure (BP), plasma lipids and homocysteine were measured and renal function evaluated [estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using standard equations and measurement of serum Cystatin-C] in women with SCH before and after 18 months of l-T4, and in healthy women. CIMT and endothelial function (using brachial artery ultrasound) were studied before and after L-T4 in a subgroup of women with SCH. RESULTS: Systolic and diastolic BP, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, lipoprotein(a) and homocysteine were greater in SCH (P < 0.05), and following L-T4 replacement decreased (P < 0.05) to levels that no longer differed from normal subjects. Estimated GFR was reduced and serum Cystatin-C increased (P < 0.05) in SCH. These variables also normalized following L-T4. Following L-T4 replacement the carotid artery baseline diameter increased by 7.1% and CIMT decreased by a mean value of 13%, while brachial artery diameter increased basally by 12.5% and following endothelium-dependent vasodilatation by 17.5% (P < 0.05). However, the increment following reactive hyperaemia did not differ before or following L-T4 replacement. CONCLUSION: Normalization of

  2. [The history of the contraceptive sheath].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyotjeannin, C

    1984-06-01

    The condom, effective in preventing both pregnancy and venereal disease, had a limited role until the 19th century, when its use spread through all social strata. The 1st condoms may have been linen sheaths designed to protect against syphilis. A 16th century Neapolitan doctor provided a recipe for an antiseptic preparation to be applied for 4-5 hourrs, but after intercourse had occurred. A physician to Louis XV mentioned the condom in a book published in 1736, and in 1770 the condom was again described without being named. 4 yeears later it was again described and called the condom or English redingote. Later it was mentioned by the Marques de Sade, who alluded to its contraceptive effect. In the early 19th century, condoms made of sheep entrails were mentioned. Descriptions of the preparation of 3 grades of condom, regular, fine, and superfine, were later found. The discovery of the process of vulcanization of rubber in 1839 made possible more solid, marketable, and usable latex condoms. The condom apparently began to be used in the late 17th or early 18th century. Some authors state that it was invented by a Dr. Condom or Conton, a physician or knight in the court of Charls II of England. Othrs suggested that it was named after the city of Condom in Gascony or derived from a foreign word. The antivenereal disease qualities of condoms were described by Casanova and Gustave Flaubert, and other references to them may be found in the literature. Later the contraceptive use of the condom became progressively more common, beginning in the wealthier classes and spreading to the rural and lower classes perhaps by the later 18th century. The diffusion of contraception during the 19th century was cited as the cause of th slow decline in illegitimacy rates starting at the end of the century. The Church condemned the use of condoms for contraception, but the medical profession took a less hostile view due to their health function. At the present time, condoms are widely

  3. An investigation of tendon sheathing filler migration into concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    During some of the inspections at nuclear power plants with prestressed concrete containments, it was observed that the containments has experienced leakage of the tendon sheathing filler (i.e., streaks). The objective of this activity was to provide an indication of the extent of tendon sheathing filler leakage into the concrete and its affects on concrete properties. Literature was reviewed and concrete core samples were obtained from the Trojan Nuclear Plant and tested. The literature primarily addressed effects of crude or lubricating oils that are known to cause concrete damage. However, these materials have significantly different characteristics relative to the materials used as tendon sheathing fillers. Examination and testing of the concrete cores indicated that the appearance of tendon sheathing filler on the concrete surface was due to leakage from the conduits and its subsequent migration through cracks that were present. Migration of the tendon sheathing filler was confined to the cracks and there was no perceptible movement into the concrete. Results of compressive strength testing indicated that the concrete quality was consistent in the containment and that the strength had increased over 40% in 25.4 years relative to the average compressive strength at 28-days age.

  4. The influence of collisions on the plasma sheath transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemann, K.

    1997-01-01

    In the asymptotic limit λ D /λ→0 (where λ D is the electron Debye length and λ represents the ion mean free path) the boundary layer of a collision dominated plasma is split up in a collision free planar sheath (scale λ D ) and a quasi-neutral presheath (scale λ). The open-quotes sheath edgeclose quotes separating the presheath and the sheath is defined by the Bohm criterion. To clear up controversial statements on the validity of the plasma sheath concept and on the role of the Bohm criterion for finite values of λ D /λ, a simple fluid model of the ions is used to account for collisions and for space charges in the boundary layer. It is shown that the asymptotic solution on an open-quotes intermediate scaleclose quotes (scale length λ 1/5 λ D 4/5 ) is suitable to match the presheath and sheath solutions smoothly and to construct a convenient approximation for small but finite λ D /λ. The intermediate scale, again, is closely related to the Bohm criterion. Various attempts to derive a open-quotes generalizedclose quotes Bohm criterion accounting for collisions are inconsistent. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. An investigation of tendon sheathing filler migration into concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.

    1998-03-01

    During some of the inspections at nuclear power plants with prestressed concrete containments, it was observed that the containments has experienced leakage of the tendon sheathing filler (i.e., streaks). The objective of this activity was to provide an indication of the extent of tendon sheathing filler leakage into the concrete and its affects on concrete properties. Literature was reviewed and concrete core samples were obtained from the Trojan Nuclear Plant and tested. The literature primarily addressed effects of crude or lubricating oils that are known to cause concrete damage. However, these materials have significantly different characteristics relative to the materials used as tendon sheathing fillers. Examination and testing of the concrete cores indicated that the appearance of tendon sheathing filler on the concrete surface was due to leakage from the conduits and its subsequent migration through cracks that were present. Migration of the tendon sheathing filler was confined to the cracks and there was no perceptible movement into the concrete. Results of compressive strength testing indicated that the concrete quality was consistent in the containment and that the strength had increased over 40% in 25.4 years relative to the average compressive strength at 28-days age

  6. Sheath-accumulating Propagation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari, E-mail: takahasi@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607–8471 (Japan)

    2017-03-10

    Fast interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the drivers of strong space weather storms such as solar energetic particle events and geomagnetic storms. The connection between the space-weather-impacting solar wind disturbances associated with fast ICMEs at Earth and the characteristics of causative energetic CMEs observed near the Sun is a key question in the study of space weather storms, as well as in the development of practical space weather prediction. Such shock-driving fast ICMEs usually expand at supersonic speeds during the propagation, resulting in the continuous accumulation of shocked sheath plasma ahead. In this paper, we propose a “sheath-accumulating propagation” (SAP) model that describes the coevolution of the interplanetary sheath and decelerating ICME ejecta by taking into account the process of upstream solar wind plasma accumulation within the sheath region. Based on the SAP model, we discuss (1) ICME deceleration characteristics; (2) the fundamental condition for fast ICMEs at Earth; (3) the thickness of interplanetary sheaths; (4) arrival time prediction; and (5) the super-intense geomagnetic storms associated with huge solar flares. We quantitatively show that not only the speed but also the mass of the CME are crucial for discussing the above five points. The similarities and differences between the SAP model, the drag-based model, and the“snow-plow” model proposed by Tappin are also discussed.

  7. Ontogeny of the sheathing leaf base in maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Leiboff, Samuel; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Leaves develop from the shoot apical meristem (SAM) via recruitment of leaf founder cells. Unlike eudicots, most monocot leaves display parallel venation and sheathing bases wherein the margins overlap the stem. Here we utilized computed tomography (CT) imaging, localization of PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) auxin transport proteins, and in situ hybridization of leaf developmental transcripts to analyze the ontogeny of monocot leaf morphology in maize (Zea mays). CT imaging of whole-mounted shoot apices illustrates the plastochron-specific stages during initiation of the basal sheath margins from the tubular disc of insertion (DOI). PIN1 localizations identify basipetal auxin transport in the SAM L1 layer at the site of leaf initiation, a process that continues reiteratively during later recruitment of lateral leaf domains. Refinement of these auxin transport domains results in multiple, parallel provascular strands within the initiating primordium. By contrast, auxin is transported from the L2 toward the L1 at the developing margins of the leaf sheath. Transcripts involved in organ boundary formation and dorsiventral patterning accumulate within the DOI, preceding the outgrowth of the overlapping margins of the sheathing leaf base. We suggest a model wherein sheathing bases and parallel veins are both patterned via the extended recruitment of lateral maize leaf domains from the SAM. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Coronal mass ejections and their sheath regions in interplanetary space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Kilpua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs are large-scale heliospheric transients that originate from the Sun. When an ICME is sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind, a shock wave develops ahead of the ICME. The turbulent region between the shock and the ICME is called the sheath region. ICMEs and their sheaths and shocks are all interesting structures from the fundamental plasma physics viewpoint. They are also key drivers of space weather disturbances in the heliosphere and planetary environments. ICME-driven shock waves can accelerate charged particles to high energies. Sheaths and ICMEs drive practically all intense geospace storms at the Earth, and they can also affect dramatically the planetary radiation environments and atmospheres. This review focuses on the current understanding of observational signatures and properties of ICMEs and the associated sheath regions based on five decades of studies. In addition, we discuss modelling of ICMEs and many fundamental outstanding questions on their origin, evolution and effects, largely due to the limitations of single spacecraft observations of these macro-scale structures. We also present current understanding of space weather consequences of these large-scale solar wind structures, including effects at the other Solar System planets and exoplanets. We specially emphasize the different origin, properties and consequences of the sheaths and ICMEs.

  9. Dynamics and Predictors of Serum TSH and fT4 Reference Limits in Early Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stine Linding; Hindersson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Thyroid hormones are important developmental factors and levels should be adequate both in the pregnant woman and in the fetus. However, there is no consensus on maternal thyroid test reference limits in early pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: Estimation of week-to-week changes in and predictors...... of TSH and free T4 (fT4) reference limits in the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: Measurement of TSH and fT4 in biobank sera collected in pregnancy weeks 5-19 from a random sample of the Danish National Birth Cohort that enrolled 101 032 pregnant in 1996-2002. SETTING: National cohort of pregnant...... women. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy participants (n = 6671) were identified and individual characteristics retrieved using interview data and data from Danish national health registers. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Reference limits for TSH and fT4 in each first trimester pregnancy week...

  10. Adsorption of T4 bacteriophages on planar indium tin oxide surface via controlled surface tailoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liana, Ayu Ekajayanthi; Chia, Ed Win; Marquis, Christopher P; Gunawan, Cindy; Gooding, J Justin; Amal, Rose

    2016-04-15

    The work investigates the influence of surface physicochemical properties of planar indium tin oxide (ITO) as a model substrate on T4 bacteriophage adsorption. A comparative T4 bacteriophage adsorption study shows a significant difference in bacteriophage adsorption observed on chemically modified planar ITO when compared to similarly modified particulate ITO, which infers that trends observed in virus-particle interaction studies are not necessarily transferrable to predict virus-planar surface adsorption behaviour. We also found that ITO surfaces modified with methyl groups, (resulting in increased surface roughness and hydrophobicity) remained capable of adsorbing T4 bacteriophage. The adsorption of T4 onto bare, amine and carboxylic functionalised planar ITO suggests the presence of a unique binding behaviour involving specific functional groups on planar ITO surface beyond the non-specific electrostatic interactions that dominate phage to particle interactions. The paper demonstrates the significance of physicochemical properties of surfaces on bacteriophage-surface interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Excision repair and patch size in UV-irradiated bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarosh, D.B.; Rosenstein, B.S.; Setlow, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    We determined the average size of excision repair patches in repair of UV lesions in bacteriophage T4 by measuring the photolysis of bromodeoxyuridine incorporated during repair. The average patch was small, approximately four nucleotides long. In control experiments with the denV1 excision-deficient mutant, we encountered an artifact, a protein(s) which remained bound to phenol-extracted DNA and prevented nicking by the UV-specific endonucleases of Micrococcus luteus and bacteriophage T4

  12. Survival and prognostic factors of surgically resected T4 non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Toshihiro; Sugio, Kenji; Hanagiri, Takeshi; Takenoyama, Mitsuhiro; Yamashita, Toshihiro; Sugaya, Masakazu; Yasuda, Manabu; Yasumoto, Kosei

    2003-06-01

    Category T4 nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) encompasses heterogenous subgroups. We retrospectively analyzed the survival of patients with surgically resected T4 NSCLC to evaluate the evidence for prognostic implications according to the subgroups of T4 category, nodal status, and resection completeness. Seventy-six patients with T4N0-2M0 NSCLC were divided into three subgroups within the T4 category: 24 patients with the tumor invading the mediastinal organs (mediastinal group), 16 with a malignant pleural effusion or dissemination (pleural group), and 36 with satellite tumor nodules within the ipsilateral primary tumor lobe (satellite group). Complete resection was possible in 47 patients (61.8%). The pathologic N statuses were N0 in 28, N1 in 13, and N2 in 35 patients. The overall survival of the 76 patients was 19.1% at 5 years. The overall 5-year survivals according to the three subgroups of the T4 category were as follows: mediastinal group, 18.2%; pleural group, 0%; and satellite group, 26.7% (mediastinal/satellite versus pleural, p = 0.037). Factors significantly influencing the overall 5-year survival were the pathologic N status (N2 versus N0-1, p = 0.022) and the completeness of resection (complete versus incomplete, p = 0.0001). A multivariate survival analysis demonstrated that the pathologic N status and the completeness of resection were significant independent predictors of a poorer prognosis even after adjusting for the subgroup of the T4 category. Resectable T4N0-1 NSCLC that is not due to pleural disease deserves consideration of aggressive surgical resection with expected 5-year survival of about 20%.

  13. Sensitive radioimmunoassay of total thyroxine (T4) in horses using a simple extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangyuenyong, Siriwan; Nambo, Yasuo; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Tanaka, Tomomi; Watanabe, Gen

    2017-07-28

    Most thyroid hormone determinations in animals are based on immunoassays adapted from those used to test human samples, which may not reflect the actual values of thyroid hormone in horses because of the presence of binding proteins. The aims of the present study were i) to establish a novel radioimmunoassay (RIA) using a more simple and convenient method to separate binding proteins for the measurement of total thyroxine (T4) in horses and ii) to validate the assay by comparing total T4 concentrations in yearling horses raised in different climates. Blood samples were collected from trained yearlings in Hokkaido (temperate climate) and Miyazaki (subtropical climate) in Japan and from adult horses in estrus and diestrus. T4 was extracted from both serum and plasma using modified acid ethanol cryo-precipitation and sodium acetate ethanol methods. Circulating total T4 concentrations were determined by RIA. T4 concentration by sodium acetate ethanol was appropriately detectable rather than sodium salicylate method and was the same as for acid ethanol method. Furthermore, this sodium acetate ethanol method required fewer extraction steps than the other methods. Circulating T4 concentrations in yearlings were 225.98 ± 20.89 ng/ml, which was higher than the previous reference values. With respect to climate, T4 levels in Hokkaido yearlings tended to be higher than those in Miyazaki yearlings throughout the study period. These results indicated that this RIA protocol using a modified sodium acetate ethanol separation technique might be an appropriate tool for specific measurement of total T4 in horses.

  14. Structure and function of the small terminase component of the DNA packaging machine in T4-like bacteriophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Siyang; Gao, Song; Kondabagil, Kiran; Xiang, Ye; Rossmann, Michael G.; Rao, Venigalla B. (CUA); (Purdue)

    2012-04-04

    Tailed DNA bacteriophages assemble empty procapsids that are subsequently filled with the viral genome by means of a DNA packaging machine situated at a special fivefold vertex. The packaging machine consists of a 'small terminase' and a 'large terminase' component. One of the functions of the small terminase is to initiate packaging of the viral genome, whereas the large terminase is responsible for the ATP-powered translocation of DNA. The small terminase subunit has three domains, an N-terminal DNA-binding domain, a central oligomerization domain, and a C-terminal domain for interacting with the large terminase. Here we report structures of the central domain in two different oligomerization states for a small terminase from the T4 family of phages. In addition, we report biochemical studies that establish the function for each of the small terminase domains. On the basis of the structural and biochemical information, we propose a model for DNA packaging initiation.

  15. Effects of virus and host genes on recombination among ultraviolet-irradiated bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priemer, M.M.; Chan, V.L.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of the polA, uvrA, and recA genes of Escherichia coli on recombination among ultraviolet-irradiated T4 bacteriophages was determined with respect to recombination between rII markers and phage yield. The polA and uvrA gene products have no effect on these two aspects of phage DNA metabolism. A recA mutation does not significantly alter rII recombination frequencies in irradiated phage crosses, nor does it greatly change the yield of infectious particles in wild-type phage crosses or crosses in which the phage strains possess the v mutation. However, the same cross experiment performed with a pair of T4x mutants in a recA host demonstrates an 84% reduction in the phage yield in an unirradiated control cross. Furthermore, with increasing doses of uv irradiation, phage productivity of the T4x mutant declines at an accelerated rate compared to T4x + strains crossed in recA cells. Multiplicity reactivation experiments in which wild-type or recombination-deficient (x or y) T4 phages infect wild-type or recombination-deficient (recA) host cells show that irradiated phages can only be reactivated in recA + hosts, regardless of the bacteriophage genotype. These results indicate the involvement of the E. coli recA gene product in normal T4 replication and multiplicity reactivation

  16. Activity-based in vitro selection of T4 DNA ligase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fumio; Funabashi, Hisakage; Mie, Masayasu; Endo, Yaeta; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Aizawa, Masuo; Kobatake, Eiry

    2005-01-01

    Recent in vitro methodologies for selection and directed evolution of proteins have concentrated not only on proteins with affinity such as single-chain antibody but also on enzymes. We developed a display technology for selection of T4 DNA ligase on ribosome because an in vitro selection method for DNA ligase had never been developed. The 3' end of mRNA encoding the gene of active or inactive T4 DNA ligase-spacer peptide fusion protein was hybridized to dsDNA fragments with cohesive ends, the substrate of T4 DNA ligase. After in vitro translation of the mRNA-dsDNA complex in a rabbit reticulocyte system, a mRNA-dsDNA-ribosome-ligase complex was produced. T4 DNA ligase enzyme displayed on a ribosome, through addition of a spacer peptide, is able to react with dsDNA in the complex. The complex expressing active ligase was biotinylated by ligation with another biotinylated dsDNA probe and selected with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. We effectively selected active T4 DNA ligase from a small amount of protein. The gene of the active T4 DNA ligase was enriched 40 times from a mixture of active and inactive genes using this selection strategy. This ribosomal display strategy may have high potential to be useful for selection of other enzymes associated with DNA

  17. A new type of UV-sensitive mutant of phage T4D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minderhout, L. van; Grimbergen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Within a group of more than 20 UV-sensitive mutants of T4D, 4 UV-sensitive mutants with the same sensitivity as T4 x were isolated independently of each other. They were uvs9, uvs21, uvs35, and uvs52. The double mutants with x and y 10 were constructed: they are slightly more UV sensitive than T4v 1 . The double mutant with uvs5 was not found. The mutations of uvs9, 21, 35, and 52 are closely linked with v 1 . The photoreactivable sector is 0.4. One of the mutants, uvs52, has the same sensitivity for methyl methanesulphonate as T4 + , shows a stronger multiplicity reactivation than the wild type, shows the same sensitivity relative to T4 + and T4v 1 in Luria-Latarjet tests and in monocomplex UV inactivation, and raises the recombinant frequency in crosses with irradiated phage. The uvs52 + function has the same sensitivity to UV as the v + function. Complementation between uvs52 and v 1 , if present, is difficult to demonstrate owing to an appreciable multiplicity reactivation contribution to increased survival. The possibility that uvs52 is an allele of v 1 is discussed. The observations fit the assumption that uvs52 is an excision-repair mutant with a low excision rate

  18. TAIL ASYMPTOTICS OF LIGHT-TAILED WEIBULL-LIKE SUMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Soren; Hashorva, Enkelejd; Laub, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider sums of n i.i.d. random variables with tails close to exp{-x(beta)} for some beta > 1. Asymptotics developed by Rootzen (1987) and Balkema, Kluppelberg, and Resnick (1993) are discussed from the point of view of tails rather than of densities, using a somewhat different angle, and sup......We consider sums of n i.i.d. random variables with tails close to exp{-x(beta)} for some beta > 1. Asymptotics developed by Rootzen (1987) and Balkema, Kluppelberg, and Resnick (1993) are discussed from the point of view of tails rather than of densities, using a somewhat different angle...

  19. Rupture of the biceps brachii tendon sheath in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, J F; Brown, G

    2004-01-01

    Rupture of the biceps brachii tendon sheath was diagnosed in two dogs which were presented with chronic thoracic limb lameness. In each case, diagnosis was achieved by positive contrast arthrography, which revealed obvious leakage of contrast agent from the distal portion of the tendon sheath. Arthroscopy was performed in each affected shoulder joint and no other significant lesions were found. In one dog, concomitant bicipital tendinopathy was confirmed by histopathology. Both dogs were treated by bicipital tendon transposition, and tenodesis and both showed improvement in the degree of lameness following surgery. Tearing of the biceps brachii tendon sheath has not been reported previously but should be included in the differential diagnosis for shoulder lameness in the adult dog.

  20. Rectus sheath hematoma of the abdomen. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena-Tovar, José Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma in the vast number of cases is due to an inferior epigastric artery tear occasionally due to trauma (not considered serious) or alterations in coagulation or use of anticoagulant therapy. It is an unlikely and difficult to diagnose pathology. We present the case of a 61-year-old female patient. The patient presented in emergency service with sudden abdominal pain caused by coughing as a result of an upper respiratory tract infection. The culmination was a spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma. Rectus sheath hematoma is a diagnosis to consider in a previously asymptomatic patient who presents with clinical features of acute pain and appearance of increase of volume in the abdominal wall involving the rectus muscles.

  1. Anomalous Capacitive Sheath with Deep Radio Frequency Electric Field Penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2002-01-01

    A novel nonlinear effect of anomalously deep penetration of an external radio-frequency electric field into a plasma is described. A self-consistent kinetic treatment reveals a transition region between the sheath and the plasma. Because of the electron velocity modulation in the sheath, bunches in the energetic electron density are formed in the transition region adjusted to the sheath. The width of the region is of order V(subscript T)/omega, where V(subscript T) is the electron thermal velocity, and w is frequency of the electric field. The presence of the electric field in the transition region results in a cooling of the energetic electrons and an additional heating of the cold electrons in comparison with the case when the transition region is neglected

  2. Anomalous Capacitive Sheath with Deep Radio Frequency Electric Field Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igor D. Kaganovich

    2002-01-18

    A novel nonlinear effect of anomalously deep penetration of an external radio-frequency electric field into a plasma is described. A self-consistent kinetic treatment reveals a transition region between the sheath and the plasma. Because of the electron velocity modulation in the sheath, bunches in the energetic electron density are formed in the transition region adjusted to the sheath. The width of the region is of order V(subscript T)/omega, where V(subscript T) is the electron thermal velocity, and w is frequency of the electric field. The presence of the electric field in the transition region results in a cooling of the energetic electrons and an additional heating of the cold electrons in comparison with the case when the transition region is neglected.

  3. Copper tailings in stucco mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Pavez

    Full Text Available Abstract This investigation addressed the evaluation of the use of copper tailings in the construction industry in order to reduce the impact on the environment. The evaluation was performed by a technical comparison between stucco mortars prepared with crushed conventional sand and with copper tailings sand. The best results were achieved with the stucco mortars containing tailings. The tailings presented a fine particles size distribution curve different from that suggested by the standard. The values of compressive strength, retentivity, and adherence in the stucco mortars prepared with copper tailings were much higher than those obtained with crushed sand. According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that the preparation of stucco mortars using copper tailings replacing conventional sand is a technically feasible alternative for the construction industry, presenting the benefit of mitigating the impact of disposal to the environment.

  4. gpwac of the T4-type bacteriophages: structure, function, and evolution of a segmented coiled-coil protein that controls viral infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letarov, A; Manival, X; Desplats, C; Krisch, H M

    2005-02-01

    The wac gene product (gpwac) or fibritin of bacteriophage T4 forms the six fibers that radiate from the phage neck. During phage morphogenesis these whiskers bind the long tail fibers (LTFs) and facilitate their attachment to the phage baseplate. After the cell lysis, the gpwac fibers function as part of an environmental sensing device that retains the LTFs in a retracted configuration and thus prevents phage adsorption in unfavorable conditions. A comparative analysis of the sequences of 5 wac gene orthologs from various T4-type phages reveals that the approximately 50-amino-acid N-terminal domain is the only highly conserved segment of the protein. This sequence conservation is probably a direct consequence of the domain's strong and specific interactions with the neck proteins. The sequence of the central fibrous region of gpwac is highly plastic, with only the heptad periodicity of the coiled-coil structure being conserved. In the various gpwac sequences, the small C-terminal domain essential for initiation of the folding of T4 gpwac is replaced by unrelated sequences of unknown origin. When a distant T4-type phage has a novel C-terminal gpwac sequence, the phage's gp36 sequence that is located at the knee joint of the LTF invariably has a novel domain in its C terminus as well. The covariance of these two sequences is compatible with genetic data suggesting that the C termini of gpwac and gp36 engage in a protein-protein interaction that controls phage infectivity. These results add to the limited evidence for domain swapping in the evolution of phage structural proteins.

  5. Dengue Fever with rectus sheath hematoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anurag; Bhatia, Sonia; Singh, Rajendra Pratap; Malik, Gaurav

    2014-04-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the Dengue virus. It is associated with a number of complications, which are well documented. However, Dengue fever associated with rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is a very rare complication. Only one case report has been published prior supporting the association of Dengue fever with RSH. We report a case of Dengue fever who presented with RSH and was successfully treated conservatively. RSH is also an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It is accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis, secondary to rupture of an epigastric vessel or muscle tear.

  6. Photovoltaic building sheathing element with anti-slide features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.

    2015-09-08

    The present invention is premised` upon an assembly that includes at least a photovoltaic building sheathing element capable of being affixed on a building structure, the photovoltaic building sheathing element. The element including a photovoltaic cell assembly, a body portion attached to one or more portions of the photovoltaic cell assembly; and at feast a first and a second connector assembly capable of directly or indirectly electrically connecting the photovoltaic cell assembly to one or more adjoining devices; wherein the body portion includes one or more geometric features adapted to engage a vertically adjoining device before installation.

  7. Clinicopathological outcomes of preoperative chemoradiotherapy using S-1 plus Irinotecan for T4 lower rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Naohito; Yoshie, Hidenori; Kimura, Fumihiko; Aihara, Tsukasa; Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Matsubara, Nagahide; Tomita, Naohiro; Yanagi, Hidenori; Yamanaka, Naoki

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the clinicopathological outcomes of patients with T4 lower rectal cancer treated using preoperative chemoradiotherapy with S-1 plus Irinotecan. Between 2005 and 2011, 35 patients with T4M0 lower rectal cancer, diagnosed initially as T4a in 12 and as T4b in 23, were treated with 45 Gy of radiotherapy concomitantly with S-1 plus Irinotecan. The median follow-up period was 50.6 months (range 2-123 months). A total of 32 patients (91.4 %) completed the radiotherapy and 26 (74.3 %) completed the full chemotherapy regimen. Radical surgery was then performed in 33 (94.3 %) of the 35 patients after the exclusion of two patients, who had macroscopic residual disease. The pathological diagnosis was downstaged from T4a to ypT0-3 in all 12 of those patients (100 %) and from T4b to ypT0-4a in 20 of those 23 patients (87.0 %). The tumor regression grade of 1a/1b/2/3 (complete response) was 10/8/15/2, respectively. In terms of long-term survival, the 5-year local relapse-free survival rate was 74.8 % and the recurrence-free survival rate was 52.0 %. This regimen may result in favorable downstaging. Moreover, in this series, pathological evidence of involvement of adjacent organs was rare following preoperative chemoradiotherapy, in the patients with disease diagnosed as T4b at the initial staging.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of T4 bacteriophage conjugated indium tin oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liana, Ayu E; Marquis, Christopher P; Gunawan, Cindy; Justin Gooding, J; Amal, Rose

    2018-03-15

    We report the antimicrobial activity of bare and surface functionalized indium tin oxide (ITO) conjugated with T4 bacteriophage towards E. coli. A ∼ 10 3 -fold reduction (99.9%) in the bacterial concentration was achieved within 2 h exposure of E. coli to the bare as well as the amine, carboxylic and methyl functionalized ITO/T4 surfaces. Despite the known differences in bacteriophage loading of these ITO/T4 systems, the almost identical extent of antimicrobial activity of all of the ITO/T4 systems resulted from the release of a comparable amount of infective T4 from the systems. As anticipated, a single dose of immobilized bacteriophage was sufficient to eliminate further surge of bacterial population. Upon the 2 h eradication of the '1st batch' of E. coli population, all of the ITO/T4 systems, each system with 10 2 -fold more suspended bacteriophage (due to propagation of the phage at the expense of the '1st batch' E. coli death), reduced the '2nd batch' of E. coli concentration by ∼10 4 -fold in just 30 min, suggesting the potential of immobilized bacteriophage systems as solution to the issues of antimicrobial agent depletion. All of the ITO/T4 systems maintained their antimicrobial activity in the presence of model food components. The antimicrobial activity was however, affected by pH; at pH 5 whereby the bacteria's growth was physiologically inhibited, generally no reduction in E. coli concentration was detected. The present work provides an understanding of the mode of antimicrobial activity exhibited by an immobilized bacteriophage based substrate and demonstrates efficacy in the presence of food components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of adjuvant lithium on thyroxine (T4) concentration after radioactive iodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Emmanuel NiiBoye; Vangu, Mboyo-Di-Tamba Heben Willy [University of the Witwatersrand, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiation Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2016-10-15

    To study the effect of adjuvant lithium on serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations in patients treated with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy in our environment. This was a prospective simple randomized comparative, experimental cohort study of patients with hyperthyroidism referred for RAI ablation therapy in the two main academic hospitals in Johannesburg between February 2014 and September 2015. Amongst the 163 participants in the final analysis, 75 received RAI alone and 88 received RAI with lithium. The difference in mean T4 concentrations at 3 months between the RAI-only group (17.67 pmol/l) and the RAI with lithium group (11.55 pmol/l) was significant with a small effect size (U = 2328.5, Z = -2.700, p = 0.007, r = 0.01). Significant decreases in T4 concentrations were observed as early as 1 month after RAI (p = 0.0001) in the RAI with lithium group, but in the RAI-only group, significant decreases in T4 concentrations were observed only at 3 months after RAI therapy (p = 0.000). Women and patients with Graves' disease who received RAI with adjuvant lithium also showed significant decreases in T4 concentrations at 1 month (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). Adjuvant lithium leads to an earlier and better response to RAI therapy with lower T4 concentrations that are achieved earlier. This earlier response and decrease in T4 concentrations were noted in patients with Graves' disease and nodular goitre, and in women with hyperthyroidism who received adjuvant lithium therapy. (orig.)

  10. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible...... and prevention of tail damage. However, there is a lack of scientific studies on how best to respond to outbreaks: the effectiveness of, for example, removing biters and/or bitten pigs, increasing enrichment, or applying substances to tails should be investigated. Finally, some breeding companies are exploring...

  11. Prognostic factors in resected satellite-nodule T4 non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jagan; Sayeed, Rana A; Tomaszek, Sandra; Fischer, Stefan; Keshavjee, Shaf; Darling, Gail E

    2007-09-01

    The 1997 non-small cell lung cancer staging revisions assigned a T4 descriptor to satellite nodules in the primary tumor lobe. We reviewed our experience of satellite-nodule T4 non-small cell lung cancer following these revisions and evaluated prognostic factors for this group. All patients who underwent resection of non-small cell lung cancer between April 1997 and June 2005 with satellite nodule(s) confirmed at pathologic examination were identified from our institutional Lung Tumor Registry. Case notes and pathology reports were reviewed and data collected on possible prognostic factors. Survival was modeled using the Kaplan-Meier method, and survival differences between groups were analyzed using the log-rank test. From 1,276 non-small cell lung cancer patients who underwent resection, 137 were staged pT4, and 35 were T4-satellite nodules. Median follow-up was 25 months (range, 1 to 102 months). Median main tumor size was 3.0 cm (range, 1 to 9.8 cm). Adenocarcinoma or bronchioloalveolar carcinoma was the predominant histologic diagnosis (n = 28; 80%). One-, 3- and 5-year survival was 86%, 69%, and 57%, respectively; median survival was 68 months. During the same period, 137 patients undergoing resection for all T4 lesions had a 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival of 68%, 53%, and 18%, respectively. Adenocarcinoma or bronchioloalveolar carcinoma histologic diagnosis (adenocarcinoma or bronchioloalveolar carcinoma versus squamous, 75% versus 67% 3-year survival; p = 0.0026), female gender (66% versus 49% for males, 5-year survival; p = 0.041), and absence of vascular invasion (no invasion versus vascular invasion, 74% versus 20% 5-year survival; p = 0.0101) were significant predictors of better survival. Survival for resected T4 non-small cell lung cancer with satellite nodule(s) in the primary lobe is better than for other T4 lesions, and the T4 descriptor may unduly upstage these cases. The current T4 descriptor represents a heterogeneous population.

  12. Genomes of the T4-related bacteriophages as windows on microbial genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasiliy M; Ratnayaka, Swarnamala; Nolan, James M; Miller, Eric S; Karam, Jim D

    2010-10-28

    The T4-related bacteriophages are a group of bacterial viruses that share morphological similarities and genetic homologies with the well-studied Escherichia coli phage T4, but that diverge from T4 and each other by a number of genetically determined characteristics including the bacterial hosts they infect, the sizes of their linear double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes and the predicted compositions of their proteomes. The genomes of about 40 of these phages have been sequenced and annotated over the last several years and are compared here in the context of the factors that have determined their diversity and the diversity of other microbial genomes in evolution. The genomes of the T4 relatives analyzed so far range in size between ~160,000 and ~250,000 base pairs (bp) and are mosaics of one another, consisting of clusters of homology between them that are interspersed with segments that vary considerably in genetic composition between the different phage lineages. Based on the known biological and biochemical properties of phage T4 and the proteins encoded by the T4 genome, the T4 relatives reviewed here are predicted to share a genetic core, or "Core Genome" that determines the structural design of their dsDNA chromosomes, their distinctive morphology and the process of their assembly into infectious agents (phage morphogenesis). The Core Genome appears to be the most ancient genetic component of this phage group and constitutes a mere 12-15% of the total protein encoding potential of the typical T4-related phage genome. The high degree of genetic heterogeneity that exists outside of this shared core suggests that horizontal DNA transfer involving many genetic sources has played a major role in diversification of the T4-related phages and their spread to a wide spectrum of bacterial species domains in evolution. We discuss some of the factors and pathways that might have shaped the evolution of these phages and point out several parallels between their diversity

  13. Genomes of the T4-related bacteriophages as windows on microbial genome evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Eric S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The T4-related bacteriophages are a group of bacterial viruses that share morphological similarities and genetic homologies with the well-studied Escherichia coli phage T4, but that diverge from T4 and each other by a number of genetically determined characteristics including the bacterial hosts they infect, the sizes of their linear double-stranded (ds DNA genomes and the predicted compositions of their proteomes. The genomes of about 40 of these phages have been sequenced and annotated over the last several years and are compared here in the context of the factors that have determined their diversity and the diversity of other microbial genomes in evolution. The genomes of the T4 relatives analyzed so far range in size between ~160,000 and ~250,000 base pairs (bp and are mosaics of one another, consisting of clusters of homology between them that are interspersed with segments that vary considerably in genetic composition between the different phage lineages. Based on the known biological and biochemical properties of phage T4 and the proteins encoded by the T4 genome, the T4 relatives reviewed here are predicted to share a genetic core, or "Core Genome" that determines the structural design of their dsDNA chromosomes, their distinctive morphology and the process of their assembly into infectious agents (phage morphogenesis. The Core Genome appears to be the most ancient genetic component of this phage group and constitutes a mere 12-15% of the total protein encoding potential of the typical T4-related phage genome. The high degree of genetic heterogeneity that exists outside of this shared core suggests that horizontal DNA transfer involving many genetic sources has played a major role in diversification of the T4-related phages and their spread to a wide spectrum of bacterial species domains in evolution. We discuss some of the factors and pathways that might have shaped the evolution of these phages and point out several parallels

  14. Performance Evaluation of the MyT4 Technology for Determining ART Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitoe, Nádia; Macamo, Rosa; Meggi, Bindiya; Tobaiwa, Ocean; Loquiha, Osvaldo; Bollinger, Timothy; Vojnov, Lara; Jani, Ilesh

    2016-01-01

    In resource-limited countries, CD4 T-cell (CD4) testing continues to be used for determining antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation eligibility and opportunistic infection monitoring. To support expanded access to CD4 testing, simple and robust technologies are necessary. We conducted this study to evaluate the performance of a new Point-of-Care (POC) CD4 technology, the MyT4, compared to conventional laboratory CD4 testing. EDTA venous blood from 200 HIV-positive patients was tested in the laboratory using the MyT4 and BD FACSCalibur™. The MyT4 had an r2 of 0.82 and a mean bias of 12.3 cells/μl. The MyT4 had total misclassifications of 14.7% and 8.8% when analyzed using ART eligibility thresholds of 350 and 500 cells/μl, respectively. We conclude that the MyT4 performed well in classifying patients using the current ART initiation eligibility thresholds in Mozambique when compared to the conventional CD4 technology.

  15. The sequences and activities of RegB endoribonucleases of T4-related bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesiniene, Lina; Truncaite, Lidija; Zajanckauskaite, Aurelija; Nivinskas, Rimas

    2004-01-01

    The RegB endoribonuclease encoded by bacteriophage T4 is a unique sequence-specific nuclease that cleaves in the middle of GGAG or, in a few cases, GGAU tetranucleotides, preferentially those found in the Shine-Dalgarno regions of early phage mRNAs. In this study, we examined the primary structures and functional properties of RegB ribonucleases encoded by T4-related bacteriophages. We show that all but one of 36 phages tested harbor the regB gene homologues and the similar signals for transcriptional and post-transcriptional autogenous regulation of regB expression. Phage RB49 in addition to gpRegB utilizes Escherichia coli endoribonuclease E for the degradation of its transcripts for gene regB. The deduced primary structure of RegB proteins of 32 phages studied is almost identical to that of T4, while the sequences of RegB encoded by phages RB69, TuIa and RB49 show substantial divergence from their T4 counterpart. Functional studies using plasmid-phage systems indicate that RegB nucleases of phages T4, RB69, TuIa and RB49 exhibit different activity towards GGAG and GGAU motifs in the specific locations. We expect that the availability of the different phylogenetic variants of RegB may help to localize the amino acid determinants that contribute to the specificity and cleavage efficiency of this processing enzyme.

  16. Analysis of T4SS-induced signaling by H. pylori using quantitative phosphoproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frithjof eGlowinski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen colonizing the human stomach. Infection with H. pylori causes chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa and may lead to peptic ulceration and/or gastric cancer. A major virulence determinant of H. pylori is the type IV secretion system (T4SS, which is used to inject the virulence factor CagA into the host cell, triggering a wide range of cellular signaling events. Here, we used a phosphoproteomic approach to investigate tyrosine signaling in response to host-pathogen interaction, using stable isotope labeling in cell culture (SILAC of AGS cells to obtain a differential picture between multiple infection conditions. Cells were infected with wild type H. pylori P12, a P12ΔCagA deletion mutant, and a P12ΔT4SS deletion mutant to compare signaling changes over time and in the absence of CagA or the T4SS. Tryptic peptides were enriched for tyrosine (Tyr phosphopeptides and analysed by nano-LC-Orbitrap MS. In total, 58 different phosphosites were found to be regulated following infection. The majority of phosphosites identified were kinases of the MAPK familiy. CagA and the T4SS were found to be key regulators of Tyr phosphosites. Our findings indicate that CagA primarily induces activation of ERK1 and integrin linked factors, whereas the T4SS primarily modulates JNK and p38 activation.

  17. Fabrication and use of zircaloy/tantalum-sheathed cladding thermocouples and molybdenum/rhenium-sheathed fuel centerline thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, S.C.; Sepold, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    The thermocouples described in this report are zircaloy/tantalum-sheathed and molybdenum/rhenium alloy-sheathed instruments intended for fuel rod cladding and fuel centerline temperature measurements, respectively. Both types incorporate beryllium oxide insulation and tungsten/rhenium alloy thermoelements. These thermocouples, operated at temperatures of 2000 0 C and above, were developed for use in the internationally sponsored Severe Fuel Damage test series in the Power Burst Facility. The fabrication steps for both thermocouple types are described in detail. A laser-welding attachment technique for the cladding-type thermocouple is presented, and experience with alternate materials for cladding and fuel therocouples is discussed

  18. sheath characteristics in multi-component plasma with negative ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Properties of steady state ion sheath formed in front of a negatively biased metal plate under the influence of negative ions have been investigated in collisionless argon/SF6 plasma. This experiment is carried out at a fixed discharge voltage and fixed filament heating power. In this experiment, the decrement in ...

  19. Synovial sarcoma mimicking benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larque, Ana B.; Nielsen, G.P.; Chebib, Ivan [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-11-15

    To assess the radiographic and clinicopathologic features of synovial sarcoma of the nerve that were clinically or radiologically interpreted as benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Five patients with synovial sarcoma arising from the peripheral nerve and interpreted clinically and radiologically as peripheral nerve sheath tumors were identified. Clinicopathologic and imaging features were evaluated. There were three females and two males, ranging in age from 28 to 50 (mean 35.8) years. Most patients (4/5) complained of a mass, discomfort or pain. MR images demonstrated a heterogeneous, enhancing, soft tissue mass contiguous with the neurovascular bundle. On histologic examination, most tumors were monophasic synovial sarcoma (4/5). At the time of surgery, all tumors were noted to arise along or within a peripheral nerve. All patients were alive with no evidence of disease with median follow-up of 44 (range 32-237) months. For comparison, approximately 775 benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the extremities were identified during the same time period. Primary synovial sarcoma of the nerve can mimic peripheral nerve sheath tumors clinically and on imaging and should be included in the differential diagnosis for tumors arising from peripheral nerves. (orig.)

  20. Sheath and plasma parameters in a magnetized plasma system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this con- trast, Behnel [4] considered a magnetic field (B) which is parallel to the wall, provides the ion-charge exchange collision with the mean free path λ ^p , where pะ is the ion-gyro radius. According to this model, there is no ion motion parallel to the magnetic field lines and no extra plasma pre-sheath was considered.

  1. The Bohm criterion for a dusty plasma sheath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    undergo temperature fluctuations due to collision, the mean square fluctuation in their temperature is much less than the equilibrium temperature. The problem of sheath dynamics with the plasma–wall interactions is of great importance in a number of areas, viz., plasma ion implantation, high-density com- puter chip ...

  2. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor: MRI and CT Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Kragha

    2015-01-01

    important in its diagnosis. A rare case of MPNST that produced urinary retention and bowel incontinence is presented that may aid clinicians in the diagnosis of this rare clinical entity. Motor weakness, central enhancement, and immunohistochemistry may assist in the diagnosis of MPNST and differentiation between benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor (BPNST and MPNST.

  3. Mineralized fibroma of the tendon sheath presenting as a bursitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Corroller, Thomas; Champsaur, Pierre [Hopital Sainte-Marguerite, Service de Radiologie, Marseille (France); Faculte de Medecine de Marseille, Departement d' Anatomie, Marseille (France); Bouvier-Labit, Corinne [Hopital La Timone, Service d' Anatomopathologie, Marseille (France); Sbihi, Abderrahmane [Clinique Juge, Service de Chirurgie orthopedique, Marseille (France)

    2008-12-15

    We report on the clinical, imaging - including ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging - and histological features of a fibroma of the tendon sheath with mineralized chondroid and osseous metaplasia, presenting as a semimembranosus bursitis. The anatomical characteristics of the semimembranosus bursa are demonstrated by dissection in a cadaveric specimen and correlated with the imaging findings in our patient. (orig.)

  4. Mineralized fibroma of the tendon sheath presenting as a bursitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Corroller, Thomas; Champsaur, Pierre; Bouvier-Labit, Corinne; Sbihi, Abderrahmane

    2008-01-01

    We report on the clinical, imaging - including ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging - and histological features of a fibroma of the tendon sheath with mineralized chondroid and osseous metaplasia, presenting as a semimembranosus bursitis. The anatomical characteristics of the semimembranosus bursa are demonstrated by dissection in a cadaveric specimen and correlated with the imaging findings in our patient. (orig.)

  5. The Bohm criterion for a dusty plasma sheath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The formation of the sheath in a dusty plasma is investigated. The Bohm criterion is derived for two different cases: (a) when electrons are in thermodynamic equilibrium and dust grains provide the immobile, stationary background and (b) when both electrons and ions are in thermodynamic equilibrium and dust ...

  6. Dural Arteriovenous Fistula of the Optic Nerve Sheath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, René; Smagge, Lucas E.; Saeed, Peerooz; Majoie, Charles B.

    2009-01-01

    Dural arterial-venous fistulas (dAVf) are acquired vascular lesions that can give a variety of symptoms, depending on anatomical localization and venous drainage pattern. We present a very unusual case of a dAVf localized at the level of the optic nerve sheath including discussion of the vascular

  7. Extraction of antioxidant pigments from dye sorghum leaf sheaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayode, A.P.P.; Bara, C.A.; Dalode-Vieira, G.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Extraction of antioxidant biocolorant pigments from leaf sheaths of dye sorghum was optimized. Effects of temperature and ethanol concentration of the extraction solvent on the concentrations of the 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, and the colour parameters of the

  8. T4 RIA precision profiles automatically computed using a small programmable pocket calculator HP-41 CV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditu, M.; Waud, J.M.; Hamilton, R.G.; Wagner, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    Precision profiles as useful tool for assurance of assay quality in 10 independent T4 RIAs have been automatically obtained using a small programmable pocket calculator HP-41 CV. For each T4 assay batch, the within-assay coefficient of variation varied from 7 to 11% in the hormone concentration range of 2 to 20μg/dl. The difference in coefficient of variation for all the 10 successive assay batches of T4 never exceeded 1% in the same hormone concentrations regions. All the above findings demonstrate that the precision profile can be used as a powerful tool for assessing the assay quality and consistency of overall random error between successive assay batches [fr

  9. Zinc(II) and the single-stranded DNA binding protein of bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauss, P.; Krassa, K.B.; McPheeters, D.S.; Nelson, M.A.; Gold, L.

    1987-01-01

    The DNA binding domain of the gene 32 protein of the bacteriophage T4 contains a single zinc-finger sequence. The gene 32 protein is an extensively studied member of a class of proteins that bind relatively nonspecifically to single-stranded DNA. The authors have sequenced and characterized mutations in gene 32 whose defective proteins are activated by increasing the Zn(II) concentration in the growth medium. The results identify a role for the gene 32 protein in activation of T4 late transcription. Several eukaryotic proteins with zinc fingers participate in activation of transcription, and the gene 32 protein of T4 should provide a simple, well-characterized system in which genetics can be utilized to study the role of a zinc finger in nucleic acid binding and gene expression

  10. T4 syndrome - A distinct theoretical concept or elusive clinical entity? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Patricia Miyuki; Thomson, Oliver P

    2016-10-01

    T4 syndrome has existed as a clinical concept for more than three decades and it has been identified as a source of upper extremity (UE) symptoms. This case report explores the clinical reasoning in the diagnoses and management of a patient with symptoms consistent with T4-type syndrome and critically discusses the concept of T4 syndrome using recent research to help explain the clinical presentation. Manual therapy treatment focused on stimulation of the sympathetic ganglia, decreasing local upper thoracic pain and UE referral pattern noted during passive examination. The successful outcomes included immediate and lasting symptom relief after upper thoracic spinal manipulation. Although treatment has been based on the theory that mechanical thoracic dysfunction can produce sympathetic nervous system (SNS) referred pain, the role the sympathetic reflexes potentially plays on the referral symptoms to the UE presently remains unclear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stable sheath formation in expanding magnetic field to divertor plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Y.; Takayama, A.; Takamaru, H.; Sato, T.

    2001-01-01

    The stable sheath formation in expanding magnetic field to a divertor plate was studied theoretically by one-dimensional analysis. In fusion devices the magnetic field is expanding in the direction of the plate, i.e. the magnitude of magnetic field is decreasing to the plate. In this configuration ions are accelerated to the plate due to the gradient of the magnetic field strength, so called a mirror force. The bombardment of accelerated ions to the plate may cause several severe problems to fusion plasmas, for example, release of large amount of impurities from the diverter plate. Limited research efforts have been carried out describing magnetic field effects on various potential formation and particle and heat fluxes to the divertor plate. The plasma-wall interaction in an oblique to the plate but uniform magnetic field has been studied by means of 1D-PIC numerical simulation. This analysis shows the formation of a quasi-neutral magnetic pre-sheath preceding the electrostatic Debye sheath, which scales to the ion gyroradius at the sound speed and to the incidence angle of the magnetic field. Sato clarifies this magnetic pre-sheath is attributed to the ion polarisation drift by the two dimensional kinetic analysis. None of effects, however, of non-uniformity of the magnetic field has been taken into account on the stable electrostatic potential and sheath formation. In this paper, we consider a collisionless sheath model between an infinite metal plate and a quasi-neutral plasma in the expanding magnetic field to the plate. One dimensional kinetic analysis leads that a condition for flow velocity of ions at a plasma-sheath boundary is more restricted than that of the uniform magnetic field, which should be larger than the ion sound speed. The difference, however, between both cases is an order of the Debye length to a plasma radius, which is negligible small. The requirement for the ion flow velocity inside the plasma is obtained from the condition of the quasi

  12. DDiT4L promotes autophagy and inhibits pathological cardiac hypertrophy in response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Bridget; Subramanya, Vinita; Chan, Mun Chun; Zhang, Aifeng; Franchino, Hannabeth; Ottaviano, Filomena; Mishra, Manoj K; Knight, Ashley C; Hunt, Danielle; Ghiran, Ionita; Khurana, Tejvir S; Kontaridis, Maria I; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Das, Saumya

    2017-02-28

    Physiological cardiac hypertrophy, in response to stimuli such as exercise, is considered adaptive and beneficial. In contrast, pathological cardiac hypertrophy that arises in response to pathological stimuli such as unrestrained high blood pressure and oxidative or metabolic stress is maladaptive and may precede heart failure. We found that the transcript encoding DNA damage-inducible transcript 4-like (DDiT4L) was expressed in murine models of pathological cardiac hypertrophy but not in those of physiological cardiac hypertrophy. In cardiomyocytes, DDiT4L localized to early endosomes and promoted stress-induced autophagy through a process involving mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Exposing cardiomyocytes to various types of pathological stress increased the abundance of DDiT4L , which inhibited mTORC1 but activated mTORC2 signaling. Mice with conditional cardiac-specific overexpression of DDiT4L had mild systolic dysfunction, increased baseline autophagy, reduced mTORC1 activity, and increased mTORC2 activity, all of which were reversed by suppression of transgene expression. Genetic suppression of autophagy also reversed cardiac dysfunction in these mice. Our data showed that DDiT4L may be an important transducer of pathological stress to autophagy through mTOR signaling in the heart and that DDiT4L could be therapeutically targeted in cardiovascular diseases in which autophagy and mTOR signaling play a major role. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Immunogenicity studies of proteins forming the T4 phage head surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Krystyna; Miernikiewicz, Paulina; Piotrowicz, Agnieszka; Hodyra, Katarzyna; Owczarek, Barbara; Lecion, Dorota; Kaźmierczak, Zuzanna; Letarov, Andrey; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Advances in phage therapy and novel applications of phages in biotechnology encourage interest in phage impact on human and animal immunity. Here we present comparative studies of immunogenic properties of T4 phage head surface proteins gp23*, gp24*, Hoc, and Soc, both as elements of the phage capsid and as isolated agents. Studies comprise evaluation of specific antibodies in the human population, analysis of the proteins' impact on the primary and secondary responses in mice, and the effect of specific antibodies on phage antibacterial activity in vitro and in vivo in mice. In humans, natural antibodies specific to T4-like phages were abundant (81% of investigated sera). Among those, significantly elevated levels of IgG antibodies only against major head protein (gp23*) were found, which probably reflected cross-reactions of T4 with antibodies induced by other T4-like phages. Both IgM and IgG antibodies were induced mostly by gp23* and Hoc, while weak (gp24*) and very weak (Soc) reactivities of other head proteins were noticed. Thus, T4 head proteins that markedly contribute to immunological memory to the phage are highly antigenic outer capsid protein (Hoc) and major capsid protein (gp23*). Specific anti-gp23* and anti-Hoc antibodies substantially decreased T4 phage activity in vitro and to some extent in vivo. Cooperating with antibodies, the immune complement system also contributed to annihilating phages. Current descriptions of phage immunogenicity and its biological consequences are still vague and incomplete; thus, the central problem of this work is timely and may have strong practical implications. Here is presented the very first description of the contribution of bacteriophage proteins to immunological memory of the phage. Understanding of interactions between phages and mammalian immunology may help in biotechnological adaptations of phages for therapeutic requirements as well as for better appreciation of phage ecology and their role in the biosphere

  14. Prognostic Factors Affecting Survival After Multivisceral Resection in Patients with Clinical T4b Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Kazuhito; Ito, Hideto; Katsube, Toshio; Tsuboi, Ayaka; Yamazaki, Nobuyoshi; Asakawa, Hideki; Hayashi, Takashi; Fujino, Keiichi

    2017-12-01

    The prognosis and survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer is poor. Although completeness of resection (R0) is one of the most important factors affecting survival, multivisceral resection (MVR) for locally advanced (clinical T4b, cT4b) gastric cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting prognosis and survival after MVR in patients with cT4b gastric cancer. Between 2005 and 2015, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 103 patients who underwent MVR for cT4b gastric cancer with suspected direct invasion to adjacent organs. Patient characteristics, related complications, long-term survival, and prognostic factors of cT4b gastric cancer were analyzed. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates of patients after MVR were 1.0 and 37.9%, respectively. R0 resection was achieved in 82.5% patients, all of whom had a significantly improved survival rate. Overall survival rates at 1 and 3 years were 78.3 and 47.7% for R0 resection and 46.6 and 14.3% for R1 resection, respectively (R0 vs. R1, P < 0.002). Multivariate analysis revealed that completeness of resection (R0) was an independent prognostic factor associated with longer survival. In patients with cT4b gastric cancer, gastrectomy with MVR to achieve an R0 resection can be performed with acceptable postoperative morbidity and mortality rates and can have a positive impact on long-term survival.

  15. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  16. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  17. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the bladder associated with neurofibromatosis I.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Julie

    2008-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis is a hamartomatous disorder of autonomic peripheral nerve sheaths associated with peripheral nerve sheath tumours. Most tumours are neurofibromas; however, the genitourinary system is rarely involved. We present a rare case of a nerve sheath tumour of the bladder in a young patient, which was discovered to be malignant.

  18. 30 CFR 15.32 - Tolerances for weight of explosive, sheath, wrapper, and specific gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., wrapper, and specific gravity. 15.32 Section 15.32 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... explosive, sheath, wrapper, and specific gravity. (a) The weight of the explosive, the sheath, and the outer.... (c) The specific gravity of the explosive and sheath shall be within ±7.5 percent of that specified...

  19. Community structure of filamentous, sheath-building sulfur bacteria, Thioploca spp, off the coast of Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB; Fossing, HA

    1996-01-01

    of Concepcion was investigated,vith respect to biomass, species distribution, and three-dimensional orientation of the sheaths, Thioploca sheaths and filaments were found across the whole shelf area within the oxygen minimum zone, The maximum wet weight of sheaths, 800 g m(-2), was found at a depth of 90 m...

  20. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  5. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  8. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  9. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  10. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  11. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  12. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  13. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  14. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  15. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  17. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  19. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  20. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  2. Oilsand tailings : solving the issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granson, E.

    2008-11-15

    Oilsands tailings management is an integral part of oil sands research and development. Studies to decrease land disturbance and to resolve environmental and safety issues are underway at several government agencies and industry groups, including the Alberta Energy Research Institute, the Oil Sands Tailings Research Facility and Natural Resources Canada's CANMET Advanced Separation Technologies division. Fresh tailings that come from the bitumen extraction process are composed of 85 to 90 per cent water and 10 to 15 per cent solids having the consistency of muddy water. The 3 zones that develop following discharge into the tailings ponds are 3 metres of clear water; residual hydrocarbons that float on the surface; and, a 1 metre zone of water and settling clay particles known as mature fine tailings (MFT) which comprise about 90 per cent of the volume of the tailings pond. The tailings ponds must be built in areas where there is no bitumen suitable for surface mining. The impounded area is surrounded by tailings dykes built from local overburden materials. As such, tailings ponds are managed as dams according to Alberta Dam Safety regulation requirements. Dam stability is increased by the installation of internal seepage control measures. This article described the key guidelines and objectives for the construction of tailings ponds. It also described the 3 primary types of reclamation settings, namely aquatic reclamation, wetland reclamation and terrestrial reclamation. Water removed from the MFT can be recycled back to the plant to reduce the amount of water used from the river. Although this contributes to lower energy costs, there are challenges regarding salt levels that builds up in piping and equipment. The presence of water in the tailings also prevents tailings reclamation. In addition to mechanical systems to remove water, researchers are also considering the use of chemicals and natural processes. In the consolidated tailings (CT) process, the

  3. Genomic characteristics and environmental distributions of the uncultivated Far-T4 phages

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, Simon; Enault, François; Ravet, Viviane; Pereira, Olivier; Sullivan, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Viral metagenomics (viromics) is a tremendous tool to reveal viral taxonomic and functional diversity across ecosystems ranging from the human gut to the world's oceans. As with microbes however, there appear vast swaths of ?dark matter? yet to be documented for viruses, even among relatively well-studied viral types. Here, we use viromics to explore the ?Far-T4 phages? sequence space, a neighbor clade from the well-studied T4-like phages that was first detected through PCR study in seawater ...

  4. Preparation of quality control samples for thyroid hormones T3 and T4 in radioimmunoassay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, F.O.A.

    2006-03-01

    Today, the radioimmunoassay becomes one of the best techniques for quantitative analysis of very low concentration of different substances. RIA is being widely used in medical and research laboratories. To maintain high specificity and accuracy in RIA and other related techniques the quality controls must be introduced. In this dissertation quality control samples for thyroid hormones (Triiodothyronine T3 and Thyroxin T4), using RIA techniques. Ready made chinese T4, T3 RIA kits were used. IAEA statistical package were selected.(Author)

  5. De evaluatie van Corning "MAGIC T4-RIA" en de vergelijking met Corning "IMMOPHASE FT4-RIA"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elvers LH; Smit PJ; Loeber JG

    1985-01-01

    Beschreven wordt de evaluatie van "MAGIC T4-RIA" (MAGIC) en de vergelijking met de totaal T4 resultaten van "IMMOPHASE FT4-RIA" (IMMO). MAGIC is in de practische uitvoerbaarheid eenvoudig en weinig arbeidsintensief. Voor 3 rattesera met 44, 95 en 167 nmol T4/l bedroeg de

  6. Crystal Structure of the Phage T4 Recombinase UvsX and Its Functional Interaction with the T4 SF2 Helicase UvsW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajewski, Stefan; Webb, Michael R.; Galkin, Vitold; Egelman, Edward H.; Kreuzer, Kenneth N.; White, Stephen W. (Duke); (UV); (SJCH)

    2012-07-11

    Bacteriophage T4 provides an important model system for studying the mechanism of homologous recombination. We have determined the crystal structure of the T4 UvsX recombinase, and the overall architecture and fold closely resemble those of RecA, including a highly conserved ATP binding site. Based on this new structure, we reanalyzed electron microscopy reconstructions of UvsX-DNA filaments and docked the UvsX crystal structure into two different filament forms: a compressed filament generated in the presence of ADP and an elongated filament generated in the presence of ATP and aluminum fluoride. In these reconstructions, the ATP binding site sits at the protomer interface, as in the RecA filament crystal structure. However, the environment of the ATP binding site is altered in the two filament reconstructions, suggesting that nucleotide cannot be as easily accommodated at the protomer interface of the compressed filament. Finally, we show that the phage helicase UvsW completes the UvsX-promoted strand-exchange reaction, allowing the generation of a simple nicked circular product rather than complex networks of partially exchanged substrates.

  7. Fate of the sperm mitochondria, and the incorporation, conversion, and disassembly of the sperm tail structures during bovine fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutovsky, P; Navara, C S; Schatten, G

    1996-12-01

    Sperm incorporation and the conversion of the sperm-derived components into zygotic structures during in vitro fertilization of bovine oocytes was explored by combining ultrastructural studies with observations of the fertilizing sperm tagged with a mitochondrion-specific vital dye MitoTracker green FM. The zygotes fertilized by the MitoTracker-labeled sperm were fixed at various times after fertilization and then processed for immunocytochemistry to examine the distribution of DNA, microtubules, and sperm tail components, including the fibrous sheath and axonemal microtubules. We show here that the complete incorporation of the sperm, but not sperm-oocyte binding and oocyte activation, depends upon the integrity of oocyte microfilaments and is inhibited by the microfilament disrupter cytochalasin B. After sperm incorporation, the mitochondria are displaced from the sperm's connecting piece, and the sperm centriole is exposed to the egg cytoplasm. This event is followed by the formation of the microtubule-based sperm aster, which is responsible for the union of male and female pronuclei. Concomitantly, the major structure of the sperm principal piece, the fibrous sheath, disappears. After the first mitosis, the compact mitochondrial sheath can be seen in one of the blastomeres. An aggregate of the sperm mitochondria is observed at the entry of the second mitosis, although they remain in the vicinity of the nucleus and can later be seen at one pole of the metaphase spindle. The mitochondrial cluster is occasionally found in one of the blastomeres in the early-stage four-cell embryos, but it is no longer detected by the beginning of the third mitotic cycle. These data suggest that the disassembly of the sperm tail during bovine fertilization occurs as a series of precisely orchestrated events involving the destruction (fibrous sheath and mitochondrial sheath) and transformation (DNA, sperm centriole) of particular sperm structures into zygotic and embryonic

  8. Measuring Plasticity with Orientation Contrast Microscopy in Aluminium 6061-T4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghodrat, S.; Riemslag, A.C.; Kestens, L.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    Orientation contrast microscopy (i.e., electron backscattered diffraction, EBSD) was employed to monitor the plastic strain in loaded tensile samples of aluminium alloy Al6061 in T4 condition. The kernel average misorientation (KAM) is known to be an appropriate parameter in orientation contrast

  9. Radioimmunoassay of serum T3, T4 and TSH during anesthesia and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosheva-Antonova, Ts.; Zakharieva, B.; Kurtev, I.

    1987-01-01

    The serum concentrations of thyroxine (T 3 ), triiodothyronine (T 4 ) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in 31 partients before and during urologic operations on the 30th and 60th minute since the onset of the operation, performed under endotracheal halotane or neuroleptanesthesia (NLA) in assisted breathing and intravenous drip anesthesia with ketalar-diazepam in spontaneous breathing. There was statistically significant rise in T 4 level, decrease in T 3 and negligible changes in TSH level, in patients operated under halotane anesthesia. In those operated under NLA, T 4 tended initially to be elevated, with subseguent fall to starting level, with a tendency toward rise in TSH and stable unchanged T 3 level. Ketalar-diazepam anesthesia was applied only to patients subjected to transurethral resections. T 4 in them tended to be decreased, while T 3 and TSH showed negligible changes. Since the operations of patients anesthesized with halotane and NLA had similar localizations and severity, the differences in the thyroid hormone reactions could be associated with the type of anesthesia. The negligible changes in TSH are highly suggestive that this hormone is not influenced by the operation stress and anesthetics, and does hot exert regulating effect upon the thyroid status under these conditions. The milder reactions in patients operated under ketalar-diazepam anestesia may largely be associated with the milder operation stress in transurethal resection

  10. The isolation and characterization of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia T4-like bacteriophage DLP6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L Peters

    Full Text Available Increasing isolation of the extremely antibiotic resistant bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has caused alarm worldwide due to the limited treatment options available. A potential treatment option for fighting this bacterium is 'phage therapy', the clinical application of bacteriophages to selectively kill bacteria. Bacteriophage DLP6 (vB_SmoM-DLP6 was isolated from a soil sample using clinical isolate S. maltophilia strain D1571 as host. Host range analysis of phage DLP6 against 27 clinical S. maltophilia isolates shows successful infection and lysis in 13 of the 27 isolates tested. Transmission electron microscopy of DLP6 indicates that it is a member of the Myoviridae family. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of DLP6 reveals its richly recombined evolutionary history, featuring a core of both T4-like and cyanophage genes, which suggests that it is a member of the T4-superfamily. Unlike other T4-superfamily phages however, DLP6 features a transposase and ends with 229 bp direct terminal repeats. The isolation of this bacteriophage is an exciting discovery due to the divergent nature of DLP6 in relation to the T4-superfamily of phages.

  11. Structural studies on metal-containing enzymes: T4 endonuclease VII and D. gigas formate dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, H.C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Many biological processes require metal ions, and many of these metal-ion functions involve metalloproteins. The metal ions in metalloproteins are often critical to the protein's function, structure, or stability. This thesis focuses on two of these proteins, bacteriophage T4 endonuclease

  12. A unique intracellular compartment formed during the oligotrophic growth of Rhodococcus erythropolis N9T-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Nobuyuki; Yano, Takanori; Kedo, Kaori; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Nagai, Rina; Iwano, Megumi; Taguchi, Eiji; Nishida, Tomoki; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis N9T-4, isolated from stored crude oil, shows extremely oligotrophic features and can grow on a basal medium without any additional carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and energy sources, but requires CO 2 for its oligotrophic growth. Transmission electron microscopic observation showed that a relatively large and spherical compartment was observed in a N9T-4 cell grown under oligotrophic conditions. In most cases, only one compartment was observed per cell, but in some cases, it was localized at each pole of the cell, suggesting that it divides at cell division. We termed this unique bacterial compartment an oligobody. The oligobody was not observed or very rarely observed in small sizes under nutrient rich conditions, whereas additional carbon sources did not affect oligobody formation. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed remarkable peaks corresponding to phosphorus and potassium in the oligobody. The oligobodies in N9T-4 cells could be stained by Toluidine blue, suggesting that the oligobody is composed of inorganic polyphosphate and is a type of acidocalcisome. Two genes-encoding polyphosphate kinases, ppk1 and ppk2, were found in the N9T-4 genome: ppk1 disruption caused a negative effect on the formation of the oligobody. Although it was suggested that the oligobody plays an important role for the oligotrophic growth, both ppk-deleted mutants showed the same level of oligotrophic growth as the wild-type strain.

  13. Intracellular accumulation of trehalose and glycogen in an extreme oligotroph, Rhodococcus erythropolis N9T-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Takanori; Funamizu, Yuhei; Yoshida, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    An extreme oligotroph, Rhodococcus erythropolis N9T-4, showed intracellular accumulation of trehalose and glycogen under oligotrophic conditions. No trehalose accumulation was observed in cells grown on the rich medium. Deletion of the polyphosphate kinase genes enhanced the trehalose accumulation and decreases the intracellular glycogen contents, suggesting an oligotrophic relationship between among the metabolic pathways of trehalose, glycogen, and inorganic polyphosphate biosyntheses.

  14. Platinum(II) complexes block the entry of T4 phage DNA into the host cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerszman, Gustaw; Josephsen, Jens; Fernholm, Bo

    1979-01-01

    The efficiency of multiplicity reactivation of T4 particles inactivated by platinum(II) complexes is very low. The same is true for marker rescue and functional survival of genes. This can be at least partly explained by the inability of most inactivated virus particles to introduce their DNA...

  15. The isolation and characterization of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia T4-like bacteriophage DLP6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Danielle L; Stothard, Paul; Dennis, Jonathan J

    2017-01-01

    Increasing isolation of the extremely antibiotic resistant bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has caused alarm worldwide due to the limited treatment options available. A potential treatment option for fighting this bacterium is 'phage therapy', the clinical application of bacteriophages to selectively kill bacteria. Bacteriophage DLP6 (vB_SmoM-DLP6) was isolated from a soil sample using clinical isolate S. maltophilia strain D1571 as host. Host range analysis of phage DLP6 against 27 clinical S. maltophilia isolates shows successful infection and lysis in 13 of the 27 isolates tested. Transmission electron microscopy of DLP6 indicates that it is a member of the Myoviridae family. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of DLP6 reveals its richly recombined evolutionary history, featuring a core of both T4-like and cyanophage genes, which suggests that it is a member of the T4-superfamily. Unlike other T4-superfamily phages however, DLP6 features a transposase and ends with 229 bp direct terminal repeats. The isolation of this bacteriophage is an exciting discovery due to the divergent nature of DLP6 in relation to the T4-superfamily of phages.

  16. UV irradiation impairs in vivo encapsidation of bacteriophage T4 DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachary, A.; Black, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    T4 DNA structural requirements for encapsidation in vivo were investigated, using thin-section electron microscopy to quantitate the kinetics and yields of head intermediates after synchronous DNA packaging into accumulated processed proheads. UV irradiation (254 nm) of T4-infected bacteria just before initiation of encapsidation resulted in a reduction in the rate of DNA packaged measured by electron microscopy and in the yield of viable phage progeny. In UV-irradiated infections with excision-deficient mutants (denV-), the extent of packaging decline was proportional to the UV dose and phage yields were lower than expected based on the packaging levels observed by microscopy. Rescue analysis of progeny from such infections revealed elevated levels of nonviable virions. Pyrimidine dimers were encapsidated in denV- infections, but in excision-competent infections (denV+) dimers were not packaged. A UV-independent, 15 to 20% packaging arrest was also observed when denV endonuclease was inactive during encapsidation, indicating a denV requirement to achieve normal T4 packaging levels. Pyrimidine dimers apparently represent or induce transient blockage of DNA encapsidation or both, causing a decline in the rate. This is in contrast to other DNA structural blocks to packaging induced by mutations in T4 genes 30 and 49, which appear to arrest the process

  17. The complete AdS_3 x S^3 x T^4 worldsheet S-matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsato, Riccardo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370952170; Sax, Olof Ohlsson; Sfondrini, Alessandro|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330983083; jr, Bogdan Stefanski

    2014-01-01

    We derive the non-perturbative worldsheet S matrix for fundamental excitations of Type IIB superstring theory on AdS_3 x S^3 x T^4 with Ramond-Ramond flux. To this end, we study the off-shell symmetry algebra of the theory and its representations. We use these to determine the S matrix up to scalar

  18. Ethnic differences in TSH but not in free T4 concentrations or TPO antibodies during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benhadi, N.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Reitsma, J. B.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; van der Wal, M. F.; Bonsel, G. J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the TSH, free T4 and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) concentrations during pregnancy among four ethnic groups and to determine reference values for these parameters during normal pregnancy. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of a cohort of 3270 pregnant women living in the

  19. In vitro selection of optimal DNA substrates for T4 RNA ligase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuo; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1993-01-01

    We have used in vitro selection techniques to characterize DNA sequences that are ligated efficiently by T4 RNA ligase. We find that the ensemble of selected sequences ligated about 10 times as efficiently as the random mixture of sequences used as the input for selection. Surprisingly, the majority of the selected sequences approximated a well-defined consensus sequence.

  20. Potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba genotype T4 isolated from dental units and emergency combination showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Artavia, Esteban; Retana-Moreira, Lissette; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Abrahams-Sandí, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    Acanthamoeba is the genus of free-living amoebae that is most frequently isolated in nature. To date, 20 Acanthamoeba genotypes have been described. Genotype T4 is responsible for approximately 90% of encephalitis and keratitis cases. Due to the ubiquitous presence of amoebae, isolation from environmental sources is not uncommon; to determine the clinical importance of an isolation, it is necessary to have evidence of the pathogenic potential of amoebae. The aim of this study was to physiologically characterise 8 Acanthamoeba T4 isolates obtained from dental units and emergency combination showers and to determine their pathogenic potential by employing different laboratory techniques. Eight axenic cultures of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 were used in pathogenic potential assays. Osmotolerance, thermotolerance, determination and characterisation of extracellular proteases and evaluation of cytopathic effects in MDCK cells were performed. All of the isolates were osmotolerant, thermotolerant and had serine proteases from 44-122 kDa. Two isolates had cytopathic effects on the MDCK cell monolayer. The presence of Acanthamoeba T4 with pathogenic potential in areas such as those tested in this study reaffirms the need for adequate cleaning and maintenance protocols to reduce the possibility of infection with free-living amoebae.

  1. Potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba genotype T4 isolated from dental units and emergency combination showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Castro-Artavia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acanthamoeba is the genus of free-living amoebae that is most frequently isolated in nature. To date, 20 Acanthamoeba genotypes have been described. Genotype T4 is responsible for approximately 90% of encephalitis and keratitis cases. Due to the ubiquitous presence of amoebae, isolation from environmental sources is not uncommon; to determine the clinical importance of an isolation, it is necessary to have evidence of the pathogenic potential of amoebae. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to physiologically characterise 8 Acanthamoeba T4 isolates obtained from dental units and emergency combination showers and to determine their pathogenic potential by employing different laboratory techniques. METHODS Eight axenic cultures of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 were used in pathogenic potential assays. Osmotolerance, thermotolerance, determination and characterisation of extracellular proteases and evaluation of cytopathic effects in MDCK cells were performed. FINDINGS All of the isolates were osmotolerant, thermotolerant and had serine proteases from 44-122 kDa. Two isolates had cytopathic effects on the MDCK cell monolayer. MAIN CONCLUSION The presence of Acanthamoeba T4 with pathogenic potential in areas such as those tested in this study reaffirms the need for adequate cleaning and maintenance protocols to reduce the possibility of infection with free-living amoebae.

  2. Electric fields in the sheath formed in a 300 mm, dual frequency capacitive argon discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnat, E V; Miller, P A; Hebner, G A; Paterson, A M; Panagopoulos, T; Hammond, E; Holland, J

    2007-01-01

    The spatial structure and temporal evolution of the electric fields in a sheath formed in a dual frequency, 300 mm capacitive argon discharge are measured as functions of relative mixing between a low frequency current and a high frequency current. It is found that the overall structure of the sheath (potential across the sheath and the thickness of the sheath) are dominated by the lower frequency component while (smaller) oscillations in these quantities are dictated by the higher frequency component. Comparisons of the measured spatial and temporal profiles are made for Lieberman's and Robiche et al sheath model and with a particle in a cell calculation

  3. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  4. New Insights into DNA Polymerase Function Revealed by Phosphonoacetic Acid-Sensitive T4 DNA Polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Likui

    2017-11-20

    The bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase (pol) and the closely related RB69 DNA pol have been developed into model enzymes to study family B DNA pols. While all family B DNA pols have similar structures and share conserved protein motifs, the molecular mechanism underlying natural drug resistance of nonherpes family B DNA pols and drug sensitivity of herpes DNA pols remains unknown. In the present study, we constructed T4 phages containing G466S, Y460F, G466S/Y460F, P469S, and V475W mutations in DNA pol. These amino acid substitutions replace the residues in drug-resistant T4 DNA pol with residues found in drug-sensitive herpes family DNA pols. We investigated whether the T4 phages expressing the engineered mutant DNA pols were sensitive to the antiviral drug phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) and characterized the in vivo replication fidelity of the phage DNA pols. We found that G466S substitution marginally increased PAA sensitivity, whereas Y460F substitution conferred resistance. The phage expressing a double mutant G466S/Y460F DNA pol was more PAA-sensitive. V475W T4 DNA pol was highly sensitive to PAA, as was the case with V478W RB69 DNA pol. However, DNA replication was severely compromised, which resulted in the selection of phages expressing more robust DNA pols that have strong ability to replicate DNA and contain additional amino acid substitutions that suppress PAA sensitivity. Reduced replication fidelity was observed in all mutant phages expressing PAA-sensitive DNA pols. These observations indicate that PAA sensitivity and fidelity are balanced in DNA pols that can replicate DNA in different environments.

  5. Prognostic Value of Subclassification Using MRI in the T4 Classification Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Lei [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Liu Lizhi [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Chen Mo; Li Wenfei; Yin Wenjing [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Lin Aihua [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Sun Ying [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Li Li [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Ma Jun, E-mail: majun2@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To subclassify patients with the T4 classification nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), according to the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to evaluate the prognostic value of subclassification after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 140 patients who underwent MRI and were subsequently histologically diagnosed with nondisseminated classification T4 NPC received IMRT as their primary treatment and were included in this retrospective study. T4 patients were subclassified into two grades: T4a was defined as a primary nasopharyngeal tumor with involvement of the masticator space only; and T4b was defined as involvement of the intracranial region, cranial nerves, and/or orbit. Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rate for T4a patients (82.5% and 87.0%, respectively), were significantly higher than for T4b patients (62.6% and 66.8%; p = 0.033 and p = 0.036, respectively). The T4a/b subclassification was an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio = 2.331, p = 0.032) and DMFS (hazard ratio = 2.602, p = 0.034), and had no significant effect on local relapse-free survival. Conclusions: Subclassification of T4 patients, as T4a or T4b, using MRI according to the site of invasion, has prognostic value for the outcomes of IMRT treatment in NPC.

  6. 2012 ETA Guidelines: The Use of L-T4 + L-T3 in the Treatment of Hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Background: Data suggest symptoms of hypothyroidism persist in 5–10% of levothyroxine (L-T4)-treated hypothyroid patients with normal serum thyrotrophin (TSH). The use of L-T4 + liothyronine (L-T3) combination therapy in such patients is controversial. The ETA nominated a task force to review....... There is insufficient evidence that L-T4 + L-T3 combination therapy is better than L-T4 monotherapy, and it is recommended that L-T4 monotherapy remains the standard treatment of hypothyroidism. L-T4 + L-T3 combination therapy might be considered as an experimental approach in compliant L-T4-treated hypothyroid...

  7. [Survival and prognostic factors in resected satellite-nodule T4 non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kai; Wang, Tian-you; He, Bao-liang; Chang, Dong; Hu, Xiao-dan; Yin, Zhi-yi; Jiang, Hua; Cui, Yong; Gao, Zhi; Gong, Min

    2009-01-15

    To study the survival and prognostic implication in surgically resected satellite-nodule T4 (T4 satellite) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From January 1995 to March 2005, the complete resection was performed to 42 patients with NSCLC who were postoperatively identified as pathologic-stage T4 satellite. Survival and associations between clinicopathological parameters and prognosis were analyzed. Thirty-two patients with pathologic stage local-invasion T4 (T4 invasion) NSCLC who underwent resection at the same time were also analyzed. The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival was 76.2%, 57.1% and 46.0% for patients with T4 satellite, while 62.3%, 31.5% and 20.0% for patients with T4 invasion. There was a significant higher survival in T4 satellite group when compared to that in T4 invasion group (P satellite N0M0 got a better survival than those with T4 satellite N1-2M0, T4 invasion N0M0 and T4 invasion N1 -2M0 (P satellite, univariate analysis showed that histology, main tumor size, lymph node status and adjuvant chemotherapy were linked with survival, while main tumor size, lymph node status and adjuvant chemotherapy served as the independent prognostic factors with multivariate analysis. Patients with completely resected T4 satellite NSCLC have a better prognosis than those with T4 invasion. Main tumor size over 3 cm, lymph node metastasis or no adjuvant chemotherapy means an unfavorable prognosis.

  8. In vivo engineering of a functional tendon sheath in a hen model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Cao, Dejun; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Guangdong; Zhang, Wen Jie; Cao, Yilin

    2010-05-01

    Repair of injured tendon sheath remains a major challenge and this study explored the possibility of in vivo reconstruction of a tendon sheath with tendon sheath derived cells and polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers in a Leghorn hen model. Total 55 Leghorn hens with a 1cm tendon sheath defect created in the left middle toe of each animal were randomly assigned into: (1) experimental group (n=19) that received a cell-PGA construct; (2) scaffold control group (n=18) that received a cell-free PGA scaffold; (3) blank control group (n=18) with the defect untreated. Tendon sheath cells were isolated, in vitro expanded, and seeded onto PGA scaffolds. After in vitro culture for 7 days, the constructs were in vivo implanted to repair the sheath defects. Alcian blue staining confirmed the ability of cultured cells to produce specific matrices containing acidic carboxyl mucopolysaccharide (mainly hyaluronic acid). In addition, the engineered sheath formed a relatively mature structure at 12 weeks post-surgery, which was similar to that of native counterpart, including a smooth inner surface, a well-developed sheath histological structure with a clear space between the tendon and the engineered sheath. More importantly, Work of Flexion assay revealed that the tendons needed less power consumption to glide inside the engineered sheath when compared to the tendons which were surrounded by scar-repaired tissues, indicating that the engineered sheaths had gained the function to a certain extent of preventing tendon adhesion. Taken together, these results suggest that tendon sheaths that are functionally and structurally similar to native sheaths are possible to be engineered in vivo using tendon sheath cells and PGA scaffolds. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Baseplate assembly of phage Mu: Defining the conserved core components of contractile-tailed phages and related bacterial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Carina R; Wu, Yingzhou; Maxwell, Karen L; Davidson, Alan R

    2016-09-06

    Contractile phage tails are powerful cell puncturing nanomachines that have been co-opted by bacteria for self-defense against both bacteria and eukaryotic cells. The tail of phage T4 has long served as the paradigm for understanding contractile tail-like systems despite its greater complexity compared with other contractile-tailed phages. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the assembly of a "simple" contractile-tailed phage baseplate, that of Escherichia coli phage Mu. By coexpressing various combinations of putative Mu baseplate proteins, we defined the required components of this baseplate and delineated its assembly pathway. We show that the Mu baseplate is constructed through the independent assembly of wedges that are organized around a central hub complex. The Mu wedges are comprised of only three protein subunits rather than the seven found in the equivalent structure in T4. Through extensive bioinformatic analyses, we found that homologs of the essential components of the Mu baseplate can be identified in the majority of contractile-tailed phages and prophages. No T4-like prophages were identified. The conserved simple baseplate components were also found in contractile tail-derived bacterial apparatuses, such as type VI secretion systems, Photorhabdus virulence cassettes, and R-type tailocins. Our work highlights the evolutionary connections and similarities in the biochemical behavior of phage Mu wedge components and the TssF and TssG proteins of the type VI secretion system. In addition, we demonstrate the importance of the Mu baseplate as a model system for understanding bacterial phage tail-derived systems.

  10. Co-electrospinning fabrication and photocatalytic performance of TiO2/SiO2 core/sheath nanofibers with tunable sheath thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Houbao; Du, Pingfan; Song, Lixin; Xiong, Jie; Yang, Junjie; Xing, Tonghai; Liu, Xin; Wu, Rongrong; Wang, Minchao; Shao, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The core–sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers were fabricated by co-electrospinning technique. • The catalytic property of nanofibers with different sheath thickness was studied. • The potential methods of improving catalytic efficiency are suggested. - Abstract: In this paper, core/sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers with tunable sheath thickness were directly fabricated via a facile co-electrospinning technique with subsequent calcination at 500 °C. The morphologies and structures of core/sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers were characterized by TGA, FESEM, TEM, FTIR, XPS and BET. It was found that the 1D core/sheath nanofibers are made up of anatase–rutile TiO 2 core and amorphous SiO 2 sheath. The influences of SiO 2 sheath and its thickness on the photoreactivity were evaluated by observing photo-degradation of methylene blue aqueous solution under the irradiation of UV light. Compared with pure TiO 2 nanofibers, the core/sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers performed a better catalytic performance. That was attributed to not only efficient separation of hole–electron pairs resulting from the formation of heterojunction but also larger surface area and surface silanol group which will be useful to provide higher capacity for oxygen adsorption to generate more hydroxyl radicals. And the optimized core/sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers with a sheath thickness of 37 nm exhibited the best photocatalytic performance

  11. Moisture Durability with Vapor-Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Exterior sheathing insulation is an effective strategy in increasing the overall R-value of wall assemblies; other benefits include decreasing the effects of thermal bridging and increasing the moisture durability of the built assembly. Vapor-permeable exterior insulation, such as mineral board or expanded polystyrene foam, are one such product that may be used to achieve these benefits. However,uncertainty exists on the effects of inward driven moisture and the interaction of increased sheathing temperatures on the moisture durability of the edifice. To address these concerns, Building Science Corporation (BSC) conducted a series of hygrothermal models for cities representing a range of different climate zones. This report describes the research project, key research questions, and theprocedures utilized to analyse the problems.

  12. Moisture Durability with Vapor-Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Exterior sheathing insulation is an effective strategy in increasing the overall R-value of wall assemblies; other benefits include decreasing the effects of thermal bridging and increasing the moisture durability of the built assembly. Vapor-permeable exterior insulation, such as mineral board or expanded polystyrene foam, are one such product that may be used to achieve these benefits. However, uncertainty exists on the effects of inward driven moisture and the interaction of increased sheathing temperatures on the moisture durability of the edifice. To address these concerns, Building Science Corporation (BSC) conducted a series of hygrothermal models for cities representing a range of different climate zones. This report describes the research project, key research questions, and the procedures utilized to analyse the problems.

  13. Out-of-pile fatigue tests on Zircaloy CANDU sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Maria; Ciocanescu, Marin; Gheorghiu, Constantin; Pitigoi, Vasile; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2005-01-01

    The paper outlines the achievements in the nuclear research field of cooperation on Nuclear Fuel performed as part of the collaboration under the Memorandum of Understanding, settled between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Institute for Nuclear Research (ICN), The sheath behavior was simulated using out-of-pile fatigue tests, in conditions identical with those met during the operation in power cycling of CANDU reactor, except for irradiation. A special test rig, designed and carried-out at ICN ensured the experimental requirements according to the Canadian testing procedure. The description of the experimental setup and monitoring of testing parameters were also done. The fatigue life time, expressed as number of cycles to rupture (N), was measured as a function of the total strain amplitude (e) induced in the Zircaloy-4 sheath samples. Strain-Life time fatigue dependence (e-N) under low cycle fatigue conditions was also verified using the Coffin-Manson correlation. (authors)

  14. Stable sheath formation in expanding magnetic field to divertor plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Y.; Takayama, A.; Takamaru, H.; Sato, T.

    2002-01-01

    The stable sheath formation and the effects of charge exchange collisions of ions with cold neutrals for the stable presheath formation in an expanding magnetic field towards a divertor plate is studied by a one-dimensional analysis. The requirement for flow velocity of ions at a plasma-sheath boundary is more restricted than that of the uniform magnetic field, which should be greater than the ion sound speed. The difference, however, between both cases is an order of the Debye length to plasma radius, which is negligibly small. The requirement for ion flow velocity inside a quasi-neutral plasma is investigated by taking into account the effects of the charge exchange collisions. Without neutrals in the quasi-neutral plasma, the ion flow velocity at an injection point should be much greater than the ion sound speed. The unisotropic velocity distribution of injected ions with coupling the expanding magnetic field and the charge exchange collisions might mitigate this requirement. (orig.)

  15. Zircaloy-sheathed element rods fitted with thermo-couples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardy de Sigoyer, B.; Jacques, F.; Thome, P.

    1963-01-01

    In order to carry out thermal conductivity measurements on UO 2 in conditions similar to those under which fuel rods are used, it was necessary to measure the temperature at the interior of a fuel element sheathed in zircaloy. The temperatures are taken with Thermocoax type thermocouples, that is to say fitted with a very thin sheath of stainless steel or Inconel. It is known also that fusion welding of zircaloy onto stainless steel is impossible and that high temperature welded joints are very difficult because of their aggressiveness. The technique used consists in brazing the thermocouples to relatively large stainless steel parts and then joining these plugs by electron bombardment welding to diffused stainless steel-zircaloy couplings. The properties of these diffused couplings and of the brazed joints were studied; the various stages in the fabrication of the containers are also described. (authors) [fr

  16. Rehabilitation of uranium tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Under Australian environmental controls relating to the management of uranium tailings, it is no longer acceptable practice to search for a rehabilitation strategy at the end of production when the generation of tailings has ceased. The uranium projects currently in production and those being proposed are tightly regulated by the authorities. The waste management plans must consider site specific factors and must include selection of appropriate disposal sites and design for long term containment. The final encapsulation in engineered facilities must take into account the probable routes to the environment of the tailings. Rehabilitation shoud be undertaken by the mining and milling operators to standards approved by appropriate authorities. Appropriate administrative arrangements are required, by way of technical committees and financial bonds to ensure that agreed standards of rehabilitation may be achieved. Past and present experience with the rehabilitation of uranium tailings impoundments in Australia is discussed

  17. Tails, Fears and Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Todorov, Victor

    We show that the compensation for rare events accounts for a large fraction of the equity and variance risk premia in the S&P 500 market index. The probability of rare events vary significantly over time, increasing in periods of high market volatility, but the risk premium for tail events cannot...... solely be explained by the level of the volatil- ity. Our empirical investigations are essentially model-free. We estimate the expected values of the tails under the statistical probability measure from "medium" size jumps in high-frequency intraday prices and an extreme value theory approximation...... for the corresponding jump tail density. Our estimates for the risk-neutral expectations are based on short maturity out-of-the money options and new model-free option implied variation measures explicitly designed to separate the tail probabilities. At a general level, our results suggest that any satisfactory...

  18. More tail lesions among undocked than tail docked pigs in a conventional herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, H. P.; Busch, M. E.; D'Eath, R. B.

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of piglets reared in the European Union (EU) and worldwide is tail docked to reduce the risk of being tail bitten, even though EU animal welfare legislation bans routine tail docking. Many conventional herds experience low levels of tail biting among tail docked pigs, however...... it is not known, what the prevalence would have been had the pigs not been tail docked. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of tail lesions between docked and undocked pigs in a conventional piggery in Denmark with very low prevalence of tail biting among tail docked pigs. The study included 1922...... that housing pigs with intact tails in conventional herds with very low prevalence of tail biting among tail docked pigs, will increase the prevalence of pigs with tail lesions considerably, and pig producers will need more hospital pens. Abattoir data indicate that tail biting remarks from meat inspection...

  19. Photovoltaic sheathing element with one or more tabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo C.

    2017-02-07

    The present invention is premised upon an assembly that includes at least a photovoltaic sheathing element capable of being affixed on a building structure. The shingle including at least a photovoltaic cell assembly, a body portion attached to one or more portions of the photovoltaic cell assembly. Wherein the body portion includes one or more top peripheral tabs each capable of fitting under one or more vertically adjoining devices.

  20. Cell Based Meniscal Repair Using an Aligned Bioactive Nanofibrous Sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    supplement with each medium change. This has tremendous potential for targeted therapy of focal meniscal lesions . Building on these in vitro results, we...of biomaterials capable of promoting endogenous MSC recruitment to the meniscal lesion . Additionally, the GelMA hydrogel itself possesses good...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0104 TITLE: Cell-Based Meniscal Repair Using an Aligned Bioactive Nanofibrous Sheath PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  1. A rare case of bilateral optic nerve sheath meningioma

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Somen; Misra, Neeta; Gogri, Pratik; Mehta, Rajen

    2014-01-01

    A 60-year-old female presented with gradual, painless, progressive diminution of vision, and progressive proptosis of left eye since 7 years. Ophthalmological examination revealed mild proptosis and total optic atrophy in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) brain with orbit showed bilateral optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM) involving the intracranial, intracanalicular, intraorbital part of the optic nerve extending up to optic chiasma and left cavern...

  2. A rare case of bilateral optic nerve sheath meningioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Somen; Misra, Neeta; Gogri, Pratik; Mehta, Rajen

    2014-01-01

    A 60-year-old female presented with gradual, painless, progressive diminution of vision, and progressive proptosis of left eye since 7 years. Ophthalmological examination revealed mild proptosis and total optic atrophy in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) brain with orbit showed bilateral optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM) involving the intracranial, intracanalicular, intraorbital part of the optic nerve extending up to optic chiasma and left cavernous sinus. PMID:25005205

  3. A rare case of bilateral optic nerve sheath meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somen Misra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old female presented with gradual, painless, progressive diminution of vision, and progressive proptosis of left eye since 7 years. Ophthalmological examination revealed mild proptosis and total optic atrophy in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT brain with orbit showed bilateral optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM involving the intracranial, intracanalicular, intraorbital part of the optic nerve extending up to optic chiasma and left cavernous sinus.

  4. Studies of RF sheaths and diagnostics on IShTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crombé, K., E-mail: Kristel.Crombe@UGent.be [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); LPP-ERM/KMS, Royal Military Academy, Brussels (Belgium); Devaux, S.; Faudot, E.; Heuraux, S.; Moritz, J. [YIJL, UMR7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); D’Inca, R.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Jacquot, J.; Ochoukov, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Louche, F.; Tripsky, M.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Royal Military Academy, Brussels (Belgium); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2015-12-10

    IShTAR (Ion cyclotron Sheath Test ARrangement) is a linear magnetised plasma test facility for RF sheaths studies at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Garching. In contrast to a tokamak, a test stand provides more liberty to impose the parameters and gives better access for the instrumentation and antennas. The project will support the development of diagnostic methods for characterising RF sheaths and validate and improve theoretical predictions. The cylindrical vacuum vessel has a diameter of 1 m and is 1.1 m long. The plasma is created by an external cylindrical plasma source equipped with a helical antenna that has been designed to excite the m=1 helicon mode. In inductive mode, plasma densities and electron temperatures have been characterised with a planar Langmuir probe as a function of gas pressure and input RF power. A 2D array of RF compensated Langmuir probes and a spectrometer are planned. A single strap RF antenna has been designed; the plasma-facing surface is aligned to the cylindrical plasma to ease the modelling. The probes will allow direct measurements of plasma density profiles in front of the RF antenna, and thus a detailed study of the density modifications induced by RF sheaths, which influences the coupling. The RF antenna frequency has been chosen to study different plasma wave interactions: the accessible plasma density range includes an evanescent and propagative behaviour of slow or fast waves, and allows the study of the effect of the lower hybrid resonance layer.

  5. Contribution to the physical study of sheath failure detections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangin, Jean-Paul

    1968-11-01

    As the study of an installation aimed at the detection of sheath failure requires the knowledge of a great number of data related to all the fields of nuclear technology (fission mechanisms, sheath failure mechanisms, recoil of fission products, distribution of the heat transfer fluid in the reactor, techniques of measurement of beta and gamma neutrons, nuclear safety, and so on), this report aims at highlighting some specific issues, more particularly those related to sensors based on delayed neutrons. After having recalled the principles of sheath failure detection, the author presents the various aspects of the study of the formation of fission products and of their passage into the heat transfer fluid: detection by using delayed neutrons, detection by electrostatic collection, passage of fuel fission products into the coolant (recoil, corrosion, gaseous diffusion in the fuel), formation of fission products in the fuel (fission product efficiency). He reports the study of the transport of fission products by the coolant from their place of birth to the place of measurement. He presents the system of measurement by detection of delayed neutrons and by electrostatic collection, reports a sensitivity calculation, a background noise assessment, the determination of detection threshold, and the application of sensitivity and detection thresholds calculations [fr

  6. Cross-tail velocity component in the plasma sheet fast flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Dmitrieva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The flux transfer in the magnetotail plasma sheet is mainly provided by the tail-aligned fast plasma flows (Bursty Bulk Flows – BBFs. In this paper we study the events with a large cross-tail velocity component, including their occurrence and relationship to the standard BBFs. We found out that a significant part of large Vy events are a subgroup connected with the BBFs propagation. The maximal deviation of the velocity vector from the X direction (about 40–50 degrees, on average is observed near the BBFs' leading front in the sheath, where the fast flow interacts with surrounding plasma. The average variation of the velocity direction in the vicinity of the BBF resembles a plasma vortex. Our results support the model, in which the BBF represents a polarized, bubble-like flux tube, propagating through the plasma sheet.

  7. Serum TBG and T4 concentration in non-thyroidal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Tobari, C.; Sekita, N.; Onodera, Y.; Asazu, M.; Someya, K.

    1983-01-01

    Routinely available radioassay kits have recently enabled the measurement of serum concentrations of thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and thyroxine (T 4 ), both total (TT 4 ) and free (FT 4 ) in various disease conditions. Serum TBG and T 4 level were measured in variety of non-thyroidal diseases, of which significance was evaluated in comparison with that in thyroidal diseases. Abnormal serum TBG concentrations in various non-thyroidal diseases and pregnancy result in abnormal serum TT 4 levels, which may cause difficulty in differentiation of these conditions from hyper- or hypothyroidal states. Serum FT 4 levels give better indicator than TT 4 , though the difference among RIA kits are considerably large. However, measurement of serum FT 4 levels alone is not sufficient to distinguish non-thyroidal disease from thyroidal diseases with abnormal thyroidal function. The differentiation has to be based on the combination of clinical findings and results of multiple thyroidal function tests

  8. Characterization of a bacteriophage T4 mutant lacking DNA-dependent ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behme, M.T.; Ebisuzaki, K.

    1975-01-01

    A DNA-dependent ATPase has previously been purified from bacteriophage T4-infected Escherichia coli. A mutant phage strain lacking this enzyme has been isolated and characterized. Although the mutant strain produced no detectable DNA-dependent ATPase, growth properties were not affected. Burst sizes were similar for the mutant phage and T4D in polAl, recB, recC, uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, and various DNA-negative E. coli. UV sensitivity and genetic recombination were normal in a variety of E. coli hosts. Mapping data indicate that the genetic locus controlling the mutant occurs near gene 56. The nonessential nature of this gene is discussed

  9. Coupling DNA unwinding activity with primer synthesis in the bacteriophage T4 primosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosas, Maria; Spiering, Michelle M.; Zhuang, Zhihao; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Croquette, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    The unwinding and priming activities of the bacteriophage T4 primosome, which consists of a hexameric helicase (gp41) translocating 5′ to 3′ and an oligomeric primase (gp61) synthesizing primers 5′ to 3′, has been investigated on DNA hairpins manipulated by a magnetic trap. We find that the T4 primosome continuously unwinds the DNA duplex while allowing for primer synthesis through a primosome disassembly mechanism or a novel DNA looping mechanism. A fused gp61-gp41 primosome unwinds and primes DNA exclusively via the DNA looping mechanism. Other proteins within the replisome control the partitioning of these two mechanisms disfavoring primosome disassembly thereby increasing primase processivity. In contrast priming in bacteriophage T7 involves discrete pausing of the primosome and in Escherichia coli appears to be associated primarily with dissociation of the primase from the helicase. Thus nature appears to use several strategies to couple the disparate helicase and primase activities within primosomes. PMID:19838204

  10. Pulsating strings from two-dimensional CFT on (T4N/S(N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cardona

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a state from the two-dimensional conformal field theory on the orbifold (T4N/S(N as a dual description for a pulsating string moving in AdS3. We show that, up to first order in the deforming parameter, the energy in both descriptions has the same dependence on the mode number, but with a non-trivial function of the coupling.

  11. Expression of the bacteriophage T4 denV structural gene in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recinos, A. III; Augustine, M.L.; Higgins, K.M.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The expression of the T4 denV gene, which previously had been cloned in plasmid constructs downstream of the bacteriophage lambda hybrid promoter-operator oLpR, was analyzed under a variety of growth parameters. Expression of the denV gene product, endonuclease V, was confirmed in DNA repair-deficient Escherichia coli (uvrA recA) by Western blot analyses and by enhancements of resistance to UV irradiation

  12. T4 phage and its head surface proteins do not stimulate inflammatory mediator production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Miernikiewicz

    Full Text Available Viruses are potent activators of the signal pathways leading to increased cytokine or ROS production. The effects exerted on the immune system are usually mediated by viral proteins. Complementary to the progress in phage therapy practice, advancement of knowledge about the influence of bacteriophages on mammalian immunity is necessary. Particularly, the potential ability of phage proteins to act like other viral stimulators of the immune system may have strong practical implications for the safety and efficacy of bacteriophage therapy. Here we present studies on the effect of T4 phage and its head proteins on production of inflammatory mediators and inflammation-related factors: IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40/p70, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1, MIG, RANTES, GCSF, GM-CSF and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Plasma cytokine profiles in an in vivo mouse model and in human blood cells treated with gp23*, gp24*, Hoc and Soc were evaluated by cytokine antibody arrays. Cytokine production and expression of CD40, CD80, CD86 and MHC class II molecules were also investigated in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells treated with whole T4 phage particle or the same capsid proteins. The influence of T4 and gp23*, gp24*, Hoc and Soc on reactive oxygen species generation was examined in blood cells using luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. In all performed assays, the T4 bacteriophage and its capsid proteins gp23*, gp24*, Hoc and Soc did not affect production of inflammatory-related cytokines or ROS. These observations are of importance for any medical or veterinary application of bacteriophages.

  13. Diversity of structure and function of DNA polymerase (gp43) of T4-related bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, V M; Karam, J D

    2004-11-01

    The replication DNA polymerase (gp43) of the bacteriophage T4 is a member of the pol B family of DNA polymerases, which are found in all divisions of life in the biosphere. The enzyme is a modularly organized protein that has several activities in one polypeptide chain (approximately 900 amino acid residues). These include two catalytic functions, POL (polymerase) and EXO (3 -exonuclease), and specific binding activities to DNA, the mRNA for gp43, deoxyribonucleotides (dNTPs), and other T4 replication proteins. The gene for this multifunctional enzyme (gene 43) has been preserved in evolution of the diverse group of T4-like phages in nature, but has diverged in sequence, organization, and specificity of the binding functions of the gene product. We describe here examples of T4-like phages where DNA rearrangements have created split forms of gene 43 consisting of two cistrons instead of one. These gene 43 variants specify separate gp43A (N-terminal) and gp43B (C-terminal) subunits of a split form of gp43. Compared to the monocistronic form, the interruption in contiguity of the gene 43 reading frame maps in a highly diverged sequence separating the code for essential components of two major modules of this pol B enzyme, the FINGERS and PALM domains, which contain the dNTP binding pocket and POL catalytic residues of the enzyme. We discuss the biological implications of these gp43 splits and compare them to other types of pol B splits in nature. Our studies suggest that DNA mobile elements may allow genetic information for pol B modules to be exchanged between organisms.

  14. Three magnetic particles solid phase radioimmunoassay for T4: Comparison of their results with established methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, T.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of solid phase separation techniques is an important improvement in radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays. Magnetic particle solid phase method has additional advantages over others, as the separation is rapid and centrifugation is not required. Three types of magnetic particles have been studied in T 4 RIA and the results have been compared with commercial kits and other established methods. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Tensile behavior of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 aluminum alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidarzadeh, A.; Khodaverdizadeh, H.; Mahmoudi, A.; Nazari, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Range of parameters for defect-free friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 was reached. ► A model was developed for predicting UTS and EL of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4. ► The maximum values of UTS and EL of joints were estimated by developed model. ► The optimum values of FSW process parameters were determined. -- Abstract: In this investigation response surface methodology based on a central composite rotatable design with three parameters, five levels and 20 runs, was used to develop a mathematical model predicting the tensile properties of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 aluminum alloy joints at 95% confidence level. The three welding parameters considered were tool rotational speed, welding speed and axial force. Analysis of variance was applied to validate the predicted model. Microstructural characterization and fractography of joints were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Also, the effects of the welding parameters on tensile properties of friction stir welded joints were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the optimum parameters to get a maximum of tensile strength were 920 rev/min, 78 mm/min and 7.2 kN, where the maximum of tensile elongation was obtained at 1300 rev/min, 60 mm/min and 8 kN.

  16. Processive nicking activity of T4 endonuclease V on UV-irradiated chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruskin, E.A.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    T4 endonuclease V initiates the excision repair of pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated T4 infected E. coli cells. The pyrimidine dimer specific nicking activity of T4 endonuclease V functions by a processive scanning on UV-irradiated DNA. Previously it has been demonstrated that introduction of endonuclease V into repair-deficient human cells causes a restoration of UV survival in these cells. This demonstrates that endonuclease V is competent to incise mammalian DNA at the site of pyrimidine dimers. In order to assess the ability of endonuclease V to act processively on DNA associated as chromatin, minichromosomes were prepared for use as a substrate. Form I DNA was reconstituted with H3, H4 +/- H1 histones by sequential dialysis steps from 2.0 M NaCl to 50 mM NaCl. Time course reactions were performed with minichromosomes containing 10 and 25 dimers per molecule. In each case the rate of disappearance of form I DNA which was associated as chromatin was decreased relative to that of naked form I DNA. Concurrent with that observation, the rate and extent of appearance of form III DNA was increased with the DNA in minichromosomes relative to naked DNA. This is diagnostic of an enhancement of processivity. The inclusion of H1 in the minichromosomes resulted in a slight additional increase in processivity relative to minichromosomes consisting only of H3 and H4

  17. Sequence organization and control of transcription in the bacteriophage T4 tRNA region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Abelson, J

    1985-10-05

    Bacteriophage T4 contains genes for eight transfer RNAs and two stable RNAs of unknown function. These are found in two clusters at 70 X 10(3) base-pairs on the T4 genetic map. To understand the control of transcription in this region we have completed the sequencing of 5000 base-pairs in this region. The sequence contains a part of gene 3, gene 1, gene 57, internal protein I, the tRNA genes and five open reading frames which most likely code for heretofore unidentified proteins. We have used subclones of the region to investigate the kinetics of transcription in vivo. The results show that transcription in this region consists of overlapping early, middle and late transcripts. Transcription is directed from two early promoters, one or two middle promoters and perhaps two late promoters. This region contains all of the features that are seen in T4 transcription and as such is a good place to study the phenomenon in more detail.

  18. Quantitation of T-3 (triiodothyronine) and T-4 (thyroxine) in serum and plasma. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglowski, W.; Williams, R.B.

    1981-12-01

    This report summarizes an examination of the published literature concerning the quantitation of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the clinical laboratory. It therefore details the precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity obtainable in various commercial systems and those devised in the clinical laboratory. The data produced by several of the procedures often indicate that improvements in these parameters would enhance overall assay performance and increase the reliability of the clinical interpretation derivable from assay results. For T-3 and T-4 in vitro assays a very large number of systems exist and are currently being utilized in clinical laboratories in this country. For the sake of brevity some systems, while mentioned, are not reviewed in exhaustive detail. Radioimmunoassay, as the most frequently performed assay for both T-3 and T-4 is extensively reviewed. Also discussed with particular interest are assay systems which will undoubtedly impact on the future course of thyroid hormone assessment in the clinical laboratory, namely enzyme immunoassay and fluorescent immunoassay. The state of the art in T-4 measurements in neonates, because it is such a critical area for application of in vitro thyroid testing, is given detailed review. The quantitation of free thyroxine has been discussed in detail. These assays have been gaining more frequent use in the clinical laboratory and increased commercial system development

  19. Synthesis and magnetic property of T4 virus-supported gold-coated iron ternary nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Ziming; Sun Hongjing; Gao Faming, E-mail: fmgao@ysu.edu.cn; Hou Li; Li Na [Yanshan University, Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry (China)

    2012-12-15

    Herein, we present a novel method based on the use of the symmetrical T4 bacteriophage capsid as a scaffold for preparing the gold-coated iron ternary core/shell nanostructure. Results showed that the thick gold shell was obtained to effectively protect Fe core from oxidation. Magnetic measurements showed that the nanocomposites were superparamagnetic at room temperature with a blocking temperature of about 35 K. At 3 K, its coercivity of 1142.86 Oe was larger than the existing experimental values. The magnetic property of Au/T4 was also tested, demonstrating the source of the magnetic sample arising from the Fe core only. The absorption spectrum of the Fe-Au/T4 complex was measured and compared with gold/virus. Different thickness gold shells were controlled in the synthesis by tuning the Au salt addition. On the basis of results and discussion, we further speculated the general growing mechanism of the template-supported Fe-Au process.

  20. Studies on the transmission of sub-THz waves in magnetized inhomogeneous plasma sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Shen, Linfang; Yao, Ming; Deng, Xiaohua; Chen, Zhou; Hong, Lujun

    2018-01-01

    There have been many studies on the sub-terahertz (sub-THz) wave transmission in reentry plasma sheaths. However, only some of them have paid attention to the transmission of sub-THz waves in magnetized plasma sheaths. In this paper, the transmission of sub-THz waves in both unmagnetized and magnetized reentry plasma sheaths was investigated. The impacts of temporal evolution of the plasma sheath on the wave transmission were studied. The transmission of "atmospheric window" frequencies in a magnetized plasma sheath was discussed in detail. According to the study, the power transmission rates (Tp) for the left hand circular (LHC) and the right hand circular modes in the magnetized plasma sheath are obviously higher and lower than those in the unmagnetized plasma sheath, respectively. The Tp of LHC mode increases with both wave frequency and external magnetic field strength. Also, the Tp of LHC mode in both magnetized and unmagnetized plasma sheaths varies with time due to the temporal evolution of the plasma sheath. Moreover, the performance of sub-THz waves in magnetized plasma sheath hints at a new approach to the "blackout" problem. The new approach, which is in the capability of modern technology, is to utilize the communication system operating at 140 GHz with an onboard magnet installed near the antenna.

  1. An ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study of a rare genetic sperm tail defect that causes infertility in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Baccio; Bruni, Emanuele; Gambera, Laura; Moretti, Elena; Piomboni, Paola

    2004-08-01

    To characterize and describe the ontogenesis of a rare flagellar defect affecting the whole sperm population of a sterile man. Case report. Regional referral center for male infertility in Siena, Italy. A 28-year-old man with severe asthenozoospermia. Physical and hormonal assays, semen analysis, and testicular biopsy. Semen samples and testicular biopsies were analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy; immunocytochemical study with anti-beta-tubulin and anti-AKAP 82 antibodies was performed to detect the presence and distribution of proteins. Ultrastructural analysis of ejaculated spermatozoa and testicular biopsy revealed absence of the fibrous sheath in the principal-piece region of the tail. Fibrous sheath-like structures were observed in cytoplasmic residues and residual bodies released by spermatids in the seminiferous epithelium. Other anomalies observed were supplementary axonemes and mitochondrial helix elongation. These features were confirmed by immunocytochemical staining. This rare sperm tail defect, characterized by absence of the fibrous sheath, presence of supplementary axonemes, and an abnormally elongated midpiece, originates in the seminiferous tubules during spermiogenesis, as detected in testicular biopsy sections. These defects occur in the whole sperm population, and therefore a genetic origin could be suggested.

  2. Urea, Uric Acid, Prolactin and fT4 Concentrations in Aqueous Humor of Keratoconus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachon, Tanja; Stachon, Axel; Hartmann, Ulrike; Seitz, Berthold; Langenbucher, Achim; Szentmáry, Nóra

    2017-06-01

    Keratoconus is a noninflammatory disease of the cornea associated with progressive thinning and conical shape. Metabolic alterations in the urea cycle, with changes in collagen fibril stability, oxidative stress, thyroid hormones and prolactin with regulatory effect on biosynthesis and biomechanical stability of corneal stroma, may all play a role in keratoconus etiology. Our purpose was to determine urea, uric acid, prolactin and free thyroxin (fT4) concentrations in human aqueous humor (hAH) of keratoconus and cataract patients. hAH was collected from 100 keratoconus (penetrating keratoplasty) (41.9 ± 14.9 years, 69 males) and 100 cataract patients (cataract surgery) (71.2 ± 12.4 years, 58 males). Urea, uric acid, prolactin and fT4 concentrations were measured by Siemens clinical chemistry or immunoassay system. For statistical analysis, a generalized linear model (GLM) was used. Urea concentration was 11.88 ± 3.03 mg/dl in keratoconus and 16.44 ± 6.40 mg/dl in cataract patients, uric acid 2.04 ± 0.59 mg/dl in keratoconus and 2.18 ± 0.73 mg/dl in cataract groups. Prolactin concentration was 3.18 ± 0.34 ng/ml in keratoconus and 3.33 ± 0.32 ng/ml in cataract patients, fT4 20.57 ± 4.76 pmol/l in KC and 19.06 ± 3.86 pmol/l in cataract group. Urea concentration was effected through gender (p = 0.039), age (p = 0.001) and diagnosis (p = 0.025). Uric acid concentration was not effected through any of the analyzed parameters (p > 0.056). Prolactin and fT4 concentration were effected only through diagnosis (p = 0.009 and p = 0.006). Urea and prolactin concentrations are decreased, fT4 concentration is increased in aqueous humor of keratoconus patients, and uric acid concentration remains unchanged. Urea concentration in aqueous humor is also increased in older and male patients. Therefore, metabolic disorder and hormonal balance may both have an impact on keratoconus development. Further studies are necessary to assess the specific impact.

  3. Alterations in gp37 expand the host range of a T4-like phage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mianmian; Zhang, Lei; Abdelgader, Sheikheldin A; Yu, Li; Xu, Juntian; Yao, Huochun; Lu, Chengping; Zhang, Wei

    2017-09-22

    The use of phages as antibacterial agents is limited by their generally narrow host range. The aim of this study was to make a T4-like phage, WG01, obtain the host range of another T4-like phage, QL01, by replacing its host determinant gene region with that of QL01. This process triggered a direct expansion of the WG01 host range. The offspring of WG01 obtained the host ranges of both QL01 and WG01, as well as the ability to infect eight additional host bacteria in comparison to the wildtype strains. WQD had the widest host range; therefore, the corresponding QD fragments could be used for constructing a homologous sequence library. Moreover, after a sequencing analysis of gene37, we identified two different mechanisms responsible for the expanded host range: 1) the first generation of WG01 formed chimeras without mutations; and 2) the second generation of WG01 mutants formed from the chimeras. The expansion of the host range indicated that regions other than the C-terminal region may indirectly change the receptor specificity by altering the supportive capacity of the binding site. Additionally, we also found that the subsequent generations acquired a novel means of expanding the host range through acquiring a wider temperature range for lysis by exchanging gene37. The method developed in this work offers a quick way to change or expand the host range of a phage. Future clinical applications for screening phages against a given clinical isolate could be achieved after acquiring more suitable homologous sequences. IMPORTANCE T4-like phages have been established as safe in numerous phage therapy applications. The primary drawbacks to the use of phages as therapeutic agents include their highly specific host range. Thus, changing or expanding the host range of T4-like phages is beneficial for selecting phages for phage therapy. In this study, the host range of one T4-like phage WG01 was expanded using genetic manipulation. The WG01 derivatives acquired a novel means

  4. Research on Long Tail Recommendation Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuezhi; Zhang, Chuang; Wu, Ming; Zeng, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Most recommendation systems in the major electronic commerce platforms are influenced by the long tail effect more or less. There are sufficient researches of how to assess recommendation effect while no criteria to evaluate long tail recommendation rate. In this study, we first discussed the existing problems of recommending long tail products through specific experiments. Then we proposed a long tail evaluation criteria and compared the performance in long tail recommendation between different models.

  5. R-type bacteriocins in related strains of Xenorhabdus bovienii: Xenorhabdicin tail fiber modularity and contribution to competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciezki, Kristin; Murfin, Kristen; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi; Stock, S Patricia; Forst, Steven

    2017-01-01

    R-type bacteriocins are contractile phage tail-like structures that are bactericidal towards related bacterial species. The C-terminal region of the phage tail fiber protein determines target-binding specificity. The mutualistic bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and X. bovienii produce R-type bacteriocins (xenorhabdicins) that are selectively active against different Xenorhabdus species. We analyzed the P2-type remnant prophage clusters in draft sequences of nine strains of X. bovienii The C-terminal tail fiber region in each of the respective strains was unique and consisted of mosaics of modular units. The region between the main tail fiber gene (xbpH1) and the sheath gene (xbpS1) contained a variable number of modules encoding tail fiber fragments. DNA inversion and module exchange between strains was involved in generating tail fiber diversity. Xenorhabdicin-enriched fractions from three different X. bovienii strains isolated from the same nematode species displayed distinct activities against each other. In one set of strains, the strain that produced highly active xenorhabdicin was able to eliminate a sensitive strain. In contrast, xenorhabdicin activity was not a determining factor in the competitive fitness of a second set of strains. These findings suggest that related strains of X. bovienii use xenorhabdicin and additional antagonistic molecules to compete against each other. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The tail of integrin activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthis, Nicholas J; Campbell, Iain D

    2010-01-01

    Integrins are essential adhesion receptors found on the surfaces of all metazoan cells. As regulators of cell migration and extracellular matrix assembly, these membrane-spanning heterodimers are critical for embryonic development, tissue repair and immune responses. Signals transmitted by integrins from outside to inside the cell promote cell survival and proliferation, but integrin affinity for extracellular ligands can also be controlled by intracellular cues. This bidirectional signaling is mediated by the short cytoplasmic tails of the two integrin subunits. Recent structural and functional studies of various integrin fragments and complexes between the cytoplasmic tails and intracellular proteins, such as talin, have provided new insight into the signaling processes centered around the tails, particularly inside-out integrin activation. PMID:21216149

  7. Genetic characterization of the Pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) using mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Valdez, Ernest W.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Fike, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Emballonura semicaudata occurs in the southwestern Pacific and populations on many islands have declined or disappeared. One subspecies (E. semicaudata rotensis) occurs in the Northern Mariana Islands, where it has been extirpated from all but 1 island (Aguiguan). We assessed genetic similarity between the last population of E. s. rotensis and 2 other subspecies, and examined genetic diversity on Aguiguan. We sampled 12 E. s. rotensis, sequenced them at 3 mitochondrial loci, and compared them with published sequences from 2 other subspecies. All 12 E. s. rotensis had identical sequences in each of the 3 regions. Using cytochrome-b (Cytb) data E. s. rotensis was sister to E. s. palauensis in a clade separate from E. s. semicaudata. 12S ribosomal RNA (12S) sequences grouped all E. s. semicaudata in 1 clade with E. s. rotensis in a clade by itself. Genetic distances among the 3 subspecies at Cytb were smallest between E. s. palauensis and E. s. rotensis. Distance between E. s. semicaudata and the other 2 subspecies was not different from the distance between E. s. semicaudata and the full species E. raffrayana. A similar relationship was found using the 12S data. These distances are larger than those typically reported for mammalian subspecies using Cytb sequence and within the range of sister species.

  8. The in-process control of PVC sheath of a double core cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeeva, N. S.; Redko, V. V.; Redko, L. A.

    2018-01-01

    In this work the possibility of the sheath hermiticity testing by measuring of the cable capacity per unit length variation during spark testing is considered. The research object is 2×0.75 HO3VVH2-F cable. According to the physical modelling it is proved that such defect of sheath as pinhole through the whole thickness of sheath can be registered for the test length 10 cm with test voltage frequencies 1kHz and 10kHz.

  9. Design of Cold-Formed Steel Screw Connections with Gypsum Sheathing at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Load-bearing cold-formed steel (CFS walls sheathed with double layers of gypsum plasterboard on both sides have demonstrated good fire resistance and attracted increasing interest for use in mid-rise CFS structures. As the main connection method, screw connections between CFS and gypsum sheathing play an important role in both the structural design and fire resistance of this wall system. However, studies on the mechanical behavior of screw connections with double-layer gypsum sheathing are still limited. In this study, 200 monotonic tests of screw connections with single- or double-layer gypsum sheathing at both ambient and elevated temperatures were conducted. The failure of screw connections with double-layer gypsum sheathing in shear was different from that of single-layer gypsum sheathing connections at ambient temperature, and it could be described as the breaking of the loaded sheathing edge combined with significant screw tilting and the loaded sheathing edge flexing fracture. However, the screw tilting and flexing fracture of the loaded sheathing edge gradually disappear at elevated temperatures. In addition, the influence of the loaded edge distance, double-layer sheathing and elevated temperatures is discussed in detail with clear conclusions. A unified design formula for the shear strength of screw connections with gypsum sheathing is proposed for ambient and elevated temperatures with adequate accuracy. A simplified load–displacement model with the post-peak branch is developed to evaluate the load–displacement response of screw connections with gypsum sheathing at ambient and elevated temperatures.

  10. Concurrent chemotherapy for T4 classification nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the era of intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-neng Cao

    Full Text Available To evaluate concurrent chemotherapy for T4 classification nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT.From July 2004 to June 2011, 180 non-metastatic T4 classification NPC patients were retrospectively analyzed. Of these patients, 117 patients were treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT using IMRT and 63 cases were treated by IMRT alone.The median follow-up time was 58.97 months (range, 2.79-114.92 months. For all the patients, the 1, 3 and 5-year local failure-free survival (LFFS rates were 97.7%, 89.2% and 85.9%, regional failure free survival (RFFS rates were 98.9%, 94.4% and 94.4%, distant failure-free survival (DFFS rates were 89.7%, 79.9% and 76.2%, and overall survival (OS rates were 92.7%, 78.9% and 65.3%, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed in LFFS, RFFS, DFFS and OS between the CCRT group and the IMRT alone group. No statistically significant difference was observed in acute toxicity except leukopenia (p = 0.000 during IMRT between the CCRT group and the IMRT alone group.IMRT alone for T4 classification NPC achieved similar treatment outcomes in terms of disease local control and overall survival as compared to concurrent chemotherapy plus IMRT. However, this is a retrospective study with a limited number of patients, such results need further investigation in a prospective randomized clinical trial.

  11. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Treatment results and locoregional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.L.Y.; Tsai, C.L.; Chen, W.Y.; Wang, C.W. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Radiation Oncology; Huang, Y.S.; Chen, Y.F. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Kuo, S.H. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Radiation Oncology; National Taiwan Univ. College of Medicine, Taipei (China). Graduate Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Hong, R.L. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Medical Oncology; Ko, J.Y.; Lou, P.J. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Otolaryngology

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to examine outcomes in patients with T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and materials: Between 2007 and 2010, 154 patients with nonmetastatic T4 NPC were treated with IMRT to a total dose of 70 Gy in 33-35 fractions. In addition, 97 % of patients received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 52.8 months. Results: The rates of 5-year actuarial locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, progression free-survival, and overall survival (OS) were 81.2, 72.2, 61.9, and 78.1 %, respectively. A total of 27 patients had locoregional recurrence: 85.2 % in-field failures, 11.1 % marginal failures, and 3.7 % out-of-field failures. Fourteen patients with locoregional recurrence received aggressive treatments, including nasopharyngectomy, neck dissection, or re-irradiation, and the 5-year OS rate tended to be better (61.9 %) compared to those receiving conservative treatment (32.0 %, p = 0.051). In patients treated with 1 course of radiotherapy, grade {>=} 3 toxicities of ototoxicity, neck fibrosis, xerostomia, epistaxis, and radiographic temporal lobe necrosis occurred in 18.2, 9.8, 6.3, 2.1, and 5.6 % of patients, respectively. Increased ototoxicity, osteonecrosis, severe nasal bleeding, and temporal necrosis were observed in patients treated by re-irradiation. Conclusion: IMRT offers good locoregional control in patients with T4 NPC. For patients with locoregional recurrence after definitive radiotherapy, aggressive local treatment may be considered for a better outcome. (orig.)

  12. Purification of phage display-modified bacteriophage T4 by affinity chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figura Grzegorz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Affinity chromatography is one of the most efficient protein purification strategies. This technique comprises a one-step procedure with a purification level in the order of several thousand-fold, adaptable for various proteins, differentiated in their size, shape, charge, and other properties. The aim of this work was to verify the possibility of applying affinity chromatography in bacteriophage purification, with the perspective of therapeutic purposes. T4 is a large, icosahedral phage that may serve as an efficient display platform for foreign peptides or proteins. Here we propose a new method of T4 phage purification by affinity chromatography after its modification with affinity tags (GST and Histag by in vivo phage display. As any permanent introduction of extraneous DNA into a phage genome is strongly unfavourable for medical purposes, integration of foreign motifs with the phage genome was not applied. The phage was propagated in bacteria expressing fusions of the phage protein Hoc with affinity tags from bacterial plasmids, independently from the phage expression system. Results Elution profiles of phages modified with the specific affinity motifs (compared to non-specific phages document their binding to the affinity resins and effective elution with standard competitive agents. Non-specific binding was also observed, but was 102-105 times weaker than the specific one. GST-modified bacteriophages were also effectively released from glutathione Sepharose by proteolytic cleavage. The possibility of proteolytic release was designed at the stage of expression vector construction. Decrease in LPS content in phage preparations was dependent on the washing intensity; intensive washing resulted in preparations of 11-40 EU/ml. Conclusions Affinity tags can be successfully incorporated into the T4 phage capsid by the in vivo phage display technique and they strongly elevate bacteriophage affinity to a specific resin. Affinity

  13. Oncological outcomes following radical prostatectomy for patients with pT4 prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharam Kaushik

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: Radical prostatectomy (RP for locally advanced prostate cancer may reduce the risk of metastasis and cancer-specific death. Herein, we evaluated the outcomes for patients with pT4 disease treated with RP. Materials and methods: Among 19,800 men treated with RP at Mayo Clinic from 1987 to 2010, 87 were found to have pT4 tumors. Biochemical recurrence (BCR-free survival, systemic progression (SP free survival and overall survival (OS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association of clinic-pathological features with outcome. Results: Median follow-up was 9.8 years (IQR 3.6, 13.4. Of the 87 patients, 50 (57.5% were diagnosed with BCR, 30 (34.5% developed SP, and 38 (43.7% died, with 11 (12.6% dying of prostate cancer. Adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy was administered to 77 men, while 32 received adjuvant external beam radiation therapy. Ten-year BCR-free survival, SP-free survival, and OS was 37%, 64%, and 70% respectively. On multivariate analysis, the presence of positive lymph nodes was marginally significantly associated with patients' risk of BCR (HR: 1.94; p=0.05, while both positive lymph nodes (HR 2.96; p=0.02 and high pathologic Gleason score (HR 1.95; p=0.03 were associated with SP. Conclusions: Patients with pT4 disease may experience long-term survival following RP, and as such, when technically feasible, surgical resection should be considered in the multimodal treatment approach to these men.

  14. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Treatment results and locoregional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.L.Y.; Tsai, C.L.; Chen, W.Y.; Wang, C.W.; Huang, Y.S.; Chen, Y.F.; Kuo, S.H.; National Taiwan Univ. College of Medicine, Taipei; Hong, R.L.; Ko, J.Y.; Lou, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to examine outcomes in patients with T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and materials: Between 2007 and 2010, 154 patients with nonmetastatic T4 NPC were treated with IMRT to a total dose of 70 Gy in 33-35 fractions. In addition, 97 % of patients received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 52.8 months. Results: The rates of 5-year actuarial locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, progression free-survival, and overall survival (OS) were 81.2, 72.2, 61.9, and 78.1 %, respectively. A total of 27 patients had locoregional recurrence: 85.2 % in-field failures, 11.1 % marginal failures, and 3.7 % out-of-field failures. Fourteen patients with locoregional recurrence received aggressive treatments, including nasopharyngectomy, neck dissection, or re-irradiation, and the 5-year OS rate tended to be better (61.9 %) compared to those receiving conservative treatment (32.0 %, p = 0.051). In patients treated with 1 course of radiotherapy, grade ≥ 3 toxicities of ototoxicity, neck fibrosis, xerostomia, epistaxis, and radiographic temporal lobe necrosis occurred in 18.2, 9.8, 6.3, 2.1, and 5.6 % of patients, respectively. Increased ototoxicity, osteonecrosis, severe nasal bleeding, and temporal necrosis were observed in patients treated by re-irradiation. Conclusion: IMRT offers good locoregional control in patients with T4 NPC. For patients with locoregional recurrence after definitive radiotherapy, aggressive local treatment may be considered for a better outcome. (orig.)

  15. Bidirectional electron anisotropies in the distant tail: ISEE-3 observations of polar rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Gosling, J.T.; Zwickl, R.D.; Slavin, J.A.; Smith, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed observational treatment of bidirectional electrons (50 approx.500 eV) in the distant magnetotail (r greater than or equal to 100 R/sub E/) is presented. It is found that electrons in this energy range commonly exhibit strong, field-aligned anisotropies in the tail lobes. Because of large tail motions, the ISEE-3 data provide extensive sampling of both the north and south lobes in rapid succession, demonstrating directly the strong asymmetries that exist between the north and south lobes at any one time. The bidirectional fluxes are found to occur predominantly in the lobe directly connected to the sunward IMF in the open magnetosphere model (north lobe for away sectors and south lobe for toward sectors). Electron anisotropy and magnetic field data are presented which show the transition from unidirectional (sheath) electron populations to bidirectional (lobe) populations. Taken together, the present evidence suggests that the bidirectional electrons that we observe in the distant tail are closely related to the polar rain electrons observed previously at lower altitudes. Furthermore, these data provide strong evidence that the distant tail is comprised largely of open magnetic field lines in contradistinction to some recently advanced models

  16. Absent endometrium due to balanced translocation [t(4;20] presenting as primary amenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Nigam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menarche by 16-18 years of age in the presence of well-developed secondary sexual characters. An incidence of 1-3% has been reported in women of reproductive age group. The etiology varies with anatomical, genetic and hormonal factors implicated in the causation of primary amenorrhea. We present a case of absent endometrium due to balanced reciprocal translocation (RCPTR, 46 XX t (4;20(q12;q13.1 as primary amenorrhea.

  17. Reconstrucción "Módulo D" aparcamiento Madrid Barajas T-4

    OpenAIRE

    Corres Peiretti, Hugo; Romero Rey, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    En este artículo se describen los daños producidos a la estructura del aparcamiento de la terminal T4 de Barajas, tras el atentado del 2006. Se describen las zonas y elementos que se vieron afectados, y el tipo de daños que se detectarón. Tras analizar esa información se explica como se produzco el derrumbamiento y los modos de fallos que se observarón en la estructura. Inmediatamente despues de le explosión empiezan las labores de desemcombro y de demolición de los elementos afectados. Depen...

  18. Human Volunteers Receiving Escherichia coli Phage T4 Orally: a Safety Test of Phage Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bruttin, Anne; Brüssow, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen healthy adult volunteers received in their drinking water a lower Escherichia coli phage T4 dose (103 PFU/ml), a higher phage dose (105 PFU/ml), and placebo. Fecal coliphage was detected in a dose-dependent way in volunteers orally exposed to phage. All volunteers receiving the higher phage dose showed fecal phage 1 day after exposure; this prevalence was only 50% in subjects receiving the lower phage dose. No fecal phage was detectable a week after a 2-day course of oral phage applic...

  19. T-4 handbook of material properties data bases. Volume 1c. Equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holian, K.S.

    1984-11-01

    This manual is a compilation of descriptions of the equations of state (EOS) in the T-4 computerized library of material properties tables. The introduction gives a brief descriptions of the library and of the physics theories and models which were used to calculate the equations of state. Then each EOS is described in detail. First, various physical parameters of each theoretical EOS are tabulated and compared with experiments when available. Then the method of generating the EOS is briefly described. Finally, the tabels are plotted in terms of pressure and energy vs density along line of constant temperature

  20. Cloning and expression of the genes coding for tube associated proteins of bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieradko, J.

    1995-01-01

    Genes 29, 48 and 54 of bacteriophage T4, coding for specific tube associated proteins, were cloned to the expression vector pT7-5. The molecular mass of the products of these genes was estimated to be 64, 39 and 36 kDa, respectively. The examined genes are co-transcribed with genes 51, 27 and 28 from the same DNA strand and a common late promoter sequence located downstream of gene 51. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  1. Fatigue crack growth in 2017A-T4 alloy subjected to proportional bending with torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rozumek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of tests on the fatigue crack growth for a constant moment amplitude under combined bending with torsion in the aluminium alloy AW-2017A-T4. The tests were performed under different values of the load ratio R. Plane specimens with stress concentrators in form of the external one-sided sharp notch were tested. A non-uniform fatigue cracks growth on both lateral surfaces of specimens was observed during experimental tests. Fatigue cracks were developing in the specimens in two stages; quarter-elliptic edge cracks were observed at the beginning, then evolving into through cracks

  2. Dewatering tailings impoundments : interior drains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlie, W.A.; Doehring, D.O.; Durnford, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    For the design of a new uranium tailings impoundment in the western United States, it was proposed that an interior drainage system be considered to economically and reliably minimize potential short- and long-term environmental impacts. The objectives were to decrease the effective hydraulic head on the clay liner, to dewater and stabilize the tailings, and to increase the amount of water recycled to the mill. In addition, desaturation of the impoundment would induce capillary pressure (negative porewater pressure), further reducing the potential movement of dissolved pollutants. This paper presents saturated and unsaturated seepage principles and reviews the concept, criteria and design of the various interior drainage systems considered

  3. Estimation of current sheath curvature in plasma focus device using magnetic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Cai; Yujuan, Shi; Patran, A.; Rawat, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of current sheath, in terms of its speed and sheath curvature, in dense plasma focus device was investigated in its axial acceleration phase using multiple magnetic probes. The investigation was performed for different filling gas pressures of neon. The relative X-ray yields were estimated using a diode X-ray spectrometer. A possible correlation between the current sheath curvature and the X-ray emission was explored. The investigation demonstrates the effective use of relatively simple diagnostics tool, the magnetic probes, in the estimation of current sheath axial speeds and curvatures. (authors)

  4. Usefulness of a guiding sheath for fluoroscopic stent placement in patients with malignant gastroduodenal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Kim, Myoung Sun; Chung, Rosa; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Na, Han Kyu; Nam, Deok Ho

    2013-04-01

    Self-expandable metallic stent placement is widely used to manage malignant gastroduodenal obstructions. However, there are difficulties in negotiating a guidewire (GW) and a stent delivery system (SDS). To investigate feasibility, usefulness, and safety of a guiding sheath for fluoroscopic stent placement in patients with malignant gastroduodenal obstructions. In July 2001 to August 2011, 726 patients with malignant gastroduodenal obstructions underwent stent placement. Guiding sheath was used in patients in whom a GW could not be passed through the obstruction and a SDS failed to reach the obstruction. Sheath usefulness was evaluated based on the ability of the sheath to successfully assist. The technical success rate and the most frequent reasons for the use of a sheath were evaluated. The guiding sheath was needed in 148 of 726 patients (20%). The overall technical success rate was 98% with the guiding sheath. In two of 148 patients, stent placement failed because, the GW could not be passed through the obstruction, in the other, the SDS could not be passed. A minority of patients reported mild discomfort. Patients with pancreatic cancer and duodenal obstruction were significantly more likely to require the use of guiding sheaths (P = 0.002, P guiding sheath for fluoroscopic stent placement appears to be feasible, useful and safe in patients with malignant gastroduodenal obstructions.

  5. Lunar electric fields, surface potential and associated plasma sheaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J. W.; Ibrahim, M.

    1975-01-01

    A review is given of studies of the electric-field environment of the moon. Surface electric potentials are reported for the dayside and terminator regions, electron and ion densities in the plasma sheath adjacent to each surface-potential regime are evaluated, and the corresponding Debye lengths are estimated. The electric fields, which are approximated by the surface potential over the Debye length, are shown to be at least three orders of magnitude higher than the pervasive solar-wind electric field and to be confined to within a few tens of meters of the lunar surface.

  6. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju N Duttargi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor [MPNST] is an extremely rare tumor affecting the oral cavity. It refers to sarcomas that arise from nerve or display features of neural differentiation. Here we present a case of 30-year old male patient with MPNST of right side of the mandible. There was a family history of neurotibromatosis in this case. Histologically, pleomorphic spindle cells with wavy nuclei, light stained cytoplasm, and mitotic activity were observed. The clinical presentation, radiological findings, and light microscopic findings are described in detail. The criteria for diagnosing these tumors and recent advances for diagnosis have also been highlighted.

  7. Miscellaneous conditions of tendons, tendon sheaths, and ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, S J; Dik, K J

    1995-08-01

    The use of diagnostic ultrasonography has greatly enhances our ability to diagnose injuries of tendons and tendon sheaths that were previously either unrecognized or poorly understood. For may of these injuries, there is currently only a small amount of follow-up data. This article considers injuries of the deep digital flexor tendon and its accessory ligament, the carpal tunnel syndrome soft tissue swellings on the dorsal aspect of the carpus, intertubercular (bicipital) bursitis and bicipital tendinitis, injuries of the gastrocnemius tendon, common calcaneal tendinitis, rupture of peroneus (fibularis tertius) and ligaments injuries of the back.

  8. DENV gene of bacteriophage T4 codes for both pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase and apyrimidinic endonuclease activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, S.; Edenberg, H.J.; Radany, E.H.; Friedberg, R.C.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that purified preparations of phage T4 UV DNA-incising activity (T4 UV endonuclease or endonuclease V of phase T4) contain a pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity that catalyzes hydrolysis of the 5' glycosyl bond of dimerized pyrimidines in UV-irradiated DNA. Such enzyme preparations have also been shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds in UV-irradiated DNA at a neutral pH, presumably reflecting the action of an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease at the apyrimidinic sites created by the pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase. In this study we found that preparations of T4 UV DNA-incising activity contained apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity that nicked depurinated form I simian virus 40 DNA. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity was also found in extracts of Escherichia coli infected with T4 denV + phage. Extracts of cells infected with T4 denV mutants contained significantly lower levels of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity; these levels were no greater than the levels present in extracts of uninfected cells. Furthermore, the addition of DNA containing UV-irradiated DNA and T4 enzyme resulted in competition for pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity against the UV-irradiated DNA. On the basis of these results, we concluded that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity is encoded by the denV gene of phage T4, the same gene that codes for pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity

  9. Genome analysis of phage JS98 defines a fourth major subgroup of T4-like phages in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Sophie; Ngom-Bru, Catherine; Barretto, Caroline; Bruttin, Anne; Brüssow, Harald; Denou, Emmanuel

    2007-11-01

    Numerous T4-like Escherichia coli phages were isolated from human stool and environmental wastewater samples in Bangladesh and Switzerland. The sequences of the major head gene (g23) revealed that these coliphages could be placed into four subgroups, represented by the phages T4, RB69, RB49, and JS98. Thus, JS98 defines a new major subgroup of E. coli T4-like phages. We conducted an analysis of the 169-kb JS98 genome sequence. Overall, 198 of the 266 JS98 open reading frames (ORFs) shared amino acid sequence identity with the reference T4 phage, 41 shared identity with other T4-like phages, and 27 ORFs lacked any database matches. Genes on the plus strand encoded virion proteins, which showed moderate to high sequence identity with T4 proteins. The right genome half of JS98 showed a higher degree of sequence conservation with T4 and RB69, even for the nonstructural genes, than did the left genome half, containing exclusively nonstructural genes. Most of the JS98-specific genes were found in the left genome half. Two came as a hypervariability cluster, but most represented isolated genes, suggesting that they were acquired separately in multiple acquisition events. No evidence for DNA exchange between JS98 phage and the E. coli host genome or coliphages other than T4 was observed. No undesired genes which could compromise its medical use were detected in the JS98 genome sequence.

  10. Why are most EU pigs tail docked?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'eath, R.B.; Niemi, J.K.; Vosough Ahmadi, B.

    2016-01-01

    To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive by examin......To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive...

  11. Metal ions-binding T4 lysozyme as an intramolecular protein purification tag compatible with X-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boura, Evzen; Baumlova, Adriana; Chalupska, Dominika; Dubankova, Anna; Klima, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Phage T4 lysozyme is a well folded and highly soluble protein that is widely used as an insertion tag to improve solubility and crystallization properties of poorly behaved recombinant proteins. It has been used in the fusion protein strategy to facilitate crystallization of various proteins including multiple G protein-coupled receptors, lipid kinases, or sterol binding proteins. Here, we present a structural and biochemical characterization of its novel, metal ions-binding mutant (mbT4L). We demonstrate that mbT4L can be used as a purification tag in the immobilized-metal affinity chromatography and that, in many respects, it is superior to the conventional hexahistidine tag. In addition, structural characterization of mbT4L suggests that mbT4L can be used as a purification tag compatible with X-ray crystallography. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  12. Hormonal evaluation of T4 and T3 through radioimmunoassay in younglings of rats with hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, M.F.G.; Silva, I.M.S.; Pereira, S.S.L.; Souza, G.M.L.; Carvalho, E.F.M.B.; Cavalcante, C.V.G.; Lima Filho, G.L.; Catanho, M.T.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The onset of fetal thyroid function occurs about 17-18 days after conception in the rat. The maternal hypothyroidism which occurs during gestation provokes alteration in the rat after birth. Due to this alteration, we decided to analyze the hormonal modification in the newborn rats. The hypothyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being treated for 7 days with MMI (in the concentration of 0,03% in drinking water) before mating. Another dam group which was submitted to an induction of hypothyroidism maintained the treatment with MMI for 13 days during gestation. The hormones were assessed by radioimmunoassay technique. It was seen that the rats which were born from hypothyroid dams suffered alterations on its T 4 and T 3 hormone levels concerning to 10, 30 and 60 days after birth. There was also modifications on their weight and size. The growth is affected throughout post-natal life by thyroid hormones, which has a facilitator influence on growth hormone economy, as opposed to the inhibitory effects on TSH economy. The administration of MMI bars the fetal thyroid gland function, causing a decrease of both T 4 and T 3 levels, even after the birth, indicating that the maternal hypothyroidism influences on the post-natal life of the rat. (author)

  13. Acanthamoeba T4, T5 and T11 isolated from mineral water bottles in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschio, Vinicius José; Chies, Fernanda; Carlesso, Ana Maris; Carvalho, Amanda; Rosa, Sayonara Peixoto; Van Der Sand, Sueli Teresinha; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a protist potential pathogen, capable of causing a blinding keratitis in contact lens wearers and disseminated infection, leading to granulomatous amebic encephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. This amoeba is a ubiquitous organism that has been isolated from various domestic water systems, such as cooling towers and hospital water networks. The objective of this work was to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba in mineral water bottles marketed in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Positive samples were further classified at the genotype level after sequencing the ASA.S1 region of 18S rDNA gene. Six of the eight isolates belonged to T5 genotype, one to T4 genotype, and one was T11. Several genotypes have been reported worldwide as causative of pathologies in humans, including genotypes T4, T5 and T11. Overall, the widespread distribution of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in the studied source demands more awareness within the public and health professionals, because this pathogen is emerging as a risk for human health worldwide.

  14. Isolation and genetic properties of a bacteriophage T4 uvs X mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for isolating UV-sensitive mutants of bacteriophage T4 and a relatively simple method for localizing the UV-sensitive mutations on the genetic map are described. Of 13 mutants isolated 5 were shown to be den V mutants and 1 was shown to be a uvs X mutant. Of the remainder, 4 are probably uvs X mutants (based on their map location) while the indentity of the remaining 3 has not been determined. The uvs X mutant (uvsX102) had enhanced UV and γ-ray sensitivity compared to the only other well characterized mutant in this gene, uvsX1 (T4x). Both uvsX1 and uvsX102 were more UV-sensitivity when plated on the su - E. coli B hosts, B and S/6, compared to the su + K12 host CR63, and both reduced the frequency of recombination to the same extent (2-3 fold). The uvsX gene is located between gene 41 and βgt. (orig.)

  15. The effect of bacteriophages T4 and HAP1 on in vitro melanoma migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boratyński Janusz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antibacterial activity of bacteriophages has been described rather well. However, knowledge about the direct interactions of bacteriophages with mammalian organisms and their other, i.e. non-antibacterial, activities in mammalian systems is quite scarce. It must be emphasised that bacteriophages are natural parasites of bacteria, which in turn are parasites or symbionts of mammals (including humans. Bacteriophages are constantly present in mammalian bodies and the environment in great amounts. On the other hand, the perspective of the possible use of bacteriophage preparations for antibacterial therapies in cancer patients generates a substantial need to investigate the effects of phages on cancer processes. Results In these studies the migration of human and mouse melanoma on fibronectin was inhibited by purified T4 and HAP1 bacteriophage preparations. The migration of human melanoma was also inhibited by the HAP1 phage preparation on matrigel. No response of either melanoma cell line to lipopolysaccharide was observed. Therefore the effect of the phage preparations cannot be attributed to lipopolysaccharide. No differences in the effects of T4 and HAP1 on melanoma migration were observed. Conclusion We believe that these observations are of importance for any further attempts to use bacteriophage preparations in antibacterial treatment. The risk of antibiotic-resistant hospital infections strongly affects cancer patients and these results suggest the possibility of beneficial phage treatment. We also believe that they will contribute to the general understanding of bacteriophage biology, as bacteriophages, extremely ubiquitous entities, are in permanent contact with human organisms.

  16. The effect of bacteriophages T4 and HAP1 on in vitro melanoma migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, Krystyna; Skaradziński, Grzegorz; Jończyk, Paulina; Kurzepa, Aneta; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Owczarek, Barbara; Zaczek, Maciej; Switała-Jeleń, Kinga; Boratyński, Janusz; Poźniak, Gryzelda; Maciejewska, Magdalena; Górski, Andrzej

    2009-01-20

    The antibacterial activity of bacteriophages has been described rather well. However, knowledge about the direct interactions of bacteriophages with mammalian organisms and their other, i.e. non-antibacterial, activities in mammalian systems is quite scarce. It must be emphasised that bacteriophages are natural parasites of bacteria, which in turn are parasites or symbionts of mammals (including humans). Bacteriophages are constantly present in mammalian bodies and the environment in great amounts. On the other hand, the perspective of the possible use of bacteriophage preparations for antibacterial therapies in cancer patients generates a substantial need to investigate the effects of phages on cancer processes. In these studies the migration of human and mouse melanoma on fibronectin was inhibited by purified T4 and HAP1 bacteriophage preparations. The migration of human melanoma was also inhibited by the HAP1 phage preparation on matrigel. No response of either melanoma cell line to lipopolysaccharide was observed. Therefore the effect of the phage preparations cannot be attributed to lipopolysaccharide. No differences in the effects of T4 and HAP1 on melanoma migration were observed. We believe that these observations are of importance for any further attempts to use bacteriophage preparations in antibacterial treatment. The risk of antibiotic-resistant hospital infections strongly affects cancer patients and these results suggest the possibility of beneficial phage treatment. We also believe that they will contribute to the general understanding of bacteriophage biology, as bacteriophages, extremely ubiquitous entities, are in permanent contact with human organisms.

  17. Mini Transsternal Approach to the Anterior High Thoracic Spine (T1–T4 Vertebrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Brogna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The anterior high thoracic spine is one of the most complex segments to be accessed surgically due to anatomical constraints and transitional characteristics. We describe in detail the mini transsternal approach to metastatic, infective, traumatic, and degenerative pathologies of T1 to T4 vertebral bodies. We analyse our surgical series, indications, and outcomes. Methods. Over a 5-year period 18 consecutive patients with thoracic myelopathy due to metastatic, infective, traumatic, and degenerative pathologies with T1 to T4 vertebral bodies involvement received a mini transsternal approach with intraoperative monitoring. Frankel scoring system was used to grade the neurological status. Results. Mean follow-up was 40 months. 78% patients improved in Frankel grade after surgery and 22% patients remained unchanged. Average operation time was 210 minutes. There were no intraoperative complications. One patient developed postoperative pneumonia successfully treated with antibiotics. Conclusion. The mini transsternal is a safe approach for infective, metastatic, traumatic, and degenerative lesions affecting the anterior high thoracic spine and the only one allowing an early and direct visualisation of the anterior theca. This approach overcomes the anatomical constraints of this region and provides adequate room for optimal reconstruction and preservation of spinal alignment in the cervicothoracic transition zone with good functional patient outcomes.

  18. Efficacy and safety of treating T4 oral cavity tumors with primary chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ezra E W; Baru, Joshua; Huo, Dezheng; Haraf, Daniel J; Crowley, Maureen; Witt, Mary Ellyn; Blair, Elizabeth A; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Rosen, Fred; Vokes, Everett E; Stenson, Kerstin

    2009-08-01

    Patients with T4 oral cavity (OC) tumors are often treated with surgery followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). We performed a retrospective review of 4 multi-institutional phase II studies estimating long-term toxicity, locoregional control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) of primary CRT. Thirty-nine subjects were identified; 16 (42%) with bony involvement. Median radiotherapy dose delivered to primary tumor was 74 Gy. Five-year OS, PFS, and LC rates were 56%, 51%, and 75%, respectively. Sixty-nine percent of subjects with bony involvement never relapsed. Seven subjects developed osteoradionecrosis. Bone involvement with primary tumor did not appear to be associated with increased risk of death, relapse, or long-term complication. These data suggest that primary CRT is an effective treatment approach in patients with T4 OC tumors including those with bony involvement producing LC, survival, and complication rates comparable to historical series. Prospective clinical trials should evaluate primary surgical versus CRT treatment in these patients. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Acanthamoeba genotypes T3 and T4 as causative agents of amoebic keratitis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Vanzzini-Zago, Virginia; Hernandez-Martinez, Dolores; Gonzalez-Robles, Arturo; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Ramirez-Flores, Elizabeth; Oregon-Miranda, Eric; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martinez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2016-02-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed worldwide. Some genera included in this group act as opportunistic pathogens causing fatal encephalitis and Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), a sight-threatening infection of the cornea associated with the use of soft contact lenses that could even end in blindness if an early diagnosis and treatment are not achieved. Furthermore, the numbers of AK cases keep rising worldwide mainly due to an increase of contact lens wearers and lack of hygiene in the maintenance of lenses and their cases. In Mexico, no cases of AK have been described so far although the isolation of other pathogenic FLA such as Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris from both clinical and environmental sources has been reported. The present study reports two cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis diagnosed in two patients admitted to the Hospital "Luis Sánchez Bulnes" for Blindness Prevention in Mexico City, Mexico. Corneal scrapes and contact lenses were checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba strains in both patients. Strains were axenized after initial isolation to classify at the genotype level. After sequencing the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region located on the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene of Acanthamoeba, genotype T3 and genotype T4 were identified in clinical case 1 and 2, respectively. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of AK in Mexico in the literature and the first description of Acanthamoeba genotypes T3 and T4 as causative agents of amoebic infection.

  20. Noninvasive intracranial pressure monitoring via optic nerve sheath diameter for robotic surgery in steep Trendelenburg position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagun Bhatia Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent reports of increased intracranial pressure (ICP due to steep Trendelenburg (ST position causing neurological deterioration, decreased regional cerebral oxygen saturation and postoperative visual loss after robotic urological and gynecological surgeries led us to consider a simple technique of ICP monitoring. Ours is one of the first instances reported of quantitative noninvasive measurement of increase in ICP with ST position by serial measurement of binocular optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD in patients undergoing robot assisted urological and gynecological oncosurgery. We tested whether ONSD values rose to above the upper limits of normal and for what length of time they remained elevated. Materials and Methods: Prospective, randomized, interventional, parallel group, active control study conducted on 252 American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II patients. ONSD was measured using 7.5 MHz linear ultrasound probe in supine and Trendelenburg positions. Statistics: Student′s t-test to compare the inter-group mean ONSD and the repetitive t-test for intra-group analysis. Result: Comparison of the mean ONSD values of both groups yielded a 2-tailed significance P <0.01 at all compared time points intra- and post-operatively. In Group-O (open surgery; supine position, the baseline mean bilateral ONSD was 4.36 mm, which did not show any statistically significant change throughout open surgery and postoperative period. On de-docking the robot, 6.2 mm was the mean ONSD value in Group-R (robotic group while 4.3 mm was the corresponding value in control Group-O. Conclusion: ONSD evaluation is a simple, quick, safe, readily available, reliable, cost effective, noninvasive, potential standard of care for screening and monitoring of patients undergoing robotic surgery in ST position.

  1. Which ureteral access sheath is compatible with your flexible ureteroscope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Saeed M; Letendre, Julien; Thomas, Alexandre; Natalin, Ricardo; Saussez, Thibaud; Traxer, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Our aim is to evaluate different ureteral access sheaths (UASs), which are available in the international market and their compatibility with different available flexible ureteroscopes (F-URSs) to help the urologist choose the proper ureteral access sheath for his or her endoscope before commencing the procedure. A total of 21 UASs and 12 F-URSs were evaluated. Measurements were obtained in French (F) units considering different characteristics for each UAS and each F-URS. Insertion test without friction between F-URS and UAS was considered as a successful test and was referred as (YES). All UASs and F-URSs were successfully submitted to the insertion test. All F-URSs that were inserted into UASs without friction had an internal diameter of at least 12F. Different lengths of UAS did not influence the test outcome. This study was able to establish a correlation table between different UASs and different flexible ureteroscopes. As of now, the 12/14F UAS is considered the universal UAS that accepts all F-URSs that are available in the endourology field. Nevertheless, we are expecting a significant change with the new standard size 10/12F UAS as well as huge advances in minimizing the size of different endoscopes.

  2. Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2014-09-01

    This guide provides information and recommendations to the following groups: insulation contractors; general contractors; builders; home remodelers; mechanical contractors; and homeowners, as a guide to the work that needs to be done. The order of work completed during home construction and retrofit improvements is important. Health and safety issues must be addressed first and are more important than durability issues. And durability issues are more important than saving energy. Not all techniques can apply to all houses. Special conditions will require special action. Some builders or homeowners will wish to do more than the important but basic retrofit strategies outlined by this guide. The following are best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and homebuilders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant items were discussed with the group which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long term, and durable drainage plane: 1. Horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible; 2. Where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials; 3. Frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation. Section 5 of this measure guideline contains the detailed construction procedure for the three recommended methods to effectively seal the joints in exterior insulating sheathing to create a simple, long term, and durable drainage plane.

  3. Bacteriophage T4 Infection of Stationary Phase E. coli: Life after Log from a Phage Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Daniel; El-Shibiny, Ayman; Hobbs, Zack; Porter, Jillian; Kutter, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all studies of phage infections investigate bacteria growing exponentially in rich media. In nature, however, phages largely encounter non-growing cells. Bacteria entering stationary phase often activate well-studied stress defense mechanisms that drastically alter the cell, facilitating its long-term survival. An understanding of phage-host interactions in such conditions is of major importance from both an ecological and therapeutic standpoint. Here, we show that bacteriophage T4 can efficiently bind to, infect and kill E. coli in stationary phase, both in the presence and absence of a functional stationary-phase sigma factor, and explore the response of T4-infected stationary phase cells to the addition of fresh nutrients 5 or 24 h after that infection. An unexpected new mode of response has been identified. "Hibernation" mode is a persistent but reversible dormant state in which the infected cells make at least some phage enzymes, but halt phage development until appropriate nutrients become available before producing phage particles. Our evidence indicates that the block in hibernation mode occurs after the middle-mode stage of phage development; host DNA breakdown and the incorporation of the released nucleotides into phage DNA indicate that the enzymes of the nucleotide synthesizing complex, under middle-mode control, have been made and assembled into a functional state. Once fresh glucose and amino acids become available, the standard lytic infection process rapidly resumes and concentrations of up to 10(11) progeny phage (an average of about 40 phage per initially present cell) are produced. All evidence is consistent with the hibernation-mode control point lying between middle mode and late mode T4 gene expression. We have also observed a "scavenger" response, where the infecting phage takes advantage of whatever few nutrients are available to produce small quantities of progeny within 2 to 5 h after infection. The scavenger response seems able

  4. Bacteriophage T4 Infection of Stationary Phase E. coli: Life after Log from a Phage Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Martin Kutter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Virtually all studies of phage infections investigate bacteria growing exponentially in rich media. In nature, however, phages largely encounter non-growing cells. Bacteria entering stationary phase often activate well-studied stress defense mechanisms that drastically alter the cell, facilitating its long-term survival. An understanding of phage-host interactions in such conditions is of major importance from both an ecological and therapeutic standpoint. Here, we show that bacteriophage T4 can efficiently bind to, infect and kill E. coli in stationary phase, both in the presence and absence of a functional stationary-phase sigma factor, and explore the response of T4-infected stationary phase cells to the addition of fresh nutrients 5 or 24 hours after that infection. An unexpected new mode of response has been identified. Hibernation mode is a persistent but reversible dormant state in which the infected cells make at least some phage enzymes, but halt phage development until appropriate nutrients become available before producing phage particles. Our evidence indicates that the block in hibernation mode occurs after the middle-mode stage of phage development; host DNA breakdown and the incorporation of the released nucleotides into phage DNA indicate that the enzymes of the nucleotide synthesizing complex, under middle-mode control, have been made and assembled into a functional state. Once fresh glucose and amino acids become available, the standard lytic infection process rapidly resumes and concentrations of up to 1011 progeny phage (an average of about 40 phage per initially-present cell are produced. All evidence is consistent with the hibernation-mode control point lying between middle mode and late mode T4 gene expression. We have also observed a scavenger response, where the infecting phage takes advantage of whatever few nutrients are available to produce small quantities of progeny within 2 to 5 hours after infection. The scavenger

  5. Modelling T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the absence of any defence mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VSS Yadavalli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The T4 cell count, which is considered one of the markers of disease progression in an HIV infected individual, is modelled in this paper. The World Health Organisation has recently advocated that countries encourage HIV infected individuals to commence antiretroviral treatments once their T4 cell count drops below 350 cells per ml of blood (this threshold was formerly 200 cells per ml of blood. This recommendation is made because when the T4 cell count is low, the T4 cells are unable to mount an effective immune response against antigens and any such foreign matters in the body, and consequently the individual becomes susceptible to opportunistic infections and lymphomas. A stochastic catastrophe model is developed in this paper to obtain the mean, variance and covariance of the uninfected, infected and lysed T4 cells. The amount of toxin produced in an HIV infected person from the time of infection to a later time may also be obtained from the model. Numerical illustrations of the correlation structures between uninfected and infected T4 cells, and between the infected and lysed T4 cells are also presented.

  6. Uranium-mill-tailings conditioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Cokal, E.J.; O'Brien, P.D.; Thode, E.F.; Wangen, L.E.; Williams, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Conditioning of uranium mill tailings involves the physico-chemical alteration of tailings to remove or immobilize mobile radionuclides and toxic trace elements before disposal in a repository. The principal immobilization approach under investigation is sntering tailings at high temperatures (1100 to 1200 0 C) to radically alter the structure of tailings. This thermal stabilization at 1200 0 C reduced radon emanation power for tailings sands by factors of 20 to 200 and for tailings fines by factors of 300 to 1100. Substantial reductions in the leachability of most contaminants have been found for thermally conditioned tailings. A conceptual thermal stabilization process has been developed wherein obsolete coal-fired rotary cement kilns perform the sintering. An economic analysis of this conceptual process has shown that thermal stabilization can be competitive at certain tailings sites with other remedial actions requiring the excavation, transportation, and burial of tailings in a repository. An analysis of the long-term radiological hazard posed by untreated tailings and by tailings conditioned by radionuclide removal has illustrated the necessity of extracting both 226 Ra and 230 Th to achieve long-term hazard reductions. Sulfuric acid extraction of residual mineral values and important radionuclides from tailings has been investigated. Concentrated H 2 SO 4 can extract up to 80% of the 226 Ra, 70% of the Ba, and 90% of the 230 Th from tailings in a single stag extraction. An economic analysis of a sulfuric acid leach process was made to determine whether the value of minerals recovered from tailings would offset the leaching cost. For one relatively mineral-rich tailings pile, the U and V values would more than pay for the leaching step and would contribute about 60% of the costs of moving and burying the tailings at a new site

  7. Virtual unit delay for digital frequency adaptive T/4 delay phase-locked loop system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    /processor with a fixed sampling rate considering the cost and complexity, where the number of unit delays that have been adopted should be an integer. For instance, in conventional digital control systems, a single-phase T/4 Delay Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) system takes 50 unit delays (i.e., in a 50-Hz system...... Delay PLL system should be done in its implementation. This process will result in performance degradation in the digital control system, as the exactly required number of delays is not realized. Hence, in this paper, a Virtual Unit Delay (VUD) has been proposed to address such challenges to the digital......Digital micro-controllers/processors enable the cost-effective control of grid-connected power converter systems in terms of system monitoring, signal processing (e.g., grid synchronization), control (e.g., grid current and voltage control), etc. Normally, the control is implemented in a micro-controller...

  8. The nucleotide sequence of threonine transfer RNA coded by bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, C.; Scholla, C.A.; Yesian, H.; Abelson, J.

    1978-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a low molecular weight RNA coded by bacteriophage T4 (and previously identified as species α) has been determined. The molecule is of particular biological interest for its associated biosynthetic properties. This RNA is 76 nucleotides in length, contains eight modified bases, and can be arranged in a cloverleaf configuration common to tRNAs. The anticodon sequence is UGU, which corresponds to the threonine-specific codons ACsub(G)sup(A). The nucleotide sequence was determined primarily by nearest-neighbour analysis of RNA synthesized in vitro using [α- 32 P] nucleoside triphosphates. Using the single-strand specific nuclease S1, two in vivo labelled half-molecules were generated and analysed. This information together with restrictions imposed by nearest-neighbour data, provided a unique linear sequence of nucleotides with the features of secondary structure common to tRNA molecules. (author)

  9. Production of antisera and development of radioimmunoassay for serum T3, T4, and ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhag, Omer Mohamed Abdalla

    1998-05-01

    In this study twelve local rabbits and sixteen New-zealand rabbits were subjected to immunization against T3 and T4 immunogens. Two local sheep (ovis aris) were immunized against human liver ferritin. The T3 and T4 immunogens were prepared by conjugation of the haptens to carrier proteins (bovine serum albumin ''BSA'' and horse serum protein ''HSP''), using water soluble carboiimide as coupling agent. The local and New-zealand rabbits were immunized against these conjugates emulsified in freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) in the first and second injections, and emulsified in freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) in the following injections. The blood samples obtained from rabbits after each injection were tested for antibodies as well as for the effect of immunization on rabbits biochemical and haematological parameters. The blood samples obtained from sheep were tested for anti-ferritin antibodies using crude antiserum, then this antiserum was purified using ammonium sulphate. A part of it was adsorbed physically onto polystyrene beads while the other part was linked chemically to magnitisable particles inorder to develop to IRMAs. The purified antiferritin antibody was diluted 200,000 folds before being coated to polystyrene beads, and different dilutions were tried with coupling to magnetic solid phase. Optimization and validation procedures for the two IRMAs ferritin were performed. The results obtained showed poor response of rabbits to immunization against T3 and T4 immunogen conjugates, where the percent bound (B%) of tracer with the antibody ranged from (0.0-22%) for local rabbits using charcoal seperation technique, and (0.0-2.9%) using second antibody precipitation technique. The B% for the antiserum obtained from New-zealand rabbits ranged from (0.0-18.1) using second antibody precipitation technique. Serum T3, T4 and TSH of the immunized rabbits were measured and found to be not significantly different form the controls (p=0.2211, 0.098, 0.35 respectively

  10. Pollution reduction technology program for class T4(JT8D) engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Diehl, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    The technology required to develop commercial gas turbine engines with reduced exhaust emissions was demonstrated. Can-annular combustor systems for the JT8D engine family (EPA class T4) were investigated. The JT8D turbofan engine is an axial-flow, dual-spool, moderate-bypass-ratio design. It has a two-stage fan, a four-stage low-pressure compressor driven by a three-stage low-pressure turbine, and a seven-stage high-pressure compressor driven by a single-stage high-pressure turbine. A cross section of the JT8D-17 showing the mechanical configuration is given. Key specifications for this engine are listed.

  11. Dusty Plasma Modeling of the Fusion Reactor Sheath Including Collisional-Radiative Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezairi, Aouatif; Samir, Mhamed; Eddahby, Mohamed; Saifaoui, Dennoun; Katsonis, Konstantinos; Berenguer, Chloe

    2008-01-01

    The structure and the behavior of the sheath in Tokamak collisional plasmas has been studied. The sheath is modeled taking into account the presence of the dust 2 and the effects of the charged particle collisions and radiative processes. The latter may allow for optical diagnostics of the plasma.

  12. An analytical investigation: Effect of solar wind on lunar photoelectron sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Misra, Shikha

    2018-02-01

    The formation of a photoelectron sheath over the lunar surface and subsequent dust levitation, under the influence of solar wind plasma and continuous solar radiation, has been analytically investigated. The photoelectron sheath characteristics have been evaluated using the Poisson equation configured with population density contributions from half Fermi-Dirac distribution of the photoemitted electrons and simplified Maxwellian statistics of solar wind plasma; as a consequence, altitude profiles for electric potential, electric field, and population density within the photoelectron sheath have been derived. The expression for the accretion rate of sheath electrons over the levitated spherical particles using anisotropic photoelectron flux has been derived, which has been further utilized to characterize the charging of levitating fine particles in the lunar sheath along with other constituent photoemission and solar wind fluxes. This estimate of particle charge has been further manifested with lunar sheath characteristics to evaluate the altitude profile of the particle size exhibiting levitation. The inclusion of solar wind flux into analysis is noticed to reduce the sheath span and altitude of the particle levitation; the dependence of the sheath structure and particle levitation on the solar wind plasma parameters has been discussed and graphically presented.

  13. New Method to Analyse the Cement Sheath Integrity During the Volume Fracturing of Shale Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingtao Fan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of the hoop stress distribution of the cement sheath and its variation regularities during volume hydraulic fracturing in shale formations is of great significance for maintaining the wellbore integrity of shale gas horizontal wells. A finite element model of casing-cement sheath-formation system (CCFS coupling between stresses and temperature was established through a staged finite element method based on the elastic anisotropy of shale. With this new model, the effects of operation parameters and formation mechanical property changes on the cement sheath hoop stress during the multi-stage hydraulic fracturing process were analyzed, and the results were compared with the conventional model. The results revealed that the increase of the temperature of the fracturing fluid could reduce the hoop stress of the cement sheath, which decreased gradually with the decreasing elastic modulus of the cement sheath, and eventually changed to compressive stress from tensile stress. The hoop tensile stress of the cement sheath increases first and then tends to decrease with the increasing internal casing pressure, the larger the local formation stress, the smaller the pore pressure and the smaller the hoop tensile stress of the cement sheath it preforms. The findings of this paper are of great guiding significance to the research of the cement sheath stress variations during volume fracturing in shale formations and to the optimization of fracturing design.

  14. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. [Statutory...

  15. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. 77.700 Section 77.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors...

  16. Measurement of sheath thickness by lining out grooves in the Hall-type stationary plasma thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Daren; Wu Zhiwen; Ning Zhongxi; Wang Xiaogang

    2007-01-01

    Using grooves created along the axial direction of the discharge channel, a method for measuring sheath thickness in Hall-type stationary plasma thrusters has been developed. By distorting the wall surface using these grooves, it is possible to numerically study the effect of the wall surface on the sheath and near wall conductivity. Monte Carlo method is applied to calculate the electron temperature variation with different groove depths. The electron dynamic process in the plasma is described by a test particle method with the electron randomly entering the sheath from the discharge channel and being reflected back. Numerical results show that the reflected electron temperature is hardly affected by the wall surface if the groove depth is much less than the sheath thickness. On the other hand, the reflected electron temperature increases if the groove depth is much greater than the sheath thickness. The reflected electron temperature has a sharp jump when the depth of groove is on the order of the sheath thickness. The simulation is repeated with different sheath thicknesses and the results are the same. Therefore, a diagnosis mean of the sheath thickness can be developed based on the method. Also the simulation results are in accord with the experimental data. Besides, the measurement method may be applicable to other plasma device with similar orthogonal steady state electrical and magnetic fields

  17. High-dose radiotherapy alone for patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucha-Malecka, A. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Skladowski, K. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Gliwice (Poland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-08-15

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to report on the efficacy of radiotherapy alone in patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer and to establish the prognostic value of (a) the size and location of the extralaryngeal tumor extensions and (b) of emergency tracheostomy. Patients and methods: A group of 114 patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy between 1990 and 1996. The piriform recess was involved in 37 cases (33 %), the base of the tongue and glosso-epiglottic vallecula in 34 cases (30 %), and the hypopharyngeal wall in 10 cases (9 %). In 16 cases (14 %), emergency tracheostomy was performed before radiotherapy. The mean total dose was 68 Gy (range, 60-77.6 Gy). The mean treatment time was 49 days (range, 42-74 days). Results: Actuarial 3-year local control (LC) was noted in 42 % of patients, disease-free survival (DFS) in 35 %, and overall survival (OS) in 40 %. The best prognosis was for the lesion suspected of cartilage infiltration: 56 % 3-year LC. The worst results were noted in the cases with massive infiltrations spreading from the larynx through the hypopharynx: 13 % 3-year LC. Emergency tracheostomy before radiotherapy was significantly connected with the worst treatment results (p = 0.000): 3-year LC in patients with tracheostomy was 0 % vs. 48 % in patients without tracheostomy. Conclusion: Conventional radiotherapy of T4 laryngeal cancer is a method of treatment with limited effectiveness. The efficacy of radiotherapy is dependent on the location and extent of extralaryngeal infiltrations. Emergency tracheostomy is a prognostic factor connected with the worst prognosis. (orig.)

  18. High-dose radiotherapy alone for patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucha-Malecka, A.; Skladowski, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to report on the efficacy of radiotherapy alone in patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer and to establish the prognostic value of (a) the size and location of the extralaryngeal tumor extensions and (b) of emergency tracheostomy. Patients and methods: A group of 114 patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy between 1990 and 1996. The piriform recess was involved in 37 cases (33 %), the base of the tongue and glosso-epiglottic vallecula in 34 cases (30 %), and the hypopharyngeal wall in 10 cases (9 %). In 16 cases (14 %), emergency tracheostomy was performed before radiotherapy. The mean total dose was 68 Gy (range, 60-77.6 Gy). The mean treatment time was 49 days (range, 42-74 days). Results: Actuarial 3-year local control (LC) was noted in 42 % of patients, disease-free survival (DFS) in 35 %, and overall survival (OS) in 40 %. The best prognosis was for the lesion suspected of cartilage infiltration: 56 % 3-year LC. The worst results were noted in the cases with massive infiltrations spreading from the larynx through the hypopharynx: 13 % 3-year LC. Emergency tracheostomy before radiotherapy was significantly connected with the worst treatment results (p = 0.000): 3-year LC in patients with tracheostomy was 0 % vs. 48 % in patients without tracheostomy. Conclusion: Conventional radiotherapy of T4 laryngeal cancer is a method of treatment with limited effectiveness. The efficacy of radiotherapy is dependent on the location and extent of extralaryngeal infiltrations. Emergency tracheostomy is a prognostic factor connected with the worst prognosis. (orig.)

  19. Consequences of tumor planning target volume reduction in treatment of T2-T4 laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugts, Cornelia A J M; Terhaard, Chris H J; Philippens, Marielle E P; Pameijer, Frank A; Kasperts, Nicolien; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P J

    2014-09-04

    Since lymph nodes volumes are generally four times the volume of the primary PTV, the advantage of using tight margins around the primary PTV is not clear. Therefore treatment margins of T2-T4 laryngeal carcinoma for IMRT are generally chosen in such a way that the PTV is comparable to that in conventional radiotherapy. The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of volume reduction of the primary PTV of T2-T4 laryngeal carcinoma with regard to late toxicity despite elective irradiation of lymph node levels II to IV. Two treatment plans based on conservative (GTV-PTV = 15 mm and 20 mm cranial), and on evidence-based tight margins (GTV-PTV = 8 mm) were calculated for 16 patients. Toxicity effects were estimated based on the dose distributions. Compared to conservative margins, using tight margins resulted in: 1) significant reduction of the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for swallowing muscles and submandibular glands, 2) significant reduction of the mean dose in all organs at risk (OAR), 3) a mean dose smaller than 60 Gy for all OARs except for the laryngeal cartilages. When the lymph node levels II to IV were prescribed with an elective dose, an NTCP reduction of 53% for the swallowing muscles and of 23% for the submandibular glands was found by using tight instead of conservative margins. When positive nodes were present, NTCP reduction amounted to 29% and 15%, respectively. There is a potential benefit in realizing evidence-based tight margins for laryngeal cancer patients despite elective irradiation of lymph node levels II to IV.

  20. Nueva Área Terminal (NAT del aeropuerto de Madrid-Barajas T-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamela, A.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the New Terminal Area of the Barajas airport. Its first part indicates the participants in the design and construction, as well as some general data. In the second part, organised like a data chart, technical data, such as general information, construction aspects, parking area, data about the building itself and others, are expressed in a concise way. The third part analyzes the construction aspects of the NAT Building, related to the power efficiency. The paper ends with a note that the author of the project has considered of interest about the functionality of the T4. Drawings, details and photographs that show the work in their total magnitude are also included.El articulo que se presenta trata de la Nueva Área Terminal (NAT del aeropuerto de Barajas y está diferenciado en una primera parte, donde se indican los créditos del proyecto y de la construcción, así como algunos datos generales. En el punto 2 y organizado como ficha, aparecen de forma escueta los datos técnicos, tales como: información general, sobre la construcción, sobre los aparcamientos, sobre el edificio terminal y otras. En el punto 3 se analizan los aspectos de la edificación NAT, relacionados con la eficiencia energética y finaliza el artículo con una nota sobre la funcionalidad de la T4, que el autor del proyecto ha considerado de interés. Se incluyen planos detalles y fotografías que muestran la obra en su total magnitud.

  1. Functional Analysis of the Bacteriophage T4 Rad50 Homolog (gp46) Coiled-coil Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfoot, Tasida; Herdendorf, Timothy J; Behning, Bryanna R; Stohr, Bradley A; Gao, Yang; Kreuzer, Kenneth N; Nelson, Scott W

    2015-09-25

    Rad50 and Mre11 form a complex involved in the detection and processing of DNA double strand breaks. Rad50 contains an anti-parallel coiled-coil with two absolutely conserved cysteine residues at its apex. These cysteine residues serve as a dimerization domain and bind a Zn(2+) cation in a tetrathiolate coordination complex known as the zinc-hook. Mutation of the zinc-hook in bacteriophage T4 is lethal, indicating the ability to bind Zn(2+) is critical for the functioning of the MR complex. In vitro, we found that complex formation between Rad50 and a peptide corresponding to the C-terminal domain of Mre11 enhances the ATPase activity of Rad50, supporting the hypothesis that the coiled-coil is a major conduit for communication between Mre11 and Rad50. We constructed mutations to perturb this domain in the bacteriophage T4 Rad50 homolog. Deletion of the Rad50 coiled-coil and zinc-hook eliminates Mre11 binding and ATPase activation but does not affect its basal activity. Mutation of the zinc-hook or disruption of the coiled-coil does not affect Mre11 or DNA binding, but their activation of Rad50 ATPase activity is abolished. Although these mutants excise a single nucleotide at a normal rate, they lack processivity and have reduced repetitive exonuclease rates. Restricting the mobility of the coiled-coil eliminates ATPase activation and repetitive exonuclease activity, but the ability to support single nucleotide excision is retained. These results suggest that the coiled-coiled domain adopts at least two conformations throughout the ATPase/nuclease cycle, with one conformation supporting enhanced ATPase activity and processivity and the other supporting nucleotide excision. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Experimental infection of T4 Acanthamoeba genotype determines the pathogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Daniella de Sousa Mendes Moreira; Moraes, Aline Silva; Alves, Luciano Moreira; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Cuba-Cuba, César Augusto; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2016-09-01

    T4 is the Acanthamoeba genotype most related to cases of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) in immunocompromised patients and of keratitis in contact lens wearers. The determination of the pathogenic potential of Acanthamoeba clinical and environmental isolates using experimental models is extremely important to elucidate the capacity of free-living organisms to establish and cause disease in hosts. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the histopathology and culture between two different routes of experimental infection of T4 Acanthamoeba isolated from environmental and clinical source in mice (intracranial and intraperitoneal). Swiss isogenic healthy mice were inoculated with 10(4) trophozoites by intracranial (IC) and intraperitoneal (IP) routes and observed during 21 days. The brains from animals inoculated by the IC route were collected and from the animals of the IP inoculation group, the brains, livers, kidneys, spleens, and lungs were removed. The organs were prepared and appropriately divided to be evaluated with histopathology and culture. There was no significant difference between the inoculation routes in terms of isolates recovery (χ(2) = 0.09; p = 0.76). In the IC group, isolate recovery rate was significantly higher in histopathology than the one achieved by culture (χ(2) = 6.45; p Acanthamoeba in both routes. This work represents the first in vivo pathogenicity assay of primary isolation source in Central region of Brazil showing in vivo pathogenicity and hematogenous spread capacity of these protozoa, improving the knowledge on free-living amoebae isolates.

  3. Cylinder Symmetric Measures with the Tail Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: A Pareto distribution has the property that any tail of the distribution has the same shape as the original distribution. The exponential distribution and the uniform distribution have the tail property too. The tail property characterizes the univariate generalized Pareto distributions.

  4. [Early reactive changes of myelin sheath in the area of myelin sheath gaps (nodes of Ranvier) in nerve fibers (a supravital study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, O S; Kokurina, T N; Solov'eva, I A; Sergeeva, S S

    2011-01-01

    Using the inverted phase contrast microscope, the supravital study of structural dynamics of single myelin sheath gaps (nodes of Ranvier) of isolated frog myelin nerve fibers was performed after mechanical injury and in the medium with the decreased ion force under the conditions which induce, in electrophysiological experiments, the expression of the axolemmal K+-channels in the paranodal area. Videorecording has shown that within this area the myelin sheath stratification appeared that was associated with the swelling of Schwann cell cytoplasm enclosed in the terminal membranous loops of myelin. An increase of the degree of stratification of the lamellar myelin complexes make them invisible in the light microscope; therefore, it is not the translocation of the myelin sheath from the node cleft that is recorded, as many authors believed, but a shift of only the visible border of the compact, yet unstratified myelin sheath. Hence, the removal of myelin (demyelination) was absent, and the electrophysiological effect can be accounted for by a significant fall of electrical resistance in paranodal area as a result of swelling of terminal loops and stratification of the myelin sheath. Preparations examination also revealed a decrease of the axonal diameter in, which is proportional to swelling of the myelin sheath terminal parts. Since the outer fiber diameter did not change, it can be concluded that the process observed is the result of swelling of the Schwann cell cytoplasm due to the axoplasm water fraction which may be a peculiar process of axo-glial interactions.

  5. Genome Analysis of Phage JS98 Defines a Fourth Major Subgroup of T4-Like Phages in Escherichia coli▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Zuber, Sophie; Ngom-Bru, Catherine; Barretto, Caroline; Bruttin, Anne; Brüssow, Harald; Denou, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Numerous T4-like Escherichia coli phages were isolated from human stool and environmental wastewater samples in Bangladesh and Switzerland. The sequences of the major head gene (g23) revealed that these coliphages could be placed into four subgroups, represented by the phages T4, RB69, RB49, and JS98. Thus, JS98 defines a new major subgroup of E. coli T4-like phages. We conducted an analysis of the 169-kb JS98 genome sequence. Overall, 198 of the 266 JS98 open reading frames (ORFs) shared ami...

  6. Characteristic of plasma sheath in the presence of secondary electron emission and negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoyun; Ni Zhixiang; He Juan; Liu Jinyuan

    2009-01-01

    The model of the non-collision plasma sheath is developed in the presence of secondary electron emission(SEE) and negative ions. The effect is discussed of the secondary electron emission and negative ions on the sheath of a one-dimensional stationary plasma. The interaction between secondary electrons and negative ions is also analyzed. It is found that the increase of SEE coefficient and negative ion content in the plasma will reduce the width of plasma sheath. If the SEE coefficient is larger than the critical emission coefficient, the sheath would not only formed by ions. In the sheath of a multicomponent plasma, the density of negative ions increases when the SEE coefficient enhances,and the critical SEE coefficient will be bigger with the enhancement of negative ions. In addition,the presence of SEE and negative ions would affect the discharge in the plasma and erosion of the wall. (authors)

  7. Fibroma of the tendon sheath of the long head of the biceps tendon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeseneer, Michel de; Shahabpour, Maryam; Isacker, Tom van; Lenchik, Leon; Caillie, Marie-Astrid van

    2014-01-01

    Fibroma of the tendon sheath is a benign tumor that is less common than giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. Both tumors may present as a painless, slowly enlarging mass. Radiological findings may be similar for both tumors. Histologically, fibroma of the tendon sheath lacks the hemosiderin-laden macrophages that are typical for giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. We report on a 49-year-old woman with fibroma of the tendon sheath of the long head of the biceps tendon. In our case, on MR images, we observed band-like hypointense areas centrally in the tumor, mild patchy contrast enhancement, and most importantly, no decrease of signal intensity on gradient echo images. These characteristics reflected histological findings. (orig.)

  8. Fibroma of the tendon sheath of the long head of the biceps tendon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeseneer, Michel de; Shahabpour, Maryam [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Isacker, Tom van [Sint-Lucas Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brugge (Belgium); Lenchik, Leon [Wake Forest School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Winston Salem, NC (United States); Caillie, Marie-Astrid van [Sint-Lucas Hospital, Department of Pathology, Brugge (Belgium)

    2014-03-15

    Fibroma of the tendon sheath is a benign tumor that is less common than giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. Both tumors may present as a painless, slowly enlarging mass. Radiological findings may be similar for both tumors. Histologically, fibroma of the tendon sheath lacks the hemosiderin-laden macrophages that are typical for giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. We report on a 49-year-old woman with fibroma of the tendon sheath of the long head of the biceps tendon. In our case, on MR images, we observed band-like hypointense areas centrally in the tumor, mild patchy contrast enhancement, and most importantly, no decrease of signal intensity on gradient echo images. These characteristics reflected histological findings. (orig.)

  9. The anatomy of the first sacral nerve root sheath shown by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, N R; Dixon, A K; Freer, C E

    1989-08-01

    Analysis of 25 patients with normal computed tomographic appearances at the lumbosacral junction revealed wide variation in the anatomical level at which the first sacral nerve root sheaths were seen emerging from the theca. In nine patients (36%), the S1 nerve root sheaths were first recognized at the level of the lumbosacral disc. In 14 patients (56%), the sheaths emerged cranial to the disc; it is possible that these patients may be more prone to neurological complications related to disc or facet joint disease, especially if the sheath is laterally sited within the lateral recess. Conversely, that minority of patients (two, 8%) in whom the root sheaths emerge caudal to the disc level may be relatively protected from neurological complications.

  10. Benign and malignant neurogenic tumors of nerve sheath origin on FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, M. J.; Go, D. H.; Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, K. H.; Lee, J. D [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The differentiation between benign and malignant nerve sheath tumors is difficult based on conventional radiological imaging. This study was undertaken to investigate the value of FDG PET in distinguishing benign from malignant neurogenic tumors of nerve sheath origin. We performed a retrospective review of the medical record to select patients with nerve sheath tumors who had underdone FDG PET imaging. Fifteen patients (7F: 8M) with benign or malignant nerve sheath tumors were included in this study. Of the 15 patients, 9 were diagnosed with the known neurofibromatosis type I. A total of 19 nerve sheath tumors were included from the 15 patients. All patients had undergone FDG PET to evaluate for malignant potential of the known lesions. Images of FDG PET were semi-quantitatively analyzed and a region of interest (ROI) was placed over the area of the maximum FDG uptake and an average standardized uptake value was taken for final analysis. There were 5 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 5 schwannomas, and 9 neurofibromas. The mean SUV was 2 (ranged from 1.6 to 3.3) for schwannomas, 1.3 (0.7 to 2.5) for neurofibromas, and 8.4 (4.6 to 12.2) for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Of 14 benign tumors, all except one schwannoma showed a SUV less than 3. When a cutoff SUV of 4 was used to differentiate the nerve sheath tumors, all tumors were correctly classified as benign or malignant, respectively. Among the 9 patients diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type I. 4 had malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and FDG PET accurately detected all the 4 lesions with malignant transformation. According to our results, FDG PET seems to have a great potential for accurately characterizing benign versus malignant nerve sheath tumors. It appears to be extremely useful for patients with neurofibromatosis to localize the lesion with malignant transformation.

  11. Benign and malignant neurogenic tumors of nerve sheath origin on FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, M. J.; Go, D. H.; Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, K. H.; Lee, J. D

    2004-01-01

    The differentiation between benign and malignant nerve sheath tumors is difficult based on conventional radiological imaging. This study was undertaken to investigate the value of FDG PET in distinguishing benign from malignant neurogenic tumors of nerve sheath origin. We performed a retrospective review of the medical record to select patients with nerve sheath tumors who had underdone FDG PET imaging. Fifteen patients (7F: 8M) with benign or malignant nerve sheath tumors were included in this study. Of the 15 patients, 9 were diagnosed with the known neurofibromatosis type I. A total of 19 nerve sheath tumors were included from the 15 patients. All patients had undergone FDG PET to evaluate for malignant potential of the known lesions. Images of FDG PET were semi-quantitatively analyzed and a region of interest (ROI) was placed over the area of the maximum FDG uptake and an average standardized uptake value was taken for final analysis. There were 5 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 5 schwannomas, and 9 neurofibromas. The mean SUV was 2 (ranged from 1.6 to 3.3) for schwannomas, 1.3 (0.7 to 2.5) for neurofibromas, and 8.4 (4.6 to 12.2) for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Of 14 benign tumors, all except one schwannoma showed a SUV less than 3. When a cutoff SUV of 4 was used to differentiate the nerve sheath tumors, all tumors were correctly classified as benign or malignant, respectively. Among the 9 patients diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type I. 4 had malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and FDG PET accurately detected all the 4 lesions with malignant transformation. According to our results, FDG PET seems to have a great potential for accurately characterizing benign versus malignant nerve sheath tumors. It appears to be extremely useful for patients with neurofibromatosis to localize the lesion with malignant transformation

  12. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse

    2008-01-01

    This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. A newly designed remediation cell, where the solids were kept in suspension by airflow, was tested. The results show that electric current could remove copper from suspended tailings...... experiment at 40 mA, with approximately 137.5 g mine tailings on dry basis. The removal for a static (baseline) experiment only amounted 15% when passing approximately the same amount of charge through 130 g of mine tailings. The use of air bubbling to keep the tailings suspended increased the removal...

  13. CANDU fuel sheath behavior in power ramp conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, S.; Uta, O; Parvan, M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine by post-irradiation examination, the behavior of CANDU domestic fuel, irradiated in TRIGA14 reactor MW(th), into a multiple / various power ramp test. After testing, the fuel rods have been examined in the hot cells using post-irradiation examination (PIE) techniques such as: visual inspection and photography, eddy current testing, profilometry, gamma scanning, fission gas release and analysis, metallography, ceramography, burn-up determination by mass spectrometry, mechanical testing. This paper describes the PIE results from one out of six fuel rods. The PIE results concerning the integrity, dimensional changes, oxidation, hydriding and mechanical properties of the sheath, the fission-products activity distribution in the fuel column, the pressure, volume and composition of the fission gas, the burn-up, the isotopic composition and structural changes of the fuel are used to confirm the security, reliability, fuel performance, and also for Romanian CANDU fuel development program. (authors)

  14. Giant Cell Tumour of Tendon Sheath Masquerading As Trigger Finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rahimawati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 59-year-old female who presented in the general orthopaedic clinic with triggering of her right middle finger. She did not respond to conventional treatment methods; subsequently she underwent surgical open release under local anaesthesia. Five months postoperatively, the patient presented with signs and symptoms of acute flexor tenosynovitis, and was thought to have a postoperative infection. Re-examination by a hand surgeon raised the possibility of a different aetiology. Based on clinical findings and response to initial treatment, giant cell tumour of the flexor tendon sheath was suspected and later confirmed following surgical biopsy. A high index of suspicion and knowledge of the variegated presentations of giant cell tumour in the hand are beneficial in these types of cases.

  15. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising from solitary neurofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-I Chung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are rare sarcomas that are strongly associated with neurofibromatosis type I (NF-1. We describe a 71-year-old woman with no stigmata of neurofibromatosis, who presented with recurrent subcutaneous tumor on her left upper back. She received two excisional biopsies on the back of her trunk at our hospital and both pathology reports revealed neurofibromas. Three years after the last skin biopsy, a rapidly growing subcutaneous tumor emerged at the same site. This tumor was totally resected and the histopathology showed an ill-defined tumor in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. The tumor was composed of spindle cells in a myxoid stroma with a transition from the area of typical neurofibroma to the hypercellular area. The hypercellular area consisted of atypical, hyperchromatic spindled cells with frequent mitotic figures. She was therefore diagnosed with MPNST.

  16. Primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor at unusual location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvagya Panigrahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST is a rare soft tissue sarcoma. Most arise in association with major nerve trunks. Their most common anatomical sites are the proximal portions of the upper and lower extremities and the trunk. MPNSTs have rarely been reported in literature to occur in other unusual body parts. We review all such cases reported till now in terms of site of origin, surgical treatment, adjuvant therapy and outcome and shortly describe our experience with two of these cases. Both of our case presented with lump at unusual sites resembling neurofibroma, one at orbitotemporal area and other in the paraspinal region with characteristic feature of neurofibroma with the exception that both had very short history of progression. They underwent gross total removal of the tumor with adjuvant radiotherapy postoperatively. At 6-month follow-up both are doing well with no evidence of recurrence.

  17. Experiments on Alignment of Dust Particles in Plasma Sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarian, A.A.; Vladimirov, S.V.; James, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    Here, we report an experimental investigation of the stability of vertical and horizontal confinement of dust particles levitated in an rf sheath. The experiments were carried out in argon plasma with micron-sized dust particles. Changes of particle arrangement were triggered by changing the discharge parameters, applying an additional bias to the confining electrode and by laser beam. The region where the transition was triggered by changes of discharge parameters and the transition from horizontal to vertical alignment has been found to be more pronounced than for the reverse transition. A clear hysteretic effect was observed for transitions triggered by changes of the confining voltage. A vertical alignment occurs in a system of two dust horizontally arranged particles with the decrease of the particle separation. This disruption is attributed to the formation of the common ion wake in the system

  18. Cutaneous benign epithelioid peripheral nerve sheath tumour: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha CK Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign epithelioid peripheral nerve sheath tumor, a rare entity is an umbrella term describing benign, neural origin tumors with epithelioid morphology. Clinically indistinguishable from other benign cutaneous lesions, histopathology offers the only source of accurate diagnosis. Morphologic mimics include many benign and malignant soft tissue lesions. Besides a predominant epithelioid component, the lesion can also show a fair share of spindle cells. A circumscribed nodular tumour of low mitotic activity, it often exhibits areas resembling schwannoma or neurofibroma. An awareness of this entity and its varied morphological aspects helps to arrive at the correct diagnosis and hence avoid unnecessary extensive surgical procedures. This case presents features of this benign tumor which occurred in a 47 years old man.

  19. The lectin domain of UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-T4 directs its glycopeptide specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, H; Reis, C A; Bennett, E P

    2000-01-01

    , most notably two sites in the MUC1 tandem repeat, is entirely dependent on the glycosylation-dependent function of GalNAc-T4. Here we present data that a putative lectin domain found in the C terminus of GalNAc-T4 functions as a GalNAc lectin and confers its glycopeptide specificity. A single amino...... acid substitution in the lectin domain of a secreted form of GalNAc-T4 selectively blocked GalNAc-glycopeptide activity, while the general activity to peptides exerted by this enzyme was unaffected. Furthermore, the GalNAc-glycopeptide activity of wild-type secreted GalNAc-T4 was selectively inhibited......The initiation step of mucin-type O-glycosylation is controlled by a large family of homologous UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-transferases). Differences in kinetic properties, substrate specificities, and expression patterns of these isoenzymes provide...

  20. Early determination of the congenital hypothyroidism by means of the cuantification of STH and T4 by radioimmunoassay method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Penados, R.C.

    1986-11-01

    It was investigated the advantages and disadvantages and conditions of working for the diagnosis of the congenital hypothyroidism by RIA, and its future implementation. It was determined concentration of neonatal STH and neonatal T4 in whole blood of 517 new borns, obtained by capilar punction and recollected in filter paper. 261 samples were found with levels of T4 between normal limits and STH between 0 and 12.5 u U/ml correspond to a normal thyroid function. 29 samples with normal T4 and STH above 30 u U/ml, correspond to a possible primary hypothyroidism. 171 samples with normal T4 and STH between 12.5 and 30 u U/ml were found. (Author)

  1. Incorporation of T4 phage DNA into a specific DNA fraction from the higher plant Matthiola incana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradmann-Rebel, W; Hemleben, V

    1976-01-01

    Isolated T4 phage DNA (sigma=1.694 g/ml) is applied to seedlings of the crucifer Matthiola incana (DNA density sigma=1.698 g/ml). The phage DNA can partly be reextracted from the plants in a specific DNA fraction, which is predominantly characterized by its unusual high density (high density complex=HDC; sigma=1.724 g/ml). DNA:DNA hybridization studies show that phage specific DNA sequences are preserved in the HDC. Results of BrdUrd labeling of the plant DNA before and during incubation with T4DNA suggest that the HDC is composed of T4DNA and a plant DNA component of high density. The analysis of ultrasonicated HDC confirms this suggestion. The ability of plant cells to recognize and handle T4 DNA specifically is discussed.

  2. The peripheral conversion of thyroxine (T4) into triiodothyronine (T3) and reverse triiodothyronine (rT3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersinga, W.M.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this study was to delineate several physiological, pathological and pharmacological factors involved in the peripheral conversion of thyroxine (T 4 ), using radioimmunoassay. The determination of normal values of these tests under basal circumstances and after stimulation with thyrotropin-releasing-hormone is presented, and some physiological factors which may modulate the conversion of T 4 are discussed. Results are presented of the thyroid function tests in patients with thyroid disease and with acute non-thyroidal diseases. (Auth.)

  3. T cell antigen receptor expression by subsets of Ly-2-L3T4- (CD8-CD4-) thymocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, A; Ewing, T; Owens, T

    1988-01-01

    The V beta 8-specific mAb F23.1 and KJ16 were used as fluorescent stains to test for TCR expression on the surface of subpopulations of early, CD4-CD8- (L3T4-Ly-2-) thymocytes from adult CBA mice. A surprisingly high proportion (27%) of Ly-2-L3T4- thymocytes were strongly F23.1 and KJ16 positive...

  4. The effect of orally administered melatonin on the seasonality of deer pelage exchange, antler development, LH, FSH, prolactin, testosterone, T3, T4, cortisol and alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenik, G A; Smith, P S; Schams, D

    1986-01-01

    Five milligrams of melatonin (M) per day was administered orally to four male white-tailed deer on a schedule that mimicked first decreasing and then increasing lengths of natural photoperiod. The following seasonal phenotypic and hormonal responses were observed: Pelage exchange, antler mineralization, velvet shedding, and rutting behavior of experimental animals were advanced by 50-55 days. Prolactin (PRL) levels exhibited a bimodal curve with peaks in May and August, as compared to a monomodal curve of controls (peak in June). Peak FSH levels of M-fed deer were advanced 2 months as compared to controls (June vs August). LH concentrations of both groups reached maxima in July; however, in the experimental group, LH levels declined much faster than in controls and then rose again in October-November. Testosterone (T) concentrations of M-fed bucks were elevated 2 months ahead of controls. Melatonin treatment had no significant effect on seasonal variation of T3, or T4. No seasonal rhythm of cortisol was seen in either group and no detectable effect of M was evident. No statistical differences in levels of alkaline phosphatase were seen between groups, although concentrations in experimental bucks sharply dropped to basal levels two months ahead of controls.

  5. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Input control Neural Nerve Sheath Neopl...asms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  6. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 No description Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  7. File list: NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 No description Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  8. File list: NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 No description Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  9. File list: NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 No description Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  10. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Input control Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  11. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Input control Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Input control Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  13. Structure of the small outer capsid protein, Soc: a clamp for stabilizing capsids of T4-like phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li; Fokine, Andrei; O'Donnell, Erin; Rao, Venigalla B; Rossmann, Michael G

    2010-01-29

    Many viruses need to stabilize their capsid structure against DNA pressure and for survival in hostile environments. The 9-kDa outer capsid protein (Soc) of bacteriophage T4, which stabilizes the virus, attaches to the capsid during the final stage of maturation. There are 870 Soc molecules that act as a "glue" between neighboring hexameric capsomers, forming a "cage" that stabilizes the T4 capsid against extremes of pH and temperature. Here we report a 1.9 A resolution crystal structure of Soc from the bacteriophage RB69, a close relative of T4. The RB69 crystal structure and a homology model of T4 Soc were fitted into the cryoelectron microscopy reconstruction of the T4 capsid. This established the region of Soc that interacts with the major capsid protein and suggested a mechanism, verified by extensive mutational and biochemical studies, for stabilization of the capsid in which the Soc trimers act as clamps between neighboring capsomers. The results demonstrate the factors involved in stabilizing not only the capsids of T4-like bacteriophages but also many other virus capsids.

  14. Intracavitary 'T4 immunotherapy' of malignant mesothelioma using pan-ErbB re-targeted CAR T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klampatsa, Astero; Achkova, Daniela Y; Davies, David M; Parente-Pereira, Ana C; Woodman, Natalie; Rosekilly, James; Osborne, Georgina; Thayaparan, Thivyan; Bille, Andrea; Sheaf, Michael; Spicer, James F; King, Juliet; Maher, John

    2017-05-01

    Malignant mesothelioma remains an incurable cancer. We demonstrated that mesotheliomas expressed EGFR (79.2%), ErbB4 (49.0%) and HER2 (6.3%), but lacked ErbB3. At least one ErbB family member was expressed in 88% of tumors. To exploit ErbB dysregulation in this disease, patient T-cells were engineered by retroviral transduction to express a panErbB-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), co-expressed with a chimeric cytokine receptor that allows interleukin (IL)-4 mediated CAR T-cell proliferation. This combination is referred to as T4 immunotherapy. T-cells from mesothelioma patients were uniformly amenable to T4 genetic modification and expansion/enrichment thereafter using IL-4. Patient-derived T4 + T-cells were activated upon contact with a panel of four mesothelioma cell lines, leading to cytotoxicity and cytokine release in all cases. Adoptive transfer of T4 immunotherapy to SCID Beige mice with an established bioluminescent LO68 mesothelioma xenograft was followed by regression or eradication of disease in all animals. Despite the established ability of T4 immunotherapy to elicit cytokine release syndrome in SCID Beige mice, therapy was very well tolerated. These findings provide a strong rationale for the clinical evaluation of intracavitary T4 immunotherapy to treat mesothelioma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduction and repopulation of recipient T4+ and T8+ T-lymphocytes in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratama, J.W.; van den Bergh, R.L.; Naipal, A.; D'Amaro, J.; Zwaan, F.E.; Jansen, J.; de Gast, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    In eight recipients of allogeneic bone marrow grafts who had sex-mismatched donors, the reduction and subsequent repopulation of T4+ and T8+ T-lymphocytes of recipient origin were studied. The origin of the donor-recipient T4+ and T8+ T cells was studied using quinacrine staining of Y chromatin combined with T-cell typing for T4 and T8. Following chemoradiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation (BMT), T cells reached their nadir at a median of five (range 1-8) days after BMT. T8+ T cells decreased at a faster rate from the peripheral blood than T4+ T cells. The first T cells that appeared in the circulation at day 12 were predominantly T4+, and a large number of them were of recipient origin. Thereafter, they gradually decreased, and the numbers of T cells of donor origin increased. In the patients who had no or only minor complications, T4+ and T8+ T cells of donor origin repopulated the blood at similar rates. This pattern, however, was modified by severe graft-versus-host disease or by cytomegalovirus infection

  16. Improvement on the Fatigue Performance of 2024-T4 Alloy by Synergistic Coating Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Shu Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, rotating bending fatigue tests of 2024-T4 Al alloy with different oxide coatings were carried out. Compared to the uncoated and previously reported oxide coatings of aluminum alloys, the fatigue strength is able to be enhanced by using a novel oxide coating with sealing pore technology. These results indicate that the better the coating surface quality is, the more excellent the fatigue performance under rotating bending fatigue loading is. The improvement on the fatigue performance is mainly because the fatigue crack initiation and the early stage of fatigue crack growth at the coating layer can be delayed after PEO coating with pore sealing. Therefore, it is a so-called synergistic coating technology for various uses, including welding thermal cracks and filling micro-pores. The effects of different oxide coatings on surface hardness, compressive residual stress, morphology and fatigue fracture morphology are discussed. A critical compressive residual stress of about 95–100 MPa is proposed.

  17. Single-stranded DNA library preparation from highly degraded DNA using T4 DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansauge, Marie-Theres; Gerber, Tobias; Glocke, Isabelle; Korlevic, Petra; Lippik, Laurin; Nagel, Sarah; Riehl, Lara Maria; Schmidt, Anna; Meyer, Matthias

    2017-06-02

    DNA library preparation for high-throughput sequencing of genomic DNA usually involves ligation of adapters to double-stranded DNA fragments. However, for highly degraded DNA, especially ancient DNA, library preparation has been found to be more efficient if each of the two DNA strands are converted into library molecules separately. We present a new method for single-stranded library preparation, ssDNA2.0, which is based on single-stranded DNA ligation with T4 DNA ligase utilizing a splinter oligonucleotide with a stretch of random bases hybridized to a 3΄ biotinylated donor oligonucleotide. A thorough evaluation of this ligation scheme shows that single-stranded DNA can be ligated to adapter oligonucleotides in higher concentration than with CircLigase (an RNA ligase that was previously chosen for end-to-end ligation in single-stranded library preparation) and that biases in ligation can be minimized when choosing splinters with 7 or 8 random nucleotides. We show that ssDNA2.0 tolerates higher quantities of input DNA than CircLigase-based library preparation, is less costly and better compatible with automation. We also provide an in-depth comparison of library preparation methods on degraded DNA from various sources. Most strikingly, we find that single-stranded library preparation increases library yields from tissues stored in formalin for many years by several orders of magnitude. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Oral T4-like phage cocktail application to healthy adult volunteers from Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Shafiqul Alam, E-mail: sasarker@icddrb.org [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); McCallin, Shawna; Barretto, Caroline [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Berger, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.berger@rdls.nestle.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Pittet, Anne-Cecile [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Sultana, Shamima, E-mail: shamima@icddrb.org [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Krause, Lutz, E-mail: ltz.krause@gmail.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Huq, Sayeda, E-mail: sayeeda@mail.icddrb.org [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Bibiloni, Rodrigo, E-mail: Rodrigo.Bibiloni@agresearch.co.nz [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Bruttin, Anne, E-mail: anne.bruttin@rdls.nestle.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Reuteler, Gloria, E-mail: gloria.reuteler@rdls.nestle.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Bruessow, Harald, E-mail: harald.bruessow@rdls.nestle.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland)

    2012-12-20

    The genomic diversity of 99 T4-like coliphages was investigated by sequencing an equimolar mixture with Illumina technology and screening them against different databases for horizontal gene transfer and undesired genes. A 9-phage cocktail was given to 15 healthy adults from Bangladesh at a dose of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} plaque-forming units and placebo respectively. Phages were detected in 64% of the stool samples when subjects were treated with higher titer phage, compared to 30% and 28% with lower-titer phage and placebo, respectively. No Escherichia coli was present in initial stool samples, and no amplification of phage was observed. One percent of the administered oral phage was recovered from the feces. No adverse events were observed by self-report, clinical examination, or from laboratory tests for liver, kidney, and hematology function. No impact of oral phage was seen on the fecal microbiota composition with respect to bacterial 16S rRNA from stool.

  19. Features of the photosynthetic tissue in the sheaths of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhao Wu; He, Qiang; Feng, Deng Hua

    The photosynthesis of rice sheath plays a significant role to furnish rice yield, and it is accounted for 10 to 20% of the final yield. But, limited studies have been done to address this phenomenon and to characterize the features of the photosynthetic tissue in rice sheath. In this paper, a super hybrid rice and a hybrid rice were studied as the experimental materials, and the characteristics of the photosynthetic tissue in rice sheaths were examined by microscopic and super-microscopic observation. The results showed that the photosynthetic tissue of rice sheath was rich in the intact mesophyllous cells full of chloroplasts, grana and thylakoids, which were much the same as those of rice blade. The stomatal density in the outer epidermises of the sheaths was comparable to those in the up- and down-epidermises of the blades. The mesophyllous cells in the sheaths were also rich in chlorophylls, and had the net photosynthetic rate (Pn). Therefore, rice sheath was also full of the intact photosynthetic apparatus similar to those in rice blade, and had capabilities of photosynthesis.

  20. Presheath/sheath model with secondary electron emission from two parallel walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahedo, E.

    2002-01-01

    A macroscopic model of the interaction of a plasma with two parallel, electron-emitting walls is presented. Zero Debye-length and total thermalization of the secondary electron emission (SEE) are assumed. The SEE is treated as a free beam within each thin, collisionless sheath, but as part of a single electron population within the presheath. Plasma models with three and two species result in sheath and presheath, respectively. The ion flow at the presheath/sheath transition is sonic, and the sound speed there determines the relation between the temperature of the confined electron populations in sheath and presheath. For the general case of a plasma flowing axially between two annular walls the complete dimensionless solution depends on five parameters. Potential drops in the presheath can be larger than in the sheaths, mainly when charge-saturation is reached in the sheath or for a large effective ion friction in the presheath. The losses of plasma current to the walls are determined totally by the presheath problem, whereas the sheath problem and wall material determine the energy lost by impacting particle. Energy losses change drastically from zero SEE to a SEE yield about 100% when the charge-saturated regime is reached

  1. The collisional capacitive RF sheath and the assumption of a sharp electron edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2008-10-01

    The transition from quasi-neutrality to charge depletion is one of the characteristic features of the plasma boundary sheath. It is often described in terms of the so-called step model which assumes a transition point (electron step) where the electron density drops from a value equal to the ion density (in the bulk) to a value of zero (in the sheath). Inserted into Poisson's equation, the step model yields an expression for the field which is realistic deep in the sheath but fails to merge correctly into the ambipolar field of the bulk. This work studies the consequences of that approximation for the example of the collision-dominated, capacitive RF sheath by Lieberman [1]. First, the model is solved exactly, using a relaxation scheme. Then, the step approximation is applied which recovers Lieberman's semi-analytical solution. It is demonstrated that the step approximation induces a spurious divergence of the ion density at the sheath edge and prevents a matching of the sheath model to a bulk model. Integral sheath quantities, on the other hand, like the capacitance or the overall voltage drop, are faithfully reproduced. [1] M. A. Lieberman, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, pp. 638-644 (1988).

  2. Verification of high voltage rf capacitive sheath models with particle-in-cell simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Lieberman, Michael; Verboncoeur, John

    2009-10-01

    Collisionless and collisional high voltage rf capacitive sheath models were developed in the late 1980's [1]. Given the external parameters of a single-frequency capacitively coupled discharge, plasma parameters including sheath width, electron and ion temperature, plasma density, power, and ion bombarding energy can be estimated. One-dimensional electrostatic PIC codes XPDP1 [2] and OOPD1 [3] are used to investigate plasma behaviors within rf sheaths and bulk plasma. Electron-neutral collisions only are considered for collisionless sheaths, while ion-neutral collisions are taken into account for collisional sheaths. The collisionless sheath model is verified very well by PIC simulations for the rf current-driven and voltage-driven cases. Results will be reported for collisional sheaths also. [1] M. A. Lieberman, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16 (1988) 638; 17 (1989) 338 [2] J. P. Verboncoeur, M. V. Alves, V. Vahedi, and C. K. Birdsall, J. Comp. Phys. 104 (1993) 321 [3] J. P. Verboncoeur, A. B. Langdon and N. T. Gladd, Comp. Phys. Comm. 87 (1995) 199

  3. Considerations in the surgical use of the flexor sheath and pulley system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, A G; Lees, V C

    2014-01-01

    The use of the digital flexor sheath to reconstruct damaged structures in the fingers is an intriguing but under-investigated subject. The sheath is anchored firmly to the phalanges and palmar plates and has well-vascularized outer and synovial inner layers. The middle layer is strong and fibrous and not all of it is required for its main biomechanical function of maintaining the moment arm of the flexor tendons. These characteristics have led to several descriptions of different reconstructive uses. In sheath reconstruction, flaps can be used to repair damaged A2 and A4 pulleys. As an anchor, the sheath is useful for tenodeses and tendon transfers. It has been used in the correction of ulnar claw and swan neck deformities. In ligament reconstruction, the A1 pulley has been used to reconstruct the transverse intermetacarpal ligament in cleft hand and ray amputations. The sheath has also been used to cover tendon repairs and periosteal defects with the aim of decreasing adhesions. There is potential for further use of the flexor sheath in reconstructive surgery. The digital flexor sheath can be used to restore various finger functions providing its physiological roles are recognized and preserved. This review considers the different techniques described and their potential uses.

  4. Hertwig’s Epithelial Root Sheath Fate during Initial Cellular Cementogenesis in Rat Molars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki; Yamada, Tamaki; Yamamoto, Tomomaya; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Hongo, Hiromi; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the fate of the epithelial root sheath during initial cellular cementogenesis, we examined developing maxillary first molars of rats by immunohistochemistry for keratin, vimentin, and tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP) and by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). The advancing root end was divided into three sections, which follow three distinct stages of initial cellular cementogenesis: section 1, where the epithelial sheath is intact; section 2, where the epithelial sheath becomes fragmented; and section 3, where initial cellular cementogenesis begins. After fragmentation of the epithelial sheath, many keratin-positive epithelial sheath cells were embedded in the rapidly growing cellular cementum. A few unembedded epithelial cells located on the cementum surface. Dental follicle cells, precementoblasts, and cementoblasts showed immunoreactivity for vimentin and TNALP. In all three sections, there were virtually no cells possessing double immunoreactivity for vimentin-keratin or TNALP-keratin and only embedded epithelial cells showed TUNEL reactivity. Taken together, these findings suggest that: (1) epithelial sheath cells divide into two groups; one group is embedded in the cementum and thereafter dies by apoptosis, and the other survives on the cementum surface as epithelial cell rests of Malassez; and (2) epithelial sheath cells do not undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition during initial cellular cementogenesis

  5. Research on stress distribution regularity of cement sheaths of radial well based on ABAQUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jihui; Cheng, Yuanfang; Li, Xiaolong; Xiao, Wen; Li, Menglai

    2017-12-01

    To ensure desirable outcome of hydraulic fracturing based on ultra-short radius radial systems, it is required to investigate the stress distribution regularity and stability of the cement sheath. On the basis of the theoretical model of the cement sheath stress distribution, a reservoir mechanical model was built using the finite element software, ABAQUS, according to the physical property of a certain oil reservoir of the Shengli oilfield. The stress distribution of the casing-cement-sheath-formation system under the practical condition was simulated, based on which analyses were conducted from multiple points of view. Results show that the stress on the internal interface of the cement sheath exceeds that on the external interface, and fluctuates with higher amplitudes, which means that the internal interface is the most failure-prone. The unevenness of the cement sheath stress distribution grows with the increasing horizontal principal stress ratio, and so does the variation magnitude. This indicates that higher horizontal principal stress ratios are unfavourable for the structural stability of the cement sheath. Both the wellbore quantity of the URRS and the physical property of the material can affect the cement sheath distribution. It is suggested to optimize the quantity of the radial wellbore and use cement with a lower elastic modulus and higher Poisson’s ratio. At last, the impact level of the above factor was analysed, with the help of the grey correlation analysis.

  6. Soil sheaths, photosynthate distribution to roots, and rhizosphere water relations for Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.; North, G.B.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Soil sheaths incorporating aggregated soil particles surround young roots of many species, but the effects of such sheaths on water movement between roots and the soil are largely unknown. The quantity and location of root exudates associated with soil sheath along the entire length of its young roots, except within 1.4 cm of the tip. The soil sheaths, which average 0.7 mm in thickness, were composed of soil particles and root hairs, both of which were covered with exuded mucilaginous material. As determined with a [sup 14]C pulse-labeling technique, 2% of newly fixed [sup 14]C-photosynthate was translocated into the roots at 3d, 6% at 9 d, and 8% at 15 d after labeling. The fraction of insoluble [sup 14]C in the roots increased twofold from 3 d to 15 d. Over the same time period, 6%-9% of the [sup 14]C translocated to the roots was exuded into the soil. The soluble [sup 14]C compounds exuded into the soil were greater in the 3-cm segment at the root tip than elsewhere along the root, whereas mucilage was exuded relatively uniformly along roots 15 cm in length. The volumetric efflux of water increase for both sheathed and unsheathed roots as the soil water potential decreased form -0.1 MPa to -1.0 MPa. The efflux rate was greater for unsheathed roots than for sheathed roots, which were more turgid and had a higher water potential, especially at lower soil water potentials. During drying, soil particles in the sheaths aggregate more tightly, making the sheaths less permeable to water and possibly creating air gaps. The soil sheaths of O. ficus-indica thus reduce water loss from the roots to a drying soil. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Uranium mill tailings neutralization: contaminant complexation and tailings leaching studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1985-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to compare the effectiveness of limestone (CaCO 3 ) and hydrated lime [Ca(OH) 2 ] for improving waste water quality through the neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings liquor. The experiments were designed to also assess the effects of three proposed mechanisms - carbonate complexation, elevated pH, and colloidal particle adsorption - on the solubility of toxic contaminants found in a typical uranium mill waste solution. Of special interest were the effects each of these possible mechanisms had on the solution concentrations of trace metals such as Cd, Co, Mo, Zn, and U after neutralization. Results indicated that the neutralization of acidic tailings to a pH of 7.3 using hydrated lime provided the highest overall waste water quality. Both the presence of a carbonate source or elevating solution pH beyond pH = 7.3 resulted in a lowering of previously achieved water quality, while adsorption of contaminants onto colloidal particles was not found to affect the solution concentration of any constituent investigated. 24 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs

  8. Post-transcriptional control by bacteriophage T4: mRNA decay and inhibition of translation initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Eric S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over 50 years of biological research with bacteriophage T4 includes notable discoveries in post-transcriptional control, including the genetic code, mRNA, and tRNA; the very foundations of molecular biology. In this review we compile the past 10 - 15 year literature on RNA-protein interactions with T4 and some of its related phages, with particular focus on advances in mRNA decay and processing, and on translational repression. Binding of T4 proteins RegB, RegA, gp32 and gp43 to their cognate target RNAs has been characterized. For several of these, further study is needed for an atomic-level perspective, where resolved structures of RNA-protein complexes are awaiting investigation. Other features of post-transcriptional control are also summarized. These include: RNA structure at translation initiation regions that either inhibit or promote translation initiation; programmed translational bypassing, where T4 orchestrates ribosome bypass of a 50 nucleotide mRNA sequence; phage exclusion systems that involve T4-mediated activation of a latent endoribonuclease (PrrC and cofactor-assisted activation of EF-Tu proteolysis (Gol-Lit; and potentially important findings on ADP-ribosylation (by Alt and Mod enzymes of ribosome-associated proteins that might broadly impact protein synthesis in the infected cell. Many of these problems can continue to be addressed with T4, whereas the growing database of T4-related phage genome sequences provides new resources and potentially new phage-host systems to extend the work into a broader biological, evolutionary context.

  9. T4 bacteriophage conjugated magnetic particles for E. coli capturing: Influence of bacteriophage loading, temperature and tryptone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liana, Ayu Ekajayanthi; Marquis, Christopher P; Gunawan, Cindy; Gooding, J Justin; Amal, Rose

    2017-03-01

    This work demonstrates the use of bacteriophage conjugated magnetic particles (Fe 3 O 4 ) for the rapid capturing and isolation of Escherichia coli. The investigation of T4 bacteriophage adsorption to silane functionalised Fe 3 O 4 with amine (NH 2 ), carboxylic (COOH) and methyl (CH 3 ) surface functional groups reveals the domination of net electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in governing bacteriophage adsorption. The bare Fe 3 O 4 and Fe 3 O 4 -NH 2 with high T4 loading captured 3-fold more E. coli (∼70% capturing efficiency) compared to the low loading T4 on Fe 3 O 4 -COOH, suggesting the significance of T4 loading in E. coli capturing efficiency. Importantly, it is further revealed that E. coli capture is highly dependent on the incubation temperature and the presence of tryptone in the media. Effective E. coli capturing only occurs at 37°C in tryptone-containing media with the absence of either conditions resulted in poor bacteria capture. The incubation temperature dictates the capturing ability of Fe 3 O 4 /T4, whereby T4 and E. coli need to establish an irreversible binding that occurred at 37°C. The presence of tryptophan-rich tryptone in the suspending media was also critical, as shown by a 3-fold increase in E. coli capture efficiency of Fe 3 O 4 /T4 in tryptone-containing media compared to that in tryptone-free media. This highlights for the first time that successful bacteria capturing requires not only an optimum tailoring of the particle's surface physicochemical properties for favourable bacteriophage loading, but also an in-depth understanding of how factors, such as temperature and solution chemistry influence the subsequent bacteriophage-bacteria interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Technical performance evaluation of the MyT4 point of care technology for CD4+ T cell enumeration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilu Mwau

    Full Text Available Though absolute CD4+ T cell enumeration is the primary gateway to antiretroviral therapy initiation for HIV-positive patients in all developing countries, patient access to this critical diagnostic test is relatively poor. We technically evaluated the performance of a newly developed point-of-care CD4+ T cell technology, the MyT4, compared with conventional CD4+ T cell testing technologies.Over 250 HIV-positive patients were consecutively enrolled and their blood tested on the MyT4, BD FACSCalibur, and BD FACSCount.Compared with the BD FACSCount, the MyT4 had an r2 of 0.7269 and a mean bias of -23.37 cells/µl. Compared with the BD FACSCalibur, the MyT4 had an r2 of 0.5825 and a mean bias of -46.58 cells/µl. Kenya currently uses a CD4+ T cell test threshold of 350 cells/µl to determine patient eligibility for antiretroviral therapy. At this threshold, the MyT4 had a sensitivity of 95.3% (95% CI: 88.4-98.7% and a specificity of 87.9% (95% CI: 82.3-92.3% compared with the BD FACSCount and sensitivity and specificity of 88.2% (95% CI: 79.4-94.2% and 84.2% (95% CI: 78.2-89.2%, respectively, compared with the BD FACSCalibur. Finally, the MyT4 had a coefficient of variation of 12.80% compared with 14.03% for the BD FACSCalibur.We conclude that the MyT4 performed well at the current 350 cells/µl ART initiation eligibility threshold when used by lower cadres of health care facility staff in rural clinics compared to conventional CD4+ T cell technologies.

  11. Normal tendon sheath of the second to fifth fingers as seen on oblique views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.

    1984-01-01

    Oblique views of the fingers, using a low kilovolt technique, show a portion of the tendon sheaths which can be regarded as representative of the entire sheath. Because of the varying obliquity of each finger, this proportion differs in the fingers. With increasing age the projected portion of the sheath becomes smaller because it is covered by increasing bone formation in the insertion of the tendon sheat. Normal values have been obtained for adults according to their decades; from these, quite minor degrees of tendon sheat thickening can be determined. In camptodactyly of the fifth finger, which is not uncommon, the tendon sheat may be widened in the absence of a tenosynovitis.

  12. Dissociation and Re-Aggregation of Multicell-Ensheathed Fragments Responsible for Rapid Production of Massive Clumps of Leptothrix Sheaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; McFarlane, Ian R.; Tamura, Katsunori; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Species of the Fe/Mn-oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix produce tremendous amounts of microtubular, Fe/Mn-encrusted sheaths within a few days in outwells of groundwater that can rapidly clog water systems. To understand this mode of rapid sheath production and define the timescales involved, behaviors of sheath-forming Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 were examined using time-lapse video at the initial stage of sheath formation. OUMS1 formed clumps of tangled sheaths. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of a thin layer of bacterial exopolymer fibrils around catenulate cells (corresponding to the immature sheath). In time-lapse videos, numerous sheath filaments that extended from the periphery of sheath clumps repeatedly fragmented at the apex of the same fragment, the fragments then aggregated and again elongated, eventually forming a large sheath clump comprising tangled sheaths within two days. In this study, we found that fast microscopic fragmentation, dissociation, re-aggregation and re-elongation events are the basis of the rapid, massive production of Leptothrix sheaths typically observed at macroscopic scales. PMID:27490579

  13. Stabilization of T4 bacteriophage at acidic and basic pH by adsorption on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Abigail; Greene, Melissa; Kimmelshue, Chad; Cademartiri, Rebecca

    2017-12-01

    Bacteriophages find applications in agriculture, medicine, and food safety. Many of these applications can expose bacteriophages to stresses that inactivate them including acidic and basic pH. Bacteriophages can be stabilized against these stresses by materials including paper, a common material in packaging and consumer products. Combining paper and bacteriophages creates antibacterial materials, which can reduce the use of antibiotics. Here we show that adsorption on paper protects T4, T5, and T7 bacteriophage from acidic and basic pH. We added bacteriophages to filter paper functionalized with carboxylic acid (carboxyl methyl cellulose) or amine (chitosan) groups, and exposed them to pH from 5.6 to 14. We determined the number of infective bacteriophages after exposure directly on the paper. All papers extended the lifetime of infective bacteriophage by at least a factor of four with some papers stabilizing bacteriophages for up to one week. The degree of stabilization depended on five main factors (i) the family of the bacteriophage, (ii) the charge of the paper and bacteriophages, (iii) the location of the bacteriophages within the paper, (iv) the ability of the paper to prevent bacteriophage-bacteriophage aggregation, and (v) the sensitivity of the bacteriophage proteins to the tested pH. Even when adsorbed on paper the bacteriophages were able to remove E. coli in milk. Choosing the right paper modification or material will protect bacteriophages adsorbed on that material against detrimental pH and other environmental challenges increasing the range of applications of bacteriophages on materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 3D Parylene sheath neural probe for chronic recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B. J.; Kuo, J. T. W.; Hara, S. A.; Lee, C. D.; Yu, L.; Gutierrez, C. A.; Hoang, T. Q.; Pikov, V.; Meng, E.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Reliable chronic recordings from implanted neural probes remain a significant challenge; current silicon-based and microwire technologies experience a wide range of biotic and abiotic failure modes contributing to loss of signal quality. Approach. A multi-prong alternative strategy with potential to overcome these hurdles is introduced that combines a novel three dimensional (3D), polymer-based probe structure with coatings. Specifically, the Parylene C sheath-based neural probe is coated with neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory factors loaded onto a Matrigel carrier to encourage the ingrowth of neuronal processes for improved recording quality, reduce the immune response, and promote improved probe integration into brain tissue for reliable, long-term implementation compared to its rigid counterparts. Main results. The 3D sheath structure of the probe was formed by thermal molding of a surface micromachined Parylene C microchannel, with electrode sites lining the interior and exterior regions of the lumen. Electrochemical characterization of the probes via cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was performed and indicated suitable electrode properties for neural recordings (1 kHz electrical impedance of ∼200 kΩ in vitro). A novel introducer tool for the insertion of the compliant polymer probe into neural tissue was developed and validated both in vitro using agarose gel and in vivo in the rat cerebral cortex. In vivo electrical functionality of the Parylene C-based 3D probes and their suitability for recording the neuronal activity over a 28-day period was demonstrated by maintaining the 1 kHz electrical impedance within a functional range (<400 kΩ) and achieving a reasonably high signal-to-noise ratio for detection of resolvable multi-unit neuronal activity on most recording sites in the probe. Immunohistochemical analysis of the implant site indicated strong correlations between the quality of recorded activity and the

  15. Traumatic expulsion of T4 vertebral body into the spinal canal treated by vertebrectomy and spine shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Michele; Corghi, Alessandro; De Iure, Federico; Amendola, Luca

    2014-05-20

    A case report. To describe an exceptional case of traumatic 2-level adjacent disk disruption with expulsion of the vertebral body into the spinal canal treated by vertebrectomy and spine shortening. Traumatic spondyloptosis is a very rare injury caused by high-energy trauma. Vertebral body expulsion is mostly the result of tremendous flexion-extension shearing forces causing a double contiguous disk disruption. A 49-year-old male was admitted to the emergency department of another hospital because of a high-speed car crash. He was conscious and collaborating and showed a complete paraplegia. Spinal computed tomographic scan showed a posterior expulsion of the T4 vertebral body and dislocation into the spinal canal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine confirmed the presence of a 2-level adjacent T3-T4 and T4-T5 disk disruption and severe compression of the spinal cord by the T4 vertebral body. We performed a posterior stabilization from T1 to T8 with T4 vertebrectomy and spine shortening. A postoperative computed tomographic scan showed a tolerable sagittal and frontal alignment and apposition of the endplates of T3 and T5. At present, 12 months after surgery, the patient is neurologically unchanged, but he can keep the sitting position without support. Total vertebrectomy and spinal shortening are safe and replicable procedures applicable in few patients with paraplegia. A surgical procedure after 3 weeks makes a complete reduction and a perfect sagittal alignment of the spine difficult to be obtained.

  16. Tools-4-Metatool (T4M): online suite of web-tools to process stoichiometric network analysis data from Metatool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Daniela; Vázquez, Sara; Higuera, Clara; Morán, Federico; Montero, Francisco

    2011-08-01

    Tools-4-Metatool (T4M) is a suite of web-tools, implemented in PERL, which analyses, parses, and manipulates files related to Metatool. Its main goal is to assist the work with Metatool. T4M has two major sets of tools: Analysis and Compare. Analysis visualizes the results of Metatool (convex basis, elementary flux modes, and enzyme subsets) and facilitates the study of metabolic networks. It is composed of five tools: MDigraph, MetaMatrix, CBGraph, EMGraph, and SortEM. Compare was developed to compare different Metatool results from different networks. This set consists of: Compara and ComparaSub which compare network subsets providing outputs in different formats and ComparaEM that seeks for identical elementary modes in two metabolic networks. The suite T4M also includes one script that generates Metatool input: CBasis2Metatool, based on a Metatool output file that is filtered by a list of convex basis' metabolites. Finally, the utility CheckMIn checks the consistency of the Metatool input file. T4M is available at http://solea.quim.ucm.es/t4m. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of the major capsid genes (g23) of T4-type bacteriophages in the wetlands of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunyu; Wang, Guanghua; Liu, Junjie; Song, Changchun; Gao, Hongxing; Liu, Xiaobing

    2013-04-01

    To obtain genetic information and to evaluate the composition of T4-type bacteriophage (phage) communities in wetlands, environmental soil and water DNAs were obtained from two natural wetlands dominated by Carex lasiocarpa and Deyeuxia angustifolia plant species, and a neighboring paddy field in Sanjiang plain of northeast China. The biomarker gene of g23, which encodes the major capsid protein of T4-type phages, was amplified with primers MZIA1bis and MZIA6, and the PCR products were cloned and sequenced. In total, 96 and 50 different g23 clones were obtained from natural wetlands and a paddy field, respectively. A larger number of clones with low levels of identity to known sequences were found in water than in soil both in the natural wetlands and the paddy field, suggesting that many of T4-type phages in wetland water and paddy floodwater in Sanjiang plain are uncharacterized. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the g23 clones in natural wetlands, irrespective of water and soil, were distinctly different from those in marine waters, lake waters, and upland black soils, but were similar to those in paddy fields. The UniFrac analysis of g23 assemblages indicated that T4-type phage community compositions were different between soils and waters, and also were different between the natural wetlands and the paddy field. In general, the global analysis of g23 clone assemblages demonstrated that T4-type phage community compositions were different among natural wetlands, marines, lakes, paddy fields, and upland black soils.

  18. Which is the most preventive measure against tail damage in finisher pigs: tail docking, straw provision or lowered stocking density?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    One challenge of intensive pig production is tail damage caused by tail biting, and farmers often decrease the prevalence of tail damage through tail docking. However, tail docking is not an optimal preventive measure against tail damage and thus, it would be preferable to replace it. The aim...... by scoring the tail of each individual pig. A pen was recorded as a tail damage pen and no longer included in the study if at least one pig in a pen had a bleeding tail wound; thus, only the first incidence of tail damage on pen level was recorded. Data were analysed by a Cox regression for survival analysis...

  19. Assessing Risks of Mine Tailing Dam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha Larrauri, P.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    The consequences of tailings dam failures can be catastrophic for communities and ecosystems in the vicinity of the dams. The failure of the Fundão tailings dam at the Samarco mine in 2015 killed 19 people with severe consequences for the environment. The financial and legal consequences of a tailings dam failure can also be significant for the mining companies. For the Fundão tailings dam, the company had to pay 6 billion dollars in fines and twenty-one executives were charged with qualified murder. There are tenths of thousands of active, inactive, and abandoned tailings dams in the world and there is a need to better understand the hazards posed by these structures to downstream populations and ecosystems. A challenge to assess the risks of tailings dams in a large scale is that many of them are not registered in publicly available databases and there is little information about their current physical state. Additionally, hazard classifications of tailings dams - common in many countries- tend to be subjective, include vague parameter definitions, and are not always updated over time. Here we present a simple methodology to assess and rank the exposure to tailings dams using ArcGIS that removes subjective interpretations. The method uses basic information such as current dam height, storage volume, topography, population, land use, and hydrological data. A hazard rating risk was developed to compare the potential extent of the damage across dams. This assessment provides a general overview of what in the vicinity of the tailings dams could be affected in case of a failure and a way to rank tailings dams that is directly linked to the exposure at any given time. One hundred tailings dams in Minas Gerais, Brazil were used for the test case. This ranking approach could inform the risk management strategy of the tailings dams within a company, and when disclosed, it could enable shareholders and the communities to make decisions on the risks they are taking.

  20. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise; Vinding, Mads S; Rydtoft, Louise M; Mortensen, Martin B; Karring, Henrik; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Wang, Tobias; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments.

  1. Quantization function for attractive, singular potential tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, Patrick N.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between atoms and molecules with each other are deep potential wells with attractive, singular tails. Bound state energies are determined by a quantization function according to a simple quantization rule. This function is dominantly determined by the singular potential tail for near-threshold states. General expressions for the low- and high-energy contributions of the singular potential tail to the quantization function, as well as the connection to the scattering length are presented in two and three dimensions. Precise analytical expressions for the quantization function are determined for the case of potential tails proportional to -1/r 4 and -1/r 6 for three dimensions. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of a fuel sheath failure model with published experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varty, R.L.; Rosinger, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel sheath failure model has been compared with the published results of experiments in which a Zircaloy-4 fuel sheath was subjected to a temperature ramp and a differential pressure until failure occurred. The model assumes that the deformation of the sheath is controlled by steady-state creep and that there is a relationship between tangential stress and temperature at the instant of failure. The sheath failure model predictions agree reasonably well with the experimental data. The burst temperature is slightly overpredicted by the model. The burst strain is overpredicted for small experimental burst strains but is underpredicted otherwise. The reasons for these trends are discussed and the extremely wide variation in burst strain reported in the literature is explained using the model

  3. The endomembrane sheath: a key structure for understanding the plant cell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuzeau, C.; McNally, J. G.; Pickard, B. G.

    1997-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that integrin is abundant in endomembranes of plant cells, and the endomembranes are clad by a sheath of cytoskeleton including F-actin. A role for endomembrane integrin and the endomembrane sheath is proposed: this system might orchestrate metabolic regulation by providing and modulating loci for channelling, and might accelerate channeling as needed by dragging the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and organelles through the cytoplasm. To accomplish this "streaming", F-actin might lever against the rest of the endomembrane sheath and the ER might also lever against adhesion sites (i.e., plasmodesmata and plasmalemmal control centers). As an important agent in the control of cellular activities, according to this model, the endomembrane sheath would play a major part in responses to diverse signals and stresses, and under extreme stress cell survival would depend on the ability of the system to maintain enough integrity to direct critical syntheses and degradations.

  4. Polyacrylonitrile nanofibers prepared using coaxial electrospinning with LiCl solution as sheath fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dengguang; Yang Junhe; Wang Xia; Lu Ping; Branford-White, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A modified coaxial electrospinning process including an electrolyte solution as sheath fluid was used for preparing high quality polymer nanofibers. A series of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were fabricated utilizing a coaxial electrospinning containing LiCl in N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as the sheath fluid. FESEM results demonstrated that the sheath LiCl solutions have a significant influence on the quality of PAN nanofibers. Nanofibers with smaller diameters, smoother surfaces and uniform structures were successfully prepared. The diameters of nanofibers were controlled by adjusting the conductivity of the sheath fluid over a suitable range and this was determined by varying LiCl concentrations. The influence of the effect of LiCl on the formation of PAN fibers is discussed and it is concluded that coaxial electrospinning with electrolyte solutions is a convenient and facile process for achieving high quality polymer nanofibers.

  5. The Tubular Sheaths Encasing Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum Filaments are Functional Amyloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Larsen, Poul; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    Archaea are well-recognized for their ability to thrive in extreme environments, although they can be found in virtually all habitats. Their adaptive success is linked to their unique cell envelopes, which often display extremely resistant to chemical and thermal denaturation and resist proteolysis...... techniques to show that the extracellular cell wall sheaths of the methanogenic archaea Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum are functional amyloid structures. Depolymerization of sheaths with formic acid and reducing agents and subsequent MS/MS analysis revealed that the sheaths are composed of a single major...... sheath protein (MspA). The amyloidogenic nature of MspA was confirmed by in vitro amyloid formation of recombinant MspA under a wide range of environmental conditions. This is the first report of a functional amyloid from the archaeal domain of life. The amyloid properties explain the extreme resistance...

  6. The effect of flexor sheath integrity on nutrient uptake by chicken flexor tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, W W; Manske, P R; Lesker, P A

    1985-12-01

    The effect of varying degrees of flexor sheath integrity (sheath excised, incised, or incised and repaired) on the uptake of 3H-proline by chicken flexor tendons in Zone II was studied. The tendons were either: normal and uninjured, lacerated and repaired, or uninjured except for vinculum longum ligation. Different degrees of sheath integrity did not influence the uptake of 3H-proline by the tendons. The tendon does not appear to be dependent on a synovial environment for nutrients and is capable of obtaining these nutrients by diffusion from the surrounding extracellular tissue fluid. Diffusion is the primary nutrient pathway to the flexor tendon in this area, because removing its major vascular attachment (i.e., the vinculum longum) did not effect proline uptake. Careful closure of the sheath with restoration of a synovial environment does not appear to be necessary for tendon nutrition.

  7. Effect of flexor sheath integrity on nutrient uptake by chicken flexor tendons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, W.W.; Manske, P.R.; Lesker, P.A.

    1985-12-01

    The effect of varying degrees of flexor sheath integrity (sheath excised, incised, or incised and repaired) on the uptake of /sub 2/H-proline by chicken flexor tendons in Zone II was studied. The tendons were either: normal and uninjured, lacerated and repaired, or uninjured except for vinculum longum ligation. Different degrees of sheath integrity did not influence the uptake of /sub 2/H-proline by the tendons. The tendon does not appear to be dependent on a synovial environment for nutrients and is capable of obtaining these nutrients by diffusion from the surrounding extracellular tissue fluid. Diffusion is the primary nutrient pathway to the flexor tendon in this area, because removing its major vascular attachment (i.e., the vinculum longum) did not effect proline uptake. Careful closure of the sheath with restoration of a synovial environment does not appear to be necessary for tendon nutrition.

  8. Teaching the transrectus sheath preperiotneal mesh repair: TREPP in 9 steps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkersdijk, W.L.; Andeweg, C.S.; Bokkerink, W.J.V.; Lange, J.F.; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van; Koning, G.G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The preperitoneal mesh position seems preferable to reduce the number of patients with postoperative chronic pain after inguinal hernia surgery. The transrectus sheath preperitoneal mesh repair (TREPP) is gaining popularity. Teaching a new technique requires a standardized approach to

  9. Child-Langmuir law for cathode sheath of glow discharge in CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisovskiy, V.A.; Krol, H.H.; Osmayev, R.O.; Yegorenkov, V.D.

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the determination of the law that may be applicable to the description of the cathode sheath in CO 2 . To this end three versions of the Child-Langmuir law have been considered - a collision free one (for the ions moving through a cathode sheath without collisions with gas molecules) as well as two collision- related versions - one for a constant mean free path of positive ions and one for a constant mobility of positive ions. The current-voltage characteristics and the cathode sheath thickness of the glow discharge in CO 2 have been simultaneously measured in the pressure range from 0.05 to 1 Torr and with the discharge current values up to 80 mA. In the whole range of the discharge conditions we have studied the cathode sheath characteristics are found to obey correctly only to the Child-Langmuir law version with a constant ion mobility.

  10. Experimental Studies of Anode Sheath Phenomena in a Hall Thruster Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorf, L.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    Both electron-repelling and electron-attracting anode sheaths in a Hall thruster were characterized by measuring the plasma potential with biased and emissive probes [L. Dorf, Y. Raitses, V. Semenov, and N.J. Fisch, Appl. Phys. Let. 84 (2004) 1070]. In the present work, two-dimensional structures of the plasma potential, electron temperature, and plasma density in the near-anode region of a Hall thruster with clean and dielectrically coated anodes are identified. Possible mechanisms of anode sheath formation in a Hall thruster are analyzed. The path for current closure to the anode appears to be the determining factor in the anode sheath formation process. The main conclusion of this work is that the anode sheath formation in Hall thrusters differs essentially from that in the other gas discharge devices, like a glow discharge or a hollow anode, because the Hall thruster utilizes long electron residence times to ionize rather than high neutral pressures

  11. Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ensinger, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique / B. Rauschenbach ... - In: Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research. B. 113. 1996. S. 266-269

  12. Effects of Reentry Plasma Sheath on GPS Patch Antenna Polarization Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A plasma sheath enveloping a reentry vehicle would affect performances of on-board antenna greatly, especially the navigation antennas. This paper studies the effects of reentry plasma sheath on a GPS right-hand circularly polarized (RHCP patch antenna polarization property during a typical reentry process. Utilizing the algorithm of finite integration technique, the polarization characteristic of a GPS antenna coated by a plasma sheath is obtained. Results show that the GPS RHCP patch antenna radiation pattern distortions as well as polarization deteriorations exist during the entire reentry process, and the worst polarization mismatch loss between a GPS antenna and RHCP GPS signal is nearly 3 dB. This paper also indicates that measures should be taken to alleviate the plasma sheath for maintaining the GPS communication during the reentry process.

  13. Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticles as Materials in Sensor Applications: Variables That Influence Their Organization and Assembly on Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinny L. Liu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage T4 nanoparticles possess characteristics that make them ideal candidates as materials for sensors, particularly as sensor probes. Their surface can be modified, either through genetic engineering or direct chemical conjugation to display functional moieties such as antibodies or other proteins to recognize a specific target. However, in order for T4 nanoparticles to be utilized as a sensor probe, it is necessary to understand and control the variables that determine their assembly and organization on a surface. The aim of this work is to discuss some of variables that we have identified as influencing the behavior of T4 nanoparticles on surfaces. The effect of pH, ionic strength, substrate characteristics, nanoparticle concentration and charge was addressed qualitatively using atomic force microscopy (AFM.

  14. Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis in a Captive Black and White Ruffed Lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) Caused by Acanthamoeba T4 Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaide, N; Pelandakis, M; Robveille, C; Albaric, O; Jouvion, G; Souchon, M; Risler, A; Abadie, J

    2015-11-01

    A mature male, black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) died in a zoological garden after a 4-day history of lethargy and non-responsive convulsions. Necropsy and histopathological examinations revealed acute necrotizing and haemorrhagic meningoencephalitis with intralesional amoebas confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Acanthamoeba T4 genotype was identified as the causative agent of the brain lesion, based on amplification and sequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The presence of free-living amoebas in water and mud from the lemur's environment was investigated by morphological and molecular analyses. The two predominant genera, representing 80% of isolated amoebas, were Naegleria spp. and Acanthamoeba spp. All Acanthamoeba isolates belonged to the T4 genotype. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of a meningoencephalitis due to Acanthamoeba T4 genotype in Lemuridae with concurrent analysis of pathological tissues and environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface damage by sheath effects and unipolar arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwirzke, F.; Taylor, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Unipolar arcing develops if the sheath potential is high enough. A laser-produced plasma of short duration was used to study the onset and development of arcing on a stainless stell surface. The laser-produced plasma with kTsub(e) approx. equal to 100 eV expands rapidly from the focal spot on the target surface in the normal and in radial directions. After one laser shot the damage on the polished surface was observed with an optical and a scanning electron microscope. Although no external voltage was applied, about 20 000 unipolar arc craters are observable on the stainless steel surface which was exposed to the radially expanding plasma for the short time of a few hundred nanoseconds. The size of the arc craters decreases with increasing distance from the focal spot. The initial cathode spot is 1 μm in diameter and 3-6 μm deep, acting like a hollow cathode. The arcs obviously contribute to the erosion of wall material. The experimental results also show that some of the eroded material is redeposited on stainless steel surfaces in loosely bound form. (orig.)

  16. Plasticity in bundle sheath extensions of heterobaric leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Douglas J; McInerney, Francesca A; Kouwenberg, Lenny L R; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A

    2012-07-01

    Leaf venation is linked to physiological performance, playing a critical role in ecosystem function. Despite the importance of leaf venation, associated bundle sheath extensions (BSEs) remain largely unstudied. Here, we quantify plasticity in the spacing of BSEs over irradiance and precipitation gradients. Because physiological function(s) of BSEs remain uncertain, we additionally explored a link between BSEs and water use efficiency (WUE). We sampled leaves of heterobaric trees along intracrown irradiance gradients in natural environments and growth chambers and correlated BSE spacing to incident irradiance. Additionally, we sampled leaves along a precipitation gradient and correlated BSE spacing to precipitation and bulk δ(13)C, a proxy for intrinsic WUE. BSE spacing was quantified using a novel semiautomatic method on fresh leaf tissue. With increased irradiance or decreased precipitation, Liquidambar styraciflua decreased BSE spacing, while Acer saccharum showed little variation in BSE spacing. Two additional species, Quercus robur and Platanus occidentalis, decreased BSE spacing with increased irradiance in growth chambers. BSE spacing correlated with bulk δ(13)C, a proxy for WUE in L. styraciflua, Q. robur, and P. occidentalis leaves but not in leaves of A. saccharum. We demonstrated that BSE spacing is plastic with respect to irradiance or precipitation and independent from veins, indicating BSE involvement in leaf adaptation to a microenvironment. Plasticity in BSE spacing was correlated with WUE only in some species, not supporting a function in water relations. We discuss a possible link between BSE plasticity and life history, particularly canopy position.

  17. Ral Overactivation in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodempudi, Vidya; Yamoutpoor, Farnaz; Pan, Weihong; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z.; Esfandyari, Tuba; Piedra, Mark; Babovick-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Woo, Richard A.; Mautner, Victor F.; Kluwe, Lan; Clapp, D. Wade; De Vries, George H.; Thomas, Stacey L.; Kurtz, Andreas; Parada, Luis F.; Farassati, Faris

    2009-01-01

    Ras leads an important signaling pathway that is deregulated in neurofibromatosis type 1 and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). In this study, we show that overactivation of Ras and many of its downstream effectors occurred in only a fraction of MPNST cell lines. RalA, however, was overactivated in all MPNST cells and tumor samples compared to nontransformed Schwann cells. Silencing Ral or inhibiting it with a dominant-negative Ral (Ral S28N) caused a significant reduction in proliferation, invasiveness, and in vivo tumorigenicity of MPNST cells. Silencing Ral also reduced the expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition markers. Expression of the NF1-GTPase-related domain (NF1-GRD) diminished the levels of Ral activation, implicating a role for neurofibromin in regulating RalA activation. NF1-GRD treatment caused a significant decrease in proliferation, invasiveness, and cell cycle progression, but cell death increased. We propose Ral overactivation as a novel cell signaling abnormality in MPNST that leads to important biological outcomes with translational ramifications. PMID:19414599

  18. Ral overactivation in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodempudi, Vidya; Yamoutpoor, Farnaz; Pan, Weihong; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z; Esfandyari, Tuba; Piedra, Mark; Babovick-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Woo, Richard A; Mautner, Victor F; Kluwe, Lan; Clapp, D Wade; De Vries, George H; Thomas, Stacey L; Kurtz, Andreas; Parada, Luis F; Farassati, Faris

    2009-07-01

    Ras leads an important signaling pathway that is deregulated in neurofibromatosis type 1 and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). In this study, we show that overactivation of Ras and many of its downstream effectors occurred in only a fraction of MPNST cell lines. RalA, however, was overactivated in all MPNST cells and tumor samples compared to nontransformed Schwann cells. Silencing Ral or inhibiting it with a dominant-negative Ral (Ral S28N) caused a significant reduction in proliferation, invasiveness, and in vivo tumorigenicity of MPNST cells. Silencing Ral also reduced the expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition markers. Expression of the NF1-GTPase-related domain (NF1-GRD) diminished the levels of Ral activation, implicating a role for neurofibromin in regulating RalA activation. NF1-GRD treatment caused a significant decrease in proliferation, invasiveness, and cell cycle progression, but cell death increased. We propose Ral overactivation as a novel cell signaling abnormality in MPNST that leads to important biological outcomes with translational ramifications.

  19. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in inherited disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST are rare tumours known to occur at high frequency in neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1, but may also occur in other cancer prone syndromes. Methods The North West Regional Genetic Register covers a population of 4.1 million and was interrogated for incidence of MPNST in 12 cancer prone syndromes. Age, incidence and survival curves were generated for NF1. Results Fifty two of 1254 NF1 patients developed MPNST, with MPNST also occurring in 2/181 cases of schwannomatosis and 2/895 NF2 patients. Three cases were also noted in TP53 mutation carriers. However, there were no cases amongst 5727BRCA1/2 carriers and first degree relatives, 2029 members from Lynch syndrome families, nor amongst 447 Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, 202 Gorlin syndrome, nor 87 vHL cases. Conclusion MPNST is associated with schwannomatosis and TP53 mutations and is confirmed at high frequency in NF1. It appears to be only increased in NF2 amongst those that have been irradiated. The lifetime risk of MPNST in NF1 is between 9–13%.

  20. MRI of intraspinal nerve sheath tumours presenting with sciatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loke, T.K.L.; Chan, C.S. [United Christian Hospital (Hong Kong). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Ma, H.T.G. [St Teresa`s Hospital, Kowloon (Hong Kong). MRI and CT scanning Dept.; Ward, S.C.; Metreweli, C. [Prince of wales Hospital, New Territories (Hong Kong). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1995-08-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of 14 intraspinal nerve sheath tumours (NST) presenting with sciatica were reviewed. The group comprised seven schwannomas, six neurofibromas and one perineuroma. The tumours were either iso- or hypointense with respect to spinal cord on T1-weighted (T1W) images; almost all tumours were hyperintense compared with spinal cord on T2-weighted (T2W) images. The tumours were all detectable on unenhanced T1 W images. Nine NST were scanned following Gadolinium-Diethylenetriamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) injection and all showed intense enhancement. This aids differentiation from sequestrated disc fragments. Tumours were more likely to show homogeneous enhancement unless they were recurrent tumours. Rim enhancement occurs more commonly in schwannomas and this can be used to differentiate these from neurofibromas. It is estimated that on unenhanced images, schwannomas cannot be distinguished from neurofibromas. Four tumours occurred at T1 1-T12. There was poor correlation of the site of the lesion with the clinical findings. It is recommended that the MRI studies in patients with sciatica should include the lower thoracic region especially if no protruded disc was found in the lumbar region. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  1. ICME-driven sheath regions deplete the outer radiation belt electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, H.; Kilpua, E. K.; Turner, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    It is an outstanding question in space weather and solar wind-magnetosphere interaction studies, why some storms result in an increase of the outer radiation belt electron fluxes, while others deplete them or produce no change. One approach to this problem is to look at differences in the storm drivers. Traditionally drivers have been classified to Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs) and Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). However, an 'ICME event' is a complex structure: The core is a magnetic cloud (MC; a clear flux rope structure). If the mass ejection is fast enough, it can drive a shock in front of it. This leads to the formation of a sheath region between the interplanetary shock and the leading edge of the MC. While both the sheath and the MC feature elevated solar wind speed, their other properties are very different. For instance, the sheath region has typically a much higher dynamic pressure than the magnetic cloud. Moreover, the sheath region has a high power in magnetic field and dynamic pressure Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) range fluctuations, while the MC is characterised by an extremely smooth magnetic field. Magnetic clouds have been recognised as important drivers magnetospheric activity since they can comprise long periods of very large southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). Nevertheless, previous studies have shown that sheath regions can also act as storm drivers. In this study, we analyse the effects of ICME-driven sheath regions on the relativistic electron fluxes observed by GOES satellites on the geostationary orbit. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of 31 sheath regions from solar cycle 23. Our results show that the sheaths cause an approximately one order of magnitude decrease in the 24h-averaged electron fluxes. Typically the fluxes also stay below the pre-event level for more than two days. Further analysis reveals that the decrease does not depend on, e.g., whether the sheath interval contains predominantly northward

  2. Actions of a proline analogue, L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (T4C, on Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahí Magdaleno

    Full Text Available It is well established that L-proline has several roles in the biology of trypanosomatids. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, this amino acid is involved in energy metabolism, differentiation processes and resistance to osmotic stress. In this study, we analyzed the effects of interfering with L-proline metabolism on the viability and on other aspects of the T. cruzi life cycle using the proline analogue L- thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (T4C. The growth of epimastigotes was evaluated using different concentrations of T4C in standard culture conditions and at high temperature or acidic pH. We also evaluated possible interactions of this analogue with stress conditions such as those produced by nutrient starvation and oxidative stress. T4C showed a dose-response effect on epimastigote growth (IC(50 = 0.89+/-0.02 mM at 28 degrees C, and the inhibitory effect of this analogue was synergistic (p<0.05 with temperature (0.54+/-0.01 mM at 37 degrees C. T4C significantly diminished parasite survival (p<0.05 in combination with nutrient starvation and oxidative stress conditions. Pre-incubation of the parasites with L-proline resulted in a protective effect against oxidative stress, but this was not seen in the presence of the drug. Finally, the trypomastigote bursting from infected mammalian cells was evaluated and found to be inhibited by up to 56% when cells were treated with non-toxic concentrations of T4C (between 1 and 10 mM. All these data together suggest that T4C could be an interesting therapeutic drug if combined with others that affect, for example, oxidative stress. The data also support the participation of proline metabolism in the resistance to oxidative stress.

  3. Intervalos de referencia para concentraciones séricas de T3 y T4. Estudio preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Miranda Pantoja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la determinación cuantitativa de las hormonas tiroideas T3 y T4 reviste gran importancia en el diagnóstico y la evaluación del hipertiroidismo, en especial del hipertiroidismo aislado causado por T3.Objetivo: establecer los intervalos de referencia de T3 y T4 en el laboratorio de medicina nuclear del Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima de Cienfuegos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo y prospectivo realizado mediante el método de radioinmunoanálisis, competencia que se establece entre la T3 y T4 sin marcar, y la marcada por un número limitado de los sitios de unión del anticuerpo específico. Al hacer reaccionar una cantidad fija de trazador y anticuerpo con diferentes cantidades del ligando sin marcar, la cantidad de trazador unido por el anticuerpo será inversamente proporcional a la concentración del ligando sin marcar. Resultados: los valores obtenidos se describen según una distribución gaussiana (media aritmética = 117, desviación estándar =31 para T4; media aritmética = 2,64, desviación estándar = 0,64 para T3, comprobado mediante un test de Chi cuadrado. Los rangos de valores normales obtenidos fueron de de 55 – 178 nmol/L y 1,4 – 3,9 nmol/L para T4 y T3 respectivamente. Conclusiones: los intervalos de referencia obtenidos resultaron más amplios que los propuestos por el productor, sobre todo en el caso de T4.

  4. Increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma: from euthyroidism to thyrotoxicosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solter, M

    2012-01-31

    AIM: The aim was to investigate whether the intrathyroid conversion of T4 to T3 in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma (AFTA) tissue could influence serum T3 levels and suppression of TSH, especially in patients with borderline thyroid function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In ten patients with AFTA, thyroidal conversion of T4 to T3 was investigated in nodular and paranodular, TSH-suppressed tissue. All patients had normal serum T4 and suppressed TSH. Serum T3 was normal in six, and borderline or slightly increased in four. AFTA and paranodular tissues were surgically removed and frozen at -70 degrees C, then homogenized in a glass homogenizer, centrifuged at 100,000xg, and particulate fraction collected as a pellet. Analysis mixture consisted of thyroid enzyme suspension in 50 mumol\\/L TRIS buffer with 5 mumol DTT and 200 muL 1.3 mumol T4. Incubation was performed at 37 degrees C and the generation of T3 measured after 5, 10, 20 and 40 minutes respectively. RESULTS: T3 production (pmol\\/mg protein) was significantly higher in AFTA than in paranodular tissues (8.8 1.2\\/Mean +\\/- SE\\/vs. 1.8 +\\/- 0.2; p<0.01), and excessively high (9.8, 14.1, 14.2 and 15.0) in four patients with borderline or slightly supranormal serum T3. A significant correlation was found between serum T3 concentrations and T3 generation (T4 conversion) in AFTA tissues. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in AFTA tissue could be involved in an increased delivery of T3, increased serum T3 and suppressed serum TSH, particularly in patients with the disease evolving from euthyroid to an early hyperthyroid phase.

  5. Surgical resection is justified in non-small cell lung cancer patients with node negative T4 satellite lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennathur, Arjun; Lindeman, Brenessa; Ferson, Peter; Ninan, Mathew; Quershi, Irfan; Gooding, William E; Schuchert, Matthew; Christie, Neil A; Landreneau, Rodney J; Luketich, James D

    2009-03-01

    The management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) depends on the stage, with a satellite nodule in the same lobe being classified as T4 stage IIIB even in node negative patients. Controversy exists as to the optimal management of these patients. Our objectives were to evaluate the outcomes in surgically resected patients with a T4 satellite lesion and to analyze the prognostic factors associated with outcome. Patients who underwent resection for T4 (satellite nodule) N0-2M0 were identified. Patients with pure bronchoalveolar carcinoma were excluded. The primary endpoint studied was overall survival. Multiple covariates were analyzed for association with survival and recurrence. A total of 51 T4 N0-2 patients (men 22, women 29; median age 71 years [48 to 87]) underwent resection over a 7-year period. At a median follow-up of 26.4 months the estimated 5-year overall survival was 26% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14% to 50%; median survival 25.2 months). The estimated 5-year overall survival for T4 N0 patients was 40% (95% CI 23% to 68%; median survival 34.8 months). Size of the primary tumor, histology, and nodal status were significantly associated with overall survival; size and nodal status were significantly associated with disease-free survival. Our results indicate that T4 (satellite nodule) N0 patients experienced excellent survival after surgical resection. These data support surgical resection in node negative patients. Size, histology, and nodal status were important prognostic variables associated with outcome. Consideration should be given to multimodality treatment in patients with adverse prognostic features. Further larger multiinstitutional studies are required to validate these findings.

  6. Divergence of the mRNA targets for the Ssb proteins of bacteriophages T4 and RB69

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrov Vasiliy M

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The single-strand binding (Ssb protein of phage T4 (T4 gp32, product of gene 32 is a mRNA-specific autogenous translational repressor, in addition to being a sequence-independent ssDNA-binding protein that participates in phage DNA replication, repair and recombination. It is not clear how this physiologically essential protein distinguishes between specific RNA and nonspecific nucleic acid targets. Here, we present phylogenetic evidence suggesting that ssDNA and specific RNA bind the same gp32 domain and that plasticity of this domain underlies its ability to configure certain RNA structures for specific binding. We have cloned and characterized gene 32 of phage RB69, a relative of T4 We observed that RB69 gp32 and T4 gp32 have nearly identical ssDNA binding domains, but diverge in their C-terminal domains. In T4 gp32, it is known that the C-terminal domain interacts with the ssDNA-binding domain and with other phage-induced proteins. In translation assays, we show that RB69 gp32 is, like T4 gp32, an autogenous translational repressor. We also show that the natural mRNA targets (translational operators for the 2 proteins are diverged in sequence from each other and yet can be repressed by either gp32. Results of chemical and RNase sensitivity assays indicate that the gp32 mRNA targets from the 2 related phages have similar structures, but differ in their patterns of contact with the 2 repressors. These and other observations suggest that a range of gp32-RNA binding specificities may evolve in nature due to plasticity of the protein-nucleic acid interaction and its response to modulation by the C-terminal domain of this translational repressor.

  7. Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter Increase on Ascent to High Altitude: Correlation With Acute Mountain Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Nicholas C; Lipman, Grant S; Constance, Benjamin B; Holck, Peter S; Preuss, James F; Williams, Sarah R

    2015-09-01

    Elevated optic nerve sheath diameter on sonography is known to correlate with increased intracranial pressure and is observed in acute mountain sickness. This study aimed to determine whether optic nerve sheath diameter changes on ascent to high altitude are associated with acute mountain sickness incidence. Eighty-six healthy adults enrolled at 1240 m (4100 ft), drove to 3545 m (11,700 ft) and then hiked to and slept at 3810 m (12,500 ft). Lake Louise Questionnaire scores and optic nerve sheath diameter measurements were taken before, the evening of, and the morning after ascent. The incidence of acute mountain sickness was 55.8%, with a mean Lake Louise Questionnaire score ± SD of 3.81 ± 2.5. The mean maximum optic nerve sheath diameter increased on ascent from 5.58 ± 0.79 to 6.13 ± 0.73 mm, a difference of 0.91 ± 0.55 mm (P = .09). Optic nerve sheath diameter increased at high altitude regardless of acute mountain sickness diagnosis; however, compared to baseline values, we observed a significant increase in diameter only in those with a diagnosis of acute mountain sickness (0.57 ± 0.77 versus 0.21 ± 0.76 mm; P = .04). This change from baseline, or Δ optic nerve sheath diameter, was associated with twice the odds of developing acute mountain sickness (95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.93). The mean optic nerve sheath diameter increased on ascent to high altitude compared to baseline values, but not to a statistically significant degree. The magnitude of the observed Δ optic nerve sheath diameter was positively associated with acute mountain sickness diagnosis. No such significant association was found between acute mountain sickness and diameter elevation above standard cutoff values, limiting the utility of sonography as a diagnostic tool. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. Ganglion of the Flexor Tendon Sheath at the A2 Pulley - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gunaseelan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are few reported cases of flexor tendon sheath ganglion arising from the A2 pulley. We report a case of a flexor tendon sheath ganglion in a 17-year old female who presented with pain, triggering and a swelling at the base of her right ring finger. During the excision biopsy, a ganglion measuring 0.5×0.8×0.4 cm in size was removed from the A2 pulley area.

  9. Novel Therapeutic Development of NF1-Associated Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Biological Analyses of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNST)” 2) Journal article : Prieto-Granada CN, Wiesner T, Messina JL, Jungbluth...benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor , and/or focal S100 protein positivity (ង%) in the absence of other markers . The epithelioid MPNST cases displayed...diffusely S100 protein positive, and 2 of the tumors tested with INI1/SMARCB1 (MPNST54, 58) also showed loss of expression of this marker . Prieto

  10. Fibrin Sheath Angioplasty: A Technique to Prevent Superior Vena Cava Stenosis Secondary to Dialysis Catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Robert I.; Garcia, Lorena De Marco; Chawla, Ankur; Panetta, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Fibrin sheaths are a heterogeneous matrix of cells and debris that form around catheters and are a known cause of central venous stenosis and catheter failure. A total of 50 cases of central venous catheter fibrin sheath angioplasty (FSA) after catheter removal or exchange are presented. A retrospective review of an outpatient office database identified 70 eligible patients over a 19-month period. After informed consent was obtained, the dialysis catheter exiting the skin was clamped, amputated, and a wire was inserted. The catheter was then removed and a 9-French sheath was inserted into the superior vena cava, a venogram was performed. If a fibrin sheath was present, angioplasty was performed using an 8 × 4 or 10 × 4 balloon along the entire length of the fibrin sheath. A completion venogram was performed to document obliteration of the sheath. During the study, 50 patients were diagnosed with a fibrin sheath, and 43 had no pre-existing central venous stenosis. After FSA, 39 of the 43 patient's (91%) central systems remained patent without the need for subsequent interventions; 3 patients (7%) developed subclavian stenoses requiring repeat angioplasty and stenting; 1 patent (2.3%) developed an occlusion requiring a reintervention. Seven patients with prior central stenosis required multiple angioplasties; five required stenting of their central lesions. Every patient had follow-up fistulograms to document long-term patency. We propose that FSA is a prudent and safe procedure that may help reduce the risk of central venous stenosis from fibrin sheaths due to central venous catheters. PMID:23997555

  11. Tunneled dialysis catheter exchange with fibrin sheath disruption is not associated with increased rate of bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliant, Amanda M; Chaudhry, Muhammad K; Yevzlin, Alexander S; Astor, Brad; Chan, Micah R

    2015-01-01

    Tunneled dialysis catheters are the most common form of vascular access among incident dialysis patients in the United States. Fibrin sheath formation is a frequent cause of late catheter dysfunction requiring an exchange procedure with balloon disruption of the fibrin sheath. It is unknown whether fibrin sheath disruption is associated with increased incidence of bacteremia or catheter failure. We reviewed all tunneled dialysis catheter exchange procedures at the University of Wisconsin between January 2008 and December 2011. The primary outcome was incidence of bacteremia, defined as positive blood cultures within 2 weeks of the procedure. Catheter failure, requiring intervention or replacement, was examined as a secondary outcome. Baseline characteristics examined included diabetic status, gender, race and age. A total of 163 procedures were reviewed; 67 (41.1%) had fibrin sheath disruption and 96 did not. Bacteremia occurred in 4.5% (3/67) of those with and 3.1% (3/97) of those without fibrin sheath disruption (p=0.65). Fibrin sheath disruption was not significantly associated with the risk of catheter failure (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87-2.10; p=0.18). Diabetes was associated with greater risk of catheter failure (aHR=1.88; 95% CI: 1.19-2.95; p=0.006), whereas higher age was associated with a lower risk of catheter failure (aHR per 10 years=0.83; 95% CI: 0.72-0.96; p=0.01). This study demonstrates that there is no significant increase in bacteremia and subsequent catheter dysfunction rates after fibrin sheath disruption compared to simple over the wire exchange. These results are encouraging given the large numbers of patients utilizing tunneled catheters for initial hemodialysis access and the known rates of fibrin sheath formation leading to catheter failure.

  12. To Be or Not To Be T4: Evidence of a Complex Evolutionary Pathway of Head Structure and Assembly in Giant Salmonella Virus SPN3US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazla Ali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Giant Salmonella phage SPN3US has a 240-kb dsDNA genome and a large complex virion composed of many proteins for which the functions of most are undefined. We recently determined that SPN3US shares a core set of genes with related giant phages and sequenced and characterized 18 amber mutants to facilitate its use as a genetic model system. Notably, SPN3US and related giant phages contain a bolus of ejection proteins within their heads, including a multi-subunit virion RNA polymerase (vRNAP, that enter the host cell with the DNA during infection. In this study, we characterized the SPN3US virion using mass spectrometry to gain insight into its head composition and the features that its head shares with those of related giant phages and with T4 phage. SPN3US has only homologs to the T4 proteins critical for prohead shell formation, the portal and major capsid proteins, as well as to the major enzymes essential for head maturation, the prohead protease and large terminase subunit. Eight of ~50 SPN3US head proteins were found to undergo proteolytic processing at a cleavage motif by the prohead protease gp245. Gp245 undergoes auto-cleavage of its C-terminus, suggesting this is a conserved activation and/or maturation feature of related phage proteases. Analyses of essential head gene mutants showed that the five subunits of the vRNAP must be assembled for any subunit to be incorporated into the prohead, although the assembled vRNAP must then undergo subsequent major conformational rearrangements in the DNA packed capsid to allow ejection through the ~30 Å diameter tail tube for transcription from the injected DNA. In addition, ejection protein candidate gp243 was found to play a critical role in head assembly. Our analyses of the vRNAP and gp243 mutants highlighted an unexpected dichotomy in giant phage head maturation: while all analyzed giant phages have a homologous protease that processes major capsid and portal proteins, processing of ejection

  13. Lateral movements of a massive tail influence gecko locomotion: an integrative study comparing tail restriction and autotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Jagnandan, Kevin; Higham, Timothy E.

    2017-01-01

    Tails are an intricate component of the locomotor system for many vertebrates. Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) possess a large tail that is laterally undulated during steady locomotion. However, the tail is readily shed via autotomy, resulting in the loss of tail function, loss in body mass, and a cranial shift in the center of mass. To elucidate the function of tail undulations, we investigated changes in limb kinematics after manipulating the tail artificially by restricting tail un...

  14. Bucket and straw technique to facilitate passage of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt through the distal tunneling sheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Angela E; Vandergrift, William A; Beckman, Joshua M; Truong, Devon; Tuite, Gerald F

    2014-12-01

    Placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is a procedure comprising many small steps. Difficulties and delays can arise when passing the distal shunt tubing down the distal tunneling sheath during surgery. The authors of this report describe a simple technique for quickly passing the distal catheter of a VPS through the tunneler sheath, whereby the sheath is used as a fluid tube to allow the distal catheter to be drawn through the fluid tube under suction pressure. The plastic sheath that surrounds the shunt tunneler device is used as a fluid tube, or "straw," with the proximal aperture submerged into a bucket of sterile irrigation liquid containing the distal catheter. Suction pressure is placed against the distal aperture of the tunneler, and the shunt catheter is quickly drawn through the sheath. No special equipment is required. In time trials, the bucket and straw technique took an average of 0.43 seconds, whereas traditional passage methods took 32.3 seconds. The "bucket and straw" method for passing distal shunt tubing through the tunneler sheath is a technique that increases surgical efficiency and reduces manual contact with shunt hardware.

  15. Magnetically modified sheaths of Leptothrix sp. as an adsorbent for Amido black 10B removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelova, Ralitsa [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Biology Centre, ISB, CAS, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Department of General and Industrial Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, 8 Dragan Tsankov Blvd, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Laboratory Microwave Magnetics, Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Baldikova, Eva [Global Change Research Institute, CAS, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 1457, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Pospiskova, Kristyna [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 27, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Safarikova, Mirka [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Biology Centre, ISB, CAS, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Global Change Research Institute, CAS, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Safarik, Ivo, E-mail: ivosaf@yahoo.com [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Biology Centre, ISB, CAS, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Global Change Research Institute, CAS, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 27, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the biosorption of Amido black 10B dye from aqueous solutions on magnetically modified sheaths of Leptothrix sp. in a batch system. The magnetic modification of the sheaths was performed using both microwave synthesized iron oxide nano- and microparticles and perchloric acid stabilized ferrofluid. The native and both magnetically modified sheaths were characterized by SEM. Various parameters significantly affecting the adsorption process, such as pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentration, were studied in detail using the adsorbent magnetized by both methods. The highest adsorption efficiency was achieved at pH 2. The maximum adsorption capacities of both types of magnetized material at room temperature were found to be 339.2 and 286.1 mg of dye per 1 g of ferrofluid modified and microwave synthesized particles modified adsorbent, respectively. Thermodynamic study of dye adsorption revealed a spontaneous and endothermic process in the temperature range between 279.15 and 313.15 K. The data were fitted to various equilibrium and kinetic models. Experimental data matched well with the pseudo-second-order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm model. The Leptothrix sheaths have excellent efficacy for dye adsorption. This material can be used as an effective, low-cost adsorbent. - Highlights: • Magnetic modification of Leptothrix sheaths using two methods is proposed. • Such magnetic material is an excellent adsorbent for Amido black 10B. • The magnetically modified sheaths can be easily separated by magnets.

  16. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Smegal, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

  17. Development of Ti-sheathed MgB2 wires with high critical current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G; Fang, H; Hanna, M; Yen, F; Lv, B; Alessandrini, M; Keith, S; Hoyt, C; Tang, Z; Salama, K

    2006-01-01

    Working towards developing lightweight superconducting magnets for future space and other applications, we have successfully fabricated mono-core Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires by the powder-in-tube method. The wires were characterized by magnetization, electrical resistivity, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry measurements. The results indicate that the Ti sheath does not react with the magnesium and boron, and the present wire rolling process can produce MgB 2 wires with a superconducting volume fraction of at least 64% in the core. Using the Bean model, it was found that at 5 K, the magnetic critical current densities, J c , measured in magnetic fields of 0, 5, and 8 T are about 4.2 x 10 5 , 3.6 x 10 4 , and 1.4 x 10 4 A cm -2 , respectively. At 20 K and 0 T, the magnetic J c is about 2.4 x 10 5 A cm -2 . These results show that at zero and low fields, the values of the magnetic J c for Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires are comparable with the best results available for the Fe-sheathed MgB 2 wires. At high fields, however, the J c for Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires appears higher than that for the Fe-sheathed MgB 2 wires

  18. Magnetically modified sheaths of Leptothrix sp. as an adsorbent for Amido black 10B removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelova, Ralitsa; Baldikova, Eva; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarikova, Mirka; Safarik, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the biosorption of Amido black 10B dye from aqueous solutions on magnetically modified sheaths of Leptothrix sp. in a batch system. The magnetic modification of the sheaths was performed using both microwave synthesized iron oxide nano- and microparticles and perchloric acid stabilized ferrofluid. The native and both magnetically modified sheaths were characterized by SEM. Various parameters significantly affecting the adsorption process, such as pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentration, were studied in detail using the adsorbent magnetized by both methods. The highest adsorption efficiency was achieved at pH 2. The maximum adsorption capacities of both types of magnetized material at room temperature were found to be 339.2 and 286.1 mg of dye per 1 g of ferrofluid modified and microwave synthesized particles modified adsorbent, respectively. Thermodynamic study of dye adsorption revealed a spontaneous and endothermic process in the temperature range between 279.15 and 313.15 K. The data were fitted to various equilibrium and kinetic models. Experimental data matched well with the pseudo-second-order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm model. The Leptothrix sheaths have excellent efficacy for dye adsorption. This material can be used as an effective, low-cost adsorbent. - Highlights: • Magnetic modification of Leptothrix sheaths using two methods is proposed. • Such magnetic material is an excellent adsorbent for Amido black 10B. • The magnetically modified sheaths can be easily separated by magnets.

  19. Evaluation of the equine digital flexor tendon sheath using diagnostic ultrasound and contrast radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redding, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the normal anatomy of the digital flexor tendon sheath using contrast radiography and diagnostic ultrasound. Iodinated contrast medium was injected into eight cadaver limbs and the limbs immediately frozen. Lateromedial and dorsopalmar/plantar radiographs were made. These limps were then cut transversely and proximal to distal radiographs of each slab were made. This cross sectional contrast methodology allowed the visualization of the relative size and shape of the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons as well as the potential space taken by effusions of the digital flexor tendon sheath. The second part of the study used twelve live animals with normal digital flexor tendon sheaths. Ultrasonographic measurement of the structures of the digital flexor tendon sheath at each level were compiled. This documented the ability of diagnostic ultrasound to image: 1) the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons, 2) the proximal and distal ring of the manica flexoria, 3) the straight and oblique sesamoidean ligaments, and 4) the mesotendinous attachments to the superficial and deep flexor tendons. Iodinated contrast medium was then injected into the digital flexor tendon sheath and the ultrasonography repeated. These images were compared with those obtained from contrast radiography and prosections of twenty normal limbs. The iodinated contrast medium enhanced sonographic imaging of the structures of the digital tendon sheath, particularly the abaxial borders of the superficial digital flexor tendon branches and the mesotendinous attachments to the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons

  20. Balloon sheaths for gastrointestinal guidance and access: a preliminary phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xu; Shin, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Woo, Cheol Woong; Woo, Sung Ha; Choi, Won Chan; Kim, Jong Gyu; Lim, Jin Oh; Kim, Tae Hyung; Yoon, Chang Jin; Song, Ho Young [Univerisyt of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Wee Chang [Daejeon University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    We wanted to evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of a newly designed balloon sheath for gastrointestinal guidance and access by conducting a phantom study. The newly designed balloon sheath consisted of an introducer sheath and a supporting balloon. A coil catheter was advanced over a guide wire into two gastroduodenal phantoms (one was with stricture and one was without stricture); group I was without a balloon sheath, group II was with a deflated balloon sheath, and groups III and IV were with an inflated balloon and with the balloon in the fundus and body, respectively. Each test was performed for 2 minutes and it was repeated 10 times in each group by two researchers, and the positions reached by the catheter tip were recorded. Both researchers had better performances with both phantoms in order of group IV, III, II and I. In group IV, both researchers advanced the catheter tip through the fourth duodenal segment in both the phantoms. In group I, however, the catheter tip never reached the third duodenal segment in both the phantoms by both the researchers. The numeric values for the four study groups were significantly different for both the phantoms ({rho} < 0.001). A significant difference was also found between group III and IV for both phantoms ({rho} < 0.001). The balloon sheath seems to be feasible for clinical use, and it has good clinical potential for gastrointestinal guidance and access, particularly when the inflated balloon is placed in the gastric body.

  1. Electromagnetic Transients on an Underground Cable due to a Lightning Current Flowing into the Metallic Sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ametani, Akihiro; Nagaoka, Naoto; Miyazaki, Daisuke; Taki, Norikazu

    This paper has investigated surge propagation and overvoltages on a coaxial cable when a lightning current flows into the metallic sheath based on experiments, EMTP simulations and analytical calculations. At the instance of the current flowing into the sheath, the core voltage becomes the same as the sheath voltage, which is given as a product of the sheath surge impedance and a half the current, following the theory of electrostatic shield. Thus no voltage difference appears between the core and the sheath across the insulator. When a traveling wave arrives at a transition point, i.e. cable termination, an insulating or crossbonding joint, the voltages change suddenly and a significant voltage appears across the insulator. An EMTP simulation shows that the overvoltage across the insulator exceeds 1200kV at a crossbonded node on a 400kV underground cable when an ac source voltage is in the opposite polarity of the lightning surge voltage on the sheath and the inductance of a crossbonding lead wire is taken into account. The high overvoltage appears in a narrow region of the cable between the current injected node and the crossbonded node due to traveling wave reflection between the nodes. The phenomenon investigated may occur if there exists a pinhole or a watertree on an underground cable.

  2. Laser-Induced Fluorescence for Sheath Characterization in Low-Density Argon Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englesbe, Alexander C.; Sawlani, Kapil U.; Foster, John E.

    2013-09-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy has become a standard non-intrusive diagnostic technique for determining the energies and concentrations of ion and neutral species in plasmas. A limitation of this technique, however, is the small signal-to-noise ratio incurred when interrogating relatively low-density plasmas. This problem is exacerbated when examining regions such as the sheath at an electrode immersed in the plasma. If ion energetics within the sheath are of interest, then in principle thicker sheaths are desirable in that for a given laser spot size, the potential structure can be inferred with high resolution. We present a methodology for accomplishing LIF in the sheath of a low-temperature argon plasma with an electron density of the order 107 -108 cm-3. This diagnostic is being developed for the purpose of studying the effect of secondary electron emission on sheath potential behavior in low-density plasmas. The plasma in this study is produced in a multipole ring-cusp ion source. A tunable diode laser excites the Ar II transition at 668.61 nm, which fluoresces at 442.72 nm. The LIF measurements of the ion density are corroborated with electrostatic probes at fixed locations, and the ion velocity distribution within the sheath is determined. Work supported by AFOSR Grant No. FA9550-09-1-0695.

  3. Balloon sheaths for gastrointestinal guidance and access: a preliminary phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xu; Shin, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Woo, Cheol Woong; Woo, Sung Ha; Choi, Won Chan; Kim, Jong Gyu; Lim, Jin Oh; Kim, Tae Hyung; Yoon, Chang Jin; Song, Ho Young; Kang, Wee Chang

    2005-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of a newly designed balloon sheath for gastrointestinal guidance and access by conducting a phantom study. The newly designed balloon sheath consisted of an introducer sheath and a supporting balloon. A coil catheter was advanced over a guide wire into two gastroduodenal phantoms (one was with stricture and one was without stricture); group I was without a balloon sheath, group II was with a deflated balloon sheath, and groups III and IV were with an inflated balloon and with the balloon in the fundus and body, respectively. Each test was performed for 2 minutes and it was repeated 10 times in each group by two researchers, and the positions reached by the catheter tip were recorded. Both researchers had better performances with both phantoms in order of group IV, III, II and I. In group IV, both researchers advanced the catheter tip through the fourth duodenal segment in both the phantoms. In group I, however, the catheter tip never reached the third duodenal segment in both the phantoms by both the researchers. The numeric values for the four study groups were significantly different for both the phantoms (ρ < 0.001). A significant difference was also found between group III and IV for both phantoms (ρ < 0.001). The balloon sheath seems to be feasible for clinical use, and it has good clinical potential for gastrointestinal guidance and access, particularly when the inflated balloon is placed in the gastric body

  4. Performance Comparison between Neutralization Tailings and Flotation Tailings Used for Backfill Mix and Mechanism Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison test of different tailings used for underground backfill was conducted, using neutralized tailings from BIOX and flotation tailings of Jinfeng Mine. Laboratory comparison test results show that, with neutralized tailings, when the cement dosage is at 19%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days are 105%–163%, 80%–102%, and 33%–43%, respectively, which are higher than those of flotation tailings. When the cement dosage is at 12%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days are 58%–77%, 50%–60%, and 28%–51%, respectively, which are higher than those of flotation tailings. Slurry fluidity of neutralized tailings is lower than that of flotation tailings, while, in these two tailings, the difference of slump and diffusivity values is less than 6%, which is not a significant difference in slurry fluidity. The reason for neutralized tailings showing higher UCS is as follows: during backfill curing, neutralization tailings produce abundant crystals of CaSO4·2H2O in interlaced structure which helps in combining aggregates closely; CaSO4·2H2O hydrates with C3A C4AF contained in the cement and forms clavate cement bacillus which works as a micro reinforcing steel bar. The test proved that neutralized tailings are more optimal for backfilling.

  5. Characterization and dewatering of flotation technological tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorova I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of flotation tailings is today a subject of interest in mineral processing because of the potential of wasted materials as an actual mineral resource and because of environmental reasons. Decantation ponds are found at almost every mine in the world. They are large earth fill dams containing the residue of the milling process to extract metals from mined ores. Traditional wet tailings disposal has been problematic due to the risk of ground water contamination and the difficulty in rehabilitating storage sites. Tailings dams are at risk of failure due to leakage, instability, liquefaction, and poor design. In the last few years the use of paste technology in the disposal of mine tailings is increasingly studied as an option to conventional tailings dams. The Lucky Invest Concentrator is located in the Eastern Rhodopes Mountain of Bulgaria. Since 1959 lead-zinc ores are dressed. Finally, during the flotation cycle lead and zinc concentrates are produced. The final technological processing waste precipitates in tailing pond. Research and development program has started to established opportunities to obtain dry deposit of the ore processing residue and analyses the feature of new tailing disposal method. The tailings particle size distributions and chemical compositions were determined. The data from laboratory and pilot scale tests clearly illustrate that there are the possibilities to obtaine lead-zinc dewatered tailings. The experimental results show that new cyclone modifications have a potential in dewatering technology of flotation tailings. It appears that dewatering cyclones can be an approach on new tailings pond elimination technology.

  6. Profitable tail-end production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchbeck, R.H.

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the origins of the present challenge faced in making mature oil fields profitable in the North Sea. It briefly examines the origins of these challenges, which are rooted in the industrial psychology of the North Sea. It develops a methodological formula for the successful re-engineering of inefficiently-run assets, focusing in particular on the personnel management aspects. It identifies some key areas to seek sustainable cost reductions and recognises the importance of renewing the context for investment in tail-end fields. Finally, it speculates about the way in which the learnings developed in the experiences of the last few years will influence the future of the North Sea. 2 refs.

  7. Satellite pulmonary nodule in the same lobe (T4N0) should not be staged as IIIB non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Ayesha S; Pereira, Sara J; Miller, Daniel L; Cerfolio, Robert James

    2006-11-01

    Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer depends on stage. Patients with T4 lesions represent a heterogeneous group. A case-control study of patients with pathologically proven, node-negative T4 lesions (T4 N0 M0) was conducted. Patients with T4 disease were stratified as T4 from a satellite nodule (T4-satellite) or T4 from local invasion (T4-invasion). T4-satellite patients were matched 1:4 for sex and histology with resected control patients with stage IA, IB, and IIA non-small cell lung cancer and matched 1:3 with stage II non-small cell lung cancer. Survival and the maximal standardized uptake value on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scans were compared. There were 337 patients, 26 patients with T4-satellite lesions, 25 with T4-invasion lesions, and 286 controls (104 patients with T1 N0 M0, 104 with T2 N0 M0, and 78 with T1 N1 M0 or T2 N1 M0 lesions). The two T4 groups were similar for age, race, sex, and neoadjuvant therapy rates. The 5-year survival was 80% for the T1 N0 M0 patients, 68% for T2 N0 M0, 57% for T4-satellite N0 M0, 45% for T1 N1 M0 or T2 N1 M0, and 30% for the T4-invasion N0 M0 patients (p = 0.016). Multivariate analysis showed that only the type of T4 impacted survival (p = 0.011). The median maximal standardized uptake values of the cancers were 4.2 for T1 N0 M0, 4.8 for T4-satellite, 5.4 for T2 N0 M0, 7.8 for T1 N1 M0 or T2 N1 M0, and 8.8 for the T4-invasion patients. Larger studies are needed; however, patients with T4-satellite non-small cell lung cancer who undergo complete resection have survival and maximal standardized uptake values similar to patients with stage IB and stage IIA lesions. Their survival is significantly better than those with T4-invasion. Patients with T4-satellite N0 M0 lesions should not be classified as stage IIIB and should not be grouped with patients with T4-invasion, and resection should be considered.

  8. Tailings treatment and nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEachern, P.; Burkus, Z.; Yu, T.; Ulrich, A.; Zhu, D. [Alberta Environment, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands fluid tailings are heterodispersed colloidal and suspended particles comprised of hydrophilic clays, metal oxides, organic acids, and hydration shells that create weak gels. Approximately 3 per cent of the total tailings stream are particles less than 0.2 {mu}m. Smaller fines are mobile with a high charge, and have a reactive surface that attracts organics and heavy metals. The fines also stick to bitumen and inhibit recovery. The particles in clays in tailings are typically less than 2 {mu}m. The multivalent ion increase the tendency for gelling. Treatment processes for fluid fine tailings include flocculation, chemical oxidation, and biological fermentation oxidation processes. Large polyacrylamides are used to capture fines in cross-bridged structures, while inorganic gels are used to hold water. Exopolysaccharides are used in mature fine tailings remediation processes. Other nanotechnology processes for tailings include photo-catalyzed oxidation, ozone pre-treatment; and zero valent ion treatments. Biotreatment researchers are now exploring the use of engineered microbially-mediated wastewater treatment technologies to accelerate oil sands tailings consolidation. Organic coagulants are also being considered as a means of consolidating tailings. It was concluded that various engineering reactors are now being investigated in order to accelerate microbial transformations. tabs., figs.

  9. The big head and the long tail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    on the generative mechanism behind the long–tail distribution of Web site use. The analysis shows that the long tail should be seen as a tiered version of popular top sites, and argues that downsizing of large–scale datasets in combination with qualitative and/or small–scale quantitative procedures may provide...

  10. [Malignant Choroidal Melanoma in T4 Orbital Stage; Prosthesis of the Orbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdová, A; Ferková, A; Krásnik, V; Krčová, I; Horkovičová, K

    2015-06-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of tumors of the eye is extremely difficul; surgical treatment in advanced stages, when the tumor grows in the orbit, leads to extensive radical surgery of the face. The extent and nature of surgical procedures depends on the nature of the tumor process, in advanced stages is indicated mutilating surgery--exenteration of the orbit. Exenteration of the orbit due to the extrascleral extension of malignant melanoma of the uvea is very rare, unfortunately, even today in certain cases it is necessary to make such a mutilating surgery. Case report--65 year old female patient, sent to our Departement in 2008 with the finding of the pigment deposits on the posterior pole of the left eye. Ultrasound study found elevations of up to 3 mm, she was asked to come for further control in three months interval. She did not coma, furthermore she sporadically attended another eye clinic. In 2011 she was treated for secondary glaucoma--cyclocryopexia. Due to pain another surgery--tarzoraphia was indicated. In 2012 she underwent surgery at St. Elisabeth Cancer Institute in Bratislava--Nefrectomia transperitoneally l. dx., excision hepatis. Histological examination in addition to the primary papillary renal carcinoma--mucinous tubular T1 Nx Mx type, found the metastasis of malignant melanoma to the liver and right kidney. She underwent the diagnostic procedure to find the origo of the melanoma. The patient was subsequently admitted to our clinic with blind painfull eye for enucleation. During the surgery the was found retrobulbar tumor ingrowth. Histopatholigical findings confirmed malignant melanoma. Indicated was exenteration of the orbit due to malignant melanoma T4 N0 M2 stage in June 2012. After healing of the cavity she was recommended to design an individual prosthesis. After completing several courses of palliative chemotherapy during a recent review in January 2015 the patient is without recurrence of the melanoma in the orbit Histological examination

  11. Selective pH-Responsive Core-Sheath Nanofiber Membranes for Chem/Bio/Med Applications: Targeted Delivery of Functional Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daewoo; Steckl, Andrew J

    2017-12-13

    Core-sheath fibers using different Eudragit materials were successfully produced, and their controlled multi-pH responses have been demonstrated. Core-sheath fibers made of Eudragit L 100 (EL100) core and Eudragit S 100 (ES100) sheath provide protection and/or controlled release of core material at pH 6 by adjusting the sheath thickness (controlled by the flow rate of source polymer solution). The thickest sheath (∼250 nm) provides the least core release ∼1.25%/h, while the thinnest sheath (∼140 nm) provides much quicker release ∼16.75%/h. Furthermore, switching core and sheath material dramatically altered the pH response. Core-sheath fibers made of ES100 core and EL100 sheath can provide a consistent core release rate, while the sheath release rate becomes higher as the sheath layer becomes thinner. For example, the thinnest sheath (∼120 nm) provides a core and sheath release ratio of 1:2.5, while the thickest sheath (∼200 nm) shows only a ratio of 1:1.7. All core-sheath Eudragit fibers show no noticeable release at pH 5, while they are completely dissolved at pH 7. Extremely high surface area in the porous network of the fiber membranes provides much faster (>30 times) response to external pH changes as compared to that of equivalent cast films.

  12. Remarkable response to photodynamic therapy in residual T4N0M0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Indrasari, S. R.; Timmermans, A. J.; Wildeman, M. A.; Karakullukcu, M. B.; Herdini, C.; Hariwiyanto, B.; Tan, I. B.

    2012-01-01

    Local treatment of residual or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a challenge. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established treatment modality for incurable head and neck carcinoma. Several studies reported induction of an immune response after PDT. We present a patient with residual T4N0M0

  13. Wear behaviors of pure aluminum and extruded aluminum alloy (AA2024-T4) under variable vertical loads and linear speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeki; Oak, Jeong-Jung; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Cho, Yi Je; Park, Yong Ho

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the transition of wear behavior for pure aluminum and extruded aluminum alloy 2024-T4 (AA2024-T4). The wear test was carried using a ball-on-disc wear testing machine at various vertical loads and linear speeds. The transition of wear behaviors was analyzed based on the microstructure, wear tracks, wear cross-section, and wear debris. The critical wear rates for each material are occurred at lower linear speed for each vertical load. The transition of wear behavior was observed in which abrasion wears with the generation of an oxide layer, fracture of oxide layer, adhesion wear, severe adhesion wear, and the generation of seizure occurred in sequence. In case of the pure aluminum, the change of wear debris occurred in the order of blocky, flake, and needle-like debris. Cutting chip, flake-like, and coarse flake-like debris was occurred in sequence for the extruded AA2024-T4. The transition in the wear behavior of extruded AA2024-T4 occurred slower than in pure aluminum.

  14. Thyroxine (T 4-RIA) and triiodothyronine (T 3-RIA) serum levels in sheep fed on Leucaena Leucocephala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, J.M.; Rodriguez, N.M.; Cardoso, W.M.; Velez, C.E.S.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the toxicity of Leucaena leucocephala on thyroxine and triiodothyronine serum concentration. Results indicate that ovine T 4 and T 3 serum levels do not decrease with Leucaena leucocephala feeding, sohen proreided for 41 days. (author). 10 refs, 1 tab

  15. Analysis of the synergistic effect of radiation and heat on bacteriophage T4 and spores Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, V.P.; Petin, V.G.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental data are interpreted in terms of a half-empiric model of synergism obtained for bacteriophage T4 and Bacillus subtilis spores exposed to ionizing radiation of different dose rates at elevated temperatures. The model permits to optimize the ratio of both factors for effective sterilization

  16. Development and characterization of radioimmunoassay methods for the measurement of iodothyronines (T4, T3 and rT3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, E.M.K.; Vieira, J.G.H.; Barros Maciel, R.M. de; Fonseca, R.M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The experience acquired in the development of radioimmunoassay for T 4 , T 3 and rT 3 in unextrated serum is described. Antisera were produced in rabbits using iodothyronines conjugated to bovine serum albumin: the antisera selected provided the development of sensitive and specific radioassay methods. Stable high activity T 3 , T 4 and rT 3 tracers were prepared by iodination of 3,5 T 2 , T 3 and 3,3' T 2 by the chloramine-T method, and purified by column chromatography on Sephadex G25. Binding of those iodothyronines to endogenous serum proteins was blocked by including 8-aniline-1-naphtalene sulphonic acid (ANSA) in the T 4 and T 3 assays and thymerosal in the rT 3 assay. Normal values were defined in 46 healthy euthyroid adults of both sexes: T 4 = 7,1 +- 1,3μg/dl; T 3 = 139 +- 35ng/dl and rT 3 = 18,0 +- 7,9ng/dl. (Author) [pt

  17. [Effect of T4 thoracoscopic sympathectomy on 
plantar hyperhidrosis in patients with 
primary palmoplantar hyperhidrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Peng; Liu, Aizhong; Liu, Wenliang

    2016-03-28

    To evaluate the effect of video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy at the T4 level on plantar hyperhidrosis in the treatment of palmoplantar hyperhidrosis.
 The clinical data of 28 patients with primary palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, who were admited in our hospital from June 2009 to May 2014, was analyzed. All patients were qualified to bilateral thoracoscopic transaction of the sympathetic chain at the thoracic level T4. Patients completed a self-administered hyperhidrosis questionnaire and scoring before and after procedure. Follow-up data were obtained at 1 and 6 months after the surgery.
 Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy at the thoracic level T4 was performed successfully for all cases. Palmar hyperhidrosis was completely alleviated after the operation and no recurrence was observed during follow-up. The ratio for initial improvement of plantar hyperhidrosis was 28.6% (8/28) at 1 month after the surgery followed by a recurrence of plantar hyperhidrosis. No case continued to show the improvement of palmoplantar hyperhidrosis at 6 months after the sympathectomy. Twenty-seven patients (96.4%) were very satisfied with the outcome of the operation, 1 patient (3.6%) satisfied and no patient regretted the surgical procedure.
 T4 thoracoscopic sympathectomy could initialliy alleviate plantar hyperhidrosis in some patients with palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, but the improvement was not sustained over a long period. It could not be used to treat plantar hyperhidrosis.

  18. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated phage resistance is not impeded by the DNA modifications of phage T4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Yaung

    Full Text Available Bacteria rely on two known DNA-level defenses against their bacteriophage predators: restriction-modification and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR-CRISPR-associated (Cas systems. Certain phages have evolved countermeasures that are known to block endonucleases. For example, phage T4 not only adds hydroxymethyl groups to all of its cytosines, but also glucosylates them, a strategy that defeats almost all restriction enzymes. We sought to determine whether these DNA modifications can similarly impede CRISPR-based defenses. In a bioinformatics search, we found naturally occurring CRISPR spacers that potentially target phages known to modify their DNA. Experimentally, we show that the Cas9 nuclease from the Type II CRISPR system of Streptococcus pyogenes can overcome a variety of DNA modifications in Escherichia coli. The levels of Cas9-mediated phage resistance to bacteriophage T4 and the mutant phage T4 gt, which contains hydroxymethylated but not glucosylated cytosines, were comparable to phages with unmodified cytosines, T7 and the T4-like phage RB49. Our results demonstrate that Cas9 is not impeded by N6-methyladenine, 5-methylcytosine, 5-hydroxymethylated cytosine, or glucosylated 5-hydroxymethylated cytosine.

  19. Transcription and RNA processing during expression of genes preceding DNA ligase gene 30 in T4-related bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truncaite, Lidija; Zajanckauskaite, Aurelija; Arlauskas, Aivaras; Nivinskas, Rimas

    2006-01-20

    Early gene expression in bacteriophage T4 is controlled primarily by the unique early promoters, while T4-encoded RegB endoribonuclease promotes degradation of many early messages contributing to the rapid shift of gene expression from the early to middle stages. The regulatory region for the genes clustered upstream of DNA ligase gene 30 of T4 was known to carry two strong early promoters and two putative RegB sites. Here, we present the comparative analysis of the regulatory events in this region of 16 T4-type bacteriophages. The regulatory elements for control of this gene cluster, such as rho-independent terminator, at least one early promoter, the sequence for stem-loop structure, and the RegB cleavage sites have been found to be conserved in the phages studied. Also, we present experimental evidence that the initial cleavage by RegB of phages TuIa and RB69 enables degradation of early phage mRNAs by the major Escherichia coli endoribonuclease, RNase E.

  20. Cryo-EM structure of the bacteriophage T4 portal protein assembly at near-atomic resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Zhang, Xinzheng; Gao, Song; Rao, Prashant A.; Padilla-Sanchez, Victor; Chen, Zhenguo; Sun, Siyang; Xiang, Ye; Subramaniam, Sriram; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2015-07-01

    The structure and assembly of bacteriophage T4 has been extensively studied. However, the detailed structure of the portal protein remained unknown. Here we report the structure of the bacteriophage T4 portal assembly, gene product 20 (gp20), determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to 3.6 Å resolution. In addition, analysis of a 10 Å resolution cryo-EM map of an empty prolate T4 head shows how the dodecameric portal assembly interacts with the capsid protein gp23 at the special pentameric vertex. The gp20 structure also verifies that the portal assembly is required for initiating head assembly, for attachment of the packaging motor, and for participation in DNA packaging. Comparison of the Myoviridae T4 portal structure with the known portal structures of φ29, SPP1 and P22, representing Podo- and Siphoviridae, shows that the portal structure probably dates back to a time when self-replicating microorganisms were being established on Earth.

  1. Growth hormone induced stimulation of the T4 to T3 conversion in fed and fasting dwarf goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, A; Cheema, A M; Kühn, E R

    1990-11-01

    Fed and food deprived (7 days) adult dwarf goats were injected intravenously with 75 micrograms/kg b. w. of ovine growth hormone (o-GH). Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein -2, -1 and 0 hr prior to and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after injection and assayed for thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations. The 5'-monodeiodination (5'-D) activity was consequently determined in liver and kidney samples following slaughtering. Fasting alone increased plasma concentrations of T3 and T4, whereas injection of o-GH raised T3 additionally and more profoundly in food deprived animals compared to fed ones. A small increase in plasma T4 was also observed following o-GH injection, but only in starved goats. At the same time the hepatic, but not the kidney, 5'-D activity was stimulated in food deprived and GH injected animals. It is concluded that during prolonged fasting an increased peripheral T4 to T3 conversion is occurring contrary to the known decrease in T3 production during short periods of food deprivation. This increased conversion may be under the control of GH.

  2. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, A.; Ottpsen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers.This work shows the laboratory results of nine...... electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4......, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2V/cm.The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20V using approximately 1.8kg mine tailing on dry basis...

  3. Analysis of Heavy-Tailed Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Xiaolei

    and expressed in terms of the parameters of the dependence structure, among others. Furthermore, we study an importance sampling method for estimating rare-event probabilities of multivariate heavy-tailed time series generated by matrix recursion. We show that the proposed algorithm is efficient in the sense......This thesis is about analysis of heavy-tailed time series. We discuss tail properties of real-world equity return series and investigate the possibility that a single tail index is shared by all return series of actively traded equities in a market. Conditions for this hypothesis to be true...... are identified. We study the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of sample covariance and sample auto-covariance matrices of multivariate heavy-tailed time series, and particularly for time series with very high dimensions. Asymptotic approximations of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of such matrices are found...

  4. Injurious tail biting in pigs: how can it be controlled in existing systems without tail docking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eath, R B; Arnott, G; Turner, S P; Jensen, T; Lahrmann, H P; Busch, M E; Niemi, J K; Lawrence, A B; Sandøe, P

    2014-09-01

    Tail biting is a serious animal welfare and economic problem in pig production. Tail docking, which reduces but does not eliminate tail biting, remains widespread. However, in the EU tail docking may not be used routinely, and some 'alternative' forms of pig production and certain countries do not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further investigation. The review identifies a number of knowledge gaps and promising avenues for future research into prevention and mitigation. We illustrate the diversity of hypotheses concerning how different proposed risk factors might increase tail biting through their effect on each other or on the proposed underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible, manipulable natural materials can be of considerable benefit. Further comparative research is needed into materials, such as ropes, which are compatible with slatted floors. Also, materials which double as fuel for anaerobic digesters could be utilised. As well as optimising housing and management to reduce risk, it is important to detect and treat tail biting as soon as it occurs. Early warning signs before the first bloody tails appear, such as pigs holding their tails tucked

  5. Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy in Patients With Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsen, Frank, E-mail: frank.paulsen@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Doerr, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Wilhelm, Helmut [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Becker, Gerd [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinik am Eichert, Goeppingen (Germany); Bamberg, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Classen, Johannes [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Vincentius-Kliniken, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SFRT) in the treatment of optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM). Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2005, 109 patients (113 eyes) with primary (n = 37) or secondary (n = 76) ONSM were treated according to a prospective protocol with SFRT to a median dose of 54 Gy. All patients underwent radiographic, ophthalmologic, and endocrine analysis before and after SFRT. Radiographic response, visual control, and late side effects were endpoints of the analysis. Results: Median time to last clinical, radiographic, and ophthalmologic follow up was 30.2 months (n = 113), 42.7 months (n = 108), and 53.7 months (n = 91), respectively. Regression of the tumor was observed in 5 eyes and progression in 4 eyes, whereas 104 remained stable. Visual acuity improved in 12, deteriorated in 11, and remained stable in 68 eyes. Mean visual field defects reduced from 33.6% (n = 90) to 17.8% (n = 56) in ipsilateral and from 10% (n = 94) to 6.7% (n = 62) in contralateral eyes. Ocular motility improved in 23, remained stable in 65, and deteriorated in 3 eyes. Radiographic tumor control was 100% at 3 years and 98% at 5 years. Visual acuity was preserved in 94.8% after 3 years and in 90.9% after 5 years. Endocrine function was normal in 90.8% after 3 years and in 81.3% after 5 years. Conclusions: SFRT represents a highly effective treatment for ONSM. Interdisciplinary counseling of the patients is recommended. Because of the high rate of preservation of visual acuity we consider SFRT the standard approach for the treatment of ONSM. Prolonged observation is warranted to more accurately assess late visual impairment. Moderate de-escalation of the radiation dose might improve the preservation of visual acuity and pituitary gland function.

  6. Surgical approach in patients with T4 bladder cancer as primary treatment: Disaster or option with improved quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Nagele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Whereas local control is often insufficient in conservative management of T4 bladder cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy delays definite treatment, which could result in increased therapy-associated morbidity and mortality during the course of the disease. Primary cystectomy has been reported to be associated with a high complication rate and unsatisfactory clinical efficacy. Herein, we report postoperative outcome in 21 T4 bladder cancer patients subjected to primary cystectomy. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients underwent radical cystectomy for T4 (T4a/b: 14 and seven cases, respectively bladder cancer. At the time of surgery, eight patients had regional lymph node metastases (N2: 6; N3: 2. The average age was 64 (52-77 years (≥70 years: n = 7. The postoperative follow-up was 13 (1-36 months for the whole group. Results: Mean duration of postoperative hospitalization was 19 (11-50 days. Whereas 10 patients received no intra - or postoperative blood transfusions, an average number of 3 (1-7 blood units were administered in the remaining cases. The mean postoperative hemoglobin value of patients not receiving any blood transfusions was 10 (8.5 - 11.4 g/dl. Major therapy-associated complications were paresthesia affecting the lower extremities (n = 3 as well as insignificant pulmonary embolism, enterocutaneous fistulation and acute renal failure in one patient, respectively. At the time of data evaluation, 11 patients were still alive after a follow-up of 20 (6-36 months. Four patients ≥70 years at the time of cystectomy were still alive 11, 11, 22 and 31 months following surgery, respectively. Conclusion: Primary cystectomy for T4 bladder cancer is a technically feasible approach that is associated with a tolerable therapy-related morbidity/mortality. Additionally, a satisfactory clinical outcome is observed even in a substantial number of elderly patients.

  7. Comparison of only T3 and T3-T4 sympathectomy for axillary hyperhidrosis regarding treatment effect and compensatory sweating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuncu, Gökhan; Turk, Figen; Ozturk, Gökhan; Atinkaya, Cansel

    2013-08-01

    Patients diagnosed with axillary hyperhidrosis can face psychosocial issues that can ultimately hinder their quality of life both privately and socially. The routine treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis is T3-T4 sympathectomy, but compensatory sweating is a serious side effect that is commonly seen with this approach. This study was designed to evaluate whether a T3 sympathectomy was effective for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis and whether this treatment led to less compensatory sweating than T3-T4 sympathectomies among our 60-patient population. One hundred and twenty endoscopic thoracic sympathectomies were performed on 60 patients who had axillary hyperhidrosis. The sympathectomies were accomplished by means of a single-lumen endotracheal tube and a single port. The axillary hyperhidrosis patients were randomly divided into two groups with 17 patients in Group 1 undergoing T3-T4 sympathectomies and 43 in Group 2 undergoing only T3 sympathectomies. We analysed the data associated with the resolution of axillary hyperhidrosis, the degree of patient satisfaction with the surgical outcome and the quality of life in parallel with compensatory sweating after the procedure as reported by the patient and confirmed by the examiner. Moreover, the results were compared statistically. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups based on age (P=0.56), gender (P=0.81), duration of the surgery (P=0.35) or postoperative satisfaction levels (P=0.45). However, the incidence and degree of compensatory sweating were lower in the T3 group than the T3-T4 group at the 1-year follow-up (P=0.008). T3 sympathectomy was as effective as T3-T4 sympathectomy for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis based on the patients' reported postoperative satisfaction, and the T3 group demonstrated lower compensatory sweating at the 1-year follow-up.

  8. Composite conserved promoter-terminator motifs (PeSLs) that mediate modular shuffling in the diverse T4-like myoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, André M; Arbiol, Christine; Krisch, Henry M

    2014-06-19

    The diverse T4-like phages (Tquatrovirinae) infect a wide array of gram-negative bacterial hosts. The genome architecture of these phages is generally well conserved, most of the phylogenetically variable genes being grouped together in a series hyperplastic regions (HPRs) that are interspersed among large blocks of conserved core genes. Recent evidence from a pair of closely related T4-like phages has suggested that small, composite terminator/promoter sequences (promoterearly stem loop [PeSLs]) were implicated in mediating the high levels of genetic plasticity by indels occurring within the HPRs. Here, we present the genome sequence analysis of two T4-like phages, PST (168 kb, 272 open reading frames [ORFs]) and nt-1 (248 kb, 405 ORFs). These two phages were chosen for comparative sequence analysis because, although they are closely related to phages that have been previously sequenced (T4 and KVP40, respectively), they have different host ranges. In each case, one member of the pair infects a bacterial strain that is a human pathogen, whereas the other phage's host is a nonpathogen. Despite belonging to phylogenetically distant branches of the T4-likes, these pairs of phage have diverged from each other in part by a mechanism apparently involving PeSL-mediated recombination. This analysis confirms a role of PeSL sequences in the generation of genomic diversity by serving as a point of genetic exchange between otherwise unrelated sequences within the HPRs. Finally, the palette of divergent genes swapped by PeSL-mediated homologous recombination is discussed in the context of the PeSLs' potentially important role in facilitating phage adaption to new hosts and environments. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. In vivo replication of T4 and T7 bacteriophages in germ-free mice colonized with Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Marietta; Denou, Emmanuel; Bruttin, Anne; Serra-Moreno, Ruth; Dillmann, Marie-Lise; Brüssow, Harald

    2009-10-10

    The gut transit of T4 phages was studied in axenic mice mono-colonized with the non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strain K-12. Thirty minutes, 1 and 2 h after phage feeding, T4 phage had reached the jejunum, ileum and cecum, respectively. Phage was found in the lumen and was also associated with the mucosa. One day later no phage was detected in the feces. Compared to germ-free control animals, oral T4 phage led to a 300-fold higher fecal phage titer in mice mono-colonized with E. coli strain WG-5. The in vivo T4 phage replication was transient and reached peak fecal titers about 8 h after oral phage application followed by a rapid titer decrease over two days. Similar data were obtained in mice colonized with E. coli strain Nissle. In contrast, orally applied T7 phage experienced a massive and sustained in vivo replication in mice mono-colonized with E. coli strain WG-5 irrespective whether phage or E. coli host was applied first. T7 phage replication occurred mainly in the large intestine. High titers of T7 phage and high E. coli cell counts coexisted in the feces. The observation of only 20% T7 phage-resistant fecal E. coli colonies suggests a refuge model where phage-sensitive E. coli cells are physically or physiologically protected from phage infection in the gut. The difference between T7 and T4 with respect to gut replication might partly reflect their distinct in vitro capacity to replicate on slowly growing cells.

  10. Tail posture predicts tail biting outbreaks at pen level in weaner pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Helle Pelant; Hansen, Christian Fink; D'Eath, Rick

    2018-01-01

    Detecting a tail biting outbreak early is essential to reduce the risk of pigs getting severe tail damage. A few previous studies suggest that tail posture and behavioural differences can predict an upcoming outbreak. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate if differences in tail...... posture and behaviour could be detected at pen level between upcoming tail biting pens (T-pens) and control pens (C-pens). The study included 2301 undocked weaner pigs in 74 pens (mean 31.1 pigs/pen; SD 1.5). Tails were scored three times weekly (wound freshness, wound severity and tail length) between 07......:00 h-14:00 h from weaning until a tail biting outbreak. An outbreak (day 0) occurred when at least four pigs had a tail damage, regardless of wound freshness. On average 7.6 (SD 4.3) pigs had a damaged tail (scratches + wound) in T-pens on day 0. Tail posture and behaviour (activity, eating...

  11. Effects of tail docking and docking length on neuroanatomical changes in healed tail tips of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, M. S.; Thodberg, K.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2015-01-01

    In pig production, piglets are tail docked at birth in order to prevent tail biting later in life. In order to examine the effects of tail docking and docking length on the formation of neuromas, we used 65 pigs and the following four treatments: intact tails (n=18); leaving 75% (n=17); leaving 50......% (n=19); or leaving 25% (n=11) of the tail length on the pigs. The piglets were docked between day 2 and 4 after birth using a gas-heated apparatus, and were kept under conventional conditions until slaughter at 22 weeks of age, where tails were removed and examined macroscopically and histologically...... (1.0±0.2 v. 0; Piron cautery causes formation of neuromas in the outermost part of the tail tip. The presence of neuromas might lead to altered nociceptive thresholds, which need...

  12. Shake a tail feather: the evolution of the theropod tail into a stiff aerodynamic surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pittman

    Full Text Available Theropod dinosaurs show striking morphological and functional tail variation; e.g., a long, robust, basal theropod tail used for counterbalance, or a short, modern avian tail used as an aerodynamic surface. We used a quantitative morphological and functional analysis to reconstruct intervertebral joint stiffness in the tail along the theropod lineage to extant birds. This provides new details of the tail's morphological transformation, and for the first time quantitatively evaluates its biomechanical consequences. We observe that both dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased along the non-avian theropod lineage (between nodes Theropoda and Paraves. Our results show how the tail structure of non-avian theropods was mechanically appropriate for holding itself up against gravity and maintaining passive balance. However, as dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness decreased, the tail may have become more effective for dynamically maintaining balance. This supports our hypothesis of a reduction of dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness in shorter tails. Along the avian theropod lineage (Avialae to crown group birds, dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness increased overall, which appears to contradict our null expectation. We infer that this departure in joint stiffness is specific to the tail's aerodynamic role and the functional constraints imposed by it. Increased dorsoventral and lateral joint stiffness may have facilitated a gradually improved capacity to lift, depress, and swing the tail. The associated morphological changes should have resulted in a tail capable of producing larger muscular forces to utilise larger lift forces in flight. Improved joint mobility in neornithine birds potentially permitted an increase in the range of lift force vector orientations, which might have improved flight proficiency and manoeuvrability. The tail morphology of modern birds with tail fanning capabilities originated in early ornithuromorph

  13. The contents of macromolecule solutes in flexor tendon sheath fluid and their relation to synovial fluid. A quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, L; Heinegård, D; Ohlsson, K

    1992-04-01

    The importance of synovial environment for minimal adhesion formation in flexor tendon healing has recently gained attention. Various techniques have been used to restore an injured synovial tendon sheath. Therefore a quantitative analysis of flexor tendon sheath fluid is of interest to increase our knowledge about the specific synovial milieu and to evaluate the success of different types of sheath reconstructions from a biochemical point of view. Samples of tendon sheath fluid from trigger digits and tendon sheaths containing ganglions have been assayed for contents of hyaluronic acid and proteins of different molecular weights. The results show concentrations of hyaluronate and several proteins similar to those in normal joint fluid. These results indicate that flexor tendon sheath fluid has a character similar to synovial fluid of joints and apparently has specific functions such as soft tissue lubrication and nutrition of avascular tendon tissue.

  14. Comparison of Ultrasound-Guided to Fluoroscopy-Guided Biceps Tendon Sheath Therapeutic Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle; Gustas, Cristy

    2016-10-01

    Biceps tendinitis is a source of anterior shoulder pain and is amenable to therapeutic injection. Studies have shown greater accuracy with image-guided compared to unguided injection of the biceps tendon sheath. There is no literature comparing ultrasound-guided to fluoroscopy-guided biceps tendon sheath injection. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcomes, complication rates, procedure success rates, and financial costs of the two imaging-guided methods. A 10-year retrospective review of the picture archiving and communication system was performed to identify patients who underwent image-guided proximal biceps tendon sheath injection. Two radiologists reviewed the picture archiving and communication system and clinical notes to record pain relief, complications, fluoroscopy time, first-pass success rate (defined as injection into the sheath on the first needle pass), final success rate (needle placement in the tendon sheath on the final needle pass), and average costs. Fifty fluoroscopy-guided and 53 ultrasound-guided cases were identified. There was no statistically significant difference in pain relief or complications. The first-pass success rate was 90.6% for ultrasound compared to 74.0% for fluoroscopy. The final-pass success rate was 98.2% for ultrasound versus 92.0% for fluoroscopy. The mean fluoroscopy time was 57.6 seconds. Ultrasound showed preinjection abnormalities of the biceps tendon in 47.5% of cases. Compared to fluoroscopy-guided biceps tendon sheath injection, ultrasound had higher initial- and final-pass success rates, visualized abnormalities before injection, and had similar pain relief and complication rates. Ultrasound is more accurate and has greater diagnostic benefits than unguided or fluoroscopy-guided biceps tendon sheath injection.

  15. Impact of introducer sheath coating on endothelial function in humans after transradial coronary procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ellen A; Rathore, Sudhir; Cable, N Timothy; Wright, D Jay; Morris, John L; Green, Daniel J

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the impact of transradial catheterization with hydrophilic-coated catheter sheaths versus uncoated sheaths on NO-mediated endothelial-dependent and -independent vasodilator function. Thirty-five subjects undergoing transradial catheterization were recruited and assessed before and the day after catheterization. A subgroup was also assessed 3 to 4 months after catheterization. Subjects received hydrophilic-coated sheaths (n=15) or uncoated sheaths (n=20). Radial artery flow-mediated dilatation and endothelium- and NO-dependent arterial dilatation were assessed within the region of sheath placement. Glyceryl trinitrate endothelium-independent NO-mediated function was also assessed. The noncatheterized arm provided an internal control. Flow-mediated dilatation in the catheterized arm decreased from 10.3+/-3.8% to 5.3+/-3.3% and 8.1+/-2.4% to 5.2+/-3.7% in the coated and uncoated groups, respectively (P<0.01). These values returned toward baseline levels approximately 3 months later (coated, 6.4+/-1.4%; uncoated, 9.4+/-4.1%; P<0.05) versus postprocedure. Glyceryl trinitrate decreased from 14.8+/-7.2% to 9.5+/-4.1% (P<0.05) in the coated group and from 12.2+/-4.6% to 7.5+/-4.2% (P<0.01) in the uncoated group. Values returned to baseline at approximately 3 months (coated, 16.6+/-5.6%; uncoated, 12.1+/-3.9%; P<0.05). There was no difference in the magnitude of decrease in flow-mediated dilatation or glyceryl trinitrate between coated and uncoated groups. No changes in function occurred in the noncatheterized arm. Placement of a catheter sheath inside the radial artery disrupts vasodilator function, which recovers after 3 months. No differences were evident between hydrophilic-coated and uncoated sheaths.

  16. Compression test of cold-formedsteel perforated profile with steel sheathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamanin Aleksandr Yur’evich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the stability and strength of cold-formed and perforated steel sigma-section columns with steel sheathing of different thickness. Ceilings with and without steel sheathing of different thickness are tested to failure in compression on a laboratory machine, which was based on a manual hydraulic jack. Series of 4 experiments with full-scale walls (2.5 m height were carried out. Also, for examination of the role of boundary conditions, the sheet in a ceiling is either left free or connected to base with screws.In civil engineering there are many experiments and methodologies for calculating the strength and buckling of ceiling with the sheathing of various materials, such as oriented strand board and gypsum board. However, for producing superstructures of ships the materials with high plastic properties and strength characteristics are required. For example steel possesses such properties. It was the main reason for conducting a series of experiments and studying the behavior of cold-formed steel columns with steel sheathing. During the experiments the deformation of the cross-section of three equally spaced cross sections was determined, as well as the axial deformation of the central column in the ceiling with steel sheathing.The test results showed the influence of the thickness of sheathing and boundary condition of a sheet on the strength and buckling of ceiling. According to the results of the tests it is necessary to evaluate the impact of the sheathing made of different materials and if necessary to carry out further tests.

  17. [The biopolitical production "impaired" subjects within the scope of "Action T4" - a re-reading of "I accuse"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The history of the Nazi "euthanasia programme" named "Aktion T4" has been examined from a biopolitical perspective for some time. However, these studies have not focused on the analytics of biopolitical practices of subjectivization as an essential element of the Foucaultian concept. The use of such a theoretical approach can be used in combination with new and substantial empirical research results. The Heidelberg DFG research programme evaluated the "T4" medical records statistically in order to conclusively determine which features had significant importance for selection by the "T4" experts. The inability to work or having an incurable mental illness were the criteria by which psychiatrists and "T4" experts subjectivized patients as "lives not worth living". Considering these new results and a biopolitical approach as starting point, it is time to reconsider the Nazi "euthanasia" propaganda movie "Ich klage an" ("I Accuse", 1941). When scholars began to study the production process of the movie in the 1980s, they looked at the narrative and the movie characters from an instrumental perspective. In other words, they examined how the "T4" protagonists and filmmakers sought to create a film which affected the viewers' opinion in a specific way intentionally influenced by them. According to that line of thought, the character Hanna was neglected because she was considered to be the morally inoffensive disguise of the intended propaganda massage. However, two works from the 1990s which were gender history-oriented finally focused on Hanna and the way the film narrative turns her into a subject "not worth living". Based on these considerations, this article states its thesis. The criteria of the film to subjectivize Hanna share many basic characteristics with those of the subjectivization process of the "T4" victims. To prove this statement, the analytics of the movie are combined with the results of the DFG project. Through the combination of both types of sources

  18. Fine structure of modal focusing effect in a three dimensional plasma-sheath-lens formed by disk electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yamaguchi, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    Modal and discrete focusing effects associated with three-dimensional plasma-sheath-lenses show promising potential for applications in ion beam extraction, mass spectrometry, plasma diagnostics and for basic studies of plasma sheath. The ion focusing properties can be adjusted by controlling the...... to the sheath thickness and can be used to monitor very small changes in plasma parameters. Three dimensional simulations are found to be in very good agreement with experiments....

  19. Coating of Zircaloy sheaths with silica glass using the Sol-Gel technique for protection against oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sanctis, O.; Pellegri, N.; Gomez, L.

    1990-01-01

    With the aim of improving corrosion resistance of Zircaloy, a few Zircaloy sheaths were covered with vitreous silica. Deposition was made by dip coating in tetraetilortosilicate (TEOS) solutions and later densification treatment at 500 degrees C. Oxidation tests were performed and compared with sheaths not covered with silica. As a result, an effective increase in the resistance to dry oxidation was found in sheaths which had been protected. The coating-Zircaloy interface was studied using XPS (scanner). (Author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  20. Phosphate buffer and salt medium concentrations affect the inactivation of T4 phage by platinum(II) complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik B.; Josephsen, Jens; Kerszman, Gustaw

    1985-01-01

    -Tris) buffer and HEPES buffer. The phosphate abolishes the antiphage activity of the platinum complexes probably by some sort of complex formation. This together with dimerization reactions qualitatively explains the tailing off of the phage inactivation rate. High concentrations of NaNO3 as the salt medium...