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Sample records for t4 tail sheath

  1. Structural Conservation of the Myoviridae Phage Tail Sheath Protein Fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Kurochkina, Lidia P.; Fokine, Andrei; Forouhar, Farhad; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V.; Tong, Liang; Rossmann, Michael G. (SOIBC); (Purdue); (Columbia)

    2012-02-21

    Bacteriophage phiKZ is a giant phage that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human pathogen. The phiKZ virion consists of a 1450 {angstrom} diameter icosahedral head and a 2000 {angstrom}-long contractile tail. The structure of the whole virus was previously reported, showing that its tail organization in the extended state is similar to the well-studied Myovirus bacteriophage T4 tail. The crystal structure of a tail sheath protein fragment of phiKZ was determined to 2.4 {angstrom} resolution. Furthermore, crystal structures of two prophage tail sheath proteins were determined to 1.9 and 3.3 {angstrom} resolution. Despite low sequence identity between these proteins, all of these structures have a similar fold. The crystal structure of the phiKZ tail sheath protein has been fitted into cryo-electron-microscopy reconstructions of the extended tail sheath and of a polysheath. The structural rearrangement of the phiKZ tail sheath contraction was found to be similar to that of phage T4.

  2. Crystal Structure of the Carboxy-Terminal Region of the Bacteriophage T4 Proximal Long Tail Fiber Protein Gp34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Granell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Long tail fibers of bacteriophage T4 are formed by proteins gp34, gp35, gp36, and gp37, with gp34 located at the phage-proximal end and gp37 at the phage-distal, receptor-binding end. We have solved the structure of the carboxy-terminal region of gp34, consisting of amino acids 894–1289, by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction and extended the structure to amino acids 744–1289 using data collected from crystals containing longer gp34-fragments. The structure reveals three repeats of a mixed α-β fibrous domain in residues 744 to 877. A triple-helical neck connects to an extended triple β-helix domain (amino acids 900–1127 punctuated by two β-prism domains. Next, a β-prism domain decorated with short helices and extended β-helices is present (residues 1146–1238, while the C-terminal end is capped with another short β-helical region and three β-hairpins. The structure provides insight into the stability of the fibrous gp34 protein.

  3. Atomic Structure of Type VI Contractile Sheath from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Osman; He, Shaoda; Planamente, Sara; Stach, Lasse; MacDonald, James T; Manoli, Eleni; Scheres, Sjors H W; Filloux, Alain; Freemont, Paul S

    2018-02-06

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa has three type VI secretion systems (T6SSs), H1-, H2-, and H3-T6SS, each belonging to a distinct group. The two T6SS components, TssB/VipA and TssC/VipB, assemble to form tubules that conserve structural/functional homology with tail sheaths of contractile bacteriophages and pyocins. Here, we used cryoelectron microscopy to solve the structure of the H1-T6SS P. aeruginosa TssB1C1 sheath at 3.3 Å resolution. Our structure allowed us to resolve some features of the T6SS sheath that were not resolved in the Vibrio cholerae VipAB and Francisella tularensis IglAB structures. Comparison with sheath structures from other contractile machines, including T4 phage and R-type pyocins, provides a better understanding of how these systems have conserved similar functions/mechanisms despite evolution. We used the P. aeruginosa R2 pyocin as a structural template to build an atomic model of the TssB1C1 sheath in its extended conformation, allowing us to propose a coiled-spring-like mechanism for T6SS sheath contraction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Diets of the Sympatric Pacific Sheath-Tailed Bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi) on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Ernest W.; Wiles, Gary J.; O'Shea, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi) are two rare insectivorous taxa restricted to the southern Mariana Islands in western Micronesia. It is believed that populations of both have dwindled because of impacts to their food resources. However, there is little information on the food habits of A. bartschi and none exists for E. s. rotensis. In an effort to better understand the feeding habits of both, we investigated their diets using guano analysis. Guano was collected from two roosts in caves during a 2-week period in June and July at the onset of the rainy season. Important orders of insects consumed (percentage volume) by bats roosting at one cave included hymenopterans (64%), coleopterans (10%), lepidopterans (8%), isopterans (8%), and psocopterans (5%), whereas those at a second cave included lepidopterans (45%), hymenopterans (41%), coleopterans (10%), and isopterans (5%). Swiftlets, which roosted in only one of the caves, fed mostly on hymenopterans (88%) and hemipterans (6%). Significant differences existed between the two taxa in several insect orders eaten, with E. s. rotensis consuming more lepidopterans and coleopterans and A. bartschi taking more hymenopterans and hemipterans. Within Hymenoptera, bats fed more on ichneumoideans, whereas swiftlets ate more formicid alates and chalicidoideans. This new information on the feeding habits of E. s. rotensis and A. bartschi provides insight on the complexity of their diets during June and July, and serves as baseline information for future studies and management of their habitat.

  5. The Type VI Secretion TssEFGK-VgrG Phage-Like Baseplate Is Recruited to the TssJLM Membrane Complex via Multiple Contacts and Serves As Assembly Platform for Tail Tube/Sheath Polymerization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick R Brunet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Type VI secretion system (T6SS is a widespread weapon dedicated to the delivery of toxin proteins into eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The 13 T6SS subunits assemble a cytoplasmic contractile structure anchored to the cell envelope by a membrane-spanning complex. This structure is evolutionarily, structurally and functionally related to the tail of contractile bacteriophages. In bacteriophages, the tail assembles onto a protein complex, referred to as the baseplate, that not only serves as a platform during assembly of the tube and sheath, but also triggers the contraction of the sheath. Although progress has been made in understanding T6SS assembly and function, the composition of the T6SS baseplate remains mostly unknown. Here, we report that six T6SS proteins-TssA, TssE, TssF, TssG, TssK and VgrG-are required for proper assembly of the T6SS tail tube, and a complex between VgrG, TssE,-F and-G could be isolated. In addition, we demonstrate that TssF and TssG share limited sequence homologies with known phage components, and we report the interaction network between these subunits and other baseplate and tail components. In agreement with the baseplate being the assembly platform for the tail, fluorescence microscopy analyses of functional GFP-TssF and TssK-GFP fusion proteins show that these proteins assemble stable and static clusters on which the sheath polymerizes. Finally, we show that recruitment of the baseplate to the apparatus requires initial positioning of the membrane complex and contacts between TssG and the inner membrane TssM protein.

  6. Diets of the sympatric pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartscht) on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, E.W.; Wiles, G.J.; O'Shea, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi) are two rare insectivorous taxa restricted to the southern Mariana Islands in western Micronesia. It is believed that populations of both have dwindled because of impacts to their food resources. However, there is little information on the food habits of A. bartschi and none exists for E. s. rotensis. In an effort to better understand the feeding habits of both, we investigated their diets using guano analysis. Guano was collected from two roosts in caves during a 2-week period in June and July at the onset of the rainy season. Important orders of insects consumed (percentage volume) by bats roosting at one cave included hymenopterans (64%), coleopterans (10%), lepidopterans (8%), isopterans (8%), and psocopterans (5%), whereas those at a second cave included lepidopterans (45%), hymenopterans (41%), coleopterans (10%), and isopterans (5%). Swiftlets, which roosted in only one of the caves, fed mostly on hymenopterans (88%) and hemipterans (6%). Significant differences existed between the two taxa in several insect orders eaten, with E. s. rotensis consuming more lepidopterans and coleopterans and A. bartschi taking more hymenopterans and hemipterans. Within Hymenoptera, bats fed more on ichneumoideans, whereas swiftlets ate more formicid alates and chalicidoideans. This new information on the feeding habits of E. s. rotensis and A. bartschi provides insight on the complexity of their diets during June and July, and serves as baseline information for future studies and management of their habitat. ?? 2011 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  7. t4 Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Contreras, Elizabeth Q.; Hartung, Thomas; Hirsch, Cordula; Hogberg, Helena; Jachak, Ashish C.; Jordan, William; Landsiedel, Robert; Morris, Jeffery; Patri, Anil; Pounds, Joel G.; de Vizcaya Ruiz, Andrea; Shvedova, Anna; Tanguay, Robert; Tatarazako, Norihasa; van Vliet, Erwin; Walker, Nigel J.; Wiesner, Mark; Wilcox, Neil; Zurlo, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Summary In October 2010, a group of experts met as part of the transatlantic think tank for toxicology (t4) to exchange ideas about the current status and future of safety testing of nanomaterials. At present, there is no widely accepted path forward to assure appropriate and effective hazard identification for engineered nanomaterials. The group discussed needs for characterization of nanomaterials and identified testing protocols that incorporate the use of innovative alternative whole models such as zebrafish or C. elegans, as well as in vitro or alternative methods to examine specific functional pathways and modes of action. The group proposed elements of a potential testing scheme for nanomaterials that works towards an integrated testing strategy, incorporating the goals of the NRC report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy by focusing on pathways of toxic response, and utilizing an evidence-based strategy for developing the knowledge base for safety assessment. Finally, the group recommended that a reliable, open, curated database be developed that interfaces with existing databases to enable sharing of information. PMID:21993959

  8. Communication through plasma sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkevich, A. O.; Newell, A. C.; Zakharov, V. E.

    2007-01-01

    We wish to transmit messages to and from a hypersonic vehicle around which a plasma sheath has formed. For long distance transmission, the signal carrying these messages must be necessarily low frequency, typically 2 GHz, to which the plasma sheath is opaque. The idea is to use the plasma properties to make the plasma sheath appear transparent

  9. 216-T-4 interim stabilization final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a general description of the activities performed for the interim stabilization of the 216-T-4-1 ditch, 216-T-4-2 ditch, and 216-T-4-2 pond. Interim stabilization was required to reduce the amount of surface-contaminated acres and to minimize the migration of radioactive contamination. Work associated with the 216-T4-1 ditch and 216-T-4-2 pond was performed by the Radiation Area Remedial Action (RARA) Project. Work associated with the 216-T-4-2 ditch was done concurrently but was funded by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS)

  10. Barrier cell sheath formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.

    1980-04-01

    The solution for electrostatic potential within a simply modeled tandem mirror thermal barrier is seen to exhibit a sheath at each edge of the cell. The formation of the sheath requires ion collisionality and the analysis assmes that the collisional trapping rate into the barrier is considerably slower than the barrier pump rate

  11. Sheath heating in low-pressure capacitive radio frequency discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    Capacitively coupled, parallel plate, r.f. discharges are commonly used for materials processing. The electrons in such a discharge gain and lose energy by reflection from the oscillating sheaths which form at the electrodes. Previous models of the electron heating by this mechanism have assumed that the sheath motion is slow compared to the electron thermal velocity, so that the electron energy change from each reflection is small. Here, the heating rate, density, and sheath width relations are derived analytically in the limit of very fast sheath motion. Numerical results are presented spanning the slow and fast limits. Results from particle-in-cell simulations show that in the large-energy-change regime, an electron beam is produced on each sheath expansion. At low pressure, this beam can traverse the plasma and interact with the sheath at the opposite electrode, producing a beam energy and density dependence on the length of the discharge. The beam produces a time and space varying warm tail on the electron energy distribution. Two revised heating models are derived, assuming power-law and two-temperature electron energy distributions, with temporal variation in electron temperature. These revised models yield new predictions for the variation of the power, density, and sheath thickness with applied r.f. voltage. These predictions are compared with simulation results and laboratory experiment. The electron sheath motion is investigated experimentally by observing the signal on a floating probe in the sheath region. This is compared to the signal product by a non-linear circuit model which accounts for the perturbation of the sheath potential by the probe and includes various forms of sheath motion. The experimental observations are consistent with the analytical predictions. Experimental observations of plasma-sheath resonance oscillations are presented which agree with analytical predictions

  12. An Evaluation of Thyroid Hormones (T4, T3, and Free T4) Concentrations During Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Bo; Kim, Ji Yeul

    1981-01-01

    Serum concentrations of T 4 , T 3 , and free T 4 were measured by radioimmunoassay in normal pregnant women at trimesters, in postpartum women, and cord blood of neonate. Total T 4 were increased during pregnancy, remarkably high in the first trimester, and also somewhat increased in postpartum, and normal in neonate. Total T 3 were in normal range during pregnancy, but increased in postpartum, whereas decreased in neonate. Free T 4 were decreased in 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy, however normal in postpartum and neonate.

  13. Stability of the plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R.N.

    1979-12-01

    The stability of a collisionless sheath joined to a plasma in the presence of secondary emission of electrons from the sheath boundary is examined in the fluid approximation. Instability is unlikely to occur under floating conditions but if significant currents flow corresponding to increased wall-plasma potentials the system can go unstable. (author)

  14. The electrostatic cylindrical sheath in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunhua; Sun Xiaoxia; Bai Dongxue

    2004-01-01

    The electrostatic sheath with a cylindrical geometry in an ion-electron plasma is investigated. Assuming a Boltzmann response to electrons and cold ions with bulk flow, it is shown that the radius of the cylindrical geometry do not affect the sheath potential significantly. The authors also found that the sheath potential profile is steeper in the cylindrical sheath compared to the slab sheath. The distinct feature of the cylindrical sheath is that the ion density distribution is not monotonous. The sheath region can be divided into three regions, two ascendant regions and one descendant region. (author)

  15. Anode sheath in Hall thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorf, L.; Semenov, V.; Raitses, Y.

    2003-01-01

    A set of hydrodynamic equations is used to describe quasineutral plasma in ionization and acceleration regions of a Hall thruster. The electron distribution function and Poisson equation are invoked for description of a near-anode region. Numerical solutions suggest that steady-state operation of a Hall thruster can be achieved at different anode sheath regimes. It is shown that the anode sheath depends on the thruster operating conditions, namely the discharge voltage and the mass flow rate

  16. Resveratrol given intraperitoneally does not inhibit growth of high-risk t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in NOD/SCID mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of the phytochemical resveratrol as a preventive agent against the growth of t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was evaluated in NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J mice engrafted with the human t(4;11) ALL line SEM. SEM cells were injected into the tail vein and engraftment was monitored by ...

  17. Sheath waves, non collisional dampings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marec, Jean Lucien Ernest

    1974-01-01

    When a metallic conductor is inserted into an ionised gas, an area of electron depletion is formed between the conductor and the plasma: the ionic sheath. Moreover, if the conductor is excited by an electric field, this ionic sheath plays an important role with respect to microwave properties. In this research thesis, the author addresses the range of frequencies smaller than the plasma frequency, and reports the study of resonance phenomena. After a presentation of the problem through a bibliographical study, the author recalls general characteristics of sheath wave propagation and of sheath resonances, and discusses the validity of different hypotheses (for example and among others, electrostatic approximations, cold plasma). Then, the author more particularly addresses theoretical problems related to non collisional dampings: brief bibliographical study, detailed presentation and description of the theoretical model, damping calculation methods. The author then justifies the design and performance of an experiment, indicates measurement methods used to determine plasma characteristics as well as other magnitudes which allow the description of mechanisms of propagation and damping of sheath waves. Experimental results are finally presented with respect to various parameters. The author discusses to which extent the chosen theoretical model is satisfying [fr

  18. Quality control of radioimmunoassay reagents for T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayan Radiatning, S.

    1987-01-01

    Quality control of radioimmunoassay reagents for T4. A program of quality control testing has been carried out for 125 I-T4, T4 standards and T4 antisera. 125 I-labelled T4 has been tested for its specific activity, radiochemical purity using a Sephadex G-25 column, immunological activity, based on the immunological reaction between labelled antigen and excess T4 antibody, and non-specific binding. The useful shelf-life of the labelled compound was determined by monitoring the decrease in radiochemical purity and immunological activity, and the increase in non-specific binding. T4 standards were calibrated by means of T4 RIA kit manufactured by DPC (Diagnostic Products Corporation). A test on parallelism was also performed using hyperthyroid sera. T4 antisera were evaluated with respect to titre, avidity and specifity. The test results on 125 I-T4 show a specific activity varying between 1830-2020 uCi/ug, a radiochemical purity above 90%, an immunological more than 80% and a non-specific binding of less than 5%. The standard curve for T4 was found to coincide well with the standard curve of the DPC kit and parallel with the curve for hyperthyroid sera. The titre of T4 antisera obtained was 1:300, the avidity was about 4.8 x 10 7 and the cross-reaction for T3 was 1.6%. It can be concluded from the experimental results, that the 125 I-T4, T4 standards and T4 antisera prepared meet the requirements for the manufacture of T4 kits. (author). 5 refs.; 14 figs

  19. Self-consistent radial sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    The boundary layer arising in the radial vicinity of a tokamak limiter is examined, with special reference to the TEXT tokamak. It is shown that sheath structure depends upon the self-consistent effects of ion guiding-center orbit modification, as well as the radial variation of E /times/ B-induced toroidal rotation. Reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained from an idealized model which, however simplified, preserves such self-consistent effects. It is argued that the radial sheath, which occurs whenever confining magnetic field-lines lie in the plasma boundary surface, is an object of some intrinsic interest. It differs from the more familiar axial sheath because magnetized charges respond very differently to parallel and perpendicular electric fields. 11 refs., 1 fig

  20. Intrapontine malignant nerve sheath tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozić, Dusko; Nagulić, Mirjana; Samardzić, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    . On pathological examination, the neoplasm appeared to be an intrapontine nerve sheath tumor originating most likely from the intrapontine segment of one of the cranial nerve fibres. The tumor showed exophytic growth, with consequent spread to adjacent subaracnoid space. MR spectroscopy revealed the presence......The primary source of malignant intracerebral nerve sheath tumors is still unclear We report the imaging and MR spectroscopic findings in a 39-year-old man with a very rare brain stem tumor MR examination revealed the presence of intraaxial brain stem tumor with a partial exophytic growth...

  1. T4 thyrotoxicosis: an independent disease or the effect of an alteration in the peripheral metabolism of T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, R.M.B.; Vieira, J.G.H.; Russo, E.M.K.; Dib, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Six cases of T 4 thyrotoxicosis were observed in 250 patients with hyperthyroidism. In the 6 episodes, the thyrotoxicosis was associated with severe systemic illness or with the admnistration of propanolol, which blocked the peripheral convertion of T 4 to T 3 . These data indicate that T 4 thyrotoxicosis reflects an alteration in the peripheral metabolism of T 4 produced by systemic illness or drugs. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Rapid T4 radioimmunoassay with antibody of Czechoslovak production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cechacek, Z [MUNZ, Brno (Czechoslovakia) Div. of Nuclear Nedicine

    1978-06-30

    Rapid T4-RIA based on the T4-antibody produced in Institute of Experimental Endocrinology in Bratislava is described. The used T4-antibody was found as suitable preparation for the routine T4-RIA and is comparable to the foreign materials. T4 antibody was obtained by rabbit immunization and supplied as antiserum in a frozen state. It was properly diluted with 0.08M barbital buffer, pH 8.6, containing 0.a5% sodium ethylmercurythiosalicylate and 0.5% BSA.

  3. Plasma sheath criterion in thermal electronegative plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghomi, Hamid; Khoramabadi, Mansour; Ghorannevis, Mahmod; Shukla, Padma Kant

    2010-01-01

    The sheath formation criterion in electronegative plasma is examined. By using a multifluid model, it is shown that in a collisional sheath there will be upper as well as lower limits for the sheath velocity criterion. However, the parameters of the negative ions only affect the lower limit.

  4. Accounting for Debye sheath expansion for proud Langmuir probes in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, C K; Boedo, J A; Stangeby, P C

    2018-01-01

    A Child-Langmuir law-based method for accounting for Debye sheath expansion while fitting the current-voltage I-V characteristic of proud Langmuir probes (electrodes that extend into the volume of the plasma) is described. For Langmuir probes of a typical size used in tokamak plasmas, these new estimates of electron temperature and ion saturation current density values decreased by up to 60% compared to methods that did not account for sheath expansion. Changes to the collection area are modeled using the Child-Langmuir law and effective expansion perimeter l p , and the model is thus referred to as the "perimeter sheath expansion method." l p is determined solely from electrode geometry, so the method may be employed without prior measurement of the magnitude of the sheath expansion effects for a given Langmuir probe and can be used for electrodes of different geometries. This method correctly predicts the non-saturating ΔI/ΔV slope for cold, low-density plasmas where sheath-expansion effects are strong, as well as for hot plasmas where ΔI/ΔV ∼ 0, though it is shown that the sheath can still significantly affect the collection area in these hot conditions. The perimeter sheath expansion method has several advantages compared to methods where the non-saturating current is fitted: (1) It is more resilient to scatter in the I-V characteristics observed in turbulent plasmas. (2) It is able to separate the contributions to the ΔI/ΔV slope from sheath expansion to that of the high energy electron tail in high Te conditions. (3) It calculates the change in the collection area due to the Debye sheath for conditions where ΔI/ΔV ∼ 0 and for V = V f .

  5. Ion acceleration in the plasma source sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsall, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    This note is a calculation of the potential drop for a planar plasma source, across the source sheath, into a uniform plasma region defined by vector E = 0 and/or perhaps ∂ 2 PHI/∂ x 2 = 0. The calculation complements that of Bohm who obtained the potential drop at the other end of a plasma, at a planar collector sheath. The result is a relation between the source ion flux and the source sheath potential drop and the accompanying ion acceleration. This planar source sheath ion acceleration mechanism (or that from a distributed source) can provide the pre-collector-sheath ion acceleration as found necessary by Bohm. 3 refs

  6. Non-Maxwellian plasma sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    There is much experimental evidence that heat flux to divertor plates or to limiters is very asymmetric. For example, Lowry made measurements on poloidal limiters in JET, Stangeby and McCracken reported asymmetries in several experiments. In 1991 Haines considered the effects on the Child-Langmuir sheaths of having a net current flow. It was found that a sheath that receives more ions than electrons receives more energy flux than a sheath that receives more electrons than ions. We now extend the model to include for the electrons departures from a Maxwellian distribution arising from a net current flow, heat flow and thermoelectric effects in the scrape-off layer (SOL). It is envisaged that a net current flows in the SOL due to applied or induced electric fields, and is of a magnitude similar to that in the adjacent bulk plasma, though reduced due to the lower temperature in the SOL. We employ conventional linear transport theory eg. Braginskii, Epperlein and Haines in which the ions are a stationary Maxwellian. (orig.)

  7. Family of autocatalytic group I introns in bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shub, D.A.; Xu, M.Q.; Gott, J.M.; Zeeh, A.; Wilson, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of an intron in phage T4 encouraged the authors to look for additional group I introns in the T4 genome. Further examples would permit sequence and structural comparisons that might lend insight into their evolutionary origin. Additionally, they hoped that their locations within the T4 genome would infer a possible regulatory function in prokaryotic gene expression. They took advantage of the fact that, since G is added to the 5' end of the intron, autocatalytic group I introns could be specifically labeled in vitro for use as probes for DNA blotting experiments. If Group I introns were in more than just the td gene, multiple RNA species should be labeled when total RNA is extracted from T4-infected cells and incubated with [α- 32 P]GTP in vitro. When used as a probe for a Southern blot of T4 DNA, this RNA should hybridize to several DNA bands

  8. RF sheaths for arbitrary B field angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ippolito, Daniel; Myra, James

    2014-10-01

    RF sheaths occur in tokamaks when ICRF waves encounter conducting boundaries and accelerate electrons out of the plasma. Sheath effects reduce the efficiency of ICRF heating, cause RF-specific impurity influxes from the edge plasma, and increase the plasma-facing component damage. The rf sheath potential is sensitive to the angle between the B field and the wall, the ion mobility and the ion magnetization. Here, we obtain a numerical solution of the non-neutral rf sheath and magnetic pre-sheath equations (for arbitrary values of these parameters) and attempt to infer the parametric dependences of the Child-Langmuir law. This extends previous work on the magnetized, immobile ion regime. An important question is how the rf sheath voltage distributes itself between sheath and pre-sheath for various B field angles. This will show how generally previous estimates of the rf sheath voltage and capacitance were reasonable, and to improve the RF sheath BC. Work supported by US DOE grants DE-FC02-05ER54823 and DE-FG02-97ER54392.

  9. Re-initiation repair in bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupido, M.

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation of bacteriophage T4 with ultraviolet light induces the formation of pyrimidine dimers in its DNA. These dimers hamper replication of DNA and, to a lesser extent, transcription of DNA after its infection of bacteria. A number of pathways enable phage T4 to multiply dimer-containing DNA. One of these pathways has been named replication repair and is described in this thesis. The properties of two phage strains, unable to perform replication repair, have been studied to obtain a picture of the repair process. The mutations in these strains that affect replication repair have been located on the genomic map of T4. (Auth.)

  10. Ultrasound diagnosis of rectus sheath hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, M. S.; Chang, J. C.; Rhee, C. B.

    1984-01-01

    6 cases of rectus sheath hematoma were correctly diagnosed by ultrasound. 2 cases had bilateral rectus sheath hematoma and 4 cases were unilateral. On ultrasound finding, relatively well defined oval or spindle like cystic mass situated in the area of rectus muscle on all cases. Ultrasound examination may give more definite diagnosis and extension rectus sheath hematoma and also helpful to follow up study of hematoma

  11. Tendon sheath fibroma in the thigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Vincent M; Ashana, Adedayo O; de la Cruz, Michael; Lackman, Richard D

    2012-04-01

    Tendon sheath fibromas are rare, benign soft tissue tumors that are predominantly found in the fingers, hands, and wrists of young adult men. This article describes a tendon sheath fibroma that developed in the thigh of a 70-year-old man, the only known tendon sheath fibroma to form in this location. Similar to tendon sheath fibromas that develop elsewhere, our patient's lesion presented as a painless, slow-growing soft tissue nodule. Physical examination revealed a firm, nontender mass with no other associated signs or symptoms. Although the imaging appearance of tendon sheath fibromas varies, our patient's lesion appeared dark on T1- and bright on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. It was well marginated and enhanced with contrast.Histologically, tendon sheath fibromas are composed of dense fibrocollagenous stromas with scattered spindle-shaped fibroblasts and narrow slit-like vascular spaces. Most tendon sheath fibromas can be successfully removed by marginal excision, although 24% of lesions recur. No lesions have metastasized. Our patient's tendon sheath fibroma was removed by marginal excision, and the patient remained disease free 35 months postoperatively. Despite its rarity, tendon sheath fibroma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a thigh mass on physical examination or imaging, especially if it is painless, nontender, benign appearing, and present in men. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Retroperitoneal and rectus sheath hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasotakis, George

    2014-02-01

    The retroperitoneum is rich in vascular structures and can harbor large hematomas, traumatic or spontaneous. The management of retroperitoneal hematomas depends on the mechanism of injury and whether they are pulsatile/expanding. Rectus sheath hematomas are uncommon abdominal wall hematomas secondary to trauma to the epigastric arteries of the rectus muscle. The common risk factors include anticoagulation, strenuous exercise, coughing, coagulation disorders, and invasive procedures on/through the abdominal wall. The management is largely supportive, with the reversal of anticoagulation and transfusions; angioembolization may be necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Thyroid hormones in the elderly sick: "T4 euthyroidism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, A W; Shakespear, R A; Hesch, R D; Cooper, E; Aickin, C M; Burke, C W

    1975-11-22

    Thyroid function and serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were investigated in 79 euthyroid geriatric patients. Of the 59 inpatients and 20 outpatients 35 (59%) and 2, respectively, had low T3 levels. In contrast, 7 (12%) and 6 (30%), respectively, had raised T4 levels. Two further patients were excluded from the study because of raised levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroxine-binding globulin was greatly increased in both groups of patients, but low serum albumin levels were present in 31 (39%). Despite these changes free T3 and T4 indices closely followed total T3 and T4 levels. The difference between the two groups of patients did not correlate with body weight, diagnostic categories, age, drug treatment, or duration of stay in hospital.

  14. Genetic diversity among five T4-like bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Claire

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteriophages are an important repository of genetic diversity. As one of the major constituents of terrestrial biomass, they exert profound effects on the earth's ecology and microbial evolution by mediating horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and controlling their growth. Only limited genomic sequence data are currently available for phages but even this reveals an overwhelming diversity in their gene sequences and genomes. The contribution of the T4-like phages to this overall phage diversity is difficult to assess, since only a few examples of complete genome sequence exist for these phages. Our analysis of five T4-like genomes represents half of the known T4-like genomes in GenBank. Results Here, we have examined in detail the genetic diversity of the genomes of five relatives of bacteriophage T4: the Escherichia coli phages RB43, RB49 and RB69, the Aeromonas salmonicida phage 44RR2.8t (or 44RR and the Aeromonas hydrophila phage Aeh1. Our data define a core set of conserved genes common to these genomes as well as hundreds of additional open reading frames (ORFs that are nonconserved. Although some of these ORFs resemble known genes from bacterial hosts or other phages, most show no significant similarity to any known sequence in the databases. The five genomes analyzed here all have similarities in gene regulation to T4. Sequence motifs resembling T4 early and late consensus promoters were observed in all five genomes. In contrast, only two of these genomes, RB69 and 44RR, showed similarities to T4 middle-mode promoter sequences and to the T4 motA gene product required for their recognition. In addition, we observed that each phage differed in the number and assortment of putative genes encoding host-like metabolic enzymes, tRNA species, and homing endonucleases. Conclusion Our observations suggest that evolution of the T4-like phages has drawn on a highly diverged pool of genes in the microbial world. The T4

  15. Introns in the genome of bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gott, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    RNA from T4-infected cells yields multiple end-labeled species when incubated with [α- 32 P]GTP under self-splicing conditions. One of these corresponds to the previously characterized intron from the T4 td gene and, as shown in this work, the others represent additional group I introns in T4. Two loci distinct from the td gene were found to hybridize to the mixed GTP-labeled T4 RNA probe. These were mapped to the unlinked genes nrdB and sunY. Cloned DNA from the nrdB region that contained the intron was shown to generate characteristic group I splice products with RNA synthesized in vivo or in vitro. The splice junction of the nrdB gene was determined and the nature of the RNA reaction products characterized. In vivo expression of the nrdB gene and the open reading frame within the intron was studied using in-frame lacZ fusions and primer extension analyses. The data suggest that expression of the intron open reading frame is highly regulated during T4 infection. Possible regulatory mechanisms are discussed

  16. Primary optic nerve sheath meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremic, Branislav [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Pitz, Susanne (eds.) [University Eye Hospital, Mainz (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM) is a rare tumour. Cases are usually separated into primary ONSM, which arises either intraorbitally or, less commonly, intracanalicularly, and secondary ONSM, which arises intracranially and subsequently invades the optic canal and orbit. This is the first book to cover all important aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of primary ONSM. After a general introduction, individual chapters discuss the clinical presentation, clinical examination and diagnosis, imaging, and histology. Treatment options are then addressed in detail, with special emphasis on external beam radiation therapy, and in particular stereotactic fractionated radiation therapy. The latter has recently produced consistently good results and is now considered the emerging treatment of choice for the vast majority of patients with primary ONSM. This well-illustrated book will prove invaluable to all practitioners who encounter primary ONSM in their clinical work. (orig.)

  17. The colloidal thyroxine (T4) ring as a novel biomarker of perchlorate exposure in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, F.; Sharma, Bibek; Mukhi, S.; Patino, R.; Carr, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in colloidal thyroxine (T4) immunoreactivity can be used as a biomarker of perchlorate exposure in amphibian thyroid tissue. Larval African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) were exposed to 0, 1, 8, 93, and 1131 ??g perchlorate/l for 38 and 69 days to cover the normal period of larval development and metamorphosis. The results of this study confirmed the presence of an immunoreactive colloidal T4 ring in thyroid follicles of X. laevis and demonstrated that the intensity of this ring is reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by perchlorate exposure. The smallest effective concentration of perchlorate capable of significantly reducing colloidal T4 ring intensity was 8 ??g perchlorate/l. The intensity of the immunoreactive colloidal T4 ring is a more sensitive biomarker of perchlorate exposure than changes in hind limb length, forelimb emergence, tail resorption, thyrocyte hypertrophy, or colloid depletion. We conclude that the colloidal T4 ring can be used as a sensitive biomarker of perchlorate-induced thyroid disruption in amphibians. ?? Copyright 2006 Oxford University Press.

  18. Nonsense mutants in the bacteriophage T4D v gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minderhout, L van; Grimbergen, J; Groot, B de [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Lab. voor Stralengenetica en Chemische Mutagenese; Cohen (J.A.) Instituut voor Radiopathologie en Stralenbescherming, Leiden (Netherlands))

    1975-09-01

    Ten UV-sensitive mutants of T4D with the v phenotype were isolated. Of these ten mutants, two are amber and two opal. In UV curves and in photoreactivation and multiplicity reactivation experiments the nonsense mutants show the v phenotype in su/sup -/ hosts and almost the T4/sup +/ phenotype in su/sup +/ hosts. The mutations are located between rl and e and are alleles of v/sub 1/. In crosses with irradiated and non-irradiated phages the recombinant frequency is not reduced by uvs5. Amber uvs5 propagated in CR63 su/sup +/ is with B su/sup -/ just as sensitive to UV as uvs5 propagated in B su/sup -/, which permits the conclusion that the capsid of T4 phage particles does not contain the v gene product.

  19. Three-dimensional analysis of antenna sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Ho, Y.L.

    1996-01-01

    The present work is motivated by the importance of r.f. sheaths in determining the antenna-plasma interaction and the sensitivity of the sheaths to the complicated three-dimensional structure of modern ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antennas. To analyze r.f. sheaths on the plasma facing regions of the launcher, we first calculate the contact points of the tokamak magnetic field lines on the surface of the antenna Faraday screen and nearby limiters for realistic three-dimensional magnetic flux surface and antenna geometries. Next, the r.f. voltage that can drive sheaths at the contact points is determined and used to assess the resulting sheath power dissipation, r.f.-driven sputtering, and r.f.-induced convective cells (which produce edge profile modification). The calculations are embodied in a computer code, ANSAT (antenna sheath analysis tool), and sample ANSAT runs are shown to highlight the physics- and geometry-dependent characteristics of the r.f. sheaths and their relationship to the antenna design. One use of ANSAT is therefore as a design tool, to assess the strengths and weaknesses of a given design with respect to critical voltage handling and edge plasma interaction issues. Additionally, examples are presented where ANSAT has been useful in the analysis and interpretation of ICRF experiments (orig.)

  20. Incorporation of T4 bacteriophage in electrospun fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korehei, R; Kadla, J

    2013-05-01

    Antibacterial food packaging materials, such as bacteriophage-activated electrospun fibrous mats, may address concerns triggered by waves of bacterial food contamination. To address this, we investigated several efficient methods for incorporating T4 bacteriophage into electrospun fibrous mats. The incorporation of T4 bacteriophage using simple suspension electrospinning led to more than five orders of magnitude decrease in bacteriophage activity. To better maintain bacteriophage viability, emulsion electrospinning was developed where the T4 bacteriophage was pre-encapsulated in an alginate reservoir via an emulsification process and subsequently electrospun into fibres. This resulted in an increase in bacteriophage viability, but there was still two orders of magnitude drop in activity. Using a coaxial electrospinning process, full bacteriophage activity could be maintained. In this process, a core/shell fibre structure was formed with the T4 bacteriophage being directly incorporated into the fibre core. The core/shell fibre encapsulated bacteriophage exhibited full bacteriophage viability after storing for several weeks at +4°C. Coaxial electrospinning was shown to be capable of encapsulating bacteriophages with high loading capacity, high viability and long storage time. These results are significant in the context of controlling and preventing bacterial infections in perishable foods during storage. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Clinical and evolutive aspects of nasopharyngeal T4 NO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalej, M.; Bouaouina, N.; Benna, F.; Frikha, H.; Jallouli, M.; Ellouze, R.; Ben Romdhane, K.; Cammoun, M.; Ben Attia, R.; Daoud, J.

    1995-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the primary cancer of the head and neck localizations in the Salah Azaiz Institute (Tunisia). From 1970 to 1987, 80 patients with histologically proven T4 NO NPC, were treated with exclusive radiation (70-75 Gy to the primary lesion and 50-55 Gy to cervical lymph nodes). The T4 NO represents 7% of all NPC and 16% of the T4 treated in our Institute. Ninety percent of the patients are over 20 years old with a mean age of 52 years. The sex-ration was 4: 1. Extension to the brain was observed in 55% of the cases. Local control was 70% at 2 months after the end of irradiation. The actuarial survival at 5 years was 47%. Distant metastasis represent 13% (30% for all NPC). The main failure of treatment was local recurrence. The T4 NO is probably a particular entity concerning the age, the response to radiotherapy and the low rate of distant metastasis. (authors). 18 refs., 5 figs

  2. Seymour Benzer and T4 rII

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 10. Seymour Benzer and T4 rII - Running the Map into the Ground. R Jayaraman. General Article Volume 13 Issue 10 October 2008 pp 898-908. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Rectus sheath abscess after laparoscopic appendicectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golash Vishwanath

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Port site wound infection, abdominal wall hematoma and intraabdominal abscess formation has been reported after laparoscopic appendicectomy. We describe here a rectus sheath abscess which occurred three weeks after the laparoscopic appendicectomy. It was most likely the result of secondary infection of the rectus sheath hematoma due to bleeding into the rectus sheath from damage to the inferior epigastric arteries or a direct tear of the rectus muscle. As far as we are aware this complication has not been reported after laparoscopic appendicectomy.

  4. Structure and assembly of bacteriophage T4 head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Lindsay W

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bacteriophage T4 capsid is an elongated icosahedron, 120 nm long and 86 nm wide, and is built with three essential proteins; gp23*, which forms the hexagonal capsid lattice, gp24*, which forms pentamers at eleven of the twelve vertices, and gp20, which forms the unique dodecameric portal vertex through which DNA enters during packaging and exits during infection. The past twenty years of research has greatly elevated the understanding of phage T4 head assembly and DNA packaging. The atomic structure of gp24 has been determined. A structural model built for gp23 using its similarity to gp24 showed that the phage T4 major capsid protein has the same fold as that found in phage HK97 and several other icosahedral bacteriophages. Folding of gp23 requires the assistance of two chaperones, the E. coli chaperone GroEL and the phage coded gp23-specific chaperone, gp31. The capsid also contains two non-essential outer capsid proteins, Hoc and Soc, which decorate the capsid surface. The structure of Soc shows two capsid binding sites which, through binding to adjacent gp23 subunits, reinforce the capsid structure. Hoc and Soc have been extensively used in bipartite peptide display libraries and to display pathogen antigens including those from HIV, Neisseria meningitides, Bacillus anthracis, and FMDV. The structure of Ip1*, one of the components of the core, has been determined, which provided insights on how IPs protect T4 genome against the E. coli nucleases that degrade hydroxymethylated and glycosylated T4 DNA. Extensive mutagenesis combined with the atomic structures of the DNA packaging/terminase proteins gp16 and gp17 elucidated the ATPase and nuclease functional motifs involved in DNA translocation and headful DNA cutting. Cryo-EM structure of the T4 packaging machine showed a pentameric motor assembled with gp17 subunits on the portal vertex. Single molecule optical tweezers and fluorescence studies showed that the T4 motor packages

  5. Structure-Function Analysis of the DNA Translocating Portal of the Bacteriophage T4 Packaging Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Sanchez, Victor; Gao, Song; Kim, Hyung Rae; Kihara, Daisuke; Sun, Lei; Rossmann, Michael G.; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2013-01-01

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses consist of a structurally well conserved dodecameric portal at a special five-fold vertex of the capsid. The portal plays critical roles in head assembly, genome packaging, neck/tail attachment, and genome ejection. Although the structures of portals from phages φ29, SPP1 and P22 have been determined, their mechanistic roles have not been well understood. Structural analysis of phage T4 portal (gp20) has been hampered because of its unusual interaction with the E. coli inner membrane. Here, we predict atomic models for the T4 portal monomer and dodecamer, and fit the dodecamer into the cryoEM density of the phage portal vertex. The core structure, like that from other phages, is cone-shaped with the wider end containing the “wing” and “crown” domains inside the phage head. A long “stem” encloses a central channel, and a narrow “stalk” protrudes outside the capsid. A biochemical approach was developed to analyze portal function by incorporating plasmid-expressed portal protein into phage heads and determining the effect of mutations on head assembly, DNA translocation, and virion production. We found that the protruding loops of the stalk domain are involved in assembling the DNA packaging motor. A loop that connects the stalk to the channel might be required for communication between the motor and portal. The “tunnel” loops that project into the channel are essential for sealing the packaged head. These studies established that the portal is required throughout the DNA packaging process, with different domains participating at different stages of genome packaging. PMID:24126213

  6. Structure-function analysis of the DNA translocating portal of the bacteriophage T4 packaging machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Sanchez, Victor; Gao, Song; Kim, Hyung Rae; Kihara, Daisuke; Sun, Lei; Rossmann, Michael G; Rao, Venigalla B

    2014-03-06

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses consist of a structurally well conserved dodecameric portal at a special 5-fold vertex of the capsid. The portal plays critical roles in head assembly, genome packaging, neck/tail attachment, and genome ejection. Although the structures of portals from phages φ29, SPP1, and P22 have been determined, their mechanistic roles have not been well understood. Structural analysis of phage T4 portal (gp20) has been hampered because of its unusual interaction with the Escherichia coli inner membrane. Here, we predict atomic models for the T4 portal monomer and dodecamer, and we fit the dodecamer into the cryo-electron microscopy density of the phage portal vertex. The core structure, like that from other phages, is cone shaped with the wider end containing the "wing" and "crown" domains inside the phage head. A long "stem" encloses a central channel, and a narrow "stalk" protrudes outside the capsid. A biochemical approach was developed to analyze portal function by incorporating plasmid-expressed portal protein into phage heads and determining the effect of mutations on head assembly, DNA translocation, and virion production. We found that the protruding loops of the stalk domain are involved in assembling the DNA packaging motor. A loop that connects the stalk to the channel might be required for communication between the motor and the portal. The "tunnel" loops that project into the channel are essential for sealing the packaged head. These studies established that the portal is required throughout the DNA packaging process, with different domains participating at different stages of genome packaging. © 2013.

  7. Co-existence of freshwater and marine T4-like myoviruses in a typical subtropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Cai, Lanlan; Zhang, Rui

    2017-11-01

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and play an important role in microbial community dynamics and biogeochemical cycling, yet their ecological characteristics in estuarine ecosystems are unclear. Here, virioplankton communities in a typical subtropical estuary, the Jiulong River estuary (JRE) in China, were investigated. The abundance of virioplankton ranged from 1.01 ± 0.05 × 107 to 1.62 ± 0.09 × 107 particles mL-1 in JRE, and the population size of viruses was correlated with temperature and nutrient levels. Three tailed viral morphotypes (myovirus, siphovirus and podovirus) were observed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the g23 sequences in the JRE fell into three previously established groups (Marine, Paddy and Lake Groups) and two potential Estuary Groups. This demonstrates the co-existence of typical freshwater and marine T4-like myoviruses in the estuarine ecosystem, suggesting the movement of viruses and their hosts among biomes. Additionally, the spatial variation of g23 sequences suggests a geographic distribution pattern of T4-like myoviruses in the JRE, which might be shaped by the environmental gradient and/or their host distribution. These results provide valuable insights into the abundance, diversity and distribution patterns of virioplankton, as well as the factors influencing them, in subtropical estuarine ecosystems. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Specificity of interactions among the DNA-packaging machine components of T4-related bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Rao, Venigalla B

    2011-02-04

    Tailed bacteriophages use powerful molecular motors to package the viral genome into a preformed capsid. Packaging at a rate of up to ∼2000 bp/s and generating a power density twice that of an automobile engine, the phage T4 motor is the fastest and most powerful reported to date. Central to DNA packaging are dynamic interactions among the packaging components, capsid (gp23), portal (gp20), motor (gp17, large "terminase"), and regulator (gp16, small terminase), leading to precise orchestration of the packaging process, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we analyzed the interactions between small and large terminases of T4-related phages. Our results show that the gp17 packaging ATPase is maximally stimulated by homologous, but not heterologous, gp16. Multiple interaction sites are identified in both gp16 and gp17. The specificity determinants in gp16 are clustered in the diverged N- and C-terminal domains (regions I-III). Swapping of diverged region(s), such as replacing C-terminal RB49 region III with that of T4, switched ATPase stimulation specificity. Two specificity regions, amino acids 37-52 and 290-315, are identified in or near the gp17-ATPase "transmission" subdomain II. gp16 binding at these sites might cause a conformational change positioning the ATPase-coupling residues into the catalytic pocket, triggering ATP hydrolysis. These results lead to a model in which multiple weak interactions between motor and regulator allow dynamic assembly and disassembly of various packaging complexes, depending on the functional state of the packaging machine. This might be a general mechanism for regulation of the phage packaging machine and other complex molecular machines.

  9. Rectus sheath hematoma: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapan Selin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It is an accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis, secondary to rupture of an epigastric vessel or muscle tear. It could occur spontaneously or after trauma. They are usually located infraumblically and often misdiagnosed as acute abdomen, inflammatory diseases or tumours of the abdomen. Case presentation We reported three cases of rectus sheath hematoma presenting with a mass in the abdomen and diagnosed by computerized tomography. The patients recovered uneventfully after bed rest, intravenous fluid replacement, blood transfusion and analgesic treatment. Conclusion Rectus sheath hematoma is a rarely seen pathology often misdiagnosed as acute abdomen that may lead to unnecessary laparotomies. Computerized tomography must be chosen for definitive diagnosis since ultrasonography is subject to error due to misinterpretation of the images. Main therapy is conservative management.

  10. Tail gut cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G Mallikarjuna; Haricharan, P; Ramanujacharyulu, S; Reddy, K Lakshmi

    2002-01-01

    The tail gut is a blind extension of the hindgut into the tail fold just distal to the cloacal membrane. Remnants of this structure may form tail gut cyst. We report a 14-year-old girl with tail gut cyst that presented as acute abdomen. The patient recovered after cyst excision.

  11. Theory of the Electron Sheath and Presheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Brett; Baalrud, Scott; Yee, Benjamin; Hopkins, Matthew; Barnat, Edward

    2015-09-01

    Electron sheaths are commonly found near Langmuir probes collecting the electron saturation current. The common assumption is that the probe collects the random flux of electrons incident on the sheath, which tacitly implies that there is no electron presheath and that the flux collected is due to a velocity space truncation of the velocity distribution function (VDF). This work provides a dedicated theory of electron sheaths, which suggests that electron sheaths are not so simple. Motivated by VDFs observed in recent Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations, we develop a 1D model for the electron sheath and presheath. In the model, under low temperature plasma conditions, an electron pressure gradient accelerates electrons in the presheath to a flow velocity that exceeds the electron thermal speed at the sheath edge. This pressure gradient allows the generation of large flows compared to those that would be generated by the electric field alone. It is due to this pressure gradient that the electron presheath extends much further into the plasma (nominally by a factor of √{mi /me }) than an analogous ion presheath. Results of the model are compared with PIC simulations. This work was supported by the Office of Fusion Energy Science at the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94SL85000 and by the Office of Science Graduate Student Research (SCGSR) program under Contract Number DE-AC05-06OR23100.

  12. A sheath model for arbitrary radiofrequency waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. M.; Chabert, Pascal

    2012-10-01

    The sheath is often the most important region of a rf plasma, because discharge impedance, power absorption and ion acceleration are critically affected by the behaviour of the sheath. Consequently, models of the sheath are central to any understanding of the physics of rf plasmas. Lieberman has supplied an analytical model for a radio-frequency sheath driven by a single frequency, but in recent years interest has been increasing in radio-frequency discharges excited by increasingly complex wave forms. There has been limited success in generalizing the Lieberman model in this direction, because of mathematical complexities. So there is essentially no sheath model available to describe many modern experiments. In this paper we present a new analytical sheath model, based on a simpler mathematical framework than that of Lieberman. For the single frequency case, this model yields scaling laws that are identical in form to those of Lieberman, differing only by numerical coefficients close to one. However, the new model may be straightforwardly solved for arbitrary current waveforms, and may be used to derive scaling laws for such complex waveforms. In this paper, we will describe the model and present some illustrative examples.

  13. How to Patch Active Plasma and Collisionless Sheath: Practical Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2002-01-01

    Most plasmas have a very thin sheath compared with the plasma dimension. This necessitates separate calculations of the plasma and sheath. The Bohm criterion provides the boundary condition for calculation of plasma profiles. To calculate sheath properties, a value of electric field at the plasma-sheath interface has to be specified in addition to the Bohm criterion. The value of the boundary electric field and robust procedure to approximately patch plasma and collisionless sheath with a very good accuracy are reported

  14. Galaxies with long tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, F.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of galaxies with long tails are described. The first occurs in pairs, each individual one having a long tail and the second occurs on its own with two tails. NGC 7252 shows several characteristics which one would expect of a merger: a pair of tidal tails despite the splendid isolation, a single nucleus, tail motions in opposite directions relative to the nucleus, and chaotic motions of a strangely looped main body. (C.F.)

  15. T4 genes in the marine ecosystem: studies of the T4-like cyanophages and their role in marine ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millard Andrew D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From genomic sequencing it has become apparent that the marine cyanomyoviruses capable of infecting strains of unicellular cyanobacteria assigned to the genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus are not only morphologically similar to T4, but are also genetically related, typically sharing some 40-48 genes. The large majority of these common genes are the same in all marine cyanomyoviruses so far characterized. Given the fundamental physiological differences between marine unicellular cyanobacteria and heterotrophic hosts of T4-like phages it is not surprising that the study of cyanomyoviruses has revealed novel and fascinating facets of the phage-host relationship. One of the most interesting features of the marine cyanomyoviruses is their possession of a number of genes that are clearly of host origin such as those involved in photosynthesis, like the psbA gene that encodes a core component of the photosystem II reaction centre. Other host-derived genes encode enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, phosphate acquisition and ppGpp metabolism. The impact of these host-derived genes on phage fitness has still largely to be assessed and represents one of the most important topics in the study of this group of T4-like phages in the laboratory. However, these phages are also of considerable environmental significance by virtue of their impact on key contributors to oceanic primary production and the true extent and nature of this impact has still to be accurately assessed.

  16. Results of preoperative chemoradiotherapy for T4 rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Harunobu; Maeda, Koutarou; Masumori, Koji; Koide, Yoshikazu; Noro, Tomohito; Honda, Katsuyuki; Shiota, Miho; Matsuoka, Shinji; Toyama, Kunihiro

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed clinical records of 11 cases with preoperative chemoradiotherapy to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of chemoradiotherapy for T4 rectal cancer. The preoperative radiotherapy consisted of 40-50 Gy delivered in fractions of 1.8-2.0 Gy per day, five days per week. A treatment of 5-fluorouracil, 500 mg/body per day intravenously, or oral tegafur-uracil (UFT)-E (300 mg/m 2 ) with l-leucovorin (75 mg) per day, or oral S-1 (80 mg/m 2 ) per day five days per week, was given during radiotherapy. One patient died due to pelvic abscess in 63 days after chemoradiotherapy. Invasive findings to the adjacent organs identified by CT and MRI disappeared in 6 cases with complete or partial response 1 month after chemoradiotherapy. Curative surgery was performed in 7 patients. Although the adjacent organs were also removed during surgery in 7 patients, there was no histological invasion to the adjacent organs in 4 patients, and one patient had histological complete disappearance of tumor. Although complications after surgery were found in all of the patients, they were improved by conservative treatment. Two of 7 patients with curative surgery had recurrence, but the rest of them survived without recurrence. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy was expected to be an effective treatment to improve the resection rate and prognosis for T4 rectal cancer. However, it was thought that it was necessary to be careful about severe toxicity, such as pelvic abscess. (author)

  17. Plasma sheath in non-Maxwellian plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Takuo; Horigome, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    Reviewing many theoretical and experimental works on the electron-energy distributions (EEDF) of various plasmas, we point out that many plasmas have EEDF of non-Maxwellian in shape. Therefore, the recent treatment of plasma sheath using the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution approximation should be improved. To do this, we have adopted Rutcher's standard distribution as a generalized form in place of the traditional Maxwellian, and found that the minimum energy of ions entering the sheath edge (Bohm's criterion) varies largely, and have also shown the variation of Debye length with the shape of EEDF. The length is the most important parameter to proceed with more detailed analysis on plasma-sheaths, and also to control them in the future. (author)

  18. Treatment Outcomes for T4 Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenga, Joseph; Wilson, Michael; Adkins, Douglas R; Gay, Hiram A; Haughey, Bruce H; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Michel, Loren S; Paniello, Randal C; Rich, Jason T; Thorstad, Wade L; Nussenbaum, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about treatment outcomes for T4 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), particularly in the era of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease. To evaluate oncologic outcomes for T4 OPSCC treated with primary surgical and nonsurgical therapies. Retrospective cohort study of 131 patients from a single academic hospital, who were treated for T4a or T4b OPSCC (with any N stage and without distant metastatic disease at presentation) between 1998 and 2012 and had a minimum 2-year follow-up (the median follow-up time was 34.6 months). This study was conducted between January 1, 1998, and November 1, 2012. Sixty-nine patients underwent nonsurgical therapy, 47 (68%) of whom had p16-positive tumors. Nonsurgical treatment paradigms included induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy (n = 36 [54%]), concurrent chemoradiotherapy (n = 29 [43%]), and induction chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy alone (n = 2 [3%]). Sixty-two patients underwent surgical treatment, 50 (81%) of whom had p16-positive tumors. Fifty-seven surgical patients (92%) received adjuvant therapy. Overall survival (OS) was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures included disease-specific survival (DSS), disease-free survival (DFS), 2-year gastrostomy and tracheostomy tube rates, and major complication rates. Significant baseline differences between the surgical vs nonsurgical groups included age (mean 59.8 vs 55.4 years [P = .005]), sex (male, 95% vs 84% [P = .04]), body mass index (<18.5 [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared], 3% vs 16% [P = .02]), and smoking history of 10 or more pack-years (48% vs 77% [P = .003]). For p16-positive patients, Kaplan-Meier estimates of OS, DSS, and DFS were significantly higher for surgically treated patients than for the nonsurgical group (χ(2)(1) = 7.335 for log-rank P = .007, χ(2)(1) = 8.607 for log-rank P = .003, and χ(2)(1) = 7.763 for log-rank P = .005, respectively

  19. Uranium Mill Tailings Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at the Fifth Symposium on Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Advances made with regard to uranium mill tailings management, environmental effects, regulations, and reclamation are reviewed. Topics considered include tailings management and design (e.g., the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal), surface stabilization (e.g., the long-term stability of tailings, long-term rock durability), radiological aspects (e.g. the radioactive composition of airborne particulates), contaminant migration (e.g., chemical transport beneath a uranium mill tailings pile, the interaction of acidic leachate with soils), radon control and covers (e.g., radon emanation characteristics, designing surface covers for inactive uranium mill tailings), and seepage and liners (e.g., hydrologic observations, liner requirements)

  20. Optic Nerve Sheath Meningocele: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, E.; Wavreille, O.; Rosenberg, R.; Bouacha, I.; Lejeune, J.-P.; Defoort-Dhellemmes, S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Isolated optic nerve sheath meningocele is a rare affection defined as the cystic enlargement of the optic nerve sheath filled with cerebrospinal fluid. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman presenting with bilateral meningocele uncovered during a routine examination for headache complaints. A 5-year follow-up validated the lesion’s clinical and imaging stability. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an essential tool in the diagnosis of this pathology, alongside characteristic symptoms indicating that the meningocele might have progressively expanded into the orbit. In this case we present a therapeutic approach based on pathophysiological hypotheses and review of the literature. PMID:28163760

  1. Heavy tails of OLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; de Vries, Casper

    2013-01-01

    Suppose the tails of the noise distribution in a regression exhibit power law behavior. Then the distribution of the OLS regression estimator inherits this tail behavior. This is relevant for regressions involving financial data. We derive explicit finite sample expressions for the tail probabili...

  2. Quantum thetas on noncommutative T4 from embeddings into lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kim, Hoil

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the theta vector and quantum theta function over noncommutative T 4 from the embedding of RxZ 2 . Manin has constructed the quantum theta functions from the lattice embedding into vector space (x finite group). We extend Manin's construction of the quantum theta function to the embedding of vector space x lattice case. We find that the holomorphic theta vector exists only over the vector space part of the embedding, and over the lattice part we can only impose the condition for the Schwartz function. The quantum theta function built on this partial theta vector satisfies the requirement of the quantum theta function. However, two subsequent quantum translations from the embedding into the lattice part are nonadditive, contrary to the additivity of those from the vector space part

  3. An improved 96-well turbidity assay for T4 lysozyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Tasha B; Nguyen, Thao P; Watt, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    T4 lysozyme (T4L) is an important model system for investigating the relationship between protein structure and function. Despite being extensively studied, a reliable, quantitative activity assay for T4L has not been developed. Here, we present an improved T4L turbidity assay as well as an affinity-based T4L expression and purification protocol. This assay is designed for 96-well format and utilizes conditions amenable for both T4L and other lysozymes. This protocol enables easy, efficient, and quantitative characterization of T4L variants and allows comparison between different lysozymes. Our method: •Is applicable for all lysozymes, with enhanced sensitivity for T4 lysozyme compared to other 96-well plate turbidity assays;•Utilizes standardized conditions for comparing T4 lysozyme variants and other lysozymes; and•Incorporates a simplified expression and purification protocol for T4 lysozyme.

  4. Arthroscopic sheath design and technical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijthof, Gabriëlle J. M.; Blankevoort, Leendert; Herder, Just L.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2009-01-01

    The maintenance of a clear view on the operation area is essential to perform a minimally invasive procedure In arthroscopy, this is achieved by irrigating the Joint with a saline fluid that is pumped through the joint At present the arthroscopic sheaths are not designed for optimal irrigation,

  5. Consolidation of tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.; Wardwell, R.E.; Abt, S.R.; Staub, W.P.

    1983-09-01

    The integrity of cover systems placed on tailings impoundments will be affected by the potential for differential settlement of the tailings surface. Settlement of the sand fraction will occur relatively rapidly. The slimes will take longer time for consolidation and will produce greater settlement. This report reviews the phenomenon of consolidation for saturated and unsaturated tailings. The effect of load application by cover placement and the extent to which dewatering of tailings will cause consolidation are considered. In addition, the feasibility of inducing consolidation by alternative means and the potential applicability of these methods to tailings impoundments reclamation are discussed. Differential settlement of the tailings will cause tensile strain to be developed in covers. This strain could be large enough to cause cracking within a relatively brittle compacted clay. Dewatering of tailings by drainage can cause settlement even greater than that by placement of a cover material. Dewatering of the tailings would also increase the stability of the tailings surface, thereby enhancing reclamation operations. Consequently, in view of the enhanced surface stability and the fact that a portion of the differential settlement can be accomplished prior to cover placement, dewatering of tailings impoundments during operations may have benefical effects

  6. Uranium tailings bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holoway, C.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Eldridge, V.M.

    1975-12-01

    A bibliography containing 1,212 references is presented with its focus on the general problem of reducing human exposure to the radionuclides contained in the tailings from the milling of uranium ore. The references are divided into seven broad categories: uranium tailings pile (problems and perspectives), standards and philosophy, etiology of radiation effects, internal dosimetry and metabolism, environmental transport, background sources of tailings radionuclides, and large-area decontamination

  7. Uranium tailings sampling manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, S.; Reades, D.W.; Cherry, J.A.; Chambers, D.B.; Case, G.G.; Ibbotson, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the requisite sampling procedures for the application of uniform high-quality standards to detailed geotechnical, hydrogeological, geochemical and air quality measurements at Canadian uranium tailings disposal sites. The selection and implementation of applicable sampling procedures for such measurements at uranium tailings disposal sites are complicated by two primary factors. Firstly, the physical and chemical nature of uranium mine tailings and effluent is considerably different from natural soil materials and natural waters. Consequently, many conventional methods for the collection and analysis of natural soils and waters are not directly applicable to tailings. Secondly, there is a wide range in the physical and chemical nature of uranium tailings. The composition of the ore, the milling process, the nature of tailings depositon, and effluent treatment vary considerably and are highly site-specific. Therefore, the definition and implementation of sampling programs for uranium tailings disposal sites require considerable evaluation, and often innovation, to ensure that appropriate sampling and analysis methods are used which provide the flexibility to take into account site-specific considerations. The following chapters describe the objective and scope of a sampling program, preliminary data collection, and the procedures for sampling of tailings solids, surface water and seepage, tailings pore-water, and wind-blown dust and radon

  8. Uranium mill tailings management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Facilities for the disposal of uranium mill tailings will invariably be subjected to geomorphological and climatological influences in the long-term. Proceedings of a workshop discuss how the principles of geomorphology can be applied to the siting, design, construction, decommissioning and rehabilitation of disposal facilities in order to provide for long-term containment and stability of tailings. The characteristics of tailings and their behaviour after disposal influence the potential impacts which might occur in the long-term. Proceedings of another workshop examine the technologies for uranium ore processing and tailings conditioning with a view to identifying improvements that could be made in such characteristics

  9. Genetic instability in nerve sheath cell tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Casartelli, Cacilda; Rainho, Claudia Aparecida

    1995-01-01

    After in vitro culture, we analyzed cytogenetically four acoustic nerve neurinomas, one intraspinal neurinoma and one neurofibroma obtainedfrom unrelated patients. Monosomy of chromosomes 22 and 16 was an abnormality common to all cases, followed in frequency by loss of chromosomes 18 (three cases...... by the presence of polyploid cells with inconsistent abnormalities, endoreduplications and telomeric associations resulting in dicentric chromosomes. It is probable that these cytogenetic abnormalities represent some kind of evolutionary advantage for the in vitro progression of nerve sheath tumors....

  10. Structural characterization of the human cerebral myelin sheath by small angle x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Felici, M; Felici, R; Ferrero, C; Tartari, A; Gambaccini, M; Finet, S

    2008-01-01

    Myelin is a multi-lamellar membrane surrounding neuronal axons and increasing their conduction velocity. When investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), the lamellar quasi-periodical arrangement of the myelin sheath gives rise to distinct peaks, which allow the determination of its molecular organization and the dimensions of its substructures. In this study we report on the myelin sheath structural determination carried out on a set of human brain tissue samples coming from surgical biopsies of two patients: a man around 60 and a woman nearly 90 years old. The samples were extracted either from white or grey cerebral matter and did not undergo any manipulation or chemical-physical treatment, which could possibly have altered their structure, except dipping them into a formalin solution for their conservation. Analysis of the scattered intensity from white matter of intact human cerebral tissue allowed the evaluation not only of the myelin sheath periodicity but also of its electronic charge density profile. In particular, the thicknesses of the cytoplasm and extracellular regions were established, as well as those of the hydrophilic polar heads and hydrophobic tails of the lipid bilayer. SAXS patterns were measured at several locations on each sample in order to establish the statistical variations of the structural parameters within a single sample and among different samples. This work demonstrates that a detailed structural analysis of the myelin sheath can also be carried out in randomly oriented samples of intact human white matter, which is of importance for studying the aetiology and evolution of the central nervous system pathologies inducing myelin degeneration.

  11. Effect of thyroxine on cellular oxygen-consumption and glucose uptake: evidence of an effect of total T4 and not "free T4"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L E

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of cellular T4 and T3 uptake have indicated active transport of the hormones into the cell rather than passive diffusion of the non-protein bound fraction. In order to study the significance of the extracellular environment, oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were examined...... in human mononuclear blood cells. Cells were incubated in protein free medium and in human serum totally depleted of thyroid hormones by resin treatment and fixed amounts of T4 (total T4 = 0-50-100-5000 nmol/l; free T4 = 0-5-11-5600 pmol/l) were added. Thyroxine stimulated glucose uptake and oxygen......-consumption in a dose dependent manner but the T4 stimulation was dependent on the total concentration of T4 and did not differ between serum incubation or non-protein containing medium. Addition of ANS (100 mg/l) which inhibits binding of T4 to TBG, did not increase T4 effect in serum. Inhibition of the Na...

  12. Radio frequency sheaths in an oblique magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The physics of radio-frequency (rf) sheaths near a conducting surface is studied for plasmas immersed in a magnetic field that makes an oblique angle θ with the surface. A set of one-dimensional equations is developed that describes the dynamics of the time-dependent magnetic presheath and non-neutral Debye sheath. The model employs Maxwell-Boltzmann electrons, and the magnetization and mobility of the ions is determined by the magnetic field strength, and wave frequency, respectively. The angle θ, assumed to be large enough to insure an electron-poor sheath, is otherwise arbitrary. Concentrating on the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies, the equations are solved numerically to obtain the rectified (dc) voltage, the rf voltage across the sheath, and the rf current flowing through the sheath. As an application of this model, the sheath voltage-current relation is used to obtain the rf sheath impedance, which in turn gives an rf sheath boundary condition for the electric field at the sheath-plasma interface that can be used in rf wave codes. In general, the impedance has both resistive and capacitive contributions, and generalizes previous sheath boundary condition models. The resistive part contributes to parasitic power dissipation at the wall

  13. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  14. Bar-tailed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Hidayati, N.A.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability.Aims To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their

  15. Optic Nerve Sheath Mechanics in VIIP Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykin, Julia; Forte, Taylor E.; Wang, Roy; Feola, Andrew; Samuels, Brian; Myers, Jerry; Nelson, Emily; Gleason, Rudy; Ethier, C. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a major concern in current space medicine research. While the exact pathology of VIIP is not yet known, it is hypothesized that the microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift increases intracranial pressure (ICP) and drives remodeling of the optic nerve sheath. To investigate this possibility, we are culturing optic nerve sheath dura mater samples under different pressures and investigating changes in tissue composition. To interpret results from this work, it is essential to first understand the biomechanical response of the optic nerve sheath dura mater to loading. Here, we investigated the effects of mechanical loading on the porcine optic nerve sheath.Porcine optic nerves (number: 6) were obtained immediately after death from a local abattoir. The optic nerve sheath (dura mater) was isolated from the optic nerve proper, leaving a hollow cylinder of connective tissue that was used for biomechanical characterization. We developed a custom mechanical testing system that allowed for unconfined lengthening, twisting, and circumferential distension of the dura mater during inflation and under fixed axial loading. To determine the effects of variations in ICP, the sample was inflated (0-60 millimeters Hg) and circumferential distension was simultaneously recorded. These tests were performed under variable axial loads (0.6 grams - 5.6 grams at increments of 1 gram) by attaching different weights to one end of the dura mater. Results and Conclusions: The samples demonstrated nonlinear behavior, similar to other soft connective tissue (Figure 1). Large increases in diameter were observed at lower transmural pressures (approximately 0 to 5 millimeters Hg), whereas only small diameter changes were observed at higher pressures. Particularly interesting was the existence of a cross-over point at a pressure of approximately 11 millimeters Hg. At this pressure, the same diameter is obtained for all axial loads applied

  16. Tailings management at Nabarlek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggitt, P.

    1989-01-01

    As the entire uranium deposit at Nabarlek was mined in 1979, the mine pit was available as a tailing's repository from the time of commencement of ore processing. In the early years Nabarlek's tailings were deposited subaqueously. In 1985 the tailings deposition method was changed to a sub-aerial, or semi-dry, method. Over the subsequent three years there was evidence that the tailings settled further and squeezed water from lower layers. The water was pumped away and treated for removal of radium before being evaporated in one of the mine's evaporation ponds. When milling was completed in 1988 it was decided to try and increase the rate of water removal and so obtain even greater consolidation of the trailings in a shorter time. This was achieved by loading the tailings with a layer of screened leached sands and waste rock placed on a layer of geotextile filter fabric that had been laid over the whole of the tailings surface in the pit. Once this was completed a modified piling rig was used to insert vertical drains, or wicks, up to 30 metres into the tailings. The drains were placed on a square grid at a spacing of 3.25 metres. Water that was forced out of the tailings by the downward pressure of the sand and rock could flow freely to the surface up these drains. Once at the surface the water was gathered into a sump and pumped away for treatment as before. The drains are working very well at present although it will be some considerable time before the water stops flowing. Already settlement of the tailings is apparent and the settled density of the material is increasing. As far as is known this is the first time that such a system has been employed on mine tailings in a pit in this way

  17. Sheath insulator final test report, TFE Verification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The sheath insulator in a thermionic cell has two functions. First, the sheath insulator must electrically isolate the collector form the outer containment sheath tube that is in contact with the reactor liquid metal coolant. Second, The sheath insulator must provide for high uniform thermal conductance between the collector and the reactor coolant to remove away waste heat. The goals of the sheath insulator test program were to demonstrate that suitable ceramic materials and fabrication processes were available, and to validate the performance of the sheath insulator for TFE-VP requirements. This report discusses the objectives of the test program, fabrication development, ex-reactor test program, in-reactor test program, and the insulator seal specifications

  18. Sheath insulator final test report, TFE Verification Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The sheath insulator in a thermionic cell has two functions. First, the sheath insulator must electrically isolate the collector form the outer containment sheath tube that is in contact with the reactor liquid metal coolant. Second, The sheath insulator must provide for high uniform thermal conductance between the collector and the reactor coolant to remove away waste heat. The goals of the sheath insulator test program were to demonstrate that suitable ceramic materials and fabrication processes were available, and to validate the performance of the sheath insulator for TFE-VP requirements. This report discusses the objectives of the test program, fabrication development, ex-reactor test program, in-reactor test program, and the insulator seal specifications.

  19. Nondestructive testing of metallic sheath for internally cooled superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClung, R.W.; Cook, K.V.; Dodd, C.V.; Smith, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    For quality assurance in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Large Coil Program, we developed ultrasonic and eddy-current techniques to examine the JBK-75 alloy sheath for superconducting cable for a large magnet. Ultrasound was used to examine the strip before forming into the sheath, and eddy currents were used to examine the seam weld after the sheath had been formed around the cable

  20. Frost evolution in tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    A review was carried out on the physical and thermal mechanisms of permafrost evaluation in soils and uranium tailings. The primary mechanism controlling permafrost evolution is conductive heat transfer with the latent heat of fusion of water being liberated as phase change occurs. Depending on the soil properties and freezing rate, pore water can be expelled from the frost front or pore water can migrate towards the frost front. Solute redistribution may occur as the frost front penetrates into the soil. The rate of frost penetration is a function of the thermal properties of the tailings and the climatic conditions. Computer modelling programmes capable of modelling permafrost evolution were reviewed. The GEOTHERM programme was selected as being the most appropriate for this study. The GEOTHERM programme uses the finite element method of thermal analysis. The ground surface temperature is determined by solving the energy balance equations a the ground surface. The GEOTHERM programme was used to simulate the permafrost evolution in the Key Lake Mine tailings located in north central Saskatchewan. The analyses indicated that the existing frozen zones in the tailing pond will eventually thaw if an average snow depth covers the tailings. Hundreds of years are required to thaw the tailings. If minimal snow cover is present the extent of the frozen zone in the tailings will increase

  1. The Tail of BPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

    Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

  2. Annihilation model of the Tormac sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.H.

    1979-02-01

    A one-dimensional, steady state fluid model is developed to describe the boundary layer between plasma and magnetic field that occurs in the Tormac sheath. Similar systems which may be treatable by the same model are tokamaks with divertors and reversed field mirrors. The model includes transport across the magnetic field as well as mirror losses along the field, the latter being represented as annihilation terms in the one-dimensional equations. The model equations are derived from the two-dimensional, time dependent hierarchy of equations generated by taking velocity moments of the kinetic equation including collisions

  3. ICRF antenna Faraday shield plasma sheath model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whealton, J.H.; Ryan, P.M.; Raridon, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    A two-dimensional nonlinear formulation that explicitly considers the plasma edge near a Faraday shield in a self-consistent manner is used in the modeling of the ion motion for a Faraday shield concept and model suggested by Perkins. Two models are considered that may provide significant insight into the generation of impurities for ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennas. In one of these models a significant sheath periodically forms next to the Faraday screen, with ion acoustic waves heating the ions in the plasma. (orig.)

  4. The characteristics of RF modulated plasma boundary sheaths: An analysis of the standard sheath model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naggary, Schabnam; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of radio frequency (RF) modulated plasma boundary sheaths are studied on the basis of the so-called ``standard sheath model.'' This model assumes that the applied radio frequency ωRF is larger than the plasma frequency of the ions but smaller than that of the electrons. It comprises a phase-averaged ion model - consisting of an equation of continuity (with ionization neglected) and an equation of motion (with collisional ion-neutral interaction taken into account) - a phase-resolved electron model - consisting of an equation of continuity and the assumption of Boltzmann equilibrium -, and Poisson's equation for the electrical field. Previous investigations have studied the standard sheath model under additional approximations, most notably the assumption of a step-like electron front. This contribution presents an investigation and parameter study of the standard sheath model which avoids any further assumptions. The resulting density profiles and overall charge-voltage characteristics are compared with those of the step-model based theories. The authors gratefully acknowledge Efe Kemaneci for helpful comments and fruitful discussions.

  5. Estimation of Jump Tails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Todorov, Victor

    We propose a new and flexible non-parametric framework for estimating the jump tails of Itô semimartingale processes. The approach is based on a relatively simple-to-implement set of estimating equations associated with the compensator for the jump measure, or its "intensity", that only utilizes...... the weak assumption of regular variation in the jump tails, along with in-fill asymptotic arguments for uniquely identifying the "large" jumps from the data. The estimation allows for very general dynamic dependencies in the jump tails, and does not restrict the continuous part of the process...... and the temporal variation in the stochastic volatility. On implementing the new estimation procedure with actual high-frequency data for the S&P 500 aggregate market portfolio, we find strong evidence for richer and more complex dynamic dependencies in the jump tails than hitherto entertained in the literature....

  6. Tail posture predicts tail damage among weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Riel, van J.W.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Kemp, B.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Tail biting in pigs is a widespread behavioural vice with significant animal welfare and economic consequences. All too often, tail biting is not diagnosed nor dealt with until tail damage is present. To effectively reduce the negative effects of tail biting, it must be diagnosed in an early stage.

  7. Markov Tail Chains

    OpenAIRE

    janssen, Anja; Segers, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The extremes of a univariate Markov chain with regularly varying stationary marginal distribution and asymptotically linear behavior are known to exhibit a multiplicative random walk structure called the tail chain. In this paper we extend this fact to Markov chains with multivariate regularly varying marginal distributions in Rd. We analyze both the forward and the backward tail process and show that they mutually determine each other through a kind of adjoint relation. In ...

  8. The plasma-sheath boundary region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R N

    2003-01-01

    In this review an attempt is made to give a broad coverage of the problem of joining plasma and sheath over a wide range of physical conditions. We go back to the earliest works quoting them, where appropriate, to understand what those who introduced the various terms associated with the structure of the plasma-sheath had in mind. We try to bring out the essence of the insights that have been gained subsequently, by quoting from the literature selectively, indicating how misunderstandings have arisen. In order to make it accessible to the generality of those currently working in low temperature plasmas we have sought to avoid mathematical complexity but retain physical insight, quoting from published work where appropriate. Nevertheless, in clarifying my own ideas I have found it necessary to do additional original work in order to give a consistent picture. In this way I have sought to bring together work in the late 1920s, the 1960s, and now mindful of the commercial importance of plasma processing, work over the past 15 years that adds to the general understanding. (topical review)

  9. PROTEOLYTIC REMOVAL OF THE CARBOXYL TERMINUS OF THE T4 GENE 32 HELIX-DESTABILIZING PROTEIN ALTERS THE T4 IN VITRO REPLICATION COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, R.L.; Alberts, B.M.; Hosoda, J.

    1980-07-01

    The proteolytic removal of about 60 amino acids from the COOH terminus of the bacteriophage T4 helix-destabilizing protein (gene 32 protein) produces 32*I, a 27,000-dalton fragment which still binds tightly and cooperatively to single-stranded DNA. The substitution of 32*I protein for intact 32 protein in the seven-protein T4 replication complex results in dramatic changes in some of the reactions catalyzed by this in vitro DNA replication system, while leaving others largely unperturbed. (1) Like intact 32 protein, the 32*I protein promotes DNA synthesis by the DNA polymerase when the T4 polymerase accessory proteins (gene 44/62 and 45 proteins) are also present. The host helix-destabilizing protein (Escherichia coli ssb protein) cannot replace the 32*I protein for this synthesis. (2) Unlike intact 32 protein, 32*I protein strongly inhibits DNA synthesis catalyzed by the T4 DNA polymerase alone on a primed single-stranded DNA template. (3) Unlike intact 32 protein, the 32*I protein strongly inhibits RNA primer synthesis catalyzed by the T4 gene 41 and 61 proteins and also reduces the efficiency of RNA primer utilization. As a result, de novo DNA chain starts are blocked completely in the complete T4 replication system, and no lagging strand DNA synthesis occurs. (4) The 32*I protein does not bind to either the T4 DNA polymerase or to the T4 gene 61 protein in the absence of DNA; these associations (detected with intact 32 protein) would therefore appear to be essential for the normal control of 32 protein activity, and to account at least in part for observations 2 and 3, above. We propose that the COOH-terminal domain of intact 32 protein functions to guide its interactions with the T4 DNA polymerase and the T4 gene 61 RNA-priming protein. When this domain is removed, as in 32*I protein, the helix destabilization induced by the protein is controlled inadequately, so that polymerizing enzymes tend to be displaced from the growing 3{prime}-OH end of a

  10. Embedded cladding surface thermocouples on Zircaloy-sheathed heater rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, S.C.

    1977-06-01

    Titanium-sheathed Type K thermocouples embedded in the cladding wall of zircaloy-sheathed heater rods are described. These thermocouples constitute part of a program intended to characterize the uncertainty of measurements made by surface-mounted cladding thermocouples on nuclear fuel rods. Fabrication and installation detail, and laboratory testing of sample thermocouple installations are included

  11. Sheath structure transition controlled by secondary electron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Langendorf, S. J.; Walker, M. L. R.; Keidar, M.

    2015-04-01

    In particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision (PIC MCC) simulations and in an experiment we study sheath formation over an emissive floating Al2O3 plate in a direct current discharge plasma at argon gas pressure 10-4 Torr. The discharge glow is maintained by the beam electrons emitted from a negatively biased hot cathode. We observe three types of sheaths near the floating emissive plate and the transition between them is driven by changing the negative bias. The Debye sheath appears at lower voltages, when secondary electron emission is negligible. With increasing applied voltage, secondary electron emission switches on and a first transition to a new sheath type, beam electron emission (BEE), takes place. For the first time we find this specific regime of sheath operation near the floating emissive surface. In this regime, the potential drop over the plate sheath is about four times larger than the temperature of plasma electrons. The virtual cathode appears near the emissive plate and its modification helps to maintain the BEE regime within some voltage range. Further increase of the applied voltage U initiates the second smooth transition to the plasma electron emission sheath regime and the ratio Δφs/Te tends to unity with increasing U. The oscillatory behavior of the emissive sheath is analyzed in PIC MCC simulations. A plasmoid of slow electrons is formed near the plate and transported to the bulk plasma periodically with a frequency of about 25 kHz.

  12. Electrospinning jet behaviors under the constraints of a sheath gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the ejection efficiency and uniformity of nanofibers is the key to applications of electrospinning technology. In this work, a novel electrospinning spinneret with a sheath gas passageway is designed. The frictional resistance that stems from the sheath gas provides additional stretching and restriction forces on the jet. The sheath gas also reduces interference and enhances the stability of the charged jet. A bead-on-strain simulation model is built up to determine the constraint effects of the sheath gas. Simulation results show that the sheath gas decreases the motion area and increases the stretching ratio of the liquid jet. The stretching force from the sheath gas decreases the diameter and increases the uniformity of the nanofiber. As the gas pressure increases from 0 kPa to 50 kPa, the critical voltage of the jet ejection decreases from 8.4 kV to 2.5 kV, the diameter of the nanofiber deposition zone decreases from 40 cm to 10 cm, and the diameter of the nanofibers decreases from 557.97 nm to 277.73 nm. The uniformity of nanofibers can be improved significantly using a sheath gas. The sheath gas contributes to the rapid deposition of a uniform nanofibrous membrane and the industrial applications of electrospinning.

  13. Significance of rice sheath photosynthesis: Yield determination by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using high-yielding hybrid rice Liangyopeijiu (LYP9), its male parent 9311 and hybrid rice Shanyou 63 (SY63) as the experimental materials, the photosynthesis of rice sheath was studied by 14C radio-autography. The results showed that rice sheath could trap sunlight and produce photosynthates, and these ...

  14. Anode Sheath Switching in a Carbon Nanotube Arc Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abe; Raitses, Yevgeny; Keidar, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The anode ablation rate is investigated as a function of anode diameter for a carbon nanotube arc plasma. It is found that anomalously high ablation occurs for small anode diameters. This result is explained by the formation of a positive anode sheath. The increased ablation rate due to this positive anode sheath could imply greater production rate for carbon nanotubes.

  15. Structure and expression of the human and mouse T4 genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddon, P.J.; Molineaux, S.M.; Maddon, D.F.; Zimmerman, K.A.; Godfrey, M.; Alt, F.W.; Chess, L.; Axel, R.

    1987-01-01

    The T4 molecule may serve as a T-cell receptor recognizing molecules on the surface of specific target cells and also serves as the receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus. To define the mechanisms of interaction of T4 with the surface of antigen-presenting cells as well as with human immunodeficiency virus, the authors have further analyzed the sequence, structure, and expression of the human and mouse T4 genes. T4 consists of an extracellular segment comprised of a leader sequence followed by four tandem variable-joining (VJ)-like domains, a transmembrane domain, and A cytoplasmic segment. The structural domains of the T4 protein deduced from amino acid sequence are precisely reflected in the intron-exon organization of the gene. Analysis of the expression of the T4 gene indicates that T4 RNA is expressed not only in T lymphocytes, but in B cells, macrophages, and granulocytes. T4 is also expressed in a developmentally regulated manner in specific regions of the brain. It is, therefore, possible that T4 plays a more general role in mediating cell recognition events that are not restricted to the cellular immune response

  16. What is the size of a floating sheath? An answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Farina; Naggary, Schabnam; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2016-09-01

    The formation of a non-neutral boundary sheath in front of material surfaces is universal plasma phenomenon. Despite several decades of research, however, not all related issues are fully clarified. In a recent paper, Chabert pointed out that this lack of clarity applies even to the seemingly innocuous question ``What the size of a floating sheath?'' This contribution attempts to provide an answer that is not arbitrary: The size of a floating sheath is defined as the plate separation of an equivalent parallel plate capacitor. The consequences of the definition are explored with the help of a self-consistent sheath model, and a comparison is made with other sheath size definitions. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within SFB TR 87.

  17. Effect of collisions on photoelectron sheath in a gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodha, Mahendra Singh; Mishra, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a study of the effect of the collision of electrons with atoms/molecules on the structure of a photoelectron sheath. Considering the half Fermi-Dirac distribution of photo-emitted electrons, an expression for the electron density in the sheath has been derived in terms of the electric potential and the structure of the sheath has been investigated by incorporating Poisson's equation in the analysis. The method of successive approximations has been used to solve Poisson's equation with the solution for the electric potential in the case of vacuum, obtained earlier [Sodha and Mishra, Phys. Plasmas 21, 093704 (2014)], being used as the zeroth order solution for the present analysis. The inclusion of collisions influences the photoelectron sheath structure significantly; a reduction in the sheath width with increasing collisions is obtained.

  18. Sheath impedance effects in very high frequency plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzenbach, W.; Howling, A.A.; Fivaz, M.; Brunner, S.; Hollenstein, C.

    1995-05-01

    The frequency dependence (13.56 MHz to 70 MHz) of the ion energy distribution at the ground electrode was measured by mass spectrometry in a symmetrical capacitive argon discharge. Reduced sheath impedance at Very High Frequency allows high levels of plasma power and substrate ion flux whilst maintaining low levels of ion energy and electrode voltage. The lower limit of ion bombardment energy is fixed by the sheath floating potential at high frequency, in contrast to low frequencies where only the rf voltage amplitude is determinant. The capacitive sheaths are thinner at high frequencies which accentuates the high frequency reduction in sheath impedance. It is argued that the frequency dependence of sheath impedance is responsible for the principal characteristics of Very High Frequency plasmas. The measurements are summarised by simple physical descriptions and compared with a Particle-In-Cell simulation. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  19. Similarities and distinctions of CIR and Sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, Yuri; Lodkina, Irina; Nikolaeva, Nadezhda; Yermolaev, Michael

    2016-04-01

    On the basis of OMNI data and our catalog of large scale solar wind (SW) streams during 1976-2000 [Yermolaev et al., 2009] we study the average temporal profiles for two types of compressed regions: CIR (corotating interaction region - compressed region before High Speed Stream (HSS)) and Sheath (compressed region before fast Interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs), including Magnetic Cloud (MC) and Ejecta). As have been shown by Nikolaeva et al, [2015], the efficiency of magnetic storm generation is ~50% higher for Sheath and CIR than for ICME (MC and Ejecta), i.e. reaction magnetosphere depends on type of driver. To take into account the different durations of SW types, we use the double superposed epoch analysis (DSEA) method: rescaling the duration of the interval for all types in such a manner that, respectively, beginning and end for all intervals of selected type coincide [Yermolaev et al., 2010; 2015]. Obtained data allows us to suggest that the formation of all types of compression regions has the same physical mechanism irrespective of piston (HSS or ICME) type and differences are connected with geometry and full jumps of speed in edges of compression regions. If making the natural assumption that the gradient of speed is directed approximately on normal to the piston, CIR has the largest angle between the gradient of speed and the direction of average SW speed, and ICME - the smallest angle. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, projects 13-02-00158, 16-02-00125 and by Program of Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences. References: Nikolaeva, N. S. , Yu. I. Yermolaev, and I. G. Lodkina (2015), Modeling of the Corrected Dst* Index Temporal Profile on the Main Phase of the Magnetic Storms Generated by Different Types of Solar Wind, Cosmic Research, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 119-127. Yermolaev, Yu. I., N. S. Nikolaeva, I. G. Lodkina, and M. Yu. Yermolaev (2009), Catalog of Large-Scale Solar Wind Phenomena during 1976-2000, Cosmic Research

  20. Sheath rendezvous method: a novel distal protection technique during endovascular treatment of subclavian artery occlusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Takuya; Urasawa, Kazushi; Nakama, Tatsuya; Nakagawa, Yuya; Tan, Michinao; Koshida, Ryoji; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2016-10-01

    To describe an innovative distal protection technique, "sheath rendezvous method", during endovascular treatment for subclavian arterial occlusions. 4.5F and 6F guiding sheath were inserted from left brachial and common femoral artery, respectively. 0.014″ guidewire retrogradely passed through occlusion and into antegrade sheath to establish a pull-through system. 3.0 mm balloon was used to expand occlusion and anchor to deliver retrograde sheath into antegrade one. Both sheaths locked by balloon dilatation crossed occlusion until antegrade sheath passed over lesion. Balloon expandable stent was delivered within antegrade sheath. Sheath was removed, and stent was implanted. We obtained an excellent outcome without complications.

  1. Uranium mill tailings stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-02-01

    Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration

  2. Liquefaction of uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Numerical methods for assessing the liquefaction potential of soils are reviewed with a view to their application to uranium tailings. The method can be divided into two categories: total stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are not considered in the soil model, and effective stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are included in the soil model. Effective stress analysis is more realistic, but few computer programs exist for such analysis in two or three dimensions. A simple linearized, two-dimensional, finite element effective stress analysis which incorporates volumetric compaction due to shear motion is described and implemented. The new program is applied to the assessment of liquefaction potential of tailings in the Quirke Mine tailings area near Elliot Lake, Ontario. The results are compared with those of a total stress analysis. Both analyses indicate liquefaction would occur if a magnitude 6.0 earthquake were to occur near the area. However, the extent of liquefaction predicted by the effective stress analysis is much less than that predicted by the total stress analysis. The results of both methods are sensitive to assumed material properties and to the method used to determine the cyclic shear strength of the tailings. Further analysis, incorporating more in situ and/or laboratory data, is recommended before conclusions can be made concerning the dynamic stability of these tailings

  3. Mine tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, P.A.; Adams, B.J.

    1980-06-01

    The hydrologic evaluation of mine tailings disposal sites after they are abandoned is considered in relation to their potential environmental impact on a long term basis. There is a direct relation between the amounts and types of water leaving a disposal site and the severity of the potential damage to the environment. The evaluation of the relative distribution of the precipitation reaching the ground into evaporation, runoff and infiltration is obtained for a selected site and type of tailings material whose characteristics and physical properties were determined in the soils laboratory. A conceptual model of the hydrologic processes involved and the corresponding mathematical model were developed to simulate the physical system. A computer program was written to solve the set of equations forming the mathematical model, considering the physical properties of the tailings and the rainfall data selected. The results indicate that the relative distribution of the precipitation depends on the surface and upper layer of the tailings and that the position of the groundwater table is governed by the flow through the bottom of the profile considered. The slope of the surface of the mass of tailings was found to be one of the principal factors affecting the relative distribution of precipitation and, therefore, the potential pollution of the environment

  4. Characteristics of metal sheathed thermocouples in thermowell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Takehiro; Nakase, Tsuyoshi; Tanabe, Yutaka; Yamada, Kunitaka; Yoshizaki, Akio; Roko, Kiyokazu

    1987-01-01

    Static and dynamic characteristics of thermowell type thermocouples which are planned to be used for the High-Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have been investigated. A mock-up test section was installed in Kawasaki's Helium Test Loop (KH-200). Thermal characteristics tests were carried out under the 600 ∼ 1000 deg C temperature conditions. The test section was equipped with four types sheathed thermocouples; the well type, the non well type, and ones with and without the thermal radiation shielding plate. The measured temperature by the well type thermocouples with the shielding plate was only about 1.3 deg C higher than the one without the shielding plate at gas temperature 990 deg C. The measured time constant of the well type thermocouples was about 7 seconds in the condition of the heat transfer coefficient 1600 Kcal/m 2 h deg C on the well surface, and coincided with the calculated one by ''TRUMP'' code. (author)

  5. Benign nerve sheath tumor of stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, N.U.; Zafar, S.; Haque, I.U.

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors are a group of tumors, which originate from the mesenchymal stem cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric schwannoma is a very rare gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumor, which represents only 0.2% of all gastric tumors and 4% of all benign gastric neoplasms. We report a 55 years old lady who suffered from pain epigastrium, vomiting, occasionally with blood, loss of appetite and weight loss. Endoscopic examination showed a round submucosal tumor with a central ulceration along the greater curvature of the stomach. The pathological examination revealed a picture of spindle cell tumor. Immunohistochemical stain was strongly positive for S-100 protein stain, and non-reactive for CD34, CD117, consistent with benign nerve sheath tumor of stomach i.e. gastric schwannoma. (author)

  6. Estimation of radiation losses from sheathed thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, I.L.; Coney, J.E.R.; Gibbs, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermocouples are often used for temperature measurements in heat exchangers. However if the radiation losses from a thermocouple in a high temperature gas flow to colder surroundings are ignored significant errors can occur. Even at moderate temperature differences, these can be significant. Prediction of radiation losses from theory can be problematic, especially in situations where there are large variations in the measured temperatures as the emissivity and radiative heat transfer coefficient of the thermocouple are not constant. The following approach combines experimental results with established empirical relationships to estimate losses due to radiation in an annular heat exchanger at temperatures up to 950 o C. - Highlights: → Sheathed thermocouples are often used to measure temperatures in heat exchangers. → Errors are introduced if radiation losses are ignored. → Radiation losses are environment specific and may be significant. → Experimental and theoretical methods are used to estimate losses. → Hot side maximum temperature 950 o C.

  7. The Sheath-less Planar Langmuir Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Langmuir probe is one of the oldest plasma diagnostics, provided the plasma density and species temperature from analysis of a current-voltage curve as the voltage is swept over a practically chosen range. The analysis depends on a knowledge or theory of the many factors that influence the current-voltage curve including, probe shape, size, nearby perturbations, and the voltage reference. For applications in Low Earth Orbit, the Planar Langmuir Probe, PLP, is an attractive geometry because the ram ion current is very constant over many Volts of a sweep, allowing the ion density and electron temperature to be determined independently with the same instrument, at different points on the sweep. However, when the physical voltage reference is itself small and electrically floating as with a small spacecraft, the spacecraft and probe system become a double probe where the current collection theory depends on the interaction of the spacecraft with the plasma which is generally not as simple as the probe itself. The Sheath-less PLP, SPLP, interlaces on a single ram facing surface, two variably biased probe elements, broken into many small and intertwined segments on a scale smaller than the plasma Debye length. The SPLP is electrically isolated from the rest of the spacecraft. For relative bias potentials of a few volts, the ion current to all segments of each element will be constant, while the electron currents will vary as a function of the element potential and the electron temperature. Because the segments are small, intertwined, and floating, the assembly will always present the same floating potential to the plasma, with minimal growth as a function of voltage, thus sheath-less and still planar. This concept has been modelled with Nascap, and tested with a physical model inserted into a Low Earth Orbit-like chamber plasma. Results will be presented.

  8. Results of surgical treatment of T4 non-small cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitz, CCM; de la Riviere, AB; van Swieten, HA; Westermann, CJJ; Lammers, JWJ; van den Bosch, JMM

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Because of location and invasion of surrounding structures, the role of surgical treatment for T4 tumors remains unclear. Extended resections carry a high mortality and should be restricted for selected patients. This study clarifies the selection process in non-small cell T4 tumors with

  9. Assembly and dynamics of the bacteriophage T4 homologous recombination machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrical Scott W

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Homologous recombination (HR, a process involving the physical exchange of strands between homologous or nearly homologous DNA molecules, is critical for maintaining the genetic diversity and genome stability of species. Bacteriophage T4 is one of the classic systems for studies of homologous recombination. T4 uses HR for high-frequency genetic exchanges, for homology-directed DNA repair (HDR processes including DNA double-strand break repair, and for the initiation of DNA replication (RDR. T4 recombination proteins are expressed at high levels during T4 infection in E. coli, and share strong sequence, structural, and/or functional conservation with their counterparts in cellular organisms. Biochemical studies of T4 recombination have provided key insights on DNA strand exchange mechanisms, on the structure and function of recombination proteins, and on the coordination of recombination and DNA synthesis activities during RDR and HDR. Recent years have seen the development of detailed biochemical models for the assembly and dynamics of presynaptic filaments in the T4 recombination system, for the atomic structure of T4 UvsX recombinase, and for the roles of DNA helicases in T4 recombination. The goal of this chapter is to review these recent advances and their implications for HR and HDR mechanisms in all organisms.

  10. Modelling T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelling T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the absence of any defense mechanism. VSM Yadavalli, MMO Labeodan, S Udayabaskaran, N Forche. Abstract. The T4 cell count, which is considered one of the markers of disease progression in an HIV infected individual, is modelled in this paper. The World ...

  11. Specific action of T4 endonuclease V on damaged DNA in xeroderma pigmentosum cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Sekiguchi, M.; Okada, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The specific action of T4 endonuclease V on damaged DNA in xeroderma pigmentosum cells was examined using an in vivo assay system with hemagglutinating virus of Japan (Sendai virus) inactivated by uv light. A clear dose response was observed between the level of uv-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis of xeroderma pigmentosum cells and the amount of T4 endonuclease V activity added. The T4 enzyme was unstable in human cells, and its half-life was 3 hr. Fractions derived from an extract of Escherichia coli infected with T4v 1 , a mutant defective in the endonuclease V gene, showed no ability to restore the uv-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis of xeroderma pigmentosum cells. However, fractions derived from an extract of T4D-infected E. coli with endonuclease V activity were effective. The T4 enzyme was effective in xeroderma pigmentosum cells on DNA damaged by uv light but not in cells damaged by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide. The results of these experiments show that the T4 enzyme has a specific action on human cell DNA in vivo. Treatment with the T4 enzyme increased the survival of group A xeroderma pigmentosum cells after uv irradiation

  12. Uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography contains information on uranium mill tailings included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through October 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Mill Tailings/Radiation Hazards. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. (335 abstracts)

  13. A novel formulation of L-thyroxine (L-T4) reduces the problem of L-T4 malabsorption by coffee observed with traditional tablet formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Roberto; Saraceno, Giovanna; Trimarchi, Francesco; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate if the coffee-associated malabsorption of tablet levothyroxine (L-T4) is reduced by soft gel capsule. We recruited 8 patients with coffee-associated L-T4 malabsorption including one hypothyroid patient. For 6 months, the patients were switched to the capsule maintaining the L-T4 daily dose. Patients took the capsule with water, having coffee 1 h later (proper habit, PH) on days 1-90, or with coffee ≤ 5 min later (improper habit, IH) on days 91-180. After 6 months, 2 patients volunteered for an acute loading test of 600 μg L-T4 (capsule) ingested with water (PH) or with coffee (IH). In the single hypothyroid patient, the post-switch TSH ranged 0.06-0.16 mU/L (PH) versus 5.8-22.4 mU/L pre-switch (PH) and 0.025-0.29 mU/L (IH) versus 26-34 mU/L pre-switch (IH). In the other 7 patients, post-switch TSH was 0.41 ± 0.46 (PH) versus 0.28 ± 0.20 pre-switch (PH) (P = 0.61) and 0.34 ± 0.30 (IH) versus 1.23 ± 1.47 pre-switch (IH) (P coffee influenced L-T4 pharmacokinetics minimally. Soft gel capsules can be used in patients who are unable/unwilling to change their IH of taking L-T4.

  14. AtlasT4SS: a curated database for type IV secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rangel C; del Rosario Quispe Saji, Guadalupe; Costa, Maiana O C; Netto, Diogo S; Lima, Nicholas C B; Klein, Cecília C; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Nicolás, Marisa F

    2012-08-09

    The type IV secretion system (T4SS) can be classified as a large family of macromolecule transporter systems, divided into three recognized sub-families, according to the well-known functions. The major sub-family is the conjugation system, which allows transfer of genetic material, such as a nucleoprotein, via cell contact among bacteria. Also, the conjugation system can transfer genetic material from bacteria to eukaryotic cells; such is the case with the T-DNA transfer of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant cells. The system of effector protein transport constitutes the second sub-family, and the third one corresponds to the DNA uptake/release system. Genome analyses have revealed numerous T4SS in Bacteria and Archaea. The purpose of this work was to organize, classify, and integrate the T4SS data into a single database, called AtlasT4SS - the first public database devoted exclusively to this prokaryotic secretion system. The AtlasT4SS is a manual curated database that describes a large number of proteins related to the type IV secretion system reported so far in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as in Archaea. The database was created using the RDBMS MySQL and the Catalyst Framework based in the Perl programming language and using the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern for Web. The current version holds a comprehensive collection of 1,617 T4SS proteins from 58 Bacteria (49 Gram-negative and 9 Gram-Positive), one Archaea and 11 plasmids. By applying the bi-directional best hit (BBH) relationship in pairwise genome comparison, it was possible to obtain a core set of 134 clusters of orthologous genes encoding T4SS proteins. In our database we present one way of classifying orthologous groups of T4SSs in a hierarchical classification scheme with three levels. The first level comprises four classes that are based on the organization of genetic determinants, shared homologies, and evolutionary relationships: (i) F-T4SS, (ii) P-T4SS, (iii

  15. Use of guiding sheaths in peroral fluoroscopic gastroduodenal stent placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jae-Ik; Shin, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Yoon, Chang Jin; Nam, Deok Ho; Choi, Won-Chan; Lim, Jin-Oh

    2005-01-01

    Our purpose was to assess the safety and usefulness of guiding sheaths in peroral fluoroscopic gastroduodenal stent placement. Two types of guiding sheath were made from straight polytetrafluoroethylene tubes. Type A was 80 cm in length, 4 mm in outer diameter and 3 mm in inner diameter. Type B was 70 cm in length, 6 mm in outer diameter and 5 mm in inner diameter. The type A sheath was used in 18 patients in whom a catheter-guide wire combination failed to pass through a stricture. The type B sheath was used in 22 patients in whom a stent delivery system failed to pass through the stricture due to loop formation within the gastric lumen. The overall success rate for guiding a catheter-guide wire through a stricture after using the type A sheath was 89%. The overall success rate for passing a stent delivery system through a stricture after using the type B sheath was 100%. All procedures were tolerated by the patients without any significant complications. The guiding sheaths were safe and useful in peroral fluoroscopic gastroduodenal stent placement. (orig.)

  16. ALINE: A device dedicated to understanding radio-frequency sheaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Devaux

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In fusion devices, radiofrequency (RF antennas are used for heating the plasma. Those antennas and the plasma interact with each other through the so-called RF sheaths, layers of plasma where the quasi-neutrality breaks down and large electric fields arise. Among the effects of RF sheaths, there is the enhancement of the particles and energy fluxes toward the surface of the antenna, which in turn generate hot spots and release impurities, which are both deleterious for plasma operations. RF sheaths comprehension stumbles on the difficulty to achieve in situ measurements of the sheath properties, as scrape-off layer plasmas are a harsh environment. The very goal of the ALINE device is to tackle this issue and to fulfil the blank between numerical simulations and full-scale experiment by providing measurements within the RF sheaths in a controlled environment. In this paper we report on the latest experimental results from ALINE, in which a cylindrical Langmuir probe mounted on a remotely controlled and programmable arm allows for plasma characterizations in the three dimensions of space around the stainless steel antenna, including the sheath. We present a series of density and potential profiles and three dimension (3D maps in the plasma surrounding a stainless-steel RF antenna as well as in the sheath itself, for unmagnetized and magnetized plasmas.

  17. Abiotic Deposition of Fe Complexes onto Leptothrix Sheaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Hashimoto, Hideki; McFarlane, Ian R.; Hayashi, Naoaki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Taketa, Eisuke; Tamura, Katsunori; Takano, Mikio; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria classified in species of the genus Leptothrix produce extracellular, microtubular, Fe-encrusted sheaths. The encrustation has been previously linked to bacterial Fe oxidases, which oxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III) and/or active groups of bacterial exopolymers within sheaths to attract and bind aqueous-phase inorganics. When L. cholodnii SP-6 cells were cultured in media amended with high Fe(II) concentrations, Fe(III) precipitates visibly formed immediately after addition of Fe(II) to the medium, suggesting prompt abiotic oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). Intriguingly, these precipitates were deposited onto the sheath surface of bacterial cells as the population was actively growing. When Fe(III) was added to the medium, similar precipitates formed in the medium first and were abiotically deposited onto the sheath surfaces. The precipitates in the Fe(II) medium were composed of assemblies of globular, amorphous particles (ca. 50 nm diameter), while those in the Fe(III) medium were composed of large, aggregated particles (≥3 µm diameter) with a similar amorphous structure. These precipitates also adhered to cell-free sheaths. We thus concluded that direct abiotic deposition of Fe complexes onto the sheath surface occurs independently of cellular activity in liquid media containing Fe salts, although it remains unclear how this deposition is associated with the previously proposed mechanisms (oxidation enzyme- and/or active group of organic components-involved) of Fe encrustation of the Leptothrix sheaths. PMID:27271677

  18. Abiotic Deposition of Fe Complexes onto Leptothrix Sheaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Kunoh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria classified in species of the genus Leptothrix produce extracellular, microtubular, Fe-encrusted sheaths. The encrustation has been previously linked to bacterial Fe oxidases, which oxidize Fe(II to Fe(III and/or active groups of bacterial exopolymers within sheaths to attract and bind aqueous-phase inorganics. When L. cholodnii SP-6 cells were cultured in media amended with high Fe(II concentrations, Fe(III precipitates visibly formed immediately after addition of Fe(II to the medium, suggesting prompt abiotic oxidation of Fe(II to Fe(III. Intriguingly, these precipitates were deposited onto the sheath surface of bacterial cells as the population was actively growing. When Fe(III was added to the medium, similar precipitates formed in the medium first and were abiotically deposited onto the sheath surfaces. The precipitates in the Fe(II medium were composed of assemblies of globular, amorphous particles (ca. 50 nm diameter, while those in the Fe(III medium were composed of large, aggregated particles (≥3 µm diameter with a similar amorphous structure. These precipitates also adhered to cell-free sheaths. We thus concluded that direct abiotic deposition of Fe complexes onto the sheath surface occurs independently of cellular activity in liquid media containing Fe salts, although it remains unclear how this deposition is associated with the previously proposed mechanisms (oxidation enzyme- and/or active group of organic components-involved of Fe encrustation of the Leptothrix sheaths.

  19. Farris-Tang retractor in optic nerve sheath decompression surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Jennifer A; Sokol, Jason A; Whittaker, Thomas J; Bernard, Benjamin; Farris, Bradley K

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose is to introduce the use of the Farris-Tang retractor in optic nerve sheath decompression surgery. The procedure of optic nerve sheath fenestration was reviewed at our tertiary care teaching hospital, including the use of the Farris-Tang retractor. Pseudotumor cerebri is a syndrome of increased intracranial pressure without a clear cause. Surgical treatment can be effective in cases in which medical therapy has failed and disc swelling with visual field loss progresses. Optic nerve sheath decompression surgery (ONDS) involves cutting slits or windows in the optic nerve sheath to allow cerebrospinal fluid to escape, reducing the pressure around the optic nerve. We introduce the Farris-Tang retractor, a retractor that allows for excellent visualization of the optic nerve sheath during this surgery, facilitating the fenestration of the sheath and visualization of the subsequent cerebrospinal fluid egress. Utilizing a medial conjunctival approach, the Farris-Tang retractor allows for easy retraction of the medial orbital tissue and reduces the incidence of orbital fat protrusion through Tenon's capsule. The Farris-Tang retractor allows safe, easy, and effective access to the optic nerve with good visualization in optic nerve sheath decompression surgery. This, in turn, allows for greater surgical efficiency and positive patient outcomes.

  20. The Tubular Sheaths Encasing Methanosaeta thermophila Filaments Are Functional Amyloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueholm, Morten S; Larsen, Poul; Finster, Kai; Stenvang, Marcel R; Christiansen, Gunna; Vad, Brian S; Bøggild, Andreas; Otzen, Daniel E; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-08-14

    Archaea are renowned for their ability to thrive in extreme environments, although they can be found in virtually all habitats. Their adaptive success is linked to their unique cell envelopes that are extremely resistant to chemical and thermal denaturation and that resist proteolysis by common proteases. Here we employ amyloid-specific conformation antibodies and biophysical techniques to show that the extracellular cell wall sheaths encasing the methanogenic archaea Methanosaeta thermophila PT are functional amyloids. Depolymerization of sheaths and subsequent MS/MS analyses revealed that the sheaths are composed of a single major sheath protein (MspA). The amyloidogenic nature of MspA was confirmed by in vitro amyloid formation of recombinant MspA under a wide range of environmental conditions. This is the first report of a functional amyloid from the archaeal domain of life. The amyloid nature explains the extreme resistance of the sheath, the elastic properties that allow diffusible substrates to penetrate through expandable hoop boundaries, and how the sheaths are able to split and elongate outside the cell. The archaeal sheath amyloids do not share homology with any of the currently known functional amyloids and clearly represent a new function of the amyloid protein fold. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Managing 'tail liability'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Richard C; Weber, Ryan J

    2013-11-01

    To reduce and control their level of tail liability, hospitals should: Utilize a self-insurance vehicle; Consider combined limits between the hospital and physicians; Communicate any program changes to the actuary, underwriter, and auditor; Continue risk management and safety practices; Ensure credit is given to the organization's own medical malpractice program.

  2. Ultrasonographic findings of pilar sheath acanthoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Joo; Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Seong Jin [Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Pilar sheath acanthoma is a rare benign follicular hamartoma that presents with a central sinus containing keratinous material and is lined by epithelium. It typically occurs on the face, especially on the upper lip and forehead. In our case, the ultrasound (US) feature of pilar sheath acanthoma revealed a well-defined, oval hypoechoic nodule with hypoechoic capping within the dermis over the medial aspect of the calf. To the best of our knowledge, despite many reports on the clinicopathological aspects of pilar sheath acanthoma, this entity has not been well described in the radiologic literature, and US findings have not been documented.

  3. Experimental test of models of radio-frequency plasma sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolewski, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The ion current and sheath impedance were measured at the radio-frequency-powered electrode of an asymmetric, capacitively coupled plasma reactor, for discharges in argon at 1.33 endash 133 Pa. The measurements were used to test the models of the radio frequency sheath derived by Lieberman [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 17, 338 (1989)] and Godyak and Sternberg [Phys. Rev. A 42, 2299 (1990)], and establish the range of pressure and sheath voltage in which they are valid. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Dynamics of Dust in a Plasma Sheath with Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Ping; Liu Jinyuan; Gon Ye; Liu Yue; Wang Xiaogang

    2007-01-01

    Dynamics of dust in a plasma sheath with a magnetic field was investigated using a single particle model. The result shows that the radius, initial position, initial velocity of the dust particles and the magnetic field do effect their movement and equilibrium position in the plasma sheath. Generally, the dust particles with the same size, whatever original velocity and position they have, will locate at the same position in the end under the net actions of electrostatic, gravitational, neutral collisional, and Lorentz forces. But the dust particles will not locate in the plasma sheath if their radius is beyond a certain value

  5. DNA unwinding by ring-shaped T4 helicase gp41 is hindered by tension on the occluded strand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeck, Noah; Saleh, Omar A

    2013-01-01

    The replicative helicase for bacteriophage T4 is gp41, which is a ring-shaped hexameric motor protein that achieves unwinding of dsDNA by translocating along one strand of ssDNA while forcing the opposite strand to the outside of the ring. While much study has been dedicated to the mechanism of binding and translocation along the ssDNA strand encircled by ring-shaped helicases, relatively little is known about the nature of the interaction with the opposite, 'occluded' strand. Here, we investigate the interplay between the bacteriophage T4 helicase gp41 and the ss/dsDNA fork by measuring, at the single-molecule level, DNA unwinding events on stretched DNA tethers in multiple geometries. We find that gp41 activity is significantly dependent on the geometry and tension of the occluded strand, suggesting an interaction between gp41 and the occluded strand that stimulates the helicase. However, the geometry dependence of gp41 activity is the opposite of that found previously for the E. coli hexameric helicase DnaB. Namely, tension applied between the occluded strand and dsDNA stem inhibits unwinding activity by gp41, while tension pulling apart the two ssDNA tails does not hinder its activity. This implies a distinct variation in helicase-occluded strand interactions among superfamily IV helicases, and we propose a speculative model for this interaction that is consistent with both the data presented here on gp41 and the data that had been previously reported for DnaB.

  6. The Effects of the Recombinant CCR5 T4 Lysozyme Fusion Protein on HIV-1 Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Jin

    Full Text Available Insertion of T4 lysozyme (T4L into the GPCR successfully enhanced GPCR protein stability and solubilization. However, the biological functions of the recombinant GPCR protein have not been analyzed.We engineered the CCR5-T4L mutant and expressed and purified the soluble recombinant protein using an E.coli expression system. The antiviral effects of this recombinant protein in THP-1 cell lines, primary human macrophages, and PBMCs from different donors were investigated. We also explored the possible mechanisms underlying the observed antiviral effects.Our data showed the biphasic inhibitory and promotion effects of different concentrations of soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L protein on R5 tropic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 infection in THP-1 cell lines, human macrophages, and PBMCs from clinical isolates. We demonstrated that soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L acts as a HIV-1 co-receptor, interacts with wild type CCR5, down-regulates the surface CCR5 expression in human macrophages, and interacts with CCL5 to inhibit macrophage migration. Using binding assays, we further determined that recombinant CCR5-T4L and [125I]-CCL5 compete for the same binding site on wild type CCR5.Our results suggest that recombinant CCR5-T4L protein marginally promotes HIV-1 infection at low concentrations and markedly inhibits infection at higher concentrations. This recombinant protein may be helpful in the future development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutic agents.

  7. Uranium mill tailings conditioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Cokal, E.J.; Wangen, L.E.; Williams, J.M.; O'Brien, P.D.; Thode, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    Conditioning of uranium mill tailings involves the physicochemical alteration of tailings to remove or immobilize mobile radionuclides and toxic trace elements before disposal in a repository. The principal immobilization approach under investigation is sintering tailings at high temperatures (1100-1200 deg. C) to radically alter the structure of tailings. This thermal stabilization at 1200 deg. C reduced radon emanation power for tailings sands by factors of 20 to 200 and for tailings fines by factors of 300 to 1100. Substantial reductions in the leachability of most contaminants have been found for thermally conditioned tailings. Obvious mineral transformations occur, including an increase in amorphous material, the conversion of gypsum to anhydrite and its subsequent decomposition, the disappearance of clay minerals, and some decrease in quartz content. A conceptual thermal stabilization process has been developed wherein obsolete coal-fired rotary cement kilns perform the sintering. An economic analysis of this conceptual process has shown that thermal stabilization can be competitive at certain tailings sites with other remedial actions requiring the excavation, transportation, and burial of tailings in a repository. An analysis of the long-term radiological hazard posed by untreated tailings and by tailings conditioned by radionuclide removal has illustrated the necessity of extracting both 226 Ra and 230 Th to achieve long-term hazard reductions. Sulphuric acid extraction of residual mineral values and important radionuclides from tailings has been investigated. Concentrated H 2 SO 4 can extract up to 80% of the 226 Ra, 70% of the Ba, and 90% of the 230 Th from tailings in a single stage extraction. An economic analysis of a sulphuric acid leach process was made to determine whether the value of minerals recovered from tailings would offset the leaching cost. For one relatively mineral-rich tailings pile, the U and V values would more than pay for the

  8. Radioimmunoassay for measurement of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyonine (T3) in blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, I.J.

    1975-01-01

    This invention relates to a highly accurate, rapid and simple estimation of thyroxine (T 4 ) directly from blood serum and also relates to the accurate measurement of triiodo-L-thyronine (T 3 ) directly from blood serum. More specifically, the invention relates to a rapid, specific and reliable radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique for measurement of both T 4 and T 3 in unextracted serum. The method requires very small amounts of serum, e.g., 25 microliters (μl) to measure T 4 concentration in nearly all specimens representing clinical states of eu-, hypo- and hyperthyroidism, and 250 μl to measure T 3 concentrations in specimens representing most clinical states

  9. First experiences with the AMERLEX-MAB FREE T4 assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhof, W.A.; Penders, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The new Amerlex-MAB FT 4 is a quick direct free T 4 assay with good reproducability. The correlation between the Amerlex-MAB FT 4 and the free T 4 of Byk is good. In the non-thyreoidal illness patient group no deviation for the values were found. Amerlex-MAB FT 4 is cheaper, because no total T4 has to be measured. More research has to be done for special patient sera. Disturbing influences as free fatty acids, heparin and auto-antibodies have to be checked. (R.B.). 3 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  10. Effects of 18 months of L-T4 replacement in women with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Adrees, M

    2012-02-01

    CONTEXT: Some of the cardiovascular and renal abnormalities seen in overt hypothyroidism have also been reported in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Short-term L-T4 replacement in SCH improves cardiovascular risk markers and reduces carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. The haemodynamic and renal effects of L-T4 replacement in SCH are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To compare cardiovascular risk factors and renal variables in women with SCH and normal women. To study the effects of L-T4 replacement in SCH subjects on these variables and on structural and functional changes in common carotid and brachial arteries. DESIGN: Fifty-six women with SCH before and after L-T4 replacement for 18 months and 56 normal women of similar age distribution were studied. Blood Pressure (BP), plasma lipids and homocysteine were measured and renal function evaluated [estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using standard equations and measurement of serum Cystatin-C] in women with SCH before and after 18 months of l-T4, and in healthy women. CIMT and endothelial function (using brachial artery ultrasound) were studied before and after L-T4 in a subgroup of women with SCH. RESULTS: Systolic and diastolic BP, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, lipoprotein(a) and homocysteine were greater in SCH (P < 0.05), and following L-T4 replacement decreased (P < 0.05) to levels that no longer differed from normal subjects. Estimated GFR was reduced and serum Cystatin-C increased (P < 0.05) in SCH. These variables also normalized following L-T4. Following L-T4 replacement the carotid artery baseline diameter increased by 7.1% and CIMT decreased by a mean value of 13%, while brachial artery diameter increased basally by 12.5% and following endothelium-dependent vasodilatation by 17.5% (P < 0.05). However, the increment following reactive hyperaemia did not differ before or following L-T4 replacement. CONCLUSION: Normalization of

  11. Zircaloy sheathed thermocouples for PWR fuel rod temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.V.; Wesley, R.D.; Wilkins, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    Small diameter zircaloy sheathed thermocouples have been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Surface mounted thermocouples were developed to measure the temperature of zircaloy clad fuel rods used in the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program (TFBP), and embedded thermocouples were developed for use by the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program for support tests using zircaloy clad electrically heated nuclear fuel rod simulators. The first objective of this developmental effort was to produce zircaloy sheathed thermocouples to replace titanium sheathed thermocouples and thereby eliminate the long-term corrosion of the titanium-to-zircaloy attachment weld. The second objective was to reduce the sheath diameter to obtain faster thermal response and minimize cladding temperature disturbance due to thermocouple attachment

  12. significance of rice sheath photosynthesis: yield determination by c ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    1State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, Changsha 410125, P.R. China. 2School of ... for contribution rates of sheath photosynthesis to economical yield. ..... related processes during ripening in rice plants.

  13. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour of the Maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Sahai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old man was diagnosed with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla. He was treated with total maxillectomy. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a close resection margin. The tumour was of high grade with an MIB-1 labelling index of almost 60%. At six weeks following the surgery, he developed local tumour relapse. The patient succumbed to the disease at five months from the time of diagnosis. The present report underlines the locally aggressive nature of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla which necessitates an early therapeutic intervention. A complete resection with clear margins is the most important prognostic factor for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in the head and neck region. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered to improve the local control. Future research may demarcate the role of targeted therapy for patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour.

  14. Bilateral giant cell tumor of tendon sheath of tendoachilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Datta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath arises from the synovium of tendon sheaths, joints, or bursae, mostly affects adults between 30 and 50 years of age, and is slightly more common in females. We report the case of a 32-years-old male presenting with pain in both ankles without any history of trauma. On clinical examination, tenderness on both tendoachilles and local thickening were observed. Ultrasonography showed thickening of local tendinous area with increase in anteroposterior diameter, and Doppler demonstrated increased flow in peritendinous area. MRI findings showed that most of the tumor had intermediate signal intensity and portions of the tumor had low signal intensity. Fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed the diagnosis of giant cell tumor of tendon sheath. Excision biopsy was done with no recurrence on five month follow-up. Review of literature did not reveal any similar result; so, bilateral giant cell tumor of tendon sheath of tendoachilles is a rare presentation.

  15. Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this research is to provide durable and long-term water management solutions using exterior insulating sheathing as part of the water management system. It is possible to tape or seal the joints in insulating sheathing to create a drainage plane and even an air control layer. There exists the material durability component of the tape as well as the system durability component being the taped insulating sheathing as the drainage plane. This measure guideline provides best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and homebuilders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant issues were discussed with the group, which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long-term, and durable drainage plane: horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible; where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials; and frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation.

  16. Stability of the Tonks–Langmuir discharge pre-sheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tskhakaya, D. D. [Fusion@ÖAW, Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Kos, L. [LECAD Laboratory, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tskhakaya, D. [Fusion@ÖAW, Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-03-15

    The article formulates the stability problem of the plasma sheath in the Tonks–Langmuir discharge. Using the kinetic description of the ion gas, i.e., the stability of the potential shape in the quasi-neutral pre-sheath regarding the high and low frequency, the perturbations are investigated. The electrons are assumed to be Maxwell–Boltzmann distributed. Regarding high-frequency perturbations, the pre-sheath is shown to be stable. The stability problem regarding low-frequency perturbations can be reduced to an analysis of the “diffusion like” equation, which results in the instability of the potential distribution in the pre-sheath. By means of the Particle in Cell simulations, also the nonlinear stage of low frequency oscillations is investigated. Comparing the figure obtained with the figure for linear stage, one can find obvious similarity in the spatial-temporal behavior of the potential.

  17. Properties of leaves particleboard for sheathing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryawan, Arif; Rahmawaty

    2018-03-01

    Manufacturing particleboard (PB) made of leaves was carried out to make non-structural building components, such as insulation, partition, wall, and sheathing. Raw materials used dry leaves originated from plantation (palm oil leaves) and forest plantation (magahony leaves). The adhesive used was interior type thermosetting commercial resins, namely 10% urea-formaldehyde (UF) based on oven dry leaves. Hardener used for UF resin was 1% and 3% ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) 20% (w/w), respectively. Technically, the target density of PB was 0.8 g/cm3 with the dimension’s size of (250 x 250 x 10) mm3. The pressure, temperature, and time of pressing of the hot press were 25 kgf/cm2, 120C, and 10 minutes, respectively. After conditioning for one week, the PB then was evaluated their physical and mechanical properties according to Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908 (2003). Results of this work showed: 1) Both types of PB (palm oil and mahagony leaves) were feasible to be produced for non-structural applications; 2) Addition of hardener enhanced the physical and mechanical properties of PB; 3) It was recommended to enhance the performance of the PB by manipulation of the raw materials and the design.

  18. Axial sheath dynamics in a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; El-Khalafawy, T.A.; Masoud, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the result of investigation with a 10 kJ Mather type plasma focus. It is operated in hydrogen gas at ambient pressure of 0.15--1 torr and charging voltage of 8--11 kV. Radial distribution of the current sheath density with axial distance has been estimated. Plasma rotation in the expansion chamber in the absence of external magnetic field has been detected. A plasma flare from the plasma focus region propagating in the radial direction has been observed. Streak photography shows two plasma streams flowing simultaneously out of the muzzle. The mean energy of the electron beam ejected from the pinch region of the focused plasma, was measured by retarding field analyzer to be 0.32 keV. The electron temperature of the plasma focus at peak compression was determined by measuring the X-ray intensity as a function of absorber thickness at a distance of 62 cm from the focus. The electron temperature has been found to 3 keV

  19. Contrast material filling of the peroneal tendon sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadravecz, Gy.; Grexa, E.

    1981-01-01

    In case of complaints after fracture of the calcaneus the common sheath of the peroneus tendons was filled up with contrast material. The tendon sheath was punctured Oehind the external ankle. The three-directional radiograms clearly showed the dislocation and compression of the tendons, caused by the exostosis of the calcaneus. The concomitant tendovaginitis caused the complaints. This alteration was observed in 11% of all the calcaneus fractures. (L.E.)

  20. Cell Based Meniscal Repair Using an Aligned Bioactive Nanofibrous Sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    to subsequently guide tissue regeneration , for example, by seeded tissue progenitor cells . To achieve this objective, the first step is to develop...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0104 TITLE: Cell -Based Meniscal Repair Using an Aligned Bioactive Nanofibrous Sheath PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Cell -Based Meniscal Repair Using an Aligned Bioactive Nanofibrous Sheath 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0104 5c. PROGRAM

  1. Composition of the sheath produced by the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Imase, M; Sasaki, K; Ohmura, N; Saiki, H; Tanaka, H

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the chemical characterization of the mucilage sheath produced by Chlorella sorokiniana. Algal mucilage sheath was hydrolysed with NaOH, containing EDTA. The purity of the hydrolysed sheath was determined by an ATP assay. The composition of polysaccharide in the sheath was investigated by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Sucrose, galacturonic acid, xylitol, inositol, ribose, mannose, arabinose, galactose, rhamnose and fructose were detected in the sheath as sugar components. Magnesium was detected in the sheath as a divalent cation using inductively coupled argon plasma. The sheath matrix also contained protein. It appears that the sheath is composed of sugars and metals. Mucilage sheath contains many kinds of saccharides that are produced as photosynthetic metabolites and divalent cations that are contained in the culture medium. This is the first report on chemical characterization of the sheath matrix produced by C. sorokiniana.

  2. Telling tails: selective pressures acting on investment in lizard tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Patricia A; Valentine, Leonie E; Bateman, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    Caudal autotomy is a common defense mechanism in lizards, where the animal may lose part or all of its tail to escape entrapment. Lizards show an immense variety in the degree of investment in a tail (i.e., length) across species, with tails of some species up to three or four times body length (snout-vent length [SVL]). Additionally, body size and form also vary dramatically, including variation in leg development and robustness and length of the body and tail. Autotomy is therefore likely to have fundamentally different effects on the overall body form and function in different species, which may be reflected directly in the incidence of lost/regenerating tails within populations or, over a longer period, in terms of relative tail length for different species. We recorded data (literature, museum specimens, field data) for relative tail length (n=350 species) and the incidence of lost/regenerating tails (n=246 species). We compared these (taking phylogeny into account) with intrinsic factors that have been proposed to influence selective pressures acting on caudal autotomy, including body form (robustness, body length, leg development, and tail specialization) and ecology (foraging behavior, physical and temporal niches), in an attempt to identify patterns that might reflect adaptive responses to these different factors. More gracile species have relatively longer tails (all 350 spp., P lost/regenerating tails for nocturnal lizards (all 246 spp., P pressure.

  3. Studies of irradiated zircaloy fuel sheathing using XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, P.K.; Irving, K.G.; Hocking, W.H.; Duclos, A.M.; Gerwing, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    The preliminary results reported here support the hypothesis that CANLUB graphite coating reduces the rate at which oxygen can react with fuel sheathing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) characterization of Zircaloy sheathing obtained from extended-burnup Bruce-type elements (BDL-406-XY (555 MW.h/kgU) and BDL-406-AAH (731 MW.h/kgU)) irradiated in NRU indicates that CANLUB may reduce fuel sheath oxidation, and hence that fission-liberated oxygen may remain in the fuel. Chemical shifts in the Zr 3d spectra suggest that a stoichiometric (ZrO 2 ) oxide film was formed only on Zircaloy in direct contact with fuel. Particulate fuel adhering to the sheath was also determined to be systematically more oxidized on surfaces with CANLUB than on those without it. The unique association of tin on sheathing specimens with the non-CANLUB-coated specimens might also suggest that the tin had segregated from the sheathing. It must be emphasized that further experiments are required to better define the effect of CANLUB on fuel oxidation. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  4. Effects of emitted electron temperature on the plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, J. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Wang, H.; Raitses, Y.; Sydorenko, D.; Hershkowitz, N.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been known that electron emission from a surface significantly affects the sheath surrounding that surface. Typical fluid theory of a planar sheath with emitted electrons assumes that the plasma electrons follow the Boltzmann relation and the emitted electrons are emitted with zero energy and predicts a potential drop of 1.03T e /e across the sheath in the floating condition. By considering the modified velocity distribution function caused by plasma electrons lost to the wall and the half-Maxwellian distribution of the emitted electrons, it is shown that ratio of plasma electron temperature to emitted electron temperature significantly affects the sheath potential when the plasma electron temperature is within an order of magnitude of the emitted electron temperature. When the plasma electron temperature equals the emitted electron temperature the emissive sheath potential goes to zero. One dimensional particle-in-cell simulations corroborate the predictions made by this theory. The effects of the addition of a monoenergetic electron beam to the Maxwellian plasma electrons were explored, showing that the emissive sheath potential is close to the beam energy only when the emitted electron flux is less than the beam flux

  5. Plasma Sheath Behavior in a Coaxial Discharge Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Aragi, G.; Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The behavior of the plasma sheath has been studied experimentally and theoretically for 3 kJ coaxial discharge device. The discharge takes place in argon gas with pressure of 0.8 mbar. The experiments are conducted with a 10 kV bank charging voltage, which corresponds to 110 kA peak discharge current with time period of 34 μs. The experimental investigations have been studied using a magnetic probes and a miniature Rogowsky coil. A snowplough model is used to drive an analytical solution of the plasma sheath behavior in axial direction. Measurements of radial distribution of plasma sheath current density J r at the muzzle, show that J r has the following relation, J r is proportional to r -1.1 . From the experimental results and theoretical calculations of axial distribution of azimuthal magnetic field induction and plasma sheath velocity, the inclination angle between the normal of the plasma sheath with the axial distance at any axial position is evaluated and it has approximately a constant value for most axial distances. Also, the axial motion of plasma sheath acceleration is estimated experimentally a max = 0.13 x 10 12 ' cm / s 2 at z = 11 cm and from theoretical calculations a max = 0.15 x 10 12 cm/ s 2 at max z = 1.6 cm. A comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical calculations, under the assumption of the snowplough model are not in agreement. (author)

  6. Studies of irradiated zircaloy fuel sheathing using XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, P K; Irving, K G [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Hocking, W H; Duclos, A M; Gerwing, A F [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1996-12-31

    The preliminary results reported here support the hypothesis that CANLUB graphite coating reduces the rate at which oxygen can react with fuel sheathing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) characterization of Zircaloy sheathing obtained from extended-burnup Bruce-type elements (BDL-406-XY (555 MW.h/kgU) and BDL-406-AAH (731 MW.h/kgU)) irradiated in NRU indicates that CANLUB may reduce fuel sheath oxidation, and hence that fission-liberated oxygen may remain in the fuel. Chemical shifts in the Zr 3d spectra suggest that a stoichiometric (ZrO{sub 2}) oxide film was formed only on Zircaloy in direct contact with fuel. Particulate fuel adhering to the sheath was also determined to be systematically more oxidized on surfaces with CANLUB than on those without it. The unique association of tin on sheathing specimens with the non-CANLUB-coated specimens might also suggest that the tin had segregated from the sheathing. It must be emphasized that further experiments are required to better define the effect of CANLUB on fuel oxidation. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  7. Dynamic sheath studies in plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schever, J.T.; Shamim, M.; Conrad, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) is a non-line-of-sight method for materials processing in which a target is immersed in a plasma and pulse biased to a high negative voltage (∼ 50 kV). A model of the dynamic sheath which forms under these conditions has been developed and applied to planar, cylindrical and spherical geometries. This model assumes that the transient sheath obeys the Child-Langmuir law for space charge limited emission at each instant during the propagation. Ions uncovered by the propagating sheath edge supply the space charge limited current. This yields an equation relating sheath edge velocity to position, which can be integrated to obtain the sheath edge position as a function of time. The same procedure used in cylindrical and spherical geometry results in a similar equation which must be integrated numerically. Comparison of results of experimental measurements, our model and simulation will be presented for the dynamic sheath edge position and target current waveform. Measurements of implanted dose uniformity of wedge shaped targets are also presented

  8. Multimodal imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1-associated nerve sheath tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, J.; Adam, G.; Mautner, V.F.; Derlin, T.

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a neurogenetic disorder. Individuals with NF1 may develop a variety of benign and malignant tumors of which peripheral nerve sheath tumors represent the most frequent entity. Plexiform neurofibromas may demonstrate a locally destructive growth pattern, may cause severe symptoms and may undergo malignant transformation into malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents the reference standard for detection of soft tissue tumors in NF1. It allows for identification of individuals with plexiform neurofibromas, for assessment of local tumor extent, and for evaluation of whole-body tumor burden on T2-weighted imaging. Multiparametric MRI may provide a comprehensive characterization of different tissue properties of peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and may identify parameters associated with malignant transformation. Due to the absence of any radiation exposure, whole-body MRI may be used for serial follow-up of individuals with plexiform neurofibromas. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission-tomography (FDG PET/CT) allows a highly sensitive and specific detection of MPNST, and should be used in case of potential malignant transformation of a peripheral nerve sheath tumor. PET/CT provides a sensitive whole-body tumor staging. The use of contrast-enhanced CT for diagnosis of peripheral nerve sheath tumors is limited to special indications. To obtain the most precise readings, optimized examination protocols and dedicated radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians familiar with the complex and variable morphologies of peripheral nerve sheath tumors are required.

  9. Simulations of rf-driven sheath formation in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyopoulos, S.; Grossmann, W.; Drobot, A.; Kress, M.

    1992-01-01

    The results from two-dimensional particle simulations of sheath formation around periodic metal arrays placed inside magnetized plasmas and driven by oscillating voltages are reported. The main goal is the modeling of the plasma interaction with the Faraday bars surrounding the antennas during ion cyclotron tokamak heating. The study of the time-averaged potentials shows that the two-dimensional sheath structure depends on both the sheath length-to-thickness ratio and the inclination of the magnetic lines. The equipotential surfaces form closed, nested cells between adjacent bars. When the magnetic lines are nearly perpendicular to the potential gradients, the ion motion is dominated by the ExB drift, and ion streamlines form vortices around the equipotentials. At larger inclinations of the magnetic lines, the flow decouples from the equipotentials and ion transport is mainly along the potential gradients. The critical angle for the transition from vortex circulation to field aligned flow is computed. The effects of the cross-field ion transport on the sheath properties are discussed. It is shown that the sheath length and the magnetic line inclination affect the sheath scaling in the two-dimensional case. The one-dimensional theory results are recovered in the limit of high length-to-thickness ratio and large inclination of the magnetic lines

  10. Analytical expression for sheath edge around corner cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, T E

    2009-01-01

    A simple analytical expression for the position of the sheath edge around a two-dimensional corner cathode with included angle θ c has been discovered. This expression is valid for weakly collisional sheaths in the Child-Langmuir regime φ c >> kT e /e, where -φ c e is the electron temperature. In polar coordinates (r, θ), the sheath edge is given by (r/s 0 )sin[πθ/(2π - θ c )] = [π/(2π - θ c )] where s 0 is the planar sheath width far from the vertex of the corner. This result is verified by comparison with previous numerical solutions (Watterson P A 1989 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 22 1300) for the knife edge (θ c = 0) and convex square corner (θ c = π/2). The observed agreement suggests that this expression gives the sheath edge for all corner angles, both concave and convex. The utility of this result is demonstrated by computing the full sheath solution for a knife-edge cathode with φ c = 100kT e /e.

  11. Shifts in microbial community composition and function in the acidification of a lead/zinc mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin-Xing; Li, Jin-Tian; Chen, Ya-Ting; Huang, Li-Nan; Hua, Zheng-Shuang; Hu, Min; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2013-09-01

    In an attempt to link the microbial community composition and function in mine tailings to the generation of acid mine drainage, we simultaneously explored the geochemistry and microbiology of six tailings collected from a lead/zinc mine, i.e. primary tailings (T1), slightly acidic tailings (T2), extremely acidic tailings (T3, T4 and T5) and orange-coloured oxidized tailings (T6). Geochemical results showed that the six tailings (from T1 to T6) likely represented sequential stages of the acidification process of the mine tailings. 16S rRNA pyrosequencing revealed a contrasting microbial composition between the six tailings: Proteobacteria-related sequences dominated T1-T3 with relative abundance ranging from 56 to 93%, whereas Ferroplasma-related sequences dominated T4-T6 with relative abundance ranging from 28 to 58%. Furthermore, metagenomic analysis of the microbial communities of T2 and T6 indicated that the genes encoding key enzymes for microbial carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation and sulfur oxidation in T2 were largely from Thiobacillus and Acidithiobacillus, Methylococcus capsulatus, and Thiobacillus denitrificans respectively; while those in T6 were mostly identified in Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum, Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum, and Acidithiobacillus respectively. The microbial communities in T2 and T6 harboured more genes suggesting diverse metabolic capacities for sulfur oxidation/heavy metal detoxification and tolerating low pH respectively. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Structure of bacteriophage T4 fibritin: a segmented coiled coil and the role of the C-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y; Strelkov, S V; Mesyanzhinov, V V; Rossmann, M G

    1997-06-15

    Oligomeric coiled-coil motifs are found in numerous protein structures; among them is fibritin, a structural protein of bacteriophage T4, which belongs to a class of chaperones that catalyze a specific phage-assembly process. Fibritin promotes the assembly of the long tail fibers and their subsequent attachment to the tail baseplate; it is also a sensing device that controls the retraction of the long tail fibers in adverse environments and, thus, prevents infection. The structure of fibritin had been predicted from sequence and biochemical analyses to be mainly a triple-helical coiled coil. The determination of its structure at atomic resolution was expected to give insights into the assembly process and biological function of fibritin, and the properties of modified coiled-coil structures in general. The three-dimensional structure of fibritin E, a deletion mutant of wild-type fibritin, was determined to 2.2 A resolution by X-ray crystallography. Three identical subunits of 119 amino acid residues form a trimeric parallel coiled-coil domain and a small globular C-terminal domain about a crystallographic threefold axis. The coiled-coil domain is divided into three segments that are separated by insertion loops. The C-terminal domain, which consists of 30 residues from each subunit, contains a beta-propeller-like structure with a hydrophobic interior. The residues within the C-terminal domain make extensive hydrophobic and some polar intersubunit interactions. This is consistent with the C-terminal domain being important for the correct assembly of fibritin, as shown earlier by mutational studies. Tight interactions between the C-terminal residues of adjacent subunits counteract the latent instability that is suggested by the structural properties of the coiled-coil segments. Trimerization is likely to begin with the formation of the C-terminal domain which subsequently initiates the assembly of the coiled coil. The interplay between the stabilizing effect of the C

  13. Uranium tailings in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulden, R.S.; Bragg, K.

    1982-01-01

    The last few years have produced significant changes in the way uranium tailings are managed in Canada. This is due both to the development of new technology and to changes in regulatory approach. The interrelationships between these two areas are examined with particular attention paid to the long term and the development of close-out criteria. New technological initiatives are examined including dry placement techniques, pit disposal and deep lake disposal

  14. Sensitive radioimmunoassay of total thyroxine (T4) in horses using a simple extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangyuenyong, Siriwan; Nambo, Yasuo; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Tanaka, Tomomi; Watanabe, Gen

    2017-07-28

    Most thyroid hormone determinations in animals are based on immunoassays adapted from those used to test human samples, which may not reflect the actual values of thyroid hormone in horses because of the presence of binding proteins. The aims of the present study were i) to establish a novel radioimmunoassay (RIA) using a more simple and convenient method to separate binding proteins for the measurement of total thyroxine (T4) in horses and ii) to validate the assay by comparing total T4 concentrations in yearling horses raised in different climates. Blood samples were collected from trained yearlings in Hokkaido (temperate climate) and Miyazaki (subtropical climate) in Japan and from adult horses in estrus and diestrus. T4 was extracted from both serum and plasma using modified acid ethanol cryo-precipitation and sodium acetate ethanol methods. Circulating total T4 concentrations were determined by RIA. T4 concentration by sodium acetate ethanol was appropriately detectable rather than sodium salicylate method and was the same as for acid ethanol method. Furthermore, this sodium acetate ethanol method required fewer extraction steps than the other methods. Circulating T4 concentrations in yearlings were 225.98 ± 20.89 ng/ml, which was higher than the previous reference values. With respect to climate, T4 levels in Hokkaido yearlings tended to be higher than those in Miyazaki yearlings throughout the study period. These results indicated that this RIA protocol using a modified sodium acetate ethanol separation technique might be an appropriate tool for specific measurement of total T4 in horses.

  15. Structure and function of the small terminase component of the DNA packaging machine in T4-like bacteriophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Siyang; Gao, Song; Kondabagil, Kiran; Xiang, Ye; Rossmann, Michael G.; Rao, Venigalla B. (CUA); (Purdue)

    2012-04-04

    Tailed DNA bacteriophages assemble empty procapsids that are subsequently filled with the viral genome by means of a DNA packaging machine situated at a special fivefold vertex. The packaging machine consists of a 'small terminase' and a 'large terminase' component. One of the functions of the small terminase is to initiate packaging of the viral genome, whereas the large terminase is responsible for the ATP-powered translocation of DNA. The small terminase subunit has three domains, an N-terminal DNA-binding domain, a central oligomerization domain, and a C-terminal domain for interacting with the large terminase. Here we report structures of the central domain in two different oligomerization states for a small terminase from the T4 family of phages. In addition, we report biochemical studies that establish the function for each of the small terminase domains. On the basis of the structural and biochemical information, we propose a model for DNA packaging initiation.

  16. Activity-based in vitro selection of T4 DNA ligase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fumio; Funabashi, Hisakage; Mie, Masayasu; Endo, Yaeta; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Aizawa, Masuo; Kobatake, Eiry

    2005-01-01

    Recent in vitro methodologies for selection and directed evolution of proteins have concentrated not only on proteins with affinity such as single-chain antibody but also on enzymes. We developed a display technology for selection of T4 DNA ligase on ribosome because an in vitro selection method for DNA ligase had never been developed. The 3' end of mRNA encoding the gene of active or inactive T4 DNA ligase-spacer peptide fusion protein was hybridized to dsDNA fragments with cohesive ends, the substrate of T4 DNA ligase. After in vitro translation of the mRNA-dsDNA complex in a rabbit reticulocyte system, a mRNA-dsDNA-ribosome-ligase complex was produced. T4 DNA ligase enzyme displayed on a ribosome, through addition of a spacer peptide, is able to react with dsDNA in the complex. The complex expressing active ligase was biotinylated by ligation with another biotinylated dsDNA probe and selected with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. We effectively selected active T4 DNA ligase from a small amount of protein. The gene of the active T4 DNA ligase was enriched 40 times from a mixture of active and inactive genes using this selection strategy. This ribosomal display strategy may have high potential to be useful for selection of other enzymes associated with DNA

  17. Benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with T4 UICC II colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Andreas; Gerken, Michael; Hartl, Janine; Itzel, Timo; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Stroszczynski, Christian; Schlitt, Hans Jürgen; Hofstädter, Ferdinand; Klinkhammer-Schalke, Monika

    2015-05-20

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy is considered the standard of care in patients with UICC stage III colon cancer after R0 resection. Adjuvant therapy was not shown to be beneficial in patients with UICC stage II colon cancer. However, there is an ongoing discussion as to whether adjuvant chemotherapy may be beneficial for a subgroup of UICC II patients in a "high-risk situation" (such as T4). We investigated a Bavarian population-based (2.1 million inhabitants) cohort of 1937 patients with UICC II CRC treated between 2002 and 2012 in regard of the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for large (T4) tumors. Patients older than 80 years of age were excluded. Of 1937 patients, 240 had a T4 tumor (12%); 77 of all T4 patients received postoperative chemotherapy (33%). Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models were used for survival analyses. Patients with a T4 tumor who received postoperative chemotherapy had a highly significant survival benefit in respect of overall survival (pbenefit from adjuvant treatment. Chemotherapy, age at diagnosis, and tumor grading remained independent risk factors in the multivariate cox regression analysis. Our retrospective study demonstrated the significant benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in the T4 subgroup of patients with UICC II colon cancer. Our data suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy should be seriously considered in these patients.

  18. Genomic and Expression Profiling of Benign and Malignant Nerve Sheath Profiling of Benign and Malignant Nerve Sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Benign and Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Patients PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Matt van de Rijn, M.D., Ph.D. Torsten...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 May 2006 –30 Apr 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Genomic and Expression Profiling of Benign and Malignant Nerve...Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0297 Title: Genomic and Expression Profiling of Benign and Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis

  19. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...... substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further...... underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible...

  20. The E. coli Global Regulator DksA Reduces Transcription during T4 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Patterson-West

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage T4 relies on host RNA polymerase to transcribe three promoter classes: early (Pe, requires no viral factors, middle (Pm, requires early proteins MotA and AsiA, and late (Pl, requires middle proteins gp55, gp33, and gp45. Using primer extension, RNA-seq, RT-qPCR, single bursts, and a semi-automated method to document plaque size, we investigated how deletion of DksA or ppGpp, two E. coli global transcription regulators, affects T4 infection. Both ppGpp0 and ΔdksA increase T4 wild type (wt plaque size. However, ppGpp0 does not significantly alter burst size or latent period, and only modestly affects T4 transcript abundance, while ΔdksA increases burst size (2-fold without affecting latent period and increases the levels of several Pe transcripts at 5 min post-infection. In a T4motAam infection, ΔdksA increases plaque size and shortens latent period, and the levels of specific middle RNAs increase due to more transcription from Pe’s that extend into these middle genes. We conclude that DksA lowers T4 early gene expression. Consequently, ΔdksA results in a more productive wt infection and ameliorates the poor expression of middle genes in a T4motAam infection. As DksA does not inhibit Pe transcription in vitro, regulation may be indirect or perhaps requires additional factors.

  1. Combination L-T3 and L-T4 therapy for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartofsky, Leonard

    2013-10-01

    Because of the longstanding controversy regarding whether hypothyroid patients can be optimally replaced by treatment with levothyroxine (L-T4) alone, numerous studies have addressed potential benefits of combined therapy of triiodothyronine (T3) with L-T4. Results of these studies have failed to support a potential benefit of combined therapy. A strong argument for the addition of L-T3 to L-T4 monotherapy has been lacking until recent genetic studies indicated a rationale for such therapy among a small fraction of the hypothyroid patient population. Interest in this issue has focused on the importance of the deiodinases in maintaining the euthyroid state and the role of genetic polymorphisms in the deiodinase genes that would affect thyroid hormone concentrations in both blood and tissues. One such polymorphism in the D2 gene, Thr92Ala, is associated with reduced T4 to T3 activation in skeletal muscle and thyroid, linked to obesity and alterations in thyroid-pituitary feedback, and in responses to thyroid hormone treatment. Although our professional organizations continue to recommend L-T4 alone for the treatment of hypothyroidism, the possibility of a D2 gene polymorphism should be considered in patients on L-T4 monotherapy who continue to complain of fatigue in spite of dosage achieving low normal serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels. A suggestive clue to the presence of this polymorphism could be a higher than normal free T4/free T3 ratio. Clinicians could consider adding T3 as a therapeutic trial in selected patients. Future well controlled clinical trials will be required to more fully resolve the controversy.

  2. Effect of adjuvant lithium on thyroxine (T4) concentration after radioactive iodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Emmanuel NiiBoye; Vangu, Mboyo-Di-Tamba Heben Willy [University of the Witwatersrand, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiation Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2016-10-15

    To study the effect of adjuvant lithium on serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations in patients treated with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy in our environment. This was a prospective simple randomized comparative, experimental cohort study of patients with hyperthyroidism referred for RAI ablation therapy in the two main academic hospitals in Johannesburg between February 2014 and September 2015. Amongst the 163 participants in the final analysis, 75 received RAI alone and 88 received RAI with lithium. The difference in mean T4 concentrations at 3 months between the RAI-only group (17.67 pmol/l) and the RAI with lithium group (11.55 pmol/l) was significant with a small effect size (U = 2328.5, Z = -2.700, p = 0.007, r = 0.01). Significant decreases in T4 concentrations were observed as early as 1 month after RAI (p = 0.0001) in the RAI with lithium group, but in the RAI-only group, significant decreases in T4 concentrations were observed only at 3 months after RAI therapy (p = 0.000). Women and patients with Graves' disease who received RAI with adjuvant lithium also showed significant decreases in T4 concentrations at 1 month (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). Adjuvant lithium leads to an earlier and better response to RAI therapy with lower T4 concentrations that are achieved earlier. This earlier response and decrease in T4 concentrations were noted in patients with Graves' disease and nodular goitre, and in women with hyperthyroidism who received adjuvant lithium therapy. (orig.)

  3. Clinicopathological outcomes of preoperative chemoradiotherapy using S-1 plus Irinotecan for T4 lower rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Naohito; Yoshie, Hidenori; Kimura, Fumihiko; Aihara, Tsukasa; Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Matsubara, Nagahide; Tomita, Naohiro; Yanagi, Hidenori; Yamanaka, Naoki

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the clinicopathological outcomes of patients with T4 lower rectal cancer treated using preoperative chemoradiotherapy with S-1 plus Irinotecan. Between 2005 and 2011, 35 patients with T4M0 lower rectal cancer, diagnosed initially as T4a in 12 and as T4b in 23, were treated with 45 Gy of radiotherapy concomitantly with S-1 plus Irinotecan. The median follow-up period was 50.6 months (range 2-123 months). A total of 32 patients (91.4 %) completed the radiotherapy and 26 (74.3 %) completed the full chemotherapy regimen. Radical surgery was then performed in 33 (94.3 %) of the 35 patients after the exclusion of two patients, who had macroscopic residual disease. The pathological diagnosis was downstaged from T4a to ypT0-3 in all 12 of those patients (100 %) and from T4b to ypT0-4a in 20 of those 23 patients (87.0 %). The tumor regression grade of 1a/1b/2/3 (complete response) was 10/8/15/2, respectively. In terms of long-term survival, the 5-year local relapse-free survival rate was 74.8 % and the recurrence-free survival rate was 52.0 %. This regimen may result in favorable downstaging. Moreover, in this series, pathological evidence of involvement of adjacent organs was rare following preoperative chemoradiotherapy, in the patients with disease diagnosed as T4b at the initial staging.

  4. The Child-Langmuir law and analytical theory of collisionless to collision-dominated sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benilov, M S

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with summarizing simple analytical models of space-charge sheaths and tracing their relation to the Child-Langmuir model of an ion sheath. The topics discussed include the Child-Langmuir law and model of a collisionless ion sheath, the Mott-Gurney law and model of a collision-dominated ion sheath, the Bohm model of a collisionless ion-electron sheath, the Su-Lam-Cohen model of a collision-dominated ion-electron sheath, ion sheaths with arbitrary collisionality, high-accuracy boundary conditions for the Child-Langmuir and Mott-Gurney models of an ion sheath and the mathematical sense of Child-Langmuir type models of an ion sheath from the point of view of modern theoretical physics.

  5. Behavior of collisional sheath in electronegative plasma with q-nonextensive electron distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgohain, Dima Rani; Saharia, K.

    2018-03-01

    Electronegative plasma sheath is addressed in a collisional unmagnetized plasma consisting of q-nonextensive electrons, Boltzmann distributed negative ions and cold fluid positive ions. Considering the positive ion-neutral collisions and ignoring the effects of ionization and collisions between negative species and positive ions (neutrals), a modified Bohm sheath criterion and hence floating potential are derived by using multifluid model. Using the modified Bohm sheath criterion, the sheath characteristics such as spatial profiles of density, potential and net space charge density have been numerically investigated. It is found that increasing values of q-nonextensivity, electronegativity and collisionality lead to a decrease of the sheath thickness and an increase of the sheath potential and the net space charge density. With increasing values of the electron temperature to negative ion temperature ratio, the sheath thickness increases and the sheath potential as well as the net space charge density in the sheath region decreases.

  6. Restriction of phage T4 internal protein I mutants by a strain of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, L.W.; Abremski, K.

    1974-01-01

    Phage T4 internal protein I(IPI), a small (ca, 10,000 MW), basic protein injected into the host with the phage DNA, is not required for infection of most hosts, but mutants defective in IPI are restricted by at least one naturally occurring strain of Escherichia coli, CT 596 (CT). Phages lacking IPI (IPI - ) appear to inject their DNA and bind it to the membrane of CT cells as well as wild-type phage T4 does, but shutoff of host protein synthesis, initiation of T4 protein synthesis, and cell killing are abnormal in the IPI - mutant infected CT host. The injection of IPI appears to be important in allowing T4 DNA to carry out early steps involved in takeover of this host. Restriction of IPI - phage growth by CT cells appears to be due, at least in part, to a defective prophage it harbors which renders the host resistant to successful infection by phage T4 which lack IPI or rII functions. Bacteria cured of this prophage can be infected by mutants defective in these functions. The resistance of CT cells to other coliphages, and the question of T-even phage internal protein diversity are discussed. (U.S.)

  7. Analysis of T4SS-induced signaling by H. pylori using quantitative phosphoproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frithjof eGlowinski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen colonizing the human stomach. Infection with H. pylori causes chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa and may lead to peptic ulceration and/or gastric cancer. A major virulence determinant of H. pylori is the type IV secretion system (T4SS, which is used to inject the virulence factor CagA into the host cell, triggering a wide range of cellular signaling events. Here, we used a phosphoproteomic approach to investigate tyrosine signaling in response to host-pathogen interaction, using stable isotope labeling in cell culture (SILAC of AGS cells to obtain a differential picture between multiple infection conditions. Cells were infected with wild type H. pylori P12, a P12ΔCagA deletion mutant, and a P12ΔT4SS deletion mutant to compare signaling changes over time and in the absence of CagA or the T4SS. Tryptic peptides were enriched for tyrosine (Tyr phosphopeptides and analysed by nano-LC-Orbitrap MS. In total, 58 different phosphosites were found to be regulated following infection. The majority of phosphosites identified were kinases of the MAPK familiy. CagA and the T4SS were found to be key regulators of Tyr phosphosites. Our findings indicate that CagA primarily induces activation of ERK1 and integrin linked factors, whereas the T4SS primarily modulates JNK and p38 activation.

  8. Performance Evaluation of the MyT4 Technology for Determining ART Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitoe, Nádia; Macamo, Rosa; Meggi, Bindiya; Tobaiwa, Ocean; Loquiha, Osvaldo; Bollinger, Timothy; Vojnov, Lara; Jani, Ilesh

    2016-01-01

    In resource-limited countries, CD4 T-cell (CD4) testing continues to be used for determining antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation eligibility and opportunistic infection monitoring. To support expanded access to CD4 testing, simple and robust technologies are necessary. We conducted this study to evaluate the performance of a new Point-of-Care (POC) CD4 technology, the MyT4, compared to conventional laboratory CD4 testing. EDTA venous blood from 200 HIV-positive patients was tested in the laboratory using the MyT4 and BD FACSCalibur™. The MyT4 had an r2 of 0.82 and a mean bias of 12.3 cells/μl. The MyT4 had total misclassifications of 14.7% and 8.8% when analyzed using ART eligibility thresholds of 350 and 500 cells/μl, respectively. We conclude that the MyT4 performed well in classifying patients using the current ART initiation eligibility thresholds in Mozambique when compared to the conventional CD4 technology.

  9. Coronal mass ejections and their sheath regions in interplanetary space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpua, Emilia; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.

    2017-11-01

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are large-scale heliospheric transients that originate from the Sun. When an ICME is sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind, a shock wave develops ahead of the ICME. The turbulent region between the shock and the ICME is called the sheath region. ICMEs and their sheaths and shocks are all interesting structures from the fundamental plasma physics viewpoint. They are also key drivers of space weather disturbances in the heliosphere and planetary environments. ICME-driven shock waves can accelerate charged particles to high energies. Sheaths and ICMEs drive practically all intense geospace storms at the Earth, and they can also affect dramatically the planetary radiation environments and atmospheres. This review focuses on the current understanding of observational signatures and properties of ICMEs and the associated sheath regions based on five decades of studies. In addition, we discuss modelling of ICMEs and many fundamental outstanding questions on their origin, evolution and effects, largely due to the limitations of single spacecraft observations of these macro-scale structures. We also present current understanding of space weather consequences of these large-scale solar wind structures, including effects at the other Solar System planets and exoplanets. We specially emphasize the different origin, properties and consequences of the sheaths and ICMEs.

  10. Ontogeny of the sheathing leaf base in maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Leiboff, Samuel; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Leaves develop from the shoot apical meristem (SAM) via recruitment of leaf founder cells. Unlike eudicots, most monocot leaves display parallel venation and sheathing bases wherein the margins overlap the stem. Here we utilized computed tomography (CT) imaging, localization of PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) auxin transport proteins, and in situ hybridization of leaf developmental transcripts to analyze the ontogeny of monocot leaf morphology in maize (Zea mays). CT imaging of whole-mounted shoot apices illustrates the plastochron-specific stages during initiation of the basal sheath margins from the tubular disc of insertion (DOI). PIN1 localizations identify basipetal auxin transport in the SAM L1 layer at the site of leaf initiation, a process that continues reiteratively during later recruitment of lateral leaf domains. Refinement of these auxin transport domains results in multiple, parallel provascular strands within the initiating primordium. By contrast, auxin is transported from the L2 toward the L1 at the developing margins of the leaf sheath. Transcripts involved in organ boundary formation and dorsiventral patterning accumulate within the DOI, preceding the outgrowth of the overlapping margins of the sheathing leaf base. We suggest a model wherein sheathing bases and parallel veins are both patterned via the extended recruitment of lateral maize leaf domains from the SAM. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Revisiting the plasma sheath—dust in plasma sheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, G. C. [Mathematical Science Division, IASST, Guwahati 781014 (India); Deka, R.; Bora, M. P., E-mail: mpbora@gauhati.ac.in [Physics Department, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014 (India)

    2016-04-15

    In this work, we have considered the formation of warm plasma sheath in the vicinity of a wall in a plasma with considerable presence of dust particles. As an example, we have used the parameters relevant in case of plasma sheath formed around surfaces of various solid bodies in space, though the results obtained in this work can be applied to any other physical situation such as laboratory plasma. In the ion-acoustic time scale, we neglect the dust dynamics. The dust particles affect the sheath dynamics by affecting the Poisson equation which determines the plasma potential in the sheath region. It is important to note that our calculations are valid only when the amount of dust particles is not sufficient so as to affect the plasma dynamics in the dust-acoustic time scale, but enough to affect the plasma sheath. We have assumed the current to a dust particle to be balanced throughout the analysis. This makes the grain potential dependent on plasma potential, which is then incorporated into the Poisson equation. The resultant numerical model becomes an initial value problem, which is described by a 1-D integro-differential equation, which is then solved self-consistently by incorporating the change in plasma potential caused by inclusion of the dust potential in the Poisson equation.

  12. Sheath-accumulating Propagation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari, E-mail: takahasi@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607–8471 (Japan)

    2017-03-10

    Fast interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the drivers of strong space weather storms such as solar energetic particle events and geomagnetic storms. The connection between the space-weather-impacting solar wind disturbances associated with fast ICMEs at Earth and the characteristics of causative energetic CMEs observed near the Sun is a key question in the study of space weather storms, as well as in the development of practical space weather prediction. Such shock-driving fast ICMEs usually expand at supersonic speeds during the propagation, resulting in the continuous accumulation of shocked sheath plasma ahead. In this paper, we propose a “sheath-accumulating propagation” (SAP) model that describes the coevolution of the interplanetary sheath and decelerating ICME ejecta by taking into account the process of upstream solar wind plasma accumulation within the sheath region. Based on the SAP model, we discuss (1) ICME deceleration characteristics; (2) the fundamental condition for fast ICMEs at Earth; (3) the thickness of interplanetary sheaths; (4) arrival time prediction; and (5) the super-intense geomagnetic storms associated with huge solar flares. We quantitatively show that not only the speed but also the mass of the CME are crucial for discussing the above five points. The similarities and differences between the SAP model, the drag-based model, and the“snow-plow” model proposed by Tappin are also discussed.

  13. An investigation of tendon sheathing filler migration into concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.

    1998-03-01

    During some of the inspections at nuclear power plants with prestressed concrete containments, it was observed that the containments has experienced leakage of the tendon sheathing filler (i.e., streaks). The objective of this activity was to provide an indication of the extent of tendon sheathing filler leakage into the concrete and its affects on concrete properties. Literature was reviewed and concrete core samples were obtained from the Trojan Nuclear Plant and tested. The literature primarily addressed effects of crude or lubricating oils that are known to cause concrete damage. However, these materials have significantly different characteristics relative to the materials used as tendon sheathing fillers. Examination and testing of the concrete cores indicated that the appearance of tendon sheathing filler on the concrete surface was due to leakage from the conduits and its subsequent migration through cracks that were present. Migration of the tendon sheathing filler was confined to the cracks and there was no perceptible movement into the concrete. Results of compressive strength testing indicated that the concrete quality was consistent in the containment and that the strength had increased over 40% in 25.4 years relative to the average compressive strength at 28-days age

  14. Dust crystal in the electrode sheath of a gaseous discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweigert, I.V.; Schweigert, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    The phenomena observed in strongly coupled dusty plasmas in the electrode sheath of gas discharge clearly indicate that the screened Coulomb potential is not valid for inter-particle interaction. The reason why the conventional model breaks down is clear now. The strong electric field, accelerating ions toward the cathode, leads to an asymmetrical particle shielding and the appearance of an attractive component in the inter-particle force. The sheath plasma with micro-particles is non Hamiltonian system because of input of energy from ion flux from the bulk plasma. The models of interaction potential of microparticles in sheath are proposed. The first is the linear effective positive charge (EPC). On the basis of this model the stability of the dust crystal in the sheath is analyzed both analytically and in MD simulations. The scenario of crystal melting is described. The role of different types of defects in the local heating of the crystal is considered. The next non-linear model of sheath plasma with micro-particles allows to find all parameter of plasma crystal: particle charge, inter-particle distance and study the structural transition. We constructed the analytical expression for inter-particle potential and have found the mechanism acceleration of extra particle beneath the monolayer. Recently new more simple analytical kinetic approach, accounting for ion collisions, have been developed. The structural transition in the dust molecular was obtained in simulation with multipole expansion model interaction potential

  15. Coronal mass ejections and their sheath regions in interplanetary space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Kilpua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs are large-scale heliospheric transients that originate from the Sun. When an ICME is sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind, a shock wave develops ahead of the ICME. The turbulent region between the shock and the ICME is called the sheath region. ICMEs and their sheaths and shocks are all interesting structures from the fundamental plasma physics viewpoint. They are also key drivers of space weather disturbances in the heliosphere and planetary environments. ICME-driven shock waves can accelerate charged particles to high energies. Sheaths and ICMEs drive practically all intense geospace storms at the Earth, and they can also affect dramatically the planetary radiation environments and atmospheres. This review focuses on the current understanding of observational signatures and properties of ICMEs and the associated sheath regions based on five decades of studies. In addition, we discuss modelling of ICMEs and many fundamental outstanding questions on their origin, evolution and effects, largely due to the limitations of single spacecraft observations of these macro-scale structures. We also present current understanding of space weather consequences of these large-scale solar wind structures, including effects at the other Solar System planets and exoplanets. We specially emphasize the different origin, properties and consequences of the sheaths and ICMEs.

  16. Sheath-accumulating Propagation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari

    2017-01-01

    Fast interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the drivers of strong space weather storms such as solar energetic particle events and geomagnetic storms. The connection between the space-weather-impacting solar wind disturbances associated with fast ICMEs at Earth and the characteristics of causative energetic CMEs observed near the Sun is a key question in the study of space weather storms, as well as in the development of practical space weather prediction. Such shock-driving fast ICMEs usually expand at supersonic speeds during the propagation, resulting in the continuous accumulation of shocked sheath plasma ahead. In this paper, we propose a “sheath-accumulating propagation” (SAP) model that describes the coevolution of the interplanetary sheath and decelerating ICME ejecta by taking into account the process of upstream solar wind plasma accumulation within the sheath region. Based on the SAP model, we discuss (1) ICME deceleration characteristics; (2) the fundamental condition for fast ICMEs at Earth; (3) the thickness of interplanetary sheaths; (4) arrival time prediction; and (5) the super-intense geomagnetic storms associated with huge solar flares. We quantitatively show that not only the speed but also the mass of the CME are crucial for discussing the above five points. The similarities and differences between the SAP model, the drag-based model, and the“snow-plow” model proposed by Tappin are also discussed.

  17. Settlement of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.K.; Guros, F.B.; Keshian, B.

    1988-01-01

    Two test embankments were constructed on top of an old tailings deposit near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico to determine settlement characteristics of hydraulically- deposited uranium mill tailings. Before construction of the embankments, properties of in-situ tailings and foundation soils were determined using data from boreholes, piezocone soundings, and laboratory tests. These properties were used to estimate post-construction settlement of a planned disposal embankment to be constructed on the tailings. However, excessive uncertainty existed in the following: field settlement rates of saturated and unsaturated tailings, degree of preconsolidation of the upper 15 feet of tailings, and the ability of an underlying silty sand foundation layer to facilitate drainage. Thus, assurance could not be provided that differential settlements of the radon barrier and erosion protection layers would be within allowable limits should the planned disposal embankment be constructed in a single-stage

  18. Copper tailings in stucco mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Pavez

    Full Text Available Abstract This investigation addressed the evaluation of the use of copper tailings in the construction industry in order to reduce the impact on the environment. The evaluation was performed by a technical comparison between stucco mortars prepared with crushed conventional sand and with copper tailings sand. The best results were achieved with the stucco mortars containing tailings. The tailings presented a fine particles size distribution curve different from that suggested by the standard. The values of compressive strength, retentivity, and adherence in the stucco mortars prepared with copper tailings were much higher than those obtained with crushed sand. According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that the preparation of stucco mortars using copper tailings replacing conventional sand is a technically feasible alternative for the construction industry, presenting the benefit of mitigating the impact of disposal to the environment.

  19. Uranium tailings reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.W.; Steger, H.F.; Bowman, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of uranium tailings from Bancroft and Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from Beaverlodge and Rabbit Lake, Saskatchewan, have been prepared as compositional reference materials at the request of the National Uranium Tailings Research Program. The four samples, UTS-1 to UTS-4, were ground to minus 104 μm, each mixed in one lot and bottled in 200-g units for UTS-1 to UTS-3 and in 100-g units for UTS-4. The materials were tested for homogeneity with respect to uranium by neutron activation analysis and to iron by an acid-decomposition atomic absorption procedure. In a free choice analytical program, 18 laboratories contributed results for one or more of total iron, titanium, aluminum, calcium, barium, uranium, thorium, total sulphur, and sulphate for all four samples, and for nickel and arsenic in UTS-4 only. Based on a statistical analysis of the data, recommended values were assigned to all elements/constituents, except for sulphate in UTS-3 and nickel in UTS-4. The radioactivity of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210 in UTS-1 to UTS-4 and of thorium-232, radium-228, and thorium-228 in UTS-1 and UTS-2 was determined in a radioanalytical program composed of eight laboratories. Recommended values for the radioactivities and associated parameters were calculated by a statistical treatment of the results

  20. Binding of T4 endonuclease V to deoxyribonucleic acid irradiated with ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seawell, P.C.; Simon, T.J.; Ganesan, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Endonuclease V of bacteriophage T4 binds to uv-irradiated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) but not to unirradiated DNA. We have developed an assay to detect this binding, based on the retention of enzyme - DNA complexes on nitrocellulose filters. The amount of complex retained, ascertained by using radioactive DNA, is a measure of T4 endonuclease V activity. From our data we conclude that (1) T4 endonuclease V binds to uv-irradiated DNA but not to DNA that has been previously incised by the endonuclease, (2) equilibrium between the free and complexed form of the enzyme is attained under our reaction conditions, (3) dissociation of enzyme - DNA complexes is retarded by sodium cyanide, and (4) retention of enzyme - DNA complexes on nitrocellulose filters is enhanced by high concentrations of saline-citrate

  1. Zinc(II) and the single-stranded DNA binding protein of bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauss, P.; Krassa, K.B.; McPheeters, D.S.; Nelson, M.A.; Gold, L.

    1987-01-01

    The DNA binding domain of the gene 32 protein of the bacteriophage T4 contains a single zinc-finger sequence. The gene 32 protein is an extensively studied member of a class of proteins that bind relatively nonspecifically to single-stranded DNA. The authors have sequenced and characterized mutations in gene 32 whose defective proteins are activated by increasing the Zn(II) concentration in the growth medium. The results identify a role for the gene 32 protein in activation of T4 late transcription. Several eukaryotic proteins with zinc fingers participate in activation of transcription, and the gene 32 protein of T4 should provide a simple, well-characterized system in which genetics can be utilized to study the role of a zinc finger in nucleic acid binding and gene expression

  2. Experimental investigation of plasma sheaths in magnetic mirror and cusp configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhengqi; Wei, Zi-an; Ma, J. X.

    2017-11-01

    Sheath structures near a metal plate in a magnetized plasma were experimentally investigated in magnetic mirror and cusp configurations. Plasma parameters and the sheath potential distributions were probed by a planar and an emissive probe, respectively. The measured sheath profiles in the mirror configuration show that the sheath thickness first decreases and then increases when the magnetic strength is raised. A magnetic flux-tube model was used to explain this result. In the cusp configuration, the measured sheath thickness decreases with the increase of the coil current creating the magnetic cusp. However, when normalized by the electron Debye length, the dependence of the sheath thickness on the coil current is reversed.

  3. Comparison of Immunoassay methods for T3, T4 and TSH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Rodríguez, Celia A.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of T3, T4 and TSH have been considered very important in the diagnosis and monitoring of thyroid diseases both overt and subclinical. These subclinical diseases are actively seeking for years, both in healthy patients and hospitalized for other illnesses; and in the population over 35 years, especially women, in health checkups. The active search for these diseases requires the use of rapid and reliable techniques; that can be developed massively, with good level of detectability and comparable. The overall objective is to present the evaluation of different immunoassay techniques with respect to the RIA and IRMA: ELISA, chemiluminescence, Amplified Chemiluminescence, electrochemiluminescence Immunofluorescence. Compare including automatic methods and analyze the cost and feasibility of them for laboratory immunoassay. ELISA colorimetric technique for dosing was comparable to RIA T4, not for T3. Chemiluminescence (AMERLITE) compared to dosing RIA and IRMA T4 to TSH proved to be valid for both. Amplified Chemiluminescence (Immulite) compared to IRMA for TSH was no significant difference. Electrochemiluminescence (Elecsys 2010) compared to T3 and T4 RIA and IRMA for TSH, no significant differences for T4 and TSH; but no variation to T3. Immunofluorescence (AIA-600) used to compare with RIA for T3 and T4, and TSH IRMA, no significant differences for the measured analytes. Benchmarking of automatic methods suggests that the most thrifty of trials is Immunofluorescence the AIA-600, regarding calibration and control, programming time, randomization and the ability to save the value of the fluorescence deferred calculations for tests without valid at the time of realizing calibration. Analyzing the cost and feasibility of these methods for laboratory immunoassay, we must consider that their characteristics electrochemiluminescence is the fastest, but its price is prohibitive for our health systems. The AIA-600 appears to be the method of choice for its

  4. Benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with T4 UICC II colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teufel, Andreas; Gerken, Michael; Hartl, Janine; Itzel, Timo; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Stroszczynski, Christian; Schlitt, Hans Jürgen; Hofstädter, Ferdinand; Klinkhammer-Schalke, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy is considered the standard of care in patients with UICC stage III colon cancer after R0 resection. Adjuvant therapy was not shown to be beneficial in patients with UICC stage II colon cancer. However, there is an ongoing discussion as to whether adjuvant chemotherapy may be beneficial for a subgroup of UICC II patients in a “high-risk situation” (such as T4). We investigated a Bavarian population-based (2.1 million inhabitants) cohort of 1937 patients with UICC II CRC treated between 2002 and 2012 in regard of the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for large (T4) tumors. Patients older than 80 years of age were excluded. Of 1937 patients, 240 had a T4 tumor (12 %); 77 of all T4 patients received postoperative chemotherapy (33 %). Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models were used for survival analyses. Patients with a T4 tumor who received postoperative chemotherapy had a highly significant survival benefit in respect of overall survival (p < 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (p = 0.008). However, no difference was observed between oxaliplatin-containing and non-oxaliplatin-containing treatment regimens. G2 and G3 tumors were found to particularly benefit from adjuvant treatment. Chemotherapy, age at diagnosis, and tumor grading remained independent risk factors in the multivariate cox regression analysis. Our retrospective study demonstrated the significant benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in the T4 subgroup of patients with UICC II colon cancer. Our data suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy should be seriously considered in these patients. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1404-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  5. Bioassay for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschaeche, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings are composed of fine sand that contains, among other things, some uranium (U/sup 238/ primarily), and all of the uranium daughters starting with /sup 230/Th that are left behind after the usable uranium is removed in the milling process. Millions of pounds of tailings are and continue to be generated at uranium mills around the United States. Discrete uranium mill tailings piles exist near the mills. In addition, the tailings materials were used in communities situated near mill sites for such purposes as building materials, foundations for buildings, pipe runs, sand boxes, gardens, etc. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) is a U.S. Department of Energy Program designed with the intention of removing or stabilizing the mill tailings piles and the tailings used to communities so that individuals are not exposed above the EPA limits established for such tailings materials. This paper discusses the bioassay programs that are established for workers who remove tailings from the communities in which they are placed

  6. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanchey, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  7. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  8. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  9. Preparation of quality control samples for thyroid hormones T3 and T4 in radioimmunoassay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, F.O.A.

    2006-03-01

    Today, the radioimmunoassay becomes one of the best techniques for quantitative analysis of very low concentration of different substances. RIA is being widely used in medical and research laboratories. To maintain high specificity and accuracy in RIA and other related techniques the quality controls must be introduced. In this dissertation quality control samples for thyroid hormones (Triiodothyronine T3 and Thyroxin T4), using RIA techniques. Ready made chinese T4, T3 RIA kits were used. IAEA statistical package were selected.(Author)

  10. Effect of electron emission on an ion sheath structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, M K; Phukan, A; Chakraborty, M

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the variations of ion sheath structures due to the emission of both hot and cold electrons in the target plasma region of a double plasma device. The ion sheath is produced in front of a negatively biased plate. The plasma is produced by hot filament discharge in the source region, and no discharge is created in the target region of the device. The plate is placed in the target (diffused plasma) region where cold electron emitting filaments are present. These cold electrons are free from maintenance of discharge, which is sustained in the source region. The hot ionizing electrons are present in the source region. Three important parameters are changed by both hot and cold electrons i.e. plasma density, plasma potential and electron temperature. The decrease in plasma potential and the increase in plasma density lead to the contraction of the sheath. (paper)

  11. Anomalous Capacitive Sheath with Deep Radio Frequency Electric Field Penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2002-01-01

    A novel nonlinear effect of anomalously deep penetration of an external radio-frequency electric field into a plasma is described. A self-consistent kinetic treatment reveals a transition region between the sheath and the plasma. Because of the electron velocity modulation in the sheath, bunches in the energetic electron density are formed in the transition region adjusted to the sheath. The width of the region is of order V(subscript T)/omega, where V(subscript T) is the electron thermal velocity, and w is frequency of the electric field. The presence of the electric field in the transition region results in a cooling of the energetic electrons and an additional heating of the cold electrons in comparison with the case when the transition region is neglected

  12. Plasma sheath axial phase dynamics in coaxial device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, H.M. (Plasma Physics Dept., NRC, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)); Masoud, M.M. (Plasma Physics Dept., NRC, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt))

    1994-10-01

    The study of the plasma sheath dynamics in the axial phase has been carried out in a 3 kJ coaxial system of Mather type for two different inner electrode (IE) lengths, 20 cm and 31.5 cm. For both lengths, measurements showed that the plasma sheath is splitted into two layers at the breech, which is referred to as a shock front and its magnetic piston. It has been found that the two layers of the plasma current sheath rotate around the inner electrode. At the muzzle the back layer reverse its rotation direction due to the magnetic field structure of the system. Results showed that the axial velocity of the first layer is greater than the second one all over the axial phase within the range between 1.4 and 1.7. (orig.).

  13. Plasma sheath axial phase dynamics in coaxial device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    The study of the plasma sheath dynamics in the axial phase has been carried out in a 3 kJ coaxial system of Mather type for two different inner electrode (IE) lengths, 20 cm and 31.5 cm. For both lengths, measurements showed that the plasma sheath is splitted into two layers at the breech, which is referred to as a shock front and its magnetic piston. It has been found that the two layers of the plasma current sheath rotate around the inner electrode. At the muzzle the back layer reverse its rotation direction due to the magnetic field structure of the system. Results showed that the axial velocity of the first layer is greater than the second one all over the axial phase within the range between 1.4 and 1.7. (orig.)

  14. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma: The utility of CT angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pierro, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We described the utility of computed tomography (CT angiography in detection of bleeding vessels for a rapid percutaneous arterial embolization of the spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma. A 70-year-old woman comes to our attention with acute abdominal pain and a low hemoglobin level. An unenhanced CT was performed demonstrating a large rectus sheath hematoma. A conservative management was initially established. Despite this therapy, the abdominal pain increased together with a further decrease of hemoglobin values. A CT angiography was then performed, demonstrating an active bleeding within the hematoma and addressing the patient to a rapid percutaneous arterial embolization. Keywords: Rectus sheath hematoma, Acute abdomen, Arterial embolization, CT angiography, Active bleeding

  15. TAIL ASYMPTOTICS OF LIGHT-TAILED WEIBULL-LIKE SUMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Soren; Hashorva, Enkelejd; Laub, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider sums of n i.i.d. random variables with tails close to exp{-x(beta)} for some beta > 1. Asymptotics developed by Rootzen (1987) and Balkema, Kluppelberg, and Resnick (1993) are discussed from the point of view of tails rather than of densities, using a somewhat different angle...

  16. Crystal Structure of the Phage T4 Recombinase UvsX and Its Functional Interaction with the T4 SF2 Helicase UvsW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajewski, Stefan; Webb, Michael R.; Galkin, Vitold; Egelman, Edward H.; Kreuzer, Kenneth N.; White, Stephen W. (Duke); (UV); (SJCH)

    2012-07-11

    Bacteriophage T4 provides an important model system for studying the mechanism of homologous recombination. We have determined the crystal structure of the T4 UvsX recombinase, and the overall architecture and fold closely resemble those of RecA, including a highly conserved ATP binding site. Based on this new structure, we reanalyzed electron microscopy reconstructions of UvsX-DNA filaments and docked the UvsX crystal structure into two different filament forms: a compressed filament generated in the presence of ADP and an elongated filament generated in the presence of ATP and aluminum fluoride. In these reconstructions, the ATP binding site sits at the protomer interface, as in the RecA filament crystal structure. However, the environment of the ATP binding site is altered in the two filament reconstructions, suggesting that nucleotide cannot be as easily accommodated at the protomer interface of the compressed filament. Finally, we show that the phage helicase UvsW completes the UvsX-promoted strand-exchange reaction, allowing the generation of a simple nicked circular product rather than complex networks of partially exchanged substrates.

  17. Effects of weather and tailings properties on tailings drying times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantzer, C.; Fasking, T.; Costello, M.; Greenwood, J. [Barr Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation presented the results of a study conducted to determine the effects of weather and tailings properties on tailings drying times. Weather conditions have a significant impact the potential evaporation (PE) and actual evaporation (AE) of oil sands tailings. A 2-stage drying of slurry at a constant PE was conducted to determine the shrinkage limit of untreated mature fine tailings (MFT). An evaporation and seepage model was used to determine maximum first-stage drying rates. Measurements were also taken in a wind tunnel. Potential evaporation rates were calculated and evaporative water losses from the MFT were determined. Estimated drying times were presented. Results of the approach were compared with field measurements conducted in a previous study. Results of the study showed that evaporative water loss rates for May through August were limited by the properties of the tailings. Water loss rates were limited by weather for other months in the year-long study. tabs., figs.

  18. Photovoltaic building sheathing element with anti-slide features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.

    2015-09-08

    The present invention is premised` upon an assembly that includes at least a photovoltaic building sheathing element capable of being affixed on a building structure, the photovoltaic building sheathing element. The element including a photovoltaic cell assembly, a body portion attached to one or more portions of the photovoltaic cell assembly; and at feast a first and a second connector assembly capable of directly or indirectly electrically connecting the photovoltaic cell assembly to one or more adjoining devices; wherein the body portion includes one or more geometric features adapted to engage a vertically adjoining device before installation.

  19. Dengue fever with rectus sheath hematoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the Dengue virus. It is associated with a number of complications, which are well documented. However, Dengue fever associated with rectus sheath hematoma (RSH is a very rare complication. Only one case report has been published prior supporting the association of Dengue fever with RSH. We report a case of Dengue fever who presented with RSH and was successfully treated conservatively. RSH is also an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It is accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis, secondary to rupture of an epigastric vessel or muscle tear.

  20. Use of a hot sheath Tormac for advance fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The use of hot electrons in a Tormac sheath is predicted to improve stability and increase ntau by an order of magnitude. An effective ntau for energy containment is derived and system parameters for several advance fuels are shown. In none of the advance fuels cases considered is a reactor with fields greater than 10 Wb or major plasma radius of more than 3 m required for ignition. Minimum systems have power output of under 100 MW thermal. System parameters for a hot sheath Tormac have a wide latitude. Sizes, magnetic fields, operating temperatures can be chosen to optimize engineering and economic considerations

  1. Development and evaluation of a magnetic solid-phase radioimmunoassay for total human thyroxine (T4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S. H.; Hassan, A. M. E.; Abdalla, O. M.; Zahran, A. B.; Shabbo, N. M.; Ali, N. I.; Gubara, A.

    2009-02-01

    In this study a simple and rapid magnetic solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human thyroxine (T4) was developed using locally raised sheep thyroxine antibody and radioiodinated thyroxine (T4) tracer by chloramine-T method. The assay involves two hours incubation at ambient temperature rang (30 to 35 o C ) associated with the antibody covalently linked by the easily performed carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) method to magnetic particles obtained from SIPAC. 0.1% triton with sodium azide used as a wash buffer. L-Thyroxine Na-salt peta hydrate from sigma was used for the preparation of standards and quality control sera. The coupled magnetic anti-T4 solid phase titrated in order to find out the suitable antibody concentration (titre) to be used in the assay. Optimizations followed by validation procedures were done. When correlated with kits imported from NETRIA and AMERSHAM, results were found to be highly comparable r=0.965 and p<0.05. Shelf life was also studied, so that the local prepared T4 RIA magnetic reagents can be used for the measurement of total human thyroxine with a very low cost compared to imported kits. (Author)

  2. Focused genetic recombination of bacteriophage t4 initiated by double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Victor; Granovsky, Igor; Plugina, Lidiya; Shcherbakova, Tamara; Sizova, Svetlana; Pyatkov, Konstantin; Shlyapnikov, Michael; Shubina, Olga

    2002-10-01

    A model system for studying double-strand-break (DSB)-induced genetic recombination in vivo based on the ets1 segCDelta strain of bacteriophage T4 was developed. The ets1, a 66-bp DNA fragment of phage T2L containing the cleavage site for the T4 SegC site-specific endonuclease, was inserted into the proximal part of the T4 rIIB gene. Under segC(+) conditions, the ets1 behaves as a recombination hotspot. Crosses of the ets1 against rII markers located to the left and to the right of ets1 gave similar results, thus demonstrating the equal and symmetrical initiation of recombination by either part of the broken chromosome. Frequency/distance relationships were studied in a series of two- and three-factor crosses with other rIIB and rIIA mutants (all segC(+)) separated from ets1 by 12-2100 bp. The observed relationships were readily interpretable in terms of the modified splice/patch coupling model. The advantages of this localized or focused recombination over that distributed along the chromosome, as a model for studying the recombination-replication pathway in T4 in vivo, are discussed.

  3. Radioimmunoassay of serum T3, T4 and TSH during anesthesia and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosheva-Antonova, Ts.; Zakharieva, B.; Kurtev, I.

    1987-01-01

    The serum concentrations of thyroxine (T 3 ), triiodothyronine (T 4 ) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in 31 partients before and during urologic operations on the 30th and 60th minute since the onset of the operation, performed under endotracheal halotane or neuroleptanesthesia (NLA) in assisted breathing and intravenous drip anesthesia with ketalar-diazepam in spontaneous breathing. There was statistically significant rise in T 4 level, decrease in T 3 and negligible changes in TSH level, in patients operated under halotane anesthesia. In those operated under NLA, T 4 tended initially to be elevated, with subseguent fall to starting level, with a tendency toward rise in TSH and stable unchanged T 3 level. Ketalar-diazepam anesthesia was applied only to patients subjected to transurethral resections. T 4 in them tended to be decreased, while T 3 and TSH showed negligible changes. Since the operations of patients anesthesized with halotane and NLA had similar localizations and severity, the differences in the thyroid hormone reactions could be associated with the type of anesthesia. The negligible changes in TSH are highly suggestive that this hormone is not influenced by the operation stress and anesthetics, and does hot exert regulating effect upon the thyroid status under these conditions. The milder reactions in patients operated under ketalar-diazepam anestesia may largely be associated with the milder operation stress in transurethal resection

  4. Structural studies on metal-containing enzymes: T4 endonuclease VII and D. gigas formate dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, H.C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Many biological processes require metal ions, and many of these metal-ion functions involve metalloproteins. The metal ions in metalloproteins are often critical to the protein's function, structure, or stability. This thesis focuses on two of these proteins, bacteriophage T4 endonuclease

  5. Modelling T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ∗Corresponding author: Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University ... T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the absence of any defense ... This observation enables us to make the assumption that the population of ...

  6. The isolation and characterization of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia T4-like bacteriophage DLP6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L Peters

    Full Text Available Increasing isolation of the extremely antibiotic resistant bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has caused alarm worldwide due to the limited treatment options available. A potential treatment option for fighting this bacterium is 'phage therapy', the clinical application of bacteriophages to selectively kill bacteria. Bacteriophage DLP6 (vB_SmoM-DLP6 was isolated from a soil sample using clinical isolate S. maltophilia strain D1571 as host. Host range analysis of phage DLP6 against 27 clinical S. maltophilia isolates shows successful infection and lysis in 13 of the 27 isolates tested. Transmission electron microscopy of DLP6 indicates that it is a member of the Myoviridae family. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of DLP6 reveals its richly recombined evolutionary history, featuring a core of both T4-like and cyanophage genes, which suggests that it is a member of the T4-superfamily. Unlike other T4-superfamily phages however, DLP6 features a transposase and ends with 229 bp direct terminal repeats. The isolation of this bacteriophage is an exciting discovery due to the divergent nature of DLP6 in relation to the T4-superfamily of phages.

  7. Modular architecture of the T4 phage superfamily: A conserved core genome and a plastic periphery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeau, Andre M.; Bertrand, Claire; Letarov, Andrei; Tetart, Francoise; Krisch, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Among the most numerous objects in the biosphere, phages show enormous diversity in morphology and genetic content. We have sequenced 7 T4-like phages and compared their genome architecture. All seven phages share a core genome with T4 that is interrupted by several hyperplastic regions (HPRs) where most of their divergence occurs. The core primarily includes homologues of essential T4 genes, such as the virion structure and DNA replication genes. In contrast, the HPRs contain mostly novel genes of unknown function and origin. A few of the HPR genes that can be assigned putative functions, such as a series of novel Internal Proteins, are implicated in phage adaptation to the host. Thus, the T4-like genome appears to be partitioned into discrete segments that fulfil different functions and behave differently in evolution. Such partitioning may be critical for these large and complex phages to maintain their flexibility, while simultaneously allowing them to conserve their highly successful virion design and mode of replication

  8. Differential effect of L3T4+ cells on recovery from total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantel, K.; Nakeff, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have examined the importance of L3T4+ (murine equivalent to CD4+) cells for hematopoietic regulation in vivo in unperturbed mice and mice recovering from total-body irradiation (TBI) using a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody (MoAb) raised with the GK 1.5 hybridoma. Ablating L3T4+ cells in normal (unperturbed) B6D2F1 mice substantially decreased the S-phase fraction (determined by in vivo hydroxyurea suicide) of erythroid progenitor cells (erythroid colony-forming units, CFU-E) as compared to the pretreatment level (10% +/- 14.1% [day 3 following depletion] vs 79.8% +/- 15.9%, respectively) with a corresponding decrease in the marrow content of CFU-E at this time to approximately 1% of the pretreatment value. Although the S-phase fraction of CFU-GM was decreased to 2.2% +/- 3.1% 3 days after L3T4+ cell ablation from the 21.3% +/- 8.3% pretreatment value, CFU-GM cellularity showed little change over the 3 days following anti-L3T4 treatment. Anti-L3T4 MoAb treatment had little or no effect on either the S-phase fraction or the marrow content of hematopoietic stem cells (spleen colony-forming units, CFU-S) committed to myeloerythroid differentiation. Ablating L3T4+ cells prior to a single dose of 2 Gy TBI resulted in significantly reduced marrow contents of CFU-S on day 3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) on day 6 following TBI, with little or no effect on the corresponding recovery of CFU-E. The present findings provide the first in vivo evidence that L3T4+ cells are involved in: (1) maintaining the proliferative activity of CFU-E and CFU-GM in unperturbed mice and (2) supporting the restoration of CFU-S and CFU-GM following TBI-induced myelosuppression

  9. A suitable boundary condition for bounded plasma simulation without sheath resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, S.E.; Procassini, R.J.; Birdsall, C.K.; Cohen, B.I.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a technique that allows for a sheath boundary layer without having to resolve the inherently small space and time scales of the sheath region. We refer to this technique as the logical sheath boundary condition. This boundary condition, when incorporated into a direct-implicit particle code, permits large space- and time-scale simulations of bounded systems, which would otherwise be impractical on current supercomputers. The lack of resolution of the collector sheath potential drop obtained from conventional implicit simulations at moderate values of ω pe Δt and Δz/λ De provides the motivation for the development of the logical sheath boundary condition. The algorithm for use of the logical sheath boundary condition in a particle simulation is presented. Results from simulations which use the logical sheath boundary condition are shown to compare reasonably well with those from an analytic theory and simulations in which the sheath is resolved

  10. Fabrication and use of zircaloy/tantalum-sheathed cladding thermocouples and molybdenum/rhenium-sheathed fuel centerline thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, S.C.; Sepold, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    The thermocouples described in this report are zircaloy/tantalum-sheathed and molybdenum/rhenium alloy-sheathed instruments intended for fuel rod cladding and fuel centerline temperature measurements, respectively. Both types incorporate beryllium oxide insulation and tungsten/rhenium alloy thermoelements. These thermocouples, operated at temperatures of 2000 0 C and above, were developed for use in the internationally sponsored Severe Fuel Damage test series in the Power Burst Facility. The fabrication steps for both thermocouple types are described in detail. A laser-welding attachment technique for the cladding-type thermocouple is presented, and experience with alternate materials for cladding and fuel therocouples is discussed

  11. Runaway tails in magnetized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of a runaway tail driven by a dc electric field in a magnetized plasma is analyzed. Depending on the strength of the electric field and the ratio of plasma to gyrofrequency, there are three different regimes in the evolution of the tail. The tail can be (1) stable with electrons accelerated to large parallel velocities, (2) unstable to Cerenkov resonance because of the depletion of the bulk and the formation of a positive slope, (3) unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance instability driven by the large velocity anisotropy in the tail. Once an instability is triggered (Cerenkov or anomalous Doppler resonance) the tail relaxes into an isotropic distribution. The role of a convection type loss term is also discussed.

  12. Prognostic Value of Subclassification Using MRI in the T4 Classification Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Lei [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Liu Lizhi [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Chen Mo; Li Wenfei; Yin Wenjing [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Lin Aihua [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Sun Ying [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Li Li [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Ma Jun, E-mail: majun2@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To subclassify patients with the T4 classification nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), according to the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to evaluate the prognostic value of subclassification after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 140 patients who underwent MRI and were subsequently histologically diagnosed with nondisseminated classification T4 NPC received IMRT as their primary treatment and were included in this retrospective study. T4 patients were subclassified into two grades: T4a was defined as a primary nasopharyngeal tumor with involvement of the masticator space only; and T4b was defined as involvement of the intracranial region, cranial nerves, and/or orbit. Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rate for T4a patients (82.5% and 87.0%, respectively), were significantly higher than for T4b patients (62.6% and 66.8%; p = 0.033 and p = 0.036, respectively). The T4a/b subclassification was an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio = 2.331, p = 0.032) and DMFS (hazard ratio = 2.602, p = 0.034), and had no significant effect on local relapse-free survival. Conclusions: Subclassification of T4 patients, as T4a or T4b, using MRI according to the site of invasion, has prognostic value for the outcomes of IMRT treatment in NPC.

  13. Effect of radiofrequency on capacitance of low density plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, L.T.; Cunha Rapozo, C. da

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the influence of induced radiofrequency potential (V RF ) modifies the Bohm theory on ion saturation current, measured with Langmuir probes. The effect of radiofrequency potential on diode type plasma sheath resonance is also investigated. (M.C.K.)

  14. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the oculomotor nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozic, D; Nagulic, M; Ostojic, J

    2006-01-01

    We present the short-term follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) studies and 1H-MR spectroscopy in a child with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the oculomotor nerve associated with other less aggressive cranial nerve schwannomas. The tumor revealed perineural extension and diffuse nerve...

  15. Double polymer sheathed carbon nanotube supercapacitors show enhanced cycling stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenqi; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Chunhui; Wu, Shiting; Xu, Wenjing; Zou, Mingchu; Ouyang, An; Cao, Anyuan; Li, Yibin

    2015-12-01

    Pseudo-materials are effective in boosting the specific capacitance of supercapacitors, but during service their degradation may also be very strong, causing reduced cycling stability. Here, we show that a carbon nanotube sponge grafted by two conventional pseudo-polymer layers in sequence can serve as a porous supercapacitor electrode with significantly enhanced cycling stability compared with single polymer grafting. Creating conformal polymer coatings on the nanotube surface and the resulting double-sheath configuration are important structural factors leading to the enhanced performance. Combining different polymers as double sheaths as reported here might be a potential route to circumvent the dilemma of pseudo-materials, and to simultaneously improve the capacitance and stability for various energy storage devices.Pseudo-materials are effective in boosting the specific capacitance of supercapacitors, but during service their degradation may also be very strong, causing reduced cycling stability. Here, we show that a carbon nanotube sponge grafted by two conventional pseudo-polymer layers in sequence can serve as a porous supercapacitor electrode with significantly enhanced cycling stability compared with single polymer grafting. Creating conformal polymer coatings on the nanotube surface and the resulting double-sheath configuration are important structural factors leading to the enhanced performance. Combining different polymers as double sheaths as reported here might be a potential route to circumvent the dilemma of pseudo-materials, and to simultaneously improve the capacitance and stability for various energy storage devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05978j

  16. Extraction of antioxidant pigments from dye sorghum leaf sheaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayode, A.P.P.; Bara, C.A.; Dalode-Vieira, G.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Extraction of antioxidant biocolorant pigments from leaf sheaths of dye sorghum was optimized. Effects of temperature and ethanol concentration of the extraction solvent on the concentrations of the 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, and the colour parameters of the

  17. Ion clusters, REB, and current sheath characteristics in focused discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolotti, A.; Brzosko, J.; DeChiara, P.; Kilic, H.; Mezzetti, F.; Nardi, V.; Powell, C.; Zeng, D.

    1990-01-01

    Small fluctuations in the current sheath characteristics (peak current density, FWHM of leading sheath, control parameters of sheath internal structure) are linked to wide fluctuations of ion and ion cluster emission from the pinch. Magnetic probe data are used for correlating variations of current sheath parameters with particle emission intensity, Z/M composition, particle energy spectrum. The emission of ion and ion clusters at 90 degrees from the axis of a plasma focus discharge is monitored simultaneously with the 0 degrees emission. The particle energy spectrum is analyzed with a Thomson (parabola) spectrometer (time resolution ∼ 1 nanosec). The cross-sectional structure of the REB at 180 degrees along the discharge axis is monitored via the deposition of collective-field accelerated ions on a target in the REB direction. Etched tracks of ion and ion clusters are in all cases recorded on CR-39 plates. Sharp peaks of the D + -ion spectrum at 90 degrees are found for E > 200 keV/unit charge in all focused discharges. These peaks are due to ion crossing of the azimuthal magnetic field of the pinch region, in a predominant ion cluster structure

  18. Electron sheath collapse in an applied-B ion diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechikha, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the electron sheath collapse in an applied-B ion diode due to the presence of the resistive anode plasma layer was found. This effect is more damaging at higher diode voltages and may be responsible for the parasitic load effect observed in the experiments. (author). 4 figs., 2 refs

  19. Synovial sarcoma mimicking benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larque, Ana B.; Nielsen, G.P.; Chebib, Ivan [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-11-15

    To assess the radiographic and clinicopathologic features of synovial sarcoma of the nerve that were clinically or radiologically interpreted as benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Five patients with synovial sarcoma arising from the peripheral nerve and interpreted clinically and radiologically as peripheral nerve sheath tumors were identified. Clinicopathologic and imaging features were evaluated. There were three females and two males, ranging in age from 28 to 50 (mean 35.8) years. Most patients (4/5) complained of a mass, discomfort or pain. MR images demonstrated a heterogeneous, enhancing, soft tissue mass contiguous with the neurovascular bundle. On histologic examination, most tumors were monophasic synovial sarcoma (4/5). At the time of surgery, all tumors were noted to arise along or within a peripheral nerve. All patients were alive with no evidence of disease with median follow-up of 44 (range 32-237) months. For comparison, approximately 775 benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the extremities were identified during the same time period. Primary synovial sarcoma of the nerve can mimic peripheral nerve sheath tumors clinically and on imaging and should be included in the differential diagnosis for tumors arising from peripheral nerves. (orig.)

  20. Charge of a macroscopic particle in a plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarian, A.A.; Vladimirov, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    Charging of a macroscopic body levitating in a rf plasma sheath is studied experimentally and theoretically. The nonlinear charge vs size dependence is obtained. The observed nonlinearity is explained on the basis of an approach taking into account different plasma conditions for the levitation positions of different particles. The importance of suprathermal electrons' contribution to the charging process is demonstrated

  1. Mineralized fibroma of the tendon sheath presenting as a bursitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Corroller, Thomas; Champsaur, Pierre [Hopital Sainte-Marguerite, Service de Radiologie, Marseille (France); Faculte de Medecine de Marseille, Departement d' Anatomie, Marseille (France); Bouvier-Labit, Corinne [Hopital La Timone, Service d' Anatomopathologie, Marseille (France); Sbihi, Abderrahmane [Clinique Juge, Service de Chirurgie orthopedique, Marseille (France)

    2008-12-15

    We report on the clinical, imaging - including ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging - and histological features of a fibroma of the tendon sheath with mineralized chondroid and osseous metaplasia, presenting as a semimembranosus bursitis. The anatomical characteristics of the semimembranosus bursa are demonstrated by dissection in a cadaveric specimen and correlated with the imaging findings in our patient. (orig.)

  2. Mineralized fibroma of the tendon sheath presenting as a bursitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Corroller, Thomas; Champsaur, Pierre; Bouvier-Labit, Corinne; Sbihi, Abderrahmane

    2008-01-01

    We report on the clinical, imaging - including ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging - and histological features of a fibroma of the tendon sheath with mineralized chondroid and osseous metaplasia, presenting as a semimembranosus bursitis. The anatomical characteristics of the semimembranosus bursa are demonstrated by dissection in a cadaveric specimen and correlated with the imaging findings in our patient. (orig.)

  3. The Bohm criterion for a dusty plasma sheath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    undergo temperature fluctuations due to collision, the mean square fluctuation in their temperature is much less than the equilibrium temperature. The problem of sheath dynamics with the plasma–wall interactions is of great importance in a number of areas, viz., plasma ion implantation, high-density com- puter chip ...

  4. Spine Patterning Is Guided by Segmentation of the Notochord Sheath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopat, Susan; Bagwell, Jennifer; Sumigray, Kaelyn D.; Dickson, Amy L.; Huitema, Leonie F.A.; Poss, Kenneth D.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Bagnat, Michel

    2018-01-01

    The spine is a segmented axial structure made of alternating vertebral bodies (centra) and intervertebral discs (IVDs) assembled around the notochord. Here, we show that, prior to centra formation, the outer epithelial cell layer of the zebrafish notochord, the sheath, segments into alternating

  5. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor: MRI and CT Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Kragha

    2015-01-01

    important in its diagnosis. A rare case of MPNST that produced urinary retention and bowel incontinence is presented that may aid clinicians in the diagnosis of this rare clinical entity. Motor weakness, central enhancement, and immunohistochemistry may assist in the diagnosis of MPNST and differentiation between benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor (BPNST and MPNST.

  6. On the upper bound in the Bohm sheath criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotelnikov, I. A., E-mail: I.A.Kotelnikov@inp.nsk.su; Skovorodin, D. I., E-mail: D.I.Skovorodin@inp.nsk.su [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    The question is discussed about the existence of an upper bound in the Bohm sheath criterion, according to which the Debye sheath at the interface between plasma and a negatively charged electrode is stable only if the ion flow velocity in plasma exceeds the ion sound velocity. It is stated that, with an exception of some artificial ionization models, the Bohm sheath criterion is satisfied as an equality at the lower bound and the ion flow velocity is equal to the speed of sound. In the one-dimensional theory, a supersonic flow appears in an unrealistic model of a localized ion source the size of which is less than the Debye length; however, supersonic flows seem to be possible in the two- and three-dimensional cases. In the available numerical codes used to simulate charged particle sources with a plasma emitter, the presence of the upper bound in the Bohm sheath criterion is not supposed; however, the correspondence with experimental data is usually achieved if the ion flow velocity in plasma is close to the ion sound velocity.

  7. Electron sheath collapse in an applied-B ion diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grechikha, A V [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1997-12-31

    The effect of the electron sheath collapse in an applied-B ion diode due to the presence of the resistive anode plasma layer was found. This effect is more damaging at higher diode voltages and may be responsible for the parasitic load effect observed in the experiments. (author). 4 figs., 2 refs.

  8. Internal pressure effects in the AIRCO-LCT conductor sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luton, J.N.; Clinard, J.A.; Lue, J.W.; Gray, W.H.; Summers, L.T.; Kershaw, R.

    1985-01-01

    The large Nb 3 Sn superconducting test coil produced by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the international Large Coil Task (LCT) utilizes a conductor composed of cabled multifilamentary strands immersed in flowing supercritical helium contained by a square structural sheath made of the high-strength stainless alloy JBX-75. Peak pressures of a few hundred atmospheres are predicted to occur during quench, and measurement of these pressures seems feasible only through penetrations of the sheath wall. Fully processed short lengths of conductor were taken from production ends, fitted with pressure taps and strain gauges, and pressurized with helium gas. Failure, at 1000 atm at liquid nitrogen temperature, was by a catastrophic splitting of the sheath at a corner. Strain measurements and burst pressure agreed with elastic-plastic finite element stress calculations made for the sheath alone. Neither the production seam weld nor the pressure tap penetrations or their fillet welds contributed to the failure, although the finite element calculations show that these areas were also highly stressed, and examination of the failed sample showed that the finite welds were of poor quality. Failure was by tensile overload, with no evidence of fatigue

  9. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the bladder associated with neurofibromatosis I.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Julie

    2008-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis is a hamartomatous disorder of autonomic peripheral nerve sheaths associated with peripheral nerve sheath tumours. Most tumours are neurofibromas; however, the genitourinary system is rarely involved. We present a rare case of a nerve sheath tumour of the bladder in a young patient, which was discovered to be malignant.

  10. 30 CFR 15.32 - Tolerances for weight of explosive, sheath, wrapper, and specific gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., wrapper, and specific gravity. 15.32 Section 15.32 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... explosive, sheath, wrapper, and specific gravity. (a) The weight of the explosive, the sheath, and the outer.... (c) The specific gravity of the explosive and sheath shall be within ±7.5 percent of that specified...

  11. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  7. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  10. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  11. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms SRX337965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms.bed ...

  14. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  15. Comparative studies of commercially available T4-RIA-kits. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.A.E.; Lipke, P.

    1978-01-01

    The investigation of the tested commercially available T 4 -RIA-Kits have shown that: The separation of hypo-, eu- and hyperthyroid values is better with kits a) and f) than with b), c), d) and e), though all kits give acceptable values under routine operating conditions, kit b) takes less time and work than the other tested kits, depending on the kit used, the time needed for 100 determinations varies between 1,5 and 4 hr. A general recommendation for one of the tested T 4 -RIA-Kits cannot be made since the choice of a kit depends not only on the criteria discussed but also on local circumstances. (orig.) [de

  16. Repair of potentially lethal damage by introduction of T4 DNA ligase in eucaryotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G.F.; Napolitano, M.; Gialanella, G.

    1991-01-01

    The bacterial enzyme PvuII, which generates blunt-ended DNA double-strand breaks, and T4 DNA ligase, which seals adjacent DNA fragments in coupling to ATP cleavage, were introduced in mouse C3H10T1/2 fibroblasts using osmolytic shock of pinocytic vesicles. Cells were then assayed for their clonogenic ability. In agreement with previous studies by others, the authors found that PvuII restriction endonuclease simulates ionizing radiation effects by causing a dose-dependent loss of reproductive capacity. They show that concomitant treatment with DNA ligase considerably increases cell survival. Survival curves were shown to be dependent on ligase enzyme dose and on ATP concentration in the hypertonic medium. They conclude that T4 DNA ligase is able to repair some potentially lethal damage produced by restriction endonucleases in eucaryotic cells. (author)

  17. Characterization of a bacteriophage T4 mutant lacking DNA-dependent ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behme, M.T.; Ebisuzaki, K.

    1975-01-01

    A DNA-dependent ATPase has previously been purified from bacteriophage T4-infected Escherichia coli. A mutant phage strain lacking this enzyme has been isolated and characterized. Although the mutant strain produced no detectable DNA-dependent ATPase, growth properties were not affected. Burst sizes were similar for the mutant phage and T4D in polAl, recB, recC, uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, and various DNA-negative E. coli. UV sensitivity and genetic recombination were normal in a variety of E. coli hosts. Mapping data indicate that the genetic locus controlling the mutant occurs near gene 56. The nonessential nature of this gene is discussed

  18. Radiation-induced osteochondroma of the T4 vertebra causing spinal cord compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorospe, Luis; Madrid-Muniz, Carmen; Royo, Aranzazu; Garcia-Raya, Pilar [Department of Radiology, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Alvarez-Ruiz, Fernando [Department of Neurosurgery, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Barea, Fernando [Department of Pathology, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid (Spain)

    2002-04-01

    A case of a radiation-induced osteochondroma arising from the vertebral body of T4 in an 18-year-old man is reported. The patient presented with a history of progressive left lower extremity weakness. At 7 years of age, he had undergone resection of a cerebellar medulloblastoma and received adjunctive craniospinal irradiation and systemic chemotherapy. Both CT and MR imaging revealed an extradural mass contiguous with the posteroinferior endplate of the T4 vertebral body. This case indicates that radiation-induced osteochondroma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with symptoms of myelopathy or nerve root compression and a history of radiation therapy involving the spine in childhood. (orig.)

  19. Serum TBG and T4 concentration in non-thyroidal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Tobari, C.; Sekita, N.; Onodera, Y.; Asazu, M.; Someya, K.

    1983-01-01

    Routinely available radioassay kits have recently enabled the measurement of serum concentrations of thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and thyroxine (T 4 ), both total (TT 4 ) and free (FT 4 ) in various disease conditions. Serum TBG and T 4 level were measured in variety of non-thyroidal diseases, of which significance was evaluated in comparison with that in thyroidal diseases. Abnormal serum TBG concentrations in various non-thyroidal diseases and pregnancy result in abnormal serum TT 4 levels, which may cause difficulty in differentiation of these conditions from hyper- or hypothyroidal states. Serum FT 4 levels give better indicator than TT 4 , though the difference among RIA kits are considerably large. However, measurement of serum FT 4 levels alone is not sufficient to distinguish non-thyroidal disease from thyroidal diseases with abnormal thyroidal function. The differentiation has to be based on the combination of clinical findings and results of multiple thyroidal function tests

  20. Pulsating strings from two-dimensional CFT on (T4N/S(N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cardona

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a state from the two-dimensional conformal field theory on the orbifold (T4N/S(N as a dual description for a pulsating string moving in AdS3. We show that, up to first order in the deforming parameter, the energy in both descriptions has the same dependence on the mode number, but with a non-trivial function of the coupling.

  1. Differential cross section measurement for the 6Li(n,t)4He Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guohui; Tang Guoyou; Chen Jinxiang; Shi Zhaomin

    2002-01-01

    The differential cross sections and integrated cross sections of the 6 Li(n,t) 4 He reaction were measured at 1.85 and 2.67 MeV by using a gridded ionization chamber. Neutrons were produced through the T(p, n) 3 He reaction. The absolute neutron flux was determined through the 238 U(n, f) reaction. Present results are compared with existing data

  2. Three magnetic particles solid phase radioimmunoassay for T4: Comparison of their results with established methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, T.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of solid phase separation techniques is an important improvement in radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays. Magnetic particle solid phase method has additional advantages over others, as the separation is rapid and centrifugation is not required. Three types of magnetic particles have been studied in T 4 RIA and the results have been compared with commercial kits and other established methods. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations of deoxyribonucleic acids and repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinak, Miroslav

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) and specific repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V. Namely research described here is focused on the examination of specific recognition process, in which this repair enzyme recognizes the damaged site on the DNA molecule-thymine dimer (TD). TD is frequent DNA damage induced by UV radiation in sun light and unless properly repaired it may be mutagenic or lethal for cell, and is also considered among the major causes of skin cancer. T4 endonuclease V is a DNA specific repair enzyme from bacteriophage T4 that catalyzes the first reaction step of TD repair pathway. MD simulations of three molecules - native DNA dodecamer (12 base pairs), DNA of the same sequence of nucleotides as native one but with TD, and repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V - were performed for 1 ns individually for each molecule. Simulations were analyzed to determine the role of electrostatic interaction in the recognition process. It is found that electrostatic energies calculated for amino acids of the enzyme have positive values of around +15 kcal/mol. The electrostatic energy of TD site has negative value of approximately -9 kcal/mol, different from the nearly neutral value of the respective thymines site of the native DNA. The electrostatic interaction of TD site with surrounding water environment differs from the electrostatic interaction of other nucleotides. Differences found between TD site and respective thymines site of native DNA indicate that the electrostatic energy is an important factor contributing to proper recognition of TD site during scanning process in which enzyme scans the DNA. In addition to the electrostatic energy, the important factor in recognition process might be structural complementarity of enzyme and bent DNA with TD. There is significant kink formed around TD site, that is not observed in native DNA. (author)

  4. T4 category revision enhances the accuracy and significance of stage III breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Uwe; Singer, Gad; Langer, Igor; Schötzau, Andreas; Herberich, Linda; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Wight, Edward

    2006-06-15

    Because of the considerable heterogeneity in breast carcinoma with noninflammatory skin involvement (T4b/Stage IIIB), a revision was proposed of the TNM staging system that would classify these tumors exclusively based on their tumor size and lymph node status. In the current study, the authors evaluated how implementation of this proposal will affect Stage III noninflammatory breast cancer. Two hundred seven patients who were classified with noninflammatory Stage III breast cancer were treated consecutively between 1990 and 1999 at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. To assess the extent of T4b/Stage IIIB tumors independent of the clinicopathologic feature of skin involvement, the reclassification was undertaken. Of 68 patients who had nonmetastatic T4b breast cancer, 37 patients (54.4%) had a tumor extent in accordance with Stage I/II and had improved disease-specific survival (DSS) compared with patients who had Stage III breast cancer (P = .008). Excluding those patients from Stage III led to a 17.9% reduction of the number of patients in this group (n = 170 patients). The 10-year DSS declined from 48.5% to 42.9%. Considerable numbers of patients who are classified with noninflammatory Stage IIIB breast cancer show only a limited disease extent. Through a revision of the T4 category, these low-risk patients were excluded from the highest nonmetastatic TNM stage, and overstaging could be avoided. This procedure decreased the degree of heterogeneity of the entire Stage III group and may result in a more precise assessment of this disease entity. Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.

  5. Experimental electromagnetic effects on the model organism Escherichia coli and the bacteriophage T4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiewski, Darlene Mildred

    This experimentally-based work was designed to answer the research question as to whether the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can produce observable effects upon the bacterial virus activity of T4, with such activity demonstrated through the infection of its host bacterium Escherichia coli. The biological samples were placed for three hours within a coil antenna assembly propagating oscillating fields of radio frequency electromagnetic energy generated at the frequency of 5.6 MHz, and set at right angles within a magnetic field of 1450 gauss (recognizing such conditions are not set for the maximum effective resonance for hydrogen nuclei). The laboratory technique of plaque formation was the basis upon which the statistically tested data were compiled. Exposure of the bacterium alone exhibited an increase in viral activity over the control group (40--68% higher numbers of plaque formation), while exposure of T4 alone saw a decrease (approximately 23%) in infection rates. Depending on the protocol, placement of both T4 and E. coli into the coil assembly saw a decrease of either approximately 50% or 42% in infection rates. Future research must address identification of the effects being observed.

  6. Sequence organization and control of transcription in the bacteriophage T4 tRNA region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Abelson, J

    1985-10-05

    Bacteriophage T4 contains genes for eight transfer RNAs and two stable RNAs of unknown function. These are found in two clusters at 70 X 10(3) base-pairs on the T4 genetic map. To understand the control of transcription in this region we have completed the sequencing of 5000 base-pairs in this region. The sequence contains a part of gene 3, gene 1, gene 57, internal protein I, the tRNA genes and five open reading frames which most likely code for heretofore unidentified proteins. We have used subclones of the region to investigate the kinetics of transcription in vivo. The results show that transcription in this region consists of overlapping early, middle and late transcripts. Transcription is directed from two early promoters, one or two middle promoters and perhaps two late promoters. This region contains all of the features that are seen in T4 transcription and as such is a good place to study the phenomenon in more detail.

  7. Palliative telecobalt-60 with concentrated dose in TNM classification T4 of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patricio, M.B.; Brites, C.F.; Guimaraes, M.F.; De Jesus, E.B.; Catita, J.I.; Vilhena, M.

    1986-01-01

    A method is presented of rapid, palliative radiotherapy for carcinoma of the breast, composed of two sessions of 6.5 or 8.5 Gy delivered at a 48-hour interval. The radiobiological equivalence of this unconventional technique is presented. Our preliminary results in a series of 80 patients were published in 1978. The present report is based on the analysis of 112 patients with T4 of the breast submitted to the flash dose, from March 1978 to December 1981. The method was used not only for relief of symptoms such as pain and hemorrhage, but also as part of intensive radiotherapy in all patients with good response and with no manifestation of distant dissemination so that they were able to resume treatment 2.5 or 3 weeks later, with conventional fractionation. Some of these patients became operable. About half of the cases had castration and/or hormone therapy and/or chemotherapy. In the group of patients with T4M0, 59.8% were alive after more than 1 year, and of them, 43.7% had no evidence of disease. These encouraging results suggest that this method be advocated in T4 of the breast because of its rapidity and good tolerance with no significant complications

  8. Quantitation of T-3 (triiodothyronine) and T-4 (thyroxine) in serum and plasma. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglowski, W.; Williams, R.B.

    1981-12-01

    This report summarizes an examination of the published literature concerning the quantitation of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the clinical laboratory. It therefore details the precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity obtainable in various commercial systems and those devised in the clinical laboratory. The data produced by several of the procedures often indicate that improvements in these parameters would enhance overall assay performance and increase the reliability of the clinical interpretation derivable from assay results. For T-3 and T-4 in vitro assays a very large number of systems exist and are currently being utilized in clinical laboratories in this country. For the sake of brevity some systems, while mentioned, are not reviewed in exhaustive detail. Radioimmunoassay, as the most frequently performed assay for both T-3 and T-4 is extensively reviewed. Also discussed with particular interest are assay systems which will undoubtedly impact on the future course of thyroid hormone assessment in the clinical laboratory, namely enzyme immunoassay and fluorescent immunoassay. The state of the art in T-4 measurements in neonates, because it is such a critical area for application of in vitro thyroid testing, is given detailed review. The quantitation of free thyroxine has been discussed in detail. These assays have been gaining more frequent use in the clinical laboratory and increased commercial system development

  9. Processive nicking activity of T4 endonuclease V on UV-irradiated chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruskin, E.A.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    T4 endonuclease V initiates the excision repair of pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated T4 infected E. coli cells. The pyrimidine dimer specific nicking activity of T4 endonuclease V functions by a processive scanning on UV-irradiated DNA. Previously it has been demonstrated that introduction of endonuclease V into repair-deficient human cells causes a restoration of UV survival in these cells. This demonstrates that endonuclease V is competent to incise mammalian DNA at the site of pyrimidine dimers. In order to assess the ability of endonuclease V to act processively on DNA associated as chromatin, minichromosomes were prepared for use as a substrate. Form I DNA was reconstituted with H3, H4 +/- H1 histones by sequential dialysis steps from 2.0 M NaCl to 50 mM NaCl. Time course reactions were performed with minichromosomes containing 10 and 25 dimers per molecule. In each case the rate of disappearance of form I DNA which was associated as chromatin was decreased relative to that of naked form I DNA. Concurrent with that observation, the rate and extent of appearance of form III DNA was increased with the DNA in minichromosomes relative to naked DNA. This is diagnostic of an enhancement of processivity. The inclusion of H1 in the minichromosomes resulted in a slight additional increase in processivity relative to minichromosomes consisting only of H3 and H4

  10. Synthesis and magnetic property of T4 virus-supported gold-coated iron ternary nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Ziming; Sun Hongjing; Gao Faming, E-mail: fmgao@ysu.edu.cn; Hou Li; Li Na [Yanshan University, Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry (China)

    2012-12-15

    Herein, we present a novel method based on the use of the symmetrical T4 bacteriophage capsid as a scaffold for preparing the gold-coated iron ternary core/shell nanostructure. Results showed that the thick gold shell was obtained to effectively protect Fe core from oxidation. Magnetic measurements showed that the nanocomposites were superparamagnetic at room temperature with a blocking temperature of about 35 K. At 3 K, its coercivity of 1142.86 Oe was larger than the existing experimental values. The magnetic property of Au/T4 was also tested, demonstrating the source of the magnetic sample arising from the Fe core only. The absorption spectrum of the Fe-Au/T4 complex was measured and compared with gold/virus. Different thickness gold shells were controlled in the synthesis by tuning the Au salt addition. On the basis of results and discussion, we further speculated the general growing mechanism of the template-supported Fe-Au process.

  11. Synthesis and magnetic property of T4 virus-supported gold-coated iron ternary nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziming; Sun, Hongjing; Gao, Faming; Hou, Li; Li, Na

    2012-12-01

    Herein, we present a novel method based on the use of the symmetrical T4 bacteriophage capsid as a scaffold for preparing the gold-coated iron ternary core/shell nanostructure. Results showed that the thick gold shell was obtained to effectively protect Fe core from oxidation. Magnetic measurements showed that the nanocomposites were superparamagnetic at room temperature with a blocking temperature of about 35 K. At 3 K, its coercivity of 1142.86 Oe was larger than the existing experimental values. The magnetic property of Au/T4 was also tested, demonstrating the source of the magnetic sample arising from the Fe core only. The absorption spectrum of the Fe@Au/T4 complex was measured and compared with gold/virus. Different thickness gold shells were controlled in the synthesis by tuning the Au salt addition. On the basis of results and discussion, we further speculated the general growing mechanism of the template-supported Fe@Au process.

  12. Tensile behavior of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 aluminum alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidarzadeh, A.; Khodaverdizadeh, H.; Mahmoudi, A.; Nazari, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Range of parameters for defect-free friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 was reached. ► A model was developed for predicting UTS and EL of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4. ► The maximum values of UTS and EL of joints were estimated by developed model. ► The optimum values of FSW process parameters were determined. -- Abstract: In this investigation response surface methodology based on a central composite rotatable design with three parameters, five levels and 20 runs, was used to develop a mathematical model predicting the tensile properties of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 aluminum alloy joints at 95% confidence level. The three welding parameters considered were tool rotational speed, welding speed and axial force. Analysis of variance was applied to validate the predicted model. Microstructural characterization and fractography of joints were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Also, the effects of the welding parameters on tensile properties of friction stir welded joints were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the optimum parameters to get a maximum of tensile strength were 920 rev/min, 78 mm/min and 7.2 kN, where the maximum of tensile elongation was obtained at 1300 rev/min, 60 mm/min and 8 kN.

  13. Electric fields in the sheath formed in a 300 mm, dual frequency capacitive argon discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnat, E V; Miller, P A; Hebner, G A; Paterson, A M; Panagopoulos, T; Hammond, E; Holland, J

    2007-01-01

    The spatial structure and temporal evolution of the electric fields in a sheath formed in a dual frequency, 300 mm capacitive argon discharge are measured as functions of relative mixing between a low frequency current and a high frequency current. It is found that the overall structure of the sheath (potential across the sheath and the thickness of the sheath) are dominated by the lower frequency component while (smaller) oscillations in these quantities are dictated by the higher frequency component. Comparisons of the measured spatial and temporal profiles are made for Lieberman's and Robiche et al sheath model and with a particle in a cell calculation

  14. Theseus Tail Being Unloaded

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The tail of the Theseus prototype research aircraft is seen here being unloaded at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements

  15. Rehabilitation of uranium tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Under Australian environmental controls relating to the management of uranium tailings, it is no longer acceptable practice to search for a rehabilitation strategy at the end of production when the generation of tailings has ceased. The uranium projects currently in production and those being proposed are tightly regulated by the authorities. The waste management plans must consider site specific factors and must include selection of appropriate disposal sites and design for long term containment. The final encapsulation in engineered facilities must take into account the probable routes to the environment of the tailings. Rehabilitation shoud be undertaken by the mining and milling operators to standards approved by appropriate authorities. Appropriate administrative arrangements are required, by way of technical committees and financial bonds to ensure that agreed standards of rehabilitation may be achieved. Past and present experience with the rehabilitation of uranium tailings impoundments in Australia is discussed

  16. Sub-aerial tailings deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.B.; Haile, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The sub-aerial technique involves the systematic deposition of tailings in thin layers and allowing each layer to settle, drain and partially air dry prior to covering with a further layer. Underdrainage produces densities in excess of those achieved by sub-aqueous deposition and any air-drying serves to preconsolidate each layer with a resulting further increase in density. The low permeability of the tailings surface resulting from this deposition technique results in high runoff coefficients and, by decanting the runoff component of direct precipitation, a net evaporation condition can be achieved even in high rainfall areas. An underdrainage system prevents the build-up of excess pore-pressures within the tailings mass and at decommissioning the tailings are fully consolidated and drained thereby eliminating the possibility of any long term seepage. This paper presents a general description of these design concepts, and details of two projects where the concepts have been applied

  17. Urea, Uric Acid, Prolactin and fT4 Concentrations in Aqueous Humor of Keratoconus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachon, Tanja; Stachon, Axel; Hartmann, Ulrike; Seitz, Berthold; Langenbucher, Achim; Szentmáry, Nóra

    2017-06-01

    Keratoconus is a noninflammatory disease of the cornea associated with progressive thinning and conical shape. Metabolic alterations in the urea cycle, with changes in collagen fibril stability, oxidative stress, thyroid hormones and prolactin with regulatory effect on biosynthesis and biomechanical stability of corneal stroma, may all play a role in keratoconus etiology. Our purpose was to determine urea, uric acid, prolactin and free thyroxin (fT4) concentrations in human aqueous humor (hAH) of keratoconus and cataract patients. hAH was collected from 100 keratoconus (penetrating keratoplasty) (41.9 ± 14.9 years, 69 males) and 100 cataract patients (cataract surgery) (71.2 ± 12.4 years, 58 males). Urea, uric acid, prolactin and fT4 concentrations were measured by Siemens clinical chemistry or immunoassay system. For statistical analysis, a generalized linear model (GLM) was used. Urea concentration was 11.88 ± 3.03 mg/dl in keratoconus and 16.44 ± 6.40 mg/dl in cataract patients, uric acid 2.04 ± 0.59 mg/dl in keratoconus and 2.18 ± 0.73 mg/dl in cataract groups. Prolactin concentration was 3.18 ± 0.34 ng/ml in keratoconus and 3.33 ± 0.32 ng/ml in cataract patients, fT4 20.57 ± 4.76 pmol/l in KC and 19.06 ± 3.86 pmol/l in cataract group. Urea concentration was effected through gender (p = 0.039), age (p = 0.001) and diagnosis (p = 0.025). Uric acid concentration was not effected through any of the analyzed parameters (p > 0.056). Prolactin and fT4 concentration were effected only through diagnosis (p = 0.009 and p = 0.006). Urea and prolactin concentrations are decreased, fT4 concentration is increased in aqueous humor of keratoconus patients, and uric acid concentration remains unchanged. Urea concentration in aqueous humor is also increased in older and male patients. Therefore, metabolic disorder and hormonal balance may both have an impact on keratoconus development. Further studies are necessary to assess the specific impact.

  18. Sirenomelia apus with vestigial tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Tushar B; Nanavati, Ruchi N; Udani, Rekha H

    2005-04-01

    Sirenomelia is an exceptionally rare congenital malformation characterized by complete or near complete fusion of lower limbs. A newborn with clinical features of sirenomelia including fused lower limbs in medial position, absent fibula, anal atresia, complete absence of urogenital system (bilateral renal agenesis, absent ureters, urinary bladder, absent internal and external genitalia), a single umbilical artery and a vestigial tail is reported. Association of vestigial tail with sirenomelia is not described in the literature.

  19. The magnetized sheath of a dusty plasma with grains size distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Jing; Gan, Chunyun; Lin, Binbin; Yang, Jinhong

    2015-01-01

    The structure of a plasma sheath in the presence of dust grains size distribution (DGSD) is investigated in the multi-fluid framework. It is shown that effect of the dust grains with different sizes on the sheath structure is a collective behavior. The spatial distributions of electric potential, the electron and ion densities and velocities, and the dust grains surface potential are strongly affected by DGSD. The dynamics of dust grains with different sizes in the sheath depend on not only DGSD but also their radius. By comparison of the sheath structure, it is found that under the same expected value of DGSD condition, the sheath length is longer in the case of lognormal distribution than that in the case of uniform distribution. In two cases of normal and lognormal distributions, the sheath length is almost equal for the small variance of DGSD, and then the difference of sheath length increases gradually with increase in the variance

  20. Gene Expression Profiling of the Intact Dermal Sheath Cup of Human Hair Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiyama, Shiro; Ishimatsu-Tsuji, Yumiko; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Yoshida, Yuzo; Soma, Tsutomu; Ideta, Ritsuro; Mukai, Hideki; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2018-04-24

    Cells that constitute the dermal papillae of hair follicles might be derived from the dermal sheath, the peribulbar component of which is the dermal sheath cup. The dermal sheath cup is thought to include the progenitor cells of the dermal papillae and possesses hair inductive potential; however, it has not yet been well characterized. This study investigated the gene expression profile of the intact dermal sheath cup, and identified dermal sheath cup signature genes, including extracellular matrix components and BMP-binding molecules, as well as TGF-b1 as an upstream regulator. Among these, GREM2, a member of the BMP antagonists, was found by in situ hybridization to be highly specific to the dermal sheath cup, implying that GREM2 is a key molecule contributing to maintenance of the properties of the dermal sheath cup.

  1. Multichannel thickener of flotation tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratenko, A F; Shuliko, A N; Zinchenko, A F

    1983-04-01

    A multichannel thickener of flotation tailings developed by Ukrniiugleobogashchenie is described. Tailings with solid content ranging from 40 to 60 g/l are mixed with flocculation reagents (quantity ratio from 60 to 70 g/l) in a turbulent mixer: waste water with tailings fed to the mixer is divided into three streams, flocculation reagents are batched in stages with each water stream. After turbulent mixing, water, tailings and reagent are fed to the settling chamber. Settling chamber (dimensions 2.4 x 1.5 x 1.0 m) is divided into a number of channels by settling surfaces of 0.35 m/sup 2/ each, inclined at an angle of 55 degrees. Distance between the surfaces is 50 mm. The thickener has a total settling surface of 18.7 m/sup 2/. Water with tailings flows upwards, cleaned water is removed by a separating system and settled tailings move downward and accumulate in the compacting chamber (dimensions 1.5 x 1.5 x 0.9 m). From the compacting chamber thickened slurry with solid content from 90 to 150 g/l is removed by a hydraulic system. During performance testing in some plants preparing coal difficult to wash, thickening efficiency amounted to 100%. The results of performance testing are shown in two tables. Factors which influence thickener productivity are evaluated. (In Russian)

  2. In vivo engineering of a functional tendon sheath in a hen model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Cao, Dejun; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Guangdong; Zhang, Wen Jie; Cao, Yilin

    2010-05-01

    Repair of injured tendon sheath remains a major challenge and this study explored the possibility of in vivo reconstruction of a tendon sheath with tendon sheath derived cells and polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers in a Leghorn hen model. Total 55 Leghorn hens with a 1cm tendon sheath defect created in the left middle toe of each animal were randomly assigned into: (1) experimental group (n=19) that received a cell-PGA construct; (2) scaffold control group (n=18) that received a cell-free PGA scaffold; (3) blank control group (n=18) with the defect untreated. Tendon sheath cells were isolated, in vitro expanded, and seeded onto PGA scaffolds. After in vitro culture for 7 days, the constructs were in vivo implanted to repair the sheath defects. Alcian blue staining confirmed the ability of cultured cells to produce specific matrices containing acidic carboxyl mucopolysaccharide (mainly hyaluronic acid). In addition, the engineered sheath formed a relatively mature structure at 12 weeks post-surgery, which was similar to that of native counterpart, including a smooth inner surface, a well-developed sheath histological structure with a clear space between the tendon and the engineered sheath. More importantly, Work of Flexion assay revealed that the tendons needed less power consumption to glide inside the engineered sheath when compared to the tendons which were surrounded by scar-repaired tissues, indicating that the engineered sheaths had gained the function to a certain extent of preventing tendon adhesion. Taken together, these results suggest that tendon sheaths that are functionally and structurally similar to native sheaths are possible to be engineered in vivo using tendon sheath cells and PGA scaffolds. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cross-tail velocity component in the plasma sheet fast flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Dmitrieva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The flux transfer in the magnetotail plasma sheet is mainly provided by the tail-aligned fast plasma flows (Bursty Bulk Flows – BBFs. In this paper we study the events with a large cross-tail velocity component, including their occurrence and relationship to the standard BBFs. We found out that a significant part of large Vy events are a subgroup connected with the BBFs propagation. The maximal deviation of the velocity vector from the X direction (about 40–50 degrees, on average is observed near the BBFs' leading front in the sheath, where the fast flow interacts with surrounding plasma. The average variation of the velocity direction in the vicinity of the BBF resembles a plasma vortex. Our results support the model, in which the BBF represents a polarized, bubble-like flux tube, propagating through the plasma sheet.

  4. Co-electrospinning fabrication and photocatalytic performance of TiO2/SiO2 core/sheath nanofibers with tunable sheath thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Houbao; Du, Pingfan; Song, Lixin; Xiong, Jie; Yang, Junjie; Xing, Tonghai; Liu, Xin; Wu, Rongrong; Wang, Minchao; Shao, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The core–sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers were fabricated by co-electrospinning technique. • The catalytic property of nanofibers with different sheath thickness was studied. • The potential methods of improving catalytic efficiency are suggested. - Abstract: In this paper, core/sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers with tunable sheath thickness were directly fabricated via a facile co-electrospinning technique with subsequent calcination at 500 °C. The morphologies and structures of core/sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers were characterized by TGA, FESEM, TEM, FTIR, XPS and BET. It was found that the 1D core/sheath nanofibers are made up of anatase–rutile TiO 2 core and amorphous SiO 2 sheath. The influences of SiO 2 sheath and its thickness on the photoreactivity were evaluated by observing photo-degradation of methylene blue aqueous solution under the irradiation of UV light. Compared with pure TiO 2 nanofibers, the core/sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers performed a better catalytic performance. That was attributed to not only efficient separation of hole–electron pairs resulting from the formation of heterojunction but also larger surface area and surface silanol group which will be useful to provide higher capacity for oxygen adsorption to generate more hydroxyl radicals. And the optimized core/sheath TiO 2 /SiO 2 nanofibers with a sheath thickness of 37 nm exhibited the best photocatalytic performance

  5. Zircaloy-sheathed element rods fitted with thermo-couples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardy de Sigoyer, B.; Jacques, F.; Thome, P.

    1963-01-01

    In order to carry out thermal conductivity measurements on UO 2 in conditions similar to those under which fuel rods are used, it was necessary to measure the temperature at the interior of a fuel element sheathed in zircaloy. The temperatures are taken with Thermocoax type thermocouples, that is to say fitted with a very thin sheath of stainless steel or Inconel. It is known also that fusion welding of zircaloy onto stainless steel is impossible and that high temperature welded joints are very difficult because of their aggressiveness. The technique used consists in brazing the thermocouples to relatively large stainless steel parts and then joining these plugs by electron bombardment welding to diffused stainless steel-zircaloy couplings. The properties of these diffused couplings and of the brazed joints were studied; the various stages in the fabrication of the containers are also described. (authors) [fr

  6. Moisture Durability with Vapor-Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Exterior sheathing insulation is an effective strategy in increasing the overall R-value of wall assemblies; other benefits include decreasing the effects of thermal bridging and increasing the moisture durability of the built assembly. Vapor-permeable exterior insulation, such as mineral board or expanded polystyrene foam, are one such product that may be used to achieve these benefits. However, uncertainty exists on the effects of inward driven moisture and the interaction of increased sheathing temperatures on the moisture durability of the edifice. To address these concerns, Building Science Corporation (BSC) conducted a series of hygrothermal models for cities representing a range of different climate zones. This report describes the research project, key research questions, and the procedures utilized to analyse the problems.

  7. Moisture Durability with Vapor-Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Exterior sheathing insulation is an effective strategy in increasing the overall R-value of wall assemblies; other benefits include decreasing the effects of thermal bridging and increasing the moisture durability of the built assembly. Vapor-permeable exterior insulation, such as mineral board or expanded polystyrene foam, are one such product that may be used to achieve these benefits. However,uncertainty exists on the effects of inward driven moisture and the interaction of increased sheathing temperatures on the moisture durability of the edifice. To address these concerns, Building Science Corporation (BSC) conducted a series of hygrothermal models for cities representing a range of different climate zones. This report describes the research project, key research questions, and theprocedures utilized to analyse the problems.

  8. Sheath structure in negative ion sources for fusion (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAdams, R.; King, D. B.; Surrey, E.; Holmes, A. J. T.

    2012-01-01

    In fusion negative ion sources, the negative ions are formed on the caesiated plasma grid predominantly by hydrogen atoms from the plasma. The space charge of the negative ions leaving the wall is not fully compensated by incoming positive ions and at high enough emission a virtual cathode is formed. This virtual cathode limits the flux of negative ions transported across the sheath to the plasma. A 1D collisionless model of the sheath is presented taking into account the virtual cathode. The model will be applied to examples of the ion source operation. Extension of the model to the bulk plasma shows good agreement with experimental data. A possible role for fast ions is discussed.

  9. Out-of-pile fatigue tests on Zircaloy CANDU sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Maria; Ciocanescu, Marin; Gheorghiu, Constantin; Pitigoi, Vasile; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2005-01-01

    The paper outlines the achievements in the nuclear research field of cooperation on Nuclear Fuel performed as part of the collaboration under the Memorandum of Understanding, settled between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Institute for Nuclear Research (ICN), The sheath behavior was simulated using out-of-pile fatigue tests, in conditions identical with those met during the operation in power cycling of CANDU reactor, except for irradiation. A special test rig, designed and carried-out at ICN ensured the experimental requirements according to the Canadian testing procedure. The description of the experimental setup and monitoring of testing parameters were also done. The fatigue life time, expressed as number of cycles to rupture (N), was measured as a function of the total strain amplitude (e) induced in the Zircaloy-4 sheath samples. Strain-Life time fatigue dependence (e-N) under low cycle fatigue conditions was also verified using the Coffin-Manson correlation. (authors)

  10. Retroperitoneal Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, Ayse Nur; Bayar, Mehmet Akif; Caydere, Muzaffer; Deger, Hakki; Tayfur, Mahir

    2015-09-01

    Malignant nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) are rare neoplasias and retroperitoneal cases are fairly rare and clinically difficult to be detected, but they are very agressive neoplasias. MPNST are frequently seen in head, neck and upper extremities. In patients with NF1; MPNST, a poor-prognostic lesion, may result from a malignant degeneration of a former plexiform neurofibroma. It is necessary to be aware of a potential malignancy in patients diagnosed with plexiform neurofibroma. We present a 21-year-old female with a diagnosis of MPNST. The patient was admited to the hospital because of a tumour in the subcutaneous region on her left buttock. The surgeon's clinical diagnosis was lipoma. After the pathological examination of biopsy specimen, the lesion was identified as "plexiform neurofibroma" and then the patient was diagnosed with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). Simultaneously, another mass on the retroperitoneal region was identified as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST).

  11. Studies of RF sheaths and diagnostics on IShTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crombé, K., E-mail: Kristel.Crombe@UGent.be [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); LPP-ERM/KMS, Royal Military Academy, Brussels (Belgium); Devaux, S.; Faudot, E.; Heuraux, S.; Moritz, J. [YIJL, UMR7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); D’Inca, R.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Jacquot, J.; Ochoukov, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Louche, F.; Tripsky, M.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Royal Military Academy, Brussels (Belgium); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2015-12-10

    IShTAR (Ion cyclotron Sheath Test ARrangement) is a linear magnetised plasma test facility for RF sheaths studies at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Garching. In contrast to a tokamak, a test stand provides more liberty to impose the parameters and gives better access for the instrumentation and antennas. The project will support the development of diagnostic methods for characterising RF sheaths and validate and improve theoretical predictions. The cylindrical vacuum vessel has a diameter of 1 m and is 1.1 m long. The plasma is created by an external cylindrical plasma source equipped with a helical antenna that has been designed to excite the m=1 helicon mode. In inductive mode, plasma densities and electron temperatures have been characterised with a planar Langmuir probe as a function of gas pressure and input RF power. A 2D array of RF compensated Langmuir probes and a spectrometer are planned. A single strap RF antenna has been designed; the plasma-facing surface is aligned to the cylindrical plasma to ease the modelling. The probes will allow direct measurements of plasma density profiles in front of the RF antenna, and thus a detailed study of the density modifications induced by RF sheaths, which influences the coupling. The RF antenna frequency has been chosen to study different plasma wave interactions: the accessible plasma density range includes an evanescent and propagative behaviour of slow or fast waves, and allows the study of the effect of the lower hybrid resonance layer.

  12. Photovoltaic sheathing element with one or more tabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo C.

    2017-02-07

    The present invention is premised upon an assembly that includes at least a photovoltaic sheathing element capable of being affixed on a building structure. The shingle including at least a photovoltaic cell assembly, a body portion attached to one or more portions of the photovoltaic cell assembly. Wherein the body portion includes one or more top peripheral tabs each capable of fitting under one or more vertically adjoining devices.

  13. Comparative Oncogenomics for Peripheral Nerve Sheath Cancer Gene Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    and MPNSTs by determining whether these same genes are mutated in human tumors. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nothing listed 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...sheath tumour (MPNST). In: Louis DNO, H.;Wiestler,O.D.;Cavenee,W.K., editor. WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. Lyon: IARC...Location Sex Major or Micro WHO Grade H6 DRG Male Major IV H9 Trigeminal ganglion Female Major III H17 Trigeminal ganglion Male Major II H19 Sciatic

  14. Comprehensive Study of Plasma-Wall Sheath Transport Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    the floating potential of wall material samples immersed in a low-temperature plasma were studied. Hysteresis is found to be due to secondary electron...continued research into plasma sheath physics. Hysteresis effects observed in the floating potential of wall material samples immersed in a low... Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 119, March 2016, pp. 113305 1-5. DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. 8 Figure 2

  15. A rare case of bilateral optic nerve sheath meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somen Misra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old female presented with gradual, painless, progressive diminution of vision, and progressive proptosis of left eye since 7 years. Ophthalmological examination revealed mild proptosis and total optic atrophy in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT brain with orbit showed bilateral optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM involving the intracranial, intracanalicular, intraorbital part of the optic nerve extending up to optic chiasma and left cavernous sinus.

  16. An ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study of a rare genetic sperm tail defect that causes infertility in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Baccio; Bruni, Emanuele; Gambera, Laura; Moretti, Elena; Piomboni, Paola

    2004-08-01

    To characterize and describe the ontogenesis of a rare flagellar defect affecting the whole sperm population of a sterile man. Case report. Regional referral center for male infertility in Siena, Italy. A 28-year-old man with severe asthenozoospermia. Physical and hormonal assays, semen analysis, and testicular biopsy. Semen samples and testicular biopsies were analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy; immunocytochemical study with anti-beta-tubulin and anti-AKAP 82 antibodies was performed to detect the presence and distribution of proteins. Ultrastructural analysis of ejaculated spermatozoa and testicular biopsy revealed absence of the fibrous sheath in the principal-piece region of the tail. Fibrous sheath-like structures were observed in cytoplasmic residues and residual bodies released by spermatids in the seminiferous epithelium. Other anomalies observed were supplementary axonemes and mitochondrial helix elongation. These features were confirmed by immunocytochemical staining. This rare sperm tail defect, characterized by absence of the fibrous sheath, presence of supplementary axonemes, and an abnormally elongated midpiece, originates in the seminiferous tubules during spermiogenesis, as detected in testicular biopsy sections. These defects occur in the whole sperm population, and therefore a genetic origin could be suggested.

  17. Contribution to the physical study of sheath failure detections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangin, Jean-Paul

    1968-11-01

    As the study of an installation aimed at the detection of sheath failure requires the knowledge of a great number of data related to all the fields of nuclear technology (fission mechanisms, sheath failure mechanisms, recoil of fission products, distribution of the heat transfer fluid in the reactor, techniques of measurement of beta and gamma neutrons, nuclear safety, and so on), this report aims at highlighting some specific issues, more particularly those related to sensors based on delayed neutrons. After having recalled the principles of sheath failure detection, the author presents the various aspects of the study of the formation of fission products and of their passage into the heat transfer fluid: detection by using delayed neutrons, detection by electrostatic collection, passage of fuel fission products into the coolant (recoil, corrosion, gaseous diffusion in the fuel), formation of fission products in the fuel (fission product efficiency). He reports the study of the transport of fission products by the coolant from their place of birth to the place of measurement. He presents the system of measurement by detection of delayed neutrons and by electrostatic collection, reports a sensitivity calculation, a background noise assessment, the determination of detection threshold, and the application of sensitivity and detection thresholds calculations [fr

  18. Unirradiated UO2 in irradiated zirconium alloy sheathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, R.D.; Hardy, D.G.; Hunt, C.E.L.; Scoberg, J.A.

    1979-07-01

    Zircaloy-clad UO 2 fuel elements have defected in power reactors when element power outputs were raised significantly after a long irradiation at low power. We have irradiated fuel elements fabricated from fresh UO 2 pellets and zirconium alloy sheaths previously irradiated without fuel. This gave a fuel element with radiation-damaged low-ductility sheathing but with no fission products in the fuel. The elements were power boosted in-reactor to linear power outputs up to 84 kW/m for two five-day periods. No elements defected despite sheath strains of 0.82 percent at circumferential ridge postions. Half of these elements were subsequently soaked at low power to build up the fission product inventory in the fuel and then power boosted to 63 kW/m for a third time. Two elements defected on this final boost. We conclude that these defects were caused by fission product induced stress-corrosion cracking and that this mechanism plays an importent role in power reactor fuel defects. (auth)

  19. Measurements of the sheath potential in low density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.W.; Khamis, R.A.; Sanduk, M.I.; Elliott, J.A.; Rusbridge, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    We have measured the sheath potential around a probe in a range of different plasma conditions in the UMIST, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, quadrupole GOLUX and in a related experiment in which the plasma expands freely to supersonic velocity. In the latter case, the sheath potential agrees well with an appropriately modified form of the usual expression for a field-free plasma, for both hydrogen and argon plasmas. In GOLUX, however, the sheath potential is found to be significantly less than the accepted value, even when the magnetic field is taken into account. For the slow moving plasma in the outer part of the quadrupole confining field, we present both theoretical and experimental results showing that the reduction is due to truncation of the electron velocity distribution as the probe drains electrons from a closed flux tube faster than they can be replaced. In the central hot plasma, however, this explanation cannot apply. Here, the plasma is moving at about sonic speed and magnetic effects are weak. Nevertheless, the results are significantly different from both in the field free experiment. (author)

  20. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Treatment results and locoregional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.L.Y.; Tsai, C.L.; Chen, W.Y.; Wang, C.W. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Radiation Oncology; Huang, Y.S.; Chen, Y.F. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Kuo, S.H. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Radiation Oncology; National Taiwan Univ. College of Medicine, Taipei (China). Graduate Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Hong, R.L. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Medical Oncology; Ko, J.Y.; Lou, P.J. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Otolaryngology

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to examine outcomes in patients with T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and materials: Between 2007 and 2010, 154 patients with nonmetastatic T4 NPC were treated with IMRT to a total dose of 70 Gy in 33-35 fractions. In addition, 97 % of patients received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 52.8 months. Results: The rates of 5-year actuarial locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, progression free-survival, and overall survival (OS) were 81.2, 72.2, 61.9, and 78.1 %, respectively. A total of 27 patients had locoregional recurrence: 85.2 % in-field failures, 11.1 % marginal failures, and 3.7 % out-of-field failures. Fourteen patients with locoregional recurrence received aggressive treatments, including nasopharyngectomy, neck dissection, or re-irradiation, and the 5-year OS rate tended to be better (61.9 %) compared to those receiving conservative treatment (32.0 %, p = 0.051). In patients treated with 1 course of radiotherapy, grade {>=} 3 toxicities of ototoxicity, neck fibrosis, xerostomia, epistaxis, and radiographic temporal lobe necrosis occurred in 18.2, 9.8, 6.3, 2.1, and 5.6 % of patients, respectively. Increased ototoxicity, osteonecrosis, severe nasal bleeding, and temporal necrosis were observed in patients treated by re-irradiation. Conclusion: IMRT offers good locoregional control in patients with T4 NPC. For patients with locoregional recurrence after definitive radiotherapy, aggressive local treatment may be considered for a better outcome. (orig.)

  1. Architecture of the bacteriophage T4 activator MotA/promoter DNA interaction during sigma appropriation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Lun; James, Tamara D; Knipling, Leslie; Waddell, M Brett; White, Stephen; Hinton, Deborah M

    2013-09-20

    Gene expression can be regulated through factors that direct RNA polymerase to the correct promoter sequence at the correct time. Bacteriophage T4 controls its development in this way using phage proteins that interact with host RNA polymerase. Using a process called σ appropriation, the T4 co-activator AsiA structurally remodels the σ(70) subunit of host RNA polymerase, while a T4 activator, MotA, engages the C terminus of σ(70) and binds to a DNA promoter element, the MotA box. Structures for the N-terminal (NTD) and C-terminal (CTD) domains of MotA are available, but no structure exists for MotA with or without DNA. We report the first molecular map of the MotA/DNA interaction within the σ-appropriated complex, which we obtained by using the cleaving reagent, iron bromoacetamidobenzyl-EDTA (FeBABE). We conjugated surface-exposed, single cysteines in MotA with FeBABE and performed cleavage reactions in the context of stable transcription complexes. The DNA cleavage sites were analyzed using ICM Molsoft software and three-dimensional physical models of MotA(NTD), MotA(CTD), and the DNA to investigate shape complementarity between the protein and the DNA and to position MotA on the DNA. We found that the unusual "double wing" motif present within MotA(CTD) resides in the major groove of the MotA box. In addition, we have used surface plasmon resonance to show that MotA alone is in a very dynamic equilibrium with the MotA element. Our results demonstrate the utility of fine resolution FeBABE mapping to determine the architecture of protein-DNA complexes that have been recalcitrant to traditional structure analyses.

  2. Stimulation of the synthesis of bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein by ultraviolet light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisch, H.M.; Van Houwe, G.

    1976-01-01

    The synthesis of bacteriophage T4 gene 32 product, P32, has been followed by gel electrophoresis of lysates of infected cells which have been irradiated with ultraviolet light. In wild-type infections irradiation after the commencement of late gene expression results in a rapid stimulation of the rate of P32 synthesis. Within four minutes after irradiation P32 is synthesized at 11 times the rate of the unirradiated control infection. P32 seems to be the only T4 protein which exhibits such u.v. inducibility. This inducibility is dependent on the function of genes 46 and 47 and to a lesser extent on several other T4 genes thought to be involved in repair (P43, w and y). An infection defective in both P43 and P46 shows essentially no stimulation of the rate of P32 synthesis after irradiation. In the absence of DNA replication the parental DNA is degraded after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. The extent of P32 induction in such an infection is also proportional to the dose. It is suggested that the production of gaps during repair of u.v.-irradiated DNA is responsible for the stimulation of P32 synthesis. A model is proposed in which such regions of single-stranded DNA compete for P32 by binding it nonspecifically, thus reducing the amount of P32 free to block the expression of gene 32. Because the expression of gene 32 is self-regulatory this would result in increased P32 synthesis. The possible role of P32 in the repair of u.v.-damaged DNA is discussed. (author)

  3. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Treatment results and locoregional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.L.Y.; Tsai, C.L.; Chen, W.Y.; Wang, C.W.; Huang, Y.S.; Chen, Y.F.; Kuo, S.H.; National Taiwan Univ. College of Medicine, Taipei; Hong, R.L.; Ko, J.Y.; Lou, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to examine outcomes in patients with T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and materials: Between 2007 and 2010, 154 patients with nonmetastatic T4 NPC were treated with IMRT to a total dose of 70 Gy in 33-35 fractions. In addition, 97 % of patients received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 52.8 months. Results: The rates of 5-year actuarial locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, progression free-survival, and overall survival (OS) were 81.2, 72.2, 61.9, and 78.1 %, respectively. A total of 27 patients had locoregional recurrence: 85.2 % in-field failures, 11.1 % marginal failures, and 3.7 % out-of-field failures. Fourteen patients with locoregional recurrence received aggressive treatments, including nasopharyngectomy, neck dissection, or re-irradiation, and the 5-year OS rate tended to be better (61.9 %) compared to those receiving conservative treatment (32.0 %, p = 0.051). In patients treated with 1 course of radiotherapy, grade ≥ 3 toxicities of ototoxicity, neck fibrosis, xerostomia, epistaxis, and radiographic temporal lobe necrosis occurred in 18.2, 9.8, 6.3, 2.1, and 5.6 % of patients, respectively. Increased ototoxicity, osteonecrosis, severe nasal bleeding, and temporal necrosis were observed in patients treated by re-irradiation. Conclusion: IMRT offers good locoregional control in patients with T4 NPC. For patients with locoregional recurrence after definitive radiotherapy, aggressive local treatment may be considered for a better outcome. (orig.)

  4. Presentations of the CONRAD tailings seminar : exploring the past, present and future of tailings technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This symposium explored oil sand tailings activities in Canada and their associated technologies. It was attended by active and prospective tailings researchers and developers of tailings technology who addressed timely issues regarding mature fine tailings, consolidated tailings, thickened tailings, and emerging tailings technologies. The collaborative research projects that are underway at the Oil Sands Tailings Research Facility were also discussed along with other topics such as tailings ponds management, water treatment, water quality and water supply security. All 16 presentations featured at this conference were indexed separately for inclusion in this database

  5. Laser shock peening on a 6056-T4 aluminium alloy for airframe applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Glaser, D

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Pityana1_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1356 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Pityana1_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1... Laser Shock Peening on a 6056-T4 Aluminium Alloy for Airframe Applications Daniel Glaser, Claudia Polese, Rachana D. Bedekar, Jasper Plaisier,Sisa Pityana, Bathusile Masina, Tebogo Mathebula, and Enrico Troiani Keywords: Laser Shock Peening...

  6. Characterization of bacteriophage KVP40 and T4 RNA ligase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Shenmin; Kiong Ho, C.; Miller, Eric S.; Shuman, Stewart

    2004-01-01

    Bacteriophage T4 RNA ligase 2 (Rnl2) exemplifies a subfamily of RNA strand-joining enzymes that includes the trypanosome RNA editing ligases. A homolog of T4 Rnl2 is encoded in the 244-kbp DNA genome of vibriophage KVP40. We show that the 335-amino acid KVP40 Rnl2 is a monomeric protein that catalyzes RNA end-joining through ligase-adenylate and RNA-adenylate (AppRNA) intermediates. In the absence of ATP, pre-adenylated KVP40 Rnl2 reacts with an 18-mer 5'-PO 4 single-strand RNA (pRNA) to form an 18-mer RNA circle. In the presence of ATP, Rnl2 generates predominantly AppRNA. Isolated AppRNA can be circularized by KVP40 Rnl2 in the absence of ATP. The reactivity of phage Rnl2 and the distribution of the products are affected by the length of the pRNA substrate. Whereas 18-mer and 15-mer pRNAs undergo intramolecular sealing by T4 Rnl2 to form monomer circles, a 12-mer pRNA is ligated intermolecularly to form dimers, and a 9-mer pRNA is unreactive. In the presence of ATP, the 15-mer and 12-mer pRNAs are converted to AppRNAs, but the 9-mer pRNA is not. A single 5' deoxynucleotide substitution of an 18-mer pRNA substrate has no apparent effect on the 5' adenylation or circularization reactions of T4 Rnl2. In contrast, a single deoxyribonucleoside at the 3' terminus strongly and selectively suppresses the sealing step, thereby resulting in accumulation of high levels of AppRNA in the absence of ATP. The ATP-dependent 'capping' of RNA with AMP by Rnl2 is reminiscent of the capping of eukaryotic mRNA with GMP by GTP:RNA guanylyltransferase and suggests an evolutionary connection between bacteriophage Rnl2 and eukaryotic RNA capping enzymes

  7. Template-directed ligation of tethered mononucleotides by t4 DNA ligase for kinase ribozyme selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Nickens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vitro selection of kinase ribozymes for small molecule metabolites, such as free nucleosides, will require partition systems that discriminate active from inactive RNA species. While nucleic acid catalysis of phosphoryl transfer is well established for phosphorylation of 5' or 2' OH of oligonucleotide substrates, phosphorylation of diffusible small molecules has not been demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study demonstrates the ability of T4 DNA ligase to capture RNA strands in which a tethered monodeoxynucleoside has acquired a 5' phosphate. The ligation reaction therefore mimics the partition step of a selection for nucleoside kinase (deoxyribozymes. Ligation with tethered substrates was considerably slower than with nicked, fully duplex DNA, even though the deoxynucleotides at the ligation junction were Watson-Crick base paired in the tethered substrate. Ligation increased markedly when the bridging template strand contained unpaired spacer nucleotides across from the flexible tether, according to the trends: A(2>A(1>A(3>A(4>A(0>A(6>A(8>A(10 and T(2>T(3>T(4>T(6 approximately T(1>T(8>T(10. Bridging T's generally gave higher yield of ligated product than bridging A's. ATP concentrations above 33 microM accumulated adenylated intermediate and decreased yields of the gap-sealed product, likely due to re-adenylation of dissociated enzyme. Under optimized conditions, T4 DNA ligase efficiently (>90% joined a correctly paired, or TratioG wobble-paired, substrate on the 3' side of the ligation junction while discriminating approximately 100-fold against most mispaired substrates. Tethered dC and dG gave the highest ligation rates and yields, followed by tethered deoxyinosine (dI and dT, with the slowest reactions for tethered dA. The same kinetic trends were observed in ligase-mediated capture in complex reaction mixtures with multiple substrates. The "universal" analog 5-nitroindole (dNI did not support ligation when

  8. Glasgow Prognostic Score as a Prognostic Clinical Marker in T4 Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Masaichi; Kubo, Naoshi; Masuda, Go; Yamashita, Yoshito; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2015-09-01

    Patients with clinical T4 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have an unfavorable prognosis, mainly indicated by the response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT), crucial to estimating long-term survival. Other prognostic measures include systemic inflammatory or immunonutritional indices such as the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) and Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI) that have not been sufficiently documented. This study retrospectively evaluated 91 patients with T4 ESCC treated at our Hospital between 2000 and 2013. All patients initially received CRT, including 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and cisplatin or nedaplatin with concurrent 2-Gy/fraction radiation (total dose, 40-60 Gy). Curative tumor resection was undertaken in suitable patients on completing CRT. Patients were classified as GPS0, GPS1, or GPS2 based on C-reactive protein (CRP) ≤ 10 mg/l and albumin ≥ 35 g/l, CRP >10 mg/l or albumin l, or CRP >10 mg/l and albumin l, respectively. PNI was calculated as 10-times the serum albumin (g/dl)+0.005 × total lymphocyte count (/mm(3)). The impact of the pre-treatment GPS and PNI on the prognosis of patients with T4 ESCC was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses. Sixty (67%) patients responded to CRT (9 complete responses and 51 partial responses). Forty-one (45%) patients also underwent surgical resection of the residual tumor. The overall 5-year survival rate and median survival time were 27.0% and 11.8 months, respectively. In the cohort of CRT-plus-surgical resection, the 5-year survival rate was significantly higher than in the groups treated with CRT-alone (51.1% vs. 6.5%; p GPS1/2 (HR=2.151, p=0.015), and surgical resection (HR=0.282, pGPS is a useful, simple survival marker for patients with T4 ESCC undergoing multimodal therapy. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. T-4 handbook of material properties data bases. Volume 1c. Equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holian, K.S.

    1984-11-01

    This manual is a compilation of descriptions of the equations of state (EOS) in the T-4 computerized library of material properties tables. The introduction gives a brief descriptions of the library and of the physics theories and models which were used to calculate the equations of state. Then each EOS is described in detail. First, various physical parameters of each theoretical EOS are tabulated and compared with experiments when available. Then the method of generating the EOS is briefly described. Finally, the tabels are plotted in terms of pressure and energy vs density along line of constant temperature

  10. More tail lesions among undocked than tail docked pigs in a conventional herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, H. P.; Busch, M. E.; D'Eath, R. B.

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of piglets reared in the European Union (EU) and worldwide is tail docked to reduce the risk of being tail bitten, even though EU animal welfare legislation bans routine tail docking. Many conventional herds experience low levels of tail biting among tail docked pigs, however...

  11. Research on Long Tail Recommendation Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuezhi; Zhang, Chuang; Wu, Ming; Zeng, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Most recommendation systems in the major electronic commerce platforms are influenced by the long tail effect more or less. There are sufficient researches of how to assess recommendation effect while no criteria to evaluate long tail recommendation rate. In this study, we first discussed the existing problems of recommending long tail products through specific experiments. Then we proposed a long tail evaluation criteria and compared the performance in long tail recommendation between different models.

  12. AC losses of single-core MgB{sub 2} wires with different metallic sheaths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kováč, J., E-mail: elekjkov@savba.sk; Šouc, J.; Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • AC losses in single-core MgB{sub 2} wires with different metallic sheaths have been measured. • It has been shown that metallic sheath can affect the measured AC loss considerably. • GlidCop and Stainless Steel have negligible effect to the overall loss. • Strong contribution of eddy currents has been found in the wire with well conductive copper sheath. • Due to Monel sheath AC loss of MgB{sub 2} core is not visible. - Abstract: AC losses of single-core MgB{sub 2} superconductors with different metallic sheaths (Cu, GlidCop, stainless steel and Monel) have been measured and analyzed. These wires were exposed to external magnetic field with frequencies 72 and 144 Hz and amplitudes up to 0.1 T at temperatures ranged from 18 to 40 K. The obtained results have shown that applied metallic sheath can affect the measured AC loss considerably. In the case of GlidCop and Stainless Steel a negligible small effect of metallic sheath was observed. Strong contribution of eddy currents has been found in the wire with well conductive copper sheath. In the case of Monel sheath, the hysteresis loss of magnetic sheath is dominated and AC loss of MgB{sub 2} core is practically not visible.

  13. Studies on the transmission of sub-THz waves in magnetized inhomogeneous plasma sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Shen, Linfang; Yao, Ming; Deng, Xiaohua; Chen, Zhou; Hong, Lujun

    2018-01-01

    There have been many studies on the sub-terahertz (sub-THz) wave transmission in reentry plasma sheaths. However, only some of them have paid attention to the transmission of sub-THz waves in magnetized plasma sheaths. In this paper, the transmission of sub-THz waves in both unmagnetized and magnetized reentry plasma sheaths was investigated. The impacts of temporal evolution of the plasma sheath on the wave transmission were studied. The transmission of "atmospheric window" frequencies in a magnetized plasma sheath was discussed in detail. According to the study, the power transmission rates (Tp) for the left hand circular (LHC) and the right hand circular modes in the magnetized plasma sheath are obviously higher and lower than those in the unmagnetized plasma sheath, respectively. The Tp of LHC mode increases with both wave frequency and external magnetic field strength. Also, the Tp of LHC mode in both magnetized and unmagnetized plasma sheaths varies with time due to the temporal evolution of the plasma sheath. Moreover, the performance of sub-THz waves in magnetized plasma sheath hints at a new approach to the "blackout" problem. The new approach, which is in the capability of modern technology, is to utilize the communication system operating at 140 GHz with an onboard magnet installed near the antenna.

  14. 2012 ETA Guidelines: The Use of L-T4 + L-T3 in the Treatment of Hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte

    2012-01-01

    . Results: Suggested explanations for persisting symptoms include: awareness of a chronic disease, presence of associated autoimmune diseases, thyroid autoimmunity per se, and inadequacy of L-T4 treatment to restore physiological thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations in serum and tissues...

  15. DENV gene of bacteriophage T4 codes for both pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase and apyrimidinic endonuclease activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, S.; Edenberg, H.J.; Radany, E.H.; Friedberg, R.C.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that purified preparations of phage T4 UV DNA-incising activity (T4 UV endonuclease or endonuclease V of phase T4) contain a pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity that catalyzes hydrolysis of the 5' glycosyl bond of dimerized pyrimidines in UV-irradiated DNA. Such enzyme preparations have also been shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds in UV-irradiated DNA at a neutral pH, presumably reflecting the action of an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease at the apyrimidinic sites created by the pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase. In this study we found that preparations of T4 UV DNA-incising activity contained apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity that nicked depurinated form I simian virus 40 DNA. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity was also found in extracts of Escherichia coli infected with T4 denV + phage. Extracts of cells infected with T4 denV mutants contained significantly lower levels of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity; these levels were no greater than the levels present in extracts of uninfected cells. Furthermore, the addition of DNA containing UV-irradiated DNA and T4 enzyme resulted in competition for pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity against the UV-irradiated DNA. On the basis of these results, we concluded that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity is encoded by the denV gene of phage T4, the same gene that codes for pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity

  16. Advancements in the treatment of hypothyroidism with L-T4 liquid formulation or soft gel capsule: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Poupak; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Ruffilli, Ilaria; Ragusa, Francesca; Biricotti, Marco; Materazzi, Gabriele; Miccoli, Paolo; Antonelli, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    The most recent advance concerning levothyroxine (L-T4) therapy is the development of novel oral formulations: the liquid preparation, and the soft gel capsule. Areas covered: This review evaluates the most recent clinical studies about these new formulations. The liquid formulation has been shown to overcome: the food and beverages intereference with L-T4 tablets absorption, caused by food or coffee at breakfast; malabsorption induced by the increased gastric pH, resulting from atrophic gastritis, or due to proton-pump inhibitors; and malabsorption after bariatric surgery. The use of liquid L-T4 has been studied also in pregnancy, newborns and infants, suggesting a better bioequivalence than tablets. Finally, liquid L-T4 is more active than tablets in the control of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in hypothyroid patients without malabsorption, drug interference, or gastric disorders, leading to a hypothesized higher absorption of liquid L-T4 also in these patients. Few studies have evaluated soft gel L-T4 with promising results in patients with malabsorption related to coffee or gastritis. Expert opinion: Liquid L-T4 (and soft gel capsules) are more active than the tablet L-T4 in the control of TSH in hypothyroid patients with gastric disorders, malabsorption, or drug interference, but also in patients without absorption disorders.

  17. Combination treatment with T4 and T3: toward personalized replacement therapy in hypothyroidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Bernadette; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2012-07-01

    Levothyroxine therapy is the traditional lifelong replacement therapy for hypothyroid patients. Over the last several years, new evidence has led clinicians to evaluate the option of combined T(3) and T(4) treatment to improve the quality of life, cognition, and peripheral parameters of thyroid hormone action in hypothyroidism. The aim of this review is to assess the physiological basis and the results of current studies on this topic. We searched Medline for reports published with the following search terms: hypothyroidism, levothyroxine, triiodothyronine, thyroid, guidelines, treatment, deiodinases, clinical symptoms, quality of life, cognition, mood, depression, body weight, heart rate, cholesterol, bone markers, SHBG, and patient preference for combined therapy. The search was restricted to reports published in English since 1970, but some reports published before 1970 were also incorporated. We supplemented the search with records from personal files and references of relevant articles and textbooks. Parameters analyzed included the rationale for combination treatment, the type of patients to be selected, the optimal T(4)/T(3) ratio, and the potential benefits of this therapy on symptoms of hypothyroidism, quality of life, mood, cognition, and peripheral parameters of thyroid hormone action. The outcome of our analysis suggests that it may be time to consider a personalized regimen of thyroid hormone replacement therapy in hypothyroid patients. Further prospective randomized controlled studies are needed to clarify this important issue. Innovative formulations of the thyroid hormones will be required to mimic a more perfect thyroid hormone replacement therapy than is currently available.

  18. Hormonal evaluation of T4 and T3 through radioimmunoassay in younglings of rats with hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, M.F.G.; Silva, I.M.S.; Pereira, S.S.L.; Souza, G.M.L.; Carvalho, E.F.M.B.; Cavalcante, C.V.G.; Lima Filho, G.L.; Catanho, M.T.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The onset of fetal thyroid function occurs about 17-18 days after conception in the rat. The maternal hypothyroidism which occurs during gestation provokes alteration in the rat after birth. Due to this alteration, we decided to analyze the hormonal modification in the newborn rats. The hypothyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being treated for 7 days with MMI (in the concentration of 0,03% in drinking water) before mating. Another dam group which was submitted to an induction of hypothyroidism maintained the treatment with MMI for 13 days during gestation. The hormones were assessed by radioimmunoassay technique. It was seen that the rats which were born from hypothyroid dams suffered alterations on its T 4 and T 3 hormone levels concerning to 10, 30 and 60 days after birth. There was also modifications on their weight and size. The growth is affected throughout post-natal life by thyroid hormones, which has a facilitator influence on growth hormone economy, as opposed to the inhibitory effects on TSH economy. The administration of MMI bars the fetal thyroid gland function, causing a decrease of both T 4 and T 3 levels, even after the birth, indicating that the maternal hypothyroidism influences on the post-natal life of the rat. (author)

  19. Bidirectional electron anisotropies in the distant tail: ISEE-3 observations of polar rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Gosling, J.T.; Zwickl, R.D.; Slavin, J.A.; Smith, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed observational treatment of bidirectional electrons (50 approx.500 eV) in the distant magnetotail (r greater than or equal to 100 R/sub E/) is presented. It is found that electrons in this energy range commonly exhibit strong, field-aligned anisotropies in the tail lobes. Because of large tail motions, the ISEE-3 data provide extensive sampling of both the north and south lobes in rapid succession, demonstrating directly the strong asymmetries that exist between the north and south lobes at any one time. The bidirectional fluxes are found to occur predominantly in the lobe directly connected to the sunward IMF in the open magnetosphere model (north lobe for away sectors and south lobe for toward sectors). Electron anisotropy and magnetic field data are presented which show the transition from unidirectional (sheath) electron populations to bidirectional (lobe) populations. Taken together, the present evidence suggests that the bidirectional electrons that we observe in the distant tail are closely related to the polar rain electrons observed previously at lower altitudes. Furthermore, these data provide strong evidence that the distant tail is comprised largely of open magnetic field lines in contradistinction to some recently advanced models

  20. Strong electron bidirectional anisotropies in the distant tail: ISEE 3 observations of polar rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Gosling, J.T.; Zwickl, R.D.; Slavin, J.A.; Smith, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed observational treatment of bidirectional electrons (--50 to 50 eV)in the distant magnetotail (rapprox. >100 R/sub E/) is presented. It is found that electrons in this energy range commonly exhibit strong, field-aligned anisotropies in the tail lobes. Because of large tail motions, the ISEE 3 data provide extensive sampling of both the north and south lobes in rapid succession. These data demonstrate directly the strong asymmetries that exist between the north and south lobes at any one time. The bidirectional fluxes are found to occur predominantly in the lobe directly connected to the sunward interplanetary magnetic field in the open magnetosphere model (north lobe for away sectors and south lobe for toward sectors). Electron anisotropy and magnetic field data are presented which show the transition from unidirectional (sheath) electron populations to bidirectional (lobe) populations. Thus we demonstrate the open nature of the distant magnetopause and show that the source of the higher-energy, bidirectional lobe electrons is the tailward directed electron heat flux population in the distant magnetosheath. Taken together, the present evidence suggests that the bidirectional electrons that we observe in the distant tail are closely related to the polar rain electrons observed previously at lower altitudes. Furthermore, these data provide strong evidence that the distant tail is composed largely of open magnetic field lines in contradistinction to some recently advanced models

  1. Dewatering tailings impoundments : interior drains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlie, W.A.; Doehring, D.O.; Durnford, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    For the design of a new uranium tailings impoundment in the western United States, it was proposed that an interior drainage system be considered to economically and reliably minimize potential short- and long-term environmental impacts. The objectives were to decrease the effective hydraulic head on the clay liner, to dewater and stabilize the tailings, and to increase the amount of water recycled to the mill. In addition, desaturation of the impoundment would induce capillary pressure (negative porewater pressure), further reducing the potential movement of dissolved pollutants. This paper presents saturated and unsaturated seepage principles and reviews the concept, criteria and design of the various interior drainage systems considered

  2. Genetic characterization of the Pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) using mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Valdez, Ernest W.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Fike, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Emballonura semicaudata occurs in the southwestern Pacific and populations on many islands have declined or disappeared. One subspecies (E. semicaudata rotensis) occurs in the Northern Mariana Islands, where it has been extirpated from all but 1 island (Aguiguan). We assessed genetic similarity between the last population of E. s. rotensis and 2 other subspecies, and examined genetic diversity on Aguiguan. We sampled 12 E. s. rotensis, sequenced them at 3 mitochondrial loci, and compared them with published sequences from 2 other subspecies. All 12 E. s. rotensis had identical sequences in each of the 3 regions. Using cytochrome-b (Cytb) data E. s. rotensis was sister to E. s. palauensis in a clade separate from E. s. semicaudata. 12S ribosomal RNA (12S) sequences grouped all E. s. semicaudata in 1 clade with E. s. rotensis in a clade by itself. Genetic distances among the 3 subspecies at Cytb were smallest between E. s. palauensis and E. s. rotensis. Distance between E. s. semicaudata and the other 2 subspecies was not different from the distance between E. s. semicaudata and the full species E. raffrayana. A similar relationship was found using the 12S data. These distances are larger than those typically reported for mammalian subspecies using Cytb sequence and within the range of sister species.

  3. Bacteriophage T4 Infection of Stationary Phase E. coli: Life after Log from a Phage Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Martin Kutter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Virtually all studies of phage infections investigate bacteria growing exponentially in rich media. In nature, however, phages largely encounter non-growing cells. Bacteria entering stationary phase often activate well-studied stress defense mechanisms that drastically alter the cell, facilitating its long-term survival. An understanding of phage-host interactions in such conditions is of major importance from both an ecological and therapeutic standpoint. Here, we show that bacteriophage T4 can efficiently bind to, infect and kill E. coli in stationary phase, both in the presence and absence of a functional stationary-phase sigma factor, and explore the response of T4-infected stationary phase cells to the addition of fresh nutrients 5 or 24 hours after that infection. An unexpected new mode of response has been identified. Hibernation mode is a persistent but reversible dormant state in which the infected cells make at least some phage enzymes, but halt phage development until appropriate nutrients become available before producing phage particles. Our evidence indicates that the block in hibernation mode occurs after the middle-mode stage of phage development; host DNA breakdown and the incorporation of the released nucleotides into phage DNA indicate that the enzymes of the nucleotide synthesizing complex, under middle-mode control, have been made and assembled into a functional state. Once fresh glucose and amino acids become available, the standard lytic infection process rapidly resumes and concentrations of up to 1011 progeny phage (an average of about 40 phage per initially-present cell are produced. All evidence is consistent with the hibernation-mode control point lying between middle mode and late mode T4 gene expression. We have also observed a scavenger response, where the infecting phage takes advantage of whatever few nutrients are available to produce small quantities of progeny within 2 to 5 hours after infection. The scavenger

  4. Experimental and computational studies on the DNA translocation mechanism of the T4 viral packaging motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, Amy; Arya, Gaurav; Smith, Douglas E.

    2012-10-01

    Bacteriophage T4 is a double stranded DNA virus that infects E.coli by injecting the viral genome through the cellular wall of a host cell. The T4 genome must be ejected from the viral capsid with sufficient force to ensure infection. To generate high ejection forces, the genome is packaged to high density within the viral capsid. A DNA translocation motor, in which the protein gp17 hydrolyzes ATP and binds to the DNA, is responsible for translocating the genome into the capsid during viral maturation of T4. This motor generates forces in excess of 60 pN and packages DNA at rates exceeding 2000 base pairs/second (bp/s)1. Understanding these small yet powerful motors is important, as they have many potential applications. Though much is known about the activity of these motors from bulk and single molecule biophysical techniques, little is known about their detailed molecular mechanism. Recently, two structures of gp17 have been obtained: a high-resolution X-ray crystallographic structure showing a monomeric compacted form of the enzyme, and a cryo-electron microscopic structure of the extended form of gp17 in complex with actively packaging prohead complexes. Comparison of these two structures indicates several key differences, and a model has been proposed to explain the translocation action of the motor2. Key to this model are a set of residues forming ion pairs across two domains of the gp17 molecule that are proposed to be involved in force generation by causing the collapse of the extended form of gp17. Using a dual optical trap to measure the rates of DNA packaging and the generated forces, we present preliminary mutational data showing that these several of these ion pairs are important to motor function. We have also performed preliminary free energy calculations on the extended and collapsed state of gp17, to confirm that these interdomain ion pairs have large contributions to the change in free energy that occurs upon the collapse of gp17 during the

  5. Osteocalcin expressing cells from tendon sheaths in mice contribute to tendon repair by activating Hedgehog signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Huang, Huihui; Xia, Yin; Yao, YiFei; Mak, Arthur Fuk-Tat; Yung, Patrick Shu-Hang; Chan, Kai-Ming; Wang, Li; Zhang, Chenglin; Huang, Yu; Mak, Kingston King-Lun

    2017-01-01

    Both extrinsic and intrinsic tissues contribute to tendon repair, but the origin and molecular functions of extrinsic tissues in tendon repair are not fully understood. Here we show that tendon sheath cells harbor stem/progenitor cell properties and contribute to tendon repair by activating Hedgehog signaling. We found that Osteocalcin (Bglap) can be used as an adult tendon-sheath-specific marker in mice. Lineage tracing experiments show that Bglap-expressing cells in adult sheath tissues pos...

  6. Design of Cold-Formed Steel Screw Connections with Gypsum Sheathing at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Load-bearing cold-formed steel (CFS walls sheathed with double layers of gypsum plasterboard on both sides have demonstrated good fire resistance and attracted increasing interest for use in mid-rise CFS structures. As the main connection method, screw connections between CFS and gypsum sheathing play an important role in both the structural design and fire resistance of this wall system. However, studies on the mechanical behavior of screw connections with double-layer gypsum sheathing are still limited. In this study, 200 monotonic tests of screw connections with single- or double-layer gypsum sheathing at both ambient and elevated temperatures were conducted. The failure of screw connections with double-layer gypsum sheathing in shear was different from that of single-layer gypsum sheathing connections at ambient temperature, and it could be described as the breaking of the loaded sheathing edge combined with significant screw tilting and the loaded sheathing edge flexing fracture. However, the screw tilting and flexing fracture of the loaded sheathing edge gradually disappear at elevated temperatures. In addition, the influence of the loaded edge distance, double-layer sheathing and elevated temperatures is discussed in detail with clear conclusions. A unified design formula for the shear strength of screw connections with gypsum sheathing is proposed for ambient and elevated temperatures with adequate accuracy. A simplified load–displacement model with the post-peak branch is developed to evaluate the load–displacement response of screw connections with gypsum sheathing at ambient and elevated temperatures.

  7. Predicting radon flux from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, is developing technology for the design of radon barriers for uranium mill tailings piles. To properly design a radon cover for a particular tailings pile, the radon flux emanating from the bare tailings must be known. The tailings characteristics required to calculate the radon flux include radium-226 content, emanating power, bulk density, and radon diffusivity. This paper presents theoretical and practical aspects of estimating the radon flux from an uranium tailings pile. Results of field measurements to verify the calculation methodology are also discussed. 24 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  8. Modelling T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the absence of any defence mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VSS Yadavalli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The T4 cell count, which is considered one of the markers of disease progression in an HIV infected individual, is modelled in this paper. The World Health Organisation has recently advocated that countries encourage HIV infected individuals to commence antiretroviral treatments once their T4 cell count drops below 350 cells per ml of blood (this threshold was formerly 200 cells per ml of blood. This recommendation is made because when the T4 cell count is low, the T4 cells are unable to mount an effective immune response against antigens and any such foreign matters in the body, and consequently the individual becomes susceptible to opportunistic infections and lymphomas. A stochastic catastrophe model is developed in this paper to obtain the mean, variance and covariance of the uninfected, infected and lysed T4 cells. The amount of toxin produced in an HIV infected person from the time of infection to a later time may also be obtained from the model. Numerical illustrations of the correlation structures between uninfected and infected T4 cells, and between the infected and lysed T4 cells are also presented.

  9. [After the Action T4 : "Regionalized euthanasia" in the Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söhner, F; V Cranach, M; Fangerau, H; Becker, T

    2017-09-01

    In Bavarian psychiatric hospitals approximately 15,000 people with mental handicaps and mental illnesses were killed after the so-called Action T4. The Heil- und Pflegeanstalt (psychiatric hospital) Günzburg was a so-called Zwischenanstalt (interim institution). The aim of the study was to analyze its role in carrying out "regionalized euthanasia". Based on defined criteria the patient records of deceased patients at the Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital between July 1941 and December 1943 were analyzed to establish whether criteria for "regionalized euthanasia" were fulfilled. During the study period 45 patients at the Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital probably died following actions by direct or indirect intention to kill using malnutrition, neglect, medication overdose or a combination of these actions. The Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital was involved in "regionalized euthanasia".

  10. Effects of Friction Stir Welding on Corrosion Behaviors of AA2024-T4 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Steve Korakan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the corrosion behavior of welded joints of AA2024-T4 Al alloy produced by friction stir welding process has been investigated. Tests were performed in an aerated 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution with pH = 7 at 20±2°C. Corrosion rate and corrosion morphology of weld regions were evaluated and compared to those of the parent metal. The microstructure of weld nugget, thermomechanical affected zone, heated affected zone, and parent metal were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It was observed that corrosion initiated at FSW related spots and the sizes of local corrosion increased with time.

  11. Production of antisera and development of radioimmunoassay for serum T3, T4, and ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhag, Omer Mohamed Abdalla

    1998-05-01

    In this study twelve local rabbits and sixteen New-zealand rabbits were subjected to immunization against T3 and T4 immunogens. Two local sheep (ovis aris) were immunized against human liver ferritin. The T3 and T4 immunogens were prepared by conjugation of the haptens to carrier proteins (bovine serum albumin ''BSA'' and horse serum protein ''HSP''), using water soluble carboiimide as coupling agent. The local and New-zealand rabbits were immunized against these conjugates emulsified in freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) in the first and second injections, and emulsified in freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) in the following injections. The blood samples obtained from rabbits after each injection were tested for antibodies as well as for the effect of immunization on rabbits biochemical and haematological parameters. The blood samples obtained from sheep were tested for anti-ferritin antibodies using crude antiserum, then this antiserum was purified using ammonium sulphate. A part of it was adsorbed physically onto polystyrene beads while the other part was linked chemically to magnitisable particles inorder to develop to IRMAs. The purified antiferritin antibody was diluted 200,000 folds before being coated to polystyrene beads, and different dilutions were tried with coupling to magnetic solid phase. Optimization and validation procedures for the two IRMAs ferritin were performed. The results obtained showed poor response of rabbits to immunization against T3 and T4 immunogen conjugates, where the percent bound (B%) of tracer with the antibody ranged from (0.0-22%) for local rabbits using charcoal seperation technique, and (0.0-2.9%) using second antibody precipitation technique. The B% for the antiserum obtained from New-zealand rabbits ranged from (0.0-18.1) using second antibody precipitation technique. Serum T3, T4 and TSH of the immunized rabbits were measured and found to be not significantly different form the controls (p=0.2211, 0.098, 0.35 respectively

  12. Pecularities of mutagenesis of T4Br bacteriophage under the direct and indirect radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurov, S.S.

    1975-01-01

    Different lethal and mutagenic effects were shown when bacteriophage T4Br + (470 r/min) was irradiated in broth (direct effect) and a buffer solution (direct and indirect action). The survival rate of the bacteriophage in the buffer solution was 0.1 percent for a dose rate of 60 kr; in the broth it was 10 percent. The frequency of mutation of the bacteriophage also showed the greater effect of the irradiation in the buffer solution than in the broth (25 and 5 r-mutants respectively at a dose rate of 10 kr). An analysis of the ratio of the r-groups when the bacteriophage was treated in various ways revealed differences between mutagenesis produced in the broth and the buffer, and spontaneous mutagenesis. (V.A.P.)

  13. Production of antisera and development of radioimmunoassay for serum T3, T4, and ferritin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhag, Omer Mohamed Abdalla [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1998-05-01

    In this study twelve local rabbits and sixteen New-zealand rabbits were subjected to immunization against T3 and T4 immunogens. Two local sheep (ovis aris) were immunized against human liver ferritin. The T3 and T4 immunogens were prepared by conjugation of the haptens to carrier proteins (bovine serum albumin ``BSA`` and horse serum protein ``HSP``), using water soluble carboiimide as coupling agent. The local and New-zealand rabbits were immunized against these conjugates emulsified in freund`s complete adjuvant (FCA) in the first and second injections, and emulsified in freund`s incomplete adjuvant (FIA) in the following injections. The blood samples obtained from rabbits after each injection were tested for antibodies as well as for the effect of immunization on rabbits biochemical and haematological parameters. The blood samples obtained from sheep were tested for anti-ferritin antibodies using crude antiserum, then this antiserum was purified using ammonium sulphate. A part of it was adsorbed physically onto polystyrene beads while the other part was linked chemically to magnitisable particles inorder to develop to IRMAs. The purified antiferritin antibody was diluted 200,000 folds before being coated to polystyrene beads, and different dilutions were tried with coupling to magnetic solid phase. Optimization and validation procedures for the two IRMAs ferritin were performed. The results obtained showed poor response of rabbits to immunization against T3 and T4 immunogen conjugates, where the percent bound (B%) of tracer with the antibody ranged from (0.0-22%) for local rabbits using charcoal seperation technique, and (0.0-2.9%) using second antibody precipitation technique. The B% for the antiserum obtained from New-zealand rabbits ranged from (0.0-18.1) using second antibody precipitation technique. Serum T3, T4 and TSH of the immunized rabbits were measured and found to be not significantly different form the controls (p=0.2211, 0.098, 0.35 respectively

  14. Pollution reduction technology program for class T4(JT8D) engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Diehl, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    The technology required to develop commercial gas turbine engines with reduced exhaust emissions was demonstrated. Can-annular combustor systems for the JT8D engine family (EPA class T4) were investigated. The JT8D turbofan engine is an axial-flow, dual-spool, moderate-bypass-ratio design. It has a two-stage fan, a four-stage low-pressure compressor driven by a three-stage low-pressure turbine, and a seven-stage high-pressure compressor driven by a single-stage high-pressure turbine. A cross section of the JT8D-17 showing the mechanical configuration is given. Key specifications for this engine are listed.

  15. Virtual unit delay for digital frequency adaptive T/4 delay phase-locked loop system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    /processor with a fixed sampling rate considering the cost and complexity, where the number of unit delays that have been adopted should be an integer. For instance, in conventional digital control systems, a single-phase T/4 Delay Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) system takes 50 unit delays (i.e., in a 50-Hz system...... Delay PLL system should be done in its implementation. This process will result in performance degradation in the digital control system, as the exactly required number of delays is not realized. Hence, in this paper, a Virtual Unit Delay (VUD) has been proposed to address such challenges to the digital......Digital micro-controllers/processors enable the cost-effective control of grid-connected power converter systems in terms of system monitoring, signal processing (e.g., grid synchronization), control (e.g., grid current and voltage control), etc. Normally, the control is implemented in a micro-controller...

  16. Thyroid hormone uptake and T4 derived T3 formation in different skeletal muscle types of normal and hyperthyroid rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeveld, C. van; Kassenaar, A.A.H.

    1978-01-01

    In this study hind-limb perfusion was used to investigate conversion of T 4 to T 3 in skeletal muscle tissue. For this purpose the rats were depleted of thyroid hormones by thyroid ablation with 0.75 mCi 131 I and were perfused 2 weeks later, when the skeletal muscle tissue consumed oxygen at a normal rate due to one subcutaneous dose of 10 μg T 3 /100 g b. w. 3 days before the perfusion experiments were started. T 4 * of high specific activity (> 2000 μCi/μg) was added to the perfusate. In the muscle (mixed type) a mean T 4 → T 3 conversion of 2% (range 0.5-3.9) was found after 120 min of perfusion. T 3 generation from T 4 in skeletal muscle did not correspond with T 3 muscle uptake. This observation makes a significant overestimation of T 3 by selective uptake of a small contamination of T 3 * in the T 4 * preparation highly improbable. In red muscle the T 4 and T 3 uptake was about 50 % higher than in white muscle. The observed Tetracsup(c) and T 3 sup(c) were significantly higher in red than in white muscle. The uptake of thyroid hormones by both muscle types was not changed in hyperthyroid rats. The Tetrac and T 3 formation from T 4 , however, was increased in red muscles of hyperthyroid rats. The results show that thyroid hormone metabolism can vary markedly depending upon the type of muscle studied and they present a basis for a better understanding of clinical and biochemical evidence for a different susceptibility of red and white muscle fibers to thyroid hormones. (Abbreviations: *= 125 I; **= 131 I; T 3 sup(c)=T 4 derived T 3 ; Tetracsup(c)=T 4 derived Tetrac) (author)

  17. High-dose radiotherapy alone for patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucha-Malecka, A. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Skladowski, K. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Gliwice (Poland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-08-15

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to report on the efficacy of radiotherapy alone in patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer and to establish the prognostic value of (a) the size and location of the extralaryngeal tumor extensions and (b) of emergency tracheostomy. Patients and methods: A group of 114 patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy between 1990 and 1996. The piriform recess was involved in 37 cases (33 %), the base of the tongue and glosso-epiglottic vallecula in 34 cases (30 %), and the hypopharyngeal wall in 10 cases (9 %). In 16 cases (14 %), emergency tracheostomy was performed before radiotherapy. The mean total dose was 68 Gy (range, 60-77.6 Gy). The mean treatment time was 49 days (range, 42-74 days). Results: Actuarial 3-year local control (LC) was noted in 42 % of patients, disease-free survival (DFS) in 35 %, and overall survival (OS) in 40 %. The best prognosis was for the lesion suspected of cartilage infiltration: 56 % 3-year LC. The worst results were noted in the cases with massive infiltrations spreading from the larynx through the hypopharynx: 13 % 3-year LC. Emergency tracheostomy before radiotherapy was significantly connected with the worst treatment results (p = 0.000): 3-year LC in patients with tracheostomy was 0 % vs. 48 % in patients without tracheostomy. Conclusion: Conventional radiotherapy of T4 laryngeal cancer is a method of treatment with limited effectiveness. The efficacy of radiotherapy is dependent on the location and extent of extralaryngeal infiltrations. Emergency tracheostomy is a prognostic factor connected with the worst prognosis. (orig.)

  18. High-dose radiotherapy alone for patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucha-Malecka, A.; Skladowski, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to report on the efficacy of radiotherapy alone in patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer and to establish the prognostic value of (a) the size and location of the extralaryngeal tumor extensions and (b) of emergency tracheostomy. Patients and methods: A group of 114 patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy between 1990 and 1996. The piriform recess was involved in 37 cases (33 %), the base of the tongue and glosso-epiglottic vallecula in 34 cases (30 %), and the hypopharyngeal wall in 10 cases (9 %). In 16 cases (14 %), emergency tracheostomy was performed before radiotherapy. The mean total dose was 68 Gy (range, 60-77.6 Gy). The mean treatment time was 49 days (range, 42-74 days). Results: Actuarial 3-year local control (LC) was noted in 42 % of patients, disease-free survival (DFS) in 35 %, and overall survival (OS) in 40 %. The best prognosis was for the lesion suspected of cartilage infiltration: 56 % 3-year LC. The worst results were noted in the cases with massive infiltrations spreading from the larynx through the hypopharynx: 13 % 3-year LC. Emergency tracheostomy before radiotherapy was significantly connected with the worst treatment results (p = 0.000): 3-year LC in patients with tracheostomy was 0 % vs. 48 % in patients without tracheostomy. Conclusion: Conventional radiotherapy of T4 laryngeal cancer is a method of treatment with limited effectiveness. The efficacy of radiotherapy is dependent on the location and extent of extralaryngeal infiltrations. Emergency tracheostomy is a prognostic factor connected with the worst prognosis. (orig.)

  19. Is neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radio-chemotherapy beneficial in T4 anal carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moureau-Zabotto, L; Viret, F; Giovaninni, M; Lelong, B; Bories, E; Delpero, J R; Pesenti, C; Caillol, F; de Chaisemartin, C; Minsat, M; Monges, G; Sarran, A; Resbeut, M

    2011-07-01

    This study retrospectively describes the outcome of a series of 38 patients (pts) with T4 anal carcinoma exclusively treated by radio and chemotherapy. From 1992 to 2007, 38 pts with UST4-N0-2-M0 anal carcinoma were treated with exclusive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. All patients received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (median dose 45 Gy) with a concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil-cisplatin). Eleven patients received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil-cisplatin). After 2-8 weeks, a 15-20 Gy boost was delivered either with EBRT (20 pts) or interstitial (192)Ir brachytherapy (18 pts). Mean follow-up was 66 months. After chemoradiation therapy (CRT), 13 pts (34%) had a complete response, 23 pts (60%) a response >50% (2 pts were not evaluated). The 5-year-disease-free survival was 79.2 ± 6.5%, and the 5-year overall survival was 83.9 ± 6%. Eight patients developed tumor progression (mean delay 8.8 months), six of them requiring a salvage surgery with definitive colostomy for local relapse. Late severe complication requiring colostomy was observed in 2 pts. The 5-year-colostomy-free survival was 78 ± 6.9%. Patients who received primary chemotherapy had a statistically significant better 5-year colostomy-free survival (100% vs. 38 ± 16.4%, P = 0.0006). T4 anal carcinoma can be treated with a curative intent using a sphincter-sparing approach of CRT, and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered prior to radiotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Nueva Área Terminal (NAT del aeropuerto de Madrid-Barajas T-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamela, A.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the New Terminal Area of the Barajas airport. Its first part indicates the participants in the design and construction, as well as some general data. In the second part, organised like a data chart, technical data, such as general information, construction aspects, parking area, data about the building itself and others, are expressed in a concise way. The third part analyzes the construction aspects of the NAT Building, related to the power efficiency. The paper ends with a note that the author of the project has considered of interest about the functionality of the T4. Drawings, details and photographs that show the work in their total magnitude are also included.El articulo que se presenta trata de la Nueva Área Terminal (NAT del aeropuerto de Barajas y está diferenciado en una primera parte, donde se indican los créditos del proyecto y de la construcción, así como algunos datos generales. En el punto 2 y organizado como ficha, aparecen de forma escueta los datos técnicos, tales como: información general, sobre la construcción, sobre los aparcamientos, sobre el edificio terminal y otras. En el punto 3 se analizan los aspectos de la edificación NAT, relacionados con la eficiencia energética y finaliza el artículo con una nota sobre la funcionalidad de la T4, que el autor del proyecto ha considerado de interés. Se incluyen planos detalles y fotografías que muestran la obra en su total magnitud.

  1. Properties of plasma sheath with ion temperature in magnetic fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinyuan; Wang Feng; Sun Jizhong

    2011-01-01

    The plasma sheath properties in a strong magnetic field are investigated in this work using a steady state two-fluid model. The motion of ions is affected heavily by the strong magnetic field in fusion devices; meanwhile, the effect of ion temperature cannot be neglected for the plasma in such devices. A criterion for the plasma sheath in a strong magnetic field, which differs from the well-known Bohm criterion for low temperature plasma sheath, is established theoretically with a fluid model. The fluid model is then solved numerically to obtain detailed sheath information under different ion temperatures, plasma densities, and magnetic field strengths.

  2. Electric sheath and presheath in a collisionless, finite ion temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Wieland, R.M.; Mense, A.T.; Davidson, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    The plasma-sheath equation for a collisionless plasma with arbitrary ion temperature in plane geometry is formulated. Outside the sheath, this equation is approximated by the plasma equation, for which an analytic solution for the electrostatic potential is obtained. In addition, the ion distribution function, the wall potential, and the ion energy and particle flux into the sheath are explicitly calculated. The plasma-sheath equation is also solved numerically with no approximation of the Debye length. The numerical results compare well with the analytical results when the Debye length is small

  3. The dust motion inside the magnetized sheath - The effect of drag forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, B. P.; Samarian, A.; Vladimirov, S. V.

    2010-01-01

    The isolated charged dust inside the magnetized plasma sheath moves under the influence of the electron and ion drag force and the sheath electrostatic field. The charge on the dust is a function of its radius as well as the value of the ambient sheath potential. It is shown that the charge on the dust determines its trajectory and dust performs the spiraling motion inside the sheath. The location of the turning spiral is determined by the number of negative charge on the dust, which in turn is a function of the dust radius. The back and forth spiraling motion finally causes the dust to move in a small, narrow region of the sheath. For a bigger dust particle, the dust moves closer to the sheath presheath boundary suggesting that the bigger grains, owing to the strong repulsion between the wall and dust, will be unable to travel inside the sheath. Only small, micron-sized grains can travel closer to the wall before repulsion pushes it back toward the plasma-sheath boundary. The temporal behavior of the spiraling dust motion appears like a damped harmonic oscillation, suggesting that the plasma drag force causes dissipation of the electrostatic energy. However, after initial damping, the grain keeps oscillating although with much smaller amplitude. The possible application of the present results to the ongoing sheath experiments is discussed.

  4. Slow Wave Propagation and Sheath Interaction for ICRF Waves in the Tokamak SOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    In previous work we studied the propagation of slow-wave resonance cones launched parasitically by a fast-wave antenna into a tenuous magnetized plasma. Here we extend the previous calculation to ''dense'' scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas where the usual slow wave is evanescent. Using the sheath boundary condition, it is shown that for sufficiently close limiters, the slow wave couples to a sheath plasma wave and is no longer evanescent, but radially propagating. A self-consistent calculation of the rf-sheath width yields the resulting sheath voltage in terms of the amplitude of the launched SW, plasma parameters and connection length.

  5. Role of CD44 in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Growth and Metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sherman, Larry

    2003-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are aggressive, difficult to treat tumors that occur in type I neurofibromatosis patients with an increased incidence compared to the general population...

  6. Role of CD44 in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Growth and Metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sherman, Larry

    2001-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are aggressive, difficult to treat tumors that occur in type I neurofibromatosis patients with an increased incidence compared to the general population...

  7. Community structure of filamentous, sheath-building sulfur bacteria, Thioploca spp, off the coast of Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB; Fossing, HA

    1996-01-01

    of Concepcion was investigated,vith respect to biomass, species distribution, and three-dimensional orientation of the sheaths, Thioploca sheaths and filaments were found across the whole shelf area within the oxygen minimum zone, The maximum wet weight of sheaths, 800 g m(-2), was found at a depth of 90 m......The filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca spp, produce dense bacterial mats in the shelf area off the coast of Chile and Peru. The mat consists of common sheaths, shared by many filaments, that reach 5 to 10 cm dean into the sediment, The structure of the Thioploca communities off the Bay...

  8. Ruin problems and tail asymptotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn-Nielsen, Anders

    The thesis Ruin Problems and Tail Asymptotics provides results on ruin problems for several classes of Markov processes. For a class of diffusion processes with jumps an explicit expression for the joint Laplace transform of the first passage time and the corresponding undershoot is derived...

  9. Liner used in tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinchak, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    A composite liner has been developed for use in hazardous waste impoundments and in tailings ponds where uranium is involved. The liner offers a high degree of reliability against seepage, is durable, and provides a firm working surface. The advantages of the liner are discussed

  10. Portfolio selection with heavy tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyung, N.; Vries, de C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Consider the portfolio problem of choosing the mix between stocks and bonds under a downside risk constraint. Typically stock returns exhibit fatter tails than bonds corresponding to their greater downside risk. Downside risk criteria like the safety first criterion therefore often select corner

  11. Portfolio Selection with Heavy Tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hyung (Namwon); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractConsider the portfolio problem of choosing the mix between stocks and bonds under a downside risk constraint. Typically stock returns exhibit fatter tails than bonds corresponding to their greater downside risk. Downside risk criteria like the safety first criterion therefore of ten

  12. Tails, Fears and Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Todorov, Victor

    solely be explained by the level of the volatil- ity. Our empirical investigations are essentially model-free. We estimate the expected values of the tails under the statistical probability measure from "medium" size jumps in high-frequency intraday prices and an extreme value theory approximation...

  13. Capital regulation and tail risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Ratnovski, L.; Vlahu, R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies risk mitigation associated with capital regulation, in a context when banks may choose tail risk assets. We show that this undermines the traditional result that higher capital reduces excess risk-taking driven by limited liability. When capital raising is costly, poorly

  14. Capital regulation and tail risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Ratnovski, L.; Vlahu, R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies risk mitigation associated with capital regulation, in a context where banks may choose tail risk assets. We show that this undermines the traditional result that higher capital reduces excess risk taking driven by limited liability. Moreover, higher capital may have an unintended

  15. DLM for T-Tails

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the extension of the DLM to account for effects that are critical to the modelling of T-tail flutter. The boundary condition is made more general to account for yaw/dihedral and sideslip/dihedral coupling and the calculation...

  16. Miscellaneous conditions of tendons, tendon sheaths, and ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, S J; Dik, K J

    1995-08-01

    The use of diagnostic ultrasonography has greatly enhances our ability to diagnose injuries of tendons and tendon sheaths that were previously either unrecognized or poorly understood. For may of these injuries, there is currently only a small amount of follow-up data. This article considers injuries of the deep digital flexor tendon and its accessory ligament, the carpal tunnel syndrome soft tissue swellings on the dorsal aspect of the carpus, intertubercular (bicipital) bursitis and bicipital tendinitis, injuries of the gastrocnemius tendon, common calcaneal tendinitis, rupture of peroneus (fibularis tertius) and ligaments injuries of the back.

  17. The new concept of ureteral access sheath with guidewire disengagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Alberto; Emiliani, Esteban; Millán, Felix

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate the new Flexor©Parallel™ Rapid Release™ (Cook(®), Bloomington, IN, USA) access sheath (UAS) which allows the use of a single wire to serve as both safety and working guide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between June and September 2014, adult patients from five European...... by the surgeons on a scale from very bad to very good. RESULTS: In total, 134 UASs were used in 67 male and 67 female patients. Fifty percent of ureters (67 patients) were pre-stented. Ninety percent of the procedures were therapeutic. The overall successful insertion rate was 94 %. Pre-stenting status...

  18. Parametric investigations of target normal sheath acceleration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, Alessandro; Sgattoni, Andrea; Passoni, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important challenges related to laser-driven ion acceleration research is to actively control some important ion beam features. This is a peculiar topic in the light of future possible technological applications. In the present work we make use of one theoretical model for target normal sheath acceleration in order to reproduce recent experimental parametric studies about maximum ion energy dependencies on laser parameters. The key role played by pulse energy and intensity is enlightened. Finally the effective dependence of maximum ion energy on intensity is evaluated using a combined theoretical approach, obtained by means of an analytical and a particle-in-cell numerical investigation.

  19. Parametric investigations of target normal sheath acceleration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, Alessandro; Sgattoni, Andrea; Passoni, Matteo

    2011-10-01

    One of the most important challenges related to laser-driven ion acceleration research is to actively control some important ion beam features. This is a peculiar topic in the light of future possible technological applications. In the present work we make use of one theoretical model for target normal sheath acceleration in order to reproduce recent experimental parametric studies about maximum ion energy dependencies on laser parameters. The key role played by pulse energy and intensity is enlightened. Finally the effective dependence of maximum ion energy on intensity is evaluated using a combined theoretical approach, obtained by means of an analytical and a particle-in-cell numerical investigation.

  20. Repairing a steam generator tube by inserting a sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudin, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    According to the invention, the mechanical deformation of the sheath, realized by expansion in its end part opposite to the expanded end within the tube plate, is situated along a limited height, and the parameters of the said mechanical deformation are calculated according to the welding parameters applied consecutively. Besides, the said welding parameters are determined according to the initial mechanical deformation to obtain stress relaxation more particularly in the singular zones of the mechanical deformation. The present invention applies to the repair of PWR steam generator tubes [fr

  1. UTAP, U Tailings Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Ron

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: UTAP carries out probabilistic analyses of the behaviour and environmental effects of uranium mill tailings, following close-out of milling operations. The models have been designed to allow predictions to be made for distances up to 50 kilometers in all directions from the tailings area. The models include features which include the ability to incorporate different receptors and site characteristics and to deal with input parameters which vary with time. 2 - Method of solution: UTAP is composed of a number of modules. These may be classified as either component or control modules. Component modules (or models) are the programs directly concerned with the simulation of a uranium tailings physical system; that is the computer implementation of the mathematical models representing the uranium tailings pile and surrounding environment. Control modules provide the infrastructure for probabilistic analysis using the component modules. These functions include probabilistic sampling of input parameters such as constant, normal, log-normal, uniform, log-uniform, triangular, Weibull, Beta, arbitrary and correlated. The sampling method used is straight Monte Carlo. The radionuclides modelled are: natural uranium, total thorium, radium-226, radon-222 and lead-210. The pH of the reference uranium tailings site and a chained river-lake system are also modelled. For the afore- mentioned radionuclides the following pathways of dose to the receptors modelled: water consumption, fish consumption, radon inhalation, dust inhalation, vegetable consumption, animal produce consumption and ground-shine. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The maximum number of steps through time allowed is 300

  2. The Coxiella Burnetii type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) component DotA is released/secreted during infection of host cells and during in vitro growth in a T4BSS-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedtke, Brandon E; Mahapatra, Saugata; Lutter, Erika I; Shaw, Edward I

    2017-06-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen and is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever. To cause disease, C. burnetii requires a functional type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) to transfer effector proteins required for the establishment and maintenance of a membrane-bound parasitophorous vacuole (PV) and further modulation of host cell process. However, it is not clear how the T4BSS interacts with the PV membrane since neither a secretion pilus nor an extracellular pore forming apparatus has not been described. To address this, we used the acidified citrate cysteine medium (ACCM) along with cell culture infection and immunological techniques to identify the cellular and extracellular localization of T4BSS components. Interestingly, we found that DotA and IcmX were secreted/released in a T4BSS-dependent manner into the ACCM. Analysis of C. burnetii-infected cell lines revealed that DotA colocalized with the host cell marker CD63 (LAMP3) at the PV membrane. In the absence of bacterial protein synthesis, DotA also became depleted from the PV membrane. These data are the first to identify the release/secretion of C. burnetii T4BSS components during axenic growth and the interaction of a T4BSS component with the PV membrane during infection of host cells. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Segregation and differential settling in flocculated tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinato, R.S.; Mahmoudkhani, A.; Fenderson, T.; Watson, P. [Kemira, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Untreated oil sands tailings have a high solids content, have poor dewaterability, and contain no aggregates. This PowerPoint presentation investigated segregation and differential settling in flocculated tailings. Tailings were treated with gypsum and various polymers. Cylinder settling, dynamic rheometry, particle size analysis, and microscopy techniques were used to characterize the composite tailings. The particles sizes of the samples were evaluated in relation to shear rate, bed depth, and treatment. The study showed that the gypsum-treated tailings had small aggregates, size stratification, a high solids content, and poor dewaterability. The polymer N-treated tailings had the lowest solids content, good dewaterability, and weak aggregates. The polymer A-treated tailings had a low solids content, very good dewaterability, and strong aggregates. The addition of a coagulant to the polymer-A treated tailings provided weaker aggregates and a higher solids content. tabs., figs.

  4. Health risks from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the risk to public health and the environment from uranium mill tailings. The steps taken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reduce this risk from tailing are summarized

  5. Early determination of the congenital hypothyroidism by means of the cuantification of STH and T4 by radioimmunoassay method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Penados, R.C.

    1986-11-01

    It was investigated the advantages and disadvantages and conditions of working for the diagnosis of the congenital hypothyroidism by RIA, and its future implementation. It was determined concentration of neonatal STH and neonatal T4 in whole blood of 517 new borns, obtained by capilar punction and recollected in filter paper. 261 samples were found with levels of T4 between normal limits and STH between 0 and 12.5 u U/ml correspond to a normal thyroid function. 29 samples with normal T4 and STH above 30 u U/ml, correspond to a possible primary hypothyroidism. 171 samples with normal T4 and STH between 12.5 and 30 u U/ml were found. (Author)

  6. Risk assessment of tailings facility dam failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Mirakovski, Dejan; Stefanova, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the consequences of tailings facility dam failure and therefore the needs for its risk assessment. Tailings are fine-grained wastes of the mining industry, output as slurries, due to mixing with water during mineral processing. Tailings dams vary a lot as it is affected by: tailings characteristics and mill output, site characteristics as: topography, hydrology, geology, groundwater, seismicity and available material and disposal methods. The talings which accumulat...

  7. The peripheral conversion of thyroxine (T4) into triiodothyronine (T3) and reverse triiodothyronine (rT3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersinga, W.M.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this study was to delineate several physiological, pathological and pharmacological factors involved in the peripheral conversion of thyroxine (T 4 ), using radioimmunoassay. The determination of normal values of these tests under basal circumstances and after stimulation with thyrotropin-releasing-hormone is presented, and some physiological factors which may modulate the conversion of T 4 are discussed. Results are presented of the thyroid function tests in patients with thyroid disease and with acute non-thyroidal diseases. (Auth.)

  8. Fast algorithms for coordinate processors in Galois field for multiplicity t = 4.5 and t > 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikityuk, N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Fast algorithms for solving the coordinate equations for special-purpose processors at multiplicity t = 4.5 and t > 5 are described. Block diagrams of coordinate processor for t 4 in Galois field GF(2 m ) is presented which is solved by a table method. Economical algorithms for solving the coordinate equations by serial methods at t > 5 are described. The algorithms and devices proposed could be applied when creating fast processors in high energy physics spectrometers. 9 refs.; 3 figs

  9. Determination of serum free thyroxine concentration (FT4) by means of fT4-fraction and total thyroxine concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passath, A.; Leb, G.

    1985-01-01

    A new equilibrium assay for the determination of serum free thyroxine was evaluated in 514 patients. The assay comprises a two-vial-procedure to measure total thyroxine and free thyroxine fraction by use of monoclonal antibodies. Free thyroxine concentrations are calculated from fT 4 -fraction and total thyroxine concentration readings. In euthyroidism the average free thyroxine fraction (%fT 4 ) was 0.011%, in hyperthyroidism this fraction was elevated, in hypothyroidism it was below normal. In patients with TBG anomalies, TBG values were inversely correlated with fT 4 fraction readings. The 'euthyroid reference range' of FT 4 (SPAC ET) was between 0.70 to 1.78ng/dl. This euthyroid range of FT 4 was determined from TT 4 concentrations measured by T 4 -RIA (SPAC T 4 MONO) which were 30% above TT 4 values measured by conventional T 4 -RIA (SPAC T 4 POLY; polyclonal antibodies). However, a different euthyroid range of FT 4 between 0.55 to 1.30 ng/dl was observed as well as by other investigators when conventional T 4 -RIA measurements were used for calculation of FT 4 values. Our results indicate that calculated FT 4 concentration values are highly dependent on the methods used for determination of total thyroxine concentrations. Precision and reproducability of this two vial equilibrium assay did not meet the requirements mandatory for the application as a clinical routine diagnostic procedure, and its general use for this purpose can as yet not be recommended. (Author)

  10. The mechanisms of action of E. coli endonuclease III and T4 UV endonuclease (endonuclease V) at AP sites.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J; Linn, S

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of DNA containing AP sites with either T4 UV endonuclease or with E. coli endonuclease III followed by a human class II AP endonuclease releases a putative beta-elimination product. This result suggests that both the T4 endonuclease and E. coli endonuclease III class I AP endonucleases catalyze phosphodiester bond cleavage via a lyase- rather than a hydrolase mechanism. Indeed, we have not detected a class I AP endonuclease which hydrolytically catalyzes phosphodiester bond cleavage...

  11. Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2014-09-01

    This guide provides information and recommendations to the following groups: insulation contractors; general contractors; builders; home remodelers; mechanical contractors; and homeowners, as a guide to the work that needs to be done. The order of work completed during home construction and retrofit improvements is important. Health and safety issues must be addressed first and are more important than durability issues. And durability issues are more important than saving energy. Not all techniques can apply to all houses. Special conditions will require special action. Some builders or homeowners will wish to do more than the important but basic retrofit strategies outlined by this guide. The following are best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and homebuilders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant items were discussed with the group which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long term, and durable drainage plane: 1. Horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible; 2. Where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials; 3. Frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation. Section 5 of this measure guideline contains the detailed construction procedure for the three recommended methods to effectively seal the joints in exterior insulating sheathing to create a simple, long term, and durable drainage plane.

  12. Cylinder Symmetric Measures with the Tail Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: A Pareto distribution has the property that any tail of the distribution has the same shape as the original distribution. The exponential distribution and the uniform distribution have the tail property too. The tail property characterizes the univariate generalized Pareto distributions.

  13. Reduction and repopulation of recipient T4+ and T8+ T-lymphocytes in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratama, J.W.; van den Bergh, R.L.; Naipal, A.; D'Amaro, J.; Zwaan, F.E.; Jansen, J.; de Gast, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    In eight recipients of allogeneic bone marrow grafts who had sex-mismatched donors, the reduction and subsequent repopulation of T4+ and T8+ T-lymphocytes of recipient origin were studied. The origin of the donor-recipient T4+ and T8+ T cells was studied using quinacrine staining of Y chromatin combined with T-cell typing for T4 and T8. Following chemoradiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation (BMT), T cells reached their nadir at a median of five (range 1-8) days after BMT. T8+ T cells decreased at a faster rate from the peripheral blood than T4+ T cells. The first T cells that appeared in the circulation at day 12 were predominantly T4+, and a large number of them were of recipient origin. Thereafter, they gradually decreased, and the numbers of T cells of donor origin increased. In the patients who had no or only minor complications, T4+ and T8+ T cells of donor origin repopulated the blood at similar rates. This pattern, however, was modified by severe graft-versus-host disease or by cytomegalovirus infection

  14. Oral T4-like phage cocktail application to healthy adult volunteers from Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, Shafiqul Alam; McCallin, Shawna; Barretto, Caroline; Berger, Bernard; Pittet, Anne-Cécile; Sultana, Shamima; Krause, Lutz; Huq, Sayeda; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Bruttin, Anne; Reuteler, Gloria; Brüssow, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The genomic diversity of 99 T4-like coliphages was investigated by sequencing an equimolar mixture with Illumina technology and screening them against different databases for horizontal gene transfer and undesired genes. A 9-phage cocktail was given to 15 healthy adults from Bangladesh at a dose of 3×10 9 and 3×10 7 plaque-forming units and placebo respectively. Phages were detected in 64% of the stool samples when subjects were treated with higher titer phage, compared to 30% and 28% with lower-titer phage and placebo, respectively. No Escherichia coli was present in initial stool samples, and no amplification of phage was observed. One percent of the administered oral phage was recovered from the feces. No adverse events were observed by self-report, clinical examination, or from laboratory tests for liver, kidney, and hematology function. No impact of oral phage was seen on the fecal microbiota composition with respect to bacterial 16S rRNA from stool.

  15. Anisotropic deformation behavior of as-extruded 6063-T4 alloy under dynamic impact loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Tuo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Luoxing, E-mail: luoxing_li@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Joint Center for Intelligent New Energy Vehicle, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Liu, Xiao; Liu, Wenhui [Key Laboratory of High Temperature Wear Resistant Materials Preparation Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Guo, Pengcheng; Tang, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-06-01

    The deformation behavior of 6063-T4 aluminum alloy bar was investigated by compression tests conducted at a wide strain rate range of 10{sup −4} to 9×10{sup 3} s{sup −1} with loading directions at 0°, 45° and 90° to the axis of the extruded bar. It is found that the flow stresses of 0° specimens are always the highest and those of the 45° specimens are the lowest at the same conditions. The flow stress exhibits obvious strain rate sensitivity (SRS), which differs from static to dynamic deformation. The Schmid factors (SFs) for each type of texture components were calculated. For the {112}<111> texture component, the max Schmid factors are 0.27, 0.49 and 0.41 for 0°, 45° and 90° specimens. For the {110}<111> texture component, they are 0.27, 0.43 and 0.41 for the three directions. The initial texture changes significantly with increasing strain, the strain rate has slight influence on the texture evolution. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations indicate that as the strain rate increases, the density of the dislocation increases and its distribution becomes more homogeneous. It is necessary to consider the anisotropic deformation behavior and microstructure evolution in material selection and structure design for the impact components.

  16. SIGNIFICANCE OF THYROID PROFILE (Serum T3, T4 & TSH IN INFERTILE WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relation of female infertility to thyroid dysfunction. Material & Methods: The present study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry in collaboration with the Gynae & Obst deptt., Subharti Medical College & Hospital Meerut. Serum T3, T4 and TSH estimation was done by Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay. Results: Serum T3 level in control group was 1.8 ± 0.64 nmol/L while it was 10.5 ± 0.5 nmol/L in hyperthyroid (p value 0.05, i.e., not significant. Serum TSH in control group was 3.5 ± 1.71 mIU/L, while it was 0.14 ± 0.01 mIU/L (p value <0.001, i.e., highly significant in hyperthyroidism, 8.4 ± 1.06 mIU/L in hypothyroidism (p value <0.001, i.e., highly significant. Out of 65 patients of study group thyroid dysfunction was associated with 25 (38.5% infertile women. 23 (35.4% women had hypothyroidism, 2 (3.1% women had hyperthyroidism and 40 women (61.5% were with euthyroid state, while in control group all the 25 women had euthyroid profile. Conclusions: Every infertile woman with ovulatory dysfunction should also investigated thyroid profile along with other investigations, to open better prospects of conception for such desperate infertile women.

  17. Partial replicas of uv-irradiated bacteriophage T4 genomes and their role in multiplicity reactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayssiguier, C.; Kozinski, A.W.; Doermann, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    A physicochemical study was made of the replication and transmission of uv-irradiated T4 genomes. The data presented in this paper justify the following conclusions. (i) For both low and high multiplicity of infection there was abundant replication from uv-irradiated parental templates. It exceeded by far the efficiency predicted by the hypothesis that a single lethal hit completely prevents replication of the killed phage DNA: i.e., some dead phage particles must replicate parts of their DNA. (ii) Replication of the uv-irradiated DNA was repetitive as shown by density reversal experiments. (iii) Newly synthesized progeny DNA originating from uv-irradiated templates appeared as significantly shorter segments of the genomes than progeny DNA produced from non-uv-irradiated templates. A good correlation existed between the number of uv hits and the number of random cuts that would be needed to reduce replication fragments to the length observed. (iv) The contribution of uv-irradiated parental DNA among progeny phage in multiplicity reactivation was disposed in shorter subunits than was the DNA from unirradiated parental phage. It is important to emphasize that it was mainly in the form of replicative hybrid. These conclusions appear to justify excluding interparental recombination as a prerequisite for multiplicity reactivation. They lead directly to some form of partial replica hypothesis for multiplicity reactivation

  18. Molecular identification of t4 and t5 genotypes in isolates from acanthamoeba keratitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledee, D R; Iovieno, A; Miller, D; Mandal, N; Diaz, M; Fell, J; Fini, M E; Alfonso, E C

    2009-05-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare but sight-threatening ocular infection. Outbreaks have been associated with contaminated water and contact lens wear. The epidemiology and pathology may be associated with unique genotypes. We determined the Rns genotype for 37 clinical isolates from 23 patients presenting at the University of Miami Bascom Palmer Eye Institute with confirmed AK infections in 2006 to 2008. The genus-specific ASA.S1 amplicon allowed for rapid genotyping of the nonaxenic cultures. Of the 37 isolates, 36 were of the T4 genotype. Within this group, 13 unique diagnostic fragment 3 sequences were identified, 3 of which were not in GenBank. The 37th isolate was a T5, the first in the United States and second worldwide to be found in AK. For five patients with isolates from the cornea and contact lens/case, identical sequences within each patient cluster were observed, confirming the link between contact lens contamination and AK infection. Genotyping is an important tool in the epidemiological study of AK. In this study, it allowed for the detection of new strains and provided an etiological link between source and infection. Additionally, it can allow for accurate categorizing of physiological differences, such as strain virulence, between isolates and clades.

  19. Oral T4-like phage cocktail application to healthy adult volunteers from Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Shafiqul Alam, E-mail: sasarker@icddrb.org [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); McCallin, Shawna; Barretto, Caroline [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Berger, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.berger@rdls.nestle.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Pittet, Anne-Cecile [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Sultana, Shamima, E-mail: shamima@icddrb.org [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Krause, Lutz, E-mail: ltz.krause@gmail.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Huq, Sayeda, E-mail: sayeeda@mail.icddrb.org [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Bibiloni, Rodrigo, E-mail: Rodrigo.Bibiloni@agresearch.co.nz [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Bruttin, Anne, E-mail: anne.bruttin@rdls.nestle.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Reuteler, Gloria, E-mail: gloria.reuteler@rdls.nestle.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Bruessow, Harald, E-mail: harald.bruessow@rdls.nestle.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland)

    2012-12-20

    The genomic diversity of 99 T4-like coliphages was investigated by sequencing an equimolar mixture with Illumina technology and screening them against different databases for horizontal gene transfer and undesired genes. A 9-phage cocktail was given to 15 healthy adults from Bangladesh at a dose of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} plaque-forming units and placebo respectively. Phages were detected in 64% of the stool samples when subjects were treated with higher titer phage, compared to 30% and 28% with lower-titer phage and placebo, respectively. No Escherichia coli was present in initial stool samples, and no amplification of phage was observed. One percent of the administered oral phage was recovered from the feces. No adverse events were observed by self-report, clinical examination, or from laboratory tests for liver, kidney, and hematology function. No impact of oral phage was seen on the fecal microbiota composition with respect to bacterial 16S rRNA from stool.

  20. Pourquoi le Grundgedanke (T. 4.0312 de Wittgenstein est si “Fondamental”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leclerc

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available La pensée fondamentale de Wittgenstein affirme que les constantes logiques ne représentent pas, ne fonctionnent pas sémantiquement comme des noms. En apparence triviale, cette pensée, nous le montrerons, à des ramifications étonnantes dans la philosophie du premier Wittgenstein, en particulier en ce qui concerne sa conception de la logique. Notre but est d'interpréter l'aphorisme en question (T. 4.0312 en montrant comment il se rapporte aux thèses et théories les plus importantes du Tractatus, et comment il permet de les faire tenir ensemble d'une façon cohérente, justifiant par là son caractère "fondamental". Nous tentons également d'apporter une réponse aux questions suivantes : les propositions complexes sont-elles encore - comme les propositions atomiques - des "images" de la réalité ? et quelle est cette "logique des faits" dont parle Wittgenstein dans l'aphorisme sous examen ?

  1. Dusty Plasma Modeling of the Fusion Reactor Sheath Including Collisional-Radiative Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezairi, Aouatif; Samir, Mhamed; Eddahby, Mohamed; Saifaoui, Dennoun; Katsonis, Konstantinos; Berenguer, Chloe

    2008-01-01

    The structure and the behavior of the sheath in Tokamak collisional plasmas has been studied. The sheath is modeled taking into account the presence of the dust 2 and the effects of the charged particle collisions and radiative processes. The latter may allow for optical diagnostics of the plasma.

  2. Effect of two-temperature electrons distribution on an electrostatic plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Jing; Xiang, Nong; Gan, Chunyun; Yang, Jinhong

    2013-01-01

    A magnetized collisionless plasma sheath containing two-temperature electrons is studied using a one-dimensional model in which the low-temperature electrons are described by Maxwellian distribution (MD) and high-temperature electrons are described by truncated Maxwellian distribution (TMD). Based on the ion wave approach, a modified sheath criterion including effect of TMD caused by high-temperature electrons energy above the sheath potential energy is established theoretically. The model is also used to investigate numerically the sheath structure and energy flux to the wall for plasmas parameters of an open divertor tokamak-like. Our results show that the profiles of the sheath potential, two-temperature electrons and ions densities, high-temperature electrons and ions velocities as well as the energy flux to the wall depend on the high-temperature electrons concentration, temperature, and velocity distribution function associated with sheath potential. In addition, the results obtained in the high-temperature electrons with TMD as well as with MD sheaths are compared for the different sheath potential

  3. An analytical investigation: Effect of solar wind on lunar photoelectron sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Misra, Shikha

    2018-02-01

    The formation of a photoelectron sheath over the lunar surface and subsequent dust levitation, under the influence of solar wind plasma and continuous solar radiation, has been analytically investigated. The photoelectron sheath characteristics have been evaluated using the Poisson equation configured with population density contributions from half Fermi-Dirac distribution of the photoemitted electrons and simplified Maxwellian statistics of solar wind plasma; as a consequence, altitude profiles for electric potential, electric field, and population density within the photoelectron sheath have been derived. The expression for the accretion rate of sheath electrons over the levitated spherical particles using anisotropic photoelectron flux has been derived, which has been further utilized to characterize the charging of levitating fine particles in the lunar sheath along with other constituent photoemission and solar wind fluxes. This estimate of particle charge has been further manifested with lunar sheath characteristics to evaluate the altitude profile of the particle size exhibiting levitation. The inclusion of solar wind flux into analysis is noticed to reduce the sheath span and altitude of the particle levitation; the dependence of the sheath structure and particle levitation on the solar wind plasma parameters has been discussed and graphically presented.

  4. On the biogenesis of the myelin sheath : Cognate polarized trafficking pathways in oligodendrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H; Hoekstra, D

    2000-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the central nervous system, are capable of transporting vast quantities of proteins and of lipids, In particular galactosphingolipids, to the myelin sheath. The sheath is continuous with the plasma membrane of the oligodendrocyte, but the composition of

  5. Measurement of sheath thickness by lining out grooves in the Hall-type stationary plasma thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Daren; Wu Zhiwen; Ning Zhongxi; Wang Xiaogang

    2007-01-01

    Using grooves created along the axial direction of the discharge channel, a method for measuring sheath thickness in Hall-type stationary plasma thrusters has been developed. By distorting the wall surface using these grooves, it is possible to numerically study the effect of the wall surface on the sheath and near wall conductivity. Monte Carlo method is applied to calculate the electron temperature variation with different groove depths. The electron dynamic process in the plasma is described by a test particle method with the electron randomly entering the sheath from the discharge channel and being reflected back. Numerical results show that the reflected electron temperature is hardly affected by the wall surface if the groove depth is much less than the sheath thickness. On the other hand, the reflected electron temperature increases if the groove depth is much greater than the sheath thickness. The reflected electron temperature has a sharp jump when the depth of groove is on the order of the sheath thickness. The simulation is repeated with different sheath thicknesses and the results are the same. Therefore, a diagnosis mean of the sheath thickness can be developed based on the method. Also the simulation results are in accord with the experimental data. Besides, the measurement method may be applicable to other plasma device with similar orthogonal steady state electrical and magnetic fields

  6. Numerical modelling for stability of tailings dams

    OpenAIRE

    Auchar, Muhammad; Mattsson, Hans; Knutsson, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A tailings dam is a large embankment structure that is constructed to store the waste from the mining industry. Stability problems may occur in a tailings dam due to factors such as quick rate of raising, internal erosion and liquefaction. The failure of a tailings dam may cause loss of human life and environmental degradation. Tailings Dams must not only be stable during the time the tailings storage facility is in operation, but also long time after the mine is closed. In Sweden, the licens...

  7. Phage T4 SegB protein is a homing endonuclease required for the preferred inheritance of T4 tRNA gene region occurring in co-infection with a related phage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brok-Volchanskaya, Vera S; Kadyrov, Farid A; Sivogrivov, Dmitry E; Kolosov, Peter M; Sokolov, Andrey S; Shlyapnikov, Michael G; Kryukov, Valentine M; Granovsky, Igor E

    2008-04-01

    Homing endonucleases initiate nonreciprocal transfer of DNA segments containing their own genes and the flanking sequences by cleaving the recipient DNA. Bacteriophage T4 segB gene, which is located in a cluster of tRNA genes, encodes a protein of unknown function, homologous to homing endonucleases of the GIY-YIG family. We demonstrate that SegB protein is a site-specific endonuclease, which produces mostly 3' 2-nt protruding ends at its DNA cleavage site. Analysis of SegB cleavage sites suggests that SegB recognizes a 27-bp sequence. It contains 11-bp conserved sequence, which corresponds to a conserved motif of tRNA TpsiC stem-loop, whereas the remainder of the recognition site is rather degenerate. T4-related phages T2L, RB1 and RB3 contain tRNA gene regions that are homologous to that of phage T4 but lack segB gene and several tRNA genes. In co-infections of phages T4 and T2L, segB gene is inherited with nearly 100% of efficiency. The preferred inheritance depends absolutely on the segB gene integrity and is accompanied by the loss of the T2L tRNA gene region markers. We suggest that SegB is a homing endonuclease that functions to ensure spreading of its own gene and the surrounding tRNA genes among T4-related phages.

  8. Fibroma of the tendon sheath of the long head of the biceps tendon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeseneer, Michel de; Shahabpour, Maryam; Isacker, Tom van; Lenchik, Leon; Caillie, Marie-Astrid van

    2014-01-01

    Fibroma of the tendon sheath is a benign tumor that is less common than giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. Both tumors may present as a painless, slowly enlarging mass. Radiological findings may be similar for both tumors. Histologically, fibroma of the tendon sheath lacks the hemosiderin-laden macrophages that are typical for giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. We report on a 49-year-old woman with fibroma of the tendon sheath of the long head of the biceps tendon. In our case, on MR images, we observed band-like hypointense areas centrally in the tumor, mild patchy contrast enhancement, and most importantly, no decrease of signal intensity on gradient echo images. These characteristics reflected histological findings. (orig.)

  9. Sheath formation of a plasma containing multiply charged ions, cold and hot electrons, and emitted electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    It is quite well known that ion confinement is an important factor in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) as it is closely related to the plasma potential. A model of sheath formation was extended to a plasma containing multiply charged ions (MCIs), cold and hot electrons, and secondary electrons emitted either by MCIs or hot electrons. In the model, a modification of the 'Bohm criterion' was given, the sheath potential drop and the critical emission condition were also analyzed. It appears that the presence of hot electrons and emitted electrons strongly affects the sheath formation so that smaller hot electrons and larger emission current result in reduced sheath potential (or floating potential). However the sheath potential was found to become independent of the emission current J when J > J c , (where J c is the critical emission current. The paper is followed by the associated poster

  10. The anatomy of the first sacral nerve root sheath shown by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, N R; Dixon, A K; Freer, C E

    1989-08-01

    Analysis of 25 patients with normal computed tomographic appearances at the lumbosacral junction revealed wide variation in the anatomical level at which the first sacral nerve root sheaths were seen emerging from the theca. In nine patients (36%), the S1 nerve root sheaths were first recognized at the level of the lumbosacral disc. In 14 patients (56%), the sheaths emerged cranial to the disc; it is possible that these patients may be more prone to neurological complications related to disc or facet joint disease, especially if the sheath is laterally sited within the lateral recess. Conversely, that minority of patients (two, 8%) in whom the root sheaths emerge caudal to the disc level may be relatively protected from neurological complications.

  11. Slow-wave propagation and sheath interaction in the ion-cyclotron frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myra, J R; D'Ippolito, D A

    2010-01-01

    In previous work (Myra J R and D'Ippolito D A 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 195004) we studied the propagation of slow-wave (SW) resonance cones launched parasitically by a fast-wave antenna into a tenuous magnetized plasma. Here we extend the treatment of SW propagation and sheath interaction to 'dense' scrape-off-layer plasmas where the usual cold-plasma SW is evanescent. Using the sheath boundary condition, it is shown that for sufficiently close limiters, the SW couples to a sheath-plasma wave and is no longer evanescent, but radially propagating. A self-consistent calculation of the rf-sheath width yields the resulting sheath voltage in terms of the amplitude of the launched SW, plasma parameters and connection length. The conditions for avoiding potentially deleterious rf-wall interactions in tokamak rf heating experiments are summarized.

  12. MMSET deregulation affects cell cycle progression and adhesion regulons in t(4;14) myeloma plasma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Jose L.R.; Walker, Brian; Jenner, Matthew; Dickens, Nicholas J.; Brown, Nicola J.M.; Ross, Fiona M.; Avramidou, Athanasia; Irving, Julie A.E.; Gonzalez, David; Davies, Faith E.; Morgan, Gareth J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The recurrent immunoglobulin translocation, t(4;14)(p16;q32) occurs in 15% of multiple myeloma patients and is associated with poor prognosis, through an unknown mechanism. The t(4;14) up-regulates fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and multiple myeloma SET domain (MMSET) genes. The involvement of MMSET in the pathogenesis of t(4;14) multiple myeloma and the mechanism or genes deregulated by MMSET upregulation are still unclear. Design and Methods The expression of MMSET was analyzed using a novel antibody. The involvement of MMSET in t(4;14) myelomagenesis was assessed by small interfering RNA mediated knockdown combined with several biological assays. In addition, the differential gene expression of MMSET-induced knockdown was analyzed with expression microarrays. MMSET gene targets in primary patient material was analyzed by expression microarrays. Results We found that MMSET isoforms are expressed in multiple myeloma cell lines, being exclusively up-regulated in t(4;14)-positive cells. Suppression of MMSET expression affected cell proliferation by both decreasing cell viability and cell cycle progression of cells with the t(4;14) translocation. These findings were associated with reduced expression of genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression (e.g. CCND2, CCNG1, BRCA1, AURKA and CHEK1), apoptosis (CASP1, CASP4 and FOXO3A) and cell adhesion (ADAM9 and DSG2). Furthermore, we identified genes involved in the latter processes that were differentially expressed in t(4;14) multiple myeloma patient samples. Conclusions In conclusion, dysregulation of MMSET affects the expression of several genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression, cell adhesion and survival. PMID:19059936

  13. T4 bacteriophage conjugated magnetic particles for E. coli capturing: Influence of bacteriophage loading, temperature and tryptone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liana, Ayu Ekajayanthi; Marquis, Christopher P; Gunawan, Cindy; Gooding, J Justin; Amal, Rose

    2017-03-01

    This work demonstrates the use of bacteriophage conjugated magnetic particles (Fe 3 O 4 ) for the rapid capturing and isolation of Escherichia coli. The investigation of T4 bacteriophage adsorption to silane functionalised Fe 3 O 4 with amine (NH 2 ), carboxylic (COOH) and methyl (CH 3 ) surface functional groups reveals the domination of net electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in governing bacteriophage adsorption. The bare Fe 3 O 4 and Fe 3 O 4 -NH 2 with high T4 loading captured 3-fold more E. coli (∼70% capturing efficiency) compared to the low loading T4 on Fe 3 O 4 -COOH, suggesting the significance of T4 loading in E. coli capturing efficiency. Importantly, it is further revealed that E. coli capture is highly dependent on the incubation temperature and the presence of tryptone in the media. Effective E. coli capturing only occurs at 37°C in tryptone-containing media with the absence of either conditions resulted in poor bacteria capture. The incubation temperature dictates the capturing ability of Fe 3 O 4 /T4, whereby T4 and E. coli need to establish an irreversible binding that occurred at 37°C. The presence of tryptophan-rich tryptone in the suspending media was also critical, as shown by a 3-fold increase in E. coli capture efficiency of Fe 3 O 4 /T4 in tryptone-containing media compared to that in tryptone-free media. This highlights for the first time that successful bacteria capturing requires not only an optimum tailoring of the particle's surface physicochemical properties for favourable bacteriophage loading, but also an in-depth understanding of how factors, such as temperature and solution chemistry influence the subsequent bacteriophage-bacteria interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal stabilization of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Williams, J.M.; Cokal, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The sintering of tailings at high temperatures (1200 0 C) has shown promise as a conditioning approach that greatly reduces the 222 Rn emanation of uranium mill tailings. The structure of thermally stabilized tailings has been appreciably altered producing a material that will have minimal management requirements and will be applicable to on-site processing and disposal. The mineralogy of untreated tailings is presented to define the structure of the original materials. Quartz predominates in most tailings samples; however, appreciable quantities of gypsum, clay, illite, or albites are found in some tailings. Samples from the Durango and Shiprock sites have plagioclase-type aluminosilicates and non-aluminum silicates as major components. The iron-rich vanadium tailings from the Salt Lake City site contain appreciable quantities of α-hematite and chloroapatite. The reduction in radon emanation power and changes in mineralogy as a function of sintering temperature are presented

  15. Ecotoxicity of Mine Tailings: Unrehabilitated Versus Rehabilitated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboeta, M S; Oladipo, O G; Botha, S M

    2018-05-01

    Earthworms are bioindicators of soil pollution. The ecotoxicity of tailings from selected gold mines in South Africa was investigated utilizing Eisenia andrei bioassays and biomarkers. Samples were obtained from unrehabilitated, rehabilitated and naturally vegetated sites. Biomass, neutral red retention time (NRRT), survival and reproduction were assessed using standardized protocols. Earthworm biomass, NRRT and reproductive success in rehabilitated tailings (comparable to naturally vegetated site) were significantly higher (p tailings. In addition, significantly lower (p tailings compared to the unrehabilitated. Further, significantly lower (p tailings than the rehabilitated and naturally vegetated sites. Overall, reduced ecotoxicity effects were confirmed in rehabilitated compared to unrehabilitated tailings. This suggests that rehabilitation as a post-mining restorative strategy has strong positive influence on mine tailings.

  16. Mineralogy and geochemistry of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, M.; Somot, S.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated three main types of uranium mill tailings: (1) acid mill tailings (Mounana, Gabon), (2) neutralized acid mill tailings (Ecarpiere and Jouac, France) and (3) alkaline mill tailings (Lodeve, France). We have focused especially on radium behaviour which is of major environmental concern in these tailings, but other metals were also studied. It is shown that in type 1 , trapping of 226 Ra by anglesite and barite is dominant whereas in types 2 and 3, 226 Ra is mainly or significantly scavenged by Fe- Mn oxyhydroxides. This study points out the importance of keeping conditions in which these oxyhydroxides will be stable for the long-term. Uranium would be also released during acidification of the tailings. This shows the importance to know more about the behavior of Ra during the crystallization of oxyhydroxides and during tailings diagenesis. Therefore, it is very important to study the sorption of Ra by clay minerals or late authigeneous minerals such as barite. (author)

  17. Levitation and dynamics of a collection of dust particles in a fully ionized plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitter, T.; Aslaksen, T.K.; Melandsoe, F.; Havnes, O.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have examined the dynamics of a collection of charged dust particles in the plasma sheath above a large body in a fully ionized space plasma when the radius of the large body is much larger than the sheath thickness. The dust particles are charged by the plasma, and the forces on the dust particles are assumed to be from the electric field in the sheath and from gravitation only. These forces will often act in opposite direction and may balance, making dust suspension and collection possible. The dust particles are supplied by injection or by electrostatic levitation. The ability of the sheath to collect dust particles, will be optimal for a certain combination of gravitation and plasma and dust particle parameters. In a dense dust sheath, the charges on the dust particles contribute significantly to the total space charge, and collective effects become important. These effects will reduce the magnitude of the sheath electric field strength and the charge on the dust particles. As dust particles are collected, the dust sheath is stretched and the largest dust particles may drop out, because the sheath is no longer able to suspend them. In a tenuous dust sheath, the inner layer, from the surface and about one Debye length thick, will be unstable for dust particle motion, and dust will not collect there. In a dense dust sheath, collective effects will decrease the thickness of this inner dust-free layer, making dust collection closer to the surface possible. By linearization of the force and current equations, they find the necessary and sufficient conditions which resemble those of planetary system bodies, but the results may also be of relevance to some laboratory plasmas

  18. Benign and malignant neurogenic tumors of nerve sheath origin on FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, M. J.; Go, D. H.; Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, K. H.; Lee, J. D

    2004-01-01

    The differentiation between benign and malignant nerve sheath tumors is difficult based on conventional radiological imaging. This study was undertaken to investigate the value of FDG PET in distinguishing benign from malignant neurogenic tumors of nerve sheath origin. We performed a retrospective review of the medical record to select patients with nerve sheath tumors who had underdone FDG PET imaging. Fifteen patients (7F: 8M) with benign or malignant nerve sheath tumors were included in this study. Of the 15 patients, 9 were diagnosed with the known neurofibromatosis type I. A total of 19 nerve sheath tumors were included from the 15 patients. All patients had undergone FDG PET to evaluate for malignant potential of the known lesions. Images of FDG PET were semi-quantitatively analyzed and a region of interest (ROI) was placed over the area of the maximum FDG uptake and an average standardized uptake value was taken for final analysis. There were 5 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 5 schwannomas, and 9 neurofibromas. The mean SUV was 2 (ranged from 1.6 to 3.3) for schwannomas, 1.3 (0.7 to 2.5) for neurofibromas, and 8.4 (4.6 to 12.2) for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Of 14 benign tumors, all except one schwannoma showed a SUV less than 3. When a cutoff SUV of 4 was used to differentiate the nerve sheath tumors, all tumors were correctly classified as benign or malignant, respectively. Among the 9 patients diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type I. 4 had malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and FDG PET accurately detected all the 4 lesions with malignant transformation. According to our results, FDG PET seems to have a great potential for accurately characterizing benign versus malignant nerve sheath tumors. It appears to be extremely useful for patients with neurofibromatosis to localize the lesion with malignant transformation

  19. Molecular interactions and residues involved in force generation in the T4 viral DNA packaging motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, Amy D; Smith, Douglas E; Arya, Gaurav

    2014-12-12

    Many viruses utilize molecular motors to package their genomes into preformed capsids. A striking feature of these motors is their ability to generate large forces to drive DNA translocation against entropic, electrostatic, and bending forces resisting DNA confinement. A model based on recently resolved structures of the bacteriophage T4 motor protein gp17 suggests that this motor generates large forces by undergoing a conformational change from an extended to a compact state. This transition is proposed to be driven by electrostatic interactions between complementarily charged residues across the interface between the N- and C-terminal domains of gp17. Here we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to investigate in detail the molecular interactions and residues involved in such a compaction transition of gp17. We find that although electrostatic interactions between charged residues contribute significantly to the overall free energy change of compaction, interactions mediated by the uncharged residues are equally if not more important. We identify five charged residues and six uncharged residues at the interface that play a dominant role in the compaction transition and also reveal salt bridging, van der Waals, and solvent hydrogen-bonding interactions mediated by these residues in stabilizing the compact form of gp17. The formation of a salt bridge between Glu309 and Arg494 is found to be particularly crucial, consistent with experiments showing complete abrogation in packaging upon Glu309Lys mutation. The computed contributions of several other residues are also found to correlate well with single-molecule measurements of impairments in DNA translocation activity caused by site-directed mutations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Giant Cell Tumour of Tendon Sheath Masquerading As Trigger Finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rahimawati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 59-year-old female who presented in the general orthopaedic clinic with triggering of her right middle finger. She did not respond to conventional treatment methods; subsequently she underwent surgical open release under local anaesthesia. Five months postoperatively, the patient presented with signs and symptoms of acute flexor tenosynovitis, and was thought to have a postoperative infection. Re-examination by a hand surgeon raised the possibility of a different aetiology. Based on clinical findings and response to initial treatment, giant cell tumour of the flexor tendon sheath was suspected and later confirmed following surgical biopsy. A high index of suspicion and knowledge of the variegated presentations of giant cell tumour in the hand are beneficial in these types of cases.

  1. Primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor at unusual location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvagya Panigrahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST is a rare soft tissue sarcoma. Most arise in association with major nerve trunks. Their most common anatomical sites are the proximal portions of the upper and lower extremities and the trunk. MPNSTs have rarely been reported in literature to occur in other unusual body parts. We review all such cases reported till now in terms of site of origin, surgical treatment, adjuvant therapy and outcome and shortly describe our experience with two of these cases. Both of our case presented with lump at unusual sites resembling neurofibroma, one at orbitotemporal area and other in the paraspinal region with characteristic feature of neurofibroma with the exception that both had very short history of progression. They underwent gross total removal of the tumor with adjuvant radiotherapy postoperatively. At 6-month follow-up both are doing well with no evidence of recurrence.

  2. Electron inertia effects on the planar plasma sheath problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, V. N.; Clemente, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    The steady one-dimensional planar plasma sheath problem, originally considered by Tonks and Langmuir, is revisited. Assuming continuously generated free-falling ions and isothermal electrons and taking into account electron inertia, it is possible to describe the problem in terms of three coupled integro-differential equations that can be numerically integrated. The inclusion of electron inertia in the model allows us to obtain the value of the plasma floating potential as resulting from an electron density discontinuity at the walls, where the electrons attain sound velocity and the electric potential is continuous. Results from numerical computation are presented in terms of plots for densities, electric potential, and particles velocities. Comparison with results from literature, corresponding to electron Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution (neglecting electron inertia), is also shown.

  3. Experiments on Alignment of Dust Particles in Plasma Sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarian, A.A.; Vladimirov, S.V.; James, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    Here, we report an experimental investigation of the stability of vertical and horizontal confinement of dust particles levitated in an rf sheath. The experiments were carried out in argon plasma with micron-sized dust particles. Changes of particle arrangement were triggered by changing the discharge parameters, applying an additional bias to the confining electrode and by laser beam. The region where the transition was triggered by changes of discharge parameters and the transition from horizontal to vertical alignment has been found to be more pronounced than for the reverse transition. A clear hysteretic effect was observed for transitions triggered by changes of the confining voltage. A vertical alignment occurs in a system of two dust horizontally arranged particles with the decrease of the particle separation. This disruption is attributed to the formation of the common ion wake in the system

  4. Tools-4-Metatool (T4M): online suite of web-tools to process stoichiometric network analysis data from Metatool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Daniela; Vázquez, Sara; Higuera, Clara; Morán, Federico; Montero, Francisco

    2011-08-01

    Tools-4-Metatool (T4M) is a suite of web-tools, implemented in PERL, which analyses, parses, and manipulates files related to Metatool. Its main goal is to assist the work with Metatool. T4M has two major sets of tools: Analysis and Compare. Analysis visualizes the results of Metatool (convex basis, elementary flux modes, and enzyme subsets) and facilitates the study of metabolic networks. It is composed of five tools: MDigraph, MetaMatrix, CBGraph, EMGraph, and SortEM. Compare was developed to compare different Metatool results from different networks. This set consists of: Compara and ComparaSub which compare network subsets providing outputs in different formats and ComparaEM that seeks for identical elementary modes in two metabolic networks. The suite T4M also includes one script that generates Metatool input: CBasis2Metatool, based on a Metatool output file that is filtered by a list of convex basis' metabolites. Finally, the utility CheckMIn checks the consistency of the Metatool input file. T4M is available at http://solea.quim.ucm.es/t4m. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. Ultra-differentiation of Sperm Tail of Lesser Egyptian Jerboa, Jaculus jaculus (Family: Dipodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Sarhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, events of sperm tail differentiation in Lesser Egyptian Jerboa, Jaculus jaculus were studied for the first time. Generally, stages of sperm tail differentiation are more or less similar to that described by other studies in other rodents. In the present species, special structures were observed. These structures include, first: the formation of a hollow large unit of microtubules that appears to surround the nuclear envelope at its equatorial plane. The manchette microtubules (MMs are re-oriented toward the longitudinal direction and attached along hollow large unit of microtubules. Second, the formation of perinuclear space filled with an electron-translucent substance surrounds the posterior third of the developing nucleus. Third, the nuclear fossa and the connecting piece were inserted in the ventrodorsal region of the nucleus. Fourth, the fibrous sheath (FS is formed of dextral spiral fibrous ribs. Finally, the sperm tail of the present species has a single outer FS, however, other rodents, having additional inner fibrous units, between the outer FS and the inner developing axoneme.

  13. Which is the most preventive measure against tail damage in finisher pigs: tail docking, straw provision or lowered stocking density?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    One challenge of intensive pig production is tail damage caused by tail biting, and farmers often decrease the prevalence of tail damage through tail docking. However, tail docking is not an optimal preventive measure against tail damage and thus, it would be preferable to replace it. The aim of ...

  14. Characterization of oils sands thickened tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.D.; Jeeravipoolvarn, S.; Donahue, R.; Ozum, B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This presentation discussed the characterization of oils sands thickened tailings. The problem statement was defined as the fact that many laboratory procedures to characterize fine tailings do not take into account the extraction process, and instead use standardized laboratory tests. The purpose of this presentation was to demonstrate how different extraction processes affect the fine tailings geotechnical properties and water chemistry. Properties that were characterized included particle size analysis from hydrometer-sieve tests; per cent clay from methylene blue tests; per cent clay from mineralogy tests; Atterberg limits; water chemistry; and morphology by scanning electron microscopy. The presentation discussed the origin of fines (silt and clay) in tailings; where fine particles come from; tailings materials; mineralogy of tailings; the hydrometer-sieve test on fine tailings and thickened tailings; and the methylene blue test. It was concluded that the great majority of clay minerals in the tailings come from the clay-shale discontinuous seams and layers. For thickened tailings, the dispersed and non-dispersed hydrometer tests show considerable difference in the amount of clay size material. tabs., figs.

  15. Uranium mill tailings neutralization: contaminant complexation and tailings leaching studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1985-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to compare the effectiveness of limestone (CaCO 3 ) and hydrated lime [Ca(OH) 2 ] for improving waste water quality through the neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings liquor. The experiments were designed to also assess the effects of three proposed mechanisms - carbonate complexation, elevated pH, and colloidal particle adsorption - on the solubility of toxic contaminants found in a typical uranium mill waste solution. Of special interest were the effects each of these possible mechanisms had on the solution concentrations of trace metals such as Cd, Co, Mo, Zn, and U after neutralization. Results indicated that the neutralization of acidic tailings to a pH of 7.3 using hydrated lime provided the highest overall waste water quality. Both the presence of a carbonate source or elevating solution pH beyond pH = 7.3 resulted in a lowering of previously achieved water quality, while adsorption of contaminants onto colloidal particles was not found to affect the solution concentration of any constituent investigated. 24 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs

  16. Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticles as Materials in Sensor Applications: Variables That Influence Their Organization and Assembly on Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinny L. Liu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage T4 nanoparticles possess characteristics that make them ideal candidates as materials for sensors, particularly as sensor probes. Their surface can be modified, either through genetic engineering or direct chemical conjugation to display functional moieties such as antibodies or other proteins to recognize a specific target. However, in order for T4 nanoparticles to be utilized as a sensor probe, it is necessary to understand and control the variables that determine their assembly and organization on a surface. The aim of this work is to discuss some of variables that we have identified as influencing the behavior of T4 nanoparticles on surfaces. The effect of pH, ionic strength, substrate characteristics, nanoparticle concentration and charge was addressed qualitatively using atomic force microscopy (AFM.

  17. T cell antigen receptor expression by subsets of Ly-2-L3T4- (CD8-CD4-) thymocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, A; Ewing, T; Owens, T

    1988-01-01

    . No positive cells were detected among Ly-2-L3T4- thymocytes from V beta 8-negative SJL mice. In contrast to the adult thymus, Ly-2-L3T4- cells from embryonic CBA thymus lacked F23.1-positive cells. Subsets of adult CBA Ly-2-L3T4- thymocytes were separated to determine which expressed V beta 8. The major...... B2A2-M1/69- and Pgp-1+ all included strongly F23.1-positive cells. A minor subset, negative for most markers except Pgp-1 and presumed on the basis of this phenotype and some reconstitution studies to include the earliest intrathymic precursors, contained 28% F23.1-positive cells. However, no F.23...

  18. Enhancement of ultraviolet-DNA repair in denV gene transfectants and T4 endonuclease V-liposome recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibitel, J.T.; Yee, V.; Yarosh, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    The phage T4 denV gene, coding for the pyrimidine-dimer specific T4 endonuclease V, was transfected into human repair-proficient fibroblasts, repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts, and wild type CHO hamster cells. Transfectants maintained denV DNA and expressed denV mRNA. Purified T4 endonuclease V encapsulated in liposomes was also used to treat repair-proficient and -deficient human cells. The denV transfected clones and liposome-treated cells showed increased unscheduled DNA synthesis and enhanced removal of pyrimidine dimers compared to controls. Both denV gene transfection and endonuclease V liposome treatment enhanced post-UV survival in xeroderma pigmentosum cells but had no effect on survival in repair-proficient human or hamster cells. The results demonstrate that an exogenous DNA repair enzyme can correct the DNA repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum cells and enhance DNA repair in normal cells. (author)

  19. Actions of a proline analogue, L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (T4C, on Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahí Magdaleno

    Full Text Available It is well established that L-proline has several roles in the biology of trypanosomatids. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, this amino acid is involved in energy metabolism, differentiation processes and resistance to osmotic stress. In this study, we analyzed the effects of interfering with L-proline metabolism on the viability and on other aspects of the T. cruzi life cycle using the proline analogue L- thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (T4C. The growth of epimastigotes was evaluated using different concentrations of T4C in standard culture conditions and at high temperature or acidic pH. We also evaluated possible interactions of this analogue with stress conditions such as those produced by nutrient starvation and oxidative stress. T4C showed a dose-response effect on epimastigote growth (IC(50 = 0.89+/-0.02 mM at 28 degrees C, and the inhibitory effect of this analogue was synergistic (p<0.05 with temperature (0.54+/-0.01 mM at 37 degrees C. T4C significantly diminished parasite survival (p<0.05 in combination with nutrient starvation and oxidative stress conditions. Pre-incubation of the parasites with L-proline resulted in a protective effect against oxidative stress, but this was not seen in the presence of the drug. Finally, the trypomastigote bursting from infected mammalian cells was evaluated and found to be inhibited by up to 56% when cells were treated with non-toxic concentrations of T4C (between 1 and 10 mM. All these data together suggest that T4C could be an interesting therapeutic drug if combined with others that affect, for example, oxidative stress. The data also support the participation of proline metabolism in the resistance to oxidative stress.

  20. Increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma: from euthyroidism to thyrotoxicosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solter, M

    2012-01-31

    AIM: The aim was to investigate whether the intrathyroid conversion of T4 to T3 in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma (AFTA) tissue could influence serum T3 levels and suppression of TSH, especially in patients with borderline thyroid function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In ten patients with AFTA, thyroidal conversion of T4 to T3 was investigated in nodular and paranodular, TSH-suppressed tissue. All patients had normal serum T4 and suppressed TSH. Serum T3 was normal in six, and borderline or slightly increased in four. AFTA and paranodular tissues were surgically removed and frozen at -70 degrees C, then homogenized in a glass homogenizer, centrifuged at 100,000xg, and particulate fraction collected as a pellet. Analysis mixture consisted of thyroid enzyme suspension in 50 mumol\\/L TRIS buffer with 5 mumol DTT and 200 muL 1.3 mumol T4. Incubation was performed at 37 degrees C and the generation of T3 measured after 5, 10, 20 and 40 minutes respectively. RESULTS: T3 production (pmol\\/mg protein) was significantly higher in AFTA than in paranodular tissues (8.8 1.2\\/Mean +\\/- SE\\/vs. 1.8 +\\/- 0.2; p<0.01), and excessively high (9.8, 14.1, 14.2 and 15.0) in four patients with borderline or slightly supranormal serum T3. A significant correlation was found between serum T3 concentrations and T3 generation (T4 conversion) in AFTA tissues. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in AFTA tissue could be involved in an increased delivery of T3, increased serum T3 and suppressed serum TSH, particularly in patients with the disease evolving from euthyroid to an early hyperthyroid phase.

  1. Intervalos de referencia para concentraciones séricas de T3 y T4. Estudio preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Miranda Pantoja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la determinación cuantitativa de las hormonas tiroideas T3 y T4 reviste gran importancia en el diagnóstico y la evaluación del hipertiroidismo, en especial del hipertiroidismo aislado causado por T3.Objetivo: establecer los intervalos de referencia de T3 y T4 en el laboratorio de medicina nuclear del Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima de Cienfuegos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo y prospectivo realizado mediante el método de radioinmunoanálisis, competencia que se establece entre la T3 y T4 sin marcar, y la marcada por un número limitado de los sitios de unión del anticuerpo específico. Al hacer reaccionar una cantidad fija de trazador y anticuerpo con diferentes cantidades del ligando sin marcar, la cantidad de trazador unido por el anticuerpo será inversamente proporcional a la concentración del ligando sin marcar. Resultados: los valores obtenidos se describen según una distribución gaussiana (media aritmética = 117, desviación estándar =31 para T4; media aritmética = 2,64, desviación estándar = 0,64 para T3, comprobado mediante un test de Chi cuadrado. Los rangos de valores normales obtenidos fueron de de 55 – 178 nmol/L y 1,4 – 3,9 nmol/L para T4 y T3 respectivamente. Conclusiones: los intervalos de referencia obtenidos resultaron más amplios que los propuestos por el productor, sobre todo en el caso de T4.

  2. Mitigating impact of thermal and rectified radio-frequency sheath potentials on edge localized modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, B. [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Lawerence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawerence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Myra, J. R.; D' Ippolito, D. A. [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The mitigating impact of thermal and rectified radio frequency (RF) sheath potentials on the peeling-ballooning modes is studied non-linearly by employing a two-fluid three-field simulation model based on the BOUT++ framework. Additional shear flow and the Kelvin-Helmholtz effect due to the thermal and rectified RF sheath potential are induced. It is found that the shear flow increases the growth rate while the K-H effect decreases the growth rate slightly when there is a density gradient, but the energy loss of these cases is suppressed in the nonlinear phase. The stronger external electrostatic field due to the sheaths has a more significant effect on the energy loss suppression. From this study, it is found the growth rate in the linear phase mainly determines the onset of edge-localized modes, while the mode spectrum width in the nonlinear phase has an important impact on the turbulent transport. The wider mode spectrum leads to weaker turbulent transport and results in a smaller energy loss. Due to the thermal sheath and rectified RF sheath potential in the scrape-off-layer, the modified shear flow tears apart the peeling-ballooning filament and makes the mode spectrum wider, resulting in less energy loss. The perturbed electric potential and the parallel current near the sheath region is also suppressed locally due to the sheath boundary condition.

  3. Research on stress distribution regularity of cement sheaths of radial well based on ABAQUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jihui; Cheng, Yuanfang; Li, Xiaolong; Xiao, Wen; Li, Menglai

    2017-12-01

    To ensure desirable outcome of hydraulic fracturing based on ultra-short radius radial systems, it is required to investigate the stress distribution regularity and stability of the cement sheath. On the basis of the theoretical model of the cement sheath stress distribution, a reservoir mechanical model was built using the finite element software, ABAQUS, according to the physical property of a certain oil reservoir of the Shengli oilfield. The stress distribution of the casing-cement-sheath-formation system under the practical condition was simulated, based on which analyses were conducted from multiple points of view. Results show that the stress on the internal interface of the cement sheath exceeds that on the external interface, and fluctuates with higher amplitudes, which means that the internal interface is the most failure-prone. The unevenness of the cement sheath stress distribution grows with the increasing horizontal principal stress ratio, and so does the variation magnitude. This indicates that higher horizontal principal stress ratios are unfavourable for the structural stability of the cement sheath. Both the wellbore quantity of the URRS and the physical property of the material can affect the cement sheath distribution. It is suggested to optimize the quantity of the radial wellbore and use cement with a lower elastic modulus and higher Poisson’s ratio. At last, the impact level of the above factor was analysed, with the help of the grey correlation analysis.

  4. Hertwig’s Epithelial Root Sheath Fate during Initial Cellular Cementogenesis in Rat Molars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki; Yamada, Tamaki; Yamamoto, Tomomaya; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Hongo, Hiromi; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the fate of the epithelial root sheath during initial cellular cementogenesis, we examined developing maxillary first molars of rats by immunohistochemistry for keratin, vimentin, and tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP) and by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). The advancing root end was divided into three sections, which follow three distinct stages of initial cellular cementogenesis: section 1, where the epithelial sheath is intact; section 2, where the epithelial sheath becomes fragmented; and section 3, where initial cellular cementogenesis begins. After fragmentation of the epithelial sheath, many keratin-positive epithelial sheath cells were embedded in the rapidly growing cellular cementum. A few unembedded epithelial cells located on the cementum surface. Dental follicle cells, precementoblasts, and cementoblasts showed immunoreactivity for vimentin and TNALP. In all three sections, there were virtually no cells possessing double immunoreactivity for vimentin-keratin or TNALP-keratin and only embedded epithelial cells showed TUNEL reactivity. Taken together, these findings suggest that: (1) epithelial sheath cells divide into two groups; one group is embedded in the cementum and thereafter dies by apoptosis, and the other survives on the cementum surface as epithelial cell rests of Malassez; and (2) epithelial sheath cells do not undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition during initial cellular cementogenesis

  5. Statistical analysis of mirror mode waves in sheath regions driven by interplanetary coronal mass ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Lahti, Matti M.; Kilpua, Emilia K. J.; Dimmock, Andrew P.; Osmane, Adnane; Pulkkinen, Tuija; Souček, Jan

    2018-05-01

    We present a comprehensive statistical analysis of mirror mode waves and the properties of their plasma surroundings in sheath regions driven by interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME). We have constructed a semi-automated method to identify mirror modes from the magnetic field data. We analyze 91 ICME sheath regions from January 1997 to April 2015 using data from the Wind spacecraft. The results imply that similarly to planetary magnetosheaths, mirror modes are also common structures in ICME sheaths. However, they occur almost exclusively as dip-like structures and in mirror stable plasma. We observe mirror modes throughout the sheath, from the bow shock to the ICME leading edge, but their amplitudes are largest closest to the shock. We also find that the shock strength (measured by Alfvén Mach number) is the most important parameter in controlling the occurrence of mirror modes. Our findings suggest that in ICME sheaths the dominant source of free energy for mirror mode generation is the shock compression. We also suggest that mirror modes that are found deeper in the sheath are remnants from earlier times of the sheath evolution, generated also in the vicinity of the shock.

  6. The collisional capacitive RF sheath and the assumption of a sharp electron edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2008-10-01

    The transition from quasi-neutrality to charge depletion is one of the characteristic features of the plasma boundary sheath. It is often described in terms of the so-called step model which assumes a transition point (electron step) where the electron density drops from a value equal to the ion density (in the bulk) to a value of zero (in the sheath). Inserted into Poisson's equation, the step model yields an expression for the field which is realistic deep in the sheath but fails to merge correctly into the ambipolar field of the bulk. This work studies the consequences of that approximation for the example of the collision-dominated, capacitive RF sheath by Lieberman [1]. First, the model is solved exactly, using a relaxation scheme. Then, the step approximation is applied which recovers Lieberman's semi-analytical solution. It is demonstrated that the step approximation induces a spurious divergence of the ion density at the sheath edge and prevents a matching of the sheath model to a bulk model. Integral sheath quantities, on the other hand, like the capacitance or the overall voltage drop, are faithfully reproduced. [1] M. A. Lieberman, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, pp. 638-644 (1988).

  7. Verification of high voltage rf capacitive sheath models with particle-in-cell simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Lieberman, Michael; Verboncoeur, John

    2009-10-01

    Collisionless and collisional high voltage rf capacitive sheath models were developed in the late 1980's [1]. Given the external parameters of a single-frequency capacitively coupled discharge, plasma parameters including sheath width, electron and ion temperature, plasma density, power, and ion bombarding energy can be estimated. One-dimensional electrostatic PIC codes XPDP1 [2] and OOPD1 [3] are used to investigate plasma behaviors within rf sheaths and bulk plasma. Electron-neutral collisions only are considered for collisionless sheaths, while ion-neutral collisions are taken into account for collisional sheaths. The collisionless sheath model is verified very well by PIC simulations for the rf current-driven and voltage-driven cases. Results will be reported for collisional sheaths also. [1] M. A. Lieberman, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16 (1988) 638; 17 (1989) 338 [2] J. P. Verboncoeur, M. V. Alves, V. Vahedi, and C. K. Birdsall, J. Comp. Phys. 104 (1993) 321 [3] J. P. Verboncoeur, A. B. Langdon and N. T. Gladd, Comp. Phys. Comm. 87 (1995) 199

  8. Comparison of the cleavage of pyrimidine dimers by the bacteriophage T4 and Micrococcus luteus uv-specific endonucleases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, L.K.; Haseltine, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison was made of the activity of the uv-specific endonucleases of bacteriophage T4 (T4 endonuclease V) and of Micrococcus luteus on ultraviolet light-irradiated DNA substrates of defined sequence. The two enzyms cleave DNA at the site of pyrimidine dimers with the same frequency. The products of the cleavage reaction are the same. The pyrimidine dimer DNA-glycosylase activity of both enzymes is more active on double-stranded DNA than it is on single-stranded DNA

  9. Circadian variations of thyrotropin (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in surgical and functional pinealectomy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowska, Z.; Zwirska-Korczala, K.; Buntner, B.; Jarzab, B.; Kucharzewski, M.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the regulatory influence of surgical and functional pinealectomy on circadian variations of thyrotropin (TSH), triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) in male Wistar rats. The serum hormone levels were estimated with RIA method, and the circadian rhythm secretion was analyzed by means of cosinor method. Our study shows that there are marked differences in circadian fluctuations of T 3 and T 4 between the two generally used models of pinealectomy. (author). 55 refs, 4 figs

  10. To Be or Not To Be T4: Evidence of a Complex Evolutionary Pathway of Head Structure and Assembly in Giant Salmonella Virus SPN3US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazla Ali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Giant Salmonella phage SPN3US has a 240-kb dsDNA genome and a large complex virion composed of many proteins for which the functions of most are undefined. We recently determined that SPN3US shares a core set of genes with related giant phages and sequenced and characterized 18 amber mutants to facilitate its use as a genetic model system. Notably, SPN3US and related giant phages contain a bolus of ejection proteins within their heads, including a multi-subunit virion RNA polymerase (vRNAP, that enter the host cell with the DNA during infection. In this study, we characterized the SPN3US virion using mass spectrometry to gain insight into its head composition and the features that its head shares with those of related giant phages and with T4 phage. SPN3US has only homologs to the T4 proteins critical for prohead shell formation, the portal and major capsid proteins, as well as to the major enzymes essential for head maturation, the prohead protease and large terminase subunit. Eight of ~50 SPN3US head proteins were found to undergo proteolytic processing at a cleavage motif by the prohead protease gp245. Gp245 undergoes auto-cleavage of its C-terminus, suggesting this is a conserved activation and/or maturation feature of related phage proteases. Analyses of essential head gene mutants showed that the five subunits of the vRNAP must be assembled for any subunit to be incorporated into the prohead, although the assembled vRNAP must then undergo subsequent major conformational rearrangements in the DNA packed capsid to allow ejection through the ~30 Å diameter tail tube for transcription from the injected DNA. In addition, ejection protein candidate gp243 was found to play a critical role in head assembly. Our analyses of the vRNAP and gp243 mutants highlighted an unexpected dichotomy in giant phage head maturation: while all analyzed giant phages have a homologous protease that processes major capsid and portal proteins, processing of ejection

  11. Thyroxine (T 4-RIA) and triiodothyronine (T 3-RIA) serum levels in sheep fed on Leucaena Leucocephala; Niveis sericos de tiroxina (T4-RIA) e triiodotinonina (T3-RIA) em ovinos alimentados cm Leucaena Leucocephala LAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, J M; Rodriguez, N M [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Veterinaria; Cardoso, W M [Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Escola de Medicina Veterinaria; Velez, C E.S.

    1988-12-31

    The aim of this work is to study the toxicity of Leucaena leucocephala on thyroxine and triiodothyronine serum concentration. Results indicate that ovine T 4 and T 3 serum levels do not decrease with Leucaena leucocephala feeding, sohen proreided for 41 days. (author). 10 refs, 1 tab.

  12. Soil sheaths, photosynthate distribution to roots, and rhizosphere water relations for Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.; North, G.B.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Soil sheaths incorporating aggregated soil particles surround young roots of many species, but the effects of such sheaths on water movement between roots and the soil are largely unknown. The quantity and location of root exudates associated with soil sheath along the entire length of its young roots, except within 1.4 cm of the tip. The soil sheaths, which average 0.7 mm in thickness, were composed of soil particles and root hairs, both of which were covered with exuded mucilaginous material. As determined with a [sup 14]C pulse-labeling technique, 2% of newly fixed [sup 14]C-photosynthate was translocated into the roots at 3d, 6% at 9 d, and 8% at 15 d after labeling. The fraction of insoluble [sup 14]C in the roots increased twofold from 3 d to 15 d. Over the same time period, 6%-9% of the [sup 14]C translocated to the roots was exuded into the soil. The soluble [sup 14]C compounds exuded into the soil were greater in the 3-cm segment at the root tip than elsewhere along the root, whereas mucilage was exuded relatively uniformly along roots 15 cm in length. The volumetric efflux of water increase for both sheathed and unsheathed roots as the soil water potential decreased form -0.1 MPa to -1.0 MPa. The efflux rate was greater for unsheathed roots than for sheathed roots, which were more turgid and had a higher water potential, especially at lower soil water potentials. During drying, soil particles in the sheaths aggregate more tightly, making the sheaths less permeable to water and possibly creating air gaps. The soil sheaths of O. ficus-indica thus reduce water loss from the roots to a drying soil. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Evaluation of the Effusion within Biceps Long Head Tendon Sheath Using Ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sung-Eun; Bae, Sung-Ho; Lee, Kwang-Yeol; Park, Kwang-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background Many shoulder diseases are related to glenohumeral joint synovitis and effusion. The purpose of the present study is to detect effusion within the biceps long head tendon sheath as the sign of glenohumeral joint synovitis using ultrasonography, and to evaluate the clinical meaning of effusion within the biceps long head tendon sheath. Methods A consecutive series of 569 patients who underwent ultrasonography for shoulder pain were reviewed retrospectively and ultimately, 303 patients were included. The authors evaluated the incidence and amount of the effusion within the biceps long head tendon sheath on the ultrasonographic short axis view. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the correlation between the amount of effusion within the biceps long head tendon sheath and the range of motion and the functional score. Results The effusion within the biceps long head tendon sheath was detected in 58.42% of the patients studied: 69.23% in adhesive capsulitis, 56.69% in rotator cuff tear, 41.03% in calcific tendinitis, and 33.33% in biceps tendinitis. The average amount of the effusion within the biceps long head tendon sheath was 1.7 ± 1.6 mm, and it was measured to be the largest in adhesive capsulitis. The amount of effusion within biceps long head tendon sheath showed a moderate to high degree of correlation with the range of motion, and a low degree of correlation with the functional score and visual analogue scale for pain in each type of shoulder disease. Conclusions The effusion within the biceps long head tendon sheath is closely related to the range of motion and clinical scores in patients with painful shoulders. Ultrasonographic detection of the effusion within the biceps long head tendon sheath might be a simple and easy method to evaluate shoulder function. PMID:26330958

  14. Radon emanation characteristics of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.; Mauch, M.L.; Rogers, V.C.

    1982-01-01

    Radon emanation from uranium mill tailings was examined with respect to the mechanisms of emanation and the physical properties of the tailings which affect emanation. Radon emanation coefficients were measured at ambient moisture on 135 samples from the 1981 field test site at the Grand Junction tailings pile. These coefficients showed a similar trend with moisture to those observed previously with uranium ores, and averaged 0.10 + or - 0.02 at dryness and 0.38 + or - 0.04 for all samples having greater than five weight-percent moisture. Small differences were noted between the maximum values of the coefficients for the sand and slime fractions of the tailings. Separate measurements on tailings from the Vitro tailings pile exhibited much lower emanation coefficients for moist samples, and similar coefficients for dry samples. Alternative emanation measurement techniques were examined and procedures are recommended for use in future work

  15. Molecular ions in comet tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Wehinger, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Band intensities of the molecular ions CH + , CO + , N 2 + , and H 2 O + have been determined on an absolute scale from tail spectra of comet Kohoutek (1973f) and comet Bradfield (1974b). Photoionization and photodissociation rates have been computed for CH, CO, and N 2 . Also emission rate excitation g-factors for (1) photoionization plus excitation and (2) resonance fluorescence have been computed for the observed ions. It is shown that resonance fluorescence is the dominant excitation mechanism for observed comet tail ions at rapprox. =1 AU. Band system luminosities and molecular ion abundances within a projected nuclear distance rho 4 km have been determined for CH + , CO + , N 2 + , and H 2 O + in comet Kohoutek, and for H 2 O + in comet Bradfield. Estimates are also given for column densities of all observed ions at rhoapprox. =10 4 km on the tailward side of the coma. The observed H 2 O + column densities were found to be roughly the same in comet Kohoutek and comet Bradfield et equal heliocentric distances, while CO + was found to be approximately 100 times more abundant than H 2 O + , N 2 + , and CH + at rhoapprox. =10 4 km in comet Kohoutek. Finally, the relative abundances of the observed ions and of the presumed parent neutral species are briefly discussed

  16. Oil sands tailings management project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwalt, C. [Alberta WaterSMART, Calgary, AB (Canada); Kotecha, P. [Suncor Energy Inc, Calgary, AB (Canada); Aumann, C. [Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures, Alberta Governement, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

  17. Oil sands tailings management project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwalt, C.; Kotecha, P.; Aumann, C.

    2010-11-01

    The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

  18. Assessing Risks of Mine Tailing Dam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha Larrauri, P.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    The consequences of tailings dam failures can be catastrophic for communities and ecosystems in the vicinity of the dams. The failure of the Fundão tailings dam at the Samarco mine in 2015 killed 19 people with severe consequences for the environment. The financial and legal consequences of a tailings dam failure can also be significant for the mining companies. For the Fundão tailings dam, the company had to pay 6 billion dollars in fines and twenty-one executives were charged with qualified murder. There are tenths of thousands of active, inactive, and abandoned tailings dams in the world and there is a need to better understand the hazards posed by these structures to downstream populations and ecosystems. A challenge to assess the risks of tailings dams in a large scale is that many of them are not registered in publicly available databases and there is little information about their current physical state. Additionally, hazard classifications of tailings dams - common in many countries- tend to be subjective, include vague parameter definitions, and are not always updated over time. Here we present a simple methodology to assess and rank the exposure to tailings dams using ArcGIS that removes subjective interpretations. The method uses basic information such as current dam height, storage volume, topography, population, land use, and hydrological data. A hazard rating risk was developed to compare the potential extent of the damage across dams. This assessment provides a general overview of what in the vicinity of the tailings dams could be affected in case of a failure and a way to rank tailings dams that is directly linked to the exposure at any given time. One hundred tailings dams in Minas Gerais, Brazil were used for the test case. This ranking approach could inform the risk management strategy of the tailings dams within a company, and when disclosed, it could enable shareholders and the communities to make decisions on the risks they are taking.

  19. Dust charging and charge fluctuations in a weakly collisional radio-frequency sheath at low pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piel, Alexander; Schmidt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Models for the charging of dust particles in the bulk plasma and in the sheath region are discussed. A new model is proposed that describes collision-enhanced ion currents in the sheath. The collisions result in a substantial reduction of the negative charge of the dust. Experimental data for the dust charge in the sheath can be described by this model when a Bi-Maxwellian electron distribution is taken into account. Expressions for the dust charging rate for all considered models are presented and their influence on the rise of the kinetic dust temperature is discussed

  20. Normal tendon sheath of the second to fifth fingers as seen on oblique views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.

    1984-01-01

    Oblique views of the fingers, using a low kilovolt technique, show a portion of the tendon sheaths which can be regarded as representative of the entire sheath. Because of the varying obliquity of each finger, this proportion differs in the fingers. With increasing age the projected portion of the sheath becomes smaller because it is covered by increasing bone formation in the insertion of the tendon sheat. Normal values have been obtained for adults according to their decades; from these, quite minor degrees of tendon sheat thickening can be determined. In camptodactyly of the fifth finger, which is not uncommon, the tendon sheat may be widened in the absence of a tenosynovitis.

  1. Influence of vacuum space on formation of potential sheath in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, H.S.

    1997-01-01

    Properties of potential sheaths developed in plasmas are investigated in terms of the plasma Debye length and the dimension of vacuum space. Biased plasma potential and the potential profile depend very sensitively on the geometrical configuration of plasma and vacuum space. The potential sheath is never developed near electrodes in high-density plasmas where the Debye length is much less than the dimension of the vacuum space. In this case, most of the potential drops occur in the vacuum space and almost no electric field exists inside the plasma. Parametric investigation of the potential sheath in terms of the vacuum-space and plasma dimensions is carried out. (orig.)

  2. Modelling of the dual frequency capacitive sheath in the intermediate pressure range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, P C; Robiche, J; Turner, M M

    2004-01-01

    The nonlinearity of the plasma sheath in dual frequency capacitively coupled reactors is investigated for frequencies well above the ion plasma frequency. This work focuses on the behaviour of the voltage and the sheath width with respect to the driving current source and the collisionality regime. For typical plasma processing applications, the gas pressure ranges from a few milliTorrs to hundreds of milliTorrs, and the ion dynamics span different collisional regimes. To describe these different ion dynamics, we have used a collisionless model and a variable mobility model. The sheath widths and the voltages obtained from these two models have then been compared

  3. Abduction of Arm Facilitates Correction of Kinked Peel-Away Sheath During Subclavian Central Line Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghoon

    2015-12-01

    A tunneled central line catheter placement using a subclavian vein approach can be complicated by an occurrence of peel-away sheath kink which prevents the advancement of the catheter through the sheath. The kink is created due to the angular junction of subclavian and brachiocephalic veins which meet at 90 degree angle. A technique is described which corrects the peel-away sheath kink by extending the subclavian/brachiocephalic vein angle to greater than 90 degrees by abducting the patient's arm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Average configuration of the geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairfield, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    Over 3000 hours of Imp 6 magnetic field data obtained between 20 and 33 R/sub E/ in the geomagnetic tail have been used in a statistical study of the tail configuration. A distribution of 2.5-min averages of B/sub z/ as a function of position across the tail reveals that more flux crosses the equatorial plane near the dawn and dusk flanks (B-bar/sub z/=3.γ) than near midnight (B-bar/sub z/=1.8γ). The tail field projected in the solar magnetospheric equatorial plane deviates from the x axis due to flaring and solar wind aberration by an angle α=-0.9 Y/sub SM/-2.7, where Y/sub SM/ is in earth radii and α is in degrees. After removing these effects, the B/sub y/ component of the tail field is found to depend on interplanetary sector structure. During an 'away' sector the B/sub y/ component of the tail field is on average 0.5γ greater than that during a 'toward' sector, a result that is true in both tail lobes and is independent of location across the tail. This effect means the average field reversal between northern and southern lobes of the tail is more often 178 0 rather than the 180 0 that is generally supposed

  5. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise; Vinding, Mads S; Rydtoft, Louise M; Mortensen, Martin B; Karring, Henrik; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Wang, Tobias; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments.

  6. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed...... that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail...

  7. The relative axial expansions under irradiation of stacks of UO{sub 2} pellets in zircaloy sheaths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notley, M. J.F.

    1962-08-15

    An experiment was performed to measure the relative axial movement of UO{sub 2} fuel pellets inside a Zircaloy sheath. Although the results must be treated with some reservation, the inferences are that there is very little relative movement between the fuel and the sheath when the two are in firm pressure contact. Relative movement was in the range 0.075 {+-} 0.03 cm for a 30 cm fuel length, and was not greatly affected by the power output, profile of the pellet end-faces or the diametral clearance left between the fuel and the sheath on assembly. However in two elements that had thick sheaths to withstand the coolant pressure and that were assembled with large diametral clearances (2% of the diameter) the available axial clearance for relative fuel/ sheath movement (1%) was fully taken up. The thin sheathed elements showed residual axial expansions of up to 0.17 cm, indicating that the pellets move relative to the sheath only until frictional forces are sufficient for the sheath to grip the fuel; thereafter the sheath is extended. The measurements also indicate that sheath elongation is governed by the temperature at the contact points between adjacent pellets, eg. at the inner edge of a pellet shoulder, as long as that temperature is below approximately 1000{sup o}C. At higher temperatures, the UO{sub 2} is too plastic to exert sufficient force to strain the sheath. (author)

  8. Dissociation and Re-Aggregation of Multicell-Ensheathed Fragments Responsible for Rapid Production of Massive Clumps of Leptothrix Sheaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; McFarlane, Ian R.; Tamura, Katsunori; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Species of the Fe/Mn-oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix produce tremendous amounts of microtubular, Fe/Mn-encrusted sheaths within a few days in outwells of groundwater that can rapidly clog water systems. To understand this mode of rapid sheath production and define the timescales involved, behaviors of sheath-forming Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 were examined using time-lapse video at the initial stage of sheath formation. OUMS1 formed clumps of tangled sheaths. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of a thin layer of bacterial exopolymer fibrils around catenulate cells (corresponding to the immature sheath). In time-lapse videos, numerous sheath filaments that extended from the periphery of sheath clumps repeatedly fragmented at the apex of the same fragment, the fragments then aggregated and again elongated, eventually forming a large sheath clump comprising tangled sheaths within two days. In this study, we found that fast microscopic fragmentation, dissociation, re-aggregation and re-elongation events are the basis of the rapid, massive production of Leptothrix sheaths typically observed at macroscopic scales. PMID:27490579

  9. Wear behaviors of pure aluminum and extruded aluminum alloy (AA2024-T4) under variable vertical loads and linear speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeki; Oak, Jeong-Jung; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Cho, Yi Je; Park, Yong Ho

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the transition of wear behavior for pure aluminum and extruded aluminum alloy 2024-T4 (AA2024-T4). The wear test was carried using a ball-on-disc wear testing machine at various vertical loads and linear speeds. The transition of wear behaviors was analyzed based on the microstructure, wear tracks, wear cross-section, and wear debris. The critical wear rates for each material are occurred at lower linear speed for each vertical load. The transition of wear behavior was observed in which abrasion wears with the generation of an oxide layer, fracture of oxide layer, adhesion wear, severe adhesion wear, and the generation of seizure occurred in sequence. In case of the pure aluminum, the change of wear debris occurred in the order of blocky, flake, and needle-like debris. Cutting chip, flake-like, and coarse flake-like debris was occurred in sequence for the extruded AA2024-T4. The transition in the wear behavior of extruded AA2024-T4 occurred slower than in pure aluminum.

  10. The efficacy of superselective intra-arterial infusion in patients with T4 oral cancer. Comparison with conventional chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakaki, Keiichi; Arasaki, Akira; Kano, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Since 1985, we have applied systematic treatment to improve radicality and postoperative oral dysfunction, as well as maxillofacial deformity. However, most T4 cases of oral cancer have remained difficult to treat, and diverse methods and results for progressive cancer have been reported by many institutions. For high-grade malignancy cases, we changed the treatment from bleomycin or cisplatin in induction chemotherapy to targeted intra-arterial infusions of carboplatin with radiation-combined therapy. In this study, we compared the effects of conventional therapy with targeted intra-arterial infusions of carboplatin for T4 cases of oral cancer. In this retrospective review, we analyzed a subset of patients who were treated with induction chemotherapy using bleomycin (BLM) and targeted intra-arterial infusions of carboplatin (CBDCA) with radiation-combined therapy patients who received treatment between June 1985 and December 2006. Of the 105 patients who had T4 disease, the proportion with grade IIb to IV in the carboplatin with radiation-combined therapy (88.9%) was higher than that in induction chemotherapy (45.0%). Targeted chemoradiation therapy followed by surgical salvage is a highly effective approach for the regional control of patients with T4, although additional strategies are required to address the problem of distant metastases. (author)

  11. Thyroxine (T 4-RIA) and triiodothyronine (T 3-RIA) serum levels in sheep fed on Leucaena Leucocephala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, J.M.; Rodriguez, N.M.; Cardoso, W.M.; Velez, C.E.S.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the toxicity of Leucaena leucocephala on thyroxine and triiodothyronine serum concentration. Results indicate that ovine T 4 and T 3 serum levels do not decrease with Leucaena leucocephala feeding, sohen proreided for 41 days. (author). 10 refs, 1 tab

  12. Investigation of the T4 and T6 heat treatment cycles of semi-solid processed aluminium alloy A356

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available of the solution treatment time at 540 C from 6 hours to 1 hour does not alter the T4 or T6 tensile properties of the SSM processed A356 alloy. Slightly better impact properties are obtained with the shorter solution treatment. This could lead to time and energy...

  13. Esophageal motion characteristics in thoracic esophageal cancer: Impact of clinical stage T4 versus stages T1-T3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Kobayashi, MS

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The EM and the ITV margins in cT4 were significantly smaller than those in cT1-T3. The NM and the ITV margins of abdominal LNs were much larger than those of cervicothoracic LNs and the esophagus. In clinical radiation therapy planning for esophageal cancer, we should take cT stage into consideration.

  14. Development and characterization of radioimmunoassay methods for the measurement of iodothyronines (T4, T3 and rT3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, E.M.K.; Vieira, J.G.H.; Barros Maciel, R.M. de; Fonseca, R.M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The experience acquired in the development of radioimmunoassay for T 4 , T 3 and rT 3 in unextrated serum is described. Antisera were produced in rabbits using iodothyronines conjugated to bovine serum albumin: the antisera selected provided the development of sensitive and specific radioassay methods. Stable high activity T 3 , T 4 and rT 3 tracers were prepared by iodination of 3,5 T 2 , T 3 and 3,3' T 2 by the chloramine-T method, and purified by column chromatography on Sephadex G25. Binding of those iodothyronines to endogenous serum proteins was blocked by including 8-aniline-1-naphtalene sulphonic acid (ANSA) in the T 4 and T 3 assays and thymerosal in the rT 3 assay. Normal values were defined in 46 healthy euthyroid adults of both sexes: T 4 = 7,1 +- 1,3μg/dl; T 3 = 139 +- 35ng/dl and rT 3 = 18,0 +- 7,9ng/dl. (Author) [pt

  15. A clinical study on 125I T3 resin uptake rate and serum thyroxin (T4) in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, E.S.; Park, Y.H.; Cho, C.H.; Park, I.S.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    Total of 94 cases of hyperthyroidism were classified as toxic diffuse goiter (77 case) as toxic adematous goiter (8 case) and as toxic multinodular goiter (9 case) on the levels of T 3 - 125 I resin uptake rate and the measurement of serum T 4 levels. Various clinical symptoms and diagnostic characteristics were discussed. (author)

  16. Recovery of the accumulation ability of thiomethyl-β-galactoside in Escherichia coli after bacteriophage T4 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saijo, N.; Okamoto, K.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of uv-irradiated and unirradiated T4 phage infection on the β-galactoside accumulation ability in Escherichia coli have been examined by the use of 14 C-labeled thiomethyl-β-galactoside (TMG). Under conditions where a synchronous adsorption of phage takes place, the cellular ability for TMG accumulation is found to be largely inhibited immediately after phage adsorption but it recovers with time to a new level, which is dependent on the multiplicity of infection. When cells are infected with uv-irradiated T4 at the same multiplicity as that of unirradiated phage, the cellular accumulation ability is more severely inhibited and there is no recovery from the inhibition. The recovery process in T4-infected cells is mostly sensitive to puromycin. These results suggest that the initial inhibition of the TMG accumulation ability is probably caused by the adsorption of phage coats, and the subsequent restoration occurs through the action of a phage-directed protein(s). In the recovery process, no new transport system appears to be involved. The restored ability of TMG accumulation is resistant to the action of superinfecting uv phage. However, different mechanisms appear to be operating in T4-infected cells for the establishment of resistance to ghosts and for the recovery from the phage coat-induced inhibition

  17. Observation on the stability of the solid phase microparticles separating technique in T3, T4 radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guangliang; Chen Xunmin

    1995-01-01

    The solid phase T 3 ,T 4 RIA is adopted at various laboratories. The data analysis from the effective dose and quality control of samples indicates that the separation technique is of good effect and high stability. It is an effective separation technique for the quality control in RIA

  18. The development of T3-RIA, T4-RIA and TSH-IRMA for in vitro testing of thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borza, V.; Neacsu, G.; Chariton, Despina

    1998-01-01

    Thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) are two principal thyroid hormones; the release of this hormones and control of different stages of their synthesis are performed by thyrotropin (TSH), secreted by pituitary gland. Also, T 3 and T 4 exert negative feed-back on the pituitary, inhibiting the release of TSH. The measurement of T 3 , T 4 content in un-extracted serum, correlated with TSH values are useful results for investigating the pituitary-thyroid axis. This paper describes radioimmunological procedures for the measurement of T 3 and T 4 using as separation method of the bound and free radiolabeled antigen, the precipitation of antigen-antibody complex by polyethyleneglycol (PEG). Antisera against T 3 , T 4 were produced by immunizing sheep with conjugates of the hormones and bovine albumin; T 3 and T 4 standards were made in horse serum free of these hormones. Binding of T 3 and T 4 to TBG in serum was inhibited by addition of 8-aniline-1-naphthalene-sulfonic acid (ANS). The separation of antigen-antibody complex was carried out using 25.5% PEG 6000. In order to develop a simple T 3 solid phase radioimmunoassay, in this paper the immobilization of anti-T 3 antibodies on polystyrene tubes is presented. The best results were obtained with an exposure time of anti-T 3 antibodies (diluted in buffer solution, pH 8.4-8.6) of 40 h at 4 o C. Also, in this study the preparation of 125 I labeled monoclonal antibody (Mab)-anti-TSH is described, which will be used as a component of a TSH-IRMA kit; this kit is to be realized in our department. 125 I - Mab anti-TSH has the following characteristics: specific activity = 20 - 24 μCi/μg and radioactive concentration ≅ 25 μCi/ml; also, the immunological properties of tracer were verified. The major results of this activity is that the total dependence on important kits will be eliminated and also, the costs will be reduced. (authors)

  19. Microgravity-Driven Optic Nerve/Sheath Biomechanics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, C. R.; Feola, A.; Myers, J. G.; Nelson, E.; Raykin, J.; Samuels, B.

    2016-01-01

    Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a concern for long-duration space flight. Current thinking suggests that the ocular changes observed in VIIP syndrome are related to cephalad fluid shifts resulting in altered fluid pressures [1]. In particular, we hypothesize that increased intracranial pressure (ICP) drives connective tissue remodeling of the posterior eye and optic nerve sheath (ONS). We describe here finite element (FE) modeling designed to understand how altered pressures, particularly altered ICP, affect the tissues of the posterior eye and optic nerve sheath (ONS) in VIIP. METHODS: Additional description of the modeling methodology is provided in the companion IWS abstract by Feola et al. In brief, a geometric model of the posterior eye and optic nerve, including the ONS, was created and the effects of fluid pressures on tissue deformations were simulated. We considered three ICP scenarios: an elevated ICP assumed to occur in chronic microgravity, and ICP in the upright and supine positions on earth. Within each scenario we used Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) to consider a range of ICPs, ONH tissue mechanical properties, intraocular pressures (IOPs) and mean arterial pressures (MAPs). The outcome measures were biomechanical strains in the lamina cribrosa, optic nerve and retina; here we focus on peak values of these strains, since elevated strain alters cell phenotype and induce tissue remodeling. In 3D, the strain field can be decomposed into three orthogonal components, denoted as first, second and third principal strains. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: For baseline material properties, increasing ICP from 0 to 20 mmHg significantly changed strains within the posterior eye and ONS (Fig. 1), indicating that elevated ICP affects ocular tissue biomechanics. Notably, strains in the lamina cribrosa and retina became less extreme as ICP increased; however, within the optic nerve, the occurrence of such extreme strains greatly increased as

  20. The breast cancer antigen 5T4 interacts with Rab11, and is a target and regulator of Rab11 mediated trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Janelle L; Dave, Keyur; Gorman, Jeffrey; Khanna, Kum Kum

    2018-06-01

    5T4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein with limited expression in normal adult tissues and expression in some solid tumours. It is unclear whether 5T4 is preferentially expressed by stem or differentiated cell types. Modes of 5T4 regulation are unknown despite its ongoing development as a cancer immunotherapy target. Our aims were to clarify the differentiation status of 5T4 expressing cells in breast cancer and to understand the mechanism underlying 5T4 membrane presentation. We analysed 5T4 expression in breast cancer cell populations by flow cytometery and found that 5T4 is highly expressed on differentiated cells, where it localizes to focal adhesions. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identified interactions between 5T4 and the membrane trafficking proteins Rab11, Rab18 and ARF6. Mechanistically we found that Rab11 and Rab18 have oppositional roles in controlling expression and surface presentation of 5T4. 5T4 depletion stabilizes Rab11 protein expression with a consequent stimulation transferrin surface labelling, indicating that 5T4 represses endocytic activity. Successful immunotherapeutic targeting of 5T4 requires surface presentation and different immunotherapy strategies require surface presentation versus endocytosis. While breast cancer cells with high 5T4 surface expression and rapid cell surface turnover would be susceptible to antibody-drug conjugates that rely on intracellular release, 5T4 positive cells with lower expression or lower turnover may still be responsive to T-cell mediated approaches. We find that endocytosis of 5T4 is strongly Rab11 dependent and as such Rab11 activity could affect the success or failure of 5T4-targetted immunotherapy, particularly for antibody-drug conjugate approaches. In fact, 5T4 itself represses Rab11 expression. This newly uncovered relationship between Rab11 and 5T4 suggests that breast tumours with high 5T4 expression may not have efficient endocytic uptake of 5T4-targetted immunotherapeutics

  1. Lateral movements of a massive tail influence gecko locomotion: an integrative study comparing tail restriction and autotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Jagnandan, Kevin; Higham, Timothy E.

    2017-01-01

    Tails are an intricate component of the locomotor system for many vertebrates. Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) possess a large tail that is laterally undulated during steady locomotion. However, the tail is readily shed via autotomy, resulting in the loss of tail function, loss in body mass, and a cranial shift in the center of mass. To elucidate the function of tail undulations, we investigated changes in limb kinematics after manipulating the tail artificially by restricting tail un...

  2. Selenium deficiency inhibits the conversion of thyroidal thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in chicken thyroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi-lei; Wang, Cong-wu; Tan, Si-ran; Liang, Yang; Yao, Hai-dong; Zhang, Zi-wei; Xu, Shi-wen

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) influences the metabolism of thyroid hormones in mammals. However, the role of Se deficiency in the regulation of thyroid hormones in chickens is not well known. In the present study, we examined the levels of thyroidal triiodothyronine (T3), thyroidal thyroxine (T4), free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the serum and the mRNA expression levels of 25 selenoproteins in chicken thyroids. Then, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to analyze the relationships between the selenoproteins. The results indicated that Se deficiency influenced the conversion of T4 to T3 and induced the accumulation of T4 and FT4. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of the selenoproteins were generally decreased by Se deficiency. The PCA showed that eight selenoproteins (deiodinase 1 (Dio1), Dio2, Dio3, thioredoxin reductase 2 (Txnrd2), selenoprotein i (Seli), selenoprotein u (Selu), glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), and Gpx2) have similar trends, which indicated that they may play similar roles in the metabolism of thyroid hormones. The results showed that Se deficiency inhibited the conversion of T4 to T3 and decreased the levels of the crucial metabolic enzymes of the thyroid hormones, Dio1, Dio2, and Dio3, in chickens. In addition, the decreased selenoproteins (Dio1, Dio2, Dio3, Txnrd2, Seli, Selu, Gpx1, and Gpx2) induced by Se deficiency may indirectly limit the conversion of T4 to T3 in chicken thyroids. The information presented in this study is helpful to understand the role of Se in the thyroid function of chickens.

  3. COMPARACIÓN DE LOS NIVELES SÉRICOS DE TSH Y T4 LIBRE EN BOVINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Osorio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar los niveles de TSH y T4 libre (T4L en bovinos, diferenciados por género y edad, y conocer su comportamiento frente a dichas variables. Se obtuvieron 133 muestras de sangre de bovinos F1 en estado de ayuno y con ellas se establecieron cuatro grupos (36 machos y 20 hembras menores de 18 meses y 47 machos y 30 hembras mayores de 24 meses. Se determinaron los niveles de TSH y T4L mediante inmunoensayo enzimático. Los valores promedio de TSH (μUI/ml fueron de 1,86 para las hembras jóvenes y adultas, 1,88 para los machos jóvenes y 1,99 para los machos adultos. El valor P del test F fue mayor a 0,05 en todos los grupos y, por lo tanto, no hay diferencia estadísticamente significativa, con una confiabilidad del 95%. Los valores promedio de T4L (ng/dl para hembras jóvenes, hembras adultas, machos jóvenes y machos adultos fueron de 0,84; 0,62; 0,67 y 0,85, respectivamente. El valor P del test F fue menor a 0,05 en todos los grupos, indicando diferencia estadísticamente significativa, con 95% de confiabilidad. En conclusión, no se encontraron efectos de sexo y edad sobre las concentraciones de TSH, mientras que los niveles de T4L exhiben diferencia significativa entre estas variables; en efecto, entre los bovinos jóvenes, las hembras tienen niveles más elevados; por su parte, en los adultos, son los machos los que presentan valores superiores.

  4. Performance Comparison between Neutralization Tailings and Flotation Tailings Used for Backfill Mix and Mechanism Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison test of different tailings used for underground backfill was conducted, using neutralized tailings from BIOX and flotation tailings of Jinfeng Mine. Laboratory comparison test results show that, with neutralized tailings, when the cement dosage is at 19%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days are 105%–163%, 80%–102%, and 33%–43%, respectively, which are higher than those of flotation tailings. When the cement dosage is at 12%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days are 58%–77%, 50%–60%, and 28%–51%, respectively, which are higher than those of flotation tailings. Slurry fluidity of neutralized tailings is lower than that of flotation tailings, while, in these two tailings, the difference of slump and diffusivity values is less than 6%, which is not a significant difference in slurry fluidity. The reason for neutralized tailings showing higher UCS is as follows: during backfill curing, neutralization tailings produce abundant crystals of CaSO4·2H2O in interlaced structure which helps in combining aggregates closely; CaSO4·2H2O hydrates with C3A C4AF contained in the cement and forms clavate cement bacillus which works as a micro reinforcing steel bar. The test proved that neutralized tailings are more optimal for backfilling.

  5. Characterization and dewatering of flotation technological tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorova I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of flotation tailings is today a subject of interest in mineral processing because of the potential of wasted materials as an actual mineral resource and because of environmental reasons. Decantation ponds are found at almost every mine in the world. They are large earth fill dams containing the residue of the milling process to extract metals from mined ores. Traditional wet tailings disposal has been problematic due to the risk of ground water contamination and the difficulty in rehabilitating storage sites. Tailings dams are at risk of failure due to leakage, instability, liquefaction, and poor design. In the last few years the use of paste technology in the disposal of mine tailings is increasingly studied as an option to conventional tailings dams. The Lucky Invest Concentrator is located in the Eastern Rhodopes Mountain of Bulgaria. Since 1959 lead-zinc ores are dressed. Finally, during the flotation cycle lead and zinc concentrates are produced. The final technological processing waste precipitates in tailing pond. Research and development program has started to established opportunities to obtain dry deposit of the ore processing residue and analyses the feature of new tailing disposal method. The tailings particle size distributions and chemical compositions were determined. The data from laboratory and pilot scale tests clearly illustrate that there are the possibilities to obtaine lead-zinc dewatered tailings. The experimental results show that new cyclone modifications have a potential in dewatering technology of flotation tailings. It appears that dewatering cyclones can be an approach on new tailings pond elimination technology.

  6. The Tubular Sheaths Encasing Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum Filaments are Functional Amyloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Larsen, Poul; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    Archaea are well-recognized for their ability to thrive in extreme environments, although they can be found in virtually all habitats. Their adaptive success is linked to their unique cell envelopes, which often display extremely resistant to chemical and thermal denaturation and resist proteolysis...... techniques to show that the extracellular cell wall sheaths of the methanogenic archaea Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum are functional amyloid structures. Depolymerization of sheaths with formic acid and reducing agents and subsequent MS/MS analysis revealed that the sheaths are composed of a single major...... sheath protein (MspA). The amyloidogenic nature of MspA was confirmed by in vitro amyloid formation of recombinant MspA under a wide range of environmental conditions. This is the first report of a functional amyloid from the archaeal domain of life. The amyloid properties explain the extreme resistance...

  7. Effects of Fast-Ion Injection on a Magnetized Sheath near a Floating Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiajia; Hu Zhanghu; Song Yuanhong; Wang Younian

    2013-01-01

    A fully kinetic particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo model is employed to self-consistently study the effects of fast-ion injection on sheath potential and electric field profile in collisional magnetized plasma with a floating absorbing wall. The influences of the fast-ion injection velocity and density, the magnetic field and angle θ 0 formed by the magnetic field and the x-axis on the sheath potential and electric field are discussed in detail. Numerical results show that increasing fast-ion injection density or decreasing injection velocity can enhance the potential drop and electric field in the sheath. Also, increasing the magnetic field strength can weaken the loss of charged particles to the wall and thus decrease the potential and electric field in the sheath. The time evolution of ion flux and velocity distribution on the wall is found to be significantly affected by the magnetic field.

  8. The endomembrane sheath: a key structure for understanding the plant cell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuzeau, C.; McNally, J. G.; Pickard, B. G.

    1997-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that integrin is abundant in endomembranes of plant cells, and the endomembranes are clad by a sheath of cytoskeleton including F-actin. A role for endomembrane integrin and the endomembrane sheath is proposed: this system might orchestrate metabolic regulation by providing and modulating loci for channelling, and might accelerate channeling as needed by dragging the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and organelles through the cytoplasm. To accomplish this "streaming", F-actin might lever against the rest of the endomembrane sheath and the ER might also lever against adhesion sites (i.e., plasmodesmata and plasmalemmal control centers). As an important agent in the control of cellular activities, according to this model, the endomembrane sheath would play a major part in responses to diverse signals and stresses, and under extreme stress cell survival would depend on the ability of the system to maintain enough integrity to direct critical syntheses and degradations.

  9. Comparison of a fuel sheath failure model with published experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varty, R.L.; Rosinger, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel sheath failure model has been compared with the published results of experiments in which a Zircaloy-4 fuel sheath was subjected to a temperature ramp and a differential pressure until failure occurred. The model assumes that the deformation of the sheath is controlled by steady-state creep and that there is a relationship between tangential stress and temperature at the instant of failure. The sheath failure model predictions agree reasonably well with the experimental data. The burst temperature is slightly overpredicted by the model. The burst strain is overpredicted for small experimental burst strains but is underpredicted otherwise. The reasons for these trends are discussed and the extremely wide variation in burst strain reported in the literature is explained using the model

  10. Effects of Reentry Plasma Sheath on GPS Patch Antenna Polarization Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A plasma sheath enveloping a reentry vehicle would affect performances of on-board antenna greatly, especially the navigation antennas. This paper studies the effects of reentry plasma sheath on a GPS right-hand circularly polarized (RHCP patch antenna polarization property during a typical reentry process. Utilizing the algorithm of finite integration technique, the polarization characteristic of a GPS antenna coated by a plasma sheath is obtained. Results show that the GPS RHCP patch antenna radiation pattern distortions as well as polarization deteriorations exist during the entire reentry process, and the worst polarization mismatch loss between a GPS antenna and RHCP GPS signal is nearly 3 dB. This paper also indicates that measures should be taken to alleviate the plasma sheath for maintaining the GPS communication during the reentry process.

  11. Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ensinger, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique / B. Rauschenbach ... - In: Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research. B. 113. 1996. S. 266-269

  12. Experimental Studies of Anode Sheath Phenomena in a Hall Thruster Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorf, L.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    Both electron-repelling and electron-attracting anode sheaths in a Hall thruster were characterized by measuring the plasma potential with biased and emissive probes [L. Dorf, Y. Raitses, V. Semenov, and N.J. Fisch, Appl. Phys. Let. 84 (2004) 1070]. In the present work, two-dimensional structures of the plasma potential, electron temperature, and plasma density in the near-anode region of a Hall thruster with clean and dielectrically coated anodes are identified. Possible mechanisms of anode sheath formation in a Hall thruster are analyzed. The path for current closure to the anode appears to be the determining factor in the anode sheath formation process. The main conclusion of this work is that the anode sheath formation in Hall thrusters differs essentially from that in the other gas discharge devices, like a glow discharge or a hollow anode, because the Hall thruster utilizes long electron residence times to ionize rather than high neutral pressures

  13. Benign Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor in a Wild Toco Toucan ( Ramphastos toco ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Marcelo P N; Fernandes, Natalia C C A; Nemer, Viviane C; Neto, Ramiro N Dias; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Miranda, Bruna S; Mamprim, Maria J; Catão-Dias, José L; Réssio, Rodrigo A

    2016-09-01

    Peripheral nerve sheath tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that comprise neurofibromas, schwannomas, neurilemmomas, and perineuromas. In animals, peripheral nerve sheath neoplasms are most commonly diagnosed in dogs and cattle, followed by horses, goats, and cats, but their occurrence is uncommon in birds. An adult, free-living, male toco (common) toucan ( Ramphastos toco ) was admitted to the zoo animal clinic with weight loss, dehydration, and presence of a soft nodule adhered to the medial portion of the left pectoral muscle. Clinical, cytologic, and computed tomography scan results were indicative of a neoplasm. The toucan died during surgical resection of the mass. Necropsy, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis of benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor. To our knowledge, benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor has not previously been reported in a toucan or any other species in the order Piciformes.

  14. Child-Langmuir law for cathode sheath of glow discharge in CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisovskiy, V.A.; Krol, H.H.; Osmayev, R.O.; Yegorenkov, V.D.

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the determination of the law that may be applicable to the description of the cathode sheath in CO 2 . To this end three versions of the Child-Langmuir law have been considered - a collision free one (for the ions moving through a cathode sheath without collisions with gas molecules) as well as two collision- related versions - one for a constant mean free path of positive ions and one for a constant mobility of positive ions. The current-voltage characteristics and the cathode sheath thickness of the glow discharge in CO 2 have been simultaneously measured in the pressure range from 0.05 to 1 Torr and with the discharge current values up to 80 mA. In the whole range of the discharge conditions we have studied the cathode sheath characteristics are found to obey correctly only to the Child-Langmuir law version with a constant ion mobility.

  15. Making the long tail work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the development and impact of construction research the past 25 years. Theoretically, the paper builds on two fundamental insights: The Pareto principle (the 80-20 rule) and the Thomas theorem: "If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences" (Thomas......’s predominant view of buildings – as unique – implies that: 1) the nature of the construction processes is chaotic, 2) the buildings are realised through onsite project work rather than through offsite production; and 3) project management is the fundamental management principle. The paper further identifies...... how attempts to develop new construction practices like partnering and lean implicitly reproduce this myth. The result is that construction research the past 25 years has been constructing the long tail in a way that hinders radical development of the construction industry. The paper concludes...

  16. Profitable tail-end production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchbeck, R.H.

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the origins of the present challenge faced in making mature oil fields profitable in the North Sea. It briefly examines the origins of these challenges, which are rooted in the industrial psychology of the North Sea. It develops a methodological formula for the successful re-engineering of inefficiently-run assets, focusing in particular on the personnel management aspects. It identifies some key areas to seek sustainable cost reductions and recognises the importance of renewing the context for investment in tail-end fields. Finally, it speculates about the way in which the learnings developed in the experiences of the last few years will influence the future of the North Sea. 2 refs.

  17. ICME-driven sheath regions deplete the outer radiation belt electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, H.; Kilpua, E. K.; Turner, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    It is an outstanding question in space weather and solar wind-magnetosphere interaction studies, why some storms result in an increase of the outer radiation belt electron fluxes, while others deplete them or produce no change. One approach to this problem is to look at differences in the storm drivers. Traditionally drivers have been classified to Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs) and Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). However, an 'ICME event' is a complex structure: The core is a magnetic cloud (MC; a clear flux rope structure). If the mass ejection is fast enough, it can drive a shock in front of it. This leads to the formation of a sheath region between the interplanetary shock and the leading edge of the MC. While both the sheath and the MC feature elevated solar wind speed, their other properties are very different. For instance, the sheath region has typically a much higher dynamic pressure than the magnetic cloud. Moreover, the sheath region has a high power in magnetic field and dynamic pressure Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) range fluctuations, while the MC is characterised by an extremely smooth magnetic field. Magnetic clouds have been recognised as important drivers magnetospheric activity since they can comprise long periods of very large southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). Nevertheless, previous studies have shown that sheath regions can also act as storm drivers. In this study, we analyse the effects of ICME-driven sheath regions on the relativistic electron fluxes observed by GOES satellites on the geostationary orbit. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of 31 sheath regions from solar cycle 23. Our results show that the sheaths cause an approximately one order of magnitude decrease in the 24h-averaged electron fluxes. Typically the fluxes also stay below the pre-event level for more than two days. Further analysis reveals that the decrease does not depend on, e.g., whether the sheath interval contains predominantly northward

  18. MRI of intraspinal nerve sheath tumours presenting with sciatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loke, T.K.L.; Chan, C.S.; Ma, H.T.G.; Ward, S.C.; Metreweli, C.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of 14 intraspinal nerve sheath tumours (NST) presenting with sciatica were reviewed. The group comprised seven schwannomas, six neurofibromas and one perineuroma. The tumours were either iso- or hypointense with respect to spinal cord on T1-weighted (T1W) images; almost all tumours were hyperintense compared with spinal cord on T2-weighted (T2W) images. The tumours were all detectable on unenhanced T1 W images. Nine NST were scanned following Gadolinium-Diethylenetriamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) injection and all showed intense enhancement. This aids differentiation from sequestrated disc fragments. Tumours were more likely to show homogeneous enhancement unless they were recurrent tumours. Rim enhancement occurs more commonly in schwannomas and this can be used to differentiate these from neurofibromas. It is estimated that on unenhanced images, schwannomas cannot be distinguished from neurofibromas. Four tumours occurred at T1 1-T12. There was poor correlation of the site of the lesion with the clinical findings. It is recommended that the MRI studies in patients with sciatica should include the lower thoracic region especially if no protruded disc was found in the lumbar region. 15 refs., 4 figs

  19. MRI of intraspinal nerve sheath tumours presenting with sciatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loke, T.K.L.; Chan, C.S. [United Christian Hospital (Hong Kong). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Ma, H.T.G. [St Teresa`s Hospital, Kowloon (Hong Kong). MRI and CT scanning Dept.; Ward, S.C.; Metreweli, C. [Prince of wales Hospital, New Territories (Hong Kong). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1995-08-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of 14 intraspinal nerve sheath tumours (NST) presenting with sciatica were reviewed. The group comprised seven schwannomas, six neurofibromas and one perineuroma. The tumours were either iso- or hypointense with respect to spinal cord on T1-weighted (T1W) images; almost all tumours were hyperintense compared with spinal cord on T2-weighted (T2W) images. The tumours were all detectable on unenhanced T1 W images. Nine NST were scanned following Gadolinium-Diethylenetriamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) injection and all showed intense enhancement. This aids differentiation from sequestrated disc fragments. Tumours were more likely to show homogeneous enhancement unless they were recurrent tumours. Rim enhancement occurs more commonly in schwannomas and this can be used to differentiate these from neurofibromas. It is estimated that on unenhanced images, schwannomas cannot be distinguished from neurofibromas. Four tumours occurred at T1 1-T12. There was poor correlation of the site of the lesion with the clinical findings. It is recommended that the MRI studies in patients with sciatica should include the lower thoracic region especially if no protruded disc was found in the lumbar region. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Reflection of ion acoustic waves by the plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.; Kuehl, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    The reflection coefficient R for linear monochromatic ion acoustic waves incident on the transonic layer and sheath from the plasma interior is calculated. The treatment differs from previous analyses in that (1) the exact zero-order ion density and velocity profiles for a planar, bounded plasma are used, and the zero-order charge separation is not neglected, and (2) the first-order quantities near the transonic layer are considered in detail, including first-order charge separation, whereby it is found that no coupling to the beam modes exists, and that the functional form of the first-order solution is completely determined. It is shown that the upper bound for Vertical BarRVertical Bar is (1)/(3) . The largest reflection occurs for frequencies which are small compared with the ionization frequency, and generally decreases with increasing frequency. By Fourier superposition, the reflection of a pulse is computed. For a narrow incident pulse, the reflected pulse is greatly distorted and is small compared with the incident pulse. For a broad pulse, the reflected pulse is similar in shape to the incident pulse, and has a magnitude which is approximately (1)/(3) of the incident pulse

  1. Improvements in the weldability of a superconductor sheath material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, L.T.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of chemistry and heat treatment variation on the 4-K tensile properties of A-286, a candidate sheath material for force-cooled superconductors. Currently, full use of A-286 and similar superalloys is limited by the observed low yield and ultimate tensile strengths in the welded and aged condition. The low strength is shown to be associated with the formation of precipitate-free zones as a result of alloying-element segregation during weld pool solidification. It has been determined that minor modifications of the weld-metal chemistry by the addition of Ti reduce precipitate-free-zone formation, resulting in matching weld-metal and base-plate strengths at 4 K. Furthermore, nucleation of the γ' hardening phase has been found to be a strong function of temperature and composition. Modified heat-treatment schedules have been determined that are amenable to superconductor fabrication and that resulted in increased weld hardening and improved 4-K tensile properties

  2. Sperm protein 17 is expressed in the sperm fibrous sheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albani Elena

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sperm protein 17 (Sp17 is a highly conserved mammalian protein characterized in rabbit, mouse, monkey, baboon, macaque, human testis and spermatozoa. mRNA encoding Sp17 has been detected in a range of murine and human somatic tissues. It was also recognized in two myeloma cell lines and in neoplastic cells from patients with multiple myeloma and ovarian carcinoma. These data all indicate that Sp17 is widely distributed in humans, expressed not only in germinal cells and in a variety of somatic tissues, but also in neoplastic cells of unrelated origin. Methods Sp17 expression was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and transmission electron microscopy on spermatozoa. Results Here, we demonstrate the ultrastructural localization of human Sp17 throughout the spermatozoa flagellar fibrous sheath, and its presence in spermatozoa during in vitro states from their ejaculation to the oocyte fertilization. Conclusion These findings suggest a possible role of Sp17 in regulating sperm maturation, capacitation, acrosomal reaction and interactions with the oocyte zona pellucida during the fertilization process. Further, the high degree of sequence conservation throughout its N-terminal half, and the presence of an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP-binding motif within this region, suggest that Sp17 might play a regulatory role in a protein kinase A-independent AKAP complex in both germinal and somatic cells.

  3. Target normal sheath acceleration analytical modeling, comparative study and developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perego, C.; Batani, D.; Zani, A.; Passoni, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-intense laser interaction with solid targets appears to be an extremely promising technique to accelerate ions up to several MeV, producing beams that exhibit interesting properties for many foreseen applications. Nowadays, most of all the published experimental results can be theoretically explained in the framework of the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) mechanism proposed by Wilks et al. [Phys. Plasmas 8(2), 542 (2001)]. As an alternative to numerical simulation various analytical or semi-analytical TNSA models have been published in the latest years, each of them trying to provide predictions for some of the ion beam features, given the initial laser and target parameters. However, the problem of developing a reliable model for the TNSA process is still open, which is why the purpose of this work is to enlighten the present situation of TNSA modeling and experimental results, by means of a quantitative comparison between measurements and theoretical predictions of the maximum ion energy. Moreover, in the light of such an analysis, some indications for the future development of the model proposed by Passoni and Lontano [Phys. Plasmas 13(4), 042102 (2006)] are then presented.

  4. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in inherited disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST are rare tumours known to occur at high frequency in neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1, but may also occur in other cancer prone syndromes. Methods The North West Regional Genetic Register covers a population of 4.1 million and was interrogated for incidence of MPNST in 12 cancer prone syndromes. Age, incidence and survival curves were generated for NF1. Results Fifty two of 1254 NF1 patients developed MPNST, with MPNST also occurring in 2/181 cases of schwannomatosis and 2/895 NF2 patients. Three cases were also noted in TP53 mutation carriers. However, there were no cases amongst 5727BRCA1/2 carriers and first degree relatives, 2029 members from Lynch syndrome families, nor amongst 447 Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, 202 Gorlin syndrome, nor 87 vHL cases. Conclusion MPNST is associated with schwannomatosis and TP53 mutations and is confirmed at high frequency in NF1. It appears to be only increased in NF2 amongst those that have been irradiated. The lifetime risk of MPNST in NF1 is between 9–13%.

  5. Research on uranium tailings disposal technology at CANMET, Ottawa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeaff, J.M.; Ritcey, G.M.; Jongejan, A.; Silver, M.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper, results from three continuing investigations at CANMET on uranium tailings management are presented. These investigations are: cleaning of tailings by flotation, conversion of municipal wastes into compost for use as topsoil on uranium tailings, methods for the chemical fixation of uranium tailings and a laboratory determination of the rate of release of environmental contaminants from uranium tailings

  6. Ganglion of the Flexor Tendon Sheath at the A2 Pulley - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gunaseelan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are few reported cases of flexor tendon sheath ganglion arising from the A2 pulley. We report a case of a flexor tendon sheath ganglion in a 17-year old female who presented with pain, triggering and a swelling at the base of her right ring finger. During the excision biopsy, a ganglion measuring 0.5×0.8×0.4 cm in size was removed from the A2 pulley area.

  7. Effects of an anode sheath on energy and momentum transfer in vacuum arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Zhou, Zhipeng; Tian, Yunbo; Wang, Haoran; Wang, Jianhua; Geng, Yingsan; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Anode phenomena under high-current vacuum arcs have a significant impact on the interrupting capacity of vacuum interrupters. However, the vacuum arc energy flux and momentum flux on the anode—which are necessary boundary conditions for simulations—are either set to an imaginary distribution or calculated using simple formulas without considering anode sheath regulatory effects. The objective of this paper is to reveal the anode sheath effects on regulating the energy and momentum transfer from the arc column to the anode surface in vacuum arcs. A particle-in-cell model for the anode sheath is developed. The required input parameters are obtained from a magnetohydrodynamic model for the arc column. From the results, there exists a sheath near the anode with a negative voltage drop. Both the electron density and the ion density significantly decline in the anode sheath region. The kinetic energy of the ions absorbed by the anode consists of directed kinetic energy, random kinetic energy, and sheath acceleration energy. The sheath acceleration energy contribution is the largest, and the random kinetic energy also accounts for a large part that cannot be ignored. The arc pressure on the anode surface is mainly caused by ion impact, and the accelerating effect of the anode sheath on the ions cannot be neglected in pressure calculations. In addition, in the case of an arc current at 15 kA, the input energy and momentum upon the anode surface is not obviously affected by the evaporated atoms at surface temperatures of 1600 K and 2000 K. (paper)

  8. Ratio of sheath thickness to Debye length for a slightly ionized continuum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.

    1980-01-01

    The penetration of plasma sheaths for spherical probes in a slightly ionized continuum plasma has been computed for values of epsilon (the ratio of ion to electron temperature) of 0.01 and 1.0 with rhosub(p) (the ratio of probe radius to plasma Debye length) set at 5.10,20 and 30. Values of the potential drops at the sheath boundaries are presented

  9. Genomic and Expression Profiling of Benign and Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    DAMD17-03-1-0297 Title: Genomic and Expression Pr ofiling of Benign and Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Patients...have determined the gene expression signature for benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and found that the major trend in transformation...However, EGFR data in soft tissue neoplasms is limited. Using a variety of benign and malignant spindle cell neoplasms, we assessed EGFR status by

  10. Can using a peel-away sheath in shunt implantation prevent ventricular catheter obstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camlar, Mahmut; Ersahin, Yusuf; Ozer, Fusun Demirçivi; Sen, Fatih; Orman, Mehmet

    2011-02-01

    Shunt obstruction is the most common shunt complication. In 2003, Kehler et al. used peel-away sheath while implanting the ventricular catheter in 20 patients. They found less revision rate in the peel-away sheath group. We aimed to test the efficacy of this technique in cadavers. We used 100 fresh brains obtained from medicolegal autopsies. Posterior parietal and frontal approaches were used to puncture the lateral ventricle in each cerebral hemisphere. The ventricle is punctured with a peel-away sheath system. After the ventricle is reached, the mandarin is retracted and the ventricular catheter is introduced through the opening. The ventricular catheter was removed from the ventricle, the opening at the tip of the ventricular catheter was checked out for obstruction, and the number of patent and plugged openings was recorded. This procedure was repeated four times for each location with and without using peel-away sheath. The control group consisted of the procedures done without using peel-away sheath. The number of the plugged openings in the peel-away sheath group was significantly smaller than the control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of gender and left and right cerebral hemispheres. The obstruction rate was significantly lower in the posterior parietal approach. Pearson's correlation showed that increasing age was associated with less obstruction rate. Peel-away sheath decreases the number of plugged openings of the ventricular catheter. A clinical cooperative study is needed to prove that a peel-away sheath should be included in the ventricular shunt systems in the market.

  11. Targeting the ECM to Enhance Drug Delivery in Nf1-Associated Nerve Sheath Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    development of the principal discipline(s) of the project? • We have learned that the drug PEGPH20, which degrades a component of connective tissue called...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0114 TITLE: Targeting the ECM to Enhance Drug Delivery in Nf1-Associated Nerve Sheath Tumors PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...14 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER NF140089 Targeting the ECM to Enhance Drug Delivery in Nf1-Associated Nerve Sheath Tumors 5b

  12. Tunneled dialysis catheter exchange with fibrin sheath disruption is not associated with increased rate of bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliant, Amanda M; Chaudhry, Muhammad K; Yevzlin, Alexander S; Astor, Brad; Chan, Micah R

    2015-01-01

    Tunneled dialysis catheters are the most common form of vascular access among incident dialysis patients in the United States. Fibrin sheath formation is a frequent cause of late catheter dysfunction requiring an exchange procedure with balloon disruption of the fibrin sheath. It is unknown whether fibrin sheath disruption is associated with increased incidence of bacteremia or catheter failure. We reviewed all tunneled dialysis catheter exchange procedures at the University of Wisconsin between January 2008 and December 2011. The primary outcome was incidence of bacteremia, defined as positive blood cultures within 2 weeks of the procedure. Catheter failure, requiring intervention or replacement, was examined as a secondary outcome. Baseline characteristics examined included diabetic status, gender, race and age. A total of 163 procedures were reviewed; 67 (41.1%) had fibrin sheath disruption and 96 did not. Bacteremia occurred in 4.5% (3/67) of those with and 3.1% (3/97) of those without fibrin sheath disruption (p=0.65). Fibrin sheath disruption was not significantly associated with the risk of catheter failure (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87-2.10; p=0.18). Diabetes was associated with greater risk of catheter failure (aHR=1.88; 95% CI: 1.19-2.95; p=0.006), whereas higher age was associated with a lower risk of catheter failure (aHR per 10 years=0.83; 95% CI: 0.72-0.96; p=0.01). This study demonstrates that there is no significant increase in bacteremia and subsequent catheter dysfunction rates after fibrin sheath disruption compared to simple over the wire exchange. These results are encouraging given the large numbers of patients utilizing tunneled catheters for initial hemodialysis access and the known rates of fibrin sheath formation leading to catheter failure.

  13. Fibrin Sheath Angioplasty: A Technique to Prevent Superior Vena Cava Stenosis Secondary to Dialysis Catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Robert I.; Garcia, Lorena De Marco; Chawla, Ankur; Panetta, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Fibrin sheaths are a heterogeneous matrix of cells and debris that form around catheters and are a known cause of central venous stenosis and catheter failure. A total of 50 cases of central venous catheter fibrin sheath angioplasty (FSA) after catheter removal or exchange are presented. A retrospective review of an outpatient office database identified 70 eligible patients over a 19-month period. After informed consent was obtained, the dialysis catheter exiting the skin was clamped, amputated, and a wire was inserted. The catheter was then removed and a 9-French sheath was inserted into the superior vena cava, a venogram was performed. If a fibrin sheath was present, angioplasty was performed using an 8 × 4 or 10 × 4 balloon along the entire length of the fibrin sheath. A completion venogram was performed to document obliteration of the sheath. During the study, 50 patients were diagnosed with a fibrin sheath, and 43 had no pre-existing central venous stenosis. After FSA, 39 of the 43 patient's (91%) central systems remained patent without the need for subsequent interventions; 3 patients (7%) developed subclavian stenoses requiring repeat angioplasty and stenting; 1 patent (2.3%) developed an occlusion requiring a reintervention. Seven patients with prior central stenosis required multiple angioplasties; five required stenting of their central lesions. Every patient had follow-up fistulograms to document long-term patency. We propose that FSA is a prudent and safe procedure that may help reduce the risk of central venous stenosis from fibrin sheaths due to central venous catheters. PMID:23997555

  14. Heavy mineral concentration from oil sand tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chachula, F.; Erasmus, N. [Titanium Corp. Inc., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation described a unique technique to recover heavy minerals contained in the froth treatment tailings produced by oil sand mining extraction operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. In an effort to process waste material into valuable products, Titanium Corporation is developing technology to recover heavy minerals, primarily zircon, and a portion of bitumen contained in the final stage of bitumen processing. The process technology is being developed to apply to all mined oil sands operations in the Fort McMurray region. In 2004, Titanium Corporation commissioned a pilot research facility at the Saskatchewan Research Council to test dry oil sands tailings. In 2005, a bulk sampling pilot plant was connected to the fresh oil sands tailings pipeline on-site in Fort McMurray, where washed sands containing heavy minerals were processed at a pilot facility. The mineral content in both deposited tailings and fresh pipeline tailings was assessed. Analysis of fresh tailings on a daily basis identified a constant proportion of zircon and higher levels of associated bitumen compared with the material in the deposited tailings. The process flow sheet design was then modified to remove bitumen from the heavy minerals and concentrate the minerals. A newly modified flotation process was shown to be a viable processing route to recover the heavy minerals from froth treatment tailings. 8 refs., 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  15. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, A.; Ottpsen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4...

  16. Balloon sheaths for gastrointestinal guidance and access: a preliminary phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xu; Shin, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Woo, Cheol Woong; Woo, Sung Ha; Choi, Won Chan; Kim, Jong Gyu; Lim, Jin Oh; Kim, Tae Hyung; Yoon, Chang Jin; Song, Ho Young; Kang, Wee Chang

    2005-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of a newly designed balloon sheath for gastrointestinal guidance and access by conducting a phantom study. The newly designed balloon sheath consisted of an introducer sheath and a supporting balloon. A coil catheter was advanced over a guide wire into two gastroduodenal phantoms (one was with stricture and one was without stricture); group I was without a balloon sheath, group II was with a deflated balloon sheath, and groups III and IV were with an inflated balloon and with the balloon in the fundus and body, respectively. Each test was performed for 2 minutes and it was repeated 10 times in each group by two researchers, and the positions reached by the catheter tip were recorded. Both researchers had better performances with both phantoms in order of group IV, III, II and I. In group IV, both researchers advanced the catheter tip through the fourth duodenal segment in both the phantoms. In group I, however, the catheter tip never reached the third duodenal segment in both the phantoms by both the researchers. The numeric values for the four study groups were significantly different for both the phantoms (ρ < 0.001). A significant difference was also found between group III and IV for both phantoms (ρ < 0.001). The balloon sheath seems to be feasible for clinical use, and it has good clinical potential for gastrointestinal guidance and access, particularly when the inflated balloon is placed in the gastric body

  17. Magnetically modified sheaths of Leptothrix sp. as an adsorbent for Amido black 10B removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelova, Ralitsa; Baldikova, Eva; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarikova, Mirka; Safarik, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the biosorption of Amido black 10B dye from aqueous solutions on magnetically modified sheaths of Leptothrix sp. in a batch system. The magnetic modification of the sheaths was performed using both microwave synthesized iron oxide nano- and microparticles and perchloric acid stabilized ferrofluid. The native and both magnetically modified sheaths were characterized by SEM. Various parameters significantly affecting the adsorption process, such as pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentration, were studied in detail using the adsorbent magnetized by both methods. The highest adsorption efficiency was achieved at pH 2. The maximum adsorption capacities of both types of magnetized material at room temperature were found to be 339.2 and 286.1 mg of dye per 1 g of ferrofluid modified and microwave synthesized particles modified adsorbent, respectively. Thermodynamic study of dye adsorption revealed a spontaneous and endothermic process in the temperature range between 279.15 and 313.15 K. The data were fitted to various equilibrium and kinetic models. Experimental data matched well with the pseudo-second-order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm model. The Leptothrix sheaths have excellent efficacy for dye adsorption. This material can be used as an effective, low-cost adsorbent. - Highlights: • Magnetic modification of Leptothrix sheaths using two methods is proposed. • Such magnetic material is an excellent adsorbent for Amido black 10B. • The magnetically modified sheaths can be easily separated by magnets.

  18. Magnetically modified sheaths of Leptothrix sp. as an adsorbent for Amido black 10B removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelova, Ralitsa [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Biology Centre, ISB, CAS, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Department of General and Industrial Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, 8 Dragan Tsankov Blvd, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Laboratory Microwave Magnetics, Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Baldikova, Eva [Global Change Research Institute, CAS, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 1457, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Pospiskova, Kristyna [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 27, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Safarikova, Mirka [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Biology Centre, ISB, CAS, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Global Change Research Institute, CAS, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Safarik, Ivo, E-mail: ivosaf@yahoo.com [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Biology Centre, ISB, CAS, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Global Change Research Institute, CAS, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 27, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the biosorption of Amido black 10B dye from aqueous solutions on magnetically modified sheaths of Leptothrix sp. in a batch system. The magnetic modification of the sheaths was performed using both microwave synthesized iron oxide nano- and microparticles and perchloric acid stabilized ferrofluid. The native and both magnetically modified sheaths were characterized by SEM. Various parameters significantly affecting the adsorption process, such as pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentration, were studied in detail using the adsorbent magnetized by both methods. The highest adsorption efficiency was achieved at pH 2. The maximum adsorption capacities of both types of magnetized material at room temperature were found to be 339.2 and 286.1 mg of dye per 1 g of ferrofluid modified and microwave synthesized particles modified adsorbent, respectively. Thermodynamic study of dye adsorption revealed a spontaneous and endothermic process in the temperature range between 279.15 and 313.15 K. The data were fitted to various equilibrium and kinetic models. Experimental data matched well with the pseudo-second-order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm model. The Leptothrix sheaths have excellent efficacy for dye adsorption. This material can be used as an effective, low-cost adsorbent. - Highlights: • Magnetic modification of Leptothrix sheaths using two methods is proposed. • Such magnetic material is an excellent adsorbent for Amido black 10B. • The magnetically modified sheaths can be easily separated by magnets.

  19. Effect of rise-time patterns on dynamics of sheath expansion during plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yongxian; Tian Xiubo; Yang Shiqin; Fu Ricky; Paul, C.K.

    2007-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) has been developed as a low-cost and efficient surface modification technique of irregularly-shaped objects. The effect of six pulse waves with different rise-time patterns on the spatio-temporal evolution of plasma sheath,energy and dose of ion implantation has been simulated by particle-in-cell modeling. Statistical results may be obtained through assuming the Boltzmann distribution of electrons, and solving Poisson and Newton equations for tracing each ion in the plasma sheath. The results show that rise-time pattern has a critical influence on the evolution of plasma sheath. There exists maximum thickness difference of plasma sheath for different waveforms. The acceleration of ions is non-uniform due to the non-uniformity of electrical field strength. The maximum gradient of electrical field appears near the edge of plasma sheath. The results also show that optimization of dose and energy of incident ions may be achieved through modification of rise-time pattern. The numerical simulation of sheath expansion can be effectively used to provide a scientific basis for optimizing the PIII process. (authors)

  20. Development of Ti-sheathed MgB2 wires with high critical current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G; Fang, H; Hanna, M; Yen, F; Lv, B; Alessandrini, M; Keith, S; Hoyt, C; Tang, Z; Salama, K

    2006-01-01

    Working towards developing lightweight superconducting magnets for future space and other applications, we have successfully fabricated mono-core Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires by the powder-in-tube method. The wires were characterized by magnetization, electrical resistivity, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry measurements. The results indicate that the Ti sheath does not react with the magnesium and boron, and the present wire rolling process can produce MgB 2 wires with a superconducting volume fraction of at least 64% in the core. Using the Bean model, it was found that at 5 K, the magnetic critical current densities, J c , measured in magnetic fields of 0, 5, and 8 T are about 4.2 x 10 5 , 3.6 x 10 4 , and 1.4 x 10 4 A cm -2 , respectively. At 20 K and 0 T, the magnetic J c is about 2.4 x 10 5 A cm -2 . These results show that at zero and low fields, the values of the magnetic J c for Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires are comparable with the best results available for the Fe-sheathed MgB 2 wires. At high fields, however, the J c for Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires appears higher than that for the Fe-sheathed MgB 2 wires